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Sample records for vocal plainfin midshipman

  1. Seasonal plasticity of auditory saccular sensitivity in the vocal plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Sisneros, Joseph A

    2009-08-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a seasonally breeding species of marine teleost fish that generates acoustic signals for intraspecific social and reproductive-related communication. Female midshipman use the inner ear saccule as the main acoustic endorgan for hearing to detect and locate vocalizing males that produce multiharmonic advertisement calls during the breeding season. Previous work showed that the frequency sensitivity of midshipman auditory saccular afferents changed seasonally with female reproductive state such that summer reproductive females became better suited than winter nonreproductive females to encode the dominant higher harmonics of the male advertisement calls. The focus of this study was to test the hypothesis that seasonal reproductive-dependent changes in saccular afferent tuning is paralleled by similar changes in saccular sensitivity at the level of the hair-cell receptor. Here, I examined the evoked response properties of midshipman saccular hair cells from winter nonreproductive and summer reproductive females to determine if reproductive state affects the frequency response and threshold of the saccule to behaviorally relevant single tone stimuli. Saccular potentials were recorded from populations of hair cells in vivo while sound was presented by an underwater speaker. Results indicate that saccular hair cells from reproductive females had thresholds that were approximately 8 to 13 dB lower than nonreproductive females across a broad range of frequencies that included the dominant higher harmonic components and the fundamental frequency of the male's advertisement call. These seasonal-reproductive-dependent changes in thresholds varied differentially across the three (rostral, middle, and caudal) regions of the saccule. Such reproductive-dependent changes in saccule sensitivity may represent an adaptive plasticity of the midshipman auditory sense to enhance mate detection, recognition, and localization during the

  2. Adaptive hearing in the vocal plainfin midshipman fish: getting in tune for the breeding season and implications for acoustic communication.

    PubMed

    Sisneros, Joseph A

    2009-03-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus Girard, 1854) is a vocal species of batrachoidid fish that generates acoustic signals for intraspecific communication during social and reproductive activity and has become a good model for investigating the neural and endocrine mechanisms of vocal-acoustic communication. Reproductively active female plainfin midshipman fish use their auditory sense to detect and locate "singing" males, which produce a multiharmonic advertisement call to attract females for spawning. The seasonal onset of male advertisement calling in the midshipman fish coincides with an increase in the range of frequency sensitivity of the female's inner ear saccule, the main organ of hearing, thus leading to enhanced encoding of the dominant frequency components of male advertisement calls. Non-reproductive females treated with either testosterone or 17β-estradiol exhibit a dramatic increase in the inner ear's frequency sensitivity that mimics the reproductive female's auditory phenotype and leads to an increased detection of the male's advertisement call. This novel form of auditory plasticity provides an adaptable mechanism that enhances coupling between sender and receiver in vocal communication. This review focuses on recent evidence for seasonal reproductive-state and steroid-dependent plasticity of auditory frequency sensitivity in the peripheral auditory system of the midshipman fish. The potential steroid-dependent mechanism(s) that lead to this novel form of auditory and behavioral plasticity are also discussed. © 2009 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  3. Catecholaminergic connectivity to the inner ear, central auditory and vocal motor circuitry in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus

    PubMed Central

    Forlano, Paul M.; Kim, Spencer D.; Krzyminska, Zuzanna M.; Sisneros, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Although the neuroanatomical distribution of catecholaminergic (CA) neurons has been well documented across all vertebrate classes, few studies have examined CA connectivity to physiologically and anatomically identified neural circuitry that controls behavior. The goal of this study was to characterize CA distribution in the brain and inner ear of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) with particular emphasis on their relationship with anatomically labeled circuitry that both produces and encodes social acoustic signals in this species. Neurobiotin labeling of the main auditory endorgan, the saccule, combined with tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence (TH-ir) revealed a strong CA innervation of both the peripheral and central auditory system. Diencephalic TH-ir neurons in the periventricular posterior tuberculum, known to be dopaminergic, send ascending projections to the ventral telencephalon and prominent descending projections to vocal-acoustic integration sites, notably the hindbrain octavolateralis efferent nucleus, as well as onto the base of hair cells in the saccule via nerve VIII. Neurobiotin backfills of the vocal nerve in combination with TH-ir revealed CA terminals on all components of the vocal pattern generator which appears to largely originate from local TH-ir neurons but may include diencephalic projections as well. This study provides strong evidence for catecholamines as important neuromodulators of both auditory and vocal circuitry and acoustic-driven social behavior in midshipman fish. This first demonstration of TH-ir terminals in the main endorgan of hearing in a non-mammalian vertebrate suggests a conserved and important anatomical and functional role for dopamine in normal audition. PMID:24715479

  4. Exposure to advertisement calls of reproductive competitors activates vocal-acoustic and catecholaminergic neurons in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Christopher L; Timothy, Miky; Kim, D Spencer; Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Mohr, Robert A; Sisneros, Joseph A; Forlano, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    While the neural circuitry and physiology of the auditory system is well studied among vertebrates, far less is known about how the auditory system interacts with other neural substrates to mediate behavioral responses to social acoustic signals. One species that has been the subject of intensive neuroethological investigation with regard to the production and perception of social acoustic signals is the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, in part because acoustic communication is essential to their reproductive behavior. Nesting male midshipman vocally court females by producing a long duration advertisement call. Females localize males by their advertisement call, spawn and deposit all their eggs in their mate's nest. As multiple courting males establish nests in close proximity to one another, the perception of another male's call may modulate individual calling behavior in competition for females. We tested the hypothesis that nesting males exposed to advertisement calls of other males would show elevated neural activity in auditory and vocal-acoustic brain centers as well as differential activation of catecholaminergic neurons compared to males exposed only to ambient noise. Experimental brains were then double labeled by immunofluorescence (-ir) for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an enzyme necessary for catecholamine synthesis, and cFos, an immediate-early gene product used as a marker for neural activation. Males exposed to other advertisement calls showed a significantly greater percentage of TH-ir cells colocalized with cFos-ir in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus and the dopaminergic periventricular posterior tuberculum, as well as increased numbers of cFos-ir neurons in several levels of the auditory and vocal-acoustic pathway. Increased activation of catecholaminergic neurons may serve to coordinate appropriate behavioral responses to male competitors. Additionally, these results implicate a role for specific catecholaminergic neuronal groups in

  5. Exposure to Advertisement Calls of Reproductive Competitors Activates Vocal-Acoustic and Catecholaminergic Neurons in the Plainfin Midshipman Fish, Porichthys notatus

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Christopher L.; Timothy, Miky; Kim, D. Spencer; Bhandiwad, Ashwin A.; Mohr, Robert A.; Sisneros, Joseph A.; Forlano, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    While the neural circuitry and physiology of the auditory system is well studied among vertebrates, far less is known about how the auditory system interacts with other neural substrates to mediate behavioral responses to social acoustic signals. One species that has been the subject of intensive neuroethological investigation with regard to the production and perception of social acoustic signals is the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, in part because acoustic communication is essential to their reproductive behavior. Nesting male midshipman vocally court females by producing a long duration advertisement call. Females localize males by their advertisement call, spawn and deposit all their eggs in their mate’s nest. As multiple courting males establish nests in close proximity to one another, the perception of another male’s call may modulate individual calling behavior in competition for females. We tested the hypothesis that nesting males exposed to advertisement calls of other males would show elevated neural activity in auditory and vocal-acoustic brain centers as well as differential activation of catecholaminergic neurons compared to males exposed only to ambient noise. Experimental brains were then double labeled by immunofluorescence (-ir) for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an enzyme necessary for catecholamine synthesis, and cFos, an immediate-early gene product used as a marker for neural activation. Males exposed to other advertisement calls showed a significantly greater percentage of TH-ir cells colocalized with cFos-ir in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus and the dopaminergic periventricular posterior tuberculum, as well as increased numbers of cFos-ir neurons in several levels of the auditory and vocal-acoustic pathway. Increased activation of catecholaminergic neurons may serve to coordinate appropriate behavioral responses to male competitors. Additionally, these results implicate a role for specific catecholaminergic neuronal groups

  6. Singing Fish in an Ocean of Noise: Effects of Boat Noise on the Plainfin Midshipman (Porichthys notatus) in a Natural Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Cullis-Suzuki, Sarika

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to hearing and vocal communication in fishes, the plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus) is perhaps best understood. However, distinctly lacking are studies investigating communication of P. notatus in its natural ecosystems and the effects of noise on wild fish populations. Here, an exploratory look into both is discussed. By monitoring a population of wild P. notatus off British Columbia, Canada, call patterns were distinguished, the function of communicative sounds was identified, and midshipman vocalizations in agonistic encounters with natural predators were evaluated. A preliminary investigation into the effects of boat noise on wild midshipman is also described.

  7. Diet and cannibalism in plainfin midshipman Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, K M; Danukarjanto, C; Pereira, A C; Lau, M J; Hassan, A; Mistakidis, A F; Bolker, B M; Neff, B D; Balshine, S

    2015-04-01

    The macroscopic and microscopic diversity of potential food items available in the nests of plainfin midshipman Porichthys notatus were quantified and compared with items that were found in the stomach and intestine (digestive tract) of the guarding males. In this species, males occur as one of two possible reproductive morphs: guarder males that care for young and sneaker males that parasitize the courtship and care of guarder males. Although it was predicted that guarder males would have fewer feeding opportunities due to their confinement to the nest, they in fact had more food items in their digestive tracts than did sneaker males and females. Date in the breeding season (a proxy of care duration) and body condition were not correlated with the amount of food consumed by guarder males. The main type of food consumed was P. notatus embryos; 69% of all guarder males sampled had cannibalized offspring. By comparing the diet of both sexes and tactics, this study sheds light on some of the strategies designed to cope with the costs of providing parental care. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Novel underwater soundscape: acoustic repertoire of plainfin midshipman fish.

    PubMed

    McIver, Eileen L; Marchaterre, Margaret A; Rice, Aaron N; Bass, Andrew H

    2014-07-01

    Toadfishes are among the best-known groups of sound-producing (vocal) fishes and include species commonly known as toadfish and midshipman. Although midshipman have been the subject of extensive investigation of the neural mechanisms of vocalization, this is the first comprehensive, quantitative analysis of the spectro-temporal characters of their acoustic signals and one of the few for fishes in general. Field recordings of territorial, nest-guarding male midshipman during the breeding season identified a diverse vocal repertoire composed of three basic sound types that varied widely in duration, harmonic structure and degree of amplitude modulation (AM): 'hum', 'grunt' and 'growl'. Hum duration varied nearly 1000-fold, lasting for minutes at a time, with stable harmonic stacks and little envelope modulation throughout the sound. By contrast, grunts were brief, ~30-140 ms, broadband signals produced both in isolation and repetitively as a train of up to 200 at intervals of ~0.5-1.0 s. Growls were also produced alone or repetitively, but at variable intervals of the order of seconds with durations between those of grunts and hums, ranging 60-fold from ~200 ms to 12 s. Growls exhibited prominent harmonics with sudden shifts in pulse repetition rate and highly variable AM patterns, unlike the nearly constant AM of grunt trains and flat envelope of hums. Behavioral and neurophysiological studies support the hypothesis that each sound type's unique acoustic signature contributes to signal recognition mechanisms. Nocturnal production of these sounds against a background chorus dominated constantly for hours by a single sound type, the multi-harmonic hum, reveals a novel underwater soundscape for fish. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Intra- and Intersexual swim bladder dimorphisms in the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus): Implications of swim bladder proximity to the inner ear for sound pressure detection.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Robert A; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Ryan D; Forlano, Paul M; Fay, Richard R; Ketten, Darlene R; Cox, Timothy C; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2017-11-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a nocturnal marine teleost that uses social acoustic signals for communication during the breeding season. Nesting type I males produce multiharmonic advertisement calls by contracting their swim bladder sonic muscles to attract females for courtship and spawning while subsequently attracting cuckholding type II males. Here, we report intra- and intersexual dimorphisms of the swim bladder in a vocal teleost fish and detail the swim bladder dimorphisms in the three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) of plainfin midshipman fish. Micro-computerized tomography revealed that females and type II males have prominent, horn-like rostral swim bladder extensions that project toward the inner ear end organs (saccule, lagena, and utricle). The rostral swim bladder extensions were longer, and the distance between these swim bladder extensions and each inner-ear end organ type was significantly shorter in both females and type II males compared to that in type I males. Our results revealed that the normalized swim bladder length of females and type II males was longer than that in type I males while there was no difference in normalized swim bladder width among the three sexual phenotypes. We predict that these intrasexual and intersexual differences in swim bladder morphology among midshipman sexual phenotypes will afford greater sound pressure sensitivity and higher frequency detection in females and type II males and facilitate the detection and localization of conspecifics in shallow water environments, like those in which midshipman breed and nest. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Divergent hypoxia tolerance in adult males and females of the plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus).

    PubMed

    LeMoine, Christophe M R; Bucking, Carol; Craig, Paul M; Walsh, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    In the summer, the plainfin midshipman (Poricththys notatus) migrates to reproduce in the nearshore environment, where oxygen levels are influenced by the tidal cycles. Parental males establish nests under rocks in the intertidal zone, where they reside until the eggs they guard are fully developed. In contrast, females and sneaker males leave the nests shortly after spawning. We examined the physiological resistance and metabolic response of parental male and female adult midshipman to hypoxia to test whether they exhibited sex-specific differences reflecting their reproductive strategies. Further, we assessed whether metabolic enzymes and metabolites were differentially enriched in tissues of parental males and females to explain the differences observed in their hypoxia tolerance. While parental males and females exhibited similar depression of their oxygen consumption in response to graded hypoxia, parental males could withstand significantly longer exposures to severe hypoxic stress. At the biochemical level, parental males showed higher hepatic glycogen reserves and higher glycolytic enzyme capacities in gills and skeletal muscles than females. Although some of these enzymatic variations could be explained by differences in body size, we also observed a significant effect of sex on some of these factors. These results suggest that parental male midshipman may benefit from sexual dimorphism at the whole-organismal (larger body size) and biochemical (enzyme activities) levels, conferring on them a higher glycolytic potential to sustain the extensive hypoxia bouts they experience in nature.

  11. Development of the Acoustically Evoked Behavioral Response in Larval Plainfin Midshipman Fish, Porichthys notatus

    PubMed Central

    Alderks, Peter W.; Sisneros, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of hearing in fishes has become a major interest among bioacoustics researchers studying fish behavior and sensory ecology. Most fish begin to detect acoustic stimuli during the larval stage which can be important for navigation, predator avoidance and settlement, however relatively little is known about the hearing capabilities of larval fishes. We characterized the acoustically evoked behavioral response (AEBR) in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, and used this innate startle-like response to characterize this species' auditory capability during larval development. Age and size of larval midshipman were highly correlated (r2 = 0.92). The AEBR was first observed in larvae at 1.4 cm TL. At a size ≥1.8 cm TL, all larvae responded to a broadband stimulus of 154 dB re1 µPa or −15.2 dB re 1 g (z-axis). Lowest AEBR thresholds were 140–150 dB re 1 µPa or −33 to −23 dB re 1 g for frequencies below 225 Hz. Larval fish with size ranges of 1.9–2.4 cm TL had significantly lower best evoked frequencies than the other tested size groups. We also investigated the development of the lateral line organ and its function in mediating the AEBR. The lateral line organ is likely involved in mediating the AEBR but not necessary to evoke the startle-like response. The midshipman auditory and lateral line systems are functional during early development when the larvae are in the nest and the auditory system appears to have similar tuning characteristics throughout all life history stages. PMID:24340003

  12. Development of the acoustically evoked behavioral response in larval plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Alderks, Peter W; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of hearing in fishes has become a major interest among bioacoustics researchers studying fish behavior and sensory ecology. Most fish begin to detect acoustic stimuli during the larval stage which can be important for navigation, predator avoidance and settlement, however relatively little is known about the hearing capabilities of larval fishes. We characterized the acoustically evoked behavioral response (AEBR) in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, and used this innate startle-like response to characterize this species' auditory capability during larval development. Age and size of larval midshipman were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.92). The AEBR was first observed in larvae at 1.4 cm TL. At a size ≥ 1.8 cm TL, all larvae responded to a broadband stimulus of 154 dB re1 µPa or -15.2 dB re 1 g (z-axis). Lowest AEBR thresholds were 140-150 dB re 1 µPa or -33 to -23 dB re 1 g for frequencies below 225 Hz. Larval fish with size ranges of 1.9-2.4 cm TL had significantly lower best evoked frequencies than the other tested size groups. We also investigated the development of the lateral line organ and its function in mediating the AEBR. The lateral line organ is likely involved in mediating the AEBR but not necessary to evoke the startle-like response. The midshipman auditory and lateral line systems are functional during early development when the larvae are in the nest and the auditory system appears to have similar tuning characteristics throughout all life history stages.

  13. Seasonal plasticity of auditory saccular sensitivity in "sneaker" type II male plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Colleye, Orphal; Zeddies, David G; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2017-03-01

    Adult female and nesting (type I) male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) exhibit an adaptive form of auditory plasticity for the enhanced detection of social acoustic signals. Whether this adaptive plasticity also occurs in "sneaker" type II males is unknown. Here, we characterize auditory-evoked potentials recorded from hair cells in the saccule of reproductive and non-reproductive "sneaker" type II male midshipman to determine whether this sexual phenotype exhibits seasonal, reproductive state-dependent changes in auditory sensitivity and frequency response to behaviorally relevant auditory stimuli. Saccular potentials were recorded from the middle and caudal region of the saccule while sound was presented via an underwater speaker. Our results indicate saccular hair cells from reproductive type II males had thresholds based on measures of sound pressure and acceleration (re. 1 µPa and 1 ms -2 , respectively) that were ~8-21 dB lower than non-reproductive type II males across a broad range of frequencies, which include the dominant higher frequencies in type I male vocalizations. This increase in type II auditory sensitivity may potentially facilitate eavesdropping by sneaker males and their assessment of vocal type I males for the selection of cuckoldry sites during the breeding season.

  14. Nitrogen metabolism of the intestine during digestion in a teleost fish, the plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus).

    PubMed

    Bucking, Carol; LeMoine, Christophe M R; Craig, Paul M; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    Digestion affects nitrogen metabolism in fish, as both exogenous and endogenous proteins and amino acids are catabolized, liberating ammonia in the process. Here we present a model of local detoxification of ammonia by the intestinal tissue of the plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus) during digestion, resulting in an increase in urea excretion of gastrointestinal origin. Corroborating evidence indicated whole-animal ammonia and urea excretion increased following feeding, and ammonia levels within the lumen of the midshipman intestine increased to high levels (1.8±0.4 μmol N g(-1)). We propose that this ammonia entered the enterocytes and was detoxified to urea via the ornithine-urea cycle (O-UC) enzymes, as evidenced by a 1.5- to 2.9-fold post-prandial increase in glutamine synthetase activity (0.14±0.05 and 0.28±0.02 μmol min(-1) g(-1) versus 0.41±0.03 μmol min(-1) g(-1)) and an 8.7-fold increase in carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III activity (0.3±1.2 versus 2.6±0.4 nmol min(-1) g(-1)). Furthermore, digestion increased urea production by isolated gastrointestinal tissue 1.7-fold, supporting our hypothesis that intestinal tissue synthesizes urea in response to feeding. We further propose that the intestinal urea may have been excreted into the intestinal lumen via an apical urea transporter as visualized using immunohistochemistry. A portion of the urea was then excreted to the environment along with the feces, resulting in the observed increase in urea excretion, while another portion may have been used by intestinal ureolytic bacteria. Overall, we propose that P. notatus produces urea within the enterocytes via a functional O-UC, which is then excreted into the intestinal lumen. Our model of intestinal nitrogen metabolism does not appear to be universal as we were unab le to activate the O-UC in the intestine of fed rainbow trout. However, literature values suggest that multiple fish species could follow this model.

  15. Brain Activation Patterns in Response to Conspecific and Heterospecific Social Acoustic Signals in Female Plainfin Midshipman Fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Robert A; Chang, Yiran; Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Forlano, Paul M; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2018-01-01

    While the peripheral auditory system of fish has been well studied, less is known about how the fish's brain and central auditory system process complex social acoustic signals. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has become a good species for investigating the neural basis of acoustic communication because the production and reception of acoustic signals is paramount for this species' reproductive success. Nesting males produce long-duration advertisement calls that females detect and localize among the noise in the intertidal zone to successfully find mates and spawn. How female midshipman are able to discriminate male advertisement calls from environmental noise and other acoustic stimuli is unknown. Using the immediate early gene product cFos as a marker for neural activity, we quantified neural activation of the ascending auditory pathway in female midshipman exposed to conspecific advertisement calls, heterospecific white seabass calls, or ambient environment noise. We hypothesized that auditory hindbrain nuclei would be activated by general acoustic stimuli (ambient noise and other biotic acoustic stimuli) whereas auditory neurons in the midbrain and forebrain would be selectively activated by conspecific advertisement calls. We show that neural activation in two regions of the auditory hindbrain, i.e., the rostral intermediate division of the descending octaval nucleus and the ventral division of the secondary octaval nucleus, did not differ via cFos immunoreactive (cFos-ir) activity when exposed to different acoustic stimuli. In contrast, female midshipman exposed to conspecific advertisement calls showed greater cFos-ir in the nucleus centralis of the midbrain torus semicircularis compared to fish exposed only to ambient noise. No difference in cFos-ir was observed in the torus semicircularis of animals exposed to conspecific versus heterospecific calls. However, cFos-ir was greater in two forebrain structures that receive auditory input, i

  16. Saccular Transcriptome Profiles of the Seasonal Breeding Plainfin Midshipman Fish (Porichthys notatus), a Teleost with Divergent Sexual Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Faber-Hammond, Joshua; Samanta, Manoj P; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Manning, Dustin; Sisneros, Joseph A; Coffin, Allison B

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic communication is essential for the reproductive success of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). During the breeding season, type I males use acoustic cues to advertise nest location to potential mates, creating an audible signal that attracts reproductive females. Type II (sneaker) males also likely use this social acoustic signal to find breeding pairs from which to steal fertilizations. Estrogen-induced changes in the auditory system of breeding females are thought to enhance neural encoding of the advertisement call, and recent anatomical data suggest the saccule (the main auditory end organ) as one possible target for this seasonal modulation. Here we describe saccular transcriptomes from all three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) collected during the breeding season as a first step in understanding the mechanisms underlying sexual phenotype-specific and seasonal differences in auditory function. We used RNA-Seq on the Ion Torrent platform to create a combined transcriptome dataset containing over 79,000 assembled transcripts representing almost 9,000 unique annotated genes. These identified genes include several with known inner ear function and multiple steroid hormone receptors. Transcripts most closely matched to published genomes of nile tilapia and large yellow croaker, inconsistent with the phylogenetic relationship between these species but consistent with the importance of acoustic communication in their life-history strategies. We then compared the RNA-Seq results from the saccules of reproductive females with a separate transcriptome from the non-reproductive female phenotype and found over 700 differentially expressed transcripts, including members of the Wnt and Notch signaling pathways that mediate cell proliferation and hair cell addition in the inner ear. These data constitute a valuable resource for furthering our understanding of the molecular basis for peripheral auditory function as well as a range of

  17. Neuroendocrine control of seasonal plasticity in the auditory and vocal systems of fish

    PubMed Central

    Forlano, Paul M.; Sisneros, Joseph A.; Rohmann, Kevin N.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal changes in reproductive-related vocal behavior are widespread among fishes. This review highlights recent studies of the vocal plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, a neuroethological model system used for the past two decades to explore neural and endocrine mechanisms of vocal-acoustic social behaviors shared with tetrapods. Integrative approaches combining behavior, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, neuroanatomy, and gene expression methodologies have taken advantage of simple, stereotyped and easily quantifiable behaviors controlled by discrete neural networks in this model system to enable discoveries such as the first demonstration of adaptive seasonal plasticity in the auditory periphery of a vertebrate as well as rapid steroid and neuropeptide effects on vocal physiology and behavior. This simple model system has now revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying seasonal and steroid-driven auditory and vocal plasticity in the vertebrate brain. PMID:25168757

  18. Neuroanatomical Evidence for Catecholamines as Modulators of Audition and Acoustic Behavior in a Vocal Teleost.

    PubMed

    Forlano, Paul M; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) is a well-studied model to understand the neural and endocrine mechanisms underlying vocal-acoustic communication across vertebrates. It is well established that steroid hormones such as estrogen drive seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity in female Porichthys in order to better encode the male's advertisement call. However, little is known of the neural substrates that underlie the motivation and coordinated behavioral response to auditory social signals. Catecholamines, which include dopamine and noradrenaline, are good candidates for this function, as they are thought to modulate the salience of and reinforce appropriate behavior to socially relevant stimuli. This chapter summarizes our recent studies which aimed to characterize catecholamine innervation in the central and peripheral auditory system of Porichthys as well as test the hypotheses that innervation of the auditory system is seasonally plastic and catecholaminergic neurons are activated in response to conspecific vocalizations. Of particular significance is the discovery of direct dopaminergic innervation of the saccule, the main hearing end organ, by neurons in the diencephalon, which also robustly innervate the cholinergic auditory efferent nucleus in the hindbrain. Seasonal changes in dopamine innervation in both these areas appear dependent on reproductive state in females and may ultimately function to modulate the sensitivity of the peripheral auditory system as an adaptation to the seasonally changing soundscape. Diencephalic dopaminergic neurons are indeed active in response to exposure to midshipman vocalizations and are in a perfect position to integrate the detection and appropriate motor response to conspecific acoustic signals for successful reproduction.

  19. Localization and Divergent Profiles of Estrogen Receptors and Aromatase in the Vocal and Auditory Networks of a Fish with Alternative Mating Tactics

    PubMed Central

    Fergus, Daniel J.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Estrogens play a salient role in the development and maintenance of both male and female nervous systems and behaviors. The plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus), a teleost fish, has two male reproductive morphs that follow alternative mating tactics and diverge in multiple somatic, hormonal and neural traits, including the central control of morph-specific vocal behaviors. After we identified duplicate estrogen receptors (ERβ1 and ERβ2) in midshipman, we developed antibodies to localize protein expression in the central vocal-acoustic networks and saccule, the auditory division of the inner ear. As in other teleost species, ERβ1 and ERβ2 were robustly expressed in the telencephalon and hypothalamus in vocal-acoustic and other brain regions shown previously to exhibit strong expression of ERα and aromatase (estrogen synthetase, CYP19) in midshipman. Like aromatase, ERβ1 label co-localized with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in telencephalic radial glial cells. Quantitative PCR revealed similar patterns of transcript abundance across reproductive morphs for ERβ1, ERβ2, ERα and aromatase in the forebrain and saccule. In contrast, transcript abundance for ERs and aromatase varied significantly between morphs in and around the sexually polymorphic vocal motor nucleus (VMN). Together, the results suggest that VMN is the major estrogen target within the estrogen-sensitive hindbrain vocal network that directly determines the duration, frequency and amplitude of morph-specific vocalizations. Comparable regional differences in steroid receptor abundances likely regulate morph-specific behaviors in males and females of other species exhibiting alternative reproductive tactics. PMID:23460422

  20. Distribution of androgen receptor mRNA expression in vocal, auditory, and neuroendocrine circuits in a teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Forlano, Paul M; Marchaterre, Margaret; Deitcher, David L; Bass, Andrew H

    2010-02-15

    Across all major vertebrate groups, androgen receptors (ARs) have been identified in neural circuits that shape reproductive-related behaviors, including vocalization. The vocal control network of teleost fishes presents an archetypal example of how a vertebrate nervous system produces social, context-dependent sounds. We cloned a partial cDNA of AR that was used to generate specific probes to localize AR expression throughout the central nervous system of the vocal plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). In the forebrain, AR mRNA is abundant in proposed homologs of the mammalian striatum and amygdala, and in anterior and posterior parvocellular and magnocellular nuclei of the preoptic area, nucleus preglomerulosus, and posterior, ventral and anterior tuberal nuclei of the hypothalamus. Many of these nuclei are part of the known vocal and auditory circuitry in midshipman. The midbrain periaqueductal gray, an essential link between forebrain and hindbrain vocal circuitry, and the lateral line recipient nucleus medialis in the rostral hindbrain also express abundant AR mRNA. In the caudal hindbrain-spinal vocal circuit, high AR mRNA is found in the vocal prepacemaker nucleus and along the dorsal periphery of the vocal motor nucleus congruent with the known pattern of expression of aromatase-containing glial cells. Additionally, abundant AR mRNA expression is shown for the first time in the inner ear of a vertebrate. The distribution of AR mRNA strongly supports the role of androgens as modulators of behaviorally defined vocal, auditory, and neuroendocrine circuits in teleost fish and vertebrates in general. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. FoxP2 Expression in a Highly Vocal Teleost Fish with Comparisons to Tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Pengra, Ian G G; Marchaterre, Margaret A; Bass, Andrew H

    2018-04-19

    Motivated by studies of speech deficits in humans, several studies over the past two decades have investigated the potential role of a forkhead domain transcription factor, FoxP2, in the central control of acoustic signaling/vocalization among vertebrates. Comparative neuroanatomical studies that mainly include mammalian and avian species have mapped the distribution of FoxP2 expression in multiple brain regions that imply a greater functional significance beyond vocalization that might be shared broadly across vertebrate lineages. To date, reports for teleost fish have been limited in number and scope to nonvocal species. Here, we map the neuroanatomical distribution of FoxP2 mRNA expression in a highly vocal teleost, the plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus). We report an extensive overlap between FoxP2 expression and vocal, auditory, and steroid-signaling systems with robust expression at multiple sites in the telencephalon, the preoptic area, the diencephalon, and the midbrain. Label was far more restricted in the hindbrain though robust in one region of the reticular formation. A comparison with other teleosts and tetrapods suggests an evolutionarily conserved FoxP2 phenotype important to vocal-acoustic and, more broadly, sensorimotor function among vertebrates. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Small Ca2+ releases enable hour-long high-frequency contractions in midshipman swimbladder muscle.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Frank E; Hollingworth, Stephen; Marx, James O; Baylor, Stephen M; Rome, Lawrence C

    2018-01-02

    Type I males of the Pacific midshipman fish ( Porichthys notatus ) vibrate their swimbladder to generate mating calls, or "hums," that attract females to their nests. In contrast to the intermittent calls produced by male Atlantic toadfish ( Opsanus tau ), which occur with a duty cycle (calling time divided by total time) of only 3-8%, midshipman can call continuously for up to an hour. With 100% duty cycles and frequencies of 50-100 Hz (15°C), the superfast muscle fibers that surround the midshipman swimbladder may contract and relax as many as 360,000 times in 1 h. The energy for this activity is supported by a large volume of densely packed mitochondria that are found in the peripheral and central regions of the fiber. The remaining fiber cross section contains contractile filaments and a well-developed network of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and triadic junctions. Here, to understand quantitatively how Ca 2+ is managed by midshipman fibers during calling, we measure (a) the Ca 2+ pumping-versus-pCa and force-versus-pCa relations in skinned fiber bundles and (b) changes in myoplasmic free [Ca 2+ ] (Δ[Ca 2+ ]) during stimulated activity of individual fibers microinjected with the Ca 2+ indicators Mag-fluo-4 and Fluo-4. As in toadfish, the force-pCa relation in midshipman is strongly right-shifted relative to the Ca 2+ pumping-pCa relation, and contractile activity is controlled in a synchronous, not asynchronous, fashion during electrical stimulation. SR Ca 2+ release per action potential is, however, approximately eightfold smaller in midshipman than in toadfish. Midshipman fibers have a larger time-averaged free [Ca 2+ ] during activity than toadfish fibers, which permits faster Ca 2+ pumping because the Ca 2+ pumps work closer to their maximum rate. Even with midshipman's sustained release and pumping of Ca 2+ , however, the Ca 2+ energy cost of calling (per kilogram wet weight) is less than twofold more in midshipman than in toadfish. © 2018 Nelson et al.

  3. The Impact of Religiosity on Midshipman Adjustment and Feelings of Acceptance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    the military nature , if a midshipman is accepting of homosexuals he is often looked on as strange. Like if you have a gay friend it is looked on...grown exponentially over the past fifty years. Significant growth of religious diversity and religious media support the growing nature of popular...however, is still limited in scope and depth. The covert or personal nature of an individual’s beliefs makes acceptance and tolerance issues more

  4. Otolith morphology varies between populations, sexes and male alternative reproductive tactics in a vocal toadfish Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Bose, A P H; Adragna, J B; Balshine, S

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the morphology of sagittal otoliths of the plainfin midshipman fish Porichthys notatus was compared between populations, sexes and male alternative reproductive phenotypes (known as 'type I males or guarders' and 'type II males or sneakers'). Sagitta size increased with P. notatus size and changes in shape were also detected with increasing body size. Porichthys notatus sagittae begin as simple rounded structures, but then elongate as they grow and take on a more triangular and complex shape with several prominent notches and indentations along the dorsal and caudal edges. Moreover, the sagittae of the two geographically and genetically distinct populations of P. notatus (northern and southern) differed in shape. Porichthys notatus from the north possessed taller sagittae with deeper caudal indentations compared to P. notatus from the south. Sagitta shape also differed between females and males of the conventional guarder tactic. Furthermore, guarder males had smaller sagittae for their body size than did sneaker males or females. These differences in sagittal otolith morphology are discussed in relation to ecological and life history differences between the sexes and male tactics of this species. This is the first study to investigate teleost otolith morphology from the perspective of alternative reproductive tactics. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Divergent expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 11beta-hydroxylase genes between male morphs in the central nervous system, sonic muscle and testis of a vocal fish.

    PubMed

    Arterbery, Adam S; Deitcher, David L; Bass, Andrew H

    2010-05-15

    The vocalizing midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has two male morphs that exhibit alternative mating tactics. Only territorial males acoustically court females with long duration (minutes to >1h) calls, whereas sneaker males attempt to steal fertilizations. During the breeding season, morph-specific tactics are paralleled by a divergence in relative testis and vocal muscle size, plasma levels of the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and the glucocorticoid cortisol, and mRNA expression levels in the central nervous system (CNS) of the steroid-synthesizing enzyme aromatase (estrogen synthase). Here, we tested the hypothesis that the midshipman's two male morphs would further differ in the CNS, as well as in the testis and vocal muscle, in mRNA abundance for the enzymes 11beta-hydroxylase (11betaH) and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD) that directly regulate both 11KT and cortisol synthesis. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated male morph-specific profiles for both enzymes. Territorial males had higher 11betaH and 11betaHSD mRNA levels in testis and vocal muscle. By contrast, sneaker males had the higher CNS expression, especially for 11betaHSD, in the region containing an expansive vocal pacemaker circuit that directly determines the temporal attributes of natural calls. We propose for territorial males that higher enzyme expression in testis underlies its greater plasma 11KT levels, which in vocal muscle provides both gluconeogenic and androgenic support for its long duration calling. We further propose for sneaker males that higher enzyme expression in the vocal CNS contributes to known cortisol-specific effects on its vocal physiology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vocal Tremor Analysis with the Vocal Demodulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winholtz, William S.; Ramig, Lorraine Olson

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Vocal Demodulator as a new device for analysis of vocal tremor. The Vocal Demodulator produces amplitude-demodulated and frequency-demodulated outputs and measures the frequency and level of low-frequency tremor components in sustained phonation. The paper describes quantification of the demodulation process, validation…

  7. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  8. Gene expression underlying enhanced, steroid-dependent auditory sensitivity of hair cell epithelium in a vocal fish.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Daniel J; Feng, Ni Y; Bass, Andrew H

    2015-10-14

    Successful animal communication depends on a receiver's ability to detect a sender's signal. Exemplars of adaptive sender-receiver coupling include acoustic communication, often important in the context of seasonal reproduction. During the reproductive summer season, both male and female midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) exhibit similar increases in the steroid-dependent frequency sensitivity of the saccule, the main auditory division of the inner ear. This form of auditory plasticity enhances detection of the higher frequency components of the multi-harmonic, long-duration advertisement calls produced repetitively by males during summer nights of peak vocal and spawning activity. The molecular basis of this seasonal auditory plasticity has not been fully resolved. Here, we utilize an unbiased transcriptomic RNA sequencing approach to identify differentially expressed transcripts within the saccule's hair cell epithelium of reproductive summer and non-reproductive winter fish. We assembled 74,027 unique transcripts from our saccular epithelial sequence reads. Of these, 6.4 % and 3.0 % were upregulated in the reproductive and non-reproductive saccular epithelium, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses of the differentially expressed transcripts showed that the reproductive saccular epithelium was transcriptionally, translationally, and metabolically more active than the non-reproductive epithelium. Furthermore, the expression of a specific suite of candidate genes, including ion channels and components of steroid-signaling pathways, was upregulated in the reproductive compared to the non-reproductive saccular epithelium. We found reported auditory functions for 14 candidate genes upregulated in the reproductive midshipman saccular epithelium, 8 of which are enriched in mouse hair cells, validating their hair cell-specific functions across vertebrates. We identified a suite of differentially expressed genes belonging to neurotransmission and

  9. Artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract in vocal training methods.

    PubMed

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2005-01-01

    It is common practice in vocal training to make use of vocal exercise techniques that involve partial occlusion of the vocal tract. Various techniques are used; some of them form an occlusion within the front part of the oral cavity or at the lips. Another vocal exercise technique involves lengthening the vocal tract; for example, the method of phonation into small tubes. This essay presents some studies made on the effects of various vocal training methods that involve an artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract. The influence of sufficient acoustic impedance on vocal fold vibration and economical voice production is presented.

  10. Vocal Cord Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... paralysis. Known causes may include: Injury to the vocal cord during surgery. Surgery on or near your neck or upper ... Factors that may increase your risk of developing vocal cord paralysis include: Undergoing throat or chest surgery. People who need surgery on their thyroid, throat ...

  11. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  12. Vocal coordination and vocal imitation: a role for mirror neurons?

    PubMed

    Newman, John D

    2014-04-01

    Some birds and mammals have vocal communication systems in which coordination between individuals is important. Examples would include duetting or antiphonal calling in some birds and mammals, rapid exchanges of the same vocalization, and vocal exchanges between paired individuals and other nearby pairs. Mirror neurons may play a role in such systems but become functional only after experience.

  13. Seasonal plasticity of auditory hair cell frequency sensitivity correlates with plasma steroid levels in vocal fish

    PubMed Central

    Rohmann, Kevin N.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Vertebrates displaying seasonal shifts in reproductive behavior provide the opportunity to investigate bidirectional plasticity in sensory function. The midshipman teleost fish exhibits steroid-dependent plasticity in frequency encoding by eighth nerve auditory afferents. In this study, evoked potentials were recorded in vivo from the saccule, the main auditory division of the inner ear of most teleosts, to test the hypothesis that males and females exhibit seasonal changes in hair cell physiology in relation to seasonal changes in plasma levels of steroids. Thresholds across the predominant frequency range of natural vocalizations were significantly less in both sexes in reproductive compared with non-reproductive conditions, with differences greatest at frequencies corresponding to call upper harmonics. A subset of non-reproductive males exhibiting an intermediate saccular phenotype had elevated testosterone levels, supporting the hypothesis that rising steroid levels induce non-reproductive to reproductive transitions in saccular physiology. We propose that elevated levels of steroids act via long-term (days to weeks) signaling pathways to upregulate ion channel expression generating higher resonant frequencies characteristic of non-mammalian auditory hair cells, thereby lowering acoustic thresholds. PMID:21562181

  14. Infant Vocal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hursh, Daniel E.

    In Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior, three categories of environmental control over instances of verbal behavior appear to be relevant to the study of infant vocal development: the mand, the tact, and the echoic categories. Procedures used in the remediation of language deficiencies and procedures found in work in the area of language…

  15. Dopaminergic Contributions to Vocal Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Lukas A.; Saravanan, Varun; Wood, Alynda N.; He, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although the brain relies on auditory information to calibrate vocal behavior, the neural substrates of vocal learning remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that lesions of the dopaminergic inputs to a basal ganglia nucleus in a songbird species (Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata var. domestica) greatly reduced the magnitude of vocal learning driven by disruptive auditory feedback in a negative reinforcement task. These lesions produced no measureable effects on the quality of vocal performance or the amount of song produced. Our results suggest that dopaminergic inputs to the basal ganglia selectively mediate reinforcement-driven vocal plasticity. In contrast, dopaminergic lesions produced no measurable effects on the birds' ability to restore song acoustics to baseline following the cessation of reinforcement training, suggesting that different forms of vocal plasticity may use different neural mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT During skill learning, the brain relies on sensory feedback to improve motor performance. However, the neural basis of sensorimotor learning is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in regulating vocal learning in the Bengalese finch, a songbird with an extremely precise singing behavior that can nevertheless be reshaped dramatically by auditory feedback. Our findings show that reduction of dopamine inputs to a region of the songbird basal ganglia greatly impairs vocal learning but has no detectable effect on vocal performance. These results suggest a specific role for dopamine in regulating vocal plasticity. PMID:26888928

  16. Paediatric vocal fold paralysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Isabel; Peñorrocha-Teres, Julio; Perez-Ortin, Magdalena; Cerpa, Mauricio; Rabanal, Ignacio; Gavilan, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is a relatively common cause of stridor and dysphonia in the paediatric population. This report summarises our experience with VFP in the paediatric age group. All patients presenting with vocal fold paralysis over a 12-month period were included. Medical charts were revised retrospectively. The diagnosis was performed by flexible endoscopic examination. The cases were evaluated with respect to aetiology of the paralysis, presenting symptoms, delay in diagnosis, affected side, vocal fold position, need for surgical treatment and outcome. The presenting symptoms were stridor and dysphonia. Iatrogenic causes formed the largest group, followed by idiopathic, neurological and obstetric VFP. Unilateral paralysis was found in most cases. The median value for delay in diagnosis was 1 month and it was significantly higher in the iatrogenic group. Surgical treatment was not necessary in most part of cases. The diagnosis of VFP may be suspected based on the patient's symptoms and confirmed by flexible endoscopy. Infants who develop stridor or dysphonia following a surgical procedure have to be examined without delay. The surgeon has to keep in mind that there is a possibility of late spontaneous recovery or compensation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Vocalizations of the Kittlitz's Murrelet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Pelt, Thomas I.; Piatt, John F.; Van Vliet, Gus B.

    1999-01-01

    We present the first documentation of Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) vocalizations, based on recordings made in Glacier Bay, Alaska, in 1994. We identified two apparently related types of calls: groan and quack. The Kittlitz's Murrelet calls were markedly different from the most common calls of the congeneric Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus), but shared characteristics with the Marbled Murrelet's less common 'groan' call. Phylogeny, breeding biology, and habitat characteristics may explain relationships between the congeneric vocalizations. More complete knowledge of the Kittlitz's Murrelet vocal repertoire is needed before vocalizations can be either used or discarded in the design of effective programs to monitor this rare and poorly-known species.

  18. A Morphological Analyzer for Vocalized or Not Vocalized Arabic Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amine Abderrahim, Med; Breksi Reguig, Fethi

    This research has been to show the realization of a morphological analyzer of the Arabic language (vocalized or not vocalized). This analyzer is based upon our object model for the Arabic Natural Language Processing (NLP) and can be exploited by NLP applications such as translation machine, orthographical correction and the search for information.

  19. Genes and Vocal Learning

    PubMed Central

    White, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Could a mutation in a single gene be the evolutionary lynchpin supporting the development of human language? A rare mutation in the molecule known as FOXP2 discovered in a human family seemed to suggest so, and its sequence phylogeny reinforced a Chomskian view that language emerged wholesale in humans. Spurred by this discovery, research in primates, rodents and birds suggests that FoxP2 and other language-related genes are interactors in the neuromolecular networks that underlie subsystems of language, such symbolic understanding, vocal learning and theory of mind. The whole picture will only come together through comparative and integrative study into how the human language singularity evolved. PMID:19913899

  20. Vocal cord dysfunction in children.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Blakeslee E; Kemp, James S

    2007-06-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction is characterised by paradoxical vocal cord adduction that occurs during inspiration, resulting in symptoms of dyspnoea, wheeze, chest or throat tightness and cough. Although the condition is well described in children and adults, confusion with asthma often triggers the use of an aggressive treatment regimen directed against asthma. The laryngoscopic demonstration of vocal cord adduction during inspiration has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction, but historical factors and pulmonary function findings may provide adequate clues to the correct diagnosis. Speech therapy, and in some cases psychological counselling, is often beneficial in this disorder. The natural course and prognosis of vocal cord dysfunction are still not well described in adults or children.

  1. Quantifying vocal fatigue recovery: Dynamic vocal recovery trajectories after a vocal loading exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the recovery of voice following a 2-hour vocal loading exercise (oral reading). Methods 86 adult participants tracked their voice recovery using short vocal tasks and perceptual ratings after an initial vocal loading exercise and for the following two days. Results Short-term recovery was apparent with 90% recovery within 4-6 hours and full recovery at 12-18 hours. Recovery was shown to be similar to a dermal wound healing trajectory. Conclusions The new recovery trajectory highlighted by the vocal loading exercise in the current study is called a vocal recovery trajectory. By comparing vocal fatigue to dermal wound healing, this trajectory is parallel to a chronic wound healing trajectory (as opposed to an acute wound healing trajectory). This parallel suggests that vocal fatigue from the daily use of the voice could be treated as a chronic wound, with the healing and repair mechanisms in a state of constant repair. In addition, there is likely a vocal fatigue threshold at which point the level of tissue damage would shift the chronic healing trajectory to an acute healing trajectory. PMID:19663377

  2. Cooperative vocal control in marmoset monkeys via vocal feedback

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung Yoon; Takahashi, Daniel Y.

    2015-01-01

    Humans adjust speech amplitude as a function of distance from a listener; we do so in a manner that would compensate for such distance. This ability is presumed to be the product of high-level sociocognitive skills. Nonhuman primates are thought to lack such socially related flexibility in vocal production. Using predictions from a simple arousal-based model whereby vocal feedback from a conspecific modulates the drive to produce a vocalization, we tested whether another primate exhibits this type of cooperative vocal control. We conducted a playback experiment with marmoset monkeys and simulated “far-away” and “nearby” conspecifics using contact calls that differed in sound intensity. We found that marmoset monkeys increased the amplitude of their contact calls and produced such calls with shorter response latencies toward more distant conspecifics. The same was not true in response to changing levels of background noise. To account for how simulated conspecific distance can change both the amplitude and timing of vocal responses, we developed a model that incorporates dynamic interactions between the auditory system and limbic “drive” systems. Overall, our data show that, like humans, marmoset monkeys cooperatively control the acoustics of their vocalizations according to changes in listener distance, increasing the likelihood that a conspecific will hear their call. However, we propose that such cooperative vocal control is a system property that does not necessitate any particularly advanced sociocognitive skill. At least in marmosets, this vocal control can be parsimoniously explained by the regulation of arousal states across two interacting individuals via vocal feedback. PMID:25925323

  3. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Mumović, Gordana; Veselinović, Mila; Arbutina, Tanja; Škrbić, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice) were also obtained by computer analysis. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in all dysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100) of adult patients and 29% (29/100) had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025) in all dysphonia parameters except SD FO and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD FO, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy) were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03). Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (p<0.05). Vocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affectinq diverse acoustic parameters.

  4. Corticosteroid receptor expression in a teleost fish that displays alternative male reproductive tactics.

    PubMed

    Arterbery, Adam S; Deitcher, David L; Bass, Andrew H

    2010-01-01

    Corticosteroid signaling mechanisms mediate a wide range of adaptive physiological responses, including those essential to reproduction. Here, we investigated the presence and relative abundance of corticosteroid receptors during the breeding season in the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus), a species that has two male reproductive morphs. Only type I "singing" males acoustically court females and aggressively defend a nest site, whereas type II "sneaker" males steal fertilizations from nesting type I males. Cloning and sequencing first identified glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors in midshipman that exhibited high sequence identity with other vertebrate GRs and MRs. Absolute-quantitative real-time PCR then revealed higher levels of GR in the central nervous system (CNS) of type II males than type I males and females, while GR levels in the sound-producing, vocal muscle and the liver were higher in type I males than type II males and females. MR expression was also greater in the CNS of type II males than type I males or females, but the differences were more modest in magnitude. Lastly, plasma levels of cortisol, the main glucocorticoid in teleosts, were 2- to 3-fold greater in type II males compared to type I males. Together, the results suggest a link between corticosteroid regulation and physiological and behavioral variation in a teleost fish that displays male alternative reproductive tactics.

  5. [Temperament of children with vocal fold nodules].

    PubMed

    Wei, Youhua; Wang, Zhinan; Xu, Zhongqiang; Chen, Ping; Hao, Lili

    2009-11-01

    To examine the temperament of children with vocal fold nodules. To compare the temperament dimension and temperamental types of 42 children with vocal fold nodules with 46 vocally normal children, using Chinese children's Temperament Problem Screening system (CCTPSs). The children with vocal fold nodules differed significantly from the comparison group in their temperament dimension's adaptability, intensity of reaction, mood value, persistency and temperamental types. There are more difficult and slow-to-warm-up children in patients with vocal fold nodules than vocally normal children.

  6. Repairing the vibratory vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    A vibratory vocal fold replacement would introduce a new treatment paradigm for structural vocal fold diseases such as scarring and lamina propria loss. This work implants a tissue-engineered replacement for vocal fold lamina propria and epithelium in rabbits and compares histology and function to injured controls and orthotopic transplants. Hypotheses were that the cell-based implant would engraft and control the wound response, reducing fibrosis and restoring vibration. Translational research. Rabbit adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) were embedded within a three-dimensional fibrin gel, forming the cell-based outer vocal fold replacement (COVR). Sixteen rabbits underwent unilateral resection of vocal fold epithelium and lamina propria, as well as reconstruction with one of three treatments: fibrin glue alone with healing by secondary intention, replantation of autologous resected vocal fold cover, or COVR implantation. After 4 weeks, larynges were examined histologically and with phonation. Fifteen rabbits survived. All tissues incorporated well after implantation. After 1 month, both graft types improved histology and vibration relative to injured controls. Extracellular matrix (ECM) of the replanted mucosa was disrupted, and ECM of the COVR implants remained immature. Immune reaction was evident when male cells were implanted into female rabbits. Best histologic and short-term vibratory outcomes were achieved with COVR implants containing male cells implanted into male rabbits. Vocal fold cover replacement with a stem cell-based tissue-engineered construct is feasible and beneficial in acute rabbit implantation. Wound-modifying behavior of the COVR implant is judged to be an important factor in preventing fibrosis. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:153-159, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. The effects of preventive vocal hygiene education on the vocal hygiene habits and perceptual vocal characteristics of training singers.

    PubMed

    Broaddus-Lawrence, P L; Treole, K; McCabe, R B; Allen, R L; Toppin, L

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of vocal hygiene education on the vocal hygiene behaviors and perceptual vocal characteristics of untrained singers. Eleven adult untrained singers served as subjects. They attended four 1-hour class sessions on vocal hygiene, including anatomy and physiology of the phonatory mechanism, vocally abusive behaviors, voice disorders commonly seen in singers, and measures to prevent voice disorders. Pre- and postinstruction surveys were used to record subjects' vocal abuses and their perceptions of their speaking and singing voice. They also rated their perceived value of vocal hygiene education. Results revealed minimal changes in vocal hygiene behaviors and perceptual voice characteristics. The subjects did report a high degree of benefit and learning, however.

  8. Attention and Motivated Response to Simulated Male Advertisement Call Activates Forebrain Dopaminergic and Social Decision-Making Network Nuclei in Female Midshipman Fish.

    PubMed

    Forlano, Paul M; Licorish, Roshney R; Ghahramani, Zachary N; Timothy, Miky; Ferrari, Melissa; Palmer, William C; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2017-10-01

    Little is known regarding the coordination of audition with decision-making and subsequent motor responses that initiate social behavior including mate localization during courtship. Using the midshipman fish model, we tested the hypothesis that the time spent by females attending and responding to the advertisement call is correlated with the activation of a specific subset of catecholaminergic (CA) and social decision-making network (SDM) nuclei underlying auditory- driven sexual motivation. In addition, we quantified the relationship of neural activation between CA and SDM nuclei in all responders with the goal of providing a map of functional connectivity of the circuitry underlying a motivated state responsive to acoustic cues during mate localization. In order to make a baseline qualitative comparison of this functional brain map to unmotivated females, we made a similar correlative comparison of brain activation in females who were unresponsive to the advertisement call playback. Our results support an important role for dopaminergic neurons in the periventricular posterior tuberculum and ventral thalamus, putative A11 and A13 tetrapod homologues, respectively, as well as the posterior parvocellular preoptic area and dorsomedial telencephalon, (laterobasal amygdala homologue) in auditory attention and appetitive sexual behavior in fishes. These findings may also offer insights into the function of these highly conserved nuclei in the context of auditory-driven reproductive social behavior across vertebrates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Vocal Fold Vibration Following Surgical Intervention in Three Vocal Pathologies: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenli; Woo, Peak; Murry, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    High-speed videoendoscopy captures the cycle-to-cycle vibratory motion of each individual vocal fold in normal and severely disordered phonation. Therefore, it provides a direct method to examine the specific vibratory changes following vocal fold surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the vocal fold vibratory pattern changes in the surgically treated pathologic vocal fold and the contralateral vocal fold in three vocal pathologies: vocal polyp (n = 3), paresis or paralysis (n = 3), and scar (n = 3). Digital kymography was used to extract high-speed kymographic vocal fold images at the mid-membranous region of the vocal fold. Spectral analysis was subsequently applied to the digital kymography to quantify the cycle-to-cycle movements of each vocal fold, expressed as a spectrum. Surgical modification resulted in significantly improved spectral power of the treated pathologic vocal fold. Furthermore, the contralateral vocal fold also presented with improved spectral power irrespective of vocal pathology. In comparison with normal vocal fold spectrum, postsurgical vocal fold vibrations continued to demonstrate decreased vibratory amplitude in both vocal folds. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. University Vocal Training and Vocal Health of Music Educators and Music Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…

  11. The vocal monotony of monogamy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jeanette

    2003-04-01

    There are four phocids in waters around Antarctica: Weddell, leopard, crabeater, and Ross seals. These four species provide a unique opportunity to examine underwater vocal behavior in species sharing the same ecosystem. Some species live in pack ice, others in factice, but all are restricted to the Antarctic or sub-Antarctic islands. All breed and produce vocalizations under water. Social systems range from polygyny in large breeding colonies, to serial monogamy, to solitary species. The type of mating system influences the number of underwater vocalizations in the repertoire, with monogamous seals producing only a single call, polygynous species producing up to 35 calls, and solitary species an intermediate number of about 10 calls. Breeding occurs during the austral spring and each species carves-out an acoustic niche for communicating, with species using different frequency ranges, temporal patterns, and amplitude changes to convey their species-specific calls and presumably reduce acoustic competition. Some species exhibit geographic variations in their vocalizations around the continent, which may reflect discrete breeding populations. Some seals become silent during a vulnerable time of predation by killer whales, perhaps to avoid detection. Overall, vocalizations of these seals exhibit adaptive characteristics that reflect the co-evolution among species in the same ecosystem.

  12. Vocal exercise may attenuate acute vocal fold inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Katherine Verdolini; Li, Nicole Y.K.; Branski, Ryan C.; Rosen, Clark A.; Grillo, Elizabeth; Steinhauer, Kimberly; Hebda, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypotheses The objective was to assess the utility of selected “resonant voice” exercises for the reduction of acute vocal fold inflammation. The hypothesis was that relatively large-amplitude, low-impact exercises associated with resonant voice would reduce inflammation more than spontaneous speech and possibly more than voice rest. Study Design The study design was prospective, randomized, double-blind. Methods Nine vocally healthy adults underwent a 1-hr vocal loading procedure, followed by randomization to (a) a spontaneous speech condition, (b) a vocal rest condition, or (c) a resonant voice exercise condition. Treatments were monitored in clinic for 4 hr, and continued extra-clinically until the next morning. At baseline, immediately following loading, after the 4-hr in-clinic treatment, and 24 hr post baseline, secretions were suctioned from the vocal folds bilaterally and submitted to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate concentrations of key markers of tissue injury and inflammation: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-8, and IL-10. Results Complete data sets were obtained for 3 markers -- IL-1β, IL-6, and MMP-8 -- for one subject in each treatment condition. For those markers, results were poorest at 24-hr follow-up in the spontaneous speech condition, sharply improved in the voice rest condition, and best in the resonant voice condition. Average results for all markers, for all responsive subjects with normal baseline mediator concentrations, revealed an almost identical pattern. Conclusions Some forms of tissue mobilization may be useful to attenuate acute vocal fold inflammation. PMID:23177745

  13. Vocal development in a Waddington landscape

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Yayoi; Takahashi, Daniel Y; Holmes, Philip; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2017-01-01

    Vocal development is the adaptive coordination of the vocal apparatus, muscles, the nervous system, and social interaction. Here, we use a quantitative framework based on optimal control theory and Waddington’s landscape metaphor to provide an integrated view of this process. With a biomechanical model of the marmoset monkey vocal apparatus and behavioral developmental data, we show that only the combination of the developing vocal tract, vocal apparatus muscles and nervous system can fully account for the patterns of vocal development. Together, these elements influence the shape of the monkeys’ vocal developmental landscape, tilting, rotating or shifting it in different ways. We can thus use this framework to make quantitative predictions regarding how interfering factors or experimental perturbations can change the landscape within a species, or to explain comparative differences in vocal development across species DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20782.001 PMID:28092262

  14. Monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; de Boer, Bart; Mathur, Neil; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2016-12-01

    For four decades, the inability of nonhuman primates to produce human speech sounds has been claimed to stem from limitations in their vocal tract anatomy, a conclusion based on plaster casts made from the vocal tract of a monkey cadaver. We used x-ray videos to quantify vocal tract dynamics in living macaques during vocalization, facial displays, and feeding. We demonstrate that the macaque vocal tract could easily produce an adequate range of speech sounds to support spoken language, showing that previous techniques based on postmortem samples drastically underestimated primate vocal capabilities. Our findings imply that the evolution of human speech capabilities required neural changes rather than modifications of vocal anatomy. Macaques have a speech-ready vocal tract but lack a speech-ready brain to control it.

  15. Vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma.

    PubMed

    Klein, Travis A L; Gaziano, Joy E; Ridley, Marion B

    2014-01-01

    A unique case of acute onset vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma is presented. The cause was forceful vocalization by a drill instructor on a firearm range. Imaging studies revealed extensive intralaryngeal and retropharyngeal hemorrhage. Laryngoscopy showed a complete left vocal fold paralysis. Relative voice rest was recommended, and the patient regained normal vocal fold mobility and function after approximately 12 weeks. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical practice: vocal nodules in dysphonic children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Branco, Anete; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Gramuglia, Andrea Cristina Jóia

    2013-09-01

    Common among children, vocal symptoms are a cause of concern for parents who seek elucidation of their diagnosis and treatment. Vocal nodules are the major cause of dysphonias in children and are related to vocal abuse. We conducted a literature review considering clinical, physiopathological, epidemiological, and histological aspects of vocal nodules, as well as diagnostic methods, highlighting the main studies addressing this issue. The controversial points of treatments were also discussed.

  17. An Investigation of Extinction-Induced Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Amber L.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Call, Nathan A.; Burton, Britney; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations through shaping and differential reinforcement, others rarely exhibit vocalizations, and alternative methods are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase…

  18. Effects of Social Games on Infant Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chin; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Fogel, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the contextual effects of social games on prelinguistic vocalizations. The two main goals were to (1) investigate the functions of vocalizations as symptoms of affective arousal and symbols of social understanding, and (2) explore form-function (de)coupling relations between vocalization types and game…

  19. Cetacean vocal learning and communication.

    PubMed

    Janik, Vincent M

    2014-10-01

    The cetaceans are one of the few mammalian clades capable of vocal production learning. Evidence for this comes from synchronous changes in song patterns of baleen whales and experimental work on toothed whales in captivity. While baleen whales like many vocal learners use this skill in song displays that are involved in sexual selection, toothed whales use learned signals in individual recognition and the negotiation of social relationships. Experimental studies demonstrated that dolphins can use learned signals referentially. Studies on wild dolphins demonstrated how this skill appears to be useful in their own communication system, making them an interesting subject for comparative communication studies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Vocal economy in vocally trained actresses and untrained female subjects.

    PubMed

    Master, Suely; Guzman, Marco; Dowdall, Jayme

    2013-11-01

    Vocally trained actresses are expected to have more vocal economy than nonactresses. Therefore, we hypothesize that there will be differences in the electroglottogram-based voice economy parameter quasi-output cost ratio (QOCR) between actresses and nonactresses. This difference should remain across different levels of intensity. A total of 30 actresses and 30 nonactresses were recruited for this study. Participants from both groups were required to sustain the vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/, in habitual, moderate, and high intensity levels. Acoustic variables such as sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), and glottal contact quotient (CQ) were obtained. The QOCR was then calculated. There were no significant differences among the groups for QOCR. Positive correlations were observed for QOCR versus SPL and QOCR versus F0 in all intensity levels. Negative correlation was found between QOCR and CQ in all intensity levels. Considering the differences among intensity levels, from habitual to moderate and from moderate to loud, only the CQ did not differ significantly. The QOCR, SPL, and F0 presented significant differences throughout the different intensity levels. The QOCR did not reflect the level of vocal training when comparing trained and nontrained female subjects in the present study. Both groups demonstrated more vocal economy in moderate and high intensity levels owing to more voice output without an increase in glottal adduction. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing Vocal Development in Infants and Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Nathani, Suneeti; Ertmer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in prelinguistic vocal productions during the first 20 months of life. Vocalizations were classified into 23 mutually exclusive and exhaustive types, and grouped into five ascending levels using the Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development-Revised (SAEVD-R). Data from 30 typically developing infants, aged 0–20 months, show that older infants attained higher developmental levels on the SAEVD-R than younger infants. Infants 0–2, 3–5, and 6–8 months of age primarily produced vocalizations from Levels 1 (Reflexive), 2 (Control of Phonation), and 3 (Expansion). Infants 9–20 months of age also produced vocalizations from Level 4 (Basic Canonical Syllables). Only infants from 16–20 months of age produced Level 5 (Advanced Forms) vocalizations in significant quantities. The outcomes indicate that the SAEVD-R is a valuable instrument for evaluating prelinguistic vocal development. PMID:16728333

  2. Cause of vocal fold scar.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jacqui

    2010-12-01

    The prolonged debilitation, loss of income, and decrement in quality of life caused by vocal fold scar is exacerbated by our inability to successfully treat this difficult problem. As technology focuses on developing innovative treatments, we need to fully appreciate and understand the mechanisms giving rise to glottal scar, on both a macroscopic and microscopic level. This review examines recent literature pertaining to the gross and molecular mechanisms which give rise to vocal fold scar. Mechanisms of vocal fold scar production have been examined in both macroscopic and microscopic detail. Trauma and injury involving any aspect of the lamina propria, particularly the deeper layers, may result in epithelial tethering and scar formation. At the molecular level, early inflammatory cytokines activate and recruit fibroblasts which then drive the fibrotic cascade. Transforming growth factor-β enhances fibrosis and is balanced by tissue matrix metalloproteinases and hepatocyte growth factor activity. Molecular signaling offers novel opportunities to intervene in scar formation. New work investigating the cause of vocal fold scar identifies complex molecular processes leading to fibrosis in the lamina propria. Improved mechanistic understanding offers insight into prevention strategies and possible targets for antifibrotic therapies that may help prevent or treat this debilitating condition.

  3. Vocal Health for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Josh; McColl, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teachers are often at risk for vocal disease and are more likely to change occupations because of their voice problems compared to non-teachers. Physical educators are especially at risk for voice problems due to the intense daily demands of voice projection. Chronic abuse can cause swelling and inflammation of the…

  4. Effective Vocal Production in Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Robert G.

    If speech instructors are to teach students to recreate for an audience an author's intellectual and emotional meanings, they must teach them to use human voice effectively. Seven essential elements of effective vocal production that often pose problems for oral interpretation students should be central to any speech training program: (1)…

  5. Combating Stagefright: Selected Vocal Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    Noting that stagefright has been the subject of intensive analysis and subjected to almost every conceivable test or measurement without revealing either its "cause" or its "cure," this paper presents vocal exercises to help combat the performance malady. After listing four principles concerning the nature of stagefright (it is…

  6. Dependence of phonation threshold pressure on vocal tract acoustics and vocal fold tissue mechanics.

    PubMed

    Chan, Roger W; Titze, Ingo R

    2006-04-01

    Analytical and computer simulation studies have shown that the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract as well as the viscoelastic properties of vocal fold tissues are critical for determining the dynamics and the energy transfer mechanism of vocal fold oscillation. In the present study, a linear, small-amplitude oscillation theory was revised by taking into account the propagation of a mucosal wave and the inertive reactance (inertance) of the supraglottal vocal tract as the major energy transfer mechanisms for flow-induced self-oscillation of the vocal fold. Specifically, analytical results predicted that phonation threshold pressure (Pth) increases with the viscous shear properties of the vocal fold, but decreases with vocal tract inertance. This theory was empirically tested using a physical model of the larynx, where biological materials (fat, hyaluronic acid, and fibronectin) were implanted into the vocal fold cover to investigate the effect of vocal fold tissue viscoelasticity on Pth. A uniform-tube supraglottal vocal tract was also introduced to examine the effect of vocal tract inertance on Pth. Results showed that Pth decreased with the inertive impedance of the vocal tract and increased with the viscous shear modulus (G") or dynamic viscosity (eta') of the vocal fold cover, consistent with theoretical predictions. These findings supported the potential biomechanical benefits of hyaluronic acid as a surgical bioimplant for repairing voice disorders involving the superficial layer of the lamina propria, such as scarring, sulcus vocalis, atrophy, and Reinke's edema.

  7. Vocal release time: a quantification of vocal offset.

    PubMed

    Watson, Ben C; Roark, Rick M; Baken, R J

    2012-11-01

    To determine the vocal release time (VRT) for linguistically unconstrained voice offsets in a healthy young adult population. Sound pressure (SP) and electroglottographic (EGG) recordings were obtained for 57 female and 55 male subjects while producing multiple tokens of three tasks (sustained /ɑ:/, "always," and "hallways") at comfortable pitch and loudness. SP and EGG signals were digitally time reversed and generalized sinusoidal models of the SP and EGG signals were obtained to compare rates of amplitude change. VRT was computed from the time lag of the cross-correlation function. Adjusted mean VRT values were significantly greater for females than for males. There was no systematic effect of age on VRT. However, 25-29-year old and >40 year old females showed shorter VRT values than the youngest female age group. Normative data are presented for a new measure of the duration of vocal offset, VRT. Acquisition of this measure requires little user intervention, thereby minimizing effects of subjective decision making. Comparison with previously reported vocal attack time (VAT) values for the same population suggests phenomenological differences between linguistically and physiologically constrained voice onsets and unconstrained voice offsets. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-speed imaging of vocal fold vibrations and larynx movements within vocalizations of different vowels.

    PubMed

    Maurer, D; Hess, M; Gross, M

    1996-12-01

    Theoretic investigations of the "source-filter" model have indicated a pronounced acoustic interaction of glottal source and vocal tract. Empirical investigations of formant pattern variations apart from changes in vowel identity have demonstrated a direct relationship between the fundamental frequency and the patterns. As a consequence of both findings, independence of phonation and articulation may be limited in the speech process. Within the present study, possible interdependence of phonation and phoneme was investigated: vocal fold vibrations and larynx position for vocalizations of different vowels in a healthy man and woman were examined by high-speed light-intensified digital imaging. We found 1) different movements of the vocal folds for vocalizations of different vowel identities within one speaker and at similar fundamental frequency, and 2) constant larynx position within vocalization of one vowel identity, but different positions for vocalizations of different vowel identities. A possible relationship between the vocal fold vibrations and the phoneme is discussed.

  9. Modeling vocalization with ECoG cortical activity recorded during vocal production in the macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Fujii, Naotaka; Averbeck, Bruno B; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2014-01-01

    Vocal production is an example of controlled motor behavior with high temporal precision. Previous studies have decoded auditory evoked cortical activity while monkeys listened to vocalization sounds. On the other hand, there have been few attempts at decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production. Here we recorded cortical activity during vocal production in the macaque with a chronically implanted electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrode array. The array detected robust activity in motor cortex during vocal production. We used a nonlinear dynamical model of the vocal organ to reduce the dimensionality of `Coo' calls produced by the monkey. We then used linear regression to evaluate the information in motor cortical activity for this reduced representation of calls. This simple linear model accounted for circa 65% of the variance in the reduced sound representations, supporting the feasibility of using the dynamical model of the vocal organ for decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production.

  10. Recording vocalizations with Bluetooth technology.

    PubMed

    Gaona-González, Andrés; Santillán-Doherty, Ana María; Arenas-Rosas, Rita Virginia; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Aguillón-Pantaleón, Miguel Angel; Ordoñez-Gómez, José Domingo; Márquez-Arias, Alejandra

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method for capturing vocalizations that is designed to avoid some of the limiting factors found in traditional bioacoustical methods, such as the impossibility of obtaining continuous long-term registers or analyzing amplitude due to the continuous change of distance between the subject and the position of the recording system. Using Bluetooth technology, vocalizations are captured and transmitted wirelessly into a receiving system without affecting the quality of the signal. The recordings of the proposed system were compared to those obtained as a reference, which were based on the coding of the signal with the so-called pulse-code modulation technique in WAV audio format without any compressing process. The evaluation showed p < .05 for the measured quantitative and qualitative parameters. We also describe how the transmitting system is encapsulated and fixed on the animal and a way to video record a spider monkey's behavior simultaneously with the audio recordings.

  11. Acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-09-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disk. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~96% of the manatee vocalizations. However, the system also results in a false alarm rate of ~16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  12. Ultrasonic Vocalizations Emitted by Flying Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Murrant, Meghan N.; Bowman, Jeff; Garroway, Colin J.; Prinzen, Brian; Mayberry, Heather; Faure, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM) vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology. PMID:24009728

  13. Vocal cysts: clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects.

    PubMed

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Santana, Marcela Ferreira; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Vocal cysts are benign laryngeal lesions, which affect children and adults. They can be classified as epidermic or mucous-retention cyst. The objective was to study the clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects of vocal cysts. We reviewed the medical charts of 72 patients with vocal cysts, considering age, gender, occupation, time of vocal symptoms, nasosinusal and gastroesophageal symptoms, vocal abuse, tabagism, alcoholism, associated lesions, treatment, and histological details. Of the 72 cases, 46 were adults (36 females and 10 male) and 26 were children (eight girls and 18 boys). As far as occupation is concerned, there was a higher incidence of students and teachers. All the patients had symptoms of chronic hoarseness. Nasosinusal (27.77%) and gastroesophageal (32%) symptoms were not relevant. Vocal abuse was reported by 45.83%, smoking by 18%, and alcoholism by 8.4% of the patients. Unilateral cysts were seen in 93% of the cases, 22 patients had associated lesions, such as bridge, sulcus vocalis, and microweb. Surgical treatment was performed in 46 cases. Histological analysis of the epidermic cysts revealed a cavity with caseous content, covered by stratified squamous epithelium, often keratinized. Mucous cysts presented mucous content, and the walls were coated by a cylindrical ciliated epithelium. Vocal cysts are benign vocal fold lesions that affect children and adults, being often associated with vocal overuse, which frequently affects people who use their voices professionally. Vocal symptoms are chronic in course, often times since childhood, and the treatment of choice is surgical removal. A careful examination of the vocal folds is necessary during surgery, because other laryngeal lesions may be associated with vocal cysts. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vocalization Subsystem Responses to a Temporarily Induced Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croake, Daniel J.; Andreatta, Richard D.; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to quantify the interactions of the 3 vocalization subsystems of respiration, phonation, and resonance before, during, and after a perturbation to the larynx (temporarily induced unilateral vocal fold paralysis) in 10 vocally healthy participants. Using dynamic systems theory as a guide, we hypothesized that…

  15. Current treatment of vocal fold scarring.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Shigeru

    2005-06-01

    Vocal fold scarring still remains a therapeutic challenge, with the most problematic issue being the histologic changes that are primarily responsible for altering the viscoelasticity of the vocal fold mucosa. Optimal treatment for vocal fold scarring has not yet been established. To restore or regenerate damaged vocal folds, it is important to investigate the changes to the layer structure of the lamina propria. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine may provide new strategies for the prevention and treatment of vocal fold scarring. Recent developments in this field are reviewed in the present article. Histologic studies have revealed that hyaluronic acid, fibronectin, decorin, and various other extracellular matrix components, as well as collagen, may contribute to determining the vibratory properties of the vocal fold mucosa. Changes of these molecules are thought to affect the viscoelasticity of the scarred vocal folds. Based on such histologic findings, innovative approaches have been developed, including administration of hyaluronic acid into injured or scarred vocal folds. Other strategies that have recently shown advances include growth factor therapy and cell therapy using stem cells or mature fibroblasts. The effects of these new treatments have not fully been confirmed clinically, but there seems to be great therapeutic potential in such regenerative medical strategies. Recent research has revealed the detailed histologic and rheologic changes related to vocal fold scarring. Based on these findings, various new therapeutic strategies have been developed in animal models using tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, no clinical trials have been performed, and more studies are necessary to establish the optimum modality.

  16. Automatic classification of animal vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemins, Patrick J.

    2005-11-01

    Bioacoustics, the study of animal vocalizations, has begun to use increasingly sophisticated analysis techniques in recent years. Some common tasks in bioacoustics are repertoire determination, call detection, individual identification, stress detection, and behavior correlation. Each research study, however, uses a wide variety of different measured variables, called features, and classification systems to accomplish these tasks. The well-established field of human speech processing has developed a number of different techniques to perform many of the aforementioned bioacoustics tasks. Melfrequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) coefficients are two popular feature sets. The hidden Markov model (HMM), a statistical model similar to a finite autonoma machine, is the most commonly used supervised classification model and is capable of modeling both temporal and spectral variations. This research designs a framework that applies models from human speech processing for bioacoustic analysis tasks. The development of the generalized perceptual linear prediction (gPLP) feature extraction model is one of the more important novel contributions of the framework. Perceptual information from the species under study can be incorporated into the gPLP feature extraction model to represent the vocalizations as the animals might perceive them. By including this perceptual information and modifying parameters of the HMM classification system, this framework can be applied to a wide range of species. The effectiveness of the framework is shown by analyzing African elephant and beluga whale vocalizations. The features extracted from the African elephant data are used as input to a supervised classification system and compared to results from traditional statistical tests. The gPLP features extracted from the beluga whale data are used in an unsupervised classification system and the results are compared to labels assigned by experts. The

  17. Objective Measurement of Vocal Fatigue in Classically Trained Singers: A Pilot Study of Vocal Dosimetry Data

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Thomas; Nix, John; Hunter, Eric; Titze, Ingo; Abaza, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate vocal fatigue by using objective and subjective measurements of dose recorded by the National Center for Voice and Speech (NCVS) Dosimeter™ (Dosimeter). Study Design and Setting Seven subjects completed a two-week study period. The Dosimeter recorded vocal load, soft phonation tasks and subjective soft voice ratings. Three vocal doses (time, distance, and cycle) were measured in classical singers' larynges during an intensive practice period. Results Spikes in vocal load are reflected as harsher subjective ratings on the same day as well as 24–72 hours later. When at least 48 hours of vocal rest occurred before a vocal load, improved subjective evaluations were seen after the load. Conclusions The NCVS Dosimeter appears to be an effective tool for data collection on prolonged use of the voice. Significance This is the first multi-day study comparing objective and subjective data on vocal fatigue in a group of professional singers. PMID:17011424

  18. Vocal Atypicalities of Preverbal Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Mundy, Peter; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Steffens, Michele

    2000-01-01

    A study compared 11 preschool children with developmental delays and 15 with autism to evaluate early vocal behaviors in young children with autism. Results indicated that children with autism did not have difficulty with the expression of well-formed syllables, however they did display significant impairments in vocal quality. (Contains…

  19. Integrating perspectives on vocal performance and consistency

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Jon T.; Vehrencamp, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent experiments in divergent fields of birdsong have revealed that vocal performance is important for reproductive success and under active control by distinct neural circuits. Vocal consistency, the degree to which the spectral properties (e.g. dominant or fundamental frequency) of song elements are produced consistently from rendition to rendition, has been highlighted as a biologically important aspect of vocal performance. Here, we synthesize functional, developmental and mechanistic (neurophysiological) perspectives to generate an integrated understanding of this facet of vocal performance. Behavioral studies in the field and laboratory have found that vocal consistency is affected by social context, season and development, and, moreover, positively correlated with reproductive success. Mechanistic investigations have revealed a contribution of forebrain and basal ganglia circuits and sex steroid hormones to the control of vocal consistency. Across behavioral, developmental and mechanistic studies, a convergent theme regarding the importance of vocal practice in juvenile and adult songbirds emerges, providing a basis for linking these levels of analysis. By understanding vocal consistency at these levels, we gain an appreciation for the various dimensions of song control and plasticity and argue that genes regulating the function of basal ganglia circuits and sex steroid hormones could be sculpted by sexual selection. PMID:22189763

  20. Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) in Infant Vocalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathani, Suneeti; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Cobo-Lewis, Alan B.

    2003-01-01

    Sought to verify research findings that suggest there may be a U-shaped developmental trajectory for final syllable lengthening (FSL). Attempted to determine whether vocal maturity and deafness influence FSL . Eight normally hearing infants and eight deaf infants were examined at three levels of prelinguistic vocal development. (Author/VWL)

  1. [Surgery of benign vocal fold lesions].

    PubMed

    Olthoff, A

    2016-09-01

    Surgical treatment of benign vocal fold lesions can be indicated for clinical or functional reasons. The principles of phonosurgery have to be maintained in either case. The appropriate phonosurgical technique depends on the type of vocal fold lesion. Depending on the findings, phonosurgery aims to maintain or improve voice quality. The evaluation of clinical and functional results includes indirect laryngoscopy, videostroboscopy, and voice analysis.

  2. Vocal Dose Measures: Quantifying Accumulated Vibration Exposure in Vocal Fold Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo R.; Švec, Jan G.; Popolo, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    To measure the exposure to self-induced tissue vibration in speech, three vocal doses were defined and described: distance dose, which accumulates the distance that tissue particles of the vocal folds travel in an oscillatory trajectory; energy dissipation dose, which accumulates the total amount of heat dissipated over a unit volume of vocal fold tissues; and time dose, which accumulates the total phonation time. These doses were compared to a previously used vocal dose measure, the vocal loading index, which accumulates the number of vibration cycles of the vocal folds. Empirical rules for viscosity and vocal fold deformation were used to calculate all the doses from the fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) values of speech. Six participants were asked to read in normal, monotone, and exaggerated speech and the doses associated with these vocalizations were calculated. The results showed that large F0 and SPL variations in speech affected the dose measures, suggesting that accumulation of phonation time alone is insufficient. The vibration exposure of the vocal folds in normal speech was related to the industrial limits for hand-transmitted vibration, in which the safe distance dose was derived to be about 500 m. This limit was found rather low for vocalization; it was related to a comparable time dose of about 17 min of continuous vocalization, or about 35 min of continuous reading with normal breathing and unvoiced segments. The voicing pauses in normal speech and dialogue effectively prolong the safe time dose. The derived safety limits for vocalization will likely require refinement based on a more detailed knowledge of the differences in hand and vocal fold tissue morphology and their response to vibrational stress, and on the effect of recovery of the vocal fold tissue during voicing pauses. PMID:12959470

  3. Vocal dose measures: quantifying accumulated vibration exposure in vocal fold tissues.

    PubMed

    Titze, Ingo R; Svec, Jan G; Popolo, Peter S

    2003-08-01

    To measure the exposure to self-induced tissue vibration in speech, three vocal doses were defined and described: distance dose, which accumulates the distance that tissue particles of the vocal folds travel in an oscillatory trajectory; energy dissipation dose, which accumulates the total amount of heat dissipated over a unit volume of vocal fold tissues; and time dose, which accumulates the total phonation time. These doses were compared to a previously used vocal dose measure, the vocal loading index, which accumulates the number of vibration cycles of the vocal folds. Empirical rules for viscosity and vocal fold deformation were used to calculate all the doses from the fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) values of speech. Six participants were asked to read in normal, monotone, and exaggerated speech and the doses associated with these vocalizations were calculated. The results showed that large F0 and SPL variations in speech affected the dose measures, suggesting that accumulation of phonation time alone is insufficient. The vibration exposure of the vocal folds in normal speech was related to the industrial limits for hand-transmitted vibration, in which the safe distance dose was derived to be about 500 m. This limit was found rather low for vocalization; it was related to a comparable time dose of about 17 min of continuous vocalization, or about 35 min of continuous reading with normal breathing and unvoiced segments. The voicing pauses in normal speech and dialogue effectively prolong the safe time dose. The derived safety limits for vocalization will likely require refinement based on a more detailed knowledge of the differences in hand and vocal fold tissue morphology and their response to vibrational stress, and on the effect of recovery of the vocal fold tissue during voicing pauses.

  4. Sarcoidosis Presenting as Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Justin M; Gnagi, Sharon H; Lott, David G

    2018-05-01

    Bilateral true vocal fold paralysis is rarely attributable to inflammatory diseases. Sarcoidosis is a rare but important etiology of bilateral true vocal fold paralysis by compressive lymphadenopathy, granulomatous infiltration, and neural involvement. We describe the first reported case of sarcoidosis presenting as bilateral vocal fold immobility caused by direct fixation by granulomatous infiltration severe enough to necessitate tracheostomy insertion. In addition, we discuss the presentation, the pathophysiology, and the treatment of this disease with a review of the literature of previously reported cases of sarcoidosis-related vocal fold immobility. Sarcoidosis should therefore be an important consideration for the otolaryngologist's differential diagnosis of true vocal fold immobility. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Auditory–vocal mirroring in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory–vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory–vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory–vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain. PMID:24778375

  6. Auditory-vocal mirroring in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory-vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory-vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory-vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain.

  7. Reinke Edema: Watch For Vocal Fold Cysts.

    PubMed

    Tüzüner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Yavanoglu, Ahmet; Kurkcuoglu, Melih; Arslan, Necmi

    2015-06-01

    Reinke edema is one of the common cause of dysphonia middle-aged population, and severe thickening of vocal folds require surgical treatment. Smoking plays a major role on etiology. Vocal fold cysts are also benign lesions and vocal trauma blamed for acquired cysts. We would like to present 3 cases with vocal fold cyst related with Reinke edema. First case had a subepidermal epidermoid cyst with Reinke edema, which could be easily observed before surgery during laryngostroboscopy. Second case had a mucous retention cyst into the edematous Reinke tissue, which was detected during surgical intervention, and third case had a epidermoid cyst that occurred 2 months after before microlaryngeal operation regarding Reinke edema reduction. These 3 cases revealed that surgical management of Reinke edema needs a careful dissection and close follow-up after surgery for presence of vocal fold cysts.

  8. Microvascular lesions of the true vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Postma, G N; Courey, M S; Ossoff, R H

    1998-06-01

    Microvascular lesions, also called varices or capillary ectasias, in contrast to vocal fold polyps with telangiectatic vessels, are relatively small lesions arising from the microcirculation of the vocal fold. Varices are most commonly seen in female professional vocalists and may be secondary to repetitive trauma, hormonal variations, or repeated inflammation. Microvascular lesions may either be asymptomatic or cause frank dysphonia by interrupting the normal vibratory pattern, mass, or closure of the vocal folds. They may also lead to vocal fold hemorrhage, scarring, or polyp formation. Laryngovideostroboscopy is the key in determining the functional significance of vocal fold varices. Management of patients with a varix includes medical therapy, speech therapy, and occasionally surgical vaporization. Indications for surgery are recurrent hemorrhage, enlargement of the varix, development of a mass in conjunction with the varix or hemorrhage, and unacceptable dysphonia after maximal medical and speech therapy due to a functionally significant varix.

  9. What happens during vocal warm-up?

    PubMed

    Elliot, N; Sundberg, J; Gramming, P

    1995-03-01

    Most singers prefer to warm up their voices before performing. Although the subjective effect is often considerable, the underlying physiological effects are largely unknown. Because warm-up tends to increase blood flow in muscles, it seems likely that vocal warm-up might induce decreased viscosity in the vocal folds. According to the theory of vocal-fold vibration, such a decrease should lead to a lower phonation threshold pressure. In this investigation the effect of vocal warm-up on the phonation threshold pressure was examined in a group of male and female singers. The effect varied considerably between subjects, presumably because the vocal-fold viscosity was not a dominating factor for the phonation-threshold pressure.

  10. Vocal cord paralysis after aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    DiLisio, Ralph P; Mazzeffi, Michael A; Bodian, Carol A; Fischer, Gregory W

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate variables associated with vocal cord paralysis during complex aortic procedures. A retrospective review. A tertiary care center. Four hundred ninety-eight patients who underwent aortic surgery between 2002 and 2007. Two groups were studied. Group A patients had procedures only involving their aortic root and/or ascending aorta. Group B patients had procedures only involving their aortic arch and/or descending aorta. The incidence of vocal cord paralysis was higher (7.26% v 0.8%) in group B patients (p < 0.0001). Increasing the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass time was associated with an increased risk of vocal cord paralysis and death in both groups A and B (p = 0.0002 and 0.002, respectively). Additionally, within group B, descending aneurysms emerged as an independent risk factor associated with vocal cord paralysis (p = 0.03). Length of stay was statistically significantly longer among group A patients who suffered vocal cord paralysis (p = 0.017) and trended toward significance in group B patients who suffered vocal cord paralysis (p = 0.059). The association between tracheostomy and vocal cord paralysis among group A patients reached statistical significance (p = 0.007) and trended toward significance in group B patients (p = 0.057). Increasing duration of cardiopulmonary bypass time was associated with a higher risk of vocal cord paralysis in patients undergoing aortic surgery. Additionally, within group B patients, descending aortic aneurysm was an independent risk factor associated with vocal cord paralysis. Most importantly, vocal cord paralysis appeared to have an association between an increased length of stay and tracheostomy among a select group of patients undergoing aortic surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Risk of Vocal Fold Atrophy after Serial Corticosteroid Injections of the Vocal Fold.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lucy L; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the risk of vocal fold atrophy in patients who receive serial subepithelial steroid injections for vocal fold scar. This study is a retrospective case report of two patients who underwent a series of weekly subepithelial infusions of 10 mg/mL dexamethasone for benign vocal fold lesion. Shortly after the procedures, both patients developed a weak and breathy voice. The first patient was a 53-year-old man with radiation-induced vocal fold stiffness. Six injections were performed unilaterally, and 1 week later, he developed unilateral vocal fold atrophy with new glottal insufficiency. The second patient was a 67-year-old woman with severe vocal fold inflammation related to laryngitis and calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophagean dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome. Five injections were performed bilaterally, and 1 week later, she developed bilateral vocal fold atrophy with a large midline glottal gap during phonation. In both cases, the steroid-induced vocal atrophy resolved spontaneously after 4 months. Serial subepithelial steroid infusions of the vocal folds, although safe in the majority of patients, carry the risk of causing temporary vocal fold atrophy when given at short intervals. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  13. Effects of social games on infant vocalizations*.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Chin; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Fogel, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the contextual effects of social games on prelinguistic vocalizations. The two main goals were to (1) investigate the functions of vocalizations as symptoms of affective arousal and symbols of social understanding, and (2) explore form-function (de)coupling relations between vocalization types and game contexts. Seventy-one six-month-olds and sixty-four twelve-month-olds played with their mothers in normal and perturbed tickle and peek-a-boo games. The effects of infant age, game, game climax, and game perturbation on the frequency and types of infant vocalizations were examined. Results showed twelve-month-olds vocalized more mature canonical syllables during peek-a-boo and more primitive quasi-resonant nuclei during tickle than six-month-olds. Six- and twelve-month-olds increased their vocalizations from the set-up to climax during peek-a-boo, but they did not show such an increase during tickle. Findings support the symptom function of prelinguistic vocalizations reflecting affective arousal and the prevalence of form-function decoupling during the first year of life.

  14. Gestures, vocalizations, and memory in language origins.

    PubMed

    Aboitiz, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES THE POSSIBLE HOMOLOGIES BETWEEN THE HUMAN LANGUAGE NETWORKS AND COMPARABLE AUDITORY PROJECTION SYSTEMS IN THE MACAQUE BRAIN, IN AN ATTEMPT TO RECONCILE TWO EXISTING VIEWS ON LANGUAGE EVOLUTION: one that emphasizes hand control and gestures, and the other that emphasizes auditory-vocal mechanisms. The capacity for language is based on relatively well defined neural substrates whose rudiments have been traced in the non-human primate brain. At its core, this circuit constitutes an auditory-vocal sensorimotor circuit with two main components, a "ventral pathway" connecting anterior auditory regions with anterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas, and a "dorsal pathway" connecting auditory areas with parietal areas and with posterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas via the arcuate fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In humans, the dorsal circuit is especially important for phonological processing and phonological working memory, capacities that are critical for language acquisition and for complex syntax processing. In the macaque, the homolog of the dorsal circuit overlaps with an inferior parietal-premotor network for hand and gesture selection that is under voluntary control, while vocalizations are largely fixed and involuntary. The recruitment of the dorsal component for vocalization behavior in the human lineage, together with a direct cortical control of the subcortical vocalizing system, are proposed to represent a fundamental innovation in human evolution, generating an inflection point that permitted the explosion of vocal language and human communication. In this context, vocal communication and gesturing have a common history in primate communication.

  15. Enhanced processing of vocal melodies in childhood.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael W; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E; Dawber, Emily J

    2015-03-01

    Music cognition is typically studied with instrumental stimuli. Adults remember melodies better, however, when they are presented in a biologically significant timbre (i.e., the human voice) than in various instrumental timbres (Weiss, Trehub, & Schellenberg, 2012). We examined the impact of vocal timbre on children's processing of melodies. In Study 1, 9- to 11-year-olds listened to 16 unfamiliar folk melodies (4 each of voice, piano, banjo, or marimba). They subsequently listened to the same melodies and 16 timbre-matched foils, and judged whether each melody was old or new. Vocal melodies were recognized better than instrumental melodies, which did not differ from one another, and the vocal advantage was consistent across age. In Study 2, 5- to 6-year-olds and 7- to 8-year-olds were tested with a simplified design that included only vocal and piano melodies. Both age groups successfully differentiated old from new melodies, but memory was more accurate for the older group. The older children recognized vocal melodies better than piano melodies, whereas the younger children tended to label vocal melodies as old whether they were old or new. The results provide the first evidence of differential processing of vocal and instrumental melodies in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Vocal learning beyond imitation: mechanisms of adaptive vocal development in songbirds and human infants

    PubMed Central

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Marcus, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of vocal learning in songbirds typically focus on the acquisition of sensory templates for song imitation and on the consequent process of matching song production to templates. However, functional vocal development also requires the capacity to adaptively diverge from sensory templates, and to flexibly assemble vocal units. Examples of adaptive divergence include the corrective imitation of abnormal songs, and the decreased tendency to copy overabundant syllables. Such frequency-dependent effects might mirror tradeoffs between the assimilation of group identity (culture) while establishing individual and flexibly expressive songs. Intriguingly, although the requirements for vocal plasticity vary across songbirds, and more so between birdsong and language, the capacity to flexibly assemble vocal sounds develops in a similar, stepwise manner across species. Therefore, universal features of vocal learning go well beyond the capacity to imitate. PMID:25005823

  17. Bilateral vocal cord paralysis in children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Eunice Y; Inglis, Andrew F

    2008-10-01

    Bilateral vocal cord paralysis in children with its many causes presents a challenging problem to the pediatric otolaryngologist. Traditionally, management of bilateral vocal cord paralysis includes securing the airway with a tracheotomy and waiting for spontaneous recovery. Surgeons have tried a variety of surgical procedures in lieu of or in addition to tracheotomy, but none are perfect solutions to the problem. This article reviews the current surgical procedures for bilateral vocal cord paralysis in the pediatric population with a particular focus on the senior author's experience with the endoscopic posterior costal cartilage grafting procedure.

  18. Nocturnal "humming" vocalizations: adding a piece to the puzzle of giraffe vocal communication.

    PubMed

    Baotic, Anton; Sicks, Florian; Stoeger, Angela S

    2015-09-09

    Recent research reveals that giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis sp.) exhibit a socially structured, fission-fusion system. In other species possessing this kind of society, information exchange is important and vocal communication is usually well developed. But is this true for giraffes? Giraffes are known to produce sounds, but there is no evidence that they use vocalizations for communication. Reports on giraffe vocalizations are mainly anecdotal and the missing acoustic descriptions make it difficult to establish a call nomenclature. Despite inconclusive evidence to date, it is widely assumed that giraffes produce infrasonic vocalizations similar to elephants. In order to initiate a more detailed investigation of the vocal communication in giraffes, we collected data of captive individuals during day and night. We particularly focussed on detecting tonal, infrasonic or sustained vocalizations. We collected over 947 h of audio material in three European zoos and quantified the spectral and temporal components of acoustic signals to obtain an accurate set of acoustic parameters. Besides the known burst, snorts and grunts, we detected harmonic, sustained and frequency-modulated "humming" vocalizations during night recordings. None of the recorded vocalizations were within the infrasonic range. These results show that giraffes do produce vocalizations, which, based on their acoustic structure, might have the potential to function as communicative signals to convey information about the physical and motivational attributes of the caller. The data further reveal that the assumption of infrasonic communication in giraffes needs to be considered with caution and requires further investigations in future studies.

  19. Audio-vocal responses of vocal fundamental frequency and formant during sustained vowel vocalizations in different noises.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shao-Hsuan; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Lee, Guo-She

    2015-06-01

    Sustained vocalizations of vowels [a], [i], and syllable [mə] were collected in twenty normal-hearing individuals. On vocalizations, five conditions of different audio-vocal feedback were introduced separately to the speakers including no masking, wearing supra-aural headphones only, speech-noise masking, high-pass noise masking, and broad-band-noise masking. Power spectral analysis of vocal fundamental frequency (F0) was used to evaluate the modulations of F0 and linear-predictive-coding was used to acquire first two formants. The results showed that while the formant frequencies were not significantly shifted, low-frequency modulations (<3 Hz) of F0 significantly increased with reduced audio-vocal feedback across speech sounds and were significantly correlated with auditory awareness of speakers' own voices. For sustained speech production, the motor speech controls on F0 may depend on a feedback mechanism while articulation should rely more on a feedforward mechanism. Power spectral analysis of F0 might be applied to evaluate audio-vocal control for various hearing and neurological disorders in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The "Silent Cough" Method for Vocal Hyperfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwitman, Daniel H.; Calcaterra, Thomas C.

    1973-01-01

    A method of silent coughing is recommended as an alternative to coughing and throat clearing which are described as vocally abusive activities that can be directly related to laryngeal disease. (Author/GW)

  1. Vascular lesions of the vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Gökcan, Kürşat Mustafa; Dursun, Gürsel

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to present symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical course, management modalities, and consequences of vascular lesions of vocal fold. This study examined 162 patients, the majority professional voice users, with vascular lesions regarding their presenting symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical courses and treatment results. The most common complaint was sudden hoarseness with hemorrhagic polyp. Microlaryngoscopic surgery was performed in 108 cases and the main indication of surgery was the presence of vocal fold mass or development of vocal polyp during clinical course. Cold microsurgery was utilized for removal of vocal fold masses and feeding vessels cauterized using low power, pulsed CO(2) laser. Acoustic analysis of patients revealed a significant improvement of jitter, shimmer and harmonics/noise ratio values after treatment. Depending on our clinical findings, we propose treatment algorithm where voice rest and behavioral therapy is the integral part and indications of surgery are individualized for each patient.

  2. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, K. G.

    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain imagesmore » as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.« less

  3. Laryngeal and vocal alterations after thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Iyomasa, Renata Mizusaki; Tagliarini, José Vicente; Rodrigues, Sérgio Augusto; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Martins, Regina Helena Garcia

    2017-09-21

    Dysphonia is a common symptom after thyroidectomy. To analyze the vocal symptoms, auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal, videolaryngoscopy, the surgical procedures and histopathological findings in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Prospective study. Patients submitted to thyroidectomy were evaluated as follows: anamnesis, laryngoscopy, and acoustic vocal assessments. Moments: pre-operative, 1st post (15 days), 2nd post (1 month), 3rd post (3 months), and 4th post (6 months). Among the 151 patients (130 women; 21 men). Type of surgery: lobectomy+isthmectomy n=40, total thyroidectomy n=88, thyroidectomy+lymph node dissection n=23. Vocal symptoms were reported by 42 patients in the 1st post (27.8%) decreasing to 7.2% after 6 months. In the acoustic analysis, f0 and APQ were decreased in women. Videolaryngoscopies showed that 144 patients (95.3%) had normal exams in the preoperative moment. Vocal fold palsies were diagnosed in 34 paralyzes at the 1st post, 32 recurrent laryngeal nerve (lobectomy+isthmectomy n=6; total thyroidectomy n=17; thyroidectomy+lymph node dissection n=9) and 2 superior laryngeal nerve (lobectomy+isthmectomy n=1; Total thyroidectomy+lymph node dissection n=1). After 6 months, 10 patients persisted with paralysis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (6.6%). Histopathology and correlation with vocal fold palsy: colloid nodular goiter (n=76; palsy n=13), thyroiditis (n=8; palsy n=0), and carcinoma (n=67; palsy n=21). Vocal symptoms, reported by 27.8% of the patients on the 1st post decreased to 7% in 6 months. In the acoustic analysis, f0 and APQ were decreased. Transient paralysis of the vocal folds secondary to recurrent and superior laryngeal nerve injury occurred in, respectively, 21% and 1.3% of the patients, decreasing to 6.6% and 0% after 6 months. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Vocal fold hemorrhage: factors predicting recurrence.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Christen J; Murry, Thomas; Sulica, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold hemorrhage is an acute phonotraumatic injury treated with voice rest; recurrence is a generally accepted indication for surgical intervention. This study aims to identify factors predictive of recurrence based on outcomes of a large clinical series. Retrospective cohort. Retrospective review of cases of vocal fold hemorrhage presenting to a university laryngology service. Demographic information was compiled. Videostroboscopic exams were evaluated for hemorrhage extent, presence of varix, mucosal lesion, and/or vocal fold paresis. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurrence was the main outcome measure. Follow-up telephone survey was used to complement clinical data. Forty-seven instances of vocal fold hemorrhage were evaluated (25M:22F; 32 professional voice users). Twelve of the 47 (26%) patients experienced recurrence. Only the presence of varix demonstrated significant association with recurrence (P = 0.0089) on multivariate logistic regression. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurred in approximately 26% of patients. Varix was a predictor of recurrence, with 48% of those with varix experiencing recurrence. Monitoring, behavioral management and/or surgical intervention may be indicated to treat patients with such characteristics. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Vocal Fold Surface Hydration: A review

    PubMed Central

    Leydon, Ciara; Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Falciglia, Danielle Lodewyck; Atkins, Christopher; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2009-01-01

    Vocal fold surface liquid homeostasis contributes to optimal vocal physiology. In this paper we review emerging evidence that vocal fold surface liquid is maintained in part by salt and water fluxes across the epithelium. Based on recent immunolocalization and electrophysiological findings, we describe a transcellular pathway as one mechanism for regulating superficial vocal fold hydration. We propose that the pathway includes the sodium-potassium pump, sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter, epithelial sodium channels, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator chloride channels, and aquaporin water channels. By integrating knowledge of the regulating mechanisms underlying ion and fluid transport with observations from hydration challenges and treatments using in vitro and in vivo studies, we provide a theoretical basis for understanding how environmental and behavioral challenges and clinical interventions may modify vocal fold surface liquid composition. We present converging evidence that clinical protocols directed at facilitating vocal fold epithelial ion and fluid transport may benefit healthy speakers, those with voice disorders, and those at risk for voice disorders. PMID:19111440

  6. Vocal tract characteristics in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gillivan-Murphy, Patricia; Carding, Paul; Miller, Nick

    2016-06-01

    Voice tremor is strongly linked to the Parkinson's disease speech-voice symptom complex. Little is known about the underlying anatomic source(s) of voice tremor when it occurs. We review recent literature addressing this issue. Additionally we report findings from a study we conducted employing rating of vocal tract structures viewed using nasolaryngoscopy during vocal and nonspeech tasks. In Parkinson's disease, using laryngeal electromyography, tremor has not been identified in muscles in the vocal folds even when perceived auditorily. Preliminary findings using nasolaryngoscopy suggest that Parkinson's disease voice tremor is not associated with the vocal folds and may involve the palate, the global larynx, and the arytenoids. Tremor in the vertical larynx on /a/, and tremor in the arytenoid cartilages on /s/ differentiated patients with Parkinson's disease from neurologically healthy controls. Visual reliable detection of tremor when it is absent or borderline present, is challenging. Parkinson's disease voice tremor is likely to be related to oscillatory movement in structures across the vocal tract rather than just the vocal folds. To progress clinical practice, more refined tools for the visual rating of tremor would be beneficial. How far voice tremor represents a functionally significant factor for speakers would also add to the literature.

  7. Limiting parental feedback disrupts vocal development in marmoset monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Gultekin, Yasemin B.; Hage, Steffen R.

    2017-01-01

    Vocalizations of human infants undergo dramatic changes across the first year by becoming increasingly mature and speech-like. Human vocal development is partially dependent on learning by imitation through social feedback between infants and caregivers. Recent studies revealed similar developmental processes being influenced by parental feedback in marmoset monkeys for apparently innate vocalizations. Marmosets produce infant-specific vocalizations that disappear after the first postnatal months. However, it is yet unclear whether parental feedback is an obligate requirement for proper vocal development. Using quantitative measures to compare call parameters and vocal sequence structure we show that, in contrast to normally raised marmosets, marmosets that were separated from parents after the third postnatal month still produced infant-specific vocal behaviour at subadult stages. These findings suggest a significant role of social feedback on primate vocal development until the subadult stages and further show that marmoset monkeys are a compelling model system for early human vocal development. PMID:28090084

  8. Comparison of vocal outcomes after angiolytic laser surgery and microflap surgery for vocal polyps.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Masanobu; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Kaneko, Mami; Tateya, Ichiro; Hirano, Shigeru

    2015-12-01

    The microflap technique is a standard procedure for the treatment of vocal fold polyps. Angiolytic laser surgery carried out under topical anesthesia is an alternative method for vocal polyp removal. However, it is not clear whether angiolytic laser surgery has the same effects on vocal outcomes as the microflap technique because of a lack of studies comparing both procedures. In the current study, vocal outcomes after both procedures were compared to clarify the effects of angiolytic laser surgery for vocal polyp removal. Vocal outcomes were reviewed for patients who underwent angiolytic laser surgery (n=20, laser group) or microflap surgery (n=34, microflap group) for vocal polyp removal. The data analyzed included patient and lesion characteristics, number of surgeries required for complete resolution, and aerodynamic and acoustic examinations before and after surgery. In the laser surgery group, complete resolution of the lesion was achieved with a single procedure in 17 cases (85%) and with two procedures in 3 cases (15%). Postoperative aerodynamic and acoustic parameters demonstrated significant improvement compared to preoperative parameters in both the laser surgery group and the microflap surgery group. There were no significant differences in any postoperative aerodynamic and acoustic parameters between the two groups. The current retrospective study demonstrated that angiolytic laser surgery achieved complete resolution of vocal polyps within two procedures. Postoperative effects on aerodynamic and acoustic functions were similar to those after microflap surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An annotated dataset of Egyptian fruit bat vocalizations across varying contexts and during vocal ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Prat, Yosef; Taub, Mor; Pratt, Ester; Yovel, Yossi

    2017-10-03

    Animal acoustic communication research depends on our ability to record the vocal behaviour of different species. Only rarely do we have the opportunity to continuously follow the vocal behaviour of a group of individuals of the same species for a long period of time. Here, we provide a database of Egyptian fruit bat vocalizations, which were continuously recorded in the lab in several groups simultaneously for more than a year. The dataset includes almost 300,000 files, a few seconds each, containing social vocalizations and representing the complete vocal repertoire used by the bats in the experiment period. Around 90,000 files are annotated with details about the individuals involved in the vocal interactions, their behaviours and the context. Moreover, the data include the complete vocal ontogeny of pups, from birth to adulthood, in different conditions (e.g., isolated or in a group). We hope that this comprehensive database will stimulate studies that will enhance our understanding of bat, and mammal, social vocal communication.

  10. The Effect of Classroom Capacity on Vocal Fatigue as Quantified by the Vocal Fatigue Index.

    PubMed

    Banks, Russell E; Bottalico, Pasquale; Hunter, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has concluded that teachers are at a higher-than-normal risk for voice issues that can cause occupational limitations. While some risk factors have been identified, there are still many unknowns. A survey was distributed electronically with 506 female teacher respondents. The survey included questions to quantify three aspects of vocal fatigue as captured by the Vocal Fatigue Index (VFI): (1) general tiredness of voice (performance), (2) physical discomfort associated with voicing (pain), and (3) improvement of symptoms with rest (recovery). The effect of classroom capacity on US teachers' self-reported experience of vocal fatigue was analyzed. The results indicated that a classroom's capacity significantly affected teachers' reported amounts of vocal fatigue, while a teacher's age also appeared to significantly affect the reported amount of vocal fatigue. A quadratic rather than linear effect was seen, with the largest age effect occurring at around 40-45 years in all three factors of the VFI. Further factors which may affect vocal fatigue must be explored in future research. By understanding what increases the risk for vocal fatigue, educators and school administrators can take precautions to mitigate the occupational risk of short- and long-term vocal health issues in school teachers. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Variability of normal vocal fold dynamics for different vocal loading in one healthy subject investigated by phonovibrograms.

    PubMed

    Doellinger, Michael; Lohscheller, Joerg; McWhorter, Andrew; Kunduk, Melda

    2009-03-01

    We investigate the potential of high-speed digital imaging technique (HSI) and the phonovibrogram (PVG) analysis in normal vocal fold dynamics by studying the effects of continuous voice use (vocal loading) during the workday. One healthy subject was recorded at sustained phonation 13 times within 2 consecutive days in the morning before and in the afternoon after vocal loading, respectively. Vocal fold dynamics were extracted and visualized by PVGs. The characteristic PVG patterns were extracted representing vocal fold vibration types. The parameter values were then analyzed by statistics regarding vocal load, left-right PVG asymmetries, anterior-posterior PVG asymmetries, and opening-closing differences. For the first time, the direct impact of vocal load could be determined by analyzing vocal fold dynamics. For same vocal loading conditions, equal dynamical behavior of the vocal folds were confirmed. Comparison of recordings performed in the morning with the recordings after work revealed significant changes in vibration behavior, indicating impact of occurring vocal load. Left-right asymmetries in vocal fold dynamics were found confirming earlier assumptions. Different dynamics between opening and closing procedure as well as for anterior and posterior parts were found. Constant voice usage stresses the vocal folds even in healthy subjects and can be detected by applying the PVG technique. Furthermore, left-right PVG asymmetries do occur in healthy voice to a certain extent. HSI in combination with PVG analysis seems to be a promising tool for investigation of vocal fold fatigue and pathologies resulting in small forms of dynamical changes.

  12. Dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joseph; Yung, Katherine C

    2014-11-01

    This case report is the first documentation of dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia as a complication of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Case report of a 40-year-old man with HHT presenting with 2 years of worsening hoarseness. Hoarseness corresponded with a period of anticoagulation. Endoscopy revealed vocal fold scarring, vocal fold telangiectasias, and plica ventricular is suggestive of previous submucosal vocal fold hemorrhage and subsequent counterproductive compensation with ventricular phonation. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may present as dysphonia with vocal fold telangiectasias and place patients at risk of vocal fold hemorrhage. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Gender differences affecting vocal health of women in vocally demanding careers

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.; Smith, Marshall E.; Tanner, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that occupational voice users have a greater incidence of vocal issues than the general population. Women have been found to experience vocal health problems more frequently than men, regardless of their occupation. Traditionally, it has been assumed that differences in the laryngeal system are the cause of this disproportion. Nevertheless, it is valuable to identify other potential gender distinctions which may make women more vulnerable to voice disorders. A search of the literature was conducted for gender-specific characteristics which might impact the vocal health of women. This search can be used by healthcare practitioners to help female patients avoid serious vocal health injuries, as well as to better treat women who already suffer from such vocal health issues. PMID:21722077

  14. Avian vocal mimicry: a unified conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A; Igic, Branislav; Magrath, Robert D

    2015-05-01

    Mimicry is a classical example of adaptive signal design. Here, we review the current state of research into vocal mimicry in birds. Avian vocal mimicry is a conspicuous and often spectacular form of animal communication, occurring in many distantly related species. However, the proximate and ultimate causes of vocal mimicry are poorly understood. In the first part of this review, we argue that progress has been impeded by conceptual confusion over what constitutes vocal mimicry. We propose a modified version of Vane-Wright's (1980) widely used definition of mimicry. According to our definition, a vocalisation is mimetic if the behaviour of the receiver changes after perceiving the acoustic resemblance between the mimic and the model, and the behavioural change confers a selective advantage on the mimic. Mimicry is therefore specifically a functional concept where the resemblance between heterospecific sounds is a target of selection. It is distinct from other forms of vocal resemblance including those that are the result of chance or common ancestry, and those that have emerged as a by-product of other processes such as ecological convergence and selection for large song-type repertoires. Thus, our definition provides a general and functionally coherent framework for determining what constitutes vocal mimicry, and takes account of the diversity of vocalisations that incorporate heterospecific sounds. In the second part we assess and revise hypotheses for the evolution of avian vocal mimicry in the light of our new definition. Most of the current evidence is anecdotal, but the diverse contexts and acoustic structures of putative vocal mimicry suggest that mimicry has multiple functions across and within species. There is strong experimental evidence that vocal mimicry can be deceptive, and can facilitate parasitic interactions. There is also increasing support for the use of vocal mimicry in predator defence, although the mechanisms are unclear. Less progress has

  15. The power of your vocal image.

    PubMed

    McCoy, L A

    1996-03-01

    Your vocal image is the impression that listeners form of you based on the sound of your voice. In a dental office, where the initial patient contact usually occurs over the phone, your vocal image is vitally important. According to social psychologists, people begin to make relatively durable first impressions within six to 12 seconds of perceiving a sensory cue. This means that patients begin to form their impressions of a telephone speaker almost immediately. Based on the qualities of the speaker's voice and how it is used, they'll form impressions related to everything from the speaker's physical and personality characteristics to his or her intellectual ability, and eventually even generalize their impressions to include the office that the speaker represents. If you want to improve your vocal image, you must first be aware of exactly what that image is. There are two factors that combine to create a vocal impression--the speaker's physical vocal tools and the sound that is created by them. The five physical tools involved are the lungs, vocal cords, throat, mouth and ears. At each stage in the sound production process, we can easily fall into negative habits and lazy patterns if we're not careful. Although we can't do much about our physical voice mechanism, we can certainly exercise a great deal of control over how our voice is used. A strong, confident voice is an essential part of effective interpersonal communication. If you want to project an image of confidence and professionalism, don't overlook the subtle benefits of effective vocal power.

  16. Acoustic Analysis and Electroglottography in Elite Vocal Performers.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte-Gonzalez, Rocio; Valadez-Jimenez, Victor M; Sierra-Ramirez, Jose A; Ysunza, Pablo Antonio; Chavarria-Villafuerte, Karen; Hernandez-Lopez, Xochiquetzal

    2017-05-01

    Acoustic analysis of voice (AAV) and electroglottography (EGG) have been used for assessing vocal quality in patients with voice disorders. The effectiveness of these procedures for detecting mild disturbances in vocal quality in elite vocal performers has been controversial. To compare acoustic parameters obtained by AAV and EGG before and after vocal training to determine the effectiveness of these procedures for detecting vocal improvements in elite vocal performers. Thirty-three elite vocal performers were studied. The study group included 14 males and 19 females, ages 18-40 years, without a history of voice disorders. Acoustic parameters were obtained through AAV and EGG before and after vocal training using the Linklater method. Nonsignificant differences (P > 0.05) were found between values of fundamental frequency (F 0 ), shimmer, and jitter obtained by both procedures before vocal training. Mean F 0 was similar after vocal training. Jitter percentage as measured by AAV showed nonsignificant differences (P > 0.05) before and after vocal training. Shimmer percentage as measured by AAV demonstrated a significant reduction (P < 0.05) after vocal training. As measured by EGG after vocal training, shimmer and jitter were significantly reduced (P < 0.05); open quotient was significantly increased (P < 0.05); and irregularity was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). AAV and EGG were effective for detecting improvements in vocal function after vocal training in male and female elite vocal performers undergoing vocal training. EGG demonstrated better efficacy for detecting improvements and provided additional parameters as compared to AAV. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vocal cord paralysis in children.

    PubMed

    King, Ericka F; Blumin, Joel H

    2009-12-01

    Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is an increasingly commonly identified problem in the pediatric patient. Diagnostic and management techniques honed in adult laryngologic practice have been successfully applied to children. Iatrogenic causes, including cardiothoracic procedures, remain a common cause of unilateral VFP. Neurologic disorders predominate in the cause of bilateral VFP. Diagnosis with electromyography is currently being evaluated in children. Treatment of VFP is centered around symptomology, which is commonly divided between voice and airway concerns. Speech therapy shows promise in older children. Surgical management for unilateral VFP with injection laryngoplasty is commonly performed and well tolerated. Laryngeal reinnervation is currently being applied to the pediatric population as a permanent treatment and offers several advantages over laryngeal framework procedures. For bilateral VFP, tracheotomy is still commonly performed. Glottic dilation procedures are performed both openly and endoscopically with a high degree of success. VFP is a well recognized problem in pediatric patients with disordered voice and breathing. Some patients will spontaneously recover their laryngeal function. For those who do not, a variety of reliable techniques are available for rehabilitative treatment.

  18. Stuttering: A novel bullfrog vocalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne

    2004-05-01

    The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.

  19. Responses of primate frontal cortex neurons during natural vocal communication

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, A. Wren; Nummela, Samuel U.; de la Mothe, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of primate frontal cortex in vocal communication and its significance in language evolution have a controversial history. While evidence indicates that vocalization processing occurs in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurons, vocal-motor activity has been conjectured to be primarily subcortical and suggestive of a distinctly different neural architecture from humans. Direct evidence of neural activity during natural vocal communication is limited, as previous studies were performed in chair-restrained animals. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons across multiple regions of prefrontal and premotor cortex while freely moving marmosets engaged in a natural vocal behavior known as antiphonal calling. Our aim was to test whether neurons in marmoset frontal cortex exhibited responses during vocal-signal processing and/or vocal-motor production in the context of active, natural communication. We observed motor-related changes in single neuron activity during vocal production, but relatively weak sensory responses for vocalization processing during this natural behavior. Vocal-motor responses occurred both prior to and during call production and were typically coupled to the timing of each vocalization pulse. Despite the relatively weak sensory responses a population classifier was able to distinguish between neural activity that occurred during presentations of vocalization stimuli that elicited an antiphonal response and those that did not. These findings are suggestive of the role that nonhuman primate frontal cortex neurons play in natural communication and provide an important foundation for more explicit tests of the functional contributions of these neocortical areas during vocal behaviors. PMID:26084912

  20. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Vocal fold submucosal infusion technique in phonomicrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Kass, E S; Hillman, R E; Zeitels, S M

    1996-05-01

    Phonomicrosurgery is optimized by maximally preserving the vocal fold's layered microstructure (laminae propriae). The technique of submucosal infusion of saline and epinephrine into the superficial lamina propria (SLP) was examined to delineate how, when, and why it was helpful toward this surgical goal. A retrospective review revealed that the submucosal infusion technique was used to enhance the surgery in 75 of 152 vocal fold procedures that were performed over the last 2 years. The vocal fold epithelium was noted to be adherent to the vocal ligament in 29 of the 75 cases: 19 from previous surgical scarring, 4 from cancer, 3 from sulcus vocalis, 2 from chronic hemorrhage, and 1 from radiotherapy. The submucosal infusion technique was most helpful when the vocal fold epithelium required resection and/or when extensive dissection in the SLP was necessary. The infusion enhanced the surgery by vasoconstriction of the microvasculature in the SLP, which improved visualization during cold-instrument tangential dissection. Improved visualization facilitated maximal preservation of the SLP, which is necessary for optimal pliability of the overlying epithelium. The infusion also improved the placement of incisions at the perimeter of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions, and thereby helped preserve epithelium uninvolved by the disorder.

  2. Vocal repertoire of the social giant otter.

    PubMed

    Leuchtenberger, Caroline; Sousa-Lima, Renata; Duplaix, Nicole; Magnusson, William E; Mourão, Guilherme

    2014-11-01

    According to the "social intelligence hypothesis," species with complex social interactions have more sophisticated communication systems. Giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) live in groups with complex social interactions. It is likely that the vocal communication of giant otters is more sophisticated than previous studies suggest. The objectives of the current study were to describe the airborne vocal repertoire of giant otters in the Pantanal area of Brazil, to analyze call types within different behavioral contexts, and to correlate vocal complexity with level of sociability of mustelids to verify whether or not the result supports the social intelligence hypothesis. The behavior of nine giant otters groups was observed. Vocalizations recorded were acoustically and statistically analyzed to describe the species' repertoire. The repertoire was comprised by 15 sound types emitted in different behavioral contexts. The main behavioral contexts of each sound type were significantly associated with the acoustic variable ordination of different sound types. A strong correlation between vocal complexity and sociability was found for different species, suggesting that the communication systems observed in the family mustelidae support the social intelligence hypothesis.

  3. Wavelet based detection of manatee vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, Berke M.; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2005-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. Several boater warning systems, based upon manatee vocalizations, have been proposed to reduce the number of collisions. Three detection methods based on the Fourier transform (threshold, harmonic content and autocorrelation methods) were previously suggested and tested. In the last decade, the wavelet transform has emerged as an alternative to the Fourier transform and has been successfully applied in various fields of science and engineering including the acoustic detection of dolphin vocalizations. As of yet, no prior research has been conducted in analyzing manatee vocalizations using the wavelet transform. Within this study, the wavelet transform is used as an alternative to the Fourier transform in detecting manatee vocalizations. The wavelet coefficients are analyzed and tested against a specified criterion to determine the existence of a manatee call. The performance of the method presented is tested on the same data previously used in the prior studies, and the results are compared. Preliminary results indicate that using the wavelet transform as a signal processing technique to detect manatee vocalizations shows great promise.

  4. Vocal Tones Influence Young Children’s Responses to Prohibitions

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Audun; Tran, Amy Q.

    2016-01-01

    Vocal reactions to child transgressions convey information about the nature of those transgressions. The present research investigated children’s ability to make use of such vocal reactions. Study 1 investigated infants’ compliance with a vocal prohibition telling them to stay away from a toy. Compared to younger infants, older infants showed greater compliance with prohibitions elicited by moral (interpersonal harm) transgressions, but not with prohibitions elicited by pragmatic (inconvenience) transgressions. Study 2 investigated preschoolers’ use of firm-stern vocalizations (associated with moral transgressions) and positive vocalizations (associated with pragmatic transgressions). Most children guessed that the firm-stern vocalizations were uttered in response to a moral transgression and the positive vocalization were uttered in response to a pragmatic transgression. These two studies suggest that children use vocal tones, along with other experiences, to guide their compliance with and interpretation of prohibitions. PMID:27518810

  5. Effects of speech style, room acoustics, and vocal fatigue on vocal effort

    PubMed Central

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Vocal effort is a physiological measure that accounts for changes in voice production as vocal loading increases. It has been quantified in terms of sound pressure level (SPL). This study investigates how vocal effort is affected by speaking style, room acoustics, and short-term vocal fatigue. Twenty subjects were recorded while reading a text at normal and loud volumes in anechoic, semi-reverberant, and reverberant rooms in the presence of classroom babble noise. The acoustics in each environment were modified by creating a strong first reflection in the talker position. After each task, the subjects answered questions addressing their perception of the vocal effort, comfort, control, and clarity of their own voice. Variation in SPL for each subject was measured per task. It was found that SPL and self-reported effort increased in the loud style and decreased when the reflective panels were present and when reverberation time increased. Self-reported comfort and control decreased in the loud style, while self-reported clarity increased when panels were present. The lowest magnitude of vocal fatigue was experienced in the semi-reverberant room. The results indicate that early reflections may be used to reduce vocal effort without modifying reverberation time. PMID:27250179

  6. Vocal tract length and acoustics of vocalization in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Riede, T; Fitch, T

    1999-10-01

    The physical nature of the vocal tract results in the production of formants during vocalisation. In some animals (including humans), receivers can derive information (such as body size) about sender characteristics on the basis of formant characteristics. Domestication and selective breeding have resulted in a high variability in head size and shape in the dog (Canis familiaris), suggesting that there might be large differences in the vocal tract length, which could cause formant behaviour to affect interbreed communication. Lateral radiographs were made of dogs from several breeds ranging in size from a Yorkshire terrier (2.5 kg) to a German shepherd (50 kg) and were used to measure vocal tract length. In addition, we recorded an acoustic signal (growling) from some dogs. Significant correlations were found between vocal tract length, body mass and formant dispersion, suggesting that formant dispersion can deliver information about the body size of the vocalizer. Because of the low correlation between vocal tract length and the first formant, we predict a non-uniform vocal tract shape.

  7. A rare case of non-surgical vocal cord paralysis: Vocal cord hematoma.

    PubMed

    Arıkan, Akif Enes; Teksöz, Serkan; Bilgin, İsmail Ahmet; Tarhan, Özge; Özyeğin, Ateş

    2017-01-01

    Although vocal cord paralysis (VCP) following thyroidectomy is primarily associated with surgical trauma, it is not the sole etiology. Vocal cord paralysis following thyroidectomy can be caused by a vocal cord hematoma with an incidence of 1.4% due to direct injury during orotracheal intubation. In this article, we present a case of VCP caused by vocal cord hematoma. A 32-year-old male patient who has been receiving propylthiouracil treatment for toxic multinodular goiter since 10 years was admitted to our hospital to be operated because of persisting complaints. The patient was hospitalized for sutureless thyroidectomy after he became euthyroid. Preoperative fiberoptic laryngoscopy performed by the ear, nose, and throat department revealed bilaterally motile vocal folds and a completely open airway. Patient underwent sutureless total thyroidectomy with a vessel sealing device (Ligasure TM LF1212, Covidien, CO), and a minivac drainage system was placed in the thyroid lodge. On the morning of the first postoperative day, 50 mL of serosanguinous fluid was drained. The patient's voice was normal, and there was no ecchymosis. Postoperative fiberoptic laryngoscopy revealed a hematoma near the right vocal fold and paralysis of the right vocal fold; however, the airway was open. It should be kept in mind that VCP is not solely due to surgery but can also result from intubation, as observed in this case.

  8. A rare case of non-surgical vocal cord paralysis: Vocal cord hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Arıkan, Akif Enes; Teksöz, Serkan; Bilgin, İsmail Ahmet; Tarhan, Özge; Özyeğin, Ateş

    2017-01-01

    Although vocal cord paralysis (VCP) following thyroidectomy is primarily associated with surgical trauma, it is not the sole etiology. Vocal cord paralysis following thyroidectomy can be caused by a vocal cord hematoma with an incidence of 1.4% due to direct injury during orotracheal intubation. In this article, we present a case of VCP caused by vocal cord hematoma. A 32-year-old male patient who has been receiving propylthiouracil treatment for toxic multinodular goiter since 10 years was admitted to our hospital to be operated because of persisting complaints. The patient was hospitalized for sutureless thyroidectomy after he became euthyroid. Preoperative fiberoptic laryngoscopy performed by the ear, nose, and throat department revealed bilaterally motile vocal folds and a completely open airway. Patient underwent sutureless total thyroidectomy with a vessel sealing device (LigasureTM LF1212, Covidien, CO), and a minivac drainage system was placed in the thyroid lodge. On the morning of the first postoperative day, 50 mL of serosanguinous fluid was drained. The patient’s voice was normal, and there was no ecchymosis. Postoperative fiberoptic laryngoscopy revealed a hematoma near the right vocal fold and paralysis of the right vocal fold; however, the airway was open. It should be kept in mind that VCP is not solely due to surgery but can also result from intubation, as observed in this case. PMID:29260141

  9. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bohlender, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis. PMID:24403969

  10. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    PubMed

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vocal Health Education and Medical Resources for Graduate-Level Vocal Performance Students.

    PubMed

    Latham, Katherine; Messing, Barbara; Bidlack, Melissa; Merritt, Samantha; Zhou, Xian; Akst, Lee M

    2017-03-01

    Most agree that education about vocal health and physiology can help singers avoid the development of vocal disorders. However, little is known about how this kind of education is provided to singers as part of their formal training. This study describes the amount of instruction in these topics provided through graduate-level curricula, who provides this instruction, and the kinds of affiliations such graduate singing programs have with medical professionals. This is an online survey of music schools with graduate singing programs. Survey questions addressed demographics of the programs, general attitudes about vocal health instruction for singers, the amount of vocal health instruction provided and by whom it was taught, perceived barriers to including more vocal health instruction, and any affiliations the voice program might have with medical personnel. Eighty-one survey responses were received. Instruction on vocal health was provided in 95% of the schools. In 55% of the schools, none of this instruction was given by a medical professional. Limited time in the curriculum, lack of financial support, and lack of availability of medical professional were the most frequently reported barriers to providing more instruction. When programs offered more hours of instruction, they were more likely to have some of that instruction given by a medical professional (P = 0.008) and to assess the amount of instruction provided positively (P = 0.001). There are several perceived barriers to incorporating vocal health education into graduate singing programs. Opportunity exists for more collaboration between vocal pedagogues and medical professionals in the education of singers about vocal health. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) in infant vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Nathani, Suneeti; Oller, D Kimbrough; Cobo-Lewis, Alan B

    2003-02-01

    Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) has been extensively examined in infant vocalizations in order to determine whether its basis is biological or learned. Findings suggest there may be a U-shaped developmental trajectory for FSL. The present study sought to verify this pattern and to determine whether vocal maturity and deafness influence FSL. Eight normally hearing infants, aged 0;3 to 1;0, and eight deaf infants, aged 0;8 to 4;0, were examined at three levels of prelinguistic vocal development: precanonical, canonical, and postcanonical. FSL was found at all three levels suggesting a biological basis for this phenomenon. Individual variability was, however, considerable. Reduction in the magnitude of FSL across the three sessions provided some support for a downward trend for FSL in infancy. Findings further indicated that auditory deprivation can significantly affect temporal aspects of infant speech production.

  13. Vocal training in an anthropometrical aspect.

    PubMed

    Wyganowska-Świątkowska, Marzena; Kowalkowska, Iwona; Flicińska-Pamfil, Grażyna; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kopczyński, Przemysław; Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bożena

    2017-12-01

    As shown in our previous paper, the dimensions of the cerebral parts of the cranium and face of the vocal students were higher than those of the non-singing students. The aim of the present study was to analyse the type of voice and its development depending on selected dimensions. A total of 56 vocal students - 36 women and 20 men - who underwent anthropometric measurements were divided into groups according to their voice type. Two professors of singing made a subjective, independent evaluation of individual students' vocal development progress during the four years of training. The findings were analysed statistically with the current licensed versions of Statistica software. We found statistically significant positive correlation between: the head length, head and face width, depth of upper and middle face, nose length and student's voice development. The dimensions of the head and the face have no impact on type of voice; however, some anatomical characteristics may have impact on voice development.

  14. The nature of primary vocal tremor.

    PubMed

    Hachinski, V C; Thomsen, I V; Buch, N H

    1975-08-01

    Three elderly women with marked progressive voice tremor, without other neurological symptoms, and negative family histories were investigated. All had a 4-5 Hz respiratory tremor in expiration and, to a lesser degree, in inspiration; and all had vocal tremulousness synchronous with their respiratory irregularity. Articulation of phonemes was normal. In two cases the neurological examination was otherwise normal; in the third case there was a minimal 71/2 Hz tremor in the left thumb and index finger. Simultaneous speech and vocal air pressure recordings, as well as cinematographic studies of the vocal apparatus and diaphragm were carried out. It is suggested that these cases represent primarily an action tremor of respiration, that they belong in the spectrum of essential tremor, and hence may be amenable to treatment with propranolol.

  15. Killer whales are capable of vocal learning

    PubMed Central

    Foote, Andrew D; Griffin, Rachael M; Howitt, David; Larsson, Lisa; Miller, Patrick J.O; Rus Hoelzel, A

    2006-01-01

    The production learning of vocalizations by manipulation of the sound production organs to alter the physical structure of sound has been demonstrated in only a few mammals. In this natural experiment, we document the vocal behaviour of two juvenile killer whales, Orcinus orca, separated from their natal pods, which are the only cases of dispersal seen during the three decades of observation of their populations. We find mimicry of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) barks, demonstrating the vocal production learning ability for one of the calves. We also find differences in call usage (compared to the natal pod) that may reflect the absence of a repertoire model from tutors or some unknown effect related to isolation or context. PMID:17148275

  16. Zinc sulfate therapy of vocal process granuloma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guang-Bin; Sun, Na; Tang, Hai-Hong; Zhu, Qiu-Bei; Wen, Wu; Zheng, Hong-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Vocal process granuloma is a benign lesion that occurs on the arytenoid cartilage. It tends to recur locally, and there is a great diversity of methods to treat it. Here, we reviewed the effects of zinc sulfate therapy program in 16 patients with vocal process granulomas. Eleven patients had a history of trauma or laryngeal intubation and five patients had unknown origin. Eleven had recurrence after one to three failed surgeries, and the others had no prior treatment. Symptoms included hoarseness, sore throat, lump sensation in the throat and cough that apparently improved. The granulomas did not recur for at least 1 year. No complications occurred. For vocal process granuloma, zinc sulfate therapy is good either as an initial or compensatory treatment.

  17. Multiple Coordination Patterns in Infant and Adult Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Abney, Drew H.; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Wallot, Sebastian; Kello, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    The study of vocal coordination between infants and adults has led to important insights into the development of social, cognitive, emotional and linguistic abilities. We used an automatic system to identify vocalizations produced by infants and adults over the course of the day for fifteen infants studied longitudinally during the first two years of life. We measured three different types of vocal coordination: coincidence-based, rate-based, and cluster-based. Coincidence-based and rate-based coordination are established measures in the developmental literature. Cluster-based coordination is new and measures the strength of matching in the degree to which vocalization events occur in hierarchically nested clusters. We investigated whether various coordination patterns differ as a function of vocalization type, whether different coordination patterns provide unique information about the dynamics of vocal interaction, and how the various coordination patterns each relate to infant age. All vocal coordination patterns displayed greater coordination for infant speech-related vocalizations, adults adapted the hierarchical clustering of their vocalizations to match that of infants, and each of the three coordination patterns had unique associations with infant age. Altogether, our results indicate that vocal coordination between infants and adults is multifaceted, suggesting a complex relationship between vocal coordination and the development of vocal communication. PMID:29375276

  18. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  19. Automated Assessment of Child Vocalization Development Using LENA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jeffrey A.; Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmistha; Paul, Terrance

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To produce a novel, efficient measure of children's expressive vocal development on the basis of automatic vocalization assessment (AVA), child vocalizations were automatically identified and extracted from audio recordings using Language Environment Analysis (LENA) System technology. Method: Assessment was based on full-day audio…

  20. Vocal education for the professional voice user and singer.

    PubMed

    Murry, T; Rosen, C A

    2000-10-01

    Providing education on voice-related anatomy, physiology, and vocal hygiene information is the responsibility of every voice care professional. This article discusses the importance of a vocal education program for singers and professional voice users. An outline of a vocal education lecture is provided.

  1. Shear properties of vocal fold mucosal tissues and their effect on vocal fold oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Roger Wai Kai

    Viscoelastic shear properties of vocal fold mucosal tissues and phonosurgical biomaterials were measured with a parallel-plate rotational rheometer. Elastic, viscous and damping properties were quantified as a function of frequency (0.01 Hz to 15 Hz) for human vocal fold mucosal tissues (N = 15), implantable biomaterials commonly used in the treatment of vocal fold paralysis (Teflon, gelatin, and collagen) (the non-mucosal group), and biomaterials currently or potentially useful in the treatment of vocal fold mucosal defects (adipose tissue or fat, hyaluronic acid, and fibronectin) (the mucosal group). It was found that intersubject differences as large as an order of magnitude were often observed for the shear properties of vocal fold mucosal tissues, part of which may be age- and gender-related. Shear properties of the non-mucosal group biomaterials were often much higher than those of the mucosal group biomaterials, which were relatively close to the shear properties of mucosal tissues. Viscoelastic and rheological modeling showed that shear properties of human vocal fold mucosa may be described by a quasi-linear viscoelastic theory and a statistical network theory, based upon which extrapolations to audio frequencies were possible. A theory of small-amplitude vocal fold oscillation was revisited to describe the effects of tissue shear properties on vocal fold oscillation and phonation threshold pressure, a measure of the 'ease' of phonation and an objective indication of vocal function. It was found that phonation threshold pressure is directly related to the viscous shear modulus or the 'effective damping modulus', a concept proposed to quantify the effective amount of damping in vocal fold oscillation. The mucosal group biomaterials were incorporated into the artificial vocal fold mucosa of a physical model in order to empirically assess their effects on phonation threshold pressure. Results showed that higher threshold pressures were consistently observed

  2. Permeability of canine vocal fold lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jacob P; Kvit, Anton A; Devine, Erin E; Jiang, Jack

    2015-04-01

    Determine the permeability of excised canine vocal fold lamina propria. Basic science. Vocal folds were excised from canine larynges and mounted within a device to measure the flow of 0.9% saline through the tissue over time. The resultant fluid volume displaced over time was then used in a variation of Darcy's law to calculate the permeability of the tissue. Permeability was found through each anatomical plane of the vocal fold, with five samples per plane. Permeability was also found for lamina propria stretched to 10%, 20%, and 30% of its initial length to determine the effects of tensile strain on permeability, with five samples per level of strain. Permeability was found to be 1.40 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg through the sagittal plane, 1.00 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg through the coronal plane, and 4.02 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg through the axial plane. It was significantly greater through the axial plane than both the sagittal (P = .025) and coronal (P = .009) planes. Permeability under strain through the sagittal plane was found to be 1.94 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg under 10% strain, 3.35 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg under 20% strain, and 4.80 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg under 30% strain. The permeability significantly increased after 20% strain (P < .05). Permeability in canine vocal fold lamina propria was found to be increased along the anterior-posterior axis, following the length of the vocal folds. This may influence fluid distribution within the lamina propria during and after vibration. Similarly, permeability increased after 20% strain was imposed on the lamina propria, and may influence vocal fold dynamics during certain phonation tasks. NA Laryngoscope, 125:941-945, 2015. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Paradigms and progress in vocal fold restoration.

    PubMed

    Ford, Charles N

    2008-09-01

    Science advances occur through orderly steps, puzzle-solving leaps, or divergences from the accepted disciplinary matrix that occasionally result in a revolutionary paradigm shift. Key advances must overcome bias, criticism, and rejection. Examples in biological science include use of embryonic stem cells, recognition of Helicobacter pylori in the etiology of ulcer disease, and the evolution of species. Our work in vocal fold restoration reflects these patterns. We progressed through phases of tissue replacement with fillers and biological implants, to current efforts at vocal fold regeneration through tissue engineering, and face challenges of a new "systems biology" paradigm embracing genomics and proteomics.

  4. Mechanical properties of the vocal fold. Stress-strain studies.

    PubMed

    Haji, T; Mori, K; Omori, K; Isshiki, N

    1992-01-01

    The viscoelasticity of the vocal and ventricular folds was experimentally assessed by analyzing the stress-strain relationships obtained using a newly developed measuring system. The degree of stiffness of the mid-membranous portion of the vocal fold was less than that near the anterior commissure or the vocal process. The ventricular fold was much less stiff and significantly more viscous than the vocal fold. At the membranous portion of the vocal fold, the degree of stiffness was less and that of viscosity greater at 2 mm above and below the free margin than at the free margin itself.

  5. Voice analysis before and after vocal rehabilitation in patients following open surgery on vocal cords.

    PubMed

    Bunijevac, Mila; Petrović-Lazić, Mirjana; Jovanović-Simić, Nadica; Vuković, Mile

    2016-02-01

    The major role of larynx in speech, respiration and swallowing makes carcinomas of this region and their treatment very influential for patients' life quality. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of voice therapy in patients after open surgery on vocal cords. This study included 21 male patients and the control group of 19 subjects. The vowel (A) was recorded and analyzed for each examinee. All the patients were recorded twice: firstly, when they contacted the clinic and secondly, after a three-month vocal therapy, which was held twiceper week on an outpatient basis. The voice analysis was carried out in the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Clinic, Clinical Hospital Center "Zvezdara" in Belgrade. The values of the acoustic parameters in the patients submitted to open surgery on the vocal cords before vocal rehabilitation and the control group subjects were significantly different in all specified parameters. These results suggest that the voice of the patients was damaged before vocal rehabilitation. The results of the acoustic parameters of the vowel (A) before and after vocal rehabilitation of the patients with open surgery on vocal cords were statistically significantly different. Among the parameters--Jitter (%), Shimmer (%)--the observed difference was highly statistically significant (p < 0.01). The voice turbulence index and the noise/harmonic ratio were also notably improved, and the observed difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The analysis of the tremor intensity index showed no significant improvement and the observed difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05 ). CONCLUSION. There was a significant improvement of the acoustic parameters of the vowel (A) in the study subjects three months following vocal therapy. Only one out of five representative parameters showed no significant improvement.

  6. [A case of vocal cord contact granuloma after vocal cord polyp surgery].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhili; Jiang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    The vocal cord polyp is easy to relapse after surgery, but if the patient has recurrence in a short term, it is necessary to consider it as postoperative vocal cord contact granuloma. If the patients with contact granuloma after surgical treatment had severe impact on the pronunciation, it is necessary to be operated and confirmed by pathology and given the treatment of acid suppression, in order to avoid postoperative recurrence.

  7. Female Presence and Estrous State Influence Mouse Ultrasonic Courtship Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jessica L.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is an emerging model for context-dependent vocal signaling and reception. Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations are robustly produced in social contexts. In adults, male vocalization during courtship has become a model of interest for signal-receiver interactions. These vocalizations can be grouped into syllable types that are consistently produced by different subspecies and strains of mice. Vocalizations are unique to individuals, vary across development, and depend on social housing conditions. The behavioral significance of different syllable types, including the contexts in which different vocalizations are made and the responses listeners have to different types of vocalizations, is not well understood. We examined the effect of female presence and estrous state on male vocalizations by exploring the use of syllable types and the parameters of syllables during courtship. We also explored correlations between vocalizations and other behaviors. These experimental manipulations produced four main findings: 1) vocalizations varied among males, 2) the production of USVs and an increase in the use of a specific syllable type were temporally related to mounting behavior, 3) the frequency (kHz), bandwidth, and duration of syllables produced by males were influenced by the estrous phase of female partners, and 4) syllable types changed when females were removed. These findings show that mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations are sensitive to changes in female phase and presence, further demonstrating the context-sensitivity of these calls. PMID:22815817

  8. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo; Riede, Tobias; Mau, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size), range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1) laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2) nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid), so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers), increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations. PMID:27309543

  9. Iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Marcus; Dale, Rick; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Studies of gestural communication systems find that they originate from spontaneously created iconic gestures. Yet, we know little about how people create vocal communication systems, and many have suggested that vocalizations do not afford iconicity beyond trivial instances of onomatopoeia. It is unknown whether people can generate vocal communication systems through a process of iconic creation similar to gestural systems. Here, we examine the creation and development of a rudimentary vocal symbol system in a laboratory setting. Pairs of participants generated novel vocalizations for 18 different meanings in an iterative 'vocal' charades communication game. The communicators quickly converged on stable vocalizations, and naive listeners could correctly infer their meanings in subsequent playback experiments. People's ability to guess the meanings of these novel vocalizations was predicted by how close the vocalization was to an iconic 'meaning template' we derived from the production data. These results strongly suggest that the meaningfulness of these vocalizations derived from iconicity. Our findings illuminate a mechanism by which iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols, analogous to the function of iconicity in gestural communication systems.

  10. [Varices of the vocal cord: report of 21 cases].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-rang; Sun, Jian-jun

    2006-04-01

    To study the diagnosis and treatment of varices of the vocal cord. The clinical data of 21 cases with varix of vocal cord were analyzed. All the patients presented hoarseness. There were 15 female and 6 male cases with their ages ranged from 23 to 68 years (median 44 years old). The varix was found on the right vocal cord in 12 cases, on the left vocal cord in 9 cases. Isolated varix existed on the vocal cord in 10 cases, varix with vocal cord polyps or nodules in 10 cases, varix with vocal cord paralysis in 1 case. All the patients were diagnosed under the laryngovideoscopy. The lesions appeared on the superior surface of the vocal cord. Varices manifested as abnormally dilated capillary running in the anterior to posterior direction in 6 cases, as clusters of capillary in 3 cases, as a dot or small sheet or short line of capillary in 12 cases. The varices were disappeared in 2 of 8 cases with vocal cord varices and polyps after removed the polyps. The varices of others patients had no change after following up for more than 6 months, but one patient happened hemorrhage of the contralateral vocal cord. Varices are most commonly seen in female. Laryngovideoscopy is the key in determining the vocal fold varices. Management of patients with a varix includes medical therapy, speech therapy, and occasionally surgical vaporization.

  11. Histopathologic investigations of the unphonated human child vocal fold mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kiminori; Umeno, Hirohito; Nakashima, Tadashi; Nonaka, Satoshi; Harabuchi, Yasuaki

    2012-01-01

    Vocal fold stellate cells (VFSCs) in the maculae flavae (MFe) located at both ends of the vocal fold mucosa are inferred to be involved in the metabolism of extracellular matrices. MFe are also considered to be an important structure in the growth and development of the human vocal fold mucosa. Tension caused by phonation (vocal fold vibration) is hypothesized to stimulate VFSCs to accelerate production of extracellular matrices. Human child vocal fold mucosae unphonated since birth were investigated histologically. Histologic analysis of human child vocal fold mucosa. Vocal fold mucosae, which have remained unphonated since birth, of two children (7 and 12 years old) with cerebral palsy were investigated by light and electron microscopy and compared with normal subjects. Vocal fold mucosae and MFe were hypoplastic and rudimentary and did not have a vocal ligament, Reinke's space, or the layered structure. The lamina propria appeared as a uniform structure. Some VFSCs in the MFe showed degeneration and not many vesicles were present at the periphery of the cytoplasm. The VFSCs synthesized fewer extracellular matrices, such as fibrous protein and glycosaminoglycan. The VFSCs appeared to have decreased activity. Vocal fold vibration (phonation) after birth is an important factor in the growth and development of the human vocal fold mucosa. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vocal learning in elephants: neural bases and adaptive context

    PubMed Central

    Stoeger, Angela S; Manger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade clear evidence has accumulated that elephants are capable of vocal production learning. Examples of vocal imitation are documented in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants, but little is known about the function of vocal learning within the natural communication systems of either species. We are also just starting to identify the neural basis of elephant vocalizations. The African elephant diencephalon and brainstem possess specializations related to aspects of neural information processing in the motor system (affecting the timing and learning of trunk movements) and the auditory and vocalization system. Comparative interdisciplinary (from behavioral to neuroanatomical) studies are strongly warranted to increase our understanding of both vocal learning and vocal behavior in elephants. PMID:25062469

  13. Early experience shapes vocal neural coding and perception in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds, like humans, are highly accomplished vocal learners. The many parallels between speech and birdsong and conserved features of mammalian and avian auditory systems have led to the emergence of the songbird as a model system for studying the perceptual mechanisms of vocal communication. Laboratory research on songbirds allows the careful control of early life experience and high-resolution analysis of brain function during vocal learning, production and perception. Here, I review what songbird studies have revealed about the role of early experience in the development of vocal behavior, auditory perception and the processing of learned vocalizations by auditory neurons. The findings of these studies suggest general principles for how exposure to vocalizations during development and into adulthood influences the perception of learned vocal signals. PMID:22711657

  14. Interstitial protein alterations in rabbit vocal fold with scar.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Susan L; Bless, Diane M; Gray, Steven D

    2003-09-01

    Fibrous and interstitial proteins compose the extracellular matrix of the vocal fold lamina propria and account for its biomechanic properties. Vocal fold scarring is characterized by altered biomechanical properties, which create dysphonia. Although alterations of the fibrous proteins have been confirmed in the rabbit vocal fold scar, interstitial proteins, which are known to be important in wound repair, have not been investigated to date. Using a rabbit model, interstitial proteins decorin, fibromodulin, and fibronectin were examined immunohistologically, two months postinduction of vocal fold scar by means of forcep biopsy. Significantly decreased decorin and fibromodulin with significantly increased fibronectin characterized scarred vocal fold tissue. The implications of altered interstitial proteins levels and their affect on the fibrous proteins will be discussed in relation to increased vocal fold stiffness and viscosity, which characterizes vocal fold scar.

  15. Brown meagre vocalization rate increases during repetitive boat noise exposures: a possible case of vocal compensation.

    PubMed

    Picciulin, Marta; Sebastianutto, Linda; Codarin, Antonio; Calcagno, Giuliana; Ferrero, Enrico A

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated whether or not boat noise causes variations in brown meagre (Sciaena umbra) vocalizations recorded in a nearshore Mediterranean marine reserve. Six nocturnal experimental sessions were carried out from June to September 2009. In each of them, a recreational boat passed over vocalizing fish 6 times with 1 boat passage every 10 min. For this purpose three different boats were used in random order: an 8.5-m cabin-cruiser (CC), a 5-m fiberglass boat (FB), and a 7-m inflatable boat (INF). In situ continuous acoustic recordings were collected using a self-standing sonobuoy. Because boat noise levels largely exceeded both background noise and S. umbra vocalizations in the species' hearing frequency range, masking of acoustic communication was assumed. Although no immediate effect was observed during a single boat passage, the S. umbra mean pulse rate increased over multiple boat passages in the experimental condition but not in the control condition, excluding that the observed effect was due to a natural rise in fish vocalizations. The observed vocal enhancement may result either from an increased density of callers or from an increased number of pulses/sounds produced by already acoustically active individuals, as a form of vocal compensation. These two explanations are discussed.

  16. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  17. Enhanced Processing of Vocal Melodies in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael W.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.; Dawber, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Music cognition is typically studied with instrumental stimuli. Adults remember melodies better, however, when they are presented in a biologically significant timbre (i.e., the human voice) than in various instrumental timbres (Weiss, Trehub, & Schellenberg, 2012). We examined the impact of vocal timbre on children's processing of melodies.…

  18. Vocal cord dysfunction in a child.

    PubMed

    Juliá, J C; Martorell, A; Armengot, M A; Lluch, R; Boluda, C F; Cerdá, J C; Alvarez, V

    1999-07-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) involves paradoxical adduction of the vocal cord during the respiratory cycle. This usually occurs during inspiration, but can also be seen in expiration. Vocal cord appositioning produces airflow obstruction sufficient to cause wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. These symptoms often imitate the respiratory alterations of asthma, thus leading to inappropriate treatment; intubation or tracheotomy may prove necessary. An 11-year-old girl was admitted with intractable dyspnea. She had been diagnosed with atopic asthma, although she failed to respond to an increase in antiasthma medication, including high-dose oral steroids. Flow-volume loops were abnormal, with evidence of variable extrathoracic airway obstruction, manifested as a flat inspiratory loop. No structural abnormalities were seen with either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fibroscopy revealed paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords during the respiratory cycle, no obstructive disorder being observed. After the diagnosis of VCD, the clinical manifestations resolved with psychiatric treatment. Adduction was not demonstrable at repeat fibroscopy after treatment. VCD may simulate bronchial asthma; it may also be associated with that disorder, thus masking the diagnosis. It should be suspected in patients with recurrent wheezing who fail to respond to usual asthma treatment. An early diagnosis avoids unnecessary aggressive management. Treatment should consist of respiratory and phonatory exercises; psychotherapy may be useful.

  19. The Tufts Non-Vocal Communication Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Richard A.; And Others

    Described are the efforts of the Biomedical Engineering Center in developing devices, particularly the Tufts Interactive Communicator (TIC) for the non-vocal severely physically disabled individual. It is noted that research has been conducted in the following areas: dictionary development, anticipatory communication, symbol communication, symbol…

  20. Vocal Pitch Discrimination in the Motor System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Bufalari, Ilaria; Salmas, Paola; Busan, Pierpaolo; Fadiga, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Speech production can be broadly separated into two distinct components: Phonation and Articulation. These two aspects require the efficient control of several phono-articulatory effectors. Speech is indeed generated by the vibration of the vocal-folds in the larynx (F0) followed by "filtering" by articulators, to select certain resonant…

  1. Gelada vocal sequences follow Menzerath's linguistic law.

    PubMed

    Gustison, Morgan L; Semple, Stuart; Ferrer-I-Cancho, Ramon; Bergman, Thore J

    2016-05-10

    Identifying universal principles underpinning diverse natural systems is a key goal of the life sciences. A powerful approach in addressing this goal has been to test whether patterns consistent with linguistic laws are found in nonhuman animals. Menzerath's law is a linguistic law that states that, the larger the construct, the smaller the size of its constituents. Here, to our knowledge, we present the first evidence that Menzerath's law holds in the vocal communication of a nonhuman species. We show that, in vocal sequences of wild male geladas (Theropithecus gelada), construct size (sequence size in number of calls) is negatively correlated with constituent size (duration of calls). Call duration does not vary significantly with position in the sequence, but call sequence composition does change with sequence size and most call types are abbreviated in larger sequences. We also find that intercall intervals follow the same relationship with sequence size as do calls. Finally, we provide formal mathematical support for the idea that Menzerath's law reflects compression-the principle of minimizing the expected length of a code. Our findings suggest that a common principle underpins human and gelada vocal communication, highlighting the value of exploring the applicability of linguistic laws in vocal systems outside the realm of language.

  2. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  3. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    PubMed Central

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars). PMID:26325076

  4. Hemispheric processing of vocal emblem sounds.

    PubMed

    Neumann-Werth, Yael; Levy, Erika S; Obler, Loraine K

    2013-01-01

    Vocal emblems, such as shh and brr, are speech sounds that have linguistic and nonlinguistic features; thus, it is unclear how they are processed in the brain. Five adult dextral individuals with left-brain damage and moderate-severe Wernicke's aphasia, five adult dextral individuals with right-brain damage, and five Controls participated in two tasks: (1) matching vocal emblems to photographs ('picture task') and (2) matching vocal emblems to verbal translations ('phrase task'). Cross-group statistical analyses on items on which the Controls performed at ceiling revealed lower accuracy by the group with left-brain damage (than by Controls) on both tasks, and lower accuracy by the group with right-brain damage (than by Controls) on the picture task. Additionally, the group with left-brain damage performed significantly less accurately than the group with right-brain damage on the phrase task only. Findings suggest that comprehension of vocal emblems recruits more left- than right-hemisphere processing.

  5. Post-Vocalic /r/ in Singapore English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Chor Hiang; Gupta, Anthea Fraser

    A study investigated the distribution of post-vocalic /r/ in Singapore English as it may relate to social factors, particularly whether usage appears to be perceived as a prestige feature by those who use it. Informants were 21 subjects from various social backgrounds. Three speech styles representing a range of stylistic variation were elicited:…

  6. Physiological aspects of a vocal exercise.

    PubMed

    Elliot, N; Sundberg, J; Gramming, P

    1997-06-01

    The physiological aim of vocal exercises is mostly understood in intuitive terms only. This article presents an attempt to document the phonatory behavior induced by a vocal exercise. An elevated vertical position of the larynx is frequently associated with hyperfunctional phonatory habits, presumably because it induces an exaggerated vocal fold adduction. Using the multichannel electroglottograph (MEGG), the laryngeal position was determined in a group of subjects who performed a voice exercise that contained extremely prolonged versions of the consonant/b:/. This exercise is used by the coauthor (N.E.) as part of a standard vocal exercise program. Two of the seven subjects were dysphonic phonastenic patients, and the rest were normal trained or untrained persons. Different attempts to calibrate the MEGG confirmed a linear relationship with larynx height, provided electrode positioning was correct. The results showed that the exercise induced substantial vertical displacements of the larynx. Comparison with larynx height during voicing of other consonants showed that the/b/, in particular, tended to lower the larynx.

  7. Pupils dilate for vocal or familiar music.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael W; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Habashi, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Previous research reveals that vocal melodies are remembered better than instrumental renditions. Here we explored the possibility that the voice, as a highly salient stimulus, elicits greater arousal than nonvocal stimuli, resulting in greater pupil dilation for vocal than for instrumental melodies. We also explored the possibility that pupil dilation indexes memory for melodies. We tracked pupil dilation during a single exposure to 24 unfamiliar folk melodies (half sung to la la, half piano) and during a subsequent recognition test in which the previously heard melodies were intermixed with 24 novel melodies (half sung, half piano) from the same corpus. Pupil dilation was greater for vocal melodies than for piano melodies in the exposure phase and in the test phase. It was also greater for previously heard melodies than for novel melodies. Our findings provide the first evidence that pupillometry can be used to measure recognition of stimuli that unfold over several seconds. They also provide the first evidence of enhanced arousal to vocal melodies during encoding and retrieval, thereby supporting the more general notion of the voice as a privileged signal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The role of vocal individuality in conservation

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Andrew MR; Peake, Tom M; McGregor, Peter K

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the individuals within a population can generate information on life history parameters, generate input data for conservation models, and highlight behavioural traits that may affect management decisions and error or bias within census methods. Individual animals can be discriminated by features of their vocalisations. This vocal individuality can be utilised as an alternative marking technique in situations where the marks are difficult to detect or animals are sensitive to disturbance. Vocal individuality can also be used in cases were the capture and handling of an animal is either logistically or ethically problematic. Many studies have suggested that vocal individuality can be used to count and monitor populations over time; however, few have explicitly tested the method in this role. In this review we discuss methods for extracting individuality information from vocalisations and techniques for using this to count and monitor populations over time. We present case studies in birds where vocal individuality has been applied to conservation and we discuss its role in mammals. PMID:15960848

  9. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Archbold, Jahmaira; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus). We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the “peep”) across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative) in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility. PMID:26290789

  10. [Pursed Lips Inspiration for Vocal Cord Dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yumiko; Tsukada, Yayoi; Hirai, Nobuyuki; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2015-01-01

    Paradoxical vocal cord motion (PVCM) during vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) generally occurs spasmodically and transiently. After we had experienced 36 cases of VCD and successfully treated with conservative treatment including "pursed lips inspiration" method, we experienced a boy who had persistent PVCM. It was observed his PVCM vanished when he breathed in through pursed lips, while it appeared again when he stopped pursed lips inspiration. An airway reflex has been reported where the negative pressure in the subglottic space resulting from the inspiratory effort against a narrowed glottis activates the vocal cord adductor. VCD is considered to have both acceleration of laryngeal closure reflex against airway stimuli and active adductive movement of vocal cords against negative pressure in the subglottic space as underlying factors. The pursed lips inspiration method enables VCD patients not only to accomplish slow and light breathing but also to decrease the difference in the pressure between the supra--and subglottic space by occluding the nasal cavity and voluntary puckering up of the mouth which generate negative pressure in the supraglottic space. This is the first report of the pursed lips inspiration method as a treatment for VCD. Pursed lips inspiration is a simple method which is easy to perform anytime, anywhere without any special equipment, and is considered to be worth trying for VCD.

  11. A case of bilateral vocal fold mucosal bridges, bilateral trans-vocal fold type III sulci vocales, and an intracordal polyp.

    PubMed

    Tan, Melin; Pitman, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    We present a patient with a novel finding of bilateral mucosal bridges, bilateral type III trans-vocal fold sulci vocales, and a vocal fold polyp. Although sulci and mucosal bridges occur in the vocal folds, it is rare to find multiples of these lesions in a single patient, and it is even more uncommon when they occur in conjunction with a vocal fold polyp. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a vocal fold polyp in combination with multiple vocal fold bridges and multiple type III sulci vocales in a single patient. To describe and visually present the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with an intracordal polyp, bilateral mucosal bridges, as well as bilateral type III trans-vocal fold sulci vocales. Presentation of a set of high definition intraoperative photos displaying the extent of the vocal fold lesions and the resection of the intracordal polyp. This patient presented with only 6 months of significant dysphonia. It was felt that the recent change in voice was because of the polyp and not the bridges or sulci vocales. Considering the patient's presentation and the possible morbidity of resection of mucosal bridges and sulci, only the polyp was excised. Postoperatively, the patient's voice returned to his acceptable mild baseline dysphonia, and the benefit has persisted 6 months postoperatively. The combination of bilateral mucosal bridges, bilateral type III sulcus vocalis, and an intracordal polyp in one patient is rare if not novel. Treatment of the polyp alone returned the patient's voice to his lifelong baseline of mild dysphonia. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Catecholaminergic contributions to vocal communication signals.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2015-05-01

    Social context affects behavioral displays across a variety of species. For example, social context acutely influences the acoustic and temporal structure of vocal communication signals such as speech and birdsong. Despite the prevalence and importance of such social influences, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying the social modulation of communication. Catecholamines are implicated in the regulation of social behavior and motor control, but the degree to which catecholamines influence vocal communication signals remains largely unknown. Using a songbird, the Bengalese finch, we examined the extent to which the social context in which song is produced affected immediate early gene expression (EGR-1) in catecholamine-synthesising neurons in the midbrain. Further, we assessed the degree to which administration of amphetamine, which increases catecholamine concentrations in the brain, mimicked the effect of social context on vocal signals. We found that significantly more catecholaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra (but not the central grey, locus coeruleus or subcoeruleus) expressed EGR-1 in birds that were exposed to females and produced courtship song than in birds that produced non-courtship song in isolation. Furthermore, we found that amphetamine administration mimicked the effects of social context and caused many aspects of non-courtship song to resemble courtship song. Specifically, amphetamine increased the stereotypy of syllable structure and sequencing, the repetition of vocal elements and the degree of sequence completions. Taken together, these data highlight the conserved role of catecholamines in vocal communication across species, including songbirds and humans. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Vocal communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Soltis, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Research on vocal communication in African elephants has increased in recent years, both in the wild and in captivity, providing an opportunity to present a comprehensive review of research related to their vocal behavior. Current data indicate that the vocal repertoire consists of perhaps nine acoustically distinct call types, "rumbles" being the most common and acoustically variable. Large vocal production anatomy is responsible for the low-frequency nature of rumbles, with fundamental frequencies in the infrasonic range. Additionally, resonant frequencies of rumbles implicate the trunk in addition to the oral cavity in shaping the acoustic structure of rumbles. Long-distance communication is thought possible because low-frequency sounds propagate more faithfully than high-frequency sounds, and elephants respond to rumbles at distances of up to 2.5 km. Elephant ear anatomy appears designed for detecting low frequencies, and experiments demonstrate that elephants can detect infrasonic tones and discriminate small frequency differences. Two vocal communication functions in the African elephant now have reasonable empirical support. First, closely bonded but spatially separated females engage in rumble exchanges, or "contact calls," that function to coordinate movement or reunite animals. Second, both males and females produce "mate attraction" rumbles that may advertise reproductive states to the opposite sex. Additionally, there is evidence that the structural variation in rumbles reflects the individual identity, reproductive state, and emotional state of callers. Growth in knowledge about the communication system of the African elephant has occurred from a rich combination of research on wild elephants in national parks and captive elephants in zoological parks.

  14. Protective Effect of Astaxanthin on Vocal Fold Injury and Inflammation Due to Vocal Loading: A Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Mami; Kishimoto, Yo; Suzuki, Ryo; Kawai, Yoshitaka; Tateya, Ichiro; Hirano, Shigeru

    2017-05-01

    Professional voice users, such as singers and teachers, are at greater risk of developing vocal fold injury from excessive use of voice; thus, protection of the vocal fold is essential. One of the most important factors that aggravates injury is the production of reactive oxygen species at the wound site. The purpose of the current study was to assess the effect of astaxanthin, a strong antioxidant, on the protection of the vocal fold from injury and inflammation due to vocal loading. This study is an institutional review board-approved human clinical trial. Ten male subjects underwent a 60-minute vocal loading session and received vocal assessments prior to, immediately after, and 30 minutes postvocal loading (AST(-) status). All subjects were then prescribed 24 mg/day of astaxanthin for 28 days, after which they received the same vocal task and assessments (AST(+) status). Phonatory parameters were compared between both groups. Aerodynamic assessment, acoustic analysis, and GRBAS scale (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain) were significantly worse in the AST(-) status immediately after vocal loading, but improved by 30 minutes after loading. In contrast, none of the phonatory parameters in the AST(+) status were statistically worse, even when measured immediately after vocal loading. No allergic responses or adverse effects were observed after administration of astaxanthin. The current results suggest that astaxanthin can protect the vocal fold from injury and inflammation caused by vocal loading possibly through the regulation of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning to detect vocal hyperfunction from ambulatory neck-surface acceleration features: initial results for vocal fold nodules.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Van Stan, Jarrad H; Mehta, Daryush D; Zañartu, Matías; Cheyne, Harold A; Hillman, Robert E; Guttag, John V

    2014-06-01

    Voice disorders are medical conditions that often result from vocal abuse/misuse which is referred to generically as vocal hyperfunction. Standard voice assessment approaches cannot accurately determine the actual nature, prevalence, and pathological impact of hyperfunctional vocal behaviors because such behaviors can vary greatly across the course of an individual's typical day and may not be clearly demonstrated during a brief clinical encounter. Thus, it would be clinically valuable to develop noninvasive ambulatory measures that can reliably differentiate vocal hyperfunction from normal patterns of vocal behavior. As an initial step toward this goal we used an accelerometer taped to the neck surface to provide a continuous, noninvasive acceleration signal designed to capture some aspects of vocal behavior related to vocal cord nodules, a common manifestation of vocal hyperfunction. We gathered data from 12 female adult patients diagnosed with vocal fold nodules and 12 control speakers matched for age and occupation. We derived features from weeklong neck-surface acceleration recordings by using distributions of sound pressure level and fundamental frequency over 5-min windows of the acceleration signal and normalized these features so that intersubject comparisons were meaningful. We then used supervised machine learning to show that the two groups exhibit distinct vocal behaviors that can be detected using the acceleration signal. We were able to correctly classify 22 of the 24 subjects, suggesting that in the future measures of the acceleration signal could be used to detect patients with the types of aberrant vocal behaviors that are associated with hyperfunctional voice disorders.

  16. Iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Marcus; Dale, Rick; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Studies of gestural communication systems find that they originate from spontaneously created iconic gestures. Yet, we know little about how people create vocal communication systems, and many have suggested that vocalizations do not afford iconicity beyond trivial instances of onomatopoeia. It is unknown whether people can generate vocal communication systems through a process of iconic creation similar to gestural systems. Here, we examine the creation and development of a rudimentary vocal symbol system in a laboratory setting. Pairs of participants generated novel vocalizations for 18 different meanings in an iterative ‘vocal’ charades communication game. The communicators quickly converged on stable vocalizations, and naive listeners could correctly infer their meanings in subsequent playback experiments. People's ability to guess the meanings of these novel vocalizations was predicted by how close the vocalization was to an iconic ‘meaning template’ we derived from the production data. These results strongly suggest that the meaningfulness of these vocalizations derived from iconicity. Our findings illuminate a mechanism by which iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols, analogous to the function of iconicity in gestural communication systems. PMID:26361547

  17. Improvement of Vocal Pathologies Diagnosis Using High-Speed Videolaryngoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi; Hachiya, Adriana; Dajer, Maria Eugenia; Ishikawa, Camila Cristina; Takahashi, Marystella Tomoe; Montagnoli, Arlindo Neto

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV) has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia). The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases) were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation. PMID:25992109

  18. Is laughter a better vocal change detector than a growl?

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Barros, Carla; Vasconcelos, Margarida; Obermeier, Christian; Kotz, Sonja A

    2017-07-01

    The capacity to predict what should happen next and to minimize any discrepancy between an expected and an actual sensory input (prediction error) is a central aspect of perception. Particularly in vocal communication, the effective prediction of an auditory input that informs the listener about the emotionality of a speaker is critical. What is currently unknown is how the perceived valence of an emotional vocalization affects the capacity to predict and detect a change in the auditory input. This question was probed in a combined event-related potential (ERP) and time-frequency analysis approach. Specifically, we examined the brain response to standards (Repetition Positivity) and to deviants (Mismatch Negativity - MMN), as well as the anticipatory response to the vocal sounds (pre-stimulus beta oscillatory power). Short neutral, happy (laughter), and angry (growls) vocalizations were presented both as standard and deviant stimuli in a passive oddball listening task while participants watched a silent movie and were instructed to ignore the vocalizations. MMN amplitude was increased for happy compared to neutral and angry vocalizations. The Repetition Positivity was enhanced for happy standard vocalizations. Induced pre-stimulus upper beta power was increased for happy vocalizations, and predicted the modulation of the standard Repetition Positivity. These findings indicate enhanced sensory prediction for positive vocalizations such as laughter. Together, the results suggest that positive vocalizations are more effective predictors in social communication than angry and neutral ones, possibly due to their high social significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Viscoelastic properties of rabbit vocal folds after augmentation.

    PubMed

    Hertegård, Stellan; Dahlqvist, Ake; Laurent, Claude; Borzacchiello, Assunta; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2003-03-01

    Vocal fold function is closely related to tissue viscoelasticity. Augmentation substances may alter the viscoelastic properties of vocal fold tissues and hence their vibratory capacity. We sought to investigate the viscoelastic properties of rabbit vocal folds in vitro after injections of various augmentation substances. Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), cross-linked collagen (Zyplast), and cross-linked hyaluronan, hylan b gel (Hylaform) were injected into the lamina propria and the thyroarytenoid muscle of rabbit vocal folds. Dynamic viscosity of the injected vocal fold as a function of frequency was measured with a Bohlin parallel-plate rheometer during small-amplitude oscillation. All injected vocal folds showed a decreasing dynamic viscosity with increasing frequency. Vocal fold samples injected with hylan b gel showed the lowest dynamic viscosity, quite close to noninjected control samples. Vocal folds injected with polytetrafluoroethylene showed the highest dynamic viscosity followed by the collagen samples. The data indicated that hylan b gel in short-term renders the most natural viscoelastic properties to the vocal fold among the substances tested. This is of importance to restore/preserve the vibratory capacity of the vocal folds when glottal insufficiency is treated with injections.

  20. Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?

    PubMed Central

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad set of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

  1. Experimental analysis of the characteristics of artificial vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Misun, Vojtech; Svancara, Pavel; Vasek, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Specialized literature presents a number of models describing the function of the vocal folds. In most of those models, an emphasis is placed on the air flowing through the glottis and, further, on the effect of the parameters of the air alone (its mass, speed, and so forth). The article focuses on the constructional definition of artificial vocal folds and their experimental analysis. The analysis is conducted for voiced source voice phonation and for the changing mean value of the subglottal pressure. The article further deals with the analysis of the pressure of the airflow through the vocal folds, which is cut (separated) into individual pulses by the vibrating vocal folds. The analysis results show that air pulse characteristics are relevant to voice generation, as they are produced by the flowing air and vibrating vocal folds. A number of artificial vocal folds have been constructed to date, and the aforementioned view of their phonation is confirmed by their analysis. The experiments have confirmed that man is able to consciously affect only two parameters of the source voice, that is, its fundamental frequency and voice intensity. The main forces acting on the vocal folds during phonation are as follows: subglottal air pressure and elastic and inertia forces of the vocal folds' structure. The correctness of the function of the artificial vocal folds is documented by the experimental verification of the spectra of several types of artificial vocal folds. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Responses of primate frontal cortex neurons during natural vocal communication.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cory T; Thomas, A Wren; Nummela, Samuel U; de la Mothe, Lisa A

    2015-08-01

    The role of primate frontal cortex in vocal communication and its significance in language evolution have a controversial history. While evidence indicates that vocalization processing occurs in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurons, vocal-motor activity has been conjectured to be primarily subcortical and suggestive of a distinctly different neural architecture from humans. Direct evidence of neural activity during natural vocal communication is limited, as previous studies were performed in chair-restrained animals. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons across multiple regions of prefrontal and premotor cortex while freely moving marmosets engaged in a natural vocal behavior known as antiphonal calling. Our aim was to test whether neurons in marmoset frontal cortex exhibited responses during vocal-signal processing and/or vocal-motor production in the context of active, natural communication. We observed motor-related changes in single neuron activity during vocal production, but relatively weak sensory responses for vocalization processing during this natural behavior. Vocal-motor responses occurred both prior to and during call production and were typically coupled to the timing of each vocalization pulse. Despite the relatively weak sensory responses a population classifier was able to distinguish between neural activity that occurred during presentations of vocalization stimuli that elicited an antiphonal response and those that did not. These findings are suggestive of the role that nonhuman primate frontal cortex neurons play in natural communication and provide an important foundation for more explicit tests of the functional contributions of these neocortical areas during vocal behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Viscoelasticity of rabbit vocal folds after injection augmentation.

    PubMed

    Dahlqvist, Ake; Gärskog, Ola; Laurent, Claude; Hertegård, Stellan; Ambrosio, Luigi; Borzacchiello, Assunta

    2004-01-01

    Vocal fold function is related to the viscoelasticity of the vocal fold tissue. Augmentation substances used for injection treatment of voice insufficiency may alter the viscoelastic properties of vocal folds and their vibratory capacity. The objective was to compare the mechanical properties (viscoelasticity) of various injectable substances and the viscoelasticity of rabbit vocal folds, 6 months after injection with one of these substances. Animal model. Cross-linked collagen (Zyplast), double cross-linked hyaluronan (hylan B gel), dextranomers in hyaluronan (DHIA), and polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) were injected into rabbit vocal folds. Six months after the injection, the animals were killed and the right- and left-side vocal folds were removed. Dynamic viscosity of the injected substances and the vocal folds was measured with a Bohlin parallel-plate rheometer during small-amplitude oscillation. All injected vocal folds showed a decreasing dynamic viscosity with increasing frequency. Hylan B gel and DiHA showed the lowest dynamic viscosity values, and vocal folds injected with these substances also showed the lowest dynamic viscosity (similar to noninjected control samples). Teflon (and vocal folds injected with Teflon) showed the highest dynamic viscosity values, followed by the collagen samples. Substances with low viscoelasticity alter the mechanical properties of the vocal fold to a lesser degree than substances with a high viscoelasticity. The data indicated that hylan B gel and DiHA render the most natural viscoelastic properties to the vocal folds. These substances seem to be appropriate for preserving or restoring the vibratory capacity of the vocal folds when glottal insufficiency is treated with augmentative injections.

  4. Endoscopic laterofixation in bilateral vocal cords paralysis in children.

    PubMed

    Lidia, Zawadzka-Glos; Magdalena, Frackiewicz; Mieczyslaw, Chmielik

    2010-06-01

    Vocal cords paralysis is the second most frequent cause of laryngeal stridor in children. Symptoms of congenital vocal cords paralysis can occur shortly after birth or later. Vocal cords paralysis can be unilateral or bilateral. Symptoms of unilateral paralysis include hoarse weeping or stridor during a deep inhalation. In children unilateral vocal cords paralysis often retreats spontaneously or can be completely compensated. Children with bilateral vocal cords paralysis present mainly breathing disorders while phonation is normal. Symptoms are different, starting from complete occlusion of respiratory tracts and ending on small symptoms connected with the lack of effort tolerance. When symptoms are severe, patients from this group require a tracheotomy. The lack of restoration of normal function of vocal cords or lack of complete compensation and maintenance of symptoms are an indication for surgical treatment. The aim of this study is to present results of the treatment of bilateral vocal cords paralysis in children using the endoscopic method of laterofixation of vocal cords. In the Pediatric ENT Department between 1998 and 2009 sixty four children with dyspnoea and/or phonation disorders caused by vocal cords paralysis were treated. In ten cases laterofixation of vocal cords was performed, in most cases with good result. In this article the authors present the method of endoscopic laterofixation and achieved results. Endoscopic laterofixation of vocal cords in children is a safe and an easy method of surgical treatment of bilateral vocal cords paralysis. This method can be used as a first and often as a one stage treatment of vocal cords paralysis. In some cases this procedure is insufficient and has to be completed with other methods. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vocal classification of vocalizations of a pair of Asian small-clawed otters to determine stress.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Peter M; Johnson, Michael T; Fry, Michelle; Hamel, Benjamin; Laclede, Kathryn

    2015-07-01

    Asian Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinerea) are a small, protected but threatened species living in freshwater. They are gregarious and live in monogamous pairs for their lifetimes, communicating via scent and acoustic vocalizations. This study utilized a hidden Markov model (HMM) to classify stress versus non-stress calls from a sibling pair under professional care. Vocalizations were expertly annotated by keepers into seven contextual categories. Four of these-aggression, separation anxiety, pain, and prefeeding-were identified as stressful contexts, and three of them-feeding, training, and play-were identified as non-stressful contexts. The vocalizations were segmented, manually categorized into broad vocal type call types, and analyzed to determine signal to noise ratios. From this information, vocalizations from the most common contextual categories were used to implement HMM-based automatic classification experiments, which included individual identification, stress vs non-stress, and individual context classification. Results indicate that both individual identity and stress vs non-stress were distinguishable, with accuracies above 90%, but that individual contexts within the stress category were not easily separable.

  6. Classification for animal vocal fold surgery: resection margins impact histological outcomes of vocal fold injury.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Thibeault, Susan L; Leydon, Ciara

    2014-11-01

    Extent of vocal fold injury impacts the nature and timing of wound healing and voice outcomes. However, depth and extent of the lesion created to study wound healing in animal models vary across studies, likely contributing to different outcomes. Our goal was to create a surgery classification system to enable comparison of postoperative outcomes across animal vocal fold wound-healing studies. Prospective, controlled animal study. Rats underwent one of three types of unilateral vocal fold surgeries classified by depth and length of resection. The surgeries were: for subepithelial injury, resection of epithelium and superficial layer of the lamina propria at the midmembranous portion of the vocal fold; for transmucosal injury, resection of epithelium and lamina propria; and for transmuscular injury, resection of epithelium, lamina propria, and superficial portion of the vocalis muscle. Wound healing was evaluated histologically at various time points up to 35 days postinjury. Complete healing occurred by 14 days postsurgery for subepithelial injury, and by day 35 for transmucosal injury. Injury remained present at day 35 for transmuscular injury. Timing and completeness of healing varied by extent and depth of resection. Scarless healing occurred rapidly following subepithelial injury, whereas scarring was observed at 5 weeks after transmuscular injury. The proposed classification system may facilitate comparison of surgical outcomes across vocal fold wound-healing studies. N/A. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Effect of artificially lengthened vocal tract on vocal fold oscillation's fundamental frequency.

    PubMed

    Hanamitsu, Masakazu; Kataoka, Hideyuki

    2004-06-01

    The fundamental frequency of vocal fold oscillation (F(0)) is controlled by laryngeal mechanics and aerodynamic properties. F(0) change per unit change of transglottal pressure (dF/dP) using a shutter valve has been studied and found to have nonlinear, V-shaped relationship with F(0). On the other hand, the vocal tract is also known to affect vocal fold oscillation. This study examined the effect of artificially lengthened vocal tract length on dF/dP. dF/dP was measured in six men using two mouthpieces of different lengths. The dF/dP graph for the longer vocal tract was shifted leftward relative to the shorter one. Using the one-mass model, the nadir of the "V" on the dF/dP graph was strongly influenced by the resonance around the first formant frequency. However, a more precise model is needed to account for the effects of viscosity and turbulence.

  8. The Vocal Tract Organ: A New Musical Instrument Using 3-D Printed Vocal Tracts.

    PubMed

    Howard, David M

    2017-10-27

    The advent and now increasingly widespread availability of 3-D printers is transforming our understanding of the natural world by enabling observations to be made in a tangible manner. This paper describes the use of 3-D printed models of the vocal tract for different vowels that are used to create an acoustic output when stimulated with an appropriate sound source in a new musical instrument: the Vocal Tract Organ. The shape of each printed vocal tract is recovered from magnetic resonance imaging. It sits atop a loudspeaker to which is provided an acoustic L-F model larynx input signal that is controlled by the notes played on a musical instrument digital interface device such as a keyboard. The larynx input is subject to vibrato with extent and frequency adjustable as desired within the ranges usually found for human singing. Polyphonic inputs for choral singing textures can be applied via a single loudspeaker and vocal tract, invoking the approximation of linearity in the voice production system, thereby making multiple vowel stops a possibility while keeping the complexity of the instrument in reasonable check. The Vocal Tract Organ offers a much more human and natural sounding result than the traditional Vox Humana stops found in larger pipe organs, offering the possibility of enhancing pipe organs of the future as well as becoming the basis for a "multi-vowel" chamber organ in its own right. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of vocal fold nodules.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jacqui E; Belafsky, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    Promising new techniques in the management of vocal fold nodules have been developed in the past 2 years. Simultaneously, the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin has rapidly expanded. This review explores the use of botulinum toxin in treatment of vocal nodules and summarizes current therapeutic concepts. New microsurgical instruments and techniques, refinements in laser technology, radiosurgical excision and steroid intralesional injections are all promising new techniques in the management of vocal nodules. Botulinum toxin-induced 'voice rest' is a new technique we have employed in patients with recalcitrant nodules. Successful resolution of nodules is possible with this technique, without the risk of vocal fold scarring inherent in dissection/excision techniques. Botulinum toxin usage is exponentially increasing, and large-scale, long-term studies demonstrate its safety profile. Targeted vocal fold temporary paralysis induced by botulinum toxin injection is a new, well tolerated and efficacious treatment in patients with persistent vocal fold nodules.

  10. Knockout of Foxp2 disrupts vocal development in mice.

    PubMed

    Castellucci, Gregg A; McGinley, Matthew J; McCormick, David A

    2016-03-16

    The FOXP2 gene is important for the development of proper speech motor control in humans. However, the role of the gene in general vocal behavior in other mammals, including mice, is unclear. Here, we track the vocal development of Foxp2 heterozygous knockout (Foxp2+/-) mice and their wildtype (WT) littermates from juvenile to adult ages, and observe severe abnormalities in the courtship song of Foxp2+/- mice. In comparison to their WT littermates, Foxp2+/- mice vocalized less, produced shorter syllable sequences, and possessed an abnormal syllable inventory. In addition, Foxp2+/- song also exhibited irregular rhythmic structure, and its development did not follow the consistent trajectories observed in WT vocalizations. These results demonstrate that the Foxp2 gene is critical for normal vocal behavior in juvenile and adult mice, and that Foxp2 mutant mice may provide a tractable model system for the study of the gene's role in general vocal motor control.

  11. Human mutant huntingtin disrupts vocal learning in transgenic songbirds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Kohn, Jessica; Szwed, Sarah K; Pariser, Eben; Sepe, Sharon; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Oshimori, Naoki; Marsala, Martin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Lee, Ramee

    2015-11-01

    Speech and vocal impairments characterize many neurological disorders. However, the neurogenetic mechanisms of these disorders are not well understood, and current animal models do not have the necessary circuitry to recapitulate vocal learning deficits. We developed germline transgenic songbirds, zebra finches (Taneiopygia guttata) expressing human mutant huntingtin (mHTT), a protein responsible for the progressive deterioration of motor and cognitive function in Huntington's disease (HD). Although generally healthy, the mutant songbirds had severe vocal disorders, including poor vocal imitation, stuttering, and progressive syntax and syllable degradation. Their song abnormalities were associated with HD-related neuropathology and dysfunction of the cortical-basal ganglia (CBG) song circuit. These transgenics are, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimentally created, functional mutant songbirds. Their progressive and quantifiable vocal disorder, combined with circuit dysfunction in the CBG song system, offers a model for genetic manipulation and the development of therapeutic strategies for CBG-related vocal and motor disorders.

  12. Computational model for vocal tract dynamics in a suboscine bird.

    PubMed

    Assaneo, M F; Trevisan, M A

    2010-09-01

    In a recent work, active use of the vocal tract has been reported for singing oscines. The reconfiguration of the vocal tract during song serves to match its resonances to the syringeal fundamental frequency, demonstrating a precise coordination of the two main pieces of the avian vocal system for songbirds characterized by tonal songs. In this work we investigated the Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulfuratus), a suboscine bird whose calls display a rich harmonic content. Using a recently developed mathematical model for the syrinx and a mobile vocal tract, we set up a computational model that provides a plausible reconstruction of the vocal tract movement using a few spectral features taken from the utterances. Moreover, synthetic calls were generated using the articulated vocal tract that accounts for all the acoustical features observed experimentally.

  13. The voice conveys specific emotions: evidence from vocal burst displays.

    PubMed

    Simon-Thomas, Emiliana R; Keltner, Dacher J; Sauter, Disa; Sinicropi-Yao, Lara; Abramson, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Studies of emotion signaling inform claims about the taxonomic structure, evolutionary origins, and physiological correlates of emotions. Emotion vocalization research has tended to focus on a limited set of emotions: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, and for the voice, also tenderness. Here, we examine how well brief vocal bursts can communicate 22 different emotions: 9 negative (Study 1) and 13 positive (Study 2), and whether prototypical vocal bursts convey emotions more reliably than heterogeneous vocal bursts (Study 3). Results show that vocal bursts communicate emotions like anger, fear, and sadness, as well as seldom-studied states like awe, compassion, interest, and embarrassment. Ancillary analyses reveal family-wise patterns of vocal burst expression. Errors in classification were more common within emotion families (e.g., 'self-conscious,' 'pro-social') than between emotion families. The three studies reported highlight the voice as a rich modality for emotion display that can inform fundamental constructs about emotion.

  14. Sleep, offline processing, and vocal learning

    PubMed Central

    Margoliash, Daniel; Schmidt, Marc F

    2009-01-01

    The study of song learning and the neural song system has provided an important comparative model system for the study of speech and language acquisition. We describe some recent advances in the bird song system, focusing on the role of offline processing including sleep in processing sensory information and in guiding developmental song learning. These observations motivate a new model of the organization and role of the sensory memories in vocal learning. PMID:19906416

  15. Vocal communication between male Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Martha L; Barnard, Candace; O'Hagan, Robert; Horng, Sam H; Rand, Masha; Kelley, Darcy B

    2004-02-01

    This study focuses on the role of male-male vocal communication in the reproductive repertoire of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis . Six male and two female call types were recorded from native ponds in the environs of Cape Town, South Africa. These include all call types previously recorded in the laboratory as well as one previously unidentified male call: chirping. The amount of calling and the number of call types increased as the breeding season progressed. Laboratory recordings indicated that all six male call types were directed to males; three of these were directed to both sexes and three were directed exclusively to males. Both female call types were directed exclusively to males. The predominant call type, in both field and laboratory recordings, was the male advertisement call. Sexual state affected male vocal behaviour. Male pairs in which at least one male was sexually active (gonadotropin injected) produced all call types, whereas pairs of uninjected males rarely called. Some call types were strongly associated with a specific behaviour and others were not. Clasped males always growled and clasping males typically produced amplectant calls or chirps; males not engaged in clasping most frequently advertised. The amount of advertising produced by one male was profoundly affected by the presence of another male. Pairing two sexually active males resulted in suppression of advertisement calling in one; suppression was released when males were isolated after pairing. Vocal dominance was achieved even in the absence of physical contact (clasping). We suggest that X. laevis males gain a reproductive advantage by competing for advertisement privileges and by vocally suppressing neighbouring males.

  16. Vocal Parameters of Elderly Female Choir Singers

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Fernanda Salvatico de; Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Due to increased life expectancy among the population, studying the vocal parameters of the elderly is key to promoting vocal health in old age. Objective This study aims to analyze the profile of the extension of speech of elderly female choristers, according to age group. Method The study counted on the participation of 25 elderly female choristers from the Choir of Messianic Church of São Paulo, with ages varying between 63 and 82 years, and an average of 71 years (standard deviation of 5.22). The elders were divided into two groups: G1 aged 63 to 71 years and G2 aged 72 to 82. We asked that each participant count from 20 to 30 in weak, medium, strong, and very strong intensities. Their speech was registered by the software Vocalgrama that allows the evaluation of the profile of speech range. We then submitted the parameters of frequency and intensity to descriptive analysis, both in minimum and maximum levels, and range of spoken voice. Results The average of minimum and maximum frequencies were respectively 134.82–349.96 Hz for G1 and 137.28–348.59 Hz for G2; the average for minimum and maximum intensities were respectively 40.28–95.50 dB for G1 and 40.63–94.35 dB for G2; the vocal range used in speech was 215.14 Hz for G1 and 211.30 Hz for G2. Conclusion The minimum and maximum frequencies, maximum intensity, and vocal range presented differences in favor of the younger elder group. PMID:26722341

  17. Interaction in planning vocalizations and grasping.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vainio, Martti; Komeilipoor, Naeem; Vainio, Lari

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have shown a congruency effect between manual grasping and syllable articulation. For instance, a power grip is associated with syllables whose articulation involves the tongue body and/or large mouth aperture ([kɑ]) whereas a precision grip is associated with articulations that involve the tongue tip and/or small mouth aperture ([ti]). Previously, this effect has been observed in manual reaction times. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate whether this congruency effect also takes place in vocal responses and to investigate involvement of action selection processes in the effect. The congruency effect was found in vocal and manual responses regardless of whether or not the syllable or grip was known a priori, suggesting that the effect operates with minimal or absent action selection processes. In addition, the effect was observed in vocal responses even when the grip was only prepared but not performed, suggesting that merely planning a grip response primes the corresponding articulatory response. These results support the view that articulation and grasping are processed in a partially overlapping network.

  18. Vocal clans in sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus).

    PubMed Central

    Rendell, L E; Whitehead, H

    2003-01-01

    Cultural transmission may be a significant source of variation in the behaviour of whales and dolphins, especially as regards their vocal signals. We studied variation in the vocal output of 'codas' by sperm whale social groups. Codas are patterns of clicks used by female sperm whales in social circumstances. The coda repertoires of all known social units (n = 18, each consisting of about 11 females and immatures with long-term relationships) and 61 out of 64 groups (about two social units moving together for periods of days) that were recorded in the South Pacific and Caribbean between 1985 and 2000 can be reliably allocated into six acoustic 'clans', five in the Pacific and one in the Caribbean. Clans have ranges that span thousands of kilometres, are sympatric, contain many thousands of whales and most probably result from cultural transmission of vocal patterns. Units seem to form groups preferentially with other units of their own clan. We suggest that this is a rare example of sympatric cultural variation on an oceanic scale. Culture may thus be a more important determinant of sperm whale population structure than genes or geography, a finding that has major implications for our understanding of the species' behavioural and population biology. PMID:12614570

  19. Hierarchical Diagnosis of Vocal Fold Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkhah-Bahrami, Mansour; Ahmadi-Noubari, Hossein; Seyed Aghazadeh, Babak; Khadivi Heris, Hossein

    This paper explores the use of hierarchical structure for diagnosis of vocal fold disorders. The hierarchical structure is initially used to train different second-level classifiers. At the first level normal and pathological signals have been distinguished. Next, pathological signals have been classified into neurogenic and organic vocal fold disorders. At the final level, vocal fold nodules have been distinguished from polyps in organic disorders category. For feature selection at each level of hierarchy, the reconstructed signal at each wavelet packet decomposition sub-band in 5 levels of decomposition with mother wavelet of (db10) is used to extract the nonlinear features of self-similarity and approximate entropy. Also, wavelet packet coefficients are used to measure energy and Shannon entropy features at different spectral sub-bands. Davies-Bouldin criterion has been employed to find the most discriminant features. Finally, support vector machines have been adopted as classifiers at each level of hierarchy resulting in the diagnosis accuracy of 92%.

  20. Paradoxical Vocal Cord Motion in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Palla, John; Friedman, Aaron D

    2016-05-01

    Paradoxical vocal cord motion (PVCM), also termed vocal cord dysfunction, is a poorly understood disorder of episodic dyspnea characterized by inappropriate vocal cord adduction during inspiration and potentially during expiration. It can coexist or be confused with asthma, so appropriate diagnosis is key to optimizing treatment success. Although many patients with PVCM may have underlying psychologic issues, there is emerging evidence to suggest that this entity is not psychogenic in every patient. Both laryngeal irritants and exercise have been identified as additional contributing factors in PVCM. Diagnosis of PVCM requires awake laryngoscopic confirmation. However, many patients do not exhibit signs of PVCM during this examination, despite provocation during testing. Therefore, clinical history remains key in determining which patients should proceed with behavioral therapy under the guidance of a speech pathologist. In addition, treatment may include limiting patient exposure to potential sources of laryngeal irritation. Refractory patients may benefit from psychologic assessment and treatment. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(5):e184-e188.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Singers' Vocal Function Knowledge Levels, Sensorimotor Self-awareness of Vocal Tract, and Impact of Functional Voice Rehabilitation on the Vocal Function Knowledge and Self-awareness of Vocal Tract.

    PubMed

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Sobol, Maria; Kazanecka, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated vocal function knowledge and vocal tract sensorimotor self-awareness and the impact of functional voice rehabilitation on vocal function knowledge and self-awareness. This is a prospective, randomized study. Twenty singers (study group [SG]) completed a questionnaire before and after functional voice rehabilitation. Twenty additional singers, representing the control group, also completed the questionnaire without functional voice rehabilitation at a 3-month interval. The questionnaire consisted of three parts. The first part evaluated the singers' attitude to the anatomical and physiological knowledge of the vocal tract and their self-esteem of the knowledge level. The second part assessed the theoretical knowledge of the singers' vocal tract physiology. The third part of the questionnaire assessed singers' sensorimotor self-awareness of the vocal tract. The results showed that most singers indicated that knowledge of the vocal tract's anatomy and physiology is useful (59% SG, 67% control group). However, 75% of all participants defined their knowledge of the vocal tract's anatomy and physiology as weak or inadequate. In the SG, vocal function knowledge at the first assessment was 45%. After rehabilitation, the level increased to 67.7%. Vocal tract sensorimotor self-awareness initially was 38.9% in SG but rose to 66.7%. Findings of the study suggest that classical singers lack knowledge about the physiology of the vocal mechanism, especially the breathing patterns. In addition, they have low sensorimotor self-awareness of their vocal tract. The results suggest that singers would benefit from receiving services from phoniatrists and speech-language pathologists during their voice training. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Current Understanding and Future Directions for Vocal Fold Mechanobiology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nicole Y.K.; Heris, Hossein K.; Mongeau, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The vocal folds, which are located in the larynx, are the main organ of voice production for human communication. The vocal folds are under continuous biomechanical stress similar to other mechanically active organs, such as the heart, lungs, tendons and muscles. During speech and singing, the vocal folds oscillate at frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 3 kHz with amplitudes of a few millimeters. The biomechanical stress associated with accumulated phonation is believed to alter vocal fold cell activity and tissue structure in many ways. Excessive phonatory stress can damage tissue structure and induce a cell-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in a pathological vocal fold lesion. On the other hand, phonatory stress is one major factor in the maturation of the vocal folds into a specialized tri-layer structure. One specific form of vocal fold oscillation, which involves low impact and large amplitude excursion, is prescribed therapeutically for patients with mild vocal fold injuries. Although biomechanical forces affect vocal fold physiology and pathology, there is little understanding of how mechanical forces regulate these processes at the cellular and molecular level. Research into vocal fold mechanobiology has burgeoned over the past several years. Vocal fold bioreactors are being developed in several laboratories to provide a biomimic environment that allows the systematic manipulation of physical and biological factors on the cells of interest in vitro. Computer models have been used to simulate the integrated response of cells and proteins as a function of phonation stress. The purpose of this paper is to review current research on the mechanobiology of the vocal folds as it relates to growth, pathogenesis and treatment as well as to propose specific research directions that will advance our understanding of this subject. PMID:24812638

  3. Effects of music on vocal stereotypy in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Lanovaz, Marc J; Sladeczek, Ingrid E; Rapp, John T

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of manipulating the intensity (i.e., volume) of music on engagement in vocal stereotypy in 2 children with autism. Noncontingent access to music decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for each participant, but it produced only marginal effects on subsequent engagement in the behavior (i.e., after withdrawal). Manipulating the intensity of music did not produce differential effects on immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy. The implications of the results and applications for future research are discussed.

  4. Vocal patterns in infants with autism spectrum disorder: canonical babbling status and vocalization frequency.

    PubMed

    Patten, Elena; Belardi, Katie; Baranek, Grace T; Watson, Linda R; Labban, Jeffrey D; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2014-10-01

    Canonical babbling is a critical milestone for speech development and is usually well in place by 10 months. The possibility that infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show late onset of canonical babbling has so far eluded evaluation. Rate of vocalization or "volubility" has also been suggested as possibly aberrant in infants with ASD. We conducted a retrospective video study examining vocalizations of 37 infants at 9-12 and 15-18 months. Twenty-three of the 37 infants were later diagnosed with ASD and indeed produced low rates of canonical babbling and low volubility by comparison with the 14 typically developing infants. The study thus supports suggestions that very early vocal patterns may prove to be a useful component of early screening and diagnosis of ASD.

  5. Vocal patterns in infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Canonical babbling status and vocalization frequency

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Elena; Belardi, Katie; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Labban, Jeffrey D.; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Canonical babbling is a critical milestone for speech development and is usually well in place by 10 months. The possibility that infants with ASD show late onset of canonical babbling has so far eluded evaluation. Rate of vocalization or “volubility” has also been suggested as possibly aberrant in infants with ASD. We conducted a retrospective video study examining vocalizations of 37 infants at 9–12 and 15–18 months. Twenty-three of the 37 infants were later diagnosed with ASD and indeed produced low rates of canonical babbling and low volubility by comparison with the 14 typically developing infants. The study thus supports suggestions that very early vocal patterns may prove to be a useful component of early screening and diagnosis of ASD. PMID:24482292

  6. Vocal emotion of humanoid robots: a study from brain mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youhui; Hu, Xiaohua; Dai, Weihui; Zhou, Jie; Kuo, Taitzong

    2014-01-01

    Driven by rapid ongoing advances in humanoid robot, increasing attention has been shifted into the issue of emotion intelligence of AI robots to facilitate the communication between man-machines and human beings, especially for the vocal emotion in interactive system of future humanoid robots. This paper explored the brain mechanism of vocal emotion by studying previous researches and developed an experiment to observe the brain response by fMRI, to analyze vocal emotion of human beings. Findings in this paper provided a new approach to design and evaluate the vocal emotion of humanoid robots based on brain mechanism of human beings.

  7. Vocal Learning via Social Reinforcement by Infant Marmoset Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daniel Y; Liao, Diana A; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2017-06-19

    For over half a century now, primate vocalizations have been thought to undergo little or no experience-dependent acoustic changes during development [1]. If any changes are apparent, then they are routinely (and quite reasonably) attributed to the passive consequences of growth. Indeed, previous experiments on squirrel monkeys and macaque monkeys showed that social isolation [2, 3], deafness [2], cross-fostering [4] and parental absence [5] have little or no effect on vocal development. Here, we explicitly test in marmoset monkeys-a very vocal and cooperatively breeding species [6]-whether the transformation of immature into mature contact calls by infants is influenced by contingent parental vocal feedback. Using a closed-loop design, we experimentally provided more versus less contingent vocal feedback to twin infant marmoset monkeys over their first 2 months of life, the interval during which their contact calls transform from noisy, immature calls to tonal adult-like "phee" calls [7, 8]. Infants who received more contingent feedback had a faster rate of vocal development, producing mature-sounding contact calls earlier than the other twin. The differential rate of vocal development was not linked to genetics, perinatal experience, or body growth; nor did the amount of contingency influence the overall rate of spontaneous vocal production. Thus, we provide the first experimental evidence for production-related vocal learning during the development of a nonhuman primate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The importance of hyaluronic acid in vocal fold biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Chan, R W; Gray, S D; Titze, I R

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the biomechanical properties of the human vocal fold cover (the superficial layer of the lamina propria). Vocal fold tissues were freshly excised from 5 adult male cadavers and were treated with bovine testicular hyaluronidase to selectively remove HA from the lamina propria extracellular matrix (ECM). Linear viscoelastic shear properties (elastic shear modulus and dynamic viscosity) of the tissue samples before and after enzymatic treatment were quantified as a function of frequency (0.01 to 15 Hz) by a parallel-plate rotational rheometer at 37 degrees C. On removing HA from the vocal fold ECM, the elastic shear modulus (G' ) or stiffness of the vocal fold cover decreased by an average of around 35%, while the dynamic viscosity (eta') increased by 70% at higher frequencies (>1 Hz). The results suggested that HA plays an important role in determining the biomechanical properties of the vocal fold cover. As a highly hydrated glycosaminoglycan in the vocal fold ECM, it likely contributes to the maintenance of an optimal tissue viscosity that may facilitate phonation, and an optimal tissue stiffness that may be important for vocal fundamental frequency control. HA has been proposed as a potential bioimplant for the surgical repair of vocal fold ECM defects (eg, vocal fold scarring and sulcus vocalis). Our results suggested that such clinical use may be potentially optimal for voice production from a biomechanical perspective.

  9. Vocal Generalization Depends on Gesture Identity and Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Sober, Samuel J.

    2014-01-01

    Generalization, the brain's ability to transfer motor learning from one context to another, occurs in a wide range of complex behaviors. However, the rules of generalization in vocal behavior are poorly understood, and it is unknown how vocal learning generalizes across an animal's entire repertoire of natural vocalizations and sequences. Here, we asked whether generalization occurs in a nonhuman vocal learner and quantified its properties. We hypothesized that adaptive error correction of a vocal gesture produced in one sequence would generalize to the same gesture produced in other sequences. To test our hypothesis, we manipulated the fundamental frequency (pitch) of auditory feedback in Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica) to create sensory errors during vocal gestures (song syllables) produced in particular sequences. As hypothesized, error-corrective learning on pitch-shifted vocal gestures generalized to the same gestures produced in other sequential contexts. Surprisingly, generalization magnitude depended strongly on sequential distance from the pitch-shifted syllables, with greater adaptation for gestures produced near to the pitch-shifted syllable. A further unexpected result was that nonshifted syllables changed their pitch in the direction opposite from the shifted syllables. This apparently antiadaptive pattern of generalization could not be explained by correlations between generalization and the acoustic similarity to the pitch-shifted syllable. These findings therefore suggest that generalization depends on the type of vocal gesture and its sequential context relative to other gestures and may reflect an advantageous strategy for vocal learning and maintenance. PMID:24741046

  10. Vocal Emotion of Humanoid Robots: A Study from Brain Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youhui; Hu, Xiaohua; Zhou, Jie; Kuo, Taitzong

    2014-01-01

    Driven by rapid ongoing advances in humanoid robot, increasing attention has been shifted into the issue of emotion intelligence of AI robots to facilitate the communication between man-machines and human beings, especially for the vocal emotion in interactive system of future humanoid robots. This paper explored the brain mechanism of vocal emotion by studying previous researches and developed an experiment to observe the brain response by fMRI, to analyze vocal emotion of human beings. Findings in this paper provided a new approach to design and evaluate the vocal emotion of humanoid robots based on brain mechanism of human beings. PMID:24587712

  11. Discriminating Simulated Vocal Tremor Source Using Amplitude Modulation Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Kathy M.; Lester, Rosemary A.; Story, Brad H.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Sources of vocal tremor are difficult to categorize perceptually and acoustically. This paper describes a preliminary attempt to discriminate vocal tremor sources through the use of spectral measures of the amplitude envelope. The hypothesis is that different vocal tremor sources are associated with distinct patterns of acoustic amplitude modulations. Study Design Statistical categorization methods (discriminant function analysis) were used to discriminate signals from simulated vocal tremor with different sources using only acoustic measures derived from the amplitude envelopes. Methods Simulations of vocal tremor were created by modulating parameters of a vocal fold model corresponding to oscillations of respiratory driving pressure (respiratory tremor), degree of vocal fold adduction (adductory tremor) and fundamental frequency of vocal fold vibration (F0 tremor). The acoustic measures were based on spectral analyses of the amplitude envelope computed across the entire signal and within select frequency bands. Results The signals could be categorized (with accuracy well above chance) in terms of the simulated tremor source using only measures of the amplitude envelope spectrum even when multiple sources of tremor were included. Conclusions These results supply initial support for an amplitude-envelope based approach to identify the source of vocal tremor and provide further evidence for the rich information about talker characteristics present in the temporal structure of the amplitude envelope. PMID:25532813

  12. Assessing and treating vocal stereotypy in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, William H; Clark, Kathy M; MacDonald, Rebecca P F; Chung, Bo In

    2007-01-01

    Previous research implies that stereotypic behavior tends to be maintained by the sensory consequences produced by engaging in the response. Few investigations, however, have focused on vocal stereotypy. The current study examined the noncommunicative vocalizations of 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder. First, functional analyses were conducted in an attempt to identify the function of each child's behavior. For each of the participants, it was found that vocal stereotypy was likely not maintained by the social consequences. Following assessment, response interruption and redirection (RIRD) was implemented in an ABAB design to determine whether vocal stereotypy could be successfully redirected. RIRD involved a teacher issuing a series of vocal demands the child readily complied with during regular academic programming. Vocal demands were presented contingent on the occurrence of vocal stereotypy and were continuously presented until the child complied with three consecutively issued demands without emitting vocal stereotypy. For each child, RIRD produced levels of vocal stereotypy substantially lower than those observed in baseline. For 3 of the children, an increase in appropriate communication was also observed. The children's teachers were trained to implement RIRD. Brief follow-up probes and anecdotal information implied that the treatment had a positive impact in the natural environment.

  13. Assessing and Treating Vocal Stereotypy in children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ahearn, William H; Clark, Kathy M; MacDonald, Rebecca P.F; In Chung, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Previous research implies that stereotypic behavior tends to be maintained by the sensory consequences produced by engaging in the response. Few investigations, however, have focused on vocal stereotypy. The current study examined the noncommunicative vocalizations of 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder. First, functional analyses were conducted in an attempt to identify the function of each child's behavior. For each of the participants, it was found that vocal stereotypy was likely not maintained by the social consequences. Following assessment, response interruption and redirection (RIRD) was implemented in an ABAB design to determine whether vocal stereotypy could be successfully redirected. RIRD involved a teacher issuing a series of vocal demands the child readily complied with during regular academic programming. Vocal demands were presented contingent on the occurrence of vocal stereotypy and were continuously presented until the child complied with three consecutively issued demands without emitting vocal stereotypy. For each child, RIRD produced levels of vocal stereotypy substantially lower than those observed in baseline. For 3 of the children, an increase in appropriate communication was also observed. The children's teachers were trained to implement RIRD. Brief follow-up probes and anecdotal information implied that the treatment had a positive impact in the natural environment. PMID:17624067

  14. Pulsed dye laser-induced inflammatory response and extracellular matrix turnover in rat vocal folds and vocal fold fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ya; Yamashita, Masaru; Zhang, Jingxian; Ling, Changying; Welham, Nathan V

    2009-10-01

    Disruption of the vocal fold extracellular matrix (ECM) can induce a profound and refractory dysphonia. Pulsed dye laser (PDL) irradiation has shown early promise as a treatment modality for disordered ECM in patients with chronic vocal fold scar; however, there are limited data addressing the mechanism by which this laser energy might induce cellular and extracellular changes in vocal fold tissues. In this study, we examined the inflammatory and ECM modulating effects of PDL irradiation on normal vocal fold tissues and cultured vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs). We evaluated the effects of 585 nm PDL irradiation on inflammatory cytokine and collagen/collagenase gene transcription in normal rat vocal folds in vivo (3-168 hours following delivery of approximately 39.46 J/cm(2) fluence) and VFFs in vitro (3-72 hours following delivery of 4.82 or 9.64 J/cm(2) fluence). We also examined morphological vocal fold tissue changes 3 hours, 1 week, and 1 month post-irradiation. PDL irradiation altered inflammatory cytokine and procollagen/collagenase expression at the transcript level, both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, PDL irradiation induced an inflammatory repair process in vivo that was completed by 1 month with preservation of normal tissue morphology. PDL irradiation can modulate ECM turnover in phenotypically normal vocal folds. Additional work is required to determine if these findings extend to disordered ECM, such as is seen in vocal fold scar. Lasers Surg. Med. 41:585-594, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Oral breathing challenge in participants with vocal attrition.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V

    2003-12-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (Pth) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is more detrimental to phonation in healthy participants with a history of temporary vocal attrition. The effects of a 15-min oral or nasal breathing challenge on Pth and perceived expiratory vocal effort were compared for participants reporting symptoms of vocal attrition (N = 18, ages 19-38 years) and normal controls (N = 20, ages 19-33 years). Post-challenge-prechallenge differences in Pth (deltaPth) and effort (deltaEffort) revealed that oral breathing, but not nasal breathing, increased Pth (p < .001 ) and effort (p < .001) at low, comfortable, and high pitch. deltaPth was significantly greater in participants with vocal attrition than in normal controls (p < .001). Nasal breathing reduced Pth for all controls but not for all participants reporting vocal attrition. deltaPth was significantly and linearly correlated with deltaEffort (rvocal attrition = .81, p < .001; rcontrol = .84, p < .001). We speculate that the greater increases in Pth in participants reporting vocal attrition may result from delayed or inadequate compensatory response to superficial laryngeal dehydration. Obligatory oral breathing may place voice users at risk for exacerbating vocal attrition. That sol layer depletion by obligatory oral breathing increased Pth and vocal effort provides support for the role of superficial hydration in maintaining ease of phonation.

  16. Precise auditory-vocal mirroring in neurons for learned vocal communication.

    PubMed

    Prather, J F; Peters, S; Nowicki, S; Mooney, R

    2008-01-17

    Brain mechanisms for communication must establish a correspondence between sensory and motor codes used to represent the signal. One idea is that this correspondence is established at the level of single neurons that are active when the individual performs a particular gesture or observes a similar gesture performed by another individual. Although neurons that display a precise auditory-vocal correspondence could facilitate vocal communication, they have yet to be identified. Here we report that a certain class of neurons in the swamp sparrow forebrain displays a precise auditory-vocal correspondence. We show that these neurons respond in a temporally precise fashion to auditory presentation of certain note sequences in this songbird's repertoire and to similar note sequences in other birds' songs. These neurons display nearly identical patterns of activity when the bird sings the same sequence, and disrupting auditory feedback does not alter this singing-related activity, indicating it is motor in nature. Furthermore, these neurons innervate striatal structures important for song learning, raising the possibility that singing-related activity in these cells is compared to auditory feedback to guide vocal learning.

  17. Characteristics of Vocal Fold Vibrations in Vocally Healthy Subjects: Analysis with Multi-Line Kymography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Nito, Takaharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Tayama, Niro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to analyze longitudinal data from high-speed digital images in normative subjects using multi-line kymography. Method: Vocally healthy subjects were divided into young (9 men and 17 women; M[subscript age] = 27 years) and older groups (8 men and 12 women; M[subscript age] = 73 years). From high-speed…

  18. Modeling the Pathophysiology of Phonotraumatic Vocal Hyperfunction with a Triangular Glottal Model of the Vocal Folds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindo, Gabriel E.; Peterson, Sean D.; Erath, Byron D.; Castro, Christian; Hillman, Robert E.; Zañartu, Matías

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to test prevailing assumptions about the underlying biomechanical and aeroacoustic mechanisms associated with phonotraumatic lesions of the vocal folds using a numerical lumped-element model of voice production. Method: A numerical model with a triangular glottis, posterior glottal opening, and arytenoid posturing is…

  19. Modeling the Pathophysiology of Phonotraumatic Vocal Hyperfunction With a Triangular Glottal Model of the Vocal Folds

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Gabriel E.; Peterson, Sean D.; Erath, Byron D.; Castro, Christian; Hillman, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Our goal was to test prevailing assumptions about the underlying biomechanical and aeroacoustic mechanisms associated with phonotraumatic lesions of the vocal folds using a numerical lumped-element model of voice production. Method A numerical model with a triangular glottis, posterior glottal opening, and arytenoid posturing is proposed. Normal voice is altered by introducing various prephonatory configurations. Potential compensatory mechanisms (increased subglottal pressure, muscle activation, and supraglottal constriction) are adjusted to restore an acoustic target output through a control loop that mimics a simplified version of auditory feedback. Results The degree of incomplete glottal closure in both the membranous and posterior portions of the folds consistently leads to a reduction in sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, harmonic richness, and harmonics-to-noise ratio. The compensatory mechanisms lead to significantly increased vocal-fold collision forces, maximum flow-declination rate, and amplitude of unsteady flow, without significantly altering the acoustic output. Conclusion Modeling provided potentially important insights into the pathophysiology of phonotraumatic vocal hyperfunction by demonstrating that compensatory mechanisms can counteract deterioration in the voice acoustic signal due to incomplete glottal closure, but this also leads to high vocal-fold collision forces (reflected in aerodynamic measures), which significantly increases the risk of developing phonotrauma. PMID:28837719

  20. An Analysis of Vocal Stereotypy and Therapist Fading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athens, Elizabeth S.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Pipkin, Claire St. Peter

    2008-01-01

    A functional analysis for a boy with Down syndrome and autism suggested that vocal stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement. The analysis also showed that instructions and noncontingent attention suppressed vocal stereotypy. A treatment package consisting of noncontingent attention, contingent demands, and response cost effectively…

  1. Ultrasonic vocalization changes and FOXP2 expression after experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Doran, Sarah J; Trammel, Cassandra; Benashaski, Sharon E; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; McCullough, Louise D

    2015-04-15

    Speech impairments affect one in four stroke survivors. However, animal models of post-ischemic vocalization deficits are limited. Male mice vocalize at ultrasonic frequencies when exposed to an estrous female mouse. In this study we assessed vocalization patterns and quantity in male mice after cerebral ischemia. FOXP2, a gene associated with verbal dyspraxia in humans, with known roles in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, was also examined after injury. Using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, we assessed correlates of vocal impairment at several time-points after stroke. Further, to identify possible lateralization of vocalization deficits induced by left and right hemispheric strokes were compared. Significant differences in vocalization quantity were observed between stroke and sham animals that persisted for a month after injury. Injury to the left hemisphere reduced early vocalizations more profoundly than those to the right hemisphere. Nuclear expression of Foxp2 was elevated early after stroke (at 6h), but significantly decreased 24h after injury in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Neuronal Foxp2 expression increased in stroke mice compared to sham animals 4 weeks after injury. This study demonstrates that quantifiable deficits in ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are seen after stroke. USV may be a useful tool to assess chronic behavioral recovery in murine models of stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Framework for Automated Marmoset Vocalization Detection And Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-08

    recent push to automate vocalization monitoring in a range of mammals. Such efforts have been used to classify bird songs [11], African elephants [12... Elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) Vocalizations,” vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 956–963, 2005. [13] J. C. Brown, “Automatic classification of killer whale

  3. Bicarbonate availability for vocal fold epithelial defense to acidic challenge.

    PubMed

    Durkes, Abigail; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Bicarbonate is critical for acid-base tissue homeostasis. In this study we investigated the role of bicarbonate ion transport in vocal fold epithelial defense to acid challenges. Acidic insults to the larynx are common in gastric reflux, carcinogenesis and metastasis, and acute inflammation. Ion transport was measured in viable porcine vocal fold epithelium. First, 18 vocal folds were exposed to either the carbonic anhydrase antagonist acetazolamide or to vehicle. Second, 32 vocal folds were exposed to either a control buffer or a bicarbonate-free buffer on their luminal or basolateral surface or both. Third, 32 vocal folds were challenged with acid in the presence of bicarbonate-free or control buffer. The vocal fold transepithelial resistance was greater than 300 Ω*cm(2), suggesting robust barrier integrity. Ion transport did not change after exposure to acetazolamide (p > 0.05). Exposure to bicarbonate-free buffer did not compromise vocal fold ion transport (p > 0.05). Ion transport increased after acid challenge. This increase approached statistical significance and was the greatest for the control buffer and for the bicarbonate-free buffer applied to the basolateral surface. Bicarbonate secretion may contribute to vocal fold defense against acid challenge. Our data offer a potential novel role for bicarbonate as a therapeutic agent to reduce pH abnormalities in the larynx and prevent associated pathological changes.

  4. The Effect of Surface Electrical Stimulation on Vocal Fold Position

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Ianessa A.; Poletto, Christopher J.; Saxon, Keith G.; Kearney, Pamela R.; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Closure of the true and false vocal folds is a normal part of airway protection during swallowing. Individuals with reduced or delayed true vocal fold closure can be at risk for aspiration and benefit from intervention to ameliorate the problem. Surface electrical stimulation is currently used during therapy for dysphagia, despite limited knowledge of its physiological effects. Design Prospective single effects study. Methods The immediate physiological effect of surface stimulation on true vocal fold angle was examined at rest in 27 healthy adults using ten different electrode placements on the submental and neck regions. Fiberoptic nasolaryngoscopic recordings during passive inspiration were used to measure change in true vocal fold angle with stimulation. Results Vocal fold angles changed only to a small extent during two electrode placements (p ≤ 0.05). When two sets of electrodes were placed vertically on the neck the mean true vocal fold abduction was 2.4 degrees; while horizontal placements of electrodes in the submental region produced a mean adduction of 2.8 degrees (p=0.03). Conclusions Surface electrical stimulation to the submental and neck regions does not produce immediate true vocal fold adduction adequate for airway protection during swallowing and one position may produce a slight increase in true vocal fold opening. PMID:18043496

  5. The Infant Monitor of Vocal Production: Simple Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robyn Cantle

    2014-01-01

    The Infant Monitor of vocal Production (IMP) was conceived as an educational strategy to help parents understand the nature and pace of their baby's vocal development following neonatal diagnosis and amplification for hearing loss. The potential for other clinical applications emerged with use. The instrument presents as a series of…

  6. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-06-14

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor's songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning.

  7. The Relations of Mothers' Controlling Vocalizations to Children's Intrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deci, Edward L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Coded maternal vocalizations during videotaped play sessions of mothers and their six- or seven-year-old children. Children's intrinsic motivation was assessed by observing children's play when they were alone in a room. Found a negative relationship between maternal controlling vocalizations and children's intrinsic motivation. (MM)

  8. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. The developmental dynamics of marmoset monkey vocal production.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, D Y; Fenley, A R; Teramoto, Y; Narayanan, D Z; Borjon, J I; Holmes, P; Ghazanfar, A A

    2015-08-14

    Human vocal development occurs through two parallel interactive processes that transform infant cries into more mature vocalizations, such as cooing sounds and babbling. First, natural categories of sounds change as the vocal apparatus matures. Second, parental vocal feedback sensitizes infants to certain features of those sounds, and the sounds are modified accordingly. Paradoxically, our closest living ancestors, nonhuman primates, are thought to undergo few or no production-related acoustic changes during development, and any such changes are thought to be impervious to social feedback. Using early and dense sampling, quantitative tracking of acoustic changes, and biomechanical modeling, we showed that vocalizations in infant marmoset monkeys undergo dramatic changes that cannot be solely attributed to simple consequences of growth. Using parental interaction experiments, we found that contingent parental feedback influences the rate of vocal development. These findings overturn decades-old ideas about primate vocalizations and show that marmoset monkeys are a compelling model system for early vocal development in humans. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Genetic and Environmental Effects on Vocal Symptoms and Their Intercorrelations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nybacka, Ida; Simberg, Susanna; Santtila, Pekka; Sala, Eeva; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, Simberg et al. (2009) found genetic effects on a composite variable consisting of 6 vocal symptom items measuring dysphonia. The purpose of the present study was to determine genetic and environmental effects on the individual vocal symptoms in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. Method: The sample comprised 1,728 twins…

  10. Bupropion XL-induced motor and vocal tics.

    PubMed

    Kayhan, Fatih; Uguz, Faruk; Kayhan, Ayşegül; Toktaş, Fikriye Ilay

    2014-01-01

    Tics are stereotypical repetitive involuntary movements (motor tics) or sounds (vocal tics). Although the emergence of tics were reported in a few cases with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, there was no case with bupropion extended-release (Bupropion XL). The current case report presents a male patient developing motor and vocal tics with the use of bupropion XL.

  11. Acute vocal fold hemorrhage caught on video during office exam.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Thomas L; Smith, Libby J

    2009-03-01

    This article presents a unique video of a laryngeal exam during which a vocal fold hemorrhage occurs. This patient had likely been suffering from intermittent vocal fold hemorrhages for the last decade due to a persistent vascular lesion and an underlying chronic cough.

  12. Bicarbonate Availability for Vocal Fold Epithelial Defense to Acidic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Durkes, Abigail; Sivasankar, M. Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Bicarbonate is critical for acid-base tissue homeostasis. In this study we investigated the role of bicarbonate ion transport in vocal fold epithelial defense to acid challenges. Acidic insults to the larynx are common in gastric reflux, carcinogenesis and metastasis, and acute inflammation. Methods Ion transport was measured in viable, porcine vocal fold epithelium. First, 18 vocal folds were exposed to either the carbonic anhydrase antagonist acetazolamide or to vehicle. Second, 32 vocal folds were exposed to either a control buffer or a bicarbonate-free buffer on their luminal or basolateral surface or both. Third, vocal folds were challenged with acid in the presence of bicarbonate-free or control buffer. Results The vocal fold transepithelial resistance was greater than 300 Ω*cm2, suggesting robust barrier integrity. Ion transport did not change after exposure to acetazolamide (p > 0.05). Exposure to bicarbonate-free buffer did not compromise vocal fold ion transport (p > 0.05). Ion transport increased after acid challenge. This increase approached statistical significance and was the greatest for the control buffer and for the bicarbonate-free buffer applied to the basolateral surface. Conclusions Bicarbonate secretion may contribute to vocal fold defense against acid challenge. Our data offer a potential novel role for bicarbonate as a therapeutic agent to reduce pH abnormalities in the larynx and prevent associated pathological changes. PMID:24574427

  13. Biomechanical effects of hydration in vocal fold tissues.

    PubMed

    Chan, Roger W; Tayama, Niro

    2002-05-01

    It has often been hypothesized, with little empirical support, that vocal fold hydration affects voice production by mediating changes in vocal fold tissue rheology. To test this hypothesis, we attempted in this study to quantify the effects of hydration on the viscoelastic shear properties of vocal fold tissues in vitro. Osmotic changes in hydration (dehydration and rehydration) of 5 excised canine larynges were induced by sequential incubation of the tissues in isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutions. Elastic shear modulus (G'), dynamic viscosity eta' and the damping ratio zeta of the vocal fold mucosa (lamina propria) were measured as a function of frequency (0.01 to 15 Hz) with a torsional rheometer. Vocal fold tissue stiffness (G') and viscosity (eta) increased significantly (by 4 to 7 times) with the osmotically induced dehydration, whereas they decreased by 22% to 38% on the induced rehydration. Damping ratio (zeta) also increased with dehydration and decreased with rehydration, but the detected differences were not statistically significant at all frequencies. These findings support the long-standing hypothesis that hydration affects vocal fold vibration by altering tissue rheologic (or viscoelastic) properties. Our results demonstrated the biomechanical importance of hydration in vocal fold tissues and suggested that hydration approaches may potentially improve the biomechanics of phonation in vocal fold lesions involving disordered fluid balance.

  14. Visual classification of feral cat Felis silvestris catus vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jessica L; Olsen, Mariana; Fontaine, Amy; Kloth, Christopher; Kershenbaum, Arik; Waller, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Cat vocal behavior, in particular, the vocal and social behavior of feral cats, is poorly understood, as are the differences between feral and fully domestic cats. The relationship between feral cat social and vocal behavior is important because of the markedly different ecology of feral and domestic cats, and enhanced comprehension of the repertoire and potential information content of feral cat calls can provide both better understanding of the domestication and socialization process, and improved welfare for feral cats undergoing adoption. Previous studies have used conflicting classification schemes for cat vocalizations, often relying on onomatopoeic or popular descriptions of call types (e.g., "miow"). We studied the vocalizations of 13 unaltered domestic cats that complied with our behavioral definition used to distinguish feral cats from domestic. A total of 71 acoustic units were extracted and visually analyzed for the construction of a hierarchical classification of vocal sounds, based on acoustic properties. We identified 3 major categories (tonal, pulse, and broadband) that further breakdown into 8 subcategories, and show a high degree of reliability when sounds are classified blindly by independent observers (Fleiss' Kappa K  = 0.863). Due to the limited behavioral contexts in this study, additional subcategories of cat vocalizations may be identified in the future, but our hierarchical classification system allows for the addition of new categories and new subcategories as they are described. This study shows that cat vocalizations are diverse and complex, and provides an objective and reliable classification system that can be used in future studies.

  15. Vocal Fold Mucus Aggregation in Persons with Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; White, Lisa; Kuckhahn, Kelsey; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Deliyski, Dimitar D.

    2012-01-01

    Mucus aggregation on the vocal folds is a common finding from laryngeal endoscopy. Patients with voice disorders report the presence of mucus aggregation. Patients also report that mucus aggregation causes them to clear their throat, a behavior believed to be harmful to vocal fold mucosa. Even though clinicians and patients report and discuss…

  16. Differential short-term memorisation for vocal and instrumental rhythms.

    PubMed

    Klyn, Niall A M; Will, Udo; Cheong, Yong-Jeon; Allen, Erin T

    2016-07-01

    This study explores differential processing of vocal and instrumental rhythms in short-term memory with three decision (same/different judgments) and one reproduction experiment. In the first experiment, memory performance declined for delayed versus immediate recall, with accuracy for the two rhythms being affected differently: Musicians performed better than non-musicians on clapstick but not on vocal rhythms, and musicians were better on vocal rhythms in the same than in the different condition. Results for the second experiment showed that concurrent sub-vocal articulation and finger-tapping differentially affected the two rhythms and same/different decisions, but produced no evidence for articulatory loop involvement in delayed decision tasks. In a third experiment, which tested rhythm reproduction, concurrent sub-vocal articulation decreased memory performance, with a stronger deleterious effect on the reproduction of vocal than of clapstick rhythms. This suggests that the articulatory loop may only be involved in delayed reproduction not in decision tasks. The fourth experiment tested whether differences between filled and empty rhythms (continuous vs. discontinuous sounds) can explain the different memorisation of vocal and clapstick rhythms. Though significant differences were found for empty and filled instrumental rhythms, the differences between vocal and clapstick can only be explained by considering additional voice specific features.

  17. The vocal load of Reform Jewish cantors in the USA.

    PubMed

    Hapner, Edie; Gilman, Marina

    2012-03-01

    Jewish cantors comprise a subset of vocal professionals that is not well understood by vocal health professionals. This study aimed to document the vocal demands, vocal training, reported incidence of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior of Reform Jewish cantors. The study used a prospective observational design to anonymously query Reform Jewish cantors using a 35-item multiple-choice survey distributed online. Demographic information, medical history, vocal music training, cantorial duties, history of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior were addressed. Results indicated that many of the commonly associated risk factors for developing voice disorders were present in this population, including high vocal demands, reduced vocal downtime, allergies, and acid reflux. Greater than 65% of the respondents reported having had a voice problem that interfered with their ability to perform their duties at some time during their careers. Reform Jewish cantors are a population of occupational voice users who may be currently unidentified and underserved by vocal health professionals. The results of the survey suggest that Reform Jewish cantors are occupational voice users and are at high risk for developing voice disorders. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arya, Divya D.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…

  19. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E.; Sakata, Jon T.

    2016-01-01

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor’s songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning. PMID:27247385

  20. Determination of West Indian manatee vocalization levels and rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich

    2004-05-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, based upon the vocalizations of manatees, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. The feasibility of this warning system would depend mainly upon two factors: the rate at which manatees vocalize and the distance in which the manatees can be detected. The research presented in this paper verifies that the average vocalization rate of the West Indian manatee is approximately one to two times per 5-min period. Several different manatee vocalization recordings were broadcast to the manatees and their response was observed. It was found that during the broadcast periods, the vocalization rates for the manatees increased substantially when compared with the average vocalization rates during nonbroadcast periods. An array of four hydrophones was used while recording the manatees. This allowed for position estimation techniques to be used to determine the location of the vocalizing manatee. Knowing the position of the manatee, the source level was determined and it was found that the mean source level of the manatee vocalizations is approximately 112 dB (re:1 Pa) @ 1 m.

  1. Determination of West Indian manatee vocalization levels and rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2004-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, based upon the vocalizations of manatees, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. The feasibility of this warning system would depend mainly upon two factors: the rate at which manatees vocalize and the distance in which the manatees can be detected. The research presented in this paper verifies that the average vocalization rate of the West Indian manatee is approximately one to two times per 5-min period. Several different manatee vocalization recordings were broadcast to the manatees and their response was observed. It was found that during the broadcast periods, the vocalization rates for the manatees increased substantially when compared with the average vocalization rates during nonbroadcast periods. An array of four hydrophones was used while recording the manatees. This allowed for position estimation techniques to be used to determine the location of the vocalizing manatee. Knowing the position of the manatee, the source level was determined and it was found that the mean source level of the manatee vocalizations is approximately 112 dB (re 1 μPa) @ 1 m.

  2. Changes in aerodynamics during vocal cord dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Frank-Ito, Dennis O; Schulz, Kristine; Vess, Gina; Witsell, David L

    2015-02-01

    Changes in laryngeal airflow dynamics during episodes of vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) have not been well described. Very little is known about how inspiratory airflow is impacted when the vocal cords transition from normal inhalation state to a paradoxical adducted state; and how much change in laryngeal airflow and resistance occur before symptoms of stridor and air hunger emerge. This study provides new insight on the effects of VCD on respiratory airflow using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Computed tomography images of a subject with normal vocal cords opening at the time of scanning were digitally modified to mimic an episode of VCD. To quantify and compare changes in inspiratory flow during VCD attack and normal inhalation, steady-state, laminar simulations were performed for three different breathing rates. Pressure-flow analysis during VCD revealed that increasing inspiratory effort is not as efficient as in normal inhalation. Airflow resistance at the epiglottis was higher in the normal state (0.04Pa.s/mL versus 0.02Pa.s/mL) than in VCD; while resistance at the glottis and trachea remained roughly the same (0.04Pa.s/mL) during normal inhalation, it escalated during VCD (0.11Pa.s/mL and 0.13Pa.s/mL at the glottis and trachea, respectively). Peak airflow velocity and vorticity occurred around the glottis during VCD, and at the epiglottis during normal inhalation. This pilot study demonstrates that attempting to force more inspired air will yield greater glottal resistance during VCD. Furthermore, there were evidence of abrupt laryngeal pressure gradient, chaotic airflow and high concentration of shear stresses in the glottal region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vocal tract and glottal function during and after vocal exercising with resonance tube and straw.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Marco; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Krupa, Petr; Horáček, Jaromir; Švec, Jan G; Geneid, Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the vocal tract and glottal function during and after phonation into a tube and a stirring straw. A male classically trained singer was assessed. Computerized tomography (CT) was performed when the subject produced [a:] at comfortable speaking pitch, phonated into the resonance tube and when repeating [a:] after the exercise. Similar procedure was performed with a narrow straw after 15 minutes silence. Anatomic distances and area measures were obtained from CT midsagittal and transversal images. Acoustic, perceptual, electroglottographic (EGG), and subglottic pressure measures were also obtained. During and after phonation into the tube or straw, the velum closed the nasal passage better, the larynx position lowered, and hypopharynx area widened. Moreover, the ratio between the inlet of the lower pharynx and the outlet of the epilaryngeal tube became larger during and after tube/straw phonation. Acoustic results revealed a stronger spectral prominence in the singer/speaker's formant cluster region after exercising. Listening test demonstrated better voice quality after straw/tube than before. Contact quotient derived from EGG decreased during both tube and straw and remained lower after exercising. Subglottic pressure increased during straw and remained somewhat higher after it. CT and acoustic results indicated that vocal exercises with increased vocal tract impedance lead to increased vocal efficiency and economy. One of the major changes was the more prominent singer's/speaker's formant cluster. Vocal tract and glottal modifications were more prominent during and after straw exercising compared with tube phonation. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamics of zebra finch and mockingbird vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimenser, Aylin

    Along with humans, whales, and bats, three groups of birds which include songbirds (oscines) such as the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) are the only creatures known to learn sounds by imitation. Numerous similarities between human and songbird vocalizations exist and, recently, it has been shown that Zebra Finch in particular possesses a gene, FoxP2, known to be involved in human language. This thesis investigates song development in Zebra Finches, as well as the temporal dynamics of song in Mockingbirds. Zebra Finches have long been the system of choice for studying vocal development, ontogeny, and complexity in birdsong. Physicists find them intriguing because the spectrally complex vocalizations of the Zebra Finch can exhibit sudden transitions to chaotic dynamics, period doubling & mode-locking phenomena. Mockingbirds, by contrast, provide an ideal system to examine the richness of an avian repertoire, since these musically versatile songbirds typically know upwards of 200 songs. To analyse birdsong data, we have developed a novel clustering algorithm that can be applied to the bird's syllables, tracing their dynamics back to the earliest stages of vocal development. To characterize birdsong we have used Fourier techniques, based upon multitaper spectral analysis, to optimally work around the constraints imposed by (Heisenberg's) time-frequency uncertainty principle. Furthermore, estimates that provide optimal compromise between frequency and temporal resolution have beautiful connections with solutions to the Helmholtz wave equation in prolate spheroidal coordinates. We have used this connection to provide firm foundation for certain heuristics used in the literature to compute associated spectral derivatives and supply a pedagogical account here in this thesis. They are of interest because spectral derivatives emphasize sudden changes in the dynamics of the underlying phenomenon, and often provide a nice way to visualize

  5. Diagnosing vocal cord dysfunction in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Rea Kae

    2008-12-01

    To provide an overview of the pathophysiology, steps in making a diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment methods for vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) in young athletes. Review of published literature about VCD and exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and a case study. The clinical presentation of VCD is often confusing. A young athlete who is having difficulty "catching his breath" may have more than EIA. Young athletes who have been previously diagnosed with EIA may actually have VCD. The ability to correctly differentiate VCD from other causes of respiratory distress can lead to accurate interventions, save precious time in an acute situation, and promote long-term control of this condition.

  6. Vocal effort modulates the motor planning of short speech structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taitz, Alan; Shalom, Diego E.; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2018-05-01

    Speech requires programming the sequence of vocal gestures that produce the sounds of words. Here we explored the timing of this program by asking our participants to pronounce, as quickly as possible, a sequence of consonant-consonant-vowel (CCV) structures appearing on screen. We measured the delay between visual presentation and voice onset. In the case of plosive consonants, produced by sharp and well defined movements of the vocal tract, we found that delays are positively correlated with the duration of the transition between consonants. We then used a battery of statistical tests and mathematical vocal models to show that delays reflect the motor planning of CCVs and transitions are proxy indicators of the vocal effort needed to produce them. These results support that the effort required to produce the sequence of movements of a vocal gesture modulates the onset of the motor plan.

  7. A Computational Study of Vocal Fold Dehydration During Phonation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2017-12-01

    While vocal fold dehydration is often considered an important factor contributing to vocal fatigue, it still remains unclear whether vocal fold vibration alone is able to induce severe dehydration that has a noticeable effect on phonation and perceived vocal effort. A three-dimensional model was developed to investigate vocal fold systemic dehydration and surface dehydration during phonation. Based on the linear poroelastic theory, the model considered water resupply from blood vessels through the lateral boundary, water movement within the vocal folds, water exchange between the vocal folds and the surface liquid layer through the epithelium, and surface fluid accumulation and discharge to the glottal airway. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate water loss within the vocal folds and from the surface after a 5-min sustained phonation under different permeability and vibration conditions. The results showed that the dehydration generally increased with increasing vibration amplitude, increasing epithelial permeability, and reduced water resupply. With adequate water resupply, a large-amplitude vibration can induce an overall systemic dehydration as high as 3%. The distribution of water loss within the vocal folds was non-uniform, and a local dehydration higher than 5% was observed even under conditions of a low overall systemic dehydration (<1%). Such high level of water loss may severely affect tissue properties, muscular functions, and phonations characteristics. In contrast, water loss of the surface liquid layer was generally an order of magnitude higher than water loss inside the vocal folds, indicating that the surface dehydration level is likely not a good indicator of the systemic dehydration.

  8. Determining the etiology of mild vocal fold hypomobility.

    PubMed

    Heman-Ackah, Yolanda D; Batory, Mark

    2003-12-01

    The prevalence of mild vocal fold hypomobility is unknown. In a study by Heman-Ackah et al, vocal fold hypomobility in a population of singing teachers was found to be associated more frequently with vocal complaints than was the presence of vocal fold masses. The etiology of mild vocal fold hypomobility has not been previously explored. In the present study, a retrospective chart review was performed of 134 patients who presented to a tertiary laryngology referral center over a 6-month period for evaluation of vocal complaints. Of the 134 patients, 61 (46%) were found to have mild vocal referring otolaryngologist. Imaging studies and laboratory tests to evaluate for structural, metabolic, and infectious causes of the decreased mobility had been ordered. Forty-nine patients completed the work-up. Of these, 41 out of 49 (84%) were found to have imaging or laboratory findings that could explain the hypomobility. Thyroid abnormalities were found to be associated with vocal fold hypomobility in 21 out of 49 (43%) of those with a complete evaluation. Other causes of vocal fold hypomobility included idiopathic (8 of 49, 16%), viral neuritis (5 of 49, 10%), central nervous system abnormality (4 of 49, 8%), neural tumor (3 of 49, 6%), joint dysfunction (3 of 49, 6%), iatrogenic nerve injury (2 of 49, 4%), myopathy (2 of 49, 4%), and noniatrogenic traumatic nerve injury (1 of 49, 2%), This study shows that unilateral vocal fold hypomobility often is associated with a physiologic process, and a complete investigation to determine the etiology is warranted in all cases.

  9. Vocal fold contact patterns based on normal modes of vibration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Simeon L; Titze, Ingo R

    2018-05-17

    The fluid-structure interaction and energy transfer from respiratory airflow to self-sustained vocal fold oscillation continues to be a topic of interest in vocal fold research. Vocal fold vibration is driven by pressures on the vocal fold surface, which are determined by the shape of the glottis and the contact between vocal folds. Characterization of three-dimensional glottal shapes and contact patterns can lead to increased understanding of normal and abnormal physiology of the voice, as well as to development of improved vocal fold models, but a large inventory of shapes has not been directly studied previously. This study aimed to take an initial step toward characterizing vocal fold contact patterns systematically. Vocal fold motion and contact was modeled based on normal mode vibration, as it has been shown that vocal fold vibration can be almost entirely described by only the few lowest order vibrational modes. Symmetric and asymmetric combinations of the four lowest normal modes of vibration were superimposed on left and right vocal fold medial surfaces, for each of three prephonatory glottal configurations, according to a surface wave approach. Contact patterns were generated from the interaction of modal shapes at 16 normalized phases during the vibratory cycle. Eight major contact patterns were identified and characterized by the shape of the flow channel, with the following descriptors assigned: convergent, divergent, convergent-divergent, uniform, split, merged, island, and multichannel. Each of the contact patterns and its variation are described, and future work and applications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vocal activity of lesser galagos (Galago spp.) at zoos.

    PubMed

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan; Štefanská, Lucie; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Lhota, Stanislav; Brandl, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Almost nothing is known about the natural vocal behavior of lesser galagos living in zoos. This is perhaps because they are usually kept in nocturnal exhibits separated from the visitors by a transparent and acoustically insulating glass barrier. The aim of the present study was therefore to fill this gap in knowledge of the vocal behavior of lesser galagos from zoos. This knowledge might be beneficial because the vocalizations of these small primates can be used for species determination. We performed a 10-day-long acoustic monitoring of vocal activity in each of seven various groups of Galago senegalensis and G. moholi living at four zoos. We quantitatively evaluated the occurrence of four loud vocalization types present in both species, including the most species-specific advertisement call. We found that qualitative as well as quantitative differences exist in the vocal behavior of the studied groups. We confirmed that the observed vocalization types can be collected from lesser galagos living at zoos, and the success can be increased by selecting larger and more diverse groups. We found two distinct patterns of diel vocal activity in the most vocally active groups. G. senegalensis groups were most vocally active at the beginning and at the end of their activity period, whereas one G. moholi group showed an opposite pattern. The latter is surprising, as it is generally accepted that lesser galagos emit advertisement calls especially at dawn and dusk, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of their diel activity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Vocal Fold Vibration in Vocal Fold Paralysis With the Use of High-speed Digital Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this work was to objectively elucidate the vibratory characteristics of vocal fold paralysis (VFP) using high-speed digital imaging (HSDI). HSDI was performed in 29 vocally healthy subjects (12 women and 17 men) and in 107 patients with VFP (40 women and 67 men). Then, the HSDI data were evaluated by visual-perceptual rating, single-line kymography, multiline kymography, laryngotopography, and glottal area waveform analysis. Patients with VFP compared with vocally healthy subjects revealed more frequent incomplete glottal closure, greater asymmetry in amplitude, mucosal wave, frequency, and phase, as well as larger open quotient, smaller speed index, larger maximal and minimal glottal area, and smaller glottal area difference. Paralyzed vocal folds in VFP revealed reduced mucosal wave than nonparalyzed vocal folds in VFP or in intact vocal folds in vocally healthy subjects. HSDI was effective in documenting the characteristics of vocal fold vibrations in patients with VFP and in exploring the vibratory disturbance for estimating the severity of dysphonia. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. What Automated Vocal Analysis Reveals about the Vocal Production and Language Learning Environment of Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Steven F.; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Xu, Dongxin; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmistha

    2010-01-01

    The study compared the vocal production and language learning environments of 26 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to 78 typically developing children using measures derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processor and audio-processing algorithms measured the amount of adult words to children and the amount of…

  13. The Effects of Vocal Register Use and Age on the Perceived Vocal Health of Male Elementary Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ryan A.; Scott, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vocal register use and age on the perceived vocal health of male elementary music teachers. Participants (N = 160) consisted of male elementary music teachers from two neighboring states in the south-central region of the United States. Participants responded to various demographic questions…

  14. The Effect of Teaching Experience and Specialty (Vocal or Instrumental) on Vocal Health Ratings of Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2010-01-01

    The current study sought to determine the relationship among music teachers' length of teaching experience, specialty (vocal or instrumental), and ratings of behaviors and teaching activities related to vocal health. Participants (N = 379) were experienced (n = 208) and preservice (n = 171) music teachers, further categorized by specialty, either…

  15. Comparative analysis of perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis and indirect laryngoscopy for vocal assessment of a population with vocal complaint.

    PubMed

    Nemr, Kátia; Amar, Ali; Abrahão, Marcio; Leite, Grazielle Capatto de Almeida; Köhle, Juliana; Santos, Alexandra de O; Correa, Luiz Artur Costa

    2005-01-01

    As a result of technology evolution and development, methods of voice evaluation have changed both in medical and speech and language pathology practice. To relate the results of perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis and medical evaluation in the diagnosis of vocal and/or laryngeal affections of the population with vocal complaint. Clinical prospective. 29 people that attended vocal health protection campaign were evaluated. They were submitted to perceptual evaluation (AFPA), acoustic analysis (AA), indirect laryngoscopy (LI) and telelaryngoscopy (TL). Correlations between medical and speech language pathology evaluation methods were established, verifying possible statistical signification with the application of Fischer Exact Test. There were statistically significant results in the correlation between AFPA and LI, AFPA and TL, LI and TL. This research study conducted in a vocal health protection campaign presented correlations between speech language pathology evaluation and perceptual evaluation and clinical evaluation, as well as between vocal affection and/or laryngeal medical exams.

  16. Vocal indices of stress: a review.

    PubMed

    Giddens, Cheryl L; Barron, Kirk W; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Clark, Keith F; Winter, A Scott

    2013-05-01

    Identification of stress patterns in the voice has multiple potential applications. The objective was to review literature pertaining to the effects of various forms of stress upon the healthy voice. Literature review, discussion of results, and direction for further study. This review article offers a model of stress and a review of the historical and recent research into the effects of stress on the voice. Electronic databases were searched using the key words. No studies were excluded on the basis of design; however, an attempt was made to include in the discussion studies which primarily address physiological and acoustic vocal parameters. The results of greater than 50 studies examining the effect of stressors ranging from lie and guilt to high altitude and space flight upon the voice were included in the review. Increase in fundamental frequency is the most commonly reported effect of stress in well-controlled trials. The trend, however, is not universal. A reduction in noise as reflected by the diminished vocal jitter is reported, but less frequently. Stress types, gender, and individual differences in baseline autonomic tone may explain the primarily equivocal findings of effects of stressor exposure or perceived stress on voice; and as such, the article concludes with a discussion of directions for future study. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vocalization behavior and response of black rails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Legare, M.L.; Eddleman, W.R.; Buckley, P.A.; Kelly, C.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the vocal responses and movements of radio-tagged black rails (Laterallus jamaicensis) (n = 43, 26 males, 17 females) to playback of vocalizations at 2 sites in Florida during the breeding seasons of 1992-95. We used regression coefficients from logistic regression equations to model the probability of a response conditional to the birds' sex, nesting status, distance to playback source, and the time of survey. With a probability of 0.811, non-nesting male black rails were most likely to respond to playback, while nesting females were the least likely to respond (probability = 0.189). Linear regression was used to determine daily, monthly, and annual variation in response from weekly playback surveys along a fixed route during the breeding seasons of 1993-95. Significant sources of variation in the linear regression model were month (F = 3.89, df = 3, p = 0.0140), year (F = 9.37, df = 2, p = 0.0003), temperature (F = 5.44, df=1, p = 0.0236), and month*year (F = 2.69, df = 5, p = 0.0311). The model was highly significant (p < 0.0001) and explained 53% of the variation of mean response per survey period (R2 = 0.5353). Response probability data obtained from the radio-tagged black rails and data from the weekly playback survey route were combined to provide a density estimate of 0.25 birds/ha for the St. Johns National Wildlife Refuge. Density estimates for black rails may be obtained from playback surveys, and fixed radius circular plots. Circular plots should be considered as having a radius of 80 m and be located so the plot centers are 150 m apart. Playback tapes should contain one series of Kic-kic-kerr and Growl vocalizations recorded within the same geographic region as the study area. Surveys should be conducted from 0-2 hours after sunrise or 0-2 hours before sunset, during the pre-nesting season, and when wind velocity is < 20 kph. Observers should listen for 3-4 minutes after playing the survey tape and record responses heard during that time

  18. Side population cells in the human vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Masaru; Hirano, Shigeru; Kanemaru, Shin-ichi; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Suehiro, Atsushi; Ito, Juichi

    2007-11-01

    The regenerative processes of the vocal fold, or the existence of stem cells in the folds, are unknown. Side population (SP) cells are defined as cells that have the ability to exclude the DNA binding dye, Hoechst 33342. They are regarded as a cell population enriched with stem cells and can be isolated from non-SP cells by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. This study was designed to determine whether SP cells exist in the human vocal fold, as a first step in elucidating the regenerative mechanisms of the vocal fold. Seven human excised larynges were used in this study. Two were used for fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, and 5 were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis with antibodies against an adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter family member, ABCG2, which is expressed in SP cells. The number of SP cells in the human vocal fold was about 0.2% of the total number of cells. ABCG2-positive cells were identified in both the epithelium and subepithelial tissue throughout the entire vocal fold. This preliminary study demonstrated the existence of SP cells in the human vocal fold. Further studies are warranted to clarify how these cells work in the vocal fold, particularly in the regenerative process.

  19. [3D visualization and analysis of vocal fold dynamics].

    PubMed

    Bohr, C; Döllinger, M; Kniesburges, S; Traxdorf, M

    2016-04-01

    Visual investigation methods of the larynx mainly allow for the two-dimensional presentation of the three-dimensional structures of the vocal fold dynamics. The vertical component of the vocal fold dynamics is often neglected, yielding a loss of information. The latest studies show that the vertical dynamic components are in the range of the medio-lateral dynamics and play a significant role within the phonation process. This work presents a method for future 3D reconstruction and visualization of endoscopically recorded vocal fold dynamics. The setup contains a high-speed camera (HSC) and a laser projection system (LPS). The LPS projects a regular grid on the vocal fold surfaces and in combination with the HSC allows a three-dimensional reconstruction of the vocal fold surface. Hence, quantitative information on displacements and velocities can be provided. The applicability of the method is presented for one ex-vivo human larynx, one ex-vivo porcine larynx and one synthetic silicone larynx. The setup introduced allows the reconstruction of the entire visible vocal fold surfaces for each oscillation status. This enables a detailed analysis of the three dimensional dynamics (i. e. displacements, velocities, accelerations) of the vocal folds. The next goal is the miniaturization of the LPS to allow clinical in-vivo analysis in humans. We anticipate new insight on dependencies between 3D dynamic behavior and the quality of the acoustic outcome for healthy and disordered phonation.

  20. Mechanomimetic hydrogels for vocal fold lamina propria regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kutty, Jaishankar K; Webb, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Vocal fold injury commonly leads to reduced vocal quality due to scarring-induced alterations in matrix composition and tissue biomechanics. The long-term hypothesis motivating our work is that rapid restoration of phonation and the associated dynamic mechanical environment will reduce scarring and promote regenerative healing. Toward this end, the objective of this study was to develop mechanomimetic, degradable hydrogels approximating the viscoelastic properties of the vocal ligament and mucosa that may be photopolymerized in situ to restore structural integrity to vocal fold tissues. The tensile and rheological properties of hydrogels (targeting the vocal ligament and mucosa, respectively) were varied as a function of macromer concentration. PEG diacrylate-based hydrogels exhibited linear stress-strain response and elastic modulus consistent with the properties of the vocal ligament at low strains (0-15%), but did not replicate the non-linear behavior observed in native tissue at higher strains. Methacrylated hyaluronic acid hydrogels displayed dynamic viscosity consistent with native vocal mucosa, while elastic shear moduli values were several-fold higher. Cell culture studies indicated that both hydrogels supported spreading, proliferation and collagen/proteoglycan matrix deposition by encapsulated fibroblasts throughout the 3D network.

  1. Responses of prefrontal multisensory neurons to mismatching faces and vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Maria M; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2014-08-20

    Social communication relies on the integration of auditory and visual information, which are present in faces and vocalizations. Evidence suggests that the integration of information from multiple sources enhances perception compared with the processing of a unimodal stimulus. Our previous studies demonstrated that single neurons in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) respond to and integrate conspecific vocalizations and their accompanying facial gestures. We were therefore interested in how VLPFC neurons respond differentially to matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) faces and vocalizations. We recorded VLPFC neurons during the presentation of movies with congruent or incongruent species-specific facial gestures and vocalizations as well as their unimodal components. Recordings showed that while many VLPFC units are multisensory and respond to faces, vocalizations, or their combination, a subset of neurons showed a significant change in neuronal activity in response to incongruent versus congruent vocalization movies. Among these neurons, we typically observed incongruent suppression during the early stimulus period and incongruent enhancement during the late stimulus period. Incongruent-responsive VLPFC neurons were both bimodal and nonlinear multisensory, fostering their ability to respond to changes in either modality of a face-vocalization stimulus. These results demonstrate that ventral prefrontal neurons respond to changes in either modality of an audiovisual stimulus, which is important in identity processing and for the integration of multisensory communication information. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411233-11$15.00/0.

  2. Temperature-dependent regulation of vocal pattern generator.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ayako; Gooler, David; Herrold, Amy; Patel, Shailja; Pong, Winnie W

    2008-12-01

    Vocalizations of Xenopus laevis are generated by central pattern generators (CPGs). The advertisement call of male X. laevis is a complex biphasic motor rhythm consisting of fast and slow trills (a train of clicks). We found that the trill rate of these advertisement calls is sensitive to temperature and that this rate modification of the vocal rhythms originates in the central pattern generators. In vivo the rates of fast and slow trills increased linearly with an increase in temperature. In vitro a similar linear relation between temperature and compound action potential frequency in the laryngeal nerve was found when fictive advertisement calls were evoked in the isolated brain. Temperature did not limit the contractile properties of laryngeal muscles within the frequency range of vocalizations. We next took advantage of the temperature sensitivity of the vocal CPG in vitro to localize the source of the vocal rhythms. We focused on the dorsal tegmental area of the medulla (DTAM), a brain stem nucleus that is essential for vocal production. We found that bilateral cooling of DTAM reduced both fast and slow trill rates. Thus we conclude that DTAM is a source of biphasic vocal rhythms.

  3. Automated Assessment of Child Vocalization Development Using LENA.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jeffrey A; Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmistha; Paul, Terrance

    2017-07-12

    To produce a novel, efficient measure of children's expressive vocal development on the basis of automatic vocalization assessment (AVA), child vocalizations were automatically identified and extracted from audio recordings using Language Environment Analysis (LENA) System technology. Assessment was based on full-day audio recordings collected in a child's unrestricted, natural language environment. AVA estimates were derived using automatic speech recognition modeling techniques to categorize and quantify the sounds in child vocalizations (e.g., protophones and phonemes). These were expressed as phone and biphone frequencies, reduced to principal components, and inputted to age-based multiple linear regression models to predict independently collected criterion-expressive language scores. From these models, we generated vocal development AVA estimates as age-standardized scores and development age estimates. AVA estimates demonstrated strong statistical reliability and validity when compared with standard criterion expressive language assessments. Automated analysis of child vocalizations extracted from full-day recordings in natural settings offers a novel and efficient means to assess children's expressive vocal development. More research remains to identify specific mechanisms of operation.

  4. Vocal fold ion transport and mucin expression following acrolein exposure

    PubMed Central

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Sivasankar, M. Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The vocal fold epithelium is exposed to inhaled particulates including pollutants during breathing in everyday environments. Yet, our understanding of the effects of pollutants on vocal fold epithelial function is extremely limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin synthesis. These mechanisms were chosen as each plays a critical role in vocal defense and in maintaining surface hydration which is necessary for optimal voice production. Healthy, native porcine vocal folds (N=85) were excised and exposed to an acrolein or sham challenge. A 60 minute acrolein, but not sham challenge significantly reduced ion transport and inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent increases in ion transport. Decreases in ion transport were associated with reduced sodium absorption. Within the same timeline, no significant acrolein-induced changes in mucin gene or protein expression were observed. These results improve our understanding of the effects of acrolein on key vocal fold epithelial functions and inform the development of future investigations that seek to elucidate the impact of a wide range of pollutant exposures on vocal fold health. PMID:24648011

  5. Vocal contagion of emotions in non-human animals

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Communicating emotions to conspecifics (emotion expression) allows the regulation of social interactions (e.g. approach and avoidance). Moreover, when emotions are transmitted from one individual to the next, leading to state matching (emotional contagion), information transfer and coordination between group members are facilitated. Despite the high potential for vocalizations to influence the affective state of surrounding individuals, vocal contagion of emotions has been largely unexplored in non-human animals. In this paper, I review the evidence for discrimination of vocal expression of emotions, which is a necessary step for emotional contagion to occur. I then describe possible proximate mechanisms underlying vocal contagion of emotions, propose criteria to assess this phenomenon and review the existing evidence. The literature so far shows that non-human animals are able to discriminate and be affected by conspecific and also potentially heterospecific (e.g. human) vocal expression of emotions. Since humans heavily rely on vocalizations to communicate (speech), I suggest that studying vocal contagion of emotions in non-human animals can lead to a better understanding of the evolution of emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:29491174

  6. Spontaneous motor entrainment to music in multiple vocal mimicking species.

    PubMed

    Schachner, Adena; Brady, Timothy F; Pepperberg, Irene M; Hauser, Marc D

    2009-05-26

    The human capacity for music consists of certain core phenomena, including the tendency to entrain, or align movement, to an external auditory pulse [1-3]. This ability, fundamental both for music production and for coordinated dance, has been repeatedly highlighted as uniquely human [4-11]. However, it has recently been hypothesized that entrainment evolved as a by-product of vocal mimicry, generating the strong prediction that only vocal mimicking animals may be able to entrain [12, 13]. Here we provide comparative data demonstrating the existence of two proficient vocal mimicking nonhuman animals (parrots) that entrain to music, spontaneously producing synchronized movements resembling human dance. We also provide an extensive comparative data set from a global video database systematically analyzed for evidence of entrainment in hundreds of species both capable and incapable of vocal mimicry. Despite the higher representation of vocal nonmimics in the database and comparable exposure of mimics and nonmimics to humans and music, only vocal mimics showed evidence of entrainment. We conclude that entrainment is not unique to humans and that the distribution of entrainment across species supports the hypothesis that entrainment evolved as a by-product of selection for vocal mimicry.

  7. Social Vocalizations of Big Brown Bats Vary with Behavioral Context

    PubMed Central

    Gadziola, Marie A.; Grimsley, Jasmine M. S.; Faure, Paul A.; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Bats are among the most gregarious and vocal mammals, with some species demonstrating a diverse repertoire of syllables under a variety of behavioral contexts. Despite extensive characterization of big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) biosonar signals, there have been no detailed studies of adult social vocalizations. We recorded and analyzed social vocalizations and associated behaviors of captive big brown bats under four behavioral contexts: low aggression, medium aggression, high aggression, and appeasement. Even limited to these contexts, big brown bats possess a rich repertoire of social vocalizations, with 18 distinct syllable types automatically classified using a spectrogram cross-correlation procedure. For each behavioral context, we describe vocalizations in terms of syllable acoustics, temporal emission patterns, and typical syllable sequences. Emotion-related acoustic cues are evident within the call structure by context-specific syllable types or variations in the temporal emission pattern. We designed a paradigm that could evoke aggressive vocalizations while monitoring heart rate as an objective measure of internal physiological state. Changes in the magnitude and duration of elevated heart rate scaled to the level of evoked aggression, confirming the behavioral state classifications assessed by vocalizations and behavioral displays. These results reveal a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a caller. PMID:22970247

  8. Material parameter computation for multi-layered vocal fold models.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bastian; Stingl, Michael; Leugering, Günter; Berry, David A; Döllinger, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Today, the prevention and treatment of voice disorders is an ever-increasing health concern. Since many occupations rely on verbal communication, vocal health is necessary just to maintain one's livelihood. Commonly applied models to study vocal fold vibrations and air flow distributions are self sustained physical models of the larynx composed of artificial silicone vocal folds. Choosing appropriate mechanical parameters for these vocal fold models while considering simplifications due to manufacturing restrictions is difficult but crucial for achieving realistic behavior. In the present work, a combination of experimental and numerical approaches to compute material parameters for synthetic vocal fold models is presented. The material parameters are derived from deformation behaviors of excised human larynges. The resulting deformations are used as reference displacements for a tracking functional to be optimized. Material optimization was applied to three-dimensional vocal fold models based on isotropic and transverse-isotropic material laws, considering both a layered model with homogeneous material properties on each layer and an inhomogeneous model. The best results exhibited a transversal-isotropic inhomogeneous (i.e., not producible) model. For the homogeneous model (three layers), the transversal-isotropic material parameters were also computed for each layer yielding deformations similar to the measured human vocal fold deformations.

  9. The Neural Basis of Vocal Pitch Imitation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Belyk, Michel; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Liotti, Mario; Brown, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Vocal imitation is a phenotype that is unique to humans among all primate species, and so an understanding of its neural basis is critical in explaining the emergence of both speech and song in human evolution. Two principal neural models of vocal imitation have emerged from a consideration of nonhuman animals. One hypothesis suggests that putative mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis of Broca's area may be important for imitation. An alternative hypothesis derived from the study of songbirds suggests that the corticostriate motor pathway performs sensorimotor processes that are specific to vocal imitation. Using fMRI with a sparse event-related sampling design, we investigated the neural basis of vocal imitation in humans by comparing imitative vocal production of pitch sequences with both nonimitative vocal production and pitch discrimination. The strongest difference between these tasks was found in the putamen bilaterally, providing a striking parallel to the role of the analogous region in songbirds. Other areas preferentially activated during imitation included the orofacial motor cortex, Rolandic operculum, and SMA, which together outline the corticostriate motor loop. No differences were seen in the inferior frontal gyrus. The corticostriate system thus appears to be the central pathway for vocal imitation in humans, as predicted from an analogy with songbirds.

  10. The impact of intraglottal vortices on vocal fold dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron; Pirnia, Alireza; Peterson, Sean

    2016-11-01

    During voiced speech a critical pressure is produced in the lungs that separates the vocal folds and creates a passage (the glottis) for airflow. As air passes through the vocal folds the resulting aerodynamic loading, coupled with the tissue properties of the vocal folds, produces self-sustained oscillations. Throughout each cycle a complex flow field develops, characterized by a plethora of viscous flow phenomena. Air passing through the glottis creates a jet, with periodically-shed vortices developing due to flow separation and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer. These vortices have been hypothesized to be a crucial mechanism for producing vocal fold vibrations. In this study the effect of vortices on the vocal fold dynamics is investigated experimentally by passing a vortex ring over a flexible beam with the same non-dimensional mechanical properties as the vocal folds. Synchronized particle image velocimetry data are acquired in tandem with the beam dynamics. The resulting impact of the vortex ring loading on vocal fold dynamics is discussed in detail. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant CBET #1511761.

  11. Profiles of Vocal Development in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Ertmer, David J.; Young, Nancy M.; Nathani, Suneeti

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine prelinguistic vocal development in very young cochlear implant recipients. A prospective longitudinal research design was used to observe the sequence and time-course of vocal development in seven children who were implanted between 10 and 36 months of age. Speech samples were collected twice before implant activation and on a monthly basis thereafter for up to 2 years. Children’s vocalizations were classified according to the levels of the Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development- Revised (SAEVD-R; Nathani, Ertmer, & Stark, in press). The main findings were (a) six of seven children made advancements in vocal development after implantation, (b) children implanted between 12 and 36 months progressed through SAEVD-R levels in the predicted sequence whereas a child implanted at a younger age showed a different sequence, (c) milestones in vocal development were often achieved with fewer months of hearing experience than observed in typically developing infants and appeared to be influenced by age at implantation, and (d) in general, children implanted at younger ages completed vocal development at younger chronological ages than those implanted later in life. Clinical indicators of benefit from implant use were also identified. PMID:17463237

  12. Radiation Fibrosis of the Vocal Fold: From Man to Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Michael M.; Kolachala, Vasantha; Berg, Eric; Muller, Susan; Creighton, Frances X.; Branski, Ryan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize fundamental late tissue effects in the human vocal fold following radiation therapy. To develop a murine model of radiation fibrosis to ultimately develop both treatment and prevention paradigms. Design Translational study using archived human and fresh murine irradiated vocal fold tissue. Methods 1) Irradiated vocal fold tissue from patients undergoing laryngectomy for loss of function from radiation fibrosis were identified from pathology archives. Histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and whole-genome microarray as well as real-time transcriptional analyses was performed. 2) Focused radiation to the head and neck was delivered to mice in a survival fashion. One month following radiation, vocal fold tissue was analyzed with histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and real-time PCR transcriptional analysis for selected markers of fibrosis. Results Human irradiated vocal folds demonstrated increased collagen transcription with increased deposition and disorganization of collagen in both the thyroarytenoid muscle and the superficial lamina propria. Fibronectin were increased in the superficial lamina propria. Laminin decreased in the thyroarytenoid muscle. Whole genome microarray analysis demonstrated increased transcription of markers for fibrosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, glycosaminoglycan production and apoptosis. Irradiated murine vocal folds demonstrated increases in collagen and fibronectin transcription and deposition in the lamina propria. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β increased in the lamina propria. Conclusion Human irradiated vocal folds demonstrate molecular changes leading to fibrosis that underlie loss of vocal fold pliability that occurs in patients following laryngeal irradiation. Irradiated murine tissue demonstrates similar findings, and this mouse model may have utility in creating prevention and treatment strategies for vocal fold radiation fibrosis. PMID:23242839

  13. Homeostasis of Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Scarred Vocal Folds

    PubMed Central

    Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Watanuki, Makoto; Bless, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives/Hypothesis Vocal fold scarring is one of the most challenging laryngeal disorders to treat. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the main component of lamina propria, and it plays an important role in proper vocal fold vibration and is also thought to be important in fetal wound healing without scarring. Although several animal models of vocal fold scarring have been reported, little is known about the way in which HA is maintained in vocal folds. The purpose of this study was to clarify the homeostasis of HA by examining the expression of hyaluronan synthase (Has) and hyaluronidase (Hyal), which produce and digest HA, respectively. Study Design Experimental prospective animal study. Methods Vocal fold stripping was performed on 38 Sprague-Dawley rats. Vocal fold tissue was collected at five time points (3 days–2 months). Expression of HA was examined by immunohistochemistry, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Has and Hyal was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and in-situ hybridization. Results In scarred vocal folds, expression of Has1 and Has2 increased at day 3 together with expression of HA and returned to normal at 2 weeks. At 2 months, Has3 and Hyal3 mRNA showed higher expressions than normal. Conclusions Expression patterns of Has and Hyal genes differed between normal, acute-scarred, and chronic-scarred vocal folds, indicating the distinct roles of each enzyme in maintaining HA. Continuous upregulation of Has genes in the acute phase may be necessary to achieve scarless healing of vocal folds. PMID:25499520

  14. Vocal Qualities in Music Theater Voice: Perceptions of Expert Pedagogues.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Tracy; Kenny, Dianna

    2016-01-01

    To gather qualitative descriptions of music theater vocal qualities including belt, legit, and mix from expert pedagogues to better define this voice type. This is a prospective, semistructured interview. Twelve expert teachers from United States, United Kingdom, Asia, and Australia were interviewed by Skype and asked to identify characteristics of music theater vocal qualities including vocal production, physiology, esthetics, pitch range, and pedagogical techniques. Responses were compared with published studies on music theater voice. Belt and legit were generally described as distinct sounds with differing physiological and technical requirements. Teachers were concerned that belt should be taught "safely" to minimize vocal health risks. There was consensus between teachers and published research on the physiology of the glottis and vocal tract; however, teachers were not in agreement about breathing techniques. Neither were teachers in agreement about the meaning of "mix." Most participants described belt as heavily weighted, thick folds, thyroarytenoid-dominant, or chest register; however, there was no consensus on an appropriate term. Belt substyles were named and generally categorized by weightedness or tone color. Descriptions of male belt were less clear than for female belt. This survey provides an overview of expert pedagogical perspectives on the characteristics of belt, legit, and mix qualities in the music theater voice. Although teacher responses are generally in agreement with published research, there are still many controversial issues and gaps in knowledge and understanding of this vocal technique. Breathing techniques, vocal range, mix, male belt, and vocal registers require continuing investigation so that we can learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in music theater singing. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between patient-perceived vocal handicap and clinician-rated level of vocal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Childs, Lesley F; Bielinski, Clifford; Toles, Laura; Hamilton, Amy; Deane, Janis; Mau, Ted

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between patient-reported vocal handicap and clinician-rated measures of vocal dysfunction is not understood. This study aimed to determine if a correlation exists between the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and the Voice Functional Communication Measure rating in the National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS). Retrospective case series. Four hundred and nine voice evaluations over 12 months at a tertiary voice center were reviewed. The VHI-10 and NOMS scores, diagnoses, and potential comorbid factors were collected and analyzed. For the study population as a whole, there was a moderate negative correlation between the NOMS rating and the VHI-10 (Pearson r = -0.57). However, for a given NOMS level, there could be considerable spread in the VHI-10. In addition, as the NOMS decreased stepwise below level 4, there was a corresponding increase in the VHI-10. However, a similar trend in VHI-10 was not observed for NOMS above level 4, indicating the NOMS versus VHI-10 correlation was not linear. Among diagnostic groups, the strongest correlation was found for subjects with functional dysphonia. The NOMS versus VHI-10 correlation was not affected by gender or the coexistence of a psychiatric diagnosis. A simple relationship between VHI-10 and NOMS rating does not exist. Patients with mild vocal dysfunction have a less direct relationship between their NOMS ratings and the VHI-10. These findings provide insight into the interpretation of patient-perceived and clinician-rated measures of vocal function and may allow for better management of expectations and patient counseling in the treatment of voice disorders. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Effect of hydration and vocal rest on the vocal fatigue in amateur karaoke singers.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Edwin M L; Chan, Rainy M M

    2003-06-01

    Karaoke singing is a very popular entertainment among young people in Asia. It is a leisure singing activity with the singer's voice amplified with special acoustic effects in the backdrop of music. Music video and song captions are shown on television screen to remind the singers during singing. It is not uncommon to find participants singing continuously for four to five hours each time. As most of the karaoke singers have no formal training in singing, these amateur singers are more vulnerable to developing voice problems under these intensive singing activities. This study reports the performance of 20 young amateur singers (10 males and 10 females, aged between 20-25 years) on a series of phonatory function tasks carried out during continuous karaoke singing. Half of the singers were given water to drink and short duration of vocal rests at regular intervals during singing and the other half sang continuously without taking any water or rest. The subjects who were given hydration and vocal rests sang significantly longer than those who did not take any water or rest. The voice quality, as measured by perceptual and acoustic measures, and vocal function, as measured by phonetogram, did not show any significant changes during singing in the subjects who were given water and rest during the singing. However, subjects who sang continuously without drinking water and taking rests showed significant changes in the jitter measure and the highest pitch they could produce during singing. These results suggest that hydration and vocal rests are useful strategies to preserve voice function and quality during karaoke singing. This information is useful educational information for karaoke singers.

  17. Endoscopic vocal fold injection using a 25-gauge butterfly needle.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, M A; Riffat, F; Palme, C E

    2016-04-01

    To describe a useful technique for infiltrating a bulking agent using a butterfly needle, as part of a transoral endoscopic vocal fold medialisation procedure. This paper describes the procedure of grasping the needle with phonosurgery forceps and administering the injectate to the vocal fold through careful application of the syringe plunger via a length of rubber tubing from outside the mouth. This procedure is performed routinely in our institution without complication. The advantages of this technique are discussed. This is a safe and easy method of injecting into a vocal fold.

  18. Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Vocal Tremor: A Technical Report.

    PubMed

    Ho, Allen L; Choudhri, Omar; Sung, C Kwang; DiRenzo, Elizabeth E; Halpern, Casey H

    2015-03-01

    Essential vocal tremor (EVT) is the presence of a tremulous voice that is commonly associated with essential tremor. Patients with EVT often report a necessary increase in vocal effort that significantly worsens with stress and anxiety and can significantly impact quality of life despite optimal medical and behavioral treatment options. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as an effective therapy for vocal tremor, but very few studies exist in the literature that comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of DBS for specifically addressing EVT. We present a technical report on our multidisciplinary, comprehensive operative methodology for treatment of EVT with frameless, awake deep brain stimulation (DBS).

  19. Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Vocal Tremor: A Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Choudhri, Omar; Sung, C. Kwang; DiRenzo, Elizabeth E; Halpern, Casey H

    2015-01-01

    Essential vocal tremor (EVT) is the presence of a tremulous voice that is commonly associated with essential tremor. Patients with EVT often report a necessary increase in vocal effort that significantly worsens with stress and anxiety and can significantly impact quality of life despite optimal medical and behavioral treatment options. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as an effective therapy for vocal tremor, but very few studies exist in the literature that comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of DBS for specifically addressing EVT. We present a technical report on our multidisciplinary, comprehensive operative methodology for treatment of EVT with frameless, awake deep brain stimulation (DBS). PMID:26180680

  20. EFFECTS OF MUSIC ON VOCAL STEREOTYPY IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

    PubMed Central

    Lanovaz, Marc J; Sladeczek, Ingrid E; Rapp, John T

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of manipulating the intensity (i.e., volume) of music on engagement in vocal stereotypy in 2 children with autism. Noncontingent access to music decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for each participant, but it produced only marginal effects on subsequent engagement in the behavior (i.e., after withdrawal). Manipulating the intensity of music did not produce differential effects on immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy. The implications of the results and applications for future research are discussed. PMID:21941398

  1. The value of vocalizing: Five-month-old infants associate their own noncry vocalizations with responses from caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Michael H.; Schwade, Jennifer A.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    The early noncry vocalizations of infants are salient social signals. Caregivers spontaneously respond to 30-50% of these sounds, and their responsiveness to infants' prelinguistic noncry vocalizations facilitates the development of phonology and speech. Have infants learned that their vocalizations influence the behavior of social partners? If infants have learned the contingency between their vocalizing and the social responses of others, they should show an extinction burst when the contingency is removed, increasing their rate of noncry vocalizing then decreasing. Thirty-eight 5-month-olds were tested in the still-face paradigm, during which they engaged in a 2-min still-face interaction with an unfamiliar adult. When the adult assumed a still face, infants showed an extinction burst. This pattern of infant vocalizations suggests that 5-month-olds have learned the social efficacy of their vocalizations on caregivers' behavior. Furthermore, the magnitude of 5-month infants' extinction bursts predicted their language comprehension at 13 months. PMID:19489893

  2. Responses of Middle-Frequency Modulations in Vocal Fundamental Frequency to Different Vocal Intensities and Auditory Feedback.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shao-Hsuan; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Guo-She

    2017-09-01

    Auditory feedback can make reflexive responses on sustained vocalizations. Among them, the middle-frequency power of F0 (MFP) may provide a sensitive index to access the subtle changes in different auditory feedback conditions. Phonatory airflow temperature was obtained from 20 healthy adults at two vocal intensity ranges under four auditory feedback conditions: (1) natural auditory feedback (NO); (2) binaural speech noise masking (SN); (3) bone-conducted feedback of self-generated voice (BAF); and (4) SN and BAF simultaneously. The modulations of F0 in low-frequency (0.2 Hz-3 Hz), middle-frequency (3 Hz-8 Hz), and high-frequency (8 Hz-25 Hz) bands were acquired using power spectral analysis of F0. Acoustic and aerodynamic analyses were used to acquire vocal intensity, maximum phonation time (MPT), phonatory airflow, and MFP-based vocal efficiency (MBVE). SN and high vocal intensity decreased MFP and raised MBVE and MPT significantly. BAF showed no effect on MFP but significantly lowered MBVE. Moreover, BAF significantly increased the perception of voice feedback and the sensation of vocal effort. Altered auditory feedback significantly changed the middle-frequency modulations of F0. MFP and MBVE could well detect these subtle responses of audio-vocal feedback. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Vocal Folds: A Study on a Chronic Vocal Fold Scar

    PubMed Central

    Vassiliki, Kalodimou; Irini, Messini; Nikolaos, Psychalakis; Karampela, Eleftheria; Apostolos, Papalois

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to assess the histological effects of autologous infusion of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) on a chronic vocal fold scar in a rabbit model as compared to an untreated scar as well as in injection of hyaluronic acid. Study Design. Animal experiment. Method. We used 74 New Zealand rabbits. Sixteen of them were used as control/normal group. We created a bilateral vocal fold wound in the remaining 58 rabbits. After 18 months we separated our population into three groups. The first group served as control/scarred group. The second one was injected with hyaluronic acid in the vocal folds, and the third received an autologous adipose-derived stem cell infusion in the scarred vocal folds (ADSC group). We measured the variation of thickness of the lamina propria of the vocal folds and analyzed histopathologic changes in each group after three months. Results. The thickness of the lamina propria was significantly reduced in the group that received the ADSC injection, as compared to the normal/scarred group. The collagen deposition, the hyaluronic acid, the elastin levels, and the organization of elastic fibers tend to return to normal after the injection of ADSC. Conclusions. Autologous injection of adipose-derived stem cells on a vocal fold chronic scar enhanced the healing of the vocal folds and the reduction of the scar tissue, even when compared to other treatments. PMID:26933440

  4. Videolaryngostroboscopic observation of mucus layer during vocal cord vibration in patients with vocal nodules before and after surgery.

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Ming-Wang

    2004-03-01

    Under normal conditions, the vocal fold mucus layer is too thin to permit observation using videolaryngostroboscopy (VLS) during phonation. However, vocal nodules (VNs) typically cause congealed and sticky mucus to appear on the vocal fold. Reports in the literature regarding this phenomenon are limited. The aim of this study was to review VLS recordings of VN patients, analyzing changes that occurred in the mucus layer that covers the vocal fold during vibration following VN surgery. Using VLS, we studied the occurrence of, and changes in, vocal fold mucus layers in 160 VN patients before and after surgery. Eighty-eight patients (55%) were found to have a mucus layer during preoperative examinations. Of these mucus layers, 21 (13%) were located on the anterior commissure or anterior third of the vocal fold (A), 58 (36.3%) on the junction of the anterior and middle thirds (M), 1 (0.6%) on the posterior third (P), 5 (3.1%) on both A and M and 3 (1.9%) on both M and P. Fifty-six (35%) cases were found to have a mucus layer during postoperative examinations. Of these, 44 (27.5%) were located on A, 8 (5%) on M, 1 (0.6%) on P and 3 (1.9%) on both A and M. These results indicate that changes in the mechanical force on the vocal fold, alteration of the laryngeal secretory gland and improper aerodynamic airflow result in increased mucus viscosity and aggregation in VN patients and that the combination of these factors further increases the severity of dysphonia. Surgery to remove vocal nodes may be an effective method to eliminate both vocal bumps and aggregated mucus. Based on the present results, it is recommended that future research should compare surgery to remove VN against other mucus layer reduction methods in order to determine which is the most effective.

  5. Transoral robotic surgery of the vocal cord.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Ray Gervacio F; Ha, Patrick K; Califano, Joseph A; Saunders, John M

    2011-03-01

    The standard endoscopic surgical approach in the management of laryngeal lesions is by the use of a laryngoscope, microscope, and laser. This requires the surgeon to work within the confines of the laryngoscope. At times, it requires repositioning of the laryngoscope and microscope to gain access to a specific area. The surgery also requires line-of-sight observation to complete the operation. The introduction of transoral robotic surgery in head and neck surgery brings the advantages of three-dimensional magnification, increased degrees of freedom with the effector arms, and an articulating distal end that mimics hand movements. To date, transoral robotic surgery of vocal cord surgery requires the use of a tracheostomy in patients. Here we report the use of a CO(2) laser fiber and the Da Vinci robotic platform (Intuitive Surgical) for the surgical management of a T1 glottic squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. The program complex for vocal recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konev, Anton; Kostyuchenko, Evgeny; Yakimuk, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the possibility of applying the algorithm of determining the pitch frequency for the note recognition problems. Preliminary study of programs-analogues were carried out for programs with function “recognition of the music”. The software package based on the algorithm for pitch frequency calculation was implemented and tested. It was shown that the algorithm allows recognizing the notes in the vocal performance of the user. A single musical instrument, a set of musical instruments, and a human voice humming a tune can be the sound source. The input file is initially presented in the .wav format or is recorded in this format from a microphone. Processing is performed by sequentially determining the pitch frequency and conversion of its values to the note. According to test results, modification of algorithms used in the complex was planned.

  7. Memory for vocal tempo and pitch.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2017-11-01

    Two experiments examined the ability to remember the vocal tempo and pitch of different individuals, and the way this information is encoded into the cognitive system. In both studies, participants engaged in an initial familiarisation phase while attending was systematically directed towards different aspects of speakers' voices. Afterwards, they received a tempo or pitch recognition task. Experiment 1 showed that tempo and pitch are both incidentally encoded into memory at levels comparable to intentional learning, and no performance deficit occurs with divided attending. Experiment 2 examined the ability to recognise pitch or tempo when the two dimensions co-varied and found that the presence of one influenced the other: performance was best when both dimensions were positively correlated with one another. As a set, these findings indicate that pitch and tempo are automatically processed in a holistic, integral fashion [Garner, W. R. (1974). The processing of information and structure. Potomac, MD: Erlbaum.] which has a number of cognitive implications.

  8. Vocal Identity Recognition in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Fan; Yamada, Takashi; Komine, Yoko; Kato, Nobumasa; Kato, Masaharu; Kashino, Makio

    2015-01-01

    Voices can convey information about a speaker. When forming an abstract representation of a speaker, it is important to extract relevant features from acoustic signals that are invariant to the modulation of these signals. This study investigated the way in which individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) recognize and memorize vocal identity. The ASD group and control group performed similarly in a task when asked to choose the name of the newly-learned speaker based on his or her voice, and the ASD group outperformed the control group in a subsequent familiarity test when asked to discriminate the previously trained voices and untrained voices. These findings suggest that individuals with ASD recognized and memorized voices as well as the neurotypical individuals did, but they categorized voices in a different way: individuals with ASD categorized voices quantitatively based on the exact acoustic features, while neurotypical individuals categorized voices qualitatively based on the acoustic patterns correlated to the speakers' physical and mental properties.

  9. Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Maria; Roberson, Debi; van der Vyver, Jacoba Marieta; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-04-01

    A central question in the study of human behavior is whether certain emotions, such as anger, fear, and sadness, are recognized in nonverbal cues across cultures. We predicted and found that in a concept-free experimental task, participants from an isolated cultural context (the Himba ethnic group from northwestern Namibia) did not freely label Western vocalizations with expected emotion terms. Responses indicate that Himba participants perceived more basic affective properties of valence (positivity or negativity) and to some extent arousal (high or low activation). In a second, concept-embedded task, we manipulated whether the target and foil on a given trial matched in both valence and arousal, neither valence nor arousal, valence only, or arousal only. Himba participants achieved above-chance accuracy only when foils differed from targets in valence only. Our results indicate that the voice can reliably convey affective meaning across cultures, but that perceptions of emotion from the voice are culturally variable.

  10. Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Maria; Roberson, Debi; van der Vyver, Jacoba Marietta; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-01-01

    A central question in the study of human behavior is whether or not certain emotions, such as anger, fear and sadness, are recognized across cultures in non-verbal cues. We predicted and found that in a concept-free experimental task, participants from an isolated cultural context (the Himba ethnic group from Northwest Namibia) do not freely label Western vocalizations with expected emotion terms. Responses indicated Himba participants perceived more basic affective properties of valence (positivity or negativity) and to some extent arousal (high or low activation). In a second concept-embedded task, we manipulated whether a given trial could be solved using only affective content or discrete emotion content based on the foil choice. Above chance accuracy in Himba participants occurred only when foils differed from targets in valence, indicating that the voice can reliably convey affective meaning across cultures, but that perceptions of emotion from the voice are culturally variable. PMID:24501109

  11. Singers' and Nonsingers' Perception of Vocal Vibrato.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A Anita; Subramanian, Uma

    2015-09-01

    Vibrato, a small, nevertheless an important component in the singing voice is known to enrich the overall singing voice quality. However, in the perception of overall performance, it is often neglected. Singing performance is often appreciated by a mixed audience of those who love music, but not necessarily sing and other singers who may or may not be teachers of singing. The objectives of the present study were aimed at investigating singers' and nonsingers' perception of vocal vibrato and its effect on the ratings of singer's overall performance. Prerecorded audio samples of the chorus of a hymn (How Great Thou Art) as sung by 10 singers (both men and women) were played via a speaker to two groups of judges which consisted of three experienced singers and three experienced nonsingers. The singer judges (SJs) were vocal instructors in Western classical, music theater, pop, and contemporary styles. Seven parameters (presence of vibrato, rate, extent, conspicuousness, quality, periodicity, and type) related to vibrato were evaluated through auditory perception by these two groups of judges on a rating scale developed specifically for the study, and one parameter evaluated singer's overall performance. Cohen's Kappa statistical analysis was used for inter-rater reliability within groups. Nonsinger judges (NSJs) within the group showed varied ratings as did SJs, yet SJs did have higher agreement than NSJs. Chi-square analysis was used across groups. Both groups were distinct from each other in their perception of vibrato. Ratings of singer's overall performance were not affected for NSJs, but certainly affected for SJ. It could not be concluded that ratings on singer's overall performance was affected as a result of vibrato. Since vibrato is often over-ridden by the singer's voice. But a rare occasion can arise where a vibrato may not sound pleasant and can affect the listener's perception of the singer's performance. Often a feedback from listeners would help monitor

  12. Effect on LTAS of vocal loudness variation.

    PubMed

    Nordenberg, Maria; Sundberg, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) is an efficient method for voice analysis, revealing both voice source and formant characteristics. However, the LTAS contour is non-uniformly affected by vocal loudness. This variation was analyzed in 15 male and 16 female untrained voices reading a text 7 times at different degrees of vocal loudness, mean change in overall equivalent sound level (Leq) amounting to 27.9 dB and 28.4 dB for the female and male subjects. For all frequency values up to 4 kHz, spectrum level was strongly and linearly correlated with Leq for each subject. The gain factor, that is to say, the rate of level increase, varied with frequency, from about 0.5 at low frequencies to about 1.5 in the frequency range 1.5-3 kHz. Using the gain factors for a subject, LTAS contours could be predicted at any Leq within the measured range, with an average accuracy of 2-3 dB below 4 kHz. Mean LTAS calculated for an Leq of 70 dB for each subject showed considerable individual variation for both males and females, SD of the level varying between 7 dB and 4 dB depending on frequency. On the other hand, the results also suggest that meaningful comparisons of LTAS, recorded for example before and after voice therapy, can be made, provided that the documentation includes a set of recordings at different loudness levels from one recording session.

  13. Evaluation of interventions to reduce multiply controlled vocal stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, Rachel; Henry, Kelsey; Davis, Tonya N; Amos, Kally; Zoch, Tamara; Turchan, Sarah; Wagner, Tara

    2015-07-01

    This study examined four interventions targeted at decreasing multiply controlled vocal stereotypy for a 12-year-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and a severe intellectual disability. These interventions included Noncontingent Music, Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors, Self-Recording, and Functional Communication Training (FCT). In addition to measuring vocal stereotypy during each condition, task engagement and challenging behavior were also monitored. Across conditions, vocal stereotypy did not vary significantly from baseline except in FCT, when it decreased significantly. Task engagement was higher in this condition as well. It is hypothesized that FCT provided an enriched environment by increasing social interaction and access to desired items as well as removal of less preferred activities. For these reasons, there was a decrease in the need for the participant to engage in vocal stereotypy and challenging behavior and increase in his ability to engage in a task. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Vocalization frequency and duration are coded in separate hindbrain nuclei.

    PubMed

    Chagnaud, Boris P; Baker, Robert; Bass, Andrew H

    2011-06-14

    Temporal patterning is an essential feature of neural networks producing precisely timed behaviours such as vocalizations that are widely used in vertebrate social communication. Here we show that intrinsic and network properties of separate hindbrain neuronal populations encode the natural call attributes of frequency and duration in vocal fish. Intracellular structure/function analyses indicate that call duration is encoded by a sustained membrane depolarization in vocal prepacemaker neurons that innervate downstream pacemaker neurons. Pacemaker neurons, in turn, encode call frequency by rhythmic, ultrafast oscillations in their membrane potential. Pharmacological manipulations show prepacemaker activity to be independent of pacemaker function, thus accounting for natural variation in duration which is the predominant feature distinguishing call types. Prepacemaker neurons also innervate key hindbrain auditory nuclei thereby effectively serving as a call-duration corollary discharge. We propose that premotor compartmentalization of neurons coding distinct acoustic attributes is a fundamental trait of hindbrain vocal pattern generators among vertebrates.

  15. Vocalization frequency and duration are coded in separate hindbrain nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Chagnaud, Boris P.; Baker, Robert; Bass, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal patterning is an essential feature of neural networks producing precisely timed behaviours such as vocalizations that are widely used in vertebrate social communication. Here we show that intrinsic and network properties of separate hindbrain neuronal populations encode the natural call attributes of frequency and duration in vocal fish. Intracellular structure/function analyses indicate that call duration is encoded by a sustained membrane depolarization in vocal prepacemaker neurons that innervate downstream pacemaker neurons. Pacemaker neurons, in turn, encode call frequency by rhythmic, ultrafast oscillations in their membrane potential. Pharmacological manipulations show prepacemaker activity to be independent of pacemaker function, thus accounting for natural variation in duration which is the predominant feature distinguishing call types. Prepacemaker neurons also innervate key hindbrain auditory nuclei thereby effectively serving as a call-duration corollary discharge. We propose that premotor compartmentalization of neurons coding distinct acoustic attributes is a fundamental trait of hindbrain vocal pattern generators among vertebrates. PMID:21673667

  16. Trends in Utilization of Vocal Fold Injection Procedures.

    PubMed

    Rosow, David E

    2015-11-01

    Office-based vocal fold injections have become increasingly popular over the past 15 years. Examination of trends in procedure coding for vocal fold injections in the United States from 2000 to 2012 was undertaken to see if they reflect this shift. The US Part B Medicare claims database was queried from 2000 through 2012 for multiple Current Procedural Terminology codes. Over the period studied, the number of nonoperative laryngoscopic injections (31513, 31570) and operative medialization laryngoplasties (31588) remained constant. Operative vocal fold injection (31571) demonstrated marked linear growth over the 12-year study period, from 744 procedures in 2000 to 4788 in 2012-an increase >640%. The dramatic increased incidence in the use of code 31571 reflects an increasing share of vocal fold injections being performed in the operating room and not in an office setting, running counter to the prevailing trend toward awake, office-based injection procedures. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  17. Corrigendum: Cultural Relativity in Perceiving Emotion From Vocalizations.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    Gendron, M., Roberson, D., van der Vyver, J. M., & Barrett, L. F. (2014). Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations. Psychological Science, 25, 911-920. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797613517239 ).

  18. Histological changes in vocal fold growth and aging.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Maggie A

    2014-12-01

    Sophisticated descriptions of the highly specialized vocal fold microarchitecture have been available for over three decades, but how this anatomy evolves with growth and aging remains an area of active investigation and, at times, a source of controversy. As our aging population expands and interest in pediatric voice disorders blossoms, it is timely to consider our contemporary understanding of evolving vocal fold histology and its implications for voice production. Novel applications of existing and emerging biotechnology, development of animal models and skillful use of human specimens have afforded greater insights into the histologic vocal fold changes seen throughout the lifespan in health and disease. Burgeoning knowledge has laid the foundation for more comprehensive models of vocal fold histology and has led to the development of innovative therapies for challenging voice disorders.

  19. The Effect of Vocal Hygiene and Behavior Modification Instruction on the Self-Reported Vocal Health Habits of Public School Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…

  20. Quantifying the Effects of Propagation on Classification of Cetacean Vocalizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    vocalizations from bowhead and humpback whales , and measuring the received signals at a variety of ranges [6]. The transmitted and received signals will be...and humpback whale calls. Feature Description Duration 
 Global mean subband decay time Local maximum subband decay time Frequency of... humpback vocalizations (extending down to approximately 50 Hz) as well as the higher frequencies used for the propagation experiments (1–4 kHz)1. • It

  1. Visual classification of feral cat Felis silvestris catus vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Jessica L.; Olsen, Mariana; Fontaine, Amy; Kloth, Christopher; Kershenbaum, Arik

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cat vocal behavior, in particular, the vocal and social behavior of feral cats, is poorly understood, as are the differences between feral and fully domestic cats. The relationship between feral cat social and vocal behavior is important because of the markedly different ecology of feral and domestic cats, and enhanced comprehension of the repertoire and potential information content of feral cat calls can provide both better understanding of the domestication and socialization process, and improved welfare for feral cats undergoing adoption. Previous studies have used conflicting classification schemes for cat vocalizations, often relying on onomatopoeic or popular descriptions of call types (e.g., “miow”). We studied the vocalizations of 13 unaltered domestic cats that complied with our behavioral definition used to distinguish feral cats from domestic. A total of 71 acoustic units were extracted and visually analyzed for the construction of a hierarchical classification of vocal sounds, based on acoustic properties. We identified 3 major categories (tonal, pulse, and broadband) that further breakdown into 8 subcategories, and show a high degree of reliability when sounds are classified blindly by independent observers (Fleiss’ Kappa K = 0.863). Due to the limited behavioral contexts in this study, additional subcategories of cat vocalizations may be identified in the future, but our hierarchical classification system allows for the addition of new categories and new subcategories as they are described. This study shows that cat vocalizations are diverse and complex, and provides an objective and reliable classification system that can be used in future studies. PMID:29491992

  2. Vocal Accuracy and Neural Plasticity Following Micromelody-Discrimination Training

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Jean Mary; Delhommeau, Karine; Wood, Sean; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent behavioral studies report correlational evidence to suggest that non-musicians with good pitch discrimination sing more accurately than those with poorer auditory skills. However, other studies have reported a dissociation between perceptual and vocal production skills. In order to elucidate the relationship between auditory discrimination skills and vocal accuracy, we administered an auditory-discrimination training paradigm to a group of non-musicians to determine whether training-enhanced auditory discrimination would specifically result in improved vocal accuracy. Methodology/Principal Findings We utilized micromelodies (i.e., melodies with seven different interval scales, each smaller than a semitone) as the main stimuli for auditory discrimination training and testing, and we used single-note and melodic singing tasks to assess vocal accuracy in two groups of non-musicians (experimental and control). To determine if any training-induced improvements in vocal accuracy would be accompanied by related modulations in cortical activity during singing, the experimental group of non-musicians also performed the singing tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Following training, the experimental group exhibited significant enhancements in micromelody discrimination compared to controls. However, we did not observe a correlated improvement in vocal accuracy during single-note or melodic singing, nor did we detect any training-induced changes in activity within brain regions associated with singing. Conclusions/Significance Given the observations from our auditory training regimen, we therefore conclude that perceptual discrimination training alone is not sufficient to improve vocal accuracy in non-musicians, supporting the suggested dissociation between auditory perception and vocal production. PMID:20567521

  3. Automatic Classification of Cetacean Vocalizations Using an Aural Classifier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    were used to test the classifier. A band-limited energy detector was used to process the baleen ( humback , bowhead, and right whale ) vocalizations and...from four1 cetacean species – the sperm whale , northern right whale , the bowhead whale and the humpback whale . These species were chosen for the...if time permits. For example, Minke whale vocalizations have recently been made available on the Mobysound website as the focal topic for the 5th

  4. Automatic Classification of Cetacean Vocalizations Using an Aural Classifier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    and K. Wong, Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song occurrence at American Samoa in long-term passive acoustic recordings, 2008–2009, J. Acoust...vocalizations primarily from four1 cetacean species – the sperm whale , northern right whale , the bowhead whale and the humpback whale . These species...with the classifier as time permits. For example, Minke whale vocalizations, available on the Mobysound website, were the focal topic for the 5th

  5. A Mutation Associated with Stuttering Alters Mouse Pup Ultrasonic Vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Terra D; Wozniak, David F; Gutierrez, Joanne; Han, Tae-Un; Drayna, Dennis; Holy, Timothy E

    2016-04-13

    A promising approach to understanding the mechanistic basis of speech is to study disorders that affect speech without compromising other cognitive or motor functions. Stuttering, also known as stammering, has been linked to mutations in the lysosomal enzyme-targeting pathway, but how this remarkably specific speech deficit arises from mutations in a family of general "cellular housekeeping" genes is unknown. To address this question, we asked whether a missense mutation associated with human stuttering causes vocal or other abnormalities in mice. We compared vocalizations from mice engineered to carry a mutation in the Gnptab (N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase subunits alpha/beta) gene with wild-type littermates. We found significant differences in the vocalizations of pups with the human Gnptab stuttering mutation compared to littermate controls. Specifically, we found that mice with the mutation emitted fewer vocalizations per unit time and had longer pauses between vocalizations and that the entropy of the temporal sequence was significantly reduced. Furthermore, Gnptab missense mice were similar to wild-type mice on an extensive battery of non-vocal behaviors. We then used the same language-agnostic metrics for auditory signal analysis of human speech. We analyzed speech from people who stutter with mutations in this pathway and compared it to control speech and found abnormalities similar to those found in the mouse vocalizations. These data show that mutations in the lysosomal enzyme-targeting pathway produce highly specific effects in mouse pup vocalizations and establish the mouse as an attractive model for studying this disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of arytenoid asymmetry in relation to vocal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, A-L; Nassar, J; Ashkar, J; Sibai, A

    2011-03-01

    (1) To assess the prevalence of arytenoid asymmetry during adduction, and (2) to correlate arytenoid asymmetry with vocal symptoms. The medical records and video recordings of 116 patients who presented to the voice clinic were reviewed for the presence of arytenoid asymmetry, as regards sharpening of the aryepiglottic fold angle and altered positioning of the cuneiform and corniculate cartilages. There were 61 males and 55 females, with a mean age of 39 years and a standard deviation of 15 years. Almost one-third had a history of reflux, 25 per cent had a history of smoking and 9.6 per cent had a history of allergy. Hoarseness was the most common symptom, occurring in 42.2 per cent of patients, followed by vocal fatigue (25 per cent) and inability to project the voice. The most common type of asymmetry was corniculate asymmetry, present in 27.6 per cent of the cases and accounting for 74.39 per cent of cases. This was followed by cuneiform cartilage asymmetry, present in 15.5 per cent of cases. There was no correlation between arytenoid asymmetry and vocal symptoms, except for vocal fatigue (p = 0.038). The prevalence of arytenoid asymmetry during adduction is common. The presence of vocal symptoms such as hoarseness, breathiness, inability to project the voice and straining does not generally seem to correlate with the prevalence of arytenoid asymmetry. However, subjects with vocal fatigue are more likely to have cuneiform asymmetry.

  7. Exploring vocal recovery after cranial nerve injury in Bengalese finches.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Catherine M; Peterson, Jennifer R; Cooper, Brenton G

    2013-02-08

    Songbirds and humans use auditory feedback to acquire and maintain their vocalizations. The Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) is a songbird species that rapidly modifies its vocal output to adhere to an internal song memory. In this species, the left side of the bipartite vocal organ is specialized for producing louder, higher frequencies (≥2.2kHz) and denervation of the left vocal muscles eliminates these notes. Thus, the return of higher frequency notes after cranial nerve injury can be used as a measure of vocal recovery. Either the left or right side of the syrinx was denervated by resection of the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve. Histologic analyses of syringeal muscle tissue showed significant muscle atrophy in the denervated side. After left nerve resection, songs were mainly composed of lower frequency syllables, but three out of five birds recovered higher frequency syllables. Right nerve resection minimally affected phonology, but it did change song syntax; syllable sequence became abnormally stereotyped after right nerve resection. Therefore, damage to the neuromuscular control of sound production resulted in reduced motor variability, and Bengalese finches are a potential model for functional vocal recovery following cranial nerve injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Geographical variation of St. Lucia Parrot flight vocalizations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleeman, Patrick M.; Gilardi, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Parrots are vocal learners and many species of parrots are capable of learning new calls, even as adults. This capability gives parrots the potential to develop communication systems that can vary dramatically over space. St. Lucia Parrot (Amazona versicolor) flight vocalizations were examined for geographic variation between four different sites on the island of St. Lucia. Spectrographic cross-correlation analysis of a commonly used flight vocalization, the p-chow call, demonstrated quantitative differences between sites. Additionally, the similarity of p-chows decreased as the distance between sites increased. Flight call repertoires also differed among sites; parrots at the Des Bottes and Quilesse sites each used one flight call unique to those sites, while parrots at the Barre de L'Isle site used a flight call that Quilesse parrots gave only while perched. It is unclear whether the vocal variation changed clinally with distance, or whether there were discrete dialect boundaries as in a congener, the Yellow-naped Parrot (Amazona auropalliata, Wright 1996). The geographical scale over which the St. Lucia Parrot's vocal variation occurred was dramatically smaller than that of the Yellow-naped Parrot. Similar patterns of fine-scale vocal variation may be more widespread among other parrot species in the Caribbean than previously documented.

  9. Tissue engineering therapies for the vocal fold lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Kutty, Jaishankar K; Webb, Ken

    2009-09-01

    The vocal folds are laryngeal connective tissues with complex matrix composition/organization that provide the viscoelastic mechanical properties required for voice production. Vocal fold injury results in alterations in tissue structure and corresponding changes in tissue biomechanics that reduce vocal quality. Recent work has begun to elucidate the biochemical changes underlying injury-induced pathology and to apply tissue engineering principles to the prevention and reversal of vocal fold scarring. Based on the extensive history of injectable biomaterials in laryngeal surgery, a major focus of regenerative therapies has been the development of novel scaffolds with controlled in vivo residence time and viscoelastic properties approximating the native tissue. Additional strategies have included cell transplantation and delivery of the antifibrotic cytokine hepatocyte growth factor, as well as investigation of the effects of the unique vocal fold vibratory microenvironment using in vitro dynamic culture systems. Recent achievements of significant reductions in fibrosis and improved recovery of native tissue viscoelasticity and vibratory/functional performance in animal models are rapidly moving vocal fold tissue engineering toward clinical application.

  10. Knockout of Foxp2 disrupts vocal development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Castellucci, Gregg A.; McGinley, Matthew J.; McCormick, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP2 gene is important for the development of proper speech motor control in humans. However, the role of the gene in general vocal behavior in other mammals, including mice, is unclear. Here, we track the vocal development of Foxp2 heterozygous knockout (Foxp2+/−) mice and their wildtype (WT) littermates from juvenile to adult ages, and observe severe abnormalities in the courtship song of Foxp2+/− mice. In comparison to their WT littermates, Foxp2+/− mice vocalized less, produced shorter syllable sequences, and possessed an abnormal syllable inventory. In addition, Foxp2+/− song also exhibited irregular rhythmic structure, and its development did not follow the consistent trajectories observed in WT vocalizations. These results demonstrate that the Foxp2 gene is critical for normal vocal behavior in juvenile and adult mice, and that Foxp2 mutant mice may provide a tractable model system for the study of the gene’s role in general vocal motor control. PMID:26980647

  11. Vocal tract resonances in speech, singing, and playing musical instruments.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Joe; Garnier, Maëva; Smith, John

    2009-01-01

    IN BOTH THE VOICE AND MUSICAL WIND INSTRUMENTS, A VALVE (VOCAL FOLDS, LIPS, OR REED) LIES BETWEEN AN UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM DUCT: trachea and vocal tract for the voice; vocal tract and bore for the instrument. Examining the structural similarities and functional differences gives insight into their operation and the duct-valve interactions. In speech and singing, vocal tract resonances usually determine the spectral envelope and usually have a smaller influence on the operating frequency. The resonances are important not only for the phonemic information they produce, but also because of their contribution to voice timbre, loudness, and efficiency. The role of the tract resonances is usually different in brass and some woodwind instruments, where they modify and to some extent compete or collaborate with resonances of the instrument to control the vibration of a reed or the player's lips, andor the spectrum of air flow into the instrument. We give a brief overview of oscillator mechanisms and vocal tract acoustics. We discuss recent and current research on how the acoustical resonances of the vocal tract are involved in singing and the playing of musical wind instruments. Finally, we compare techniques used in determining tract resonances and suggest some future developments.

  12. Treatment outcome of vocal cord leukoplakia by transoral laser microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Chao, Wei-Chieh; Lee, Yun-Shien; Chang, Liang-Che; Hsieh, Tsan-Yu; Chen, Tai-An; Luo, Cheng-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the treatment outcome and analyze the associated factors of postoperative recurrence in patients who received transoral laser microsurgery for vocal cord leukoplakia. The demographic, histopathological data were retrospectively reviewed and the factors associated with recurrence of vocal leukoplakia after surgery were analyzed statistically. A total of 44 patients, including 36 males and 8 females, with a mean age of 50.4 ± 13.4 years, were enrolled. All the patients received excision of the vocal leukoplakia by carbon dioxide laser (2-4 Watt, ultrapulse mode) under general anesthesia. No patients had malignant transformation after surgery. Postoperative recurrence occurred in 10 patients (22.7 %). Univariate analysis showed that patients who had the habit of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease tended to recur. Among these risk factors, presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (odds ratio 8.43) was the independent prognostic factor for recurrence using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Carbon dioxide laser excision is effective for treating vocal leukoplakia that is still confined to dysplasia of any degree, with acceptable morbidity. This study suggests that the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease is the prognostic indicator for postoperative recurrence of vocal leukoplakia. Aggressive treatment of reflux disease for those who have received surgical excision for vocal leukoplakia is indicated.

  13. The effect of superior auditory skills on vocal accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Ofer; Amir, Noam; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2003-02-01

    The relationship between auditory perception and vocal production has been typically investigated by evaluating the effect of either altered or degraded auditory feedback on speech production in either normal hearing or hearing-impaired individuals. Our goal in the present study was to examine this relationship in individuals with superior auditory abilities. Thirteen professional musicians and thirteen nonmusicians, with no vocal or singing training, participated in this study. For vocal production accuracy, subjects were presented with three tones. They were asked to reproduce the pitch using the vowel /a/. This procedure was repeated three times. The fundamental frequency of each production was measured using an autocorrelation pitch detection algorithm designed for this study. The musicians' superior auditory abilities (compared to the nonmusicians) were established in a frequency discrimination task reported elsewhere. Results indicate that (a) musicians had better vocal production accuracy than nonmusicians (production errors of 1/2 a semitone compared to 1.3 semitones, respectively); (b) frequency discrimination thresholds explain 43% of the variance of the production data, and (c) all subjects with superior frequency discrimination thresholds showed accurate vocal production; the reverse relationship, however, does not hold true. In this study we provide empirical evidence to the importance of auditory feedback on vocal production in listeners with superior auditory skills.

  14. Vocal fold tissue failure: preliminary data and constitutive modeling.

    PubMed

    Chan, Roger W; Siegmund, Thomas

    2004-08-01

    In human voice production (phonation), linear small-amplitude vocal fold oscillation occurs only under restricted conditions. Physiologically, phonation more often involves large-amplitude oscillation associated with tissue stresses and strains beyond their linear viscoelastic limits, particularly in the lamina propria extracellular matrix (ECM). This study reports some preliminary measurements of tissue deformation and failure response of the vocal fold ECM under large-strain shear The primary goal was to formulate and test a novel constitutive model for vocal fold tissue failure, based on a standard-linear cohesive-zone (SL-CZ) approach. Tissue specimens of the sheep vocal fold mucosa were subjected to torsional deformation in vitro, at constant strain rates corresponding to twist rates of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 rad/s. The vocal fold ECM demonstrated nonlinear stress-strain and rate-dependent failure response with a failure strain as low as 0.40 rad. A finite-element implementation of the SL-CZ model was capable of capturing the rate dependence in these preliminary data, demonstrating the model's potential for describing tissue failure. Further studies with additional tissue specimens and model improvements are needed to better understand vocal fold tissue failure.

  15. Velocity field measurements in oblique static divergent vocal fold models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron

    2005-11-01

    During normal phonation, the vocal fold cycle is characterized by the glottal opening transitioning from a convergent to a divergent passage and then closing before the cycle is repeated. Under ordinary phonatory conditions, both vocal folds, which form the glottal passage, move in phase with each other, creating a time-varying symmetric opening. However, abnormal pathological conditions, such as unilateral paralysis, and polyps, can result in geometrical asymmetries between the vocal folds throughout the phonatory cycle. This study investigates pulsatile flow fields through 7.5 times life-size vocal fold models with included divergence angles of 5 to 30 degrees, and obliquities between the vocal folds of up to 15 degrees. Flow conditions were scaled to match physiological parameters. Data were taken at the anterior posterior mid-plane using phase-averaged Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Viscous flow phenomena including the Coanda effect, flow separation points, and jet "flapping" were investigated. The results are compared to previously reported work of flow through symmetric divergent vocal fold models.

  16. Vocal exploration is locally regulated during song learning

    PubMed Central

    Ravbar, Primoz; Parra, Lucas C.; Lipkind, Dina; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory variability is essential for sensory-motor learning, but it is not known how and at what time scales it is regulated. We manipulated song learning in zebra finches to experimentally control the requirements for vocal exploration in different parts of their song. We first trained birds to perform a one-syllable song, and once they mastered it we added a new syllable to the song model. Remarkably, when practicing the modified song, birds rapidly alternated between high and low acoustic variability to confine vocal exploration to the newly added syllable. Further, even within syllables, acoustic variability changed independently across song elements that were only milliseconds apart. Analysis of the entire vocal output during learning revealed that the variability of each song element decreased as it approached the target, correlating with momentary local distance from the target and less so with the overall distance. We conclude that vocal error is computed locally in sub-syllabic time scales and that song elements can be learned and crystalized independently. Songbirds have dedicated brain circuitry for vocal babbling in the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), which generates exploratory song patterns that drive premotor neurons at the song nucleus RA (robust nucleus of the arcopallium). We hypothesize that either AFP adjusts the gain of vocal exploration in fine time scales, or that the sensitivity of RA premotor neurons to AFP/HVC inputs varies across song elements. PMID:22399765

  17. Vocal tract resonances in speech, singing, and playing musical instruments

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Joe; Garnier, Maëva; Smith, John

    2009-01-01

    In both the voice and musical wind instruments, a valve (vocal folds, lips, or reed) lies between an upstream and downstream duct: trachea and vocal tract for the voice; vocal tract and bore for the instrument. Examining the structural similarities and functional differences gives insight into their operation and the duct-valve interactions. In speech and singing, vocal tract resonances usually determine the spectral envelope and usually have a smaller influence on the operating frequency. The resonances are important not only for the phonemic information they produce, but also because of their contribution to voice timbre, loudness, and efficiency. The role of the tract resonances is usually different in brass and some woodwind instruments, where they modify and to some extent compete or collaborate with resonances of the instrument to control the vibration of a reed or the player’s lips, and∕or the spectrum of air flow into the instrument. We give a brief overview of oscillator mechanisms and vocal tract acoustics. We discuss recent and current research on how the acoustical resonances of the vocal tract are involved in singing and the playing of musical wind instruments. Finally, we compare techniques used in determining tract resonances and suggest some future developments. PMID:19649157

  18. Distress vocalization sequences broadcasted by bats carry redundant information.

    PubMed

    Hechavarría, Julio C; Beetz, M Jerome; Macias, Silvio; Kössl, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Distress vocalizations (also known as alarm or screams) are an important component of the vocal repertoire of a number of animal species, including bats, humans, monkeys and birds, among others. Although the behavioral relevance of distress vocalizations is undeniable, at present, little is known about the rules that govern vocalization production when in alarmful situations. In this article, we show that when distressed, bats of the species Carollia perspicillata produce repetitive vocalization sequences in which consecutive syllables are likely to be similar to one another regarding their physical attributes. The uttered distress syllables are broadband (12-73 kHz) with most of their energy focussing at 23 kHz. Distress syllables are short (~4 ms), their average sound pressure level is close to 70 dB SPL, and they are produced at high repetition rates (every 14 ms). We discuss that, because of their physical attributes, bat distress vocalizations could serve a dual purpose: (1) advertising threatful situations to conspecifics, and (2) informing the threatener that the bats are ready to defend themselves. We also discuss possible advantages of advertising danger/discomfort using repetitive utterances, a calling strategy that appears to be ubiquitous across the animal kingdom.

  19. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephanie L.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Wells, Randall S.; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in other animals, addressing with learned signals is very much an affiliative signal. We studied the function of vocal copying in a mammal that shows vocal learning as well as complex cognitive and social behaviour, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Copying occurred almost exclusively between close associates such as mother–calf pairs and male alliances during separation and was not followed by aggression. All copies were clearly recognizable as such because copiers consistently modified some acoustic parameters of a signal when copying it. We found no evidence for the use of copying in aggression or deception. This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defence of resources. PMID:23427174

  20. Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations are bound to active sniffing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sirotin, Yevgeniy B.; Costa, Martín Elias; Laplagne, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    During rodent active behavior, multiple orofacial sensorimotor behaviors, including sniffing and whisking, display rhythmicity in the theta range (~5–10 Hz). During specific behaviors, these rhythmic patterns interlock, such that execution of individual motor programs becomes dependent on the state of the others. Here we performed simultaneous recordings of the respiratory cycle and ultrasonic vocalization emission by adult rats and mice in social settings. We used automated analysis to examine the relationship between breathing patterns and vocalization over long time periods. Rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs, “50 kHz”) were emitted within stretches of active sniffing (5–10 Hz) and were largely absent during periods of passive breathing (1–4 Hz). Because ultrasound was tightly linked to the exhalation phase, the sniffing cycle segmented vocal production into discrete calls and imposed its theta rhythmicity on their timing. In turn, calls briefly prolonged exhalations, causing an immediate drop in sniffing rate. Similar results were obtained in mice. Our results show that ultrasonic vocalizations are an integral part of the rhythmic orofacial behavioral ensemble. This complex behavioral program is thus involved not only in active sensing but also in the temporal structuring of social communication signals. Many other social signals of mammals, including monkey calls and human speech, show structure in the theta range. Our work points to a mechanism for such structuring in rodent ultrasonic vocalizations. PMID:25477796

  1. Phonology and Vocal Behavior in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Elizabeth; Paul, Rhea; Chawarska, Katyrzyna

    2011-01-01

    Scientific Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine the phonological and other vocal productions of children, 18-36 months, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare these productions to those of age-matched and language-matched controls. Speech samples were obtained from 30 toddlers with ASD, 11 age-matched toddlers and 23 language-matched toddlers during either parent-child or clinician-child play sessions. Samples were coded for a variety of speech-like and non-speech vocalization productions. Toddlers with ASD produced speech-like vocalizations similar to those of language-matched peers, but produced significantly more atypical non-speech vocalizations when compared to both control groups.Toddlers with ASD show speech-like sound production that is linked to their language level, in a manner similar to that seen in typical development. The main area of difference in vocal development in this population is in the production of atypical vocalizations. Findings suggest that toddlers with autism spectrum disorders might not tune into the language model of their environment. Failure to attend to the ambient language environment negatively impacts the ability to acquire spoken language. PMID:21308998

  2. Vocal Interaction between Children with Down syndrome and their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy S.; Warren, Steven F.; Brady, Nancy; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe differences in parent input and child vocal behaviors of children with Down syndrome (DS) compared to typically developing (TD) children. The goals were to describe the language learning environments at distinctly different ages in early childhood. Method Nine children with DS and 9 age-matched TD children participated; four children in each group were ages 9–11 months and five were between 25–54 months. Measures were derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processer measured the richness of the child’s language environment, including number of adult words, conversational turns, and child vocalizations. Results Analyses indicated no significant differences in words spoken by parents of younger vs. older children with DS, and significantly more words spoken by parents of TD children than parents of children with DS. Differences between the DS and TD groups were observed in rates of all vocal behaviors; with no differences noted between the younger vs. older children with DS, and the younger TD children did not vocalize significantly more than the younger DS children. Conclusions Parents of children with DS continue to provide consistent levels of input across the early language learning years; however, child vocal behaviors remain low after the age of 24 months suggesting the need for additional and alternative intervention approaches. PMID:24686777

  3. Vocal interaction between children with Down syndrome and their parents.

    PubMed

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy S; Warren, Steven F; Brady, Nancy; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe differences in parent input and child vocal behaviors of children with Down syndrome (DS) compared with typically developing (TD) children. The goals were to describe the language learning environments at distinctly different ages in early childhood. Nine children with DS and 9 age-matched TD children participated; 4 children in each group were ages 9-11 months, and 5 were between 25 and 54 months. Measures were derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processor measured the richness of the child's language environment, including number of adult words, conversational turns, and child vocalizations. Analyses indicated no significant differences in words spoken by parents of younger versus older children with DS and significantly more words spoken by parents of TD children than parents of children with DS. Differences between the DS and TD groups were observed in rates of all vocal behaviors, with no differences noted between the younger versus older children with DS, and the younger TD children did not vocalize significantly more than the younger DS children. Parents of children with DS continue to provide consistent levels of input across the early language learning years; however, child vocal behaviors remain low after the age of 24 months, suggesting the need for additional and alternative intervention approaches.

  4. The objective vocal quality, vocal risk factors, vocal complaints, and corporal pain in Dutch female students training to be speech-language pathologists during the 4 years of study.

    PubMed

    Van Lierde, Kristiane M; D'haeseleer, Evelien; Wuyts, Floris L; De Ley, Sophia; Geldof, Ruben; De Vuyst, Julie; Sofie, Claeys

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the objective vocal quality and the vocal characteristics (vocal risk factors, vocal and corporal complaints) in 197 female students in speech-language pathology during the 4 years of study. The objective vocal quality was measured by means of the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). Perceptual voice assessment, the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), questionnaires addressing vocal risks, and vocal and corporal complaints during and/or after voice usage were performed. Speech-language pathology (SLP) students have a borderline vocal quality corresponding to a DSI% of 68. The analysis of variance revealed no significant change of the objective vocal quality between the first bachelor year and the master year. No psychosocial handicapping effect of the voice was observed by means of the VHI total, though there was an effect at the functional VHI level in addition to some vocal complaints. Ninety-three percent of the student SLPs reported the presence of corporal pain during and/or after speaking. In particular, sore throat and headache were mentioned as the prevalent corporal pain symptoms. A longitudinal study of the objective vocal quality of the same subjects during their career as an SLP might provide new insights. 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Limiting parental interaction during vocal development affects acoustic call structure in marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Yasemin B; Hage, Steffen R

    2018-04-01

    Human vocal development is dependent on learning by imitation through social feedback between infants and caregivers. Recent studies have revealed that vocal development is also influenced by parental feedback in marmoset monkeys, suggesting vocal learning mechanisms in nonhuman primates. Marmoset infants that experience more contingent vocal feedback than their littermates develop vocalizations more rapidly, and infant marmosets with limited parental interaction exhibit immature vocal behavior beyond infancy. However, it is yet unclear whether direct parental interaction is an obligate requirement for proper vocal development because all monkeys in the aforementioned studies were able to produce the adult call repertoire after infancy. Using quantitative measures to compare distinct call parameters and vocal sequence structure, we show that social interaction has a direct impact not only on the maturation of the vocal behavior but also on acoustic call structures during vocal development. Monkeys with limited parental interaction during development show systematic differences in call entropy, a measure for maturity, compared with their normally raised siblings. In addition, different call types were occasionally uttered in motif-like sequences similar to those exhibited by vocal learners, such as birds and humans, in early vocal development. These results indicate that a lack of parental interaction leads to long-term disturbances in the acoustic structure of marmoset vocalizations, suggesting an imperative role for social interaction in proper primate vocal development.

  6. Limiting parental interaction during vocal development affects acoustic call structure in marmoset monkeys

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Human vocal development is dependent on learning by imitation through social feedback between infants and caregivers. Recent studies have revealed that vocal development is also influenced by parental feedback in marmoset monkeys, suggesting vocal learning mechanisms in nonhuman primates. Marmoset infants that experience more contingent vocal feedback than their littermates develop vocalizations more rapidly, and infant marmosets with limited parental interaction exhibit immature vocal behavior beyond infancy. However, it is yet unclear whether direct parental interaction is an obligate requirement for proper vocal development because all monkeys in the aforementioned studies were able to produce the adult call repertoire after infancy. Using quantitative measures to compare distinct call parameters and vocal sequence structure, we show that social interaction has a direct impact not only on the maturation of the vocal behavior but also on acoustic call structures during vocal development. Monkeys with limited parental interaction during development show systematic differences in call entropy, a measure for maturity, compared with their normally raised siblings. In addition, different call types were occasionally uttered in motif-like sequences similar to those exhibited by vocal learners, such as birds and humans, in early vocal development. These results indicate that a lack of parental interaction leads to long-term disturbances in the acoustic structure of marmoset vocalizations, suggesting an imperative role for social interaction in proper primate vocal development. PMID:29651461

  7. What automated vocal analysis reveals about the vocal production and language learning environment of young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Warren, Steven F; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A; Oller, D Kimbrough; Xu, Dongxin; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmistha

    2010-05-01

    The study compared the vocal production and language learning environments of 26 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to 78 typically developing children using measures derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processor and audio-processing algorithms measured the amount of adult words to children and the amount of vocalizations they produced during 12-h recording periods in their natural environments. The results indicated significant differences between typically developing children and children with ASD in the characteristics of conversations, the number of conversational turns, and in child vocalizations that correlated with parent measures of various child characteristics. Automated measurement of the language learning environment of young children with ASD reveals important differences from the environments experienced by typically developing children.

  8. Breathing and Vocal Control: The Respiratory System as both a Driver and Target of Telencephalic Vocal Motor Circuits in Songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Marc F.; McLean, Judith; Goller, Franz

    2011-01-01

    The production of vocalizations is intimately linked to the respiratory system. Despite our understanding of neural circuits that generate normal respiratory patterns, very little is understood regarding how these ponto-medullary circuits become engaged during vocal production. Songbirds offer a potentially powerful model system for addressing this relationship. Songs dramatically alter the respiratory pattern in ways that are often highly predictable and songbirds have a specialized telencephalic vocal motor circuit that provides massive innervation to a brainstem respiratory network that shares many similarities with its mammalian counterpart. In this review, we highlight interactions between the song motor circuit and the respiratory system, describing how both systems likely interact to produce the complex respiratory patterns that are observed during vocalization. We also discuss how the respiratory system, through its bilateral bottom-up projections to thalamus, might play a key role in sending precisely timed signals that synchronize premotor activity in both hemispheres. PMID:21984733

  9. Individual vocal signatures in barn owl nestlings: does individual recognition have an adaptive role in sibling vocal competition?

    PubMed

    Dreiss, A N; Ruppli, C A; Roulin, A

    2014-01-01

    To compete over limited parental resources, young animals communicate with their parents and siblings by producing honest vocal signals of need. Components of begging calls that are sensitive to food deprivation may honestly signal need, whereas other components may be associated with individual-specific attributes that do not change with time such as identity, sex, absolute age and hierarchy. In a sib-sib communication system where barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings vocally negotiate priority access to food resources, we show that calls have individual signatures that are used by nestlings to recognize which siblings are motivated to compete, even if most vocalization features vary with hunger level. Nestlings were more identifiable when food-deprived than food-satiated, suggesting that vocal identity is emphasized when the benefit of winning a vocal contest is higher. In broods where siblings interact iteratively, we speculate that individual-specific signature permits siblings to verify that the most vocal individual in the absence of parents is the one that indeed perceived the food brought by parents. Individual recognition may also allow nestlings to associate identity with individual-specific characteristics such as position in the within-brood dominance hierarchy. Calls indeed revealed age hierarchy and to a lower extent sex and absolute age. Using a cross-fostering experimental design, we show that most acoustic features were related to the nest of origin (but not the nest of rearing), suggesting a genetic or an early developmental effect on the ontogeny of vocal signatures. To conclude, our study suggests that sibling competition has promoted the evolution of vocal behaviours that signal not only hunger level but also intrinsic individual characteristics such as identity, family, sex and age. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Do Talkativeness and Vocal Loudness Correlate With Laryngeal Pathology? A Study of the Vocal Overdoer/Underdoer Continuum.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Robert W; Thomas, James P

    2016-09-01

    Assess the correlation between self-rating scales of talkativeness and loudness with various types of voice disorders. This is a retrospective study. A total of 974 patients were analyzed. The cohort study included 430 consecutive patients presenting to the senior author with voice complaints from December 1995 to December 1998. The case-control study added 544 consecutive patients referred to the same examiner from January 1988 to December 1998 for vocal fold examination before thyroid, parathyroid, and carotid surgery. Patient responses on seven-point Likert self-rating scales of talkativeness and loudness were compared with laryngeal disease. Mucosal lesions clearly associated with vibratory trauma are strongly associated with a high self-rating of talkativeness. Laryngeal deconditioning disorders were associated with a low self-rating of talkativeness. Use of a simple self-rating scale of vocal loudness and talkativeness during history taking can reliably orient the examiner to the types of voice disorders likely to be diagnosed subsequently during vocal capability testing and visual laryngeal examination. The high degree of talkativeness and loudness seen in vocal overdoers correlates well with mucosal disorders such as nodules, polyps, capillary ectasia, epidermoid inclusion cysts, and hemorrhage. A lower degree of talkativeness correlates with muscle deconditioning disorders such as vocal fold bowing, atrophy, presbyphonia, and vocal fatigue syndrome. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Traditional/Acoustic Music Project: a study of vocal demands and vocal health.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Molly L

    2012-09-01

    The Traditional/Acoustic Music Project seeks to identify the musical and performance characteristics of traditional/acoustic musicians and determine the vocal demands they face with the goals of (1) providing information and outreach to this important group of singers and (2) providing information to physicians, speech-language pathologists, and singing teachers who will enable them to provide appropriate services. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data have been collected through administration of a 53-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to artists performing at local venues in Knoxville, Tennessee and also to musicians attending the 2008 Folk Alliance Festival in Memphis, Tennessee. Approximately 41% of the respondents have had no vocal training, whereas approximately 34% of the respondents have had some form of formal vocal training (private lessons or group instruction). About 41% of the participants had experienced a tired voice, whereas about 30% of the participants had experienced either a loss of the top range of the voice or a total loss of voice at least once in their careers. Approximately 31% of the respondents had no health insurance. Approximately 69% of the respondents reported that they get their information about healthy singing practices solely from fellow musicians or that they do not get any information at all. Traditional/acoustic musicians are a poorly studied population at risk for the development of voice disorders. Continued research is necessary with the goal of a large sample that can be analyzed for associations, identification of subpopulations, and formulation of specific hypotheses that lend themselves to experimental research. Appropriate models of information and service delivery tailored for the singer-instrumentalist are needed. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multidimensional assessment of vocal changes in benign vocal fold lesions after voice therapy.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Antonio; Mozzanica, Francesco; Maruzzi, Patrizia; Atac, Murat; De Cristofaro, Valeria; Ottaviani, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate through a multidimensional protocol voice changes after voice therapy in patients with benign vocal fold lesions. 65 consecutive patients affected by benign vocal fold lesions were enrolled. Depending on videolaryngostroboscopy the patients were divided into 3 groups: 23 patients with Reinke's oedema, 22 patients with vocal fold cysts and 20 patients with gelatinous polyp. Each subject received 10 voice therapy sessions and was evaluated, before and after voice therapy, through a multidimensional protocol including videolaryngostroboscopy, perception, acoustics, aerodynamics and self-rating by the patient. Data were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyse the mean variation difference between the three groups of patients. Mann-Whitney test was used for post hoc analysis. Only in 11 cases videolaryngostroboscopy revealed an improvement of the initial pathology. However a significant improvement was observed in perceptual, acoustic and self-assessment ratings in the 3 groups of patients. In particular the parameters of G, R and A of the GIRBAS scale, and the noise to harmonic ratio, Jitter and shimmer scores improved after rehabilitation. A significant improvement of all the parameters of Voice Handicap Index after rehabilitation treatment was found. No significant difference among the three groups of patients was visible, except for self-assessment ratings. Voice therapy may provide a significant improvement in perceptual, acoustic and self-assessed voice quality in patients with benign glottal lesions. Utilization of voice therapy may allow some patients to avoid surgical intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Auditory responses in the amygdala to social vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    The underlying goal of this dissertation is to understand how the amygdala, a brain region involved in establishing the emotional significance of sensory input, contributes to the processing of complex sounds. The general hypothesis is that communication calls of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) transmit relevant information about social context that is reflected in the activity of amygdalar neurons. The first specific aim analyzed social vocalizations emitted under a variety of behavioral contexts, and related vocalizations to an objective measure of internal physiological state by monitoring the heart rate of vocalizing bats. These experiments revealed a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a sender. The second specific aim characterized the responsiveness of single neurons in the basolateral amygdala to a range of social syllables. Neurons typically respond to the majority of tested syllables, but effectively discriminate among vocalizations by varying the response duration. This novel coding strategy underscores the importance of persistent firing in the general functioning of the amygdala. The third specific aim examined the influence of acoustic context by characterizing both the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to natural vocal sequences. Vocal sequences differentially modify the internal affective state of a listening bat, with lower aggression vocalizations evoking the greatest change in heart rate. Amygdalar neurons employ two different coding strategies: low background neurons respond selectively to very few stimuli, whereas high background neurons respond broadly to stimuli but demonstrate variation in response magnitude and timing. Neurons appear to discriminate the valence of stimuli, with aggression sequences evoking robust population-level responses across all sound levels. Further, vocal sequences show improved discrimination among stimuli

  14. Evolutionary Origins for Social Vocalization in a Vertebrate Hindbrain–Spinal Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Andrew H.; Gilland, Edwin H.; Baker, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The macroevolutionary events leading to neural innovations for social communication, such as vocalization, are essentially unexplored. Many fish vocalize during female courtship and territorial defense, as do amphibians, birds, and mammals. Here, we map the neural circuitry for vocalization in larval fish and show that the vocal network develops in a segment-like region across the most caudal hindbrain and rostral spinal cord. Taxonomic analysis demonstrates a highly conserved pattern between fish and all major lineages of vocal tetrapods. We propose that the vocal basis for acoustic communication among vertebrates evolved from an ancestrally shared developmental compartment already present in the early fishes. PMID:18635807

  15. Non-song vocalizations of pygmy blue whales in Geographe Bay, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Recalde-Salas, A; Salgado Kent, C P; Parsons, M J G; Marley, S A; McCauley, R D

    2014-05-01

    Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with song, and thus were identified as non-song vocalizations. Five of these were not previously described for this population. Their acoustic characteristics and context are presented. Given that 56% of groups vocalized, 86% of which produced non-song vocalizations and 14% song units, the inclusion of non-song vocalizations in passive-acoustic monitoring is proposed.

  16. A new measure of child vocal reciprocity in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Amy L; Woynaroski, Tiffany G; Tapp, Jon; Wade, Joshua W; Warlaumont, Anne S; Yoder, Paul J

    2018-06-01

    Children's vocal development occurs in the context of reciprocal exchanges with a communication partner who models "speechlike" productions. We propose a new measure of child vocal reciprocity, which we define as the degree to which an adult vocal response increases the probability of an immediately following child vocal response. Vocal reciprocity is likely to be associated with the speechlikeness of vocal communication in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Two studies were conducted to test the utility of the new measure. The first used simulated vocal samples with randomly sequenced child and adult vocalizations to test the accuracy of the proposed index of child vocal reciprocity. The second was an empirical study of 21 children with ASD who were preverbal or in the early stages of language development. Daylong vocal samples collected in the natural environment were computer analyzed to derive the proposed index of child vocal reciprocity, which was highly stable when derived from two daylong vocal samples and was associated with speechlikeness of vocal communication. This association was significant even when controlling for chance probability of child vocalizations to adult vocal responses, probability of adult vocalizations, or probability of child vocalizations. A valid measure of children's vocal reciprocity might eventually improve our ability to predict which children are on track to develop useful speech and/or are most likely to respond to language intervention. A link to a free, publicly-available software program to derive the new measure of child vocal reciprocity is provided. Autism Res 2018, 11: 903-915. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Children and adults often engage in back-and-forth vocal exchanges. The extent to which they do so is believed to support children's early speech and language development. Two studies tested a new measure of child vocal reciprocity using computer

  17. Resting-Associated Vocalization Emitted by Captive Asian House Shrews (Suncus murinus): Acoustic Structure and Variability in an Unusual Mammalian Vocalization

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals. PMID:25390304

  18. Vocal handicap index in popular and erudite professional singers.

    PubMed

    Loiola-Barreiro, Camila Miranda; Silva, Marta Assumpção de Andrada E

    To compare the voice handicap index of popular and erudite professional singers according to gender, age, professional experience time, and presence or absence of self-reported vocal complaints. One hundred thirty-two professional singers, 74 popular and 58 erudite, who responded to a questionnaire with regards to identification, age, gender, professional experience time in singing, musical genres (for popular singers), vocal classification (for erudite singers), presence of self-reported vocal complaints, and the specific protocols for popular (Modern Singing Handicap Index - MSHI) and erudite (Classical Singing Handicap Index - CSHI) singing. Higher proportion of women and higher incidence of vocal complaints were observed in the popular singers compared with the erudite singers. Most of the popular singers belonged to the genre of Brazilian Popular Music. Regarding the classification of erudite singers, there was greater participation of sopranos and tenors. No statistical differences were observed with respect to age and professional experience time between the groups. Comparison of the MSHI and CSHI scores showed no statistically significant difference between these scores and genre or age in both groups of singers. Professional experience time was related to the total score and the subscales disability and impairment in the MSHI, only for popular singers with vocal complaints. There was no correlation between these variables and the CSHI for erudite singers. The impact of vocal difficulty/problem interferes differently in these two musical genres when related to vocal complaint and professional experience time. The MSHI and CSHI protocols proved to be important tools not only for the identification of problems, but also for the understanding of how these individuals relate their voices with this occupational activity.

  19. Functional flexibility of infant vocalization and the emergence of language

    PubMed Central

    Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ramsdell, Heather L.; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Chorna, Lesya; Bakeman, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We report on the emergence of functional flexibility in vocalizations of human infants. This vastly underappreciated capability becomes apparent when prelinguistic vocalizations express a full range of emotional content—positive, neutral, and negative. The data show that at least three types of infant vocalizations (squeals, vowel-like sounds, and growls) occur with this full range of expression by 3–4 mo of age. In contrast, infant cry and laughter, which are species-specific signals apparently homologous to vocal calls in other primates, show functional stability, with cry overwhelmingly expressing negative and laughter positive emotional states. Functional flexibility is a sine qua non in spoken language, because all words or sentences can be produced as expressions of varying emotional states and because learning conventional “meanings” requires the ability to produce sounds that are free of any predetermined function. Functional flexibility is a defining characteristic of language, and empirically it appears before syntax, word learning, and even earlier-developing features presumed to be critical to language (e.g., joint attention, syllable imitation, and canonical babbling). The appearance of functional flexibility early in the first year of human life is a critical step in the development of vocal language and may have been a critical step in the evolution of human language, preceding protosyntax and even primitive single words. Such flexible affect expression of vocalizations has not yet been reported for any nonhuman primate but if found to occur would suggest deep roots for functional flexibility of vocalization in our primate heritage. PMID:23550164

  20. Characterization of chronic vocal fold scarring in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Bernard; Hirano, Shigeru; Chan, Roger W; Welham, Nathan V; Thibeault, Susan L; Ford, Charles N; Bless, Diane M

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the histologic and rheologic properties of the scarred vocal fold lamina propria during a chronic phase of wound repair in a rabbit model. Eighteen rabbit larynges were scarred using a procedure that involved stripping the vocal fold lamina propria down to the thyroarytenoid muscle, using 3-mm microforceps. The approximate dimension of injury to the vocal fold was 3 x 1.5 x 0.5 mm [length x width x depth]. At 6 months postoperatively, histologic analysis of the scarred and control lamina propria in eight of these rabbits was completed for collagen, procollagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid. Compared with control samples, scarred tissue samples revealed fragmented and disorganized elastin fibers. Additionally, collagen was significantly increased, organized, and formed thick bundles in the scarred vocal fold lamina propria. Measurements of the viscoelastic shear properties of the scarred and control lamina propria in the remaining 10 rabbits revealed increased elastic shear modulus (G') in 8 of 10 scarred samples and increased dynamic viscosity (eta') in 9 of 10 scarred samples. Although rheologic differences were not statistically significant, they revealed that on average, scarred samples were stiffer and more viscous than the normal controls. Histologic data are interpreted as indicating that by 6 months postinjury, the scarred rabbit vocal fold has reached a mature phase of wound repair, characterized by an increased, organized, and thick bundle collagen matrix. Rheologic data are interpreted as providing support for the potential role of increased, thick bundle collagen, and a disorganized elastin network on shear stiffness and dynamic viscosity in the chronic vocal fold scar. Based on these results, a 6-month postoperative time frame is proposed for future studies of chronic vocal fold scarring using the rabbit animal model.

  1. Acoustic, respiratory kinematic and electromyographic effects of vocal training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Ana Paula De Brito Garcia

    The longitudinal effects of vocal training on the respiratory, phonatory and articulatory systems were investigated in this study. During four semesters, fourteen voice major students were recorded while speaking and singing. Acoustic, temporal, respiratory kinematic and electromyographic parameters were measured to determine changes in the three systems as a function of vocal training. Acoustic measures of the speaking voice included fundamental frequency, sound pressure level (SPL), percent jitter and shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Temporal measures included duration of sentences, diphthongs and the closure durations of stop consonants. Acoustic measures of the singing voice included fundamental frequency and sound pressure level of the phonational range, vibrato pulses per second, vibrato amplitude variation and the presence of the singer's formant. Analysis of the data revealed that vocal training had a significant effect on the singing voice. Fundamental frequency and SPL of the 90% level and 90--10% of the phonational range increased significantly during four semesters of vocal training. Physiological data was collected from four subjects during three semesters of vocal training. Respiratory kinematic measures included lung volume, rib cage and abdominal excursions extracted from spoken sung samples. Descriptive statistics revealed that rib cage and abdominal excursions increased from the 1st to the 2nd semester and decrease from the 2nd to the 3rd semester of vocal training. Electromyographic measures of the pectoralis major, rectus abdominis and external obliques muscles revealed that burst duration means decreased from the 1st to the 2nd semester and increased from the 2nd to the 3rd semester. Peak amplitude means increased from the 1st to the 2nd and decreased from the 2nd to the 3rd semester of vocal training. Chest wall excursions and muscle force generation of the three muscles increased as the demanding level and the length of the phonatory

  2. Developmental changes in sensitivity to vocal paralanguage

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Developmental changes in children’s sensitivity to the role of acoustic variation in the speech stream in conveying speaker affect (vocal paralanguage) were examined. Four-, 7- and 10-year-olds heard utterances in three formats: low-pass filtered, reiterant, and normal speech. The availability of lexical and paralinguistic information varied across these three formats in a way that required children to base their judgments of speaker affect on different configurations of cues in each format. Across ages, the best performance was obtained when a rich array of acoustic cues was present and when there was no competing lexical information. Four-year-olds performed at chance when judgments had to be based solely on speech prosody in the filtered format and they were unable to selectively attend to paralanguage when discrepant lexical cues were present in normal speech. Seven-year-olds were significantly more sensitive to the paralinguistic role of speech prosody in filtered speech than were 4-year-olds and there was a trend toward greater attention to paralanguage when lexical and paralinguistic cues were inconsistent in normal speech. An integration of the ability to utilize prosodic cues to speaker affect with attention to paralanguage in cases of lexical/paralinguistic discrepancy was observed for 10-year-olds. The results are discussed in terms of the development of a perceptual bias emerging out of selective attention to language. PMID:28713218

  3. Laryngeal reinnervation for bilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    PubMed

    Marina, Mat B; Marie, Jean-Paul; Birchall, Martin A

    2011-12-01

    Laryngeal reinnervation for bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVFP) patients is a promising technique to achieve good airway, although preserving a good quality of voice. On the other hand, the procedure is not simple. This review explores the recent literature on surgical technique and factors that may contribute to the success. Research and literature in this area are limited due to variability and complexity of the nerve supply. The posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle also receives nerve supply from the interarytenoid branch. Transection of this nerve at the point between interarytenoid and PCA branch may prevent aberrant reinnervation of adductor nerve axons to the PCA muscle. A varying degree of regeneration of injured recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLN) in humans of more than 6 months confirms subclinical reinnervation, which may prevent denervation-induced atrophy. Several promising surgical techniques have been developed for bilateral selective reinnervation for BVFP patients. This involves reinnervation of the abductor and adductor laryngeal muscles. The surgical technique aims at reinnervating the PCA muscle to trigger abduction during the respiratory cycle and preservation of good voice by strengthening the adductor muscles as well as prevention of laryngeal synkinesis.

  4. Facial biases on vocal perception and memory.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2017-06-01

    Does a speaker's face influence the way their voice is heard and later remembered? This question was addressed through two experiments where in each, participants listened to middle-aged voices accompanied by faces that were either age-appropriate, younger or older than the voice or, as a control, no face at all. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated each voice on various acoustical dimensions and speaker characteristics. The results showed that facial displays influenced perception such that the same voice was heard differently depending on the age of the accompanying face. Experiment 2 further revealed that facial displays led to memory distortions that were age-congruent in nature. These findings illustrate that faces can activate certain social categories and preconceived stereotypes that then influence vocal and person perception in a corresponding fashion. Processes of face/voice integration are very similar to those of music/film, indicating that the two areas can mutually inform one another and perhaps, more generally, reflect a centralized mechanism of cross-sensory integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Vocal Identity Recognition in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Fan; Yamada, Takashi; Komine, Yoko; Kato, Nobumasa; Kato, Masaharu; Kashino, Makio

    2015-01-01

    Voices can convey information about a speaker. When forming an abstract representation of a speaker, it is important to extract relevant features from acoustic signals that are invariant to the modulation of these signals. This study investigated the way in which individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) recognize and memorize vocal identity. The ASD group and control group performed similarly in a task when asked to choose the name of the newly-learned speaker based on his or her voice, and the ASD group outperformed the control group in a subsequent familiarity test when asked to discriminate the previously trained voices and untrained voices. These findings suggest that individuals with ASD recognized and memorized voices as well as the neurotypical individuals did, but they categorized voices in a different way: individuals with ASD categorized voices quantitatively based on the exact acoustic features, while neurotypical individuals categorized voices qualitatively based on the acoustic patterns correlated to the speakers' physical and mental properties. PMID:26070199

  6. Bioengineered vocal fold mucosa for voice restoration*

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Changying; Li, Qiyao; Brown, Matthew E.; Kishimoto, Yo; Toya, Yutaka; Devine, Erin E.; Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Nishimoto, Kohei; Norman, Ian G.; Tsegyal, Tenzin; Jiang, Jack J.; Burlingham, William J.; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Smith, Lloyd M.; Frey, Brian L.; Welham, Nathan V.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with voice impairment caused by advanced vocal fold (VF) fibrosis or tissue loss have few treatment options. A transplantable, bioengineered VF mucosa would address the individual and societal costs of voice-related communication loss. Such a tissue must be biomechanically capable of aerodynamic-to-acoustic energy transfer and high-frequency vibration, and physiologically capable of maintaining a barrier against the airway lumen. Here, we isolated primary human VF fibroblasts and epithelial cells and cocultured them under organotypic conditions. The resulting engineered mucosae showed morphologic features of native tissue, proteome-level evidence of mucosal morphogenesis and emerging extracellular matrix complexity, and rudimentary barrier function in vitro. When grafted into canine larynges ex vivo, the mucosae generated vibratory behavior and acoustic output that were indistinguishable from those of native VF tissue. When grafted into humanized mice in vivo, the mucosae survived and were well tolerated by the human adaptive immune system. This tissue engineering approach has the potential to restore voice function in patients with otherwise untreatable VF mucosal disease. PMID:26582902

  7. Recognizing vocal emotions in Mandarin Chinese: a validated database of Chinese vocal emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pan; Pell, Marc D

    2012-12-01

    To establish a valid database of vocal emotional stimuli in Mandarin Chinese, a set of Chinese pseudosentences (i.e., semantically meaningless sentences that resembled real Chinese) were produced by four native Mandarin speakers to express seven emotional meanings: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, happiness, pleasant surprise, and neutrality. These expressions were identified by a group of native Mandarin listeners in a seven-alternative forced choice task, and items reaching a recognition rate of at least three times chance performance in the seven-choice task were selected as a valid database and then subjected to acoustic analysis. The results demonstrated expected variations in both perceptual and acoustic patterns of the seven vocal emotions in Mandarin. For instance, fear, anger, sadness, and neutrality were associated with relatively high recognition, whereas happiness, disgust, and pleasant surprise were recognized less accurately. Acoustically, anger and pleasant surprise exhibited relatively high mean f0 values and large variation in f0 and amplitude; in contrast, sadness, disgust, fear, and neutrality exhibited relatively low mean f0 values and small amplitude variations, and happiness exhibited a moderate mean f0 value and f0 variation. Emotional expressions varied systematically in speech rate and harmonics-to-noise ratio values as well. This validated database is available to the research community and will contribute to future studies of emotional prosody for a number of purposes. To access the database, please contact pan.liu@mail.mcgill.ca.

  8. Arytenoid and posterior vocal fold surgery for bilateral vocal fold immobility.

    PubMed

    Young, VyVy N; Rosen, Clark A

    2011-12-01

    Many procedures exist to address the airway restriction often seen with bilateral vocal fold immobility. We review the most recent studies involving arytenoid and/or posterior vocal fold surgery to provide an update on the issues related to these procedures. Specific focus is placed on selection of the surgical approach and operative side, use of adjunctive therapies, and outcome measures including decannulation rate, revision and complication rate, and postoperative results. Ten studies were identified between 2004 and 2011. Modifications to the orginal transverse cordotomy and medial arytenoidectomy techniques continue to be investigated to seek improvement in dyspnea symptoms with minimal decline in voice and/or swallowing function. Decannulation rates for these approaches are high. Postoperative dysphagia appears to be less commonly observed but requires continued study. The use of mitomycin-C in these procedures has been poorly studied to date. Both transverse cordotomy and medial arytenoidectomy procedures result in high success rates. However, many questions related to these procedures remain unanswered, particularly with respect to preoperative and postoperative evaluations of voice quality, swallowing function, and pulmonary status. There is need for rigorous prospective clinical studies to address these many issues further.

  9. Linear Classifier with Reject Option for the Detection of Vocal Fold Paralysis and Vocal Fold Edema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotropoulos, Constantine; Arce, Gonzalo R.

    2009-12-01

    Two distinct two-class pattern recognition problems are studied, namely, the detection of male subjects who are diagnosed with vocal fold paralysis against male subjects who are diagnosed as normal and the detection of female subjects who are suffering from vocal fold edema against female subjects who do not suffer from any voice pathology. To do so, utterances of the sustained vowel "ah" are employed from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary database of disordered speech. Linear prediction coefficients extracted from the aforementioned utterances are used as features. The receiver operating characteristic curve of the linear classifier, that stems from the Bayes classifier when Gaussian class conditional probability density functions with equal covariance matrices are assumed, is derived. The optimal operating point of the linear classifier is specified with and without reject option. First results using utterances of the "rainbow passage" are also reported for completeness. The reject option is shown to yield statistically significant improvements in the accuracy of detecting the voice pathologies under study.

  10. Measurement of flow separation in a human vocal folds model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šidlof, Petr; Doaré, Olivier; Cadot, Olivier; Chaigne, Antoine

    2011-07-01

    The paper provides experimental data on flow separation from a model of the human vocal folds. Data were measured on a four times scaled physical model, where one vocal fold was fixed and the other oscillated due to fluid-structure interaction. The vocal folds were fabricated from silicone rubber and placed on elastic support in the wall of a transparent wind tunnel. A PIV system was used to visualize the flow fields immediately downstream of the glottis and to measure the velocity fields. From the visualizations, the position of the flow separation point was evaluated using a semiautomatic procedure and plotted for different airflow velocities. The separation point position was quantified relative to the orifice width separately for the left and right vocal folds to account for flow asymmetry. The results indicate that the flow separation point remains close to the narrowest cross-section during most of the vocal fold vibration cycle, but moves significantly further downstream shortly prior to and after glottal closure.

  11. Factors associated with vocal fold pathologies in teachers.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carla Lima de; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges Dos; Lima, Verônica Maria Cadena; Porto, Lauro Antonio

    2011-10-01

    To analyze factors associated with the prevalence of the medical diagnosis of vocal fold pathologies in teachers. A census-based epidemiological, cross-sectional study was conducted with 4,495 public primary and secondary school teachers in the city of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil, between March and April 2006. The dependent variable was the self-reported medical diagnosis of vocal fold pathologies and the independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics; professional activity; work organization/interpersonal relationships; physical work environment characteristics; frequency of common mental disorders, measured by the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20 >7); and general health conditions. Descriptive statistical, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis techniques were used. The prevalence of self-reported medical diagnosis of vocal fold pathologies was 18.9%. In the logistic regression analysis, the variables that remained associated with this medical diagnosis were as follows: being female, having worked as a teacher for more than seven years, excessive voice use, reporting more than five unfavorable physical work environment characteristics and presence of common mental disorders. The presence of self-reported vocal fold pathologies was associated with factors that point out the need of actions that promote teachers' vocal health and changes in their work structure and organization.

  12. The role of finite displacements in vocal fold modeling.

    PubMed

    Chang, Siyuan; Tian, Fang-Bao; Luo, Haoxiang; Doyle, James F; Rousseau, Bernard

    2013-11-01

    Human vocal folds experience flow-induced vibrations during phonation. In previous computational models, the vocal fold dynamics has been treated with linear elasticity theory in which both the strain and the displacement of the tissue are assumed to be infinitesimal (referred to as model I). The effect of the nonlinear strain, or geometric nonlinearity, caused by finite displacements is yet not clear. In this work, a two-dimensional model is used to study the effect of geometric nonlinearity (referred to as model II) on the vocal fold and the airflow. The result shows that even though the deformation is under 1 mm, i.e., less than 10% of the size of the vocal fold, the geometric nonlinear effect is still significant. Specifically, model I underpredicts the gap width, the flow rate, and the impact stress on the medial surfaces as compared to model II. The study further shows that the differences are caused by the contact mechanics and, more importantly, the fluid-structure interaction that magnifies the error from the small-displacement assumption. The results suggest that using the large-displacement formulation in a computational model would be more appropriate for accurate simulations of the vocal fold dynamics.

  13. Vocal fundamental and formant frequencies affect perceptions of speaker cooperativeness.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Kristen K; Little, Anthony C

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the perception of social traits in faces and voices has received much attention. Facial and vocal masculinity are linked to perceptions of trustworthiness; however, while feminine faces are generally considered to be trustworthy, vocal trustworthiness is associated with masculinized vocal features. Vocal traits such as pitch and formants have previously been associated with perceived social traits such as trustworthiness and dominance, but the link between these measurements and perceptions of cooperativeness have yet to be examined. In Experiment 1, cooperativeness ratings of male and female voices were examined against four vocal measurements: fundamental frequency (F0), pitch variation (F0-SD), formant dispersion (Df), and formant position (Pf). Feminine pitch traits (F0 and F0-SD) and masculine formant traits (Df and Pf) were associated with higher cooperativeness ratings. In Experiment 2, manipulated voices with feminized F0 were found to be more cooperative than voices with masculinized F0(,) among both male and female speakers, confirming our results from Experiment 1. Feminine pitch qualities may indicate an individual who is friendly and non-threatening, while masculine formant qualities may reflect an individual that is socially dominant or prestigious, and the perception of these associated traits may influence the perceived cooperativeness of the speakers.

  14. Different Vocal Parameters Predict Perceptions of Dominance and Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Gaulin, Steven J C; Puts, David A

    2010-12-01

    Low mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) in men's voices has been found to positively influence perceptions of dominance by men and attractiveness by women using standardized speech. Using natural speech obtained during an ecologically valid social interaction, we examined relationships between multiple vocal parameters and dominance and attractiveness judgments. Male voices from an unscripted dating game were judged by men for physical and social dominance and by women in fertile and non-fertile menstrual cycle phases for desirability in short-term and long-term relationships. Five vocal parameters were analyzed: mean F(0) (an acoustic correlate of vocal fold size), F(0) variation, intensity (loudness), utterance duration, and formant dispersion (D(f), an acoustic correlate of vocal tract length). Parallel but separate ratings of speech transcripts served as controls for content. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the independent contributions of each of the predictors. Physical dominance was predicted by low F(0) variation and physically dominant word content. Social dominance was predicted only by socially dominant word content. Ratings of attractiveness by women were predicted by low mean F(0), low D(f), high intensity, and attractive word content across cycle phase and mating context. Low D(f) was perceived as attractive by fertile-phase women only. We hypothesize that competitors and potential mates may attend more strongly to different components of men's voices because of the different types of information these vocal parameters provide.

  15. Human vocal attractiveness as signaled by body size projection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Lee, Albert; Wu, Wing-Li; Liu, Xuan; Birkholz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.

  16. Biases in facial and vocal emotion recognition in chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Dondaine, Thibaut; Robert, Gabriel; Péron, Julie; Grandjean, Didier; Vérin, Marc; Drapier, Dominique; Millet, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    There has been extensive research on impaired emotion recognition in schizophrenia in the facial and vocal modalities. The literature points to biases toward non-relevant emotions for emotional faces but few studies have examined biases in emotional recognition across different modalities (facial and vocal). In order to test emotion recognition biases, we exposed 23 patients with stabilized chronic schizophrenia and 23 healthy controls (HCs) to emotional facial and vocal tasks asking them to rate emotional intensity on visual analog scales. We showed that patients with schizophrenia provided higher intensity ratings on the non-target scales (e.g., surprise scale for fear stimuli) than HCs for the both tasks. Furthermore, with the exception of neutral vocal stimuli, they provided the same intensity ratings on the target scales as the HCs. These findings suggest that patients with chronic schizophrenia have emotional biases when judging emotional stimuli in the visual and vocal modalities. These biases may stem from a basic sensorial deficit, a high-order cognitive dysfunction, or both. The respective roles of prefrontal-subcortical circuitry and the basal ganglia are discussed. PMID:25202287

  17. Acoustic correlate of vocal effort in spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Eadie, Tanya L; Stepp, Cara E

    2013-03-01

    This study characterized the relationship between relative fundamental frequency (RFF) and listeners' perceptions of vocal effort and overall spasmodic dysphonia severity in the voices of 19 individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Twenty inexperienced listeners evaluated the vocal effort and overall severity of voices using visual analog scales. The squared correlation coefficients (R2) between average vocal effort and overall severity and RFF measures were calculated as a function of the number of acoustic instances used for the RFF estimate (from 1 to 9, of a total of 9 voiced-voiceless-voiced instances). Increases in the number of acoustic instances used for the RFF average led to increases in the variance predicted by the RFF at the first cycle of voicing onset (onset RFF) in the perceptual measures; the use of 6 or more instances resulted in a stable estimate. The variance predicted by the onset RFF for vocal effort (R2 range, 0.06 to 0.43) was higher than that for overall severity (R2 range, 0.06 to 0.35). The offset RFF was not related to the perceptual measures, irrespective of the sample size. This study indicates that onset RFF measures are related to perceived vocal effort in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. These results have implications for measuring outcomes in this population.

  18. Bilateral Vocal Fold Medialization: A Treatment for Abductor Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Karuna; Berke, Gerald S

    2017-11-10

    Abductor spasmodic dysphonia, a difficult-to-treat laryngologic condition, is characterized by spasms causing the vocal folds to remain abducted despite efforts to adduct them during phonation. Traditional treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-botulinum toxin injection into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle-can be both technically challenging and uncomfortable. Due to the difficulty of needle placement, it is often unsuccessful. The purpose of this investigation is to present a previously undescribed treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-bilateral vocal fold medialization. A retrospective case review of all cases of abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated in a tertiary care laryngology practice with bilateral vocal fold medialization over a 10-year period was performed. The Voice Handicap Index and the Voice-Related Quality of Life surveys were utilized to assess patient satisfaction with voice outcome. Six patients with abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated with bilateral vocal fold medialization were identified. Disease severity ranged from mild to severe. All six patients reported statistically significant improvement in nearly all Voice Handicap Index and Voice-Related Quality of Life parameters. They reported fewer voice breaks and greater ease of communication. Results were noted immediately and symptoms continue to be well controlled for many years following medialization. Bilateral vocal fold medialization is a safe and effective treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia. It is performed under local anesthesia and provides phonation improvement in the short and long term. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vocal Cord Paralysis and Laryngeal Trauma in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Yuan; Chia, Yeo-Yee; Wang, Pa-Chun; Lin, Hsiu-Yen; Tsai, Chiu-Ling; Hou, Shaw-Min

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiac surgery – associated iatrogenic laryngeal trauma is often overlooked. We investigated the risk factors of vocal cord paralysis in cardiac surgery. Methods Medical records were reviewed from 169 patients who underwent elective or emergency cardiac surgeries. Patients had transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) placed either under video fiberscopic image guidance (guided group) or blind placement (blind group). Routine postoperative otolaryngologist consultation with video laryngoscopic recording were performed. Results Vocal cord paralyses were found in 18 patients (10.7%; left-13, right-4, bilateral-1). The risk of vocal cord paralysis was associated with emergency operation [odds ratio, 97.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9 to 366), p = 0.01]. Use of fiberscope-guided TEE [odds ratio, 0.04 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.87), p = 0.04] can effectively reduce vocal cord injury. Conclusions Emergency cardiac surgery increased the risk of vocal cord paralysis. Fiberscope-guided TEE placement is recommended for all patients having cardiac surgery to decrease the risk of severe peri-operative laryngeal trauma. PMID:29167615

  20. Vocal Cord Paralysis and Laryngeal Trauma in Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Yuan; Chia, Yeo-Yee; Wang, Pa-Chun; Lin, Hsiu-Yen; Tsai, Chiu-Ling; Hou, Shaw-Min

    2017-11-01

    Cardiac surgery - associated iatrogenic laryngeal trauma is often overlooked. We investigated the risk factors of vocal cord paralysis in cardiac surgery. Medical records were reviewed from 169 patients who underwent elective or emergency cardiac surgeries. Patients had transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) placed either under video fiberscopic image guidance (guided group) or blind placement (blind group). Routine postoperative otolaryngologist consultation with video laryngoscopic recording were performed. Vocal cord paralyses were found in 18 patients (10.7%; left-13, right-4, bilateral-1). The risk of vocal cord paralysis was associated with emergency operation [odds ratio, 97.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9 to 366), p = 0.01]. Use of fiberscope-guided TEE [odds ratio, 0.04 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.87), p = 0.04] can effectively reduce vocal cord injury. Emergency cardiac surgery increased the risk of vocal cord paralysis. Fiberscope-guided TEE placement is recommended for all patients having cardiac surgery to decrease the risk of severe peri-operative laryngeal trauma.

  1. Bilateral vocal cord paralysis secondary to head and neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Muhammet; Acar, Gul Ozbilen; Kaytaz, Asim; Savrun, Feray Karaali; Çelik, Melek; Cam, Osman Halit

    2012-01-01

    Even endotracheal intubation could be considered safe in operations under general anesthesia; rarely, it could cause recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis as a complication. As mentioned in the literature, as a possible reason for this, anterior branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in the larynx could suffer from compression between the posteromedial part of the thyroid cartilage and the cuff of the tube. In the literature, unilateral vocal cord paralysis due to endotracheal intubation occurs more frequently in comparison to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. These types of palsies usually totally improve in approximately 6 months. A patient who experienced bilateral vocal cord paralysis in the early postoperative period after undergoing an endotracheal intubation process for general anesthesia and primary partial lip resection and supraomohyoid neck dissection due to lower lip carcinoma is presented in our article. Although vocal cord paralysis occurring after head and neck surgery is first thought as a complication of the surgery, endotracheal intubation should be considered as a possible cause of this paralysis. In relation with this patient, causes, clinical symptoms, and treatment procedures of vocal cord paralysis due to endotracheal intubation are discussed under guidance of the literature.

  2. Optical coherence tomography monitoring of vocal fold femtosecond laser microsurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisweh, Henning; Merkel, Ulrich; Hüller, Ann-Kristin; Lüerßen, Kathrin; Lubatschowski, Holger

    2007-07-01

    Surgery of benign pathological alterations of the vocal folds results in permanent disphonia if the bounderies of the vocal fold layers are disregarded. Precise cutting with a femtosecond laser (fs-laser) combined with simultanous imaging of the layered structure enables accurate resections with respect to the layer boundaries. Earlier works demonstrated the capability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for utilization on vocal folds. The layered structure can be imaged with a spatial resolution of 10-20μm up to a depth of 1.5mm. The performance of fs-laser cutting was analyzed on extracted porcine vocal folds with OCT monitoring. Histopathological sections of the same processed samples could be well correlated with the OCT images. With adequate laser parameters thermal effects induced only negligable damage to the processed tissue. The dimensions of the thermal necrosis were determined to be smaller than 1μm. OCT contolled fs-laser cutting of porcine vocal fold tissue in the μm range with minimal tissue damage is presented.

  3. Genetic identification of a hindbrain nucleus essential for innate vocalization.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Miranda, Luis Rodrigo; Ruffault, Pierre-Louis; Bouvier, Julien C; Murray, Andrew J; Morin-Surun, Marie-Pierre; Zampieri, Niccolò; Cholewa-Waclaw, Justyna B; Ey, Elodie; Brunet, Jean-Francois; Champagnat, Jean; Fortin, Gilles; Birchmeier, Carmen

    2017-07-25

    Vocalization in young mice is an innate response to isolation or mechanical stimulation. Neuronal circuits that control vocalization and breathing overlap and rely on motor neurons that innervate laryngeal and expiratory muscles, but the brain center that coordinates these motor neurons has not been identified. Here, we show that the hindbrain nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is essential for vocalization in mice. By generating genetically modified newborn mice that specifically lack excitatory NTS neurons, we show that they are both mute and unable to produce the expiratory drive required for vocalization. Furthermore, the muteness of these newborns results in maternal neglect. We also show that neurons of the NTS directly connect to and entrain the activity of spinal (L1) and nucleus ambiguus motor pools located at positions where expiratory and laryngeal motor neurons reside. These motor neurons control expiratory pressure and laryngeal tension, respectively, thereby establishing the essential biomechanical parameters used for vocalization. In summary, our work demonstrates that the NTS is an obligatory component of the neuronal circuitry that transforms breaths into calls.

  4. Histologic and rheologic characterization of vocal fold scarring.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Susan L; Gray, Steven D; Bless, Diane M; Chan, Roger W; Ford, Charles N

    2002-03-01

    Scarring of the vocal fold causes considerable dysphonia and presents significant treatment challenges. A rabbit model was developed to investigate the histologic ultrastructure and rheologic properties of the scarred vocal fold lamina propria. Eleven rabbit larynges were scarred by means of forcep biopsy. Sixty days postoperatively, the rabbits were sacrificed and their vocal folds were harvested. Histological analysis of the scarred and normal lamina propria was completed for collagen, procollagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of the tissues were also measured, including elastic shear modulus and dynamic viscosity. Compared to normal vocal fold lamina propria, scarred tissues demonstrated significantly less collagen, an increase in procollagen, and a decrease in elastin. Rheologically, both elastic shear modulus and dynamic viscosity were significantly higher for the scarred tissues. Increased stiffness and viscosity do not appear to result from an increase in collagen, but rather appear to be related to the presence of new, disorganized collagen scaffolding. Results are interpreted in terms of the possible role of interstitial proteins in the etiology of increased stiffness and viscosity, which requires further investigation. This animal model should allow for systematic future investigations of vocal fold scarring and its treatment.

  5. Spatial location influences vocal interactions in bullfrog choruses

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Mary E.; Cropp, Brett F.; Gonchar, Marina; Knowles, Jeffrey; Simmons, James A.; Simmons, Andrea Megela

    2010-01-01

    A multiple sensor array was employed to identify the spatial locations of all vocalizing male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) in five natural choruses. Patterns of vocal activity collected with this array were compared with computer simulations of chorus activity. Bullfrogs were not randomly spaced within choruses, but tended to cluster into closely spaced groups of two to five vocalizing males. There were nonrandom, differing patterns of vocal interactions within clusters of closely spaced males and between different clusters. Bullfrogs located within the same cluster tended to overlap or alternate call notes with two or more other males in that cluster. These near-simultaneous calling bouts produced advertisement calls with more pronounced amplitude modulation than occurred in nonoverlapping notes or calls. Bullfrogs located in different clusters more often alternated entire calls or overlapped only small segments of their calls. They also tended to respond sequentially to calls of their farther neighbors compared to their nearer neighbors. Results of computational analyses showed that the observed patterns of vocal interactions were significantly different than expected based on random activity. The use of a multiple sensor array provides a richer view of the dynamics of choruses than available based on single microphone techniques. PMID:20370047

  6. Effect of pneumotach on measurement of vocal function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Gage; McPhail, Michael; Krane, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Aerodynamic and acoustic measurements of vocal function were performed in a physical model of the human airway with and without a pneumotach (Rothenberg mask), used by clinicians to measure vocal volume flow. The purpose of these experiments was to assess whether the device alters acoustic and aerodynamic conditions sufficiently to change phonation behavior. The airway model, which mimics acoustic behavior of an adult human airway from trachea to mouth, consists of a 31.5cm long straight duct with a 2.54cm square cross section. Model vocal folds comprised of molded silicone rubber were set into vibration by introducing airflow from a compressed air source. Measurements included transglottal pressure difference, mean volume flow, vocal fold vibratory motion, and sound pressure measured at the mouth. The experiments show that while the pneumotach imparted measurable aerodynamic and acoustic loads on the system, measurement of mean glottal resistance was not affected. Acoustic pressure levels were attenuated, however, suggesting clinical acoustic measurements of vocal function need correction when performed in conjunction with a pneumotach Acknowledge support from NIH DC R01005642-11.

  7. Production of ultrasonic vocalizations by Peromyscus mice in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C; Metheny, Jackie D; Vonhof, Maarten J

    2006-01-01

    Background There has been considerable research on rodent ultrasound in the laboratory and these sounds have been well quantified and characterized. Despite the value of research on ultrasound produced by mice in the lab, it is unclear if, and when, these sounds are produced in the wild, and how they function in natural habitats. Results We have made the first recordings of ultrasonic vocalizations produced by two free-living species of mice in the genus Peromyscus (P. californicus and P. boylii) on long term study grids in California. Over 6 nights, we recorded 65 unique ultrasonic vocalization phrases from Peromyscus. The ultrasonic vocalizations we recorded represent 7 different motifs. Within each motif, there was considerable variation in the acoustic characteristics suggesting individual and contextual variation in the production of ultrasound by these species. Conclusion The discovery of the production of ultrasonic vocalizations by Peromyscus in the wild highlights an underappreciated component in the behavior of these model organisms. The ability to examine the production of ultrasonic vocalizations in the wild offers excellent opportunities to test hypotheses regarding the function of ultrasound produced by rodents in a natural context. PMID:16507093

  8. Correlation between vocal tract symptoms and modern singing handicap index in church gospel singers.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Joel; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves; Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Ramos, Janine Santos; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Zambon, Fabiana; Behlau, Mara

    2017-08-24

    To verify the correlation between vocal tract discomfort symptoms and perceived voice handicaps in gospel singers, analyzing possible differences according to gender. 100 gospel singers volunteered, 50 male and 50 female. All participants answered two questionnaires: Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD) scale and the Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) that investigates the vocal handicap perceived by singers, linking the results of both instruments (p<0.05). Women presented more perceived handicaps and also more frequent and higher intensity vocal tract discomfort. Furthermore, the more frequent and intense the vocal tract symptoms, the higher the vocal handicap for singing. Female gospel singers present higher frequency and intensity of vocal tract discomfort symptoms, as well as higher voice handicap for singing than male gospel singers. The higher the frequency and intensity of the laryngeal symptoms, the higher the vocal handicap will be.

  9. FE Modelling of the Fluid-Structure-Acoustic Interaction for the Vocal Folds Self-Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švancara, Pavel; Horáček, J.; Hrůza, V.

    The flow induced self-oscillation of the human vocal folds in interaction with acoustic processes in the simplified vocal tract model was explored by three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model. Developed FE model includes vocal folds pretension before phonation, large deformations of the vocal fold tissue, vocal folds contact, fluid-structure interaction, morphing the fluid mesh according the vocal folds motion (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach), unsteady viscous compressible airflow described by the Navier-Stokes equations and airflow separation during the glottis closure. Iterative partitioned approach is used for modelling the fluid-structure interaction. Computed results prove that the developed model can be used for simulation of the vocal folds self-oscillation and resulting acoustic waves. The developed model enables to numerically simulate an influence of some pathological changes in the vocal fold tissue on the voice production.

  10. Vocal fold varices and risk of hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tang, Christopher Guan-Zhong; Askin, Gülce; Christos, Paul J; Sulica, Lucian

    2016-05-01

    To establish risk of hemorrhage in patients with varices compared to those without, determine additional risk factors, and make evidence-based treatment recommendations. Retrospective cohort study. Patients who were vocal performers presenting for care during a 24-month period were analyzed to determine incidence of hemorrhage. Patients with varices were compared to those without. Demographic information and examination findings (presence, location, character, and size of varices; presence of mucosal lesions or paresis) were analyzed to determine predictors of hemorrhage. A total of 513 patients (60.4% female, mean age 36.6 years ± 13.95 years) were evaluated; 14 patients presenting with hemorrhage were excluded. One hundred and twelve (22.4%) patients had varices; 387 (77.6%) did not. The rate of hemorrhage in patients with varices was 2.68% at 12 months compared to 0.8% in patients without. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed a hazard ratio of 10.1 for patients with varix developing hemorrhage compared to nonvarix patients (P < 0.0001). The incidence rate of hemorrhage was 3.3 cases per 1,000 person-months for varix patients compared to 0.5 cases per 1,000 person-months in the nonvarix group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of paresis, mucosal lesions, location of varix (left or right side; medial or lateral), or varix morphology (pinpoint, linear, lake) between patients who hemorrhaged and those that did not. The presence of varices increases the risk of hemorrhage. Varix patients had 10 times the rate of hemorrhage compared to nonvarix patients, although the overall incidence is low. This data may be used to inform treatment of patients with varices. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1163-1168, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Toward Defining "Vocal Constriction": Practitioner Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lemon-McMahon, Belinda; Hughes, Diane

    2018-01-01

    This research investigated the terminology used in relation to constriction of the singing voice from a range of practitioner perspectives. It focused on the locality, causes, consequences, management, trends, identification, and vocabulary of constriction. The research aimed to develop a holistic understanding of the term "vocal constriction" from participant experiences and perceptions (N = 10). Data collection occurred through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a range of voice care professionals. Participants included three professional groups: (1) Ear, Nose, and Throat medical specialists or laryngologists, (2) speech pathologists or speech therapists, and (3) singing teachers. Purposive sampling was used to ensure that the participants from groups 1 and 2 had extensive experience with singers in their practice. The singing teachers were experienced in either classical or contemporary styles, or both. Participant responses highlighted a discrepancy in preferred terminology, with "constriction" being less favored overall. Several anatomical locations were identified including postural, supraglottic (anteroposterior and false fold), articulatory, and in the intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal musculature; psychological issues were also identified. Primary causes, secondary causes, and influencing factors were identified. Inefficient technique and poor posture or alignment were considered primary causes; similarly, emotion and anxiety or stress were identified as influencing factors by the majority of participants. There was less uniformity in responses regarding other causes. The major findings of this research are the respective participant group distinctions, an uncertainty regarding anteroposterior constriction, and that the location and effects of constriction are individual to the singer and must be considered contextually. A definition is offered, and areas for further research are identified. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by

  12. Applicability of Cone Beam Computed Tomography to the Assessment of the Vocal Tract before and after Vocal Exercises in Normal Subjects.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elisângela Zacanti; Yamashita, Hélio Kiitiro; Garcia, Davi Sousa; Padovani, Marina Martins Pereira; Azevedo, Renata Rangel; Chiari, Brasília Maria

    2016-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), which represents an alternative to traditional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, may be a useful instrument to study vocal tract physiology related to vocal exercises. This study aims to evaluate the applicability of CBCT to the assessment of variations in the vocal tract of healthy individuals before and after vocal exercises. Voice recordings and CBCT images before and after vocal exercises performed by 3 speech-language pathologists without vocal complaints were collected and compared. Each participant performed 1 type of exercise, i.e., Finnish resonance tube technique, prolonged consonant "b" technique, or chewing technique. The analysis consisted of an acoustic analysis and tomographic imaging. Modifications of the vocal tract settings following vocal exercises were properly detected by CBCT, and changes in the acoustic parameters were, for the most part, compatible with the variations detected in image measurements. CBCT was shown to be capable of properly assessing the changes in vocal tract settings promoted by vocal exercises. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Numerical Simulation of the Self-Oscillations of the Vocal Folds and of the Resulting Acoustic Phenomena in the Vocal Tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švancara, P.; Horáček, J.; Švec, J. G.

    The study presents a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the flow-induced self-oscillation of the human vocal folds in interaction with acoustics of simplified vocal tract models. The 3D vocal tract models of the acoustic spaces shaped for simulation of phonation of Czech vowels [a:], [i:] and [u:] were created by converting the data from the magnetic resonance images (MRI). For modelling of the fluid-structure interaction, explicit coupling scheme with separated solvers for fluid and structure domain was utilized. The FE model comprises vocal folds pretension before starting phonation, large deformations of the vocal fold tissue, vocal-fold collisions, fluid-structure interaction, morphing the fluid mesh according to the vocal-fold motion (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach), unsteady viscous compressible airflow described by the Navier-Stokes equations and airflow separation. The developed FE model enables to study the relationship between flow-induced vibrations of the vocal folds and acoustic wave propagation in the vocal tract and can also be used to simulate for example pathological changes in the vocal fold tissue and their influence on the voice production.

  14. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of scarred vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Heris, Hossein K; Miri, Amir K; Ghattamaneni, Nageswara R; Li, Nicole Y K; Thibeault, Susan L; Wiseman, Paul W; Mongeau, Luc

    2015-02-26

    The goal of this study was to characterize the vocal folds microstructure and elasticity using nonlinear laser scanning microscopy and atomic force microscopy-based indentation, respectively. As a pilot study, the vocal folds of fourteen rats were unilaterally injured by full removal of lamina propria; the uninjured folds of the same animals served as controls. The area fraction of collagen fibrils was found to be greater in scarred tissues two months after injury than the uninjured controls. A novel mathematical model was also proposed to relate collagen concentration and tissue bulk modulus. This work presents a first step towards systematic investigation of microstructural and mechanical characteristics in scarred vocal fold tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vibrational dynamics of vocal folds using nonlinear normal modes.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Alan P; Kerschen, Gaëtan

    2013-08-01

    Many previous works involving physical models, excised and in vivo larynges have pointed out nonlinear vibration in vocal folds during voice production. Moreover, theoretical studies involving mechanical modeling of these folds have tried to gain a profound understanding of the observed nonlinear phenomena. In this context, the present work uses the nonlinear normal mode theory to investigate the nonlinear modal behavior of 16 subjects using a two-mass mechanical modeling of the vocal folds. The free response of the conservative system at different energy levels is considered to assess the impact of the structural nonlinearity of the vocal fold tissues. The results show very interesting and complex nonlinear phenomena including frequency-energy dependence, subharmonic regimes and, in some cases, modal interactions, entrainment and bifurcations. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trial-Based Functional Analysis Informs Treatment for Vocal Scripting.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, Mandy; Brodhead, Matthew; Wolfe, Katie; Gregori, Emily

    2018-05-01

    Research on trial-based functional analysis has primarily focused on socially maintained challenging behaviors. However, procedural modifications may be necessary to clarify ambiguous assessment results. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the utility of iterative modifications to trial-based functional analysis on the identification of putative reinforcement and subsequent treatment for vocal scripting. For all participants, modifications to the trial-based functional analysis identified a primary function of automatic reinforcement. The structure of the trial-based format led to identification of social attention as an abolishing operation for vocal scripting. A noncontingent attention treatment was evaluated using withdrawal designs for each participant. This noncontingent attention treatment resulted in near zero levels of vocal scripting for all participants. Implications for research and practice are presented.

  17. Recalibration of vocal affect by a dynamic face.

    PubMed

    Baart, Martijn; Vroomen, Jean

    2018-04-25

    Perception of vocal affect is influenced by the concurrent sight of an emotional face. We demonstrate that the sight of an emotional face also can induce recalibration of vocal affect. Participants were exposed to videos of a 'happy' or 'fearful' face in combination with a slightly incongruous sentence with ambiguous prosody. After this exposure, ambiguous test sentences were rated as more 'happy' when the exposure phase contained 'happy' instead of 'fearful' faces. This auditory shift likely reflects recalibration that is induced by error minimization of the inter-sensory discrepancy. In line with this view, when the prosody of the exposure sentence was non-ambiguous and congruent with the face (without audiovisual discrepancy), aftereffects went in the opposite direction, likely reflecting adaptation. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that perception of vocal affect is flexible and can be recalibrated by slightly discrepant visual information.

  18. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Spontaneous resolution of hemorrhagic polyps of the true vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Klein, Adam M; Lehmann, Marcus; Hapner, Edie R; Johns, Michael M

    2009-01-01

    Hemorrhagic polyps are the most common benign lesions surgically removed from the vocal folds. Although this modality does offer satisfactory results in most of the cases, there is a subset of polyps that seems to resolve with conservative therapy. This study was performed to examine this subset of polyps. Thirty-four consecutive subjects diagnosed with hemorrhagic polyps of the true vocal fold were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence of spontaneous resolution of the lesions with nonsurgical therapy. Sixteen subjects began conservative therapy, consisting of voice therapy and proper vocal hygiene, often while awaiting an optimal personal time for surgical intervention. Of these subjects, nine (56.3%) experienced a resolution of their lesion and symptoms without undergoing surgical therapy. Surgical removal of hemorrhagic polyps is often considered the standard of treatment for these benign lesions. However, these observations support a regimen of voice therapy and observation in select cases.

  20. Optoreflectometry determination of the resonance properties of a vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Garrel, Renaud; Nicollas, Richard; Giovanni, Antoine; Ouaknine, Maurice

    2007-09-01

    A new method of measuring the resonance properties of a vocal fold using electromagnetic excitation and laser optoreflectometry for response monitoring is described. Two resonance peaks were experimentally identified with one magnet stuck on the vocal fold at frequencies F0(1m)=54.7 Hz and F0'(1m)=35.8 Hz. The addition of a second magnet allowed calculation of the actual viscoelastic properties of the vocal fold: F0=71.8 Hz; quality factor Q=8.03; mass m=0.057 g; stiffness k=11.6 Nm; and damping zeta=0.0032 Nm(-1). A numerical simulation of a two-layered model verified the experimental data.

  1. An acoustic glottal source for vocal tract physical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannukainen, Antti; Kuortti, Juha; Malinen, Jarmo; Ojalammi, Antti

    2017-11-01

    A sound source is proposed for the acoustic measurement of physical models of the human vocal tract. The physical models are produced by fast prototyping, based on magnetic resonance imaging during prolonged vowel production. The sound source, accompanied by custom signal processing algorithms, is used for two kinds of measurements from physical models of the vocal tract: (i) amplitude frequency response and resonant frequency measurements, and (ii) signal reconstructions at the source output according to a target pressure waveform with measurements at the mouth position. The proposed source and the software are validated by computational acoustics experiments and measurements on a physical model of the vocal tract corresponding to the vowels [] of a male speaker.

  2. Learned vocal and breathing behavior in an enculturated gorilla.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Marcus; Clark, Nathaniel

    2015-09-01

    We describe the repertoire of learned vocal and breathing-related behaviors (VBBs) performed by the enculturated gorilla Koko. We examined a large video corpus of Koko and observed 439 VBBs spread across 161 bouts. Our analysis shows that Koko exercises voluntary control over the performance of nine distinctive VBBs, which involve variable coordination of her breathing, larynx, and supralaryngeal articulators like the tongue and lips. Each of these behaviors is performed in the context of particular manual action routines and gestures. Based on these and other findings, we suggest that vocal learning and the ability to exercise volitional control over vocalization, particularly in a multimodal context, might have figured relatively early into the evolution of language, with some rudimentary capacity in place at the time of our last common ancestor with great apes.

  3. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-06

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357030-11$15.00/0.

  4. Influence of Left-Right Asymmetries on Voice Quality in Simulated Paramedian Vocal Fold Paralysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the vocal fold structural and vibratory symmetries that are important to vocal function and voice quality in a simulated paramedian vocal fold paralysis. Method: A computational kinematic speech production model was used to simulate an exemplar "voice" on the basis of asymmetric…

  5. Individual Monitoring of Vocal Effort with Relative Fundamental Frequency: Relationships with Aerodynamics and Listener Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Yu-An S.; Michener, Carolyn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The acoustic measure relative fundamental frequency (RFF) was investigated as a potential objective measure to track variations in vocal effort within and across individuals. Method: Twelve speakers with healthy voices created purposeful modulations in their vocal effort during speech tasks. RFF and an aerodynamic measure of vocal effort,…

  6. Vocalization-Induced Enhancement of the Auditory Cortex Responsiveness during Voice F0 Feedback Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Karvelis, Laura; Liu, Hanjun; Larson, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated whether self-vocalization enhances auditory neural responsiveness to voice pitch feedback perturbation and how this vocalization-induced neural modulation can be affected by the extent of the feedback deviation. Method Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 15 subjects in response to +100, +200 and +500 cents pitch-shifted voice auditory feedback during active vocalization and passive listening to the playback of the self-produced vocalizations. Result The amplitude of the evoked P1 (latency: 73.51 ms) and P2 (latency: 199.55 ms) ERP components in response to feedback perturbation were significantly larger during vocalization than listening. The difference between P2 peak amplitudes during vocalization vs. listening was shown to be significantly larger for +100 than +500 cents stimulus. Conclusion Results indicate that the human auditory cortex is more responsive to voice F0 feedback perturbations during vocalization than passive listening. Greater vocalization-induced enhancement of the auditory responsiveness to smaller feedback perturbations may imply that the audio-vocal system detects and corrects for errors in vocal production that closely match the expected vocal output. Significance Findings of this study support previous suggestions regarding the enhanced auditory sensitivity to feedback alterations during self-vocalization, which may serve the purpose of feedback-based monitoring of one’s voice. PMID:19520602

  7. Apoptosis and Vocal Fold Disease: Clinically Relevant Implications of Epithelial Cell Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Carter, Bruce D.; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Ridner, Sheila H.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Vocal fold diseases affecting the epithelium have a detrimental impact on vocal function. This review article provides an overview of apoptosis, the most commonly studied type of programmed cell death. Because apoptosis can damage epithelial cells, this article examines the implications of apoptosis on diseases affecting the vocal fold…

  8. The Effects of Vocal Activity and Race of Applicant on Job Selection Interview Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Marquita L.

    1981-01-01

    Research on the effect of vocal activity and race of the applicant on evaluations in job interviews indicated that: 1) minimal vocal activity negatively influenced evaluation; 2) Black applicants were evaluated differently from White applicants; and 3) vocal activity was more important in interview evaluations than race. (Author/MJL)

  9. Relevance of the Implementation of Teeth in Three-Dimensional Vocal Tract Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traser, Louisa; Birkholz, Peter; Flügge, Tabea Viktoria; Kamberger, Robert; Burdumy, Michael; Richter, Bernhard; Korvink, Jan Gerrit; Echternach, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, efforts have been made to investigate the vocal tract using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to technical limitations, teeth were omitted in many previous studies on vocal tract acoustics. However, the knowledge of how teeth influence vocal tract acoustics might be important in order to estimate the necessity of…

  10. Vocal Function in Introverts and Extraverts during a Psychological Stress Reactivity Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Maria; Verdolini Abbott, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the proposal that introversion predictably influences extralaryngeal and vocal behavior in vocally healthy individuals compared with individuals with extraversion and whether differences are of a nature that may support a risk hypothesis for primary muscle tension dysphonia. Method: Fifty-four vocally healthy female adults…

  11. Peripheral Mechanisms for Vocal Production in Birds--Differences and Similarities to Human Speech and Singing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riede, Tobias; Goller, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Song production in songbirds is a model system for studying learned vocal behavior. As in humans, bird phonation involves three main motor systems (respiration, vocal organ and vocal tract). The avian respiratory mechanism uses pressure regulation in air sacs to ventilate a rigid lung. In songbirds sound is generated with two independently…

  12. Ordinary Interactions Challenge Proposals That Maternal Verbal Responses Shape Infant Vocal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Mary K.; Doveikis, Kate N.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested proposals that maternal verbal responses shape infant vocal development, proposals based in part on evidence that infants modified their vocalizations to match mothers' experimentally manipulated vowel or consonant-vowel responses to most (i.e., 70%-80%) infant vocalizations. We tested the proposal in ordinary rather…

  13. Histopathologic study of human vocal fold mucosa unphonated over a decade.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kiminori; Umeno, Hirohito; Ono, Takeharu; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2011-12-01

    Mechanotransduction caused by vocal fold vibration could possibly be an important factor in the maintenance of extracellular matrices and layered structure of the human adult vocal fold mucosa as a vibrating tissue after the layered structure has been completed. Vocal fold stellate cells (VFSCs) in the human maculae flavae of the vocal fold mucosa are inferred to be involved in the metabolism of extracellular matrices of the vocal fold mucosa. Maculae flavae are also considered to be an important structure in the growth and development of the human vocal fold mucosa. Tension caused by phonation (vocal fold vibration) is hypothesized to stimulate the VFSCs to accelerate production of extracellular matrices. A human adult vocal fold mucosa unphonated over a decade was investigated histopathologically. Vocal fold mucosa unphonated for 11 years and 2 months of a 64-year-old male with cerebral hemorrhage was investigated by light and electron microscopy. The vocal fold mucosae (including maculae flavae) were atrophic. The vocal fold mucosa did not have a vocal ligament, Reinke's space or a layered structure. The lamina propria appeared as a uniform structure. Morphologically, the VFSCs synthesized fewer extracellular matrices, such as fibrous protein and glycosaminoglycan. Consequently, VFSCs appeared to decrease their level of activity.

  14. Exploring the Clinical Utility of Relative Fundamental Frequency as an Objective Measure of Vocal Hyperfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nelson; Fetrow, Rebecca A.; Merrill, Ray M.; Dromey, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vocal hyperfunction, related to abnormal laryngeal muscle activity, is considered the proximal cause of primary muscle tension dysphonia (pMTD). Relative fundamental frequency (RFF) has been proposed as an objective acoustic marker of vocal hyperfunction. This study examined (a) the ability of RFF to track changes in vocal hyperfunction…

  15. Learning while Babbling: Prelinguistic Object-Directed Vocalizations Indicate a Readiness to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Michael H.; Schwade, Jennifer; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Syal, Supriya

    2010-01-01

    Two studies illustrate the functional significance of a new category of prelinguistic vocalizing--object-directed vocalizations (ODVs)--and show that these sounds are connected to learning about words and objects. Experiment 1 tested 12-month-old infants' perceptual learning of objects that elicited ODVs. Fourteen infants' vocalizations were…

  16. Characterization of Vocal Fold Vibration in Sulcus Vocalis Using High-Speed Digital Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize vocal fold vibrations in sulcus vocalis by high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and to clarify the correlations between HSDI-derived parameters and traditional vocal parameters. Method: HSDI was performed in 20 vocally healthy subjects (8 men and 12 women) and…

  17. Impact of Visual, Vocal, and Lexical Cues on Judgments of Counselor Qualities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strahan, Carole; Zytowski, Donald G.

    1976-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N=130) rated Carl Rogers via visual, lexical, vocal, or vocal-lexical communication channels. Lexical cues were more important in creating favorable impressions among females. Subsequent exposure to combined visual-vocal-lexical cues resulted in warmer and less distant ratings, but not on a consistent basis. (Author)

  18. Quantitative Study of Vibrational Symmetry of Injured Vocal Folds via Digital Kymography in Excised Canine Larynges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krausert, Christopher R.; Ying, Di; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Digital kymography and vocal fold curve fitting are blended with detailed symmetry analysis of kymograms to provide a comprehensive characterization of the vibratory properties of injured vocal folds. Method: Vocal fold vibration of 12 excised canine larynges was recorded under uninjured, unilaterally injured, and bilaterally injured…

  19. The Role of Lexical Stress on the Use of Vocal Fry in Young Adult Female Speakers.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    Vocal fry is a voice register often used by young adult women for sociolinguistic purposes. Some acoustic correlates of lexical stress, however, appear incompatible with the use of vocal fry. The objective of this study was to systematically examine the role of lexical stress in the use of vocal fry by young adult women. This is a semi-randomized controlled laboratory study. Fifty female undergraduate students were recorded repeating one-, two-, three-, and four-syllable nonwords that conformed to English phonotactics. Nonwords were presented in order from shorter to longer lengths, with stimuli randomized within syllable length. Perceptual analyses of recordings were augmented by acoustic analyses to identify each syllable in which vocal fry occurred. Eighty-six percent of participants produced at least one episode of vocal fry. Vocal fry was more likely to occur in unstressed than stressed position, and the likelihood increased as distance from the stressed syllable increased. There was considerable variability in the use of vocal fry. Frequent and infrequent users varied on the degree to which they used vocal fry in single-syllable nonwords. Vocal fry use persists among young adult women even in the absence of syntactic and pragmatic influences. Lexical stress appeared to dramatically reduce the use of vocal fry. Patterns of vocal fry use appeared to be different for frequent and infrequent users of this vocal register. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Coos, booms, and hoots: The evolution of closed-mouth vocal behavior in birds.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Eliason, Chad M; Miller, Edward H; Goller, Franz; Clarke, Julia A

    2016-08-01

    Most birds vocalize with an open beak, but vocalization with a closed beak into an inflating cavity occurs in territorial or courtship displays in disparate species throughout birds. Closed-mouth vocalizations generate resonance conditions that favor low-frequency sounds. By contrast, open-mouth vocalizations cover a wider frequency range. Here we describe closed-mouth vocalizations of birds from functional and morphological perspectives and assess the distribution of closed-mouth vocalizations in birds and related outgroups. Ancestral-state optimizations of body size and vocal behavior indicate that closed-mouth vocalizations are unlikely to be ancestral in birds and have evolved independently at least 16 times within Aves, predominantly in large-bodied lineages. Closed-mouth vocalizations are rare in the small-bodied passerines. In light of these results and body size trends in nonavian dinosaurs, we suggest that the capacity for closed-mouth vocalization was present in at least some extinct nonavian dinosaurs. As in birds, this behavior may have been limited to sexually selected vocal displays, and hence would have co-occurred with open-mouthed vocalizations. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Vocal Development in Young Children with Cochlear Implants: Profiles and Implications for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.; Young, Nancy; Grohne, Kristine; Mellon, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Claire; Corbett, Kristin; Saindon, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    This article describes prelinguistic vocal development in two prelingually deaf children who received multi-channel cochlear implants at 10 and 28 months. The older child made rapid progress in vocal development, while the other showed slower progress Use of short periods of prelinguistic input for stimulating vocal development is discussed.…

  2. Nonlinear laser scanning microscopy of human vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Miri, Amir K; Tripathy, Umakanta; Mongeau, Luc; Wiseman, Paul W

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to apply nonlinear laser scanning microscopy (NLSM) for visualizing the morphology of extracellular matrix proteins within human vocal folds. This technique may potentially assist clinicians in making rapid diagnoses of vocal fold tissue disease or damage. Microstructural characterization based on NLSM provides valuable information for better understanding molecular mechanisms and tissue structure. Experimental, ex vivo human vocal fold. A custom-built multimodal nonlinear laser scanning microscope was used to scan fibrillar proteins in three 4% formaldehyde-fixed cadaveric samples. Collagen and elastin, key extracellular matrix proteins in the vocal fold lamina propria, were imaged by two nonlinear microscopy modalities: second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF), respectively. An experimental protocol was introduced to characterize the geometrical properties of the imaged fibrous proteins. NLSM revealed the biomorphology of the human vocal fold fibrous proteins. No photobleaching was observed for the incident laser power of ∼60 mW before the excitation objective. Types I and III fibrillar collagen were imaged without label in the tissue by intrinsic SHG. Imaging while rotating the incident laser light-polarization direction confirmed a helical shape for the collagen fibers. The amplitude, periodicity, and overall orientation were then computed for the helically distributed collagen network. The elastin network was simultaneously imaged via TPF and found to have a basket-like structure. In some regions, particularly close to the epithelium, colocalization of both extracellular matrix components were observed. A benchmark study is presented for quantitative real-time, ex vivo, NLSM imaging of the extracellular macromolecules in human vocal fold lamina propria. The results are promising for clinical applications. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Social learning of vocal structure in a nonhuman primate?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-human primate communication is thought to be fundamentally different from human speech, mainly due to vast differences in vocal control. The lack of these abilities in non-human primates is especially striking if compared to some marine mammals and bird species, which has generated somewhat of an evolutionary conundrum. What are the biological roots and underlying evolutionary pressures of the human ability to voluntarily control sound production and learn the vocal utterances of others? One hypothesis is that this capacity has evolved gradually in humans from an ancestral stage that resembled the vocal behavior of modern primates. Support for this has come from studies that have documented limited vocal flexibility and convergence in different primate species, typically in calls used during social interactions. The mechanisms underlying these patterns, however, are currently unknown. Specifically, it has been difficult to rule out explanations based on genetic relatedness, suggesting that such vocal flexibility may not be the result of social learning. Results To address this point, we compared the degree of acoustic similarity of contact calls in free-ranging Campbell's monkeys as a function of their social bonds and genetic relatedness. We calculated three different indices to compare the similarities between the calls' frequency contours, the duration of grooming interactions and the microsatellite-based genetic relatedness between partners. We found a significantly positive relation between bond strength and acoustic similarity that was independent of genetic relatedness. Conclusion Genetic factors determine the general species-specific call repertoire of a primate species, while social factors can influence the fine structure of some the call types. The finding is in line with the more general hypothesis that human speech has evolved gradually from earlier primate-like vocal communication. PMID:22177339

  4. Gender Differences in the Recognition of Vocal Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Lausen, Adi; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2018-01-01

    The conflicting findings from the few studies conducted with regard to gender differences in the recognition of vocal expressions of emotion have left the exact nature of these differences unclear. Several investigators have argued that a comprehensive understanding of gender differences in vocal emotion recognition can only be achieved by replicating these studies while accounting for influential factors such as stimulus type, gender-balanced samples, number of encoders, decoders, and emotional categories. This study aimed to account for these factors by investigating whether emotion recognition from vocal expressions differs as a function of both listeners' and speakers' gender. A total of N = 290 participants were randomly and equally allocated to two groups. One group listened to words and pseudo-words, while the other group listened to sentences and affect bursts. Participants were asked to categorize the stimuli with respect to the expressed emotions in a fixed-choice response format. Overall, females were more accurate than males when decoding vocal emotions, however, when testing for specific emotions these differences were small in magnitude. Speakers' gender had a significant impact on how listeners' judged emotions from the voice. The group listening to words and pseudo-words had higher identification rates for emotions spoken by male than by female actors, whereas in the group listening to sentences and affect bursts the identification rates were higher when emotions were uttered by female than male actors. The mixed pattern for emotion-specific effects, however, indicates that, in the vocal channel, the reliability of emotion judgments is not systematically influenced by speakers' gender and the related stereotypes of emotional expressivity. Together, these results extend previous findings by showing effects of listeners' and speakers' gender on the recognition of vocal emotions. They stress the importance of distinguishing these factors to explain

  5. Modulating Phonation Through Alteration of Vocal Fold Medial Surface Contour

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Ted; Muhlestein, Joseph; Callahan, Sean; Chan, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 1. To test whether alteration of the vocal fold medial surface contour can improve phonation. 2. To demonstrate that implant material properties affect vibration even when implant is deep to the vocal fold lamina propria. Study Design Induced phonation of excised human larynges. Methods Thirteen larynges were harvested within 24 hours post-mortem. Phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and flow (PTF) were measured before and after vocal fold injections using either calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) or hyaluronic acid (HA). Small-volume injections (median 0.0625 mL) were targeted to the infero-medial aspect of the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. Implant locations were assessed histologically. Results The effect of implantation on PTP was material-dependent. CaHA tended to increase PTP, whereas HA tended to decrease PTP (Wilcoxon test P = 0.00013 for onset). In contrast, the effect of implantation on PTF was similar, with both materials tending to decrease PTF (P = 0.16 for onset). Histology confirmed implant presence in the inferior half of the vocal fold vertical thickness. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggested the implants may have altered the vocal fold medial surface contour, potentially resulting in a less convergent or more rectangular glottal geometry as a means to improve phonation. An implant with a closer viscoelastic match to vocal fold cover is desirable for this purpose, as material properties can affect vibration even when the implant is not placed within the lamina propria. This result is consistent with theoretical predictions and implies greater need for surgical precision in implant placement and care in material selection. PMID:22865592

  6. Viscosities of implantable biomaterials in vocal fold augmentation surgery.

    PubMed

    Chan, R W; Titze, I R

    1998-05-01

    Vocal fold vibration depends critically on the viscoelasticity of vocal fold tissues. For instance, phonation threshold pressure, a measure of the "ease" of phonation, has been shown to be directly related to the viscosity of the vibrating mucosa. Various implantable biomaterials have been used in vocal fold augmentation surgery, with implantation sites sometimes close to or inside the mucosa. Yet their viscosities or other mechanical properties are seldom known. This study attempts to provide data on viscosities of commonly used phonosurgical biomaterials. Using a parallel-plate rotational rheometer, oscillatory shear experiments were performed on implantable polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon or Polytef; Mentor Inc., Hingham, MA), collagen (Zyderm; Collagen Corp., Palo Alto, CA), glutaraldehyde crosslinked (GAX) collagen (Phonagel or Zyplast; Collagen Corp.), absorbable gelatin (Gelfoam; Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, MI), and human abdominal subcutaneous fat. Samples of human vocal fold mucosal tissues were also tested. Under sinusoidal oscillatory shear at 10 Hz and at 37 degrees C, the dynamic viscosity was 116 Pascal-seconds (Pa-s) for polytetrafluoroethylene, 21 Pa-s for gelatin, 8-13 Pa-s for the two types of collagen, 3 Pa-s for fat, and 1 to 3 Pa-s for vocal fold mucosa. Results extrapolated to 100 Hz also show similar differences among the biomaterials, but all values are an order of magnitude lower because of the typical inverse frequency relation (shear thinning effect) for polymeric and biologic materials. The data suggest that the use of fat for vocal fold augmentation may be more conducive to the "ease" of phonation because of its relatively low viscosity, which is closest to physiologic levels. This implication is probably the most relevant in predicting initial outcome of the postoperative voice before there is any significant assimilation (e.g., resorption and fibrosis) of the implanted biomaterial.

  7. Treatment for Vocal Polyps: Lips and Tongue Trill.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Daniela; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira Camargo; de Araújo, Cláudia Marina Tavares

    2017-03-01

    Vocal polyps do not have a well-defined therapeutic indication. The recommended treatment is often laryngeal microsurgery, followed by postoperative speech therapy. Speech therapy as the initial treatment for polyps is a new concept and aims to modify inappropriate vocal behavior, adjust the voice quality, and encourage regression of the lesion. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the sonorous lips and tongue trill technique in the treatment of vocal polyps. The sample consisted of 10 adults diagnosed with a polyp who were divided into two subgroups: treatment and control. Ten speech therapy sessions were conducted, each lasting 30-45 minutes, based on the sonorous lips and tongue trill technique, accompanied by continuous guidance about vocal health. Speech therapy was effective in three of the five participants. The number of symptoms presented by the participants decreased significantly after voice therapy (P = 0.034) and vocal self-evaluation (P = 0.034). The acoustic evaluation showed improvements in parameters of noise values (P = 0.028) and jitter (P = 0.034). The size of the polyp and the degree of severity of dysphonia, hoarseness, and breathiness showed a significant reduction after treatment (P = 0.043). Among the remaining two participants, one opted out of laryngeal surgery, indicating that the improvement obtained was sufficient to avoid surgery. The sonorous lips and tongue trill technique was thus considered effective in 60% of the participants, and as laryngeal surgery was avoided in 80% of them, it should be considered a treatment option for vocal polyps. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of ultrasonic vocalizations of Fragile X mice.

    PubMed

    Belagodu, Amogh P; Johnson, Aaron M; Galvez, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the leading form of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by the transcriptional silencing of FMR1, the gene which codes for the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). Patients who have FXS exhibit numerous behavioral and cognitive impairments, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and autistic-like behaviors. In addition to these behavioral abnormalities, FXS patients have also been shown to exhibit various deficits in communication such as abnormal sentence structures, increased utterances, repetition of sounds and words, and reduced articulation. These deficits can dramatically hinder communication for FXS patients, exacerbating learning and cognition impairments while decreasing their quality of life. To examine the biological underpinnings of these communication abnormalities, studies have used a mouse model of the Fragile X Syndrome; however, these vocalization studies have resulted in inconsistent findings that often do not correlate with abnormalities observed in FXS patients. Interestingly, a detailed examination of frequency modulated vocalizations that are believed to be a better assessment of rodent communication has never been conducted. The following study used courtship separation to conduct a detailed examination of frequency modulated ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in FXS mice. Our analyses of frequency modulated USVs demonstrated that adult FXS mice exhibited longer phrases and more motifs. Phrases are vocalizations consisting of multiple frequency modulated ultrasonic vocalizations, while motifs are repeated frequency modulated USV patterns. Fragile X mice had a higher proportion of "u" syllables in all USVs and phrases while their wildtype counterparts preferred isolated "h" syllables. Although the specific importance of these syllables towards communication deficits still needs to be evaluated, these findings in production of USVs are consistent with the

  9. Social behaviors and acoustic vocalizations in different strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Faure, Alexis; Pittaras, Elsa; Nosjean, Anne; Chabout, Jonathan; Cressant, Arnaud; Granon, Sylvie

    2017-03-01

    Proposing a framework for the study of core functions is valuable for understanding how they are altered in multiple mental disorders involving prefrontal dysfunction, for understanding genetic influences and for testing therapeutic compounds. Social and communication disabilities are reported in several major psychiatric disorders, and social communication disorders also can occur independently. Being able to study social communication involving interactions and associated acoustic vocalizations in animal models is thus important. All rodents display extensive social behaviors, including interactions and acoustic vocalizations. It is therefore important to pinpoint potential genetic-related strain differences -and similarities- in social behavior and vocalization. One approach is to compare different mouse strains, and this may be useful in choosing which strains may be best suitable in modeling psychiatric disorders where social and communication deficits are core symptoms. We compared social behavior and ultrasonic acoustic vocalization profiles in males of four mouse strains (129S2/Sv, C57BL/6J, DBA/2, and CD-1) using a social interaction task that we previously showed to rely on prefrontal network activity. Our social interaction task promotes a high level of ultrasonic vocalization with both social and acoustic parameters, and further allows other measures of social behaviors. The duration of social contact, dominance and aggressiveness varied with the mouse strains. Only C57BL/6J mice showed no attacks, with social contact being highly affiliative, whereas others strains emitted aggressive attacks. C57BL/6J mice also exhibited a significantly higher rate of ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), especially during social interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential Expression of Glutamate Receptors in Avian Neural Pathways for Learned Vocalization

    PubMed Central

    WADA, KAZUHIRO; SAKAGUCHI, HIRONOBU; JARVIS, ERICH D.; HAGIWARA, MASATOSHI

    2008-01-01

    Learned vocalization, the substrate for human language, is a rare trait. It is found in three distantly related groups of birds—parrots, hummingbirds, and songbirds. These three groups contain cerebral vocal nuclei for learned vocalization not found in their more closely related vocal nonlearning relatives. Here, we cloned 21 receptor subunits/subtypes of all four glutamate receptor families (AMPA, kainate, NMDA, and metabotropic) and examined their expression in vocal nuclei of songbirds. We also examined expression of a subset of these receptors in vocal nuclei of hummingbirds and parrots, as well as in the brains of dove species as examples of close vocal nonlearning relatives. Among the 21 subunits/subtypes, 19 showed higher and/or lower prominent differential expression in songbird vocal nuclei relative to the surrounding brain subdivisions in which the vocal nuclei are located. This included relatively lower levels of all four AMPA subunits in lMAN, strikingly higher levels of the kainite subunit GluR5 in the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), higher and lower levels respectively of the NMDA subunits NR2A and NR2B in most vocal nuclei and lower levels of the metabotropic group I subtypes (mGluR1 and -5) in most vocal nuclei and the group II subtype (mGluR2), showing a unique expression pattern of very low levels in RA and very high levels in HVC. The splice variants of AMPA subunits showed further differential expression in vocal nuclei. Some of the receptor subunits/subtypes also showed differential expression in hummingbird and parrot vocal nuclei. The magnitude of differential expression in vocal nuclei of all three vocal learners was unique compared with the smaller magnitude of differences found for nonvocal areas of vocal learners and vocal nonlearners. Our results suggest that evolution of vocal learning was accompanied by differential expression of a conserved gene family for synaptic transmission and plasticity in vocal nuclei. They also

  11. Coding of vocalizations by single neurons in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Plakke, Bethany; Diltz, Mark D; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Neuronal activity in single prefrontal neurons has been correlated with behavioral responses, rules, task variables and stimulus features. In the non-human primate, neurons recorded in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) have been found to respond to species-specific vocalizations. Previous studies have found multisensory neurons which respond to simultaneously presented faces and vocalizations in this region. Behavioral data suggests that face and vocal information are inextricably linked in animals and humans and therefore may also be tightly linked in the coding of communication calls in prefrontal neurons. In this study we therefore examined the role of VLPFC in encoding vocalization call type information. Specifically, we examined previously recorded single unit responses from the VLPFC in awake, behaving rhesus macaques in response to 3 types of species-specific vocalizations made by 3 individual callers. Analysis of responses by vocalization call type and caller identity showed that ∼19% of cells had a main effect of call type with fewer cells encoding caller. Classification performance of VLPFC neurons was ∼42% averaged across the population. When assessed at discrete time bins, classification performance reached 70 percent for coos in the first 300 ms and remained above chance for the duration of the response period, though performance was lower for other call types. In light of the sub-optimal classification performance of the majority of VLPFC neurons when only vocal information is present, and the recent evidence that most VLPFC neurons are multisensory, the potential enhancement of classification with the addition of accompanying face information is discussed and additional studies recommended. Behavioral and neuronal evidence has shown a considerable benefit in recognition and memory performance when faces and voices are presented simultaneously. In the natural environment both facial and vocalization information is present simultaneously and

  12. [Retention cysts of the vocal cords (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Grundmann, E W

    1979-05-01

    Present day knowledge in laryngology maintains that the free edge of the true cord mucosa is devoid of glands so that retention cysts should not occur in this tissue. When such cysts do occur, it is difficult to define their pathogenesis. Reference is made to the author's earlier study which found a regular occurrence of mucous glands in the squamous epithelial region of the vocal cords. A retention cyst in the true cord is described histologically in the present report. The glands responsible for these cysts are believed to function by moistening the mucous membrane of the vocal cords.

  13. [Phoniatric surgery and conservative treatment of vocal cord hematoma].

    PubMed

    Milutinović, Z

    1997-01-01

    Functional-traumatic lesions of the vocal fold include mucous stranding, "nodular" lesions, polyps, cysts, contact hyperplasia and haematoma of the vocal fold. An acute voice overuse may result in bleeding (haematoma) within the vocal fold. This may be in the form of petechial bleeding, or a genuine haematoma develops within the tissues of the vocal fold. Haematoma may also arise as a consequence of prolonged cough, forceful vomiting, lifting of a heavy weight, various effortful activities, etc. Haematoma is usually located close to the vocal fold free edge and therefore disturbs the glottic closure during phonation. The treatment is adapted to the size and localization of haematoma, as well as to the time elapsed from onset of the lesion. Phonosurgery can be used in therapy, as well as corticosteroid treatment. A series of 102 vocal fold haematomas has been treated by phonosurgery (39) and conservative therapy (63). Phonosurgical interventions were performed by an indirect approach, by use of microstroboscopy (28 patients) and videostroboscopy (11 causes). Conservative treatment consisted of corticosteroid therapy. During a 10-year period 1550 phonosurgical operations were performed for benign lesions of the vocal fold, including 39 haematomas (2.5%). It was established that recovery of vibration pattern was significantly faster in the surgery group in comparison to the group of patients treated conservatively. All surgical patients were operated within the first several days after the onset of symptoms. In case of a vocal fold haematoma, it is very important to establish the diagnosis as soon as possible in order to start with the therapy early enough. Within the first several days after the onset (the best within 24-48 hours) a phonosurgical treatment is indicated, preferably by the use of indirect videostroboscopy. If the treatment is started later we use corticoids. However, the results are inferior as compared to surgery. We did not perform direct

  14. Dynamic viscosity of implantable autologous materials into the vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Wiikmann, Christian; da Silva, Marcelo Alves; Arêas, Elizabeth Pinheiro Gomes; Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi; Sennes, Luiz Ubirajara

    2012-07-01

    To compare the dynamic viscosity (DV) of superficial layer of temporalis fascia (SLTF) with that of other biological tissues traditionally used for vocal fold implants to treat vocal fold rigidity. Experimental. Measurement of DV of samples of SLTF, deep layer of temporalis fascia (DLTF), and abdominal fat of 12 cadavers. DV values of the different samples were presented in the following increasing order: SLTF, DLTF, and abdominal fat. There was statistical difference between the samples. DV of SLTF is lower than of other tissues tested. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Classification of Marmoset Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Sidarta; Pereira, Danillo R.; Papa, João P.; de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C.

    2016-01-01

    Automatic classification of vocalization type could potentially become a useful tool for acoustic the monitoring of captive colonies of highly vocal primates. However, for classification to be useful in practice, a reliable algorithm that can be successfully trained on small datasets is necessary. In this work, we consider seven different classification algorithms with the goal of finding a robust classifier that can be successfully trained on small datasets. We found good classification performance (accuracy > 0.83 and F1-score > 0.84) using the Optimum Path Forest classifier. Dataset and algorithms are made publicly available. PMID:27654941

  16. Study of a Vocal Feature Selection Method and Vocal Properties for Discriminating Four Constitution Types

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keun Ho; Ku, Boncho; Kang, Namsik; Kim, Young-Su; Jang, Jun-Su; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2012-01-01

    The voice has been used to classify the four constitution types, and to recognize a subject's health condition by extracting meaningful physical quantities, in traditional Korean medicine. In this paper, we propose a method of selecting the reliable variables from various voice features, such as frequency derivative features, frequency band ratios, and intensity, from vowels and a sentence. Further, we suggest a process to extract independent variables by eliminating explanatory variables and reducing their correlation and remove outlying data to enable reliable discriminant analysis. Moreover, the suitable division of data for analysis, according to the gender and age of subjects, is discussed. Finally, the vocal features are applied to a discriminant analysis to classify each constitution type. This method of voice classification can be widely used in the u-Healthcare system of personalized medicine and for improving diagnostic accuracy. PMID:22529874

  17. The Vocal Repertoire of Adult and Neonate Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis)

    PubMed Central

    Mumm, Christina A. S.; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    Animals use vocalizations to exchange information about external events, their own physical or motivational state, or about individuality and social affiliation. Infant babbling can enhance the development of the full adult vocal repertoire by providing ample opportunity for practice. Giant otters are very social and frequently vocalizing animals. They live in highly cohesive groups, generally including a reproductive pair and their offspring born in different years. This basic social structure may vary in the degree of relatedness of the group members. Individuals engage in shared group activities and different social roles and thus, the social organization of giant otters provides a basis for complex and long-term individual relationships. We recorded and analysed the vocalizations of adult and neonate giant otters from wild and captive groups. We classified the adult vocalizations according to their acoustic structure, and described their main behavioural context. Additionally, we present the first description of vocalizations uttered in babbling bouts of new born giant otters. We expected to find 1) a sophisticated vocal repertoire that would reflect the species’ complex social organisation, 2) that giant otter vocalizations have a clear relationship between signal structure and function, and 3) that the vocal repertoire of new born giant otters would comprise age-specific vocalizations as well as precursors of the adult repertoire. We found a vocal repertoire with 22 distinct vocalization types produced by adults and 11 vocalization types within the babbling bouts of the neonates. A comparison within the otter subfamily suggests a relation between vocal and social complexity, with the giant otters being the socially and vocally most complex species. PMID:25391142

  18. Vocal parameters that indicate threat level correlate with FOS immunolabeling in social and vocal control brain regions.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jesse M S; Riters, Lauren V

    2012-01-01

    Transmitting information via communicative signals is integral to interacting with conspecifics, and some species achieve this task by varying vocalizations to reflect context. Although signal variation is critical to social interactions, the underlying neural control has not been studied. In response to a predator, black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla) produce mobbing calls (chick-a-dee calls) with various parameters, some of which convey information about the threat stimulus. We predicted that vocal parameters indicative of threat would be associated with distinct patterns of neuronal activity within brain areas involved in social behavior and those involved in the sensorimotor control of vocal production. To test this prediction, we measured the syntax and structural aspects of chick-a-dee call production in response to a hawk model and assessed the protein product of the immediate early gene FOS in brain regions implicated in context-specific vocal and social behavior. These regions include the medial preoptic area (POM) and lateral septum (LS), as well as regions involved in vocal motor control, including the dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex and the HVC. We found correlations linking call rate (previously demonstrated to reflect threat) to labeling in the POM and LS. Labeling in the HVC correlated with the number of D notes per call, which may also signal threat level. Labeling in the call control region dorsomedial nucleus was associated with the structure of D notes and the overall number of notes, but not call rate or type of notes produced. These results suggest that the POM and LS may influence attributes of vocalizations produced in response to predators and that the brain region implicated in song control, the HVC, also influences call production. Because variation in chick-a-dee call rate indicates predator threat, we speculate that these areas could integrate with motor control regions to imbue mobbing signals with additional

  19. Ultrasonic vocalizations in mouse models for speech and socio-cognitive disorders: insights into the evolution of vocal communication

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, J; Hammerschmidt, K

    2011-01-01

    Comparative analyses used to reconstruct the evolution of traits associated with the human language faculty, including its socio-cognitive underpinnings, highlight the importance of evolutionary constraints limiting vocal learning in non-human primates. After a brief overview of this field of research and the neural basis of primate vocalizations, we review studies that have addressed the genetic basis of usage and structure of ultrasonic communication in mice, with a focus on the gene FOXP2 involved in specific language impairments and neuroligin genes (NL-3 and NL-4) involved in autism spectrum disorders. Knockout of FoxP2 leads to reduced vocal behavior and eventually premature death. Introducing the human variant of FoxP2 protein into mice, in contrast, results in shifts in frequency and modulation of pup ultrasonic vocalizations. Knockout of NL-3 and NL-4 in mice diminishes social behavior and vocalizations. Although such studies may provide insights into the molecular and neural basis of social and communicative behavior, the structure of mouse vocalizations is largely innate, limiting the suitability of the mouse model to study human speech, a learned mode of production. Although knockout or replacement of single genes has perceptible effects on behavior, these genes are part of larger networks whose functions remain poorly understood. In humans, for instance, deficiencies in NL-4 can lead to a broad spectrum of disorders, suggesting that further factors (experiential and/or genetic) contribute to the variation in clinical symptoms. The precise nature as well as the interaction of these factors is yet to be determined. PMID:20579107

  20. The effect of voice amplification on occupational vocal dose in elementary school teachers.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Christopher S; O'Brien, Shenendoah G; Tinter, Sara R

    2012-09-01

    Two elementary school teachers, one with and one without a history of vocal complaints, wore a vocal dosimeter all day at school for a 3-week period. In the second week, each teacher wore a portable voice amplifier. Each teacher showed a reduction in vocal intensity during the week of amplification, with a larger effect for the teacher with vocal difficulties. This teacher also showed a decrease in hourly vocal fold distance dose as measured by the dosimeter despite incurring longer phonation times. Fundamental frequency and vocal fold cycle dose did not appear to be affected by the use of amplification during the teaching day. Both teachers showed evidence of a possible moderate effect of adjusting vocal intensity in the week after amplification, possibly as a means to recalibrate their perceived vocal loudness. This study demonstrates the usefulness of both vocal dosimetry and amplification in monitoring and modifying vocal dose in an occupational setting and reinforces previous data suggesting the effectiveness of amplification in reducing the vocal load in schoolteachers. Implications of the data for future research regarding prevention and treatment of occupational voice disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The vocal sac of Hylodidae (Amphibia, Anura): Phylogenetic and functional implications of a unique morphology.

    PubMed

    Elias-Costa, Agustin J; Montesinos, Rachel; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2017-11-01

    Anuran vocal sacs are elastic chambers that recycle exhaled air during vocalizations and are present in males of most species of frogs. Most knowledge of the diversity of vocal sacs relates to external morphology; detailed information on internal anatomy is available for few groups of frogs. Frogs of the family Hylodidae, which is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil and adjacent Argentina and Paraguay, have three patterns of vocal sac morphology-that is, single, subgular; paired, lateral; and absent. The submandibular musculature and structure of the vocal sac mucosa (the internal wall of the vocal sac) of exemplar species of this family and relatives were studied. In contrast to previous accounts, we found that all species of Crossodactylus and Hylodes possess paired, lateral vocal sacs, with the internal mucosa of each sac being separate from the contralateral one. Unlike all other frogs for which data are available, the mucosa of the vocal sacs in these genera is not supported externally by the mm. intermandibularis and interhyoideus. Rather, the vocal sac mucosa projects through the musculature and is free in the submandibular lymphatic sac. The presence of paired, lateral vocal sacs, the internal separation of the sac mucosae, and their projection through the m. interhyoideus are synapomorphies of the family. Furthermore, the specific configuration of the m. interhyoideus allows asymmetric inflation of paired vocal sacs, a feature only reported in species of these diurnal, stream-dwelling frogs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Role of immediate recurrent laryngeal nerve reconstruction in surgery for thyroid cancers with fixed vocal cords.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Shinobu; Maeda, Tatsuyoshi; Saito, Miki; Otsuki, Naoki; Takahashi, Miki; Wakui, Emi; Shinomiya, Hirotaka; Morimoto, Koichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Masuoka, Hiroo; Miyauchi, Akira; Nibu, Ken-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    Quality of voice after immediate recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) reconstruction in thyroid cancers has not been thoroughly studied. Thirteen patients with fixed vocal cords (fixed vocal cord group) and 8 patients with intact or impaired mobile vocal cords (mobile vocal cord group) who had immediate RLN reconstruction simultaneously with total thyroidectomy, and patients who had arytenoid adduction and thyroplasty for vocal cord paralysis caused by previous surgery (arytenoid adduction thyroplasty group) were enrolled in this study. Preoperative phonation efficiency index was significantly lower (p = .008) in the fixed vocal cord group than in the mobile vocal cord group. One year after surgery, all voice parameters of the patients in the fixed vocal cord group had improved, compared with their preoperative data. The fixed vocal cord group had attained satisfactory voice qualities equivalent to those of the mobile vocal cord group in terms of various voice parameters. The present results support the idea that immediate RLN reconstruction at the time of surgery for thyroid cancers may spare the need for subsequent arytenoid adduction thyroplasty even in the patients with preoperatively fixed vocal cords. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 427-431, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of environmental stimulation on infant vocalizations and orofacial dynamics at the onset of canonical babbling.

    PubMed

    Harold, Meredith Poore; Barlow, Steven M

    2013-02-01

    The vocalizations and jaw kinematics of 30 infants aged 6-8 months were recorded using a Motion Analysis System and audiovisual technologies. This study represents the first attempt to determine the effect of play environment on infants' rate of vocalization and jaw movement. Four play conditions were compared: watching videos, social contingent reinforcement and vocal modeling with an adult, playing alone with small toys, and playing alone with large toys. The fewest vocalizations and spontaneous movement were observed when infants were watching videos or interacting with an adult. Infants vocalized most when playing with large toys. The small toys, which naturally elicited gross motor movement (e.g., waving, banging, shaking), educed fewer vocalizations. This study was also the first to quantify the kinematics of vocalized and non-vocalized jaw movements of 6-8 month-old infants. Jaw kinematics did not differentiate infants who produced canonical syllables from those who did not. All infants produced many jaw movements without vocalization. However, during vocalization, infants were unlikely to move their jaw. This contradicts current theories that infant protophonic vocalizations are jaw-dominant. Results of the current study can inform socio-linguistic and kinematic theories of canonical babbling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Viscoelastic measurements after vocal fold scarring in rabbits--short-term results after hyaluronan injection.

    PubMed

    Hertegård, S; Dahlqvist, A; Goodyer, E

    2006-07-01

    The scarring model resulted in significant damage and elevated viscoelasticity of the lamina propria. Hyaluronan preparations may alter viscoelasticity in scarred rabbit vocal folds. Vocal fold scarring results in stiffness of the lamina propria and severe voice problems. The aims of this study were to examine the degree of scarring achieved in the experiment and to measure the viscoelastic properties after injection of hyaluronan in rabbit vocal folds. Twenty-two vocal folds from 15 New Zealand rabbits were scarred, 8 vocal folds were controls. After 8 weeks 12 of the scarred vocal folds received injections with 2 types of cross-linked hyaluronan products and 10 scarred folds were injected with saline. After 11 more weeks the animals were sacrificed. After dissection, 15 vocal folds were frozen for viscoelastic measurements, whereas 14 vocal folds were prepared and stained. Measurements were made of the lamina propria thickness. Viscoelasticity was measured on intact vocal folds with a linear skin rheometer (LSR) adapted to laryngeal measurements. Measurements on the digitized slides showed a thickened lamina propria in the scarred samples as compared with the normal vocal folds (p<0.05). The viscoelastic analysis showed a tendency to stiffening of the scarred vocal folds as compared with the normal controls (p=0.05). There was large variation in stiffness between the two injected hyaluronan products.

  5. Preservation of viscoelastic properties of rabbit vocal folds after implantation of hyaluronic Acid-based biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Seok; Kim, Nahn Ju; Klemuk, Sarah; Jang, Yun Ho; Park, In Suh; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Lim, Jae-Yol; Kim, Young-Mo

    2012-09-01

    To compare the rheological characteristics of structurally different hyaluronic acid (HA)-based biomaterials that are presently used for phonosurgery and to investigate their influence on the viscoelastic properties of vocal folds after implantation in an in vivo rabbit model. In vitro and in vivo rheometric investigation. Experimental laboratory, Inha and Seoul National Universities. Viscoelastic shear properties of 3 HA-based biomaterials (Rofilan, Restylane, and Reviderm) were measured with a strain-controlled rheometer. These biomaterials were injected into the deep layers of rabbit vocal folds, and viscoelastic moduli of the injected vocal folds were determined 2 months after the injection. The vocal fold specimens were observed using a light microscope and a transmission electron microscope. All HA-based biomaterials showed similar levels of shear viscosity, which were slightly higher than that of human vocal folds reported in previous studies. Compared with noninjected control vocal folds, there were no significant differences in the magnitudes of both elastic shear modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G") of injected vocal folds among all of the materials. Light microscopic images showed that all materials were observed in the deep layers of vocal folds and electron scanning images revealed that injected HA particles were homogeneously distributed in regions of collagenous fibers. HA-based biomaterials could preserve the viscoelastic properties of the vocal folds, when they were injected into vocal folds in an in vivo rabbit model. However, further studies on the influence of the biomaterials on the viscoelasticity of human vocal folds in ECM surroundings are still needed.

  6. Effects of Environmental Stimulation on Infant Vocalizations and Orofacial Dynamics at the Onset of Canonical Babbling

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Meredith Poore; Barlow, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The vocalizations and jaw kinematics of 30 infants aged 6–8 months were recorded using a Motion Analysis System and audiovisual technologies. This study represents the first attempt to determine the effect of play environment on infants’ rate of vocalization and jaw movement. Four play conditions were compared: watching videos, social contingent reinforcement and vocal modeling with an adult, playing alone with small toys, and playing alone with large toys. The fewest vocalizations and spontaneous movement were observed when infants were watching videos or interacting with an adult. Infants vocalized most when playing with large toys. The small toys, which naturally elicited gross motor movement (e.g., waving, banging, shaking), educed fewer vocalizations. This study was also the first to quantify the kinematics of vocalized and non-vocalized jaw movements of 6–8 month-old infants. Jaw kinematics did not differentiate infants who produced canonical syllables from those who did not. All infants produced many jaw movements without vocalization. However, during vocalization, infants were unlikely to move their jaw. This contradicts current theories that infant protophonic vocalizations are jaw dominant. Results of the current study can inform socio-linguistic and kinematic theories of canonical babbling. PMID:23261792

  7. Identification of a motor to auditory pathway important for vocal learning

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Todd F.; Hisey, Erin; Tanaka, Masashi; Kearney, Matthew; Chattree, Gaurav; Yang, Cindy F.; Shah, Nirao M.; Mooney, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Summary Learning to vocalize depends on the ability to adaptively modify the temporal and spectral features of vocal elements. Neurons that convey motor-related signals to the auditory system are theorized to facilitate vocal learning, but the identity and function of such neurons remain unknown. Here we identify a previously unknown neuron type in the songbird brain that transmits vocal motor signals to the auditory cortex. Genetically ablating these neurons in juveniles disrupted their ability to imitate features of an adult tutor’s song. Ablating these neurons in adults had little effect on previously learned songs, but interfered with their ability to adaptively modify the duration of vocal elements and largely prevented the degradation of song’s temporal features normally caused by deafening. These findings identify a motor to auditory circuit essential to vocal imitation and to the adaptive modification of vocal timing. PMID:28504672

  8. Nonlinear dynamic mechanism of vocal tremor from voice analysis and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2008-09-01

    Nonlinear dynamic analysis and model simulations are used to study the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of vocal folds with vocal tremor, which can typically be characterized by low-frequency modulation and aperiodicity. Tremor voices from patients with disorders such as paresis, Parkinson's disease, hyperfunction, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia show low-dimensional characteristics, differing from random noise. Correlation dimension analysis statistically distinguishes tremor voices from normal voices. Furthermore, a nonlinear tremor model is proposed to study the vibrations of the vocal folds with vocal tremor. Fractal dimensions and positive Lyapunov exponents demonstrate the evidence of chaos in the tremor model, where amplitude and frequency play important roles in governing vocal fold dynamics. Nonlinear dynamic voice analysis and vocal fold modeling may provide a useful set of tools for understanding the dynamic mechanism of vocal tremor in patients with laryngeal diseases.

  9. Cross-fostering alters advertisement vocalizations of grasshopper mice (Onychomys): Evidence for the developmental stress hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pasch, Bret; Abbasi, Mustafa Z; Wilson, Macey; Zhao, Daniel; Searle, Jeremy B; Webster, Michael S; Rice, Aaron N

    2016-04-01

    Nutritional stress can have lasting impacts on the development of traits involved in vocal production. Cross-fostering experiments are often used to examine the propensity for vocal learning in a variety of taxa, but few studies assess the influence of malnourishment that can occur as a byproduct of this technique. In this study, we reciprocally cross-fostered sister taxa of voluble grasshopper mice (genus Onychomys) to explore their propensity for vocal learning. Vocalizations of Onychomys leucogaster did not differ between control and cross-fostered animals, but cross-fostered Onychomys arenicola produced vocalizations that were higher in frequency in a direction away from tutors. These same animals exhibited a transient reduction in body mass early in development, indicative of malnutrition. Our findings simultaneously refute vocal learning and support the developmental stress hypothesis to highlight the importance of early ontogeny on the production of vocalizations later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phonetogram changes for trained singers over a nine-month period of vocal training.

    PubMed

    LeBorgne, Wendy DeLeo; Weinrich, Barbara D

    2002-03-01

    Professional vocalists encounter demands requiring voluntary control of phonation, while utilizing a considerable range of frequency and intensity. These quantifiable acoustic events can be measured and represented in a phonetogram. Previous research has compared the phonetograms of trained and untrained voices and found significant differences between these groups. This study was designed to assess the effects of vocal training for singers over a period of nine months. Phonetogram contour changes were examined, with the primary focus on expansion of frequency range and/or intensity control. Twenty-one first-year, master's level, vocal music students, who were engaged in an intensive vocal performance curriculum, participated in this study. Following nine months of vocal training, significant differences were revealed in the subjects' mean frequency range and minimum vocal intensity across frequency levels. There was no significant difference for the mean maximum vocal intensity across frequency levels following vocal training.

  11. Vocal fry may undermine the success of young women in the labor market.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rindy C; Klofstad, Casey A; Mayew, William J; Venkatachalam, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fry is speech that is low pitched and creaky sounding, and is increasingly common among young American females. Some argue that vocal fry enhances speaker labor market perceptions while others argue that vocal fry is perceived negatively and can damage job prospects. In a large national sample of American adults we find that vocal fry is interpreted negatively. Relative to a normal speaking voice, young adult female voices exhibiting vocal fry are perceived as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive, and less hirable. The negative perceptions of vocal fry are stronger for female voices relative to male voices. These results suggest that young American females should avoid using vocal fry speech in order to maximize labor market opportunities.

  12. Musical Structure Modulates Semantic Priming in Vocal Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin-Charronnat, Benedicte; Bigand, Emmanuel; Madurell, Francois; Peereman, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that harmonic structure may influence the processing of phonemes whatever the extent of participants' musical expertise [Bigand, E., Tillmann, B., Poulin, B., D'Adamo, D. A., & Madurell, F. (2001). The effect of harmonic context on phoneme monitoring in vocal music. "Cognition," 81, B11-B20]. The present study goes a step further…

  13. Using Response Interruption and Redirection to Reduce Vocal Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehey, Patricia H.; Wells, Jenny C.

    2018-01-01

    Response interruption and redirection, commonly referred to as RIR, is an evidence-based intervention that has been demonstrated to quickly reduce moderate to high levels of vocal stereotypy in children with autism spectrum disorder. The RIR intervention is a simple, three-step procedure that can be embedded in classroom instruction with minimal…

  14. [Vascular Lesions of Vocal Folds - Part 2: Perpendicular Vascular Lesions].

    PubMed

    Arens, C; Glanz, H; Voigt-Zimmermann, S

    2015-11-01

    The present work aims at a systematic pathogenetic description of perpendicular vascular changes in the vocal folds. Unlike longitudinal vascular changes, like ectasia and meander, perpendicular vascular changes can be observed in bening lesions. They predominantly occur as typical vascular loops in exophytic lesions, especially in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), pre-cancerous and cancerous diseases of the larynx and vocal folds. Neoangiogenesis is caused by an epithelial growth stimulus in the early phase of cancerous genesis. In RRP the VVC impress by a single, long vessel loop with a narrow angle turning point in the each single papilla of the papilloma. In pre- and cancerous lesions the vascular loop is located directly underneath the epithelium. During progressive tumor growth, vascular loops develop an increasingly irregular, convoluted, spirally shape. The arrangement of the vascular loops is primarily still symmetrical. In the preliminary stage of tumor development occurs by neoangiogenesis to a microvascular compression. In advanced vocal fold carcinoma the regular vascular vocal fold structure is destroyed. The various stages of tumor growth are also characterized by typical primary epithelial and secondary connective tissue changes. The characteristic triad of vascular, epithelial and connective tissue changes therefore plays an important role in differential diagnosis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Body height, immunity, facial and vocal attractiveness in young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrinda, Ilona; Krama, Tatjana; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R.; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J.; Krams, Indrikis

    2014-12-01

    Health, facial and vocal attributes and body height of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body height was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a height of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body height was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body height and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body height negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.

  16. Body height, immunity, facial and vocal attractiveness in young men.

    PubMed

    Skrinda, Ilona; Krama, Tatjana; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J; Krams, Indrikis

    2014-12-01

    Health, facial and vocal attributes and body height of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body height was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a height of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body height was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body height and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body height negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.

  17. Long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations by African lions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinnell, Jon; van Dyk, Gus; Slotow, Rob

    2005-09-01

    Animals that use and evaluate long-distance signals have the potential to glean valuable information about others in their environment via eavesdropping. In those areas where they coexist, African lions (Panthera leo) are a significant eavesdropper on spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), often using hyena vocalizations to locate and scavenge from hyena kills. This relationship was used to test African lions' long-term memory of the vocalizations of spotted hyenas via playback experiments. Hyena whoops and a control sound (Canis lupus howls) were played to three populations of lions in South Africa: (1) lions with past experience of spotted hyenas; (2) lions with current experience; and (3) lions with no experience. The results strongly suggest that lions have the cognitive ability to remember the vocalizations of spotted hyenas even after 10 years with no contact of any kind with them. Such long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations may be widespread in species that gain fitness benefits from eavesdropping on others, but where such species are sympatric and often interact it may pass unrecognized as short-term memory instead.

  18. Anatomical study of minor alterations in neonate vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Adriano Rezende; Machado, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2014-01-01

    Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. To evaluate the existence and anatomical characterization of minor structural alterations in the vocal folds of newborns. 56 larynxes excised from neonates of both genders were studied. They were examined fresh, or defrosted after conservation via freezing, under a microscope at magnifications of 25× and 40×. The vocal folds were inspected and palpated by two examiners, with the aim of finding minor structural alterations similar to those described classically, and other undetermined minor structural alterations. Larynges presenting abnormalities were submitted to histological examination. Six cases of abnormalities were found in different larynges: one (1.79%) compatible with a sulcus vocalis and five (8.93%) compatible with a laryngeal micro-diaphragm. No cases of cysts or mucosal bridges were found. The observed abnormalities had characteristics similar to those described in other age groups. Abnormalities similar to sulcus vocalis or micro-diaphragm may be present at birth. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting Phonetic Transcription Agreement: Insights from Research in Infant Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Ethington, Corinna A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide new perspectives on correlates of phonetic transcription agreement. Our research focuses on phonetic transcription and coding of infant vocalizations. The findings are presumed to be broadly applicable to other difficult cases of transcription, such as found in severe disorders of speech, which similarly…

  20. Teaching Vocal Canons: A Dare and a Chair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Many elementary vocal teachers experience a certain amount of trepidation about teaching students to sing in harmony. In the general music classroom, they face uncertain singers, inaccurate singers, and uninterested or defiant singers, as well as eager children who sing with appropriate head tone and good intonation. Often this colorful mix makes…

  1. American Voice Types: Towards a Vocal Typology for American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPeek, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Individual voices are not uniformly similar to others, even when factoring out speaker characteristics such as sex, age, dialect, and so on. Some speakers share common features and can cohere into groups based on gross vocal similarity but, to date, no attempt has been made to describe these features systematically or to generate a taxonomy based…

  2. Self-masking: Listening during vocalization. Normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Borg, Erik; Bergkvist, Christina; Gustafsson, Dan

    2009-06-01

    What underlying mechanisms are involved in the ability to talk and listen simultaneously and what role does self-masking play under conditions of hearing impairment? The purpose of the present series of studies is to describe a technique for assessment of masked thresholds during vocalization, to describe normative data for males and females, and to focus on hearing impairment. The masking effect of vocalized [a:] on narrow-band noise pulses (250-8000 Hz) was studied using the maximum vocalization method. An amplitude-modulated series of sound pulses, which sounded like a steam engine, was masked until the criterion of halving the perceived pulse rate was reached. For masking of continuous reading, a just-follow-conversation criterion was applied. Intra-session test-retest reproducibility and inter-session variability were calculated. The results showed that female voices were more efficient in masking high frequency noise bursts than male voices and more efficient in masking both a male and a female test reading. The male had to vocalize 4 dBA louder than the female to produce the same masking effect on the test reading. It is concluded that the method is relatively simple to apply and has small intra-session and fair inter-session variability. Interesting gender differences were observed.

  3. Song evolution, speciation, and vocal learning in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Mason, Nicholas A; Burns, Kevin J; Tobias, Joseph A; Claramunt, Santiago; Seddon, Nathalie; Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2017-03-01

    Phenotypic divergence can promote reproductive isolation and speciation, suggesting a possible link between rates of phenotypic evolution and the tempo of speciation at multiple evolutionary scales. To date, most macroevolutionary studies of diversification have focused on morphological traits, whereas behavioral traits─including vocal signals─are rarely considered. Thus, although behavioral traits often mediate mate choice and gene flow, we have a limited understanding of how behavioral evolution contributes to diversification. Furthermore, the developmental mode by which behavioral traits are acquired may affect rates of behavioral evolution, although this hypothesis is seldom tested in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we examine evidence for rate shifts in vocal evolution and speciation across two major radiations of codistributed passerines: one oscine clade with learned songs (Thraupidae) and one suboscine clade with innate songs (Furnariidae). We find that evolutionary bursts in rates of speciation and song evolution are coincident in both thraupids and furnariids. Further, overall rates of vocal evolution are higher among taxa with learned rather than innate songs. Taken together, these findings suggest an association between macroevolutionary bursts in speciation and vocal evolution, and that the tempo of behavioral evolution can be influenced by variation in developmental modes among lineages. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Vocal Fold Pathologies and Three-Dimensional Flow Separation Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostoli, Adam G.; Weiland, Kelley S.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Polyps and nodules are two different pathologies, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, and have been shown to significantly disrupt a person's ability to communicate. Although the mechanism by which the vocal folds self-oscillate and the three-dimensional nature of the glottal jet has been studied, the effect of irregularities caused by pathologies is not fully understood. Examining the formation and evolution of vortical structures created by a geometric protuberance is important, not only for understanding the aerodynamic forces exerted by these structures on the vocal folds, but also in the treatment of the above-mentioned pathological conditions. Using a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, the present investigation considers three-dimensional flow separation induced by a model vocal fold polyp. Building on previous work using skin friction line visualization, both the velocity flow field and wall pressure measurements around the model polyp are presented and compared. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-1236351 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  5. Development and Testing of a Portable Vocal Accumulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheyne, Harold A.; Hanson, Helen M.; Genereux, Ronald P.; Stevens, Kenneth N.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This research note describes the design and testing of a device for unobtrusive, long-term ambulatory monitoring of voice use, named the Portable Vocal Accumulator (PVA). The PVA contains a digital signal processor for analyzing input from a neck-placed miniature accelerometer. During its development, accelerometer recordings were obtained from 99…

  6. Infant-Mother Vocalization Patterns: A Replication and Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbourne, Brock K.; Ginsburg, Gerald P.

    This study reports a replication of an earlier study by Kilbourne and Ginsberg (1980) which indicated the occurrence of a transition from predominantly coacting to predominantly alternating infant-mother vocalization patterns. In addition, the present study examined the modulating influences of nursing activity and mother's focus of attention upon…

  7. An automated technique for monitoring nocturnal avian vocalizations

    Treesearch

    James B. Johnson; Daniel Saenz; D. Brent Burt; Richard N. Conner

    2002-01-01

    We used audio recording dataloggers known as Frogloggers to collect nocturnal bird vocalizations at eight different sites within the Davy Crockett National Forest and the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest in eastern Texas from 9 May 2000 to 31 June 2001. We programmed the dataloggers to record for one-minute intervals at the beginning of each hour starting at 2100...

  8. Biosimulation of inflammation and healing in surgically injured vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Li, Nicole Y K; Vodovotz, Yoram; Hebda, Patricia A; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini

    2010-06-01

    The pathogenesis of vocal fold scarring is complex and remains to be deciphered. The current study is part of research endeavors aimed at applying systems biology approaches to address the complex biological processes involved in the pathogenesis of vocal fold scarring and other lesions affecting the larynx. We developed a computational agent-based model (ABM) to quantitatively characterize multiple cellular and molecular interactions involved in inflammation and healing in vocal fold mucosa after surgical trauma. The ABM was calibrated with empirical data on inflammatory mediators (eg, tumor necrosis factor) and extracellular matrix components (eg, hyaluronan) from published studies on surgical vocal fold injury in the rat population. The simulation results reproduced and predicted trajectories seen in the empirical data from the animals. Moreover, the ABM studies suggested that hyaluronan fragments might be the clinical surrogate of tissue damage, a key variable that in these simulations both is enhanced by and further induces inflammation. A relatively simple ABM such as the one reported in this study can provide new understanding of laryngeal wound healing and generate working hypotheses for further wet-lab studies.

  9. Syllable Durations of Preword and Early Word Vocalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Michael P.; Saxman, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The continuity in development of syllable duration patterns was examined in seven young children as they progressed from preword to multiword periods of vocalization development. Results revealed no systematic increase or decrease in the duration of bisyllables produced by the children as a group, whereas lengthening of final syllables was…

  10. Vocal Tract Representation in the Recognition of Cerebral Palsied Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudzicz, Frank; Hirst, Graeme; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored articulatory information as a means of improving the recognition of dysarthric speech by machine. Method: Data were derived chiefly from the TORGO database of dysarthric articulation (Rudzicz, Namasivayam, & Wolff, 2011) in which motions of various points in the vocal tract are measured during speech.…

  11. Towards endoscopic ultrafast laser microsurgery of vocal folds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, Christopher L.; Everett, W. Neil; Yildirim, Murat; Kobler, James; Zeitels, Steven M.; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2012-03-01

    Vocal fold scarring is a predominant cause of voice disorders yet lacks a reliable treatment method. The injection of soft biomaterials to improve mechanical compliance of the vocal folds has emerged as a promising treatment. Here, we study the use of precise femtosecond laser microsurgery to ablate subsurface voids, with a goal of eventually creating a plane in dense subepithelial scar tissue into which biomaterials can be injected for their improved localization. Specifically, we demonstrate the ablation of small subepithelial voids in porcine vocal fold tissue up to 120 µm below the surface such that larger voids in the active area of vocal fold mucosa (~3×10 mm2) can eventually be ablated in about 3 min. We use sub-µJ, 776-nm pulses from a compact femtosecond fiber laser system operating at a 500-kHz repetition rate. The use of relatively high repetition rates, with a small number of overlapping pulses, is critical to achieving ablation in a very short time while still avoiding significant heat deposition. Additionally, we use the same laser for nonlinear optical imaging to provide visual feedback of tissue structure and to confirm successful ablation. The ablation parameters, including pulse duration, pulse energy, spot size, and scanning speed, are comparable to the specifications in our recently developed miniaturized femtosecond laser surgery probes, illustrating the feasibility of developing an ultrafast laser surgical instrument.

  12. Investigating the Role of Salivary Cortisol on Vocal Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmqvist-Jämsén, Sofia; Johansson, Ada; Santtila, Pekka; Westberg, Lars; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Simberg, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether participants who reported more often occurring vocal symptoms showed higher salivary cortisol levels and if such possible associations were different for men and women. Method: The participants (N = 170; men n = 49, women n = 121) consisted of a population-based sample of Finnish twins born between 1961 and 1989.…

  13. Campbell's monkeys concatenate vocalizations into context-specific call sequences

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Karim; Lemasson, Alban; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Primate vocal behavior is often considered irrelevant in modeling human language evolution, mainly because of the caller's limited vocal control and apparent lack of intentional signaling. Here, we present the results of a long-term study on Campbell's monkeys, which has revealed an unrivaled degree of vocal complexity. Adult males produced six different loud call types, which they combined into various sequences in highly context-specific ways. We found stereotyped sequences that were strongly associated with cohesion and travel, falling trees, neighboring groups, nonpredatory animals, unspecific predatory threat, and specific predator classes. Within the responses to predators, we found that crowned eagles triggered four and leopards three different sequences, depending on how the caller learned about their presence. Callers followed a number of principles when concatenating sequences, such as nonrandom transition probabilities of call types, addition of specific calls into an existing sequence to form a different one, or recombination of two sequences to form a third one. We conclude that these primates have overcome some of the constraints of limited vocal control by combinatorial organization. As the different sequences were so tightly linked to specific external events, the Campbell's monkey call system may be the most complex example of ‘proto-syntax’ in animal communication known to date. PMID:20007377

  14. Aging Affects Identification of Vocal Emotions in Semantically Neutral Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Kate; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors determined the accuracy of younger and older adults in identifying vocal emotions using the Toronto Emotional Speech Set (TESS; Dupuis & Pichora-Fuller, 2010a) and investigated the possible contributions of auditory acuity and suprathreshold processing to emotion identification accuracy. Method: In 2 experiments, younger…

  15. Acute dysphonia secondary to vocal fold hemorrhage after vardenafil use.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikas; Cohen, Seth M; Rousseau, Bernard; Noordzij, J Pieter; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Ossoff, Robert H

    2010-06-01

    Owing to their vasodilatory effects, the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors have become widely used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Among the reported adverse events of these agents are epistaxis, variceal bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, and hemorrhoidal bleeding. We report a case of vocal fold hemorrhage that occurred after vardenafil use in a 31-year-old man who was a professional singer.

  16. Biosimulation of Inflammation and Healing in Surgically Injured Vocal Folds

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nicole Y. K.; Vodovotz, Yoram; Hebda, Patricia A.; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The pathogenesis of vocal fold scarring is complex and remains to be deciphered. The current study is part of research endeavors aimed at applying systems biology approaches to address the complex biological processes involved in the pathogenesis of vocal fold scarring and other lesions affecting the larynx. Methods We developed a computational agent-based model (ABM) to quantitatively characterize multiple cellular and molecular interactions involved in inflammation and healing in vocal fold mucosa after surgical trauma. The ABM was calibrated with empirical data on inflammatory mediators (eg, tumor necrosis factor) and extracellular matrix components (eg, hyaluronan) from published studies on surgical vocal fold injury in the rat population. Results The simulation results reproduced and predicted trajectories seen in the empirical data from the animals. Moreover, the ABM studies suggested that hyaluronan fragments might be the clinical surrogate of tissue damage, a key variable that in these simulations both is enhanced by and further induces inflammation. Conclusions A relatively simple ABM such as the one reported in this study can provide new understanding of laryngeal wound healing and generate working hypotheses for further wet-lab studies. PMID:20583741

  17. Gelada vocal sequences follow Menzerath’s linguistic law

    PubMed Central

    Gustison, Morgan L.; Semple, Stuart; Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Bergman, Thore J.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying universal principles underpinning diverse natural systems is a key goal of the life sciences. A powerful approach in addressing this goal has been to test whether patterns consistent with linguistic laws are found in nonhuman animals. Menzerath’s law is a linguistic law that states that, the larger the construct, the smaller the size of its constituents. Here, to our knowledge, we present the first evidence that Menzerath’s law holds in the vocal communication of a nonhuman species. We show that, in vocal sequences of wild male geladas (Theropithecus gelada), construct size (sequence size in number of calls) is negatively correlated with constituent size (duration of calls). Call duration does not vary significantly with position in the sequence, but call sequence composition does change with sequence size and most call types are abbreviated in larger sequences. We also find that intercall intervals follow the same relationship with sequence size as do calls. Finally, we provide formal mathematical support for the idea that Menzerath’s law reflects compression—the principle of minimizing the expected length of a code. Our findings suggest that a common principle underpins human and gelada vocal communication, highlighting the value of exploring the applicability of linguistic laws in vocal systems outside the realm of language. PMID:27091968

  18. Laughter as an approach to vocal evolution: The bipedal theory.

    PubMed

    Provine, Robert R

    2017-02-01

    Laughter is a simple, stereotyped, innate, human play vocalization that is ideal for the study of vocal evolution. The basic approach of describing the act of laughter and when we do it has revealed a variety of phenomena of social, linguistic, and neurological significance. Findings include the acoustic structure of laughter, the minimal voluntary control of laughter, the punctuation effect (which describes the placement of laughter in conversation and indicates the dominance of speech over laughter), and the role of laughter in human matching and mating. Especially notable is the use of laughter to discover why humans can speak and other apes cannot. Quadrupeds, including our primate ancestors, have a 1:1 relation between breathing and stride because their thorax must absorb forelimb impacts during running. The direct link between breathing and locomotion limits vocalizations to short, simple utterances, such as the characteristic panting chimpanzee laugh (one sound per inward or outward breath). The evolution of bipedal locomotion freed the respiration system of its support function during running, permitting greater breath control and the selection for human-type laughter (a parsed exhalation), and subsequently the virtuosic, sustained, expiratory vocalization of speech. This is the basis of the bipedal theory of speech evolution.

  19. Laryngeal Electromyography for Prognosis of Vocal Fold Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Maza, Adriana; García-Lopez, Isabel; Santiago-Pérez, Susana; Gavilán, Javier

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the value of laryngeal electromyography in the prognosis of vocal fold paralysis. This is a retrospective descriptive study. This study included 80 patients diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral vocal fold paralysis on flexible laryngoscopy between 2002 and 2014 in a tertiary medical center. Laryngeal electromyography using a standardized protocol was performed; the outcome measures were classified and analyzed into two groups according to the degree of injury. Group 1 included patients with mild to moderate injury, and group 2 included patients with severe to complete injury. Prognosis was correlated with vocal fold motion recovery status with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up since the symptoms onset using positive and negative predictive values. Sixty patients showed acute or chronic recurrent laryngeal neuropathy in laryngeal electromyography. Twelve of 41 patients included in group 1 recovered motion, and 30 of 35 patients included in group 2 did not recover, resulting in 88.2% of positive predictive value and 35.7% of negative predictive value. Our data confirm that laryngeal electromyography is a useful clinical tool in predicting poor recovery in patients with vocal fold paralysis. It allows identification of candidates for early intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Singer and listener perception of vocal warm-up.

    PubMed

    Moorcroft, Lynda; Kenny, Dianna T

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated changes perceived by singers and listeners after the singers had vocally warmed up. The study used a repeated measures within-subject design to assess changes in vibrato quality from pre (nonwarmed-up voice) to post (warmed-up voice) test. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to assess singers' self-ratings pre- and posttest and intra- and interlistener rater reliability. Twelve classically trained female singers recorded and self-rated their performance of an eight bar solo before and after 25 minutes of vocal warm-up exercises. Six experienced listeners assessed the vocal samples for pre- to posttest differences in tone quality and for each singer's warm-up condition. Perceptual judgements were also compared with pre- to posttest changes in vibrato. All singers perceived significant changes in tone quality, psychophysiological factors, proprioceptive feedback and technical command. Significant pre- to posttest differences in tone quality and correct appraisal of the singer's warm-up condition from most of the listeners were only observed for singers who moderated extremely fast or extremely slow vibrato after warming up. The findings reveal the divide between listeners' and singers' perceptions of the warmed-up voice and highlight the importance of enhanced vibrato quality to listener perception of an improvement in vocal quality. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Vocal Protests from 3 to 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xin; Green, James A.; Gustafson, Gwen E.

    2009-01-01

    Infants often protest the activities of their caregivers, and this particular social interaction may provide an important window on early communication and its development. This study used naturalistic methods to investigate the development of vocal protests. Fifteen mother-infant dyads at each of 5 ages, from 3 to 18 months, were observed at…

  2. Assessing Vocal Performances Using Analytical Assessment: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gynnild, Vidar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated ways to improve the appraisal of vocal performances within a national academy of music. Since a criterion-based assessment framework had already been adopted, the conceptual foundation of an assessment rubric was used as a guide in an action research project. The group of teachers involved wanted to explore thinking…

  3. Audacity in Vocal Improvisation: Motivating Elementary School Students through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichivitsa, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    Every day, music teachers face the challenge of motivating less-confident student singers in general music classes. Teaching vocal improvisation can be a difficult task, because students are often self-conscious about their voices and too intimidated to sing in front of their peers. Technology can be an excellent motivational tool in the classroom…

  4. Instrumental and Vocal Teacher Education: Competences, Roles and Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Mary; Reed, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on selected outcomes of the European Association of Conservatoires (AEC) "Polifonia" Working Group for Instrumental and Vocal Teacher Training in Europe (2007-2010). The introduction provides the background to the project, explains the rationale and objectives, describes the research process and gives an overview of…

  5. Acoustic Characteristics of Simulated Respiratory-Induced Vocal Tremor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Story, Brad H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of respiratory forced oscillation to the acoustic characteristics of vocal tremor. Method: Acoustical analyses were performed to determine the characteristics of the intensity and fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) for speech samples obtained by Farinella, Hixon, Hoit, Story,…

  6. Mouse Vocal Communication System: Are Ultrasounds Learned or Innate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production.…

  7. Vocal learning in the functionally referential food grunts of chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Watson, Stuart K; Townsend, Simon W; Schel, Anne M; Wilke, Claudia; Wallace, Emma K; Cheng, Leveda; West, Victoria; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-02-16

    One standout feature of human language is our ability to reference external objects and events with socially learned symbols, or words. Exploring the phylogenetic origins of this capacity is therefore key to a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of language. While non-human primates can produce vocalizations that refer to external objects in the environment, it is generally accepted that their acoustic structure is fixed and a product of arousal states. Indeed, it has been argued that the apparent lack of flexible control over the structure of referential vocalizations represents a key discontinuity with language. Here, we demonstrate vocal learning in the acoustic structure of referential food grunts in captive chimpanzees. We found that, following the integration of two groups of adult chimpanzees, the acoustic structure of referential food grunts produced for a specific food converged over 3 years. Acoustic convergence arose independently of preference for the food, and social network analyses indicated this only occurred after strong affiliative relationships were established between the original subgroups. We argue that these data represent the first evidence of non-human animals actively modifying and socially learning the structure of a meaningful referential vocalization from conspecifics. Our findings indicate that primate referential call structure is not simply determined by arousal and that the socially learned nature of referential words in humans likely has ancient evolutionary origins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vocal Fold Epithelial Response to Luminal Osmotic Perturbation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Dry-air challenges increase the osmolarity of fluid lining the luminal surface of the proximal airway. The homeostasis of surface fluid is thought to be essential for voice production and laryngeal defense. Therefore, the authors hypothesized that viable vocal fold epithelium would generate a water flux to reduce an osmotic challenge (150…

  9. Effects of Physical Attractiveness on Evaluation of Vocal Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapnick, Joel; Darrow, Alice Ann; Kovacs, Jolan; Dalrymple, Lucinda

    1997-01-01

    Studies whether physical attractiveness of singers affects judges' ratings of their vocal performances. Reveals that physical attractiveness does impact evaluation, that male raters were more severe than female raters, and that the rating of undergraduate majors versus graduate students and professors combined were not differently affected by…

  10. Glottal aerodynamics in compliant, life-sized vocal fold models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhail, Michael; Dowell, Grant; Krane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    This talk presents high-speed PIV measurements in compliant, life-sized models of the vocal folds. A clearer understanding of the fluid-structure interaction of voiced speech, how it produces sound, and how it varies with pathology is required to improve clinical diagnosis and treatment of vocal disorders. Physical models of the vocal folds can answer questions regarding the fundamental physics of speech, as well as the ability of clinical measures to detect the presence and extent of disorder. Flow fields were recorded in the supraglottal region of the models to estimate terms in the equations of fluid motion, and their relative importance. Experiments were conducted over a range of driving pressures with flow rates, given by a ball flowmeter, and subglottal pressures, given by a micro-manometer, reported for each case. Imaging of vocal fold motion, vector fields showing glottal jet behavior, and terms estimated by control volume analysis will be presented. The use of these results for a comparison with clinical measures, and for the estimation of aeroacoustic source strengths will be discussed. Acknowledge support from NIH R01 DC005642.

  11. Jugular vein phlebectasia in paediatric patients with vocal fold nodules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Sun, Chang-zhi; Zou, Hua; Luo, Ren-zhong

    2013-08-01

    Jugular vein phlebectasia (JVP) may often be overlooked in clinical practice and the management for JVP include surgery and a conservative approach. We have studied the relationship between JVP and vocal fold nodules in paediatric patients as well as the effects of treatment. Twenty-three cases of paediatric vocal fold nodules with JVP were studied. All patients received voice therapy. After 6 months of treatment, hoarseness, neck appearance (subjective evaluation) and the degree of dilation of the jugular vein detected by Doppler ultrasonography were analysed. The follow-up period was 6 to 84 months. The hoarseness disappeared or lessened noticeably after treatment for 1-4 months. The neck masses also lessened (pre vs. post: 2.58 ± 0.40 vs. 1.60 ± 0.19) after treatment for 1-4 months. The visual analogue score of the post-treatment symptoms decreased significantly compared with pre-treatment (p <0.05). The degree of dilation of the post-treatment jugular vein also decreased significantly (p <0.05). Paediatric vocal fold nodules may be related to JVP. Voice changes may also be observed in cases of paediatric JVP. Voice therapy may offer another conservative treatment option for JVP accompanied by vocal fold nodules, and it may offer better results than simple observation of JVP.

  12. Cochlear implanted children present vocal parameters within normal standards.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Lourdes Bernadete Rocha; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecília; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Coelho, Ana Cristina

    2012-08-01

    to compare acoustic and perceptual parameters regarding the voice of cochlear implanted children, with normal hearing children. this is a cross-sectional, quantitative and qualitative study. Thirty six cochlear implanted children aged between 3 y and 3 m to 5 y and 9 m and 25 children with normal hearing, aged between 3 y and 11 m and 6 y and 6 m, participated in this study. The recordings and the acoustics analysis of the sustained vowel/a/and spontaneous speech were performed using the PRAAT program. The parameters analyzed for the sustained vowel were the mean of the fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer and harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR). For the spontaneous speech, the minimum and maximum frequencies and the number of semitones were extracted. The perceptual analysis of the speech material was analyzed using visual-analogical scales of 100 points, composing the aspects related to the overall severity of the vocal deviation, roughness, breathiness, strain, pitch, loudness and resonance deviation, and instability. This last parameter was only analyzed for the sustained vowel. The results demonstrated that the majority of the vocal parameters analyzed in the samples of the implanted children disclosed values similar to those obtained by the group of children with normal hearing. implanted children who participate in a (re) habilitation and follow-up program, can present vocal characteristics similar to those vocal characteristics of children with normal hearing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Auditory and audio-vocal responses of single neurons in the monkey ventral premotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R

    2018-03-20

    Monkey vocalization is a complex behavioral pattern, which is flexibly used in audio-vocal communication. A recently proposed dual neural network model suggests that cognitive control might be involved in this behavior, originating from a frontal cortical network in the prefrontal cortex and mediated via projections from the rostral portion of the ventral premotor cortex (PMvr) and motor cortex to the primary vocal motor network in the brainstem. For the rapid adjustment of vocal output to external acoustic events, strong interconnections between vocal motor and auditory sites are needed, which are present at cortical and subcortical levels. However, the role of the PMvr in audio-vocal integration processes remains unclear. In the present study, single neurons in the PMvr were recorded in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while volitionally producing vocalizations in a visual detection task or passively listening to monkey vocalizations. Ten percent of randomly selected neurons in the PMvr modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. More than four-fifths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of the vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the PMvr might be well positioned to mediate higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output to the primary vocal motor network. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the premotor cortex might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adapted to Roar: Functional Morphology of Tiger and Lion Vocal Folds

    PubMed Central

    Klemuk, Sarah A.; Riede, Tobias; Walsh, Edward J.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2011-01-01

    Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between morphology and vocal function of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and morphological data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary function is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice. PMID:22073246

  15. Restructuring the vocal fold lamina propria with endoscopic microdissection.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Rebecca S; Hoffman, Henry T; Dailey, Seth H; Bock, Jonathan M; Klemuk, Sarah A; Askeland, Ryan W; Ahlrichs-Hanson, Jan S; Heaford, Andrew C; Thibeault, Susan L

    2013-11-01

    The purposes of this preclinical study were to investigate histologic and rheologic outcomes of Microendoscopy of Reinke's space (MERS)-guided minithyrotomy and to assess its instrumentation. Human cadaveric and in vivo animal study. Three human cadaveric larynges were treated with MERS-guided placement of Radiesse VoiceGel and immediately evaluated histologically for biomaterial location. In the second part of this investigation, two scarred porcine larynges were treated with MERS-guided placement of HyStem-VF and rheologically evaluated 6 weeks later. Student t tests determined differences in viscoelastic properties of treated/untreated vocal folds. Sialendoscopes and microendoscopes were subjectively compared for their visualization capacity. MERS imaged the subepithelial area and vocal ligament, guiding both tissue dissection and biomaterial positioning. Sialendoscopes provided adequate visualization and feature incorporated working channels. Enhanced image clarity was created in a gas-filled rather than saline-filled environment, per rater judgment. Histological analysis revealed desirable biomaterial positioning with MERS. Per rheological analysis, viscoelastic properties of the MERS-treated porcine vocal folds compared to uninjured vocal folds 6 weeks following treatment did not statistically differ. MERS-guided laryngoplasty using sialendoscopes yielded satisfactory biomaterial positioning in the short-term and normalized rheologic tissue properties in the long-term, contributing to proof of concept for MERS in the treatment of scarring. Strengths of MERS include direct, real-time visualization of Reinke's space and an ability to manipulate surgical instruments parallel to the vocal fold edge while maintaining an intact epithelium. Future work will explore the clinical utility of MERS for addressing scarring, sulcus vocalis, and other intracordal processes. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Laboratory Evaluation of Vocal Fold Paralysis and Paresis.

    PubMed

    White, Michelle; Meenan, Kirsten; Patel, Tirth; Jaworek, Aaron; Sataloff, Robert T

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the value of comprehensive laboratory evaluation in patients with vocal fold paralysis or paresis. This is a retrospective chart review. Records of 231 patients with vocal fold paralysis or paresis were reviewed to determine whether there is a significant increase in the number of abnormal test results compared with rates of abnormal results for these tests in the general population and whether testing resulted in clinically important diagnosis. Laboratory data were collected from charts from initial visits from 2010 to 2014 and compared with national data. When controlled for age and sex, white blood cell count was found to have a significantly higher rate of abnormal test results (P < 0.001) in patients with vocal fold paralysis or paresis than the general population. Although hemoglobin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and thyroid antibody tests were more likely to be abnormal in our patient population, the trend was not statistically significant. Further, the prevalence of syphilis and myasthenia gravis was found to be higher in these subjects than their respective national prevalences, and the incidence of Lyme disease was found to be higher than the national prevalence of Lyme disease. Several patients were diagnosed with medically important conditions such as diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, syphilis, myasthenia gravis, and Lyme disease based on these tests. This study suggests that comprehensive testing of patients with vocal fold movement disorders results in diagnoses that would be missed without a comprehensive evaluation, some of which are important medically, although their causal relationship to vocal fold paralysis or paresis was not investigated or established. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tissue-Engineered Vocal Fold Mucosa Implantation in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Travis L; Hardy, Jordan; Luegmair, Georg; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Long, Jennifer L

    2016-04-01

    To assess phonatory function and wound healing of a tissue-engineered vocal fold mucosa (TE-VFM) in rabbits. An "artificial" vocal fold would be valuable for reconstructing refractory scars and resection defects, particularly one that uses readily available autologous cells and scaffold. This work implants a candidate TE-VFM after resecting native epithelium and lamina propria in rabbits. Prospective animal study. Research laboratory. Rabbit adipose-derived stem cells were isolated and cultured in three-dimensional fibrin scaffolds to form TE-VFM. Eight rabbits underwent laryngofissure, unilateral European Laryngologic Society type 2 cordectomy, and immediate reconstruction with TE-VFM. After 4 weeks, larynges were excised, phonated, and examined by histology. Uniform TE-VFM implants were created, with rabbit mesenchymal cells populated throughout fibrin hydrogels. Rabbits recovered uneventfully after implantation. Phonation was achieved in all, with mucosal waves evident at the implant site. Histology after 4 weeks showed resorbed fibrin matrix, continuous epithelium, and mildly increased collagen relative to contralateral unoperated vocal folds. Elastic fiber appearance was highly variable. Inflammatory cell infiltrate was limited to animals receiving sex-mismatched implants. TE-VFMs were successfully implanted into 8 rabbits, with minor evidence of scar formation and immune reaction. Vibration was preserved 4 weeks after resecting and reconstructing the complete vocal fold cover layer. Further studies will investigate the mechanism and durability of improvement. TE-VFM with autologous cells is a promising new approach for vocal fold reconstruction. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  18. Acoustic Tonal and Vector Properties of Red Hind Grouper Vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Cameron Anthony

    Vertebrates are the most prodigious vocalizing animals in existence, and the most diverse methods of acoustic communication among vertebrates can be found in the ocean. Relatively many teleost fish are gifted with the ability to communicate acoustically, and the family of serranidae often performs this as a function of the swim bladder. Epinephelus Guttatus (E. guttatus), or more commonly the red hind grouper, is equipped with a drum shaped swim bladder acting as a monopole under typical ocean conditions. This configuration allows for what is understood to be omnidirectional projection of tones approximately centered between 40 and 440 Hz and spanning anywhere from 40 to 200 Hz of bandwidth and modulation effects based on observed data provided by researchers. Prior studies on many other fish show correlation in acoustic communication profile with length, size and sexual identity. In the red hind, sexual dimorphism leads to an inherent female identity in all juvenile fish which converts to male according to environmental factors, recommending at least consistent organs across both sexes be assumed even if not in use. Much research has been performed on male fish vocalization in terms of spectral content. Communication in fish is a complex multi-modal process, with acoustic communication being important for many of the species, particularly those in the littoral regions of the worlds' oceans. If identifying characteristics of the red hind vocalization can be isolated based on detection, classification, tracking and localizing methodologies, then these identifying characteristics may indeed lead to passive feature identification that allows for estimation of individual fish mass. Hypotheses based on vector, cyclostationary and classical tonal mechanics are presented for consideration. A battery of test data collection events, applying pre-recorded fish vocalizations to a geolocated undersea sound source were conducted. The results are supplied with the intent of

  19. Singing modulates parvalbumin interneurons throughout songbird forebrain vocal control circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Zengin-Toktas, Yildiz

    2017-01-01

    Across species, the performance of vocal signals can be modulated by the social environment. Zebra finches, for example, adjust their song performance when singing to females (‘female-directed’ or FD song) compared to when singing in isolation (‘undirected’ or UD song). These changes are salient, as females prefer the FD song over the UD song. Despite the importance of these performance changes, the neural mechanisms underlying this social modulation remain poorly understood. Previous work in finches has established that expression of the immediate early gene EGR1 is increased during singing and modulated by social context within the vocal control circuitry. Here, we examined whether particular neural subpopulations within those vocal control regions exhibit similar modulations of EGR1 expression. We compared EGR1 expression in neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), a calcium buffer that modulates network plasticity and homeostasis, among males that performed FD song, males that produced UD song, or males that did not sing. We found that, overall, singing but not social context significantly affected EGR1 expression in PV neurons throughout the vocal control nuclei. We observed differences in EGR1 expression between two classes of PV interneurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X. Additionally, we found that singing altered the amount of PV expression in neurons in HVC and Area X and that distinct PV interneuron types in Area X exhibited different patterns of modulation by singing. These data indicate that throughout the vocal control circuitry the singing-related regulation of EGR1 expression in PV neurons may be less influenced by social context than in other neuron types and raise the possibility of cell-type specific differences in plasticity and calcium buffering. PMID:28235074

  20. Construction and Characterization of a Novel Vocal Fold Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Zerdoum, Aidan B.; Tong, Zhixiang; Bachman, Brendan; Jia, Xinqiao

    2014-01-01

    In vitro engineering of mechanically active tissues requires the presentation of physiologically relevant mechanical conditions to cultured cells. To emulate the dynamic environment of vocal folds, a novel vocal fold bioreactor capable of producing vibratory stimulations at fundamental phonation frequencies is constructed and characterized. The device is composed of a function generator, a power amplifier, a speaker selector and parallel vibration chambers. Individual vibration chambers are created by sandwiching a custom-made silicone membrane between a pair of acrylic blocks. The silicone membrane not only serves as the bottom of the chamber but also provides a mechanism for securing the cell-laden scaffold. Vibration signals, generated by a speaker mounted underneath the bottom acrylic block, are transmitted to the membrane aerodynamically by the oscillating air. Eight identical vibration modules, fixed on two stationary metal bars, are housed in an anti-humidity chamber for long-term operation in a cell culture incubator. The vibration characteristics of the vocal fold bioreactor are analyzed non-destructively using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). The utility of the dynamic culture device is demonstrated by culturing cellular constructs in the presence of 200-Hz sinusoidal vibrations with a mid-membrane displacement of 40 µm. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured in the bioreactor respond to the vibratory signals by altering the synthesis and degradation of vocal fold-relevant, extracellular matrix components. The novel bioreactor system presented herein offers an excellent in vitro platform for studying vibration-induced mechanotransduction and for the engineering of functional vocal fold tissues. PMID:25145349

  1. Construction and characterization of a novel vocal fold bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zerdoum, Aidan B; Tong, Zhixiang; Bachman, Brendan; Jia, Xinqiao

    2014-08-01

    In vitro engineering of mechanically active tissues requires the presentation of physiologically relevant mechanical conditions to cultured cells. To emulate the dynamic environment of vocal folds, a novel vocal fold bioreactor capable of producing vibratory stimulations at fundamental phonation frequencies is constructed and characterized. The device is composed of a function generator, a power amplifier, a speaker selector and parallel vibration chambers. Individual vibration chambers are created by sandwiching a custom-made silicone membrane between a pair of acrylic blocks. The silicone membrane not only serves as the bottom of the chamber but also provides a mechanism for securing the cell-laden scaffold. Vibration signals, generated by a speaker mounted underneath the bottom acrylic block, are transmitted to the membrane aerodynamically by the oscillating air. Eight identical vibration modules, fixed on two stationary metal bars, are housed in an anti-humidity chamber for long-term operation in a cell culture incubator. The vibration characteristics of the vocal fold bioreactor are analyzed non-destructively using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). The utility of the dynamic culture device is demonstrated by culturing cellular constructs in the presence of 200-Hz sinusoidal vibrations with a mid-membrane displacement of 40 µm. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured in the bioreactor respond to the vibratory signals by altering the synthesis and degradation of vocal fold-relevant, extracellular matrix components. The novel bioreactor system presented herein offers an excellent in vitro platform for studying vibration-induced mechanotransduction and for the engineering of functional vocal fold tissues.

  2. IMRT for Image-Guided Single Vocal Cord Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, Sarah O.S., E-mail: s.osman@erasmusmc.nl; Astreinidou, Eleftheria; Boer, Hans C.J. de

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: We have been developing an image-guided single vocal cord irradiation technique to treat patients with stage T1a glottic carcinoma. In the present study, we compared the dose coverage to the affected vocal cord and the dose delivered to the organs at risk using conventional, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) coplanar, and IMRT non-coplanar techniques. Methods and Materials: For 10 patients, conventional treatment plans using two laterally opposed wedged 6-MV photon beams were calculated in XiO (Elekta-CMS treatment planning system). An in-house IMRT/beam angle optimization algorithm was used to obtain the coplanar and non-coplanar optimized beam angles. Using these angles, the IMRTmore » plans were generated in Monaco (IMRT treatment planning system, Elekta-CMS) with the implemented Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm. The organs at risk included the contralateral vocal cord, arytenoids, swallowing muscles, carotid arteries, and spinal cord. The prescription dose was 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Results: For the conventional plans and coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, the population-averaged mean dose {+-} standard deviation to the planning target volume was 67 {+-} 1 Gy. The contralateral vocal cord dose was reduced from 66 {+-} 1 Gy in the conventional plans to 39 {+-} 8 Gy and 36 {+-} 6 Gy in the coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, respectively. IMRT consistently reduced the doses to the other organs at risk. Conclusions: Single vocal cord irradiation with IMRT resulted in good target coverage and provided significant sparing of the critical structures. This has the potential to improve the quality-of-life outcomes after RT and maintain the same local control rates.« less

  3. Long-term consequences of vocal fold hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kerwin, Lewis J; Estes, Christine; Oromendia, Clara; Christos, Paul; Sulica, Lucian

    2017-04-01

    To assess the long-term impact of vocal fold hemorrhage (VFH) on vocal function and health, and compare these parameters to those in similar patients who have not had VFH. Retrospective cohort study. Patients with a history of VFH (N = 41) were characterized through a review of records and assessed by means of a survey for vocal health and professional functioning as well as the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and, if appropriate (n = 30, 73.2%), the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI-10). They were compared to a group of demographically and occupationally similar patients without VFH (N = 25, 60.9%). Patients with multiple episodes of VFH (n = 9, 22.0%) were compared to patients with a single event. After a median of 41 months follow-up, patients with VFH had favorable vocal function assessment and low median VHI-10 and SVHI-10 scores (4 and 6, respectively), substantially similar to patients without VFH (VHI-10, P = .905 and SVHI 10, P =.991). The two groups showed similarly low rates of change in occupation (7.3%vs. 8.0%, P =.999). Patients with VFH were more likely to have missed days of work due to a voice problem. Analysis of patients with one versus multiple VFH episodes showed no differences, except patients with multiple episodes had significantly greater confidence in their ability to address future VFH. Contrary to commonly held belief, VFH appears to have no significant long-term impact on vocational stability, subjective voice quality, or perceptions of vocal function. Moreover, among those with VFH, recurrence seems only to diminish anxiety over this transient injury. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:900-906, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Major depressive disorder discrimination using vocal acoustic features.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Takaya; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Suzuki, Masayuki; Nagano, Toru; Tachibana, Ryuki; Nishimura, Masafumi; Arai, Tetsuaki

    2018-01-01

    The voice carries various information produced by vibrations of the vocal cords and the vocal tract. Though many studies have reported a relationship between vocal acoustic features and depression, including mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCCs) which applied to speech recognition, there have been few studies in which acoustic features allowed discrimination of patients with depressive disorder. Vocal acoustic features as biomarker of depression could make differential diagnosis of patients with depressive state. In order to achieve differential diagnosis of depression, in this preliminary study, we examined whether vocal acoustic features could allow discrimination between depressive patients and healthy controls. Subjects were 36 patients who met the criteria for major depressive disorder and 36 healthy controls with no current or past psychiatric disorders. Voices of reading out digits before and after verbal fluency task were recorded. Voices were analyzed using OpenSMILE. The extracted acoustic features, including MFCCs, were used for group comparison and discriminant analysis between patients and controls. The second dimension of MFCC (MFCC 2) was significantly different between groups and allowed the discrimination between patients and controls with a sensitivity of 77.8% and a specificity of 86.1%. The difference in MFCC 2 between the two groups reflected an energy difference of frequency around 2000-3000Hz. The MFCC 2 was significantly different between depressive patients and controls. This feature could be a useful biomarker to detect major depressive disorder. Sample size was relatively small. Psychotropics could have a confounding effect on voice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect on long-term average spectrum of pop singers' vocal warm-up with vocal function exercises.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Marco; Angulo, Mabel; Muñoz, Daniel; Mayerhoff, Ross

    2013-04-01

    Abstract This case-control study aimed to investigate if there is any change on the spectral slope declination immediately after vocal function exercises (VFE) vs traditional vocal warm-up exercises in normal singers. Thirty-eight pop singers with perceptually normal voices were divided into two groups: an experimental group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 18). One single session with VFE for the experimental group and traditional singing warm-up exercises for the control group was applied. Voice was recorded before and after the exercises. The recorded tasks were to read a phonetically balanced text and to sing a song. Long-term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis included alpha ratio, L1-L0 ratio, and singing power ratio (SPR). Acoustic parameters of voice samples pre- and post-training were compared. Comparison between VFE and control group was also performed. Significant changes after treatment included the alpha ratio and singing power ratio in speaking voice, and SPR in the singing voice for VFE group. The traditional vocal warm-up of the control group also showed pre-post changes. Significant differences between VFE group and control group for alpha ratio and SPR were found in speaking voice samples. This study demonstrates that VFE have an immediate effect on the spectrum of the voice, specifically a decrease on the spectral slope declination. The results of this study provide support for the advantageous effect of VFE as vocal warm-up on voice quality.

  6. The Role of Joint Control in the Manded Selection Responses of Both Vocal and Non-Vocal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Joyce C.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, joint-control training was applied when teaching manded selection responses to children with autism. Four vocal children with autism participated in the first experiment, two males (ages seven and eight) and two females (ages seven and nine). The results showed that it was only after object-word naming was trained under joint…

  7. Using Hyaluronic Acid for Improving Vocal Function in a Prepubescent Boy With an Atrophied Right Vocal Fold.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Wendy; Wynne, David McGregor

    2015-07-01

    A single case study is reported of a child who underwent several surgical procedures as result of congenital grade III subglottic stenosis. The anterior aspect of the right vocal cord was damaged and underwent atrophy during one of these procedures. Now, an active 10-year-old, the patient has become increasingly aware of his vocal limitations on functional activities. Injection of hyaluronic acid into the vocal folds has been known to provide improved voice quality in adults although there are no known cases reported of this procedure in children. This article reports voice outcomes after injection of hyaluronic acid into the Reinke's space in a single case study. Voice recordings were made before, after, and 1 month after injection. The voice recordings were subject to acoustic and perceptual analysis. Post and follow-up voice recordings demonstrate decreased jitter, shimmer, and harmonics-to-noise ratio. Perceptual evaluation indicates improved voice quality. Injection of hyaluronic acid in children who require voice augmentation is possible and may contribute to increased vocal function and improved voice outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of abusive vocal habits, hydration, mastication, and sleep in the occurrence of vocal symptoms in teachers.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leslie Piccolotto; de Oliveira Latorre, Maria do Rosario Dias; Pinto Giannini, Susana Pimentel; de Assis Moura Ghirardi, Ana Carolina; de Fraga e Karmann, Delmira; Silva, Eliana Egerland; Figueira, Silmara

    2010-01-01

    Some vocal disorders in teachers are associated with occupational factors, but there are few studies that analyze the influence of vocal habits, fluid intake, mastication, and sleep on these disorders. The objective was to analyze the occurrence of vocal fatigue, hoarseness, and dry throat in elementary and high school teachers and their association with vocal habits, fluid intake, mastication, and sleep. A sample of 422 elementary and secondary school teachers was studied using a specific questionnaire. The multiple regression analysis showed that hoarseness was associated with absence of water intake (odds ratio (OR)=1.7; P=0.047), yelling/speaking loudly (OR=1.6; P=0.058), jaw-opening limitations (OR=3.8; P=0.003), average of 6 hours of sleep/night (OR=1.7; P=0.039), and waking-up feeling replenished (OR=2.0; P=0.020). The presence of vocal fatigue was significantly associated with yelling/speaking loudly (OR=2.2; P=0.013), speaking excessively (OR=2.4; P=0.023), difficulty to open the mouth to masticate (OR=6.6; P=0.003), less than 6 hours of sleep (OR=4.0; P=0.008), and waking-up feeling replenished (sometimes OR=2.8; P=0.003; or never OR=3.3; P=0.002). The presence of dry throat was associated with being a former smoker (OR=3.3; P=0.011) and having jaw-opening limitations (OR=3.9; P=0.021). In recent years, speech and hearing interventions with teachers have focused on health-care promotion actions and prevention of vocal disorders, prioritizing issues related with hydration and healthy vocal use habits. However, the findings in the present study show the need to further focus on lifestyle habits related to sleep and eating habits. Copyright 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Phase-Specific Vocalizations of Male Mice at the Initial Encounter during the Courtship Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yui K.; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations featuring a variety of syllables. Vocalizations are observed during social interactions. In particular, males produce numerous syllables during courtship. Previous studies have shown that vocalizations change according to sexual behavior, suggesting that males vary their vocalizations depending on the phase of the courtship sequence. To examine this process, we recorded large sets of mouse vocalizations during male–female interactions and acoustically categorized these sounds into 12 vocal types. We found that males emitted predominantly short syllables during the first minute of interaction, more long syllables in the later phases, and mainly harmonic sounds during mounting. These context- and time-dependent changes in vocalization indicate that vocal communication during courtship in mice consists of at least three stages and imply that each vocalization type has a specific role in a phase of the courtship sequence. Our findings suggest that recording for a sufficiently long time and taking the phase of courtship into consideration could provide more insights into the role of vocalization in mouse courtship behavior in future study. PMID:26841117

  10. Vocal cord collapse during phrenic nerve-paced respiration in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Mark C; Preciado, Diego A

    2012-01-01

    Phrenic nerve pacing can be used to treat congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). We report how the lack of normal vocal cord tone during phrenic paced respiration can result in passive vocal cord collapse and produce obstructive symptoms. We describe a case of passive vocal cord collapse during phrenic nerve paced respiration in a patient with CCHS. As far as we know, this is the first report of this etiology of airway obstruction. The patient, a 7-year-old with CCHS and normal waking vocal cord movement, continued to require nightly continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) despite successful utilization of phrenic nerve pacers. On direct laryngoscopy, the patient's larynx was observed while the diaphragmatic pacers were sequentially engaged. No abnormal vocal cord stimulation was witnessed during engaging of either phrenic nerve stimulator. However, the lack of normal inspiratory vocal cord abduction during phrenic nerve-paced respiration resulted in vocal cord collapse and partial obstruction due to passive adduction of the vocal cords through the Bernoulli effect. Bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation resulted in more vocal cord collapse than unilateral stimulation. The lack of vocal cord abduction on inspiration presents a limit to phrenic nerve pacers.

  11. A study of vocal nonlinearities in humpback whale songs: from production mechanisms to acoustic analysis.

    PubMed

    Cazau, Dorian; Adam, Olivier; Aubin, Thierry; Laitman, Jeffrey T; Reidenberg, Joy S

    2016-10-10

    Although mammalian vocalizations are predominantly harmonically structured, they can exhibit an acoustic complexity with nonlinear vocal sounds, including deterministic chaos and frequency jumps. Such sounds are normative events in mammalian vocalizations, and can be directly traceable to the nonlinear nature of vocal-fold dynamics underlying typical mammalian sound production. In this study, we give qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses of nonlinearities in the song repertoire of humpback whales from the Ste Marie channel (Madagascar) to provide more insight into the potential communication functions and underlying production mechanisms of these features. A low-dimensional biomechanical modeling of the whale's U-fold (vocal folds homolog) is used to relate specific vocal mechanisms to nonlinear vocal features. Recordings of living humpback whales were searched for occurrences of vocal nonlinearities (instabilities). Temporal distributions of nonlinearities were assessed within sound units, and between different songs. The anatomical production sources of vocal nonlinearities and the communication context of their occurrences in recordings are discussed. Our results show that vocal nonlinearities may be a communication strategy that conveys information about the whale's body size and physical fitness, and thus may be an important component of humpback whale songs.

  12. A study of vocal nonlinearities in humpback whale songs: from production mechanisms to acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazau, Dorian; Adam, Olivier; Aubin, Thierry; Laitman, Jeffrey T.; Reidenberg, Joy S.

    2016-10-01

    Although mammalian vocalizations are predominantly harmonically structured, they can exhibit an acoustic complexity with nonlinear vocal sounds, including deterministic chaos and frequency jumps. Such sounds are normative events in mammalian vocalizations, and can be directly traceable to the nonlinear nature of vocal-fold dynamics underlying typical mammalian sound production. In this study, we give qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses of nonlinearities in the song repertoire of humpback whales from the Ste Marie channel (Madagascar) to provide more insight into the potential communication functions and underlying production mechanisms of these features. A low-dimensional biomechanical modeling of the whale’s U-fold (vocal folds homolog) is used to relate specific vocal mechanisms to nonlinear vocal features. Recordings of living humpback whales were searched for occurrences of vocal nonlinearities (instabilities). Temporal distributions of nonlinearities were assessed within sound units, and between different songs. The anatomical production sources of vocal nonlinearities and the communication context of their occurrences in recordings are discussed. Our results show that vocal nonlinearities may be a communication strategy that conveys information about the whale’s body size and physical fitness, and thus may be an important component of humpback whale songs.

  13. Collagen Content Limits Optical Coherence Tomography Image Depth in Porcine Vocal Fold Tissue.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jordan A; Benboujja, Fouzi; Beaudette, Kathy; Rogers, Derek; Maurer, Rie; Boudoux, Caroline; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2016-11-01

    Vocal fold scarring, a condition defined by increased collagen content, is challenging to treat without a method of noninvasively assessing vocal fold structure in vivo. The goal of this study was to observe the effects of vocal fold collagen content on optical coherence tomography imaging to develop a quantifiable marker of disease. Excised specimen study. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. Porcine vocal folds were injected with collagenase to remove collagen from the lamina propria. Optical coherence tomography imaging was performed preinjection and at 0, 45, 90, and 180 minutes postinjection. Mean pixel intensity (or image brightness) was extracted from images of collagenase- and control-treated hemilarynges. Texture analysis of the lamina propria at each injection site was performed to extract image contrast. Two-factor repeated measure analysis of variance and t tests were used to determine statistical significance. Picrosirius red staining was performed to confirm collagenase activity. Mean pixel intensity was higher at injection sites of collagenase-treated vocal folds than control vocal folds (P < .0001). Fold change in image contrast was significantly increased in collagenase-treated vocal folds than control vocal folds (P = .002). Picrosirius red staining in control specimens revealed collagen fibrils most prominent in the subepithelium and above the thyroarytenoid muscle. Specimens treated with collagenase exhibited a loss of these structures. Collagen removal from vocal fold tissue increases image brightness of underlying structures. This inverse relationship may be useful in treating vocal fold scarring in patients. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  14. Vocal Hyperfunction in Parents of Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Teresa, Garcia-Real; Díaz-Román, Tomás M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of habits and symptoms of vocal hyperfunction in the parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents of 24 children with ADHD and 30 children of a control group completed a specific questionnaire to detect the hyperfunctional use of the voice (excessive talking, excessive loudness, talking too fast, and shouting), hoarseness, vocal fatigue, mental and physical fatigue, and the degree of parental concern for the vocal health of their child. Parents of children with ADHD spoke more often, faster, and stronger than the parents of the control group; in addition, they also used a louder volume than they usually used when they spoke to their children. The parents manifested more vocal, mental, and physical fatigue than the parents of the control group. There was a significant correlation between the "concern" for the vocal health of their children with respect to vocal symptoms of the children, the habits of vocal hyperfunctioning, and the symptoms suffered by the parents. These results suggest that the parents of children with ADHD change their vocal attitude when communicating with their children. Most likely, the increased concern of parents with ADHD children and their respective level of stress lead to hyperfunctional vocal usage. This subsequently leads to symptoms of vocal, physical, and mental fatigue at the end of the day. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Central pattern generators for social vocalization: Androgen-dependent neurophysiological mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Andrew H.; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2008-01-01

    Historically, most studies of vertebrate central pattern generators (CPGs) have focused on mechanisms for locomotion and respiration. Here, we highlight new results for ectothermic vertebrates, namely teleost fish and amphibians, showing how androgenic steroids can influence the temporal patterning of CPGs for social vocalization. Investigations of vocalizing teleosts show how androgens can rapidly (within minutes) modulate the neurophysiological output of the vocal CPG (fictive vocalizations that mimic the temporal properties of natural vocalizations) inclusive of their divergent actions between species, as well as intraspecific differences between male reproductive morphs. Studies of anuran amphibians (frogs) demonstrate that long-term steroid treatments (wks) can masculinize the fictive vocalizations of females, inclusive of its sensitivity to rapid modulation by serotonin. Given the conserved organization of vocal control systems across vertebrate groups, the vocal CPGs of fish and amphibians provide tractable models for identifying androgen-dependent events that are fundamental to the mechanisms of vocal motor patterning. These basic mechanisms can also inform our understanding of the more complex CPGs for vocalization, and social behaviors in general, that have evolved among birds and mammals. PMID:18262186

  16. Conversational Entrainment of Vocal Fry in Young Adult Female American English Speakers.

    PubMed

    Borrie, Stephanie A; Delfino, Christine R

    2017-07-01

    Conversational entrainment, the natural tendency for people to modify their behaviors to more closely match their communication partner, is examined as one possible mechanism modulating the prevalence of vocal fry in the speech of young American women engaged in spoken dialogue. Twenty young adult female American English speakers engaged in two spoken dialogue tasks-one with a young adult female American English conversational partner who exhibited substantial vocal fry and one with a young adult female American English conversational partner who exhibited quantifiably less vocal fry. Dialogues were analyzed for proportion of vocal fry, by speaker, and two measures of communicative success (efficiency and enjoyment). Participants employed significantly more vocal fry when conversing with the partner who exhibited substantial vocal fry than when conversing with the partner who exhibited quantifiably less vocal fry. Further, greater similarity between communication partners in their use of vocal fry tracked with higher scores of communicative efficiency and communicative enjoyment. Conversational entrainment offers a mechanistic framework that may be used to explain, to some degree, the frequency with which vocal fry is employed by young American women engaged in spoken dialogue. Further, young American women who modulated their vocal patterns during dialogue to match those of their conversational partner gained more efficiency and enjoyment from their interactions, demonstrating the cognitive and social benefits of entrainment. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Causes of vocal cord dyscinesia and its original factors after endotracheal intubation].

    PubMed

    Sun, Anke; Zhang, Tiezheng; Liu, Wenyuan; Tang, Weiwei; Guo, Xiaohong

    2012-03-01

    To research the causes of postintubation vocal cord dyskinesia and its contributing factors. The causes of vocal cord dyskinesia were confirmed by laryngoscope, three-dimensional spiral CT, stroboscope, and the analysis of therapy. The factors relevant to the causes of vocal cord dyskinesia were analysed based on the following elements: (1) the anatomic or pathological condition of patients or the technical skills of anesthetists. (2) emaciated or obese body and neck. (3) the age of patients. (4) the duration of endotracheal tube retention. (5) the types of operations. (6) anesthesia procedure. Among 135 patients, 128 cases (94.81%) manifested arytenoid dislocation, 7 cases (5.19%) vocal cord paralysis. The study showed that the vocal cord dyskinesia associated with anatomic or pathological condition of patients and technical skills of anesthetists (with intubation difficulty) accounted for 76.30%. The patients with relative emaciated body or neck accounted for 90.62% in cases without intubation difficulty. Age had no significant analytical relationship with vocal cord dyskinesia. Prolonged intubation (endotracheal tube retention over 12 hours) was accounted for only 17.64%. The incidence of vocal cord dyskinesia was nearly 0.5% in patients underwent cardio-thoracic surgery, accounting for 59.26% of all the patients. There are two major causes of vocal cord dyskinesia: arytenoid dislocation and vocal cord paralysis, and the rate of vocal cord dyskinesia could be reduced by the improvement of technical skill of anesthetists and/or sufficient attention to the intubation condition of patients.

  18. On the role of the reticular formation in vocal pattern generation.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Uwe; Hage, Steffen R

    2007-09-04

    This review is an attempt to localize the brain region responsible for pattern generation of species-specific vocalizations. A catalogue is set up, listing the criteria considered to be essential for a vocal pattern generator. According to this catalogue, a vocal pattern generator should show vocalization-correlated activity, starting before vocal onset and reflecting specific acoustic features of the vocalization. Artificial activation by electrical or glutamatergic stimulation should produce artificially sounding vocalization. Lesioning is expected to have an inhibitory or deteriorating effect on vocalization. Anatomically, a vocal pattern generator can be assumed to have direct or, at least, oligosynaptic connections with all the motoneuron pools involved in phonation. A survey of the literature reveals that the only area meeting all these criteria is a region, reaching from the parvocellular pontine reticular formation just above the superior olive through the lateral reticular formation around the facial nucleus and nucleus ambiguus down to the caudalmost medulla, including the dorsal and ventral reticular nuclei and nucleus retroambiguus. It is proposed that vocal pattern generation takes place within this whole region.

  19. Within-individual variation in bullfrog vocalizations: implications for a vocally mediated social recognition system.

    PubMed

    Bee, Mark A

    2004-12-01

    Acoustic signals provide a basis for social recognition in a wide range of animals. Few studies, however, have attempted to relate the patterns of individual variation in signals to behavioral discrimination thresholds used by receivers to discriminate among individuals. North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) discriminate among familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on individual variation in advertisement calls. The sources, patterns, and magnitudes of variation in eight acoustic properties of multiple-note advertisement calls were examined to understand how patterns of within-individual variation might either constrain, or provide additional cues for, vocal recognition. Six of eight acoustic properties exhibited significant note-to-note variation within multiple-note calls. Despite this source of within-individual variation, all call properties varied significantly among individuals, and multivariate analyses indicated that call notes were individually distinct. Fine-temporal and spectral call properties exhibited less within-individual variation compared to gross-temporal properties and contributed most toward statistically distinguishing among individuals. Among-individual differences in the patterns of within-individual variation in some properties suggest that within-individual variation could also function as a recognition cue. The distributions of among-individual and within-individual differences were used to generate hypotheses about the expected behavioral discrimination thresholds of receivers.