Sample records for vocal plainfin midshipman

  1. Adaptive hearing in the vocal plainfin midshipman fish: getting in tune for the breeding season and implications for acoustic communication.

    PubMed

    Sisneros, Joseph A

    2009-03-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus Girard, 1854) is a vocal species of batrachoidid fish that generates acoustic signals for intraspecific communication during social and reproductive activity and has become a good model for investigating the neural and endocrine mechanisms of vocal-acoustic communication. Reproductively active female plainfin midshipman fish use their auditory sense to detect and locate "singing" males, which produce a multiharmonic advertisement call to attract females for spawning. The seasonal onset of male advertisement calling in the midshipman fish coincides with an increase in the range of frequency sensitivity of the female's inner ear saccule, the main organ of hearing, thus leading to enhanced encoding of the dominant frequency components of male advertisement calls. Non-reproductive females treated with either testosterone or 17β-estradiol exhibit a dramatic increase in the inner ear's frequency sensitivity that mimics the reproductive female's auditory phenotype and leads to an increased detection of the male's advertisement call. This novel form of auditory plasticity provides an adaptable mechanism that enhances coupling between sender and receiver in vocal communication. This review focuses on recent evidence for seasonal reproductive-state and steroid-dependent plasticity of auditory frequency sensitivity in the peripheral auditory system of the midshipman fish. The potential steroid-dependent mechanism(s) that lead to this novel form of auditory and behavioral plasticity are also discussed. © 2009 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  2. Seasonal plasticity of auditory saccular sensitivity in the vocal plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Sisneros, Joseph A

    2009-08-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a seasonally breeding species of marine teleost fish that generates acoustic signals for intraspecific social and reproductive-related communication. Female midshipman use the inner ear saccule as the main acoustic endorgan for hearing to detect and locate vocalizing males that produce multiharmonic advertisement calls during the breeding season. Previous work showed that the frequency sensitivity of midshipman auditory saccular afferents changed seasonally with female reproductive state such that summer reproductive females became better suited than winter nonreproductive females to encode the dominant higher harmonics of the male advertisement calls. The focus of this study was to test the hypothesis that seasonal reproductive-dependent changes in saccular afferent tuning is paralleled by similar changes in saccular sensitivity at the level of the hair-cell receptor. Here, I examined the evoked response properties of midshipman saccular hair cells from winter nonreproductive and summer reproductive females to determine if reproductive state affects the frequency response and threshold of the saccule to behaviorally relevant single tone stimuli. Saccular potentials were recorded from populations of hair cells in vivo while sound was presented by an underwater speaker. Results indicate that saccular hair cells from reproductive females had thresholds that were approximately 8 to 13 dB lower than nonreproductive females across a broad range of frequencies that included the dominant higher harmonic components and the fundamental frequency of the male's advertisement call. These seasonal-reproductive-dependent changes in thresholds varied differentially across the three (rostral, middle, and caudal) regions of the saccule. Such reproductive-dependent changes in saccule sensitivity may represent an adaptive plasticity of the midshipman auditory sense to enhance mate detection, recognition, and localization during the

  3. Singing Fish in an Ocean of Noise: Effects of Boat Noise on the Plainfin Midshipman (Porichthys notatus) in a Natural Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Cullis-Suzuki, Sarika

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to hearing and vocal communication in fishes, the plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus) is perhaps best understood. However, distinctly lacking are studies investigating communication of P. notatus in its natural ecosystems and the effects of noise on wild fish populations. Here, an exploratory look into both is discussed. By monitoring a population of wild P. notatus off British Columbia, Canada, call patterns were distinguished, the function of communicative sounds was identified, and midshipman vocalizations in agonistic encounters with natural predators were evaluated. A preliminary investigation into the effects of boat noise on wild midshipman is also described.

  4. Catecholaminergic connectivity to the inner ear, central auditory and vocal motor circuitry in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus

    PubMed Central

    Forlano, Paul M.; Kim, Spencer D.; Krzyminska, Zuzanna M.; Sisneros, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Although the neuroanatomical distribution of catecholaminergic (CA) neurons has been well documented across all vertebrate classes, few studies have examined CA connectivity to physiologically and anatomically identified neural circuitry that controls behavior. The goal of this study was to characterize CA distribution in the brain and inner ear of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) with particular emphasis on their relationship with anatomically labeled circuitry that both produces and encodes social acoustic signals in this species. Neurobiotin labeling of the main auditory endorgan, the saccule, combined with tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence (TH-ir) revealed a strong CA innervation of both the peripheral and central auditory system. Diencephalic TH-ir neurons in the periventricular posterior tuberculum, known to be dopaminergic, send ascending projections to the ventral telencephalon and prominent descending projections to vocal-acoustic integration sites, notably the hindbrain octavolateralis efferent nucleus, as well as onto the base of hair cells in the saccule via nerve VIII. Neurobiotin backfills of the vocal nerve in combination with TH-ir revealed CA terminals on all components of the vocal pattern generator which appears to largely originate from local TH-ir neurons but may include diencephalic projections as well. This study provides strong evidence for catecholamines as important neuromodulators of both auditory and vocal circuitry and acoustic-driven social behavior in midshipman fish. This first demonstration of TH-ir terminals in the main endorgan of hearing in a non-mammalian vertebrate suggests a conserved and important anatomical and functional role for dopamine in normal audition. PMID:24715479

  5. Exposure to advertisement calls of reproductive competitors activates vocal-acoustic and catecholaminergic neurons in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Christopher L; Timothy, Miky; Kim, D Spencer; Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Mohr, Robert A; Sisneros, Joseph A; Forlano, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    While the neural circuitry and physiology of the auditory system is well studied among vertebrates, far less is known about how the auditory system interacts with other neural substrates to mediate behavioral responses to social acoustic signals. One species that has been the subject of intensive neuroethological investigation with regard to the production and perception of social acoustic signals is the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, in part because acoustic communication is essential to their reproductive behavior. Nesting male midshipman vocally court females by producing a long duration advertisement call. Females localize males by their advertisement call, spawn and deposit all their eggs in their mate's nest. As multiple courting males establish nests in close proximity to one another, the perception of another male's call may modulate individual calling behavior in competition for females. We tested the hypothesis that nesting males exposed to advertisement calls of other males would show elevated neural activity in auditory and vocal-acoustic brain centers as well as differential activation of catecholaminergic neurons compared to males exposed only to ambient noise. Experimental brains were then double labeled by immunofluorescence (-ir) for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an enzyme necessary for catecholamine synthesis, and cFos, an immediate-early gene product used as a marker for neural activation. Males exposed to other advertisement calls showed a significantly greater percentage of TH-ir cells colocalized with cFos-ir in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus and the dopaminergic periventricular posterior tuberculum, as well as increased numbers of cFos-ir neurons in several levels of the auditory and vocal-acoustic pathway. Increased activation of catecholaminergic neurons may serve to coordinate appropriate behavioral responses to male competitors. Additionally, these results implicate a role for specific catecholaminergic neuronal groups in

  6. Exposure to Advertisement Calls of Reproductive Competitors Activates Vocal-Acoustic and Catecholaminergic Neurons in the Plainfin Midshipman Fish, Porichthys notatus

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Christopher L.; Timothy, Miky; Kim, D. Spencer; Bhandiwad, Ashwin A.; Mohr, Robert A.; Sisneros, Joseph A.; Forlano, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    While the neural circuitry and physiology of the auditory system is well studied among vertebrates, far less is known about how the auditory system interacts with other neural substrates to mediate behavioral responses to social acoustic signals. One species that has been the subject of intensive neuroethological investigation with regard to the production and perception of social acoustic signals is the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, in part because acoustic communication is essential to their reproductive behavior. Nesting male midshipman vocally court females by producing a long duration advertisement call. Females localize males by their advertisement call, spawn and deposit all their eggs in their mate’s nest. As multiple courting males establish nests in close proximity to one another, the perception of another male’s call may modulate individual calling behavior in competition for females. We tested the hypothesis that nesting males exposed to advertisement calls of other males would show elevated neural activity in auditory and vocal-acoustic brain centers as well as differential activation of catecholaminergic neurons compared to males exposed only to ambient noise. Experimental brains were then double labeled by immunofluorescence (-ir) for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an enzyme necessary for catecholamine synthesis, and cFos, an immediate-early gene product used as a marker for neural activation. Males exposed to other advertisement calls showed a significantly greater percentage of TH-ir cells colocalized with cFos-ir in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus and the dopaminergic periventricular posterior tuberculum, as well as increased numbers of cFos-ir neurons in several levels of the auditory and vocal-acoustic pathway. Increased activation of catecholaminergic neurons may serve to coordinate appropriate behavioral responses to male competitors. Additionally, these results implicate a role for specific catecholaminergic neuronal groups

  7. Intra- and Intersexual swim bladder dimorphisms in the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus): Implications of swim bladder proximity to the inner ear for sound pressure detection.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Robert A; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Ryan D; Forlano, Paul M; Fay, Richard R; Ketten, Darlene R; Cox, Timothy C; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2017-11-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a nocturnal marine teleost that uses social acoustic signals for communication during the breeding season. Nesting type I males produce multiharmonic advertisement calls by contracting their swim bladder sonic muscles to attract females for courtship and spawning while subsequently attracting cuckholding type II males. Here, we report intra- and intersexual dimorphisms of the swim bladder in a vocal teleost fish and detail the swim bladder dimorphisms in the three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) of plainfin midshipman fish. Micro-computerized tomography revealed that females and type II males have prominent, horn-like rostral swim bladder extensions that project toward the inner ear end organs (saccule, lagena, and utricle). The rostral swim bladder extensions were longer, and the distance between these swim bladder extensions and each inner-ear end organ type was significantly shorter in both females and type II males compared to that in type I males. Our results revealed that the normalized swim bladder length of females and type II males was longer than that in type I males while there was no difference in normalized swim bladder width among the three sexual phenotypes. We predict that these intrasexual and intersexual differences in swim bladder morphology among midshipman sexual phenotypes will afford greater sound pressure sensitivity and higher frequency detection in females and type II males and facilitate the detection and localization of conspecifics in shallow water environments, like those in which midshipman breed and nest. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Novel underwater soundscape: acoustic repertoire of plainfin midshipman fish.

    PubMed

    McIver, Eileen L; Marchaterre, Margaret A; Rice, Aaron N; Bass, Andrew H

    2014-07-01

    Toadfishes are among the best-known groups of sound-producing (vocal) fishes and include species commonly known as toadfish and midshipman. Although midshipman have been the subject of extensive investigation of the neural mechanisms of vocalization, this is the first comprehensive, quantitative analysis of the spectro-temporal characters of their acoustic signals and one of the few for fishes in general. Field recordings of territorial, nest-guarding male midshipman during the breeding season identified a diverse vocal repertoire composed of three basic sound types that varied widely in duration, harmonic structure and degree of amplitude modulation (AM): 'hum', 'grunt' and 'growl'. Hum duration varied nearly 1000-fold, lasting for minutes at a time, with stable harmonic stacks and little envelope modulation throughout the sound. By contrast, grunts were brief, ~30-140 ms, broadband signals produced both in isolation and repetitively as a train of up to 200 at intervals of ~0.5-1.0 s. Growls were also produced alone or repetitively, but at variable intervals of the order of seconds with durations between those of grunts and hums, ranging 60-fold from ~200 ms to 12 s. Growls exhibited prominent harmonics with sudden shifts in pulse repetition rate and highly variable AM patterns, unlike the nearly constant AM of grunt trains and flat envelope of hums. Behavioral and neurophysiological studies support the hypothesis that each sound type's unique acoustic signature contributes to signal recognition mechanisms. Nocturnal production of these sounds against a background chorus dominated constantly for hours by a single sound type, the multi-harmonic hum, reveals a novel underwater soundscape for fish. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Diet and cannibalism in plainfin midshipman Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, K M; Danukarjanto, C; Pereira, A C; Lau, M J; Hassan, A; Mistakidis, A F; Bolker, B M; Neff, B D; Balshine, S

    2015-04-01

    The macroscopic and microscopic diversity of potential food items available in the nests of plainfin midshipman Porichthys notatus were quantified and compared with items that were found in the stomach and intestine (digestive tract) of the guarding males. In this species, males occur as one of two possible reproductive morphs: guarder males that care for young and sneaker males that parasitize the courtship and care of guarder males. Although it was predicted that guarder males would have fewer feeding opportunities due to their confinement to the nest, they in fact had more food items in their digestive tracts than did sneaker males and females. Date in the breeding season (a proxy of care duration) and body condition were not correlated with the amount of food consumed by guarder males. The main type of food consumed was P. notatus embryos; 69% of all guarder males sampled had cannibalized offspring. By comparing the diet of both sexes and tactics, this study sheds light on some of the strategies designed to cope with the costs of providing parental care. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Divergent hypoxia tolerance in adult males and females of the plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus).

    PubMed

    LeMoine, Christophe M R; Bucking, Carol; Craig, Paul M; Walsh, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    In the summer, the plainfin midshipman (Poricththys notatus) migrates to reproduce in the nearshore environment, where oxygen levels are influenced by the tidal cycles. Parental males establish nests under rocks in the intertidal zone, where they reside until the eggs they guard are fully developed. In contrast, females and sneaker males leave the nests shortly after spawning. We examined the physiological resistance and metabolic response of parental male and female adult midshipman to hypoxia to test whether they exhibited sex-specific differences reflecting their reproductive strategies. Further, we assessed whether metabolic enzymes and metabolites were differentially enriched in tissues of parental males and females to explain the differences observed in their hypoxia tolerance. While parental males and females exhibited similar depression of their oxygen consumption in response to graded hypoxia, parental males could withstand significantly longer exposures to severe hypoxic stress. At the biochemical level, parental males showed higher hepatic glycogen reserves and higher glycolytic enzyme capacities in gills and skeletal muscles than females. Although some of these enzymatic variations could be explained by differences in body size, we also observed a significant effect of sex on some of these factors. These results suggest that parental male midshipman may benefit from sexual dimorphism at the whole-organismal (larger body size) and biochemical (enzyme activities) levels, conferring on them a higher glycolytic potential to sustain the extensive hypoxia bouts they experience in nature.

  11. Development of the Acoustically Evoked Behavioral Response in Larval Plainfin Midshipman Fish, Porichthys notatus

    PubMed Central

    Alderks, Peter W.; Sisneros, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of hearing in fishes has become a major interest among bioacoustics researchers studying fish behavior and sensory ecology. Most fish begin to detect acoustic stimuli during the larval stage which can be important for navigation, predator avoidance and settlement, however relatively little is known about the hearing capabilities of larval fishes. We characterized the acoustically evoked behavioral response (AEBR) in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, and used this innate startle-like response to characterize this species' auditory capability during larval development. Age and size of larval midshipman were highly correlated (r2 = 0.92). The AEBR was first observed in larvae at 1.4 cm TL. At a size ≥1.8 cm TL, all larvae responded to a broadband stimulus of 154 dB re1 µPa or −15.2 dB re 1 g (z-axis). Lowest AEBR thresholds were 140–150 dB re 1 µPa or −33 to −23 dB re 1 g for frequencies below 225 Hz. Larval fish with size ranges of 1.9–2.4 cm TL had significantly lower best evoked frequencies than the other tested size groups. We also investigated the development of the lateral line organ and its function in mediating the AEBR. The lateral line organ is likely involved in mediating the AEBR but not necessary to evoke the startle-like response. The midshipman auditory and lateral line systems are functional during early development when the larvae are in the nest and the auditory system appears to have similar tuning characteristics throughout all life history stages. PMID:24340003

  12. Development of the acoustically evoked behavioral response in larval plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Alderks, Peter W; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of hearing in fishes has become a major interest among bioacoustics researchers studying fish behavior and sensory ecology. Most fish begin to detect acoustic stimuli during the larval stage which can be important for navigation, predator avoidance and settlement, however relatively little is known about the hearing capabilities of larval fishes. We characterized the acoustically evoked behavioral response (AEBR) in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, and used this innate startle-like response to characterize this species' auditory capability during larval development. Age and size of larval midshipman were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.92). The AEBR was first observed in larvae at 1.4 cm TL. At a size ≥ 1.8 cm TL, all larvae responded to a broadband stimulus of 154 dB re1 µPa or -15.2 dB re 1 g (z-axis). Lowest AEBR thresholds were 140-150 dB re 1 µPa or -33 to -23 dB re 1 g for frequencies below 225 Hz. Larval fish with size ranges of 1.9-2.4 cm TL had significantly lower best evoked frequencies than the other tested size groups. We also investigated the development of the lateral line organ and its function in mediating the AEBR. The lateral line organ is likely involved in mediating the AEBR but not necessary to evoke the startle-like response. The midshipman auditory and lateral line systems are functional during early development when the larvae are in the nest and the auditory system appears to have similar tuning characteristics throughout all life history stages.

  13. Brain Activation Patterns in Response to Conspecific and Heterospecific Social Acoustic Signals in Female Plainfin Midshipman Fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Robert A; Chang, Yiran; Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Forlano, Paul M; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2018-01-01

    While the peripheral auditory system of fish has been well studied, less is known about how the fish's brain and central auditory system process complex social acoustic signals. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has become a good species for investigating the neural basis of acoustic communication because the production and reception of acoustic signals is paramount for this species' reproductive success. Nesting males produce long-duration advertisement calls that females detect and localize among the noise in the intertidal zone to successfully find mates and spawn. How female midshipman are able to discriminate male advertisement calls from environmental noise and other acoustic stimuli is unknown. Using the immediate early gene product cFos as a marker for neural activity, we quantified neural activation of the ascending auditory pathway in female midshipman exposed to conspecific advertisement calls, heterospecific white seabass calls, or ambient environment noise. We hypothesized that auditory hindbrain nuclei would be activated by general acoustic stimuli (ambient noise and other biotic acoustic stimuli) whereas auditory neurons in the midbrain and forebrain would be selectively activated by conspecific advertisement calls. We show that neural activation in two regions of the auditory hindbrain, i.e., the rostral intermediate division of the descending octaval nucleus and the ventral division of the secondary octaval nucleus, did not differ via cFos immunoreactive (cFos-ir) activity when exposed to different acoustic stimuli. In contrast, female midshipman exposed to conspecific advertisement calls showed greater cFos-ir in the nucleus centralis of the midbrain torus semicircularis compared to fish exposed only to ambient noise. No difference in cFos-ir was observed in the torus semicircularis of animals exposed to conspecific versus heterospecific calls. However, cFos-ir was greater in two forebrain structures that receive auditory input, i

  14. Seasonal plasticity of auditory saccular sensitivity in "sneaker" type II male plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Colleye, Orphal; Zeddies, David G; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2017-03-01

    Adult female and nesting (type I) male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) exhibit an adaptive form of auditory plasticity for the enhanced detection of social acoustic signals. Whether this adaptive plasticity also occurs in "sneaker" type II males is unknown. Here, we characterize auditory-evoked potentials recorded from hair cells in the saccule of reproductive and non-reproductive "sneaker" type II male midshipman to determine whether this sexual phenotype exhibits seasonal, reproductive state-dependent changes in auditory sensitivity and frequency response to behaviorally relevant auditory stimuli. Saccular potentials were recorded from the middle and caudal region of the saccule while sound was presented via an underwater speaker. Our results indicate saccular hair cells from reproductive type II males had thresholds based on measures of sound pressure and acceleration (re. 1 µPa and 1 ms -2 , respectively) that were ~8-21 dB lower than non-reproductive type II males across a broad range of frequencies, which include the dominant higher frequencies in type I male vocalizations. This increase in type II auditory sensitivity may potentially facilitate eavesdropping by sneaker males and their assessment of vocal type I males for the selection of cuckoldry sites during the breeding season.

  15. Neuroendocrine control of seasonal plasticity in the auditory and vocal systems of fish

    PubMed Central

    Forlano, Paul M.; Sisneros, Joseph A.; Rohmann, Kevin N.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal changes in reproductive-related vocal behavior are widespread among fishes. This review highlights recent studies of the vocal plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, a neuroethological model system used for the past two decades to explore neural and endocrine mechanisms of vocal-acoustic social behaviors shared with tetrapods. Integrative approaches combining behavior, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, neuroanatomy, and gene expression methodologies have taken advantage of simple, stereotyped and easily quantifiable behaviors controlled by discrete neural networks in this model system to enable discoveries such as the first demonstration of adaptive seasonal plasticity in the auditory periphery of a vertebrate as well as rapid steroid and neuropeptide effects on vocal physiology and behavior. This simple model system has now revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying seasonal and steroid-driven auditory and vocal plasticity in the vertebrate brain. PMID:25168757

  16. Nitrogen metabolism of the intestine during digestion in a teleost fish, the plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus).

    PubMed

    Bucking, Carol; LeMoine, Christophe M R; Craig, Paul M; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    Digestion affects nitrogen metabolism in fish, as both exogenous and endogenous proteins and amino acids are catabolized, liberating ammonia in the process. Here we present a model of local detoxification of ammonia by the intestinal tissue of the plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus) during digestion, resulting in an increase in urea excretion of gastrointestinal origin. Corroborating evidence indicated whole-animal ammonia and urea excretion increased following feeding, and ammonia levels within the lumen of the midshipman intestine increased to high levels (1.8±0.4 μmol N g(-1)). We propose that this ammonia entered the enterocytes and was detoxified to urea via the ornithine-urea cycle (O-UC) enzymes, as evidenced by a 1.5- to 2.9-fold post-prandial increase in glutamine synthetase activity (0.14±0.05 and 0.28±0.02 μmol min(-1) g(-1) versus 0.41±0.03 μmol min(-1) g(-1)) and an 8.7-fold increase in carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III activity (0.3±1.2 versus 2.6±0.4 nmol min(-1) g(-1)). Furthermore, digestion increased urea production by isolated gastrointestinal tissue 1.7-fold, supporting our hypothesis that intestinal tissue synthesizes urea in response to feeding. We further propose that the intestinal urea may have been excreted into the intestinal lumen via an apical urea transporter as visualized using immunohistochemistry. A portion of the urea was then excreted to the environment along with the feces, resulting in the observed increase in urea excretion, while another portion may have been used by intestinal ureolytic bacteria. Overall, we propose that P. notatus produces urea within the enterocytes via a functional O-UC, which is then excreted into the intestinal lumen. Our model of intestinal nitrogen metabolism does not appear to be universal as we were unab le to activate the O-UC in the intestine of fed rainbow trout. However, literature values suggest that multiple fish species could follow this model.

  17. Saccular Transcriptome Profiles of the Seasonal Breeding Plainfin Midshipman Fish (Porichthys notatus), a Teleost with Divergent Sexual Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Faber-Hammond, Joshua; Samanta, Manoj P; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Manning, Dustin; Sisneros, Joseph A; Coffin, Allison B

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic communication is essential for the reproductive success of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). During the breeding season, type I males use acoustic cues to advertise nest location to potential mates, creating an audible signal that attracts reproductive females. Type II (sneaker) males also likely use this social acoustic signal to find breeding pairs from which to steal fertilizations. Estrogen-induced changes in the auditory system of breeding females are thought to enhance neural encoding of the advertisement call, and recent anatomical data suggest the saccule (the main auditory end organ) as one possible target for this seasonal modulation. Here we describe saccular transcriptomes from all three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) collected during the breeding season as a first step in understanding the mechanisms underlying sexual phenotype-specific and seasonal differences in auditory function. We used RNA-Seq on the Ion Torrent platform to create a combined transcriptome dataset containing over 79,000 assembled transcripts representing almost 9,000 unique annotated genes. These identified genes include several with known inner ear function and multiple steroid hormone receptors. Transcripts most closely matched to published genomes of nile tilapia and large yellow croaker, inconsistent with the phylogenetic relationship between these species but consistent with the importance of acoustic communication in their life-history strategies. We then compared the RNA-Seq results from the saccules of reproductive females with a separate transcriptome from the non-reproductive female phenotype and found over 700 differentially expressed transcripts, including members of the Wnt and Notch signaling pathways that mediate cell proliferation and hair cell addition in the inner ear. These data constitute a valuable resource for furthering our understanding of the molecular basis for peripheral auditory function as well as a range of

  18. Localization and Divergent Profiles of Estrogen Receptors and Aromatase in the Vocal and Auditory Networks of a Fish with Alternative Mating Tactics

    PubMed Central

    Fergus, Daniel J.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Estrogens play a salient role in the development and maintenance of both male and female nervous systems and behaviors. The plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus), a teleost fish, has two male reproductive morphs that follow alternative mating tactics and diverge in multiple somatic, hormonal and neural traits, including the central control of morph-specific vocal behaviors. After we identified duplicate estrogen receptors (ERβ1 and ERβ2) in midshipman, we developed antibodies to localize protein expression in the central vocal-acoustic networks and saccule, the auditory division of the inner ear. As in other teleost species, ERβ1 and ERβ2 were robustly expressed in the telencephalon and hypothalamus in vocal-acoustic and other brain regions shown previously to exhibit strong expression of ERα and aromatase (estrogen synthetase, CYP19) in midshipman. Like aromatase, ERβ1 label co-localized with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in telencephalic radial glial cells. Quantitative PCR revealed similar patterns of transcript abundance across reproductive morphs for ERβ1, ERβ2, ERα and aromatase in the forebrain and saccule. In contrast, transcript abundance for ERs and aromatase varied significantly between morphs in and around the sexually polymorphic vocal motor nucleus (VMN). Together, the results suggest that VMN is the major estrogen target within the estrogen-sensitive hindbrain vocal network that directly determines the duration, frequency and amplitude of morph-specific vocalizations. Comparable regional differences in steroid receptor abundances likely regulate morph-specific behaviors in males and females of other species exhibiting alternative reproductive tactics. PMID:23460422

  19. Distribution of androgen receptor mRNA expression in vocal, auditory, and neuroendocrine circuits in a teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Forlano, Paul M; Marchaterre, Margaret; Deitcher, David L; Bass, Andrew H

    2010-02-15

    Across all major vertebrate groups, androgen receptors (ARs) have been identified in neural circuits that shape reproductive-related behaviors, including vocalization. The vocal control network of teleost fishes presents an archetypal example of how a vertebrate nervous system produces social, context-dependent sounds. We cloned a partial cDNA of AR that was used to generate specific probes to localize AR expression throughout the central nervous system of the vocal plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). In the forebrain, AR mRNA is abundant in proposed homologs of the mammalian striatum and amygdala, and in anterior and posterior parvocellular and magnocellular nuclei of the preoptic area, nucleus preglomerulosus, and posterior, ventral and anterior tuberal nuclei of the hypothalamus. Many of these nuclei are part of the known vocal and auditory circuitry in midshipman. The midbrain periaqueductal gray, an essential link between forebrain and hindbrain vocal circuitry, and the lateral line recipient nucleus medialis in the rostral hindbrain also express abundant AR mRNA. In the caudal hindbrain-spinal vocal circuit, high AR mRNA is found in the vocal prepacemaker nucleus and along the dorsal periphery of the vocal motor nucleus congruent with the known pattern of expression of aromatase-containing glial cells. Additionally, abundant AR mRNA expression is shown for the first time in the inner ear of a vertebrate. The distribution of AR mRNA strongly supports the role of androgens as modulators of behaviorally defined vocal, auditory, and neuroendocrine circuits in teleost fish and vertebrates in general. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Neuroanatomical Evidence for Catecholamines as Modulators of Audition and Acoustic Behavior in a Vocal Teleost.

    PubMed

    Forlano, Paul M; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) is a well-studied model to understand the neural and endocrine mechanisms underlying vocal-acoustic communication across vertebrates. It is well established that steroid hormones such as estrogen drive seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity in female Porichthys in order to better encode the male's advertisement call. However, little is known of the neural substrates that underlie the motivation and coordinated behavioral response to auditory social signals. Catecholamines, which include dopamine and noradrenaline, are good candidates for this function, as they are thought to modulate the salience of and reinforce appropriate behavior to socially relevant stimuli. This chapter summarizes our recent studies which aimed to characterize catecholamine innervation in the central and peripheral auditory system of Porichthys as well as test the hypotheses that innervation of the auditory system is seasonally plastic and catecholaminergic neurons are activated in response to conspecific vocalizations. Of particular significance is the discovery of direct dopaminergic innervation of the saccule, the main hearing end organ, by neurons in the diencephalon, which also robustly innervate the cholinergic auditory efferent nucleus in the hindbrain. Seasonal changes in dopamine innervation in both these areas appear dependent on reproductive state in females and may ultimately function to modulate the sensitivity of the peripheral auditory system as an adaptation to the seasonally changing soundscape. Diencephalic dopaminergic neurons are indeed active in response to exposure to midshipman vocalizations and are in a perfect position to integrate the detection and appropriate motor response to conspecific acoustic signals for successful reproduction.

  1. FoxP2 Expression in a Highly Vocal Teleost Fish with Comparisons to Tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Pengra, Ian G G; Marchaterre, Margaret A; Bass, Andrew H

    2018-04-19

    Motivated by studies of speech deficits in humans, several studies over the past two decades have investigated the potential role of a forkhead domain transcription factor, FoxP2, in the central control of acoustic signaling/vocalization among vertebrates. Comparative neuroanatomical studies that mainly include mammalian and avian species have mapped the distribution of FoxP2 expression in multiple brain regions that imply a greater functional significance beyond vocalization that might be shared broadly across vertebrate lineages. To date, reports for teleost fish have been limited in number and scope to nonvocal species. Here, we map the neuroanatomical distribution of FoxP2 mRNA expression in a highly vocal teleost, the plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus). We report an extensive overlap between FoxP2 expression and vocal, auditory, and steroid-signaling systems with robust expression at multiple sites in the telencephalon, the preoptic area, the diencephalon, and the midbrain. Label was far more restricted in the hindbrain though robust in one region of the reticular formation. A comparison with other teleosts and tetrapods suggests an evolutionarily conserved FoxP2 phenotype important to vocal-acoustic and, more broadly, sensorimotor function among vertebrates. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Small Ca2+ releases enable hour-long high-frequency contractions in midshipman swimbladder muscle.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Frank E; Hollingworth, Stephen; Marx, James O; Baylor, Stephen M; Rome, Lawrence C

    2018-01-02

    Type I males of the Pacific midshipman fish ( Porichthys notatus ) vibrate their swimbladder to generate mating calls, or "hums," that attract females to their nests. In contrast to the intermittent calls produced by male Atlantic toadfish ( Opsanus tau ), which occur with a duty cycle (calling time divided by total time) of only 3-8%, midshipman can call continuously for up to an hour. With 100% duty cycles and frequencies of 50-100 Hz (15°C), the superfast muscle fibers that surround the midshipman swimbladder may contract and relax as many as 360,000 times in 1 h. The energy for this activity is supported by a large volume of densely packed mitochondria that are found in the peripheral and central regions of the fiber. The remaining fiber cross section contains contractile filaments and a well-developed network of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and triadic junctions. Here, to understand quantitatively how Ca 2+ is managed by midshipman fibers during calling, we measure (a) the Ca 2+ pumping-versus-pCa and force-versus-pCa relations in skinned fiber bundles and (b) changes in myoplasmic free [Ca 2+ ] (Δ[Ca 2+ ]) during stimulated activity of individual fibers microinjected with the Ca 2+ indicators Mag-fluo-4 and Fluo-4. As in toadfish, the force-pCa relation in midshipman is strongly right-shifted relative to the Ca 2+ pumping-pCa relation, and contractile activity is controlled in a synchronous, not asynchronous, fashion during electrical stimulation. SR Ca 2+ release per action potential is, however, approximately eightfold smaller in midshipman than in toadfish. Midshipman fibers have a larger time-averaged free [Ca 2+ ] during activity than toadfish fibers, which permits faster Ca 2+ pumping because the Ca 2+ pumps work closer to their maximum rate. Even with midshipman's sustained release and pumping of Ca 2+ , however, the Ca 2+ energy cost of calling (per kilogram wet weight) is less than twofold more in midshipman than in toadfish. © 2018 Nelson et al.

  3. Corticosteroid receptor expression in a teleost fish that displays alternative male reproductive tactics.

    PubMed

    Arterbery, Adam S; Deitcher, David L; Bass, Andrew H

    2010-01-01

    Corticosteroid signaling mechanisms mediate a wide range of adaptive physiological responses, including those essential to reproduction. Here, we investigated the presence and relative abundance of corticosteroid receptors during the breeding season in the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus), a species that has two male reproductive morphs. Only type I "singing" males acoustically court females and aggressively defend a nest site, whereas type II "sneaker" males steal fertilizations from nesting type I males. Cloning and sequencing first identified glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors in midshipman that exhibited high sequence identity with other vertebrate GRs and MRs. Absolute-quantitative real-time PCR then revealed higher levels of GR in the central nervous system (CNS) of type II males than type I males and females, while GR levels in the sound-producing, vocal muscle and the liver were higher in type I males than type II males and females. MR expression was also greater in the CNS of type II males than type I males or females, but the differences were more modest in magnitude. Lastly, plasma levels of cortisol, the main glucocorticoid in teleosts, were 2- to 3-fold greater in type II males compared to type I males. Together, the results suggest a link between corticosteroid regulation and physiological and behavioral variation in a teleost fish that displays male alternative reproductive tactics.

  4. Divergent expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 11beta-hydroxylase genes between male morphs in the central nervous system, sonic muscle and testis of a vocal fish.

    PubMed

    Arterbery, Adam S; Deitcher, David L; Bass, Andrew H

    2010-05-15

    The vocalizing midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has two male morphs that exhibit alternative mating tactics. Only territorial males acoustically court females with long duration (minutes to >1h) calls, whereas sneaker males attempt to steal fertilizations. During the breeding season, morph-specific tactics are paralleled by a divergence in relative testis and vocal muscle size, plasma levels of the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and the glucocorticoid cortisol, and mRNA expression levels in the central nervous system (CNS) of the steroid-synthesizing enzyme aromatase (estrogen synthase). Here, we tested the hypothesis that the midshipman's two male morphs would further differ in the CNS, as well as in the testis and vocal muscle, in mRNA abundance for the enzymes 11beta-hydroxylase (11betaH) and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD) that directly regulate both 11KT and cortisol synthesis. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated male morph-specific profiles for both enzymes. Territorial males had higher 11betaH and 11betaHSD mRNA levels in testis and vocal muscle. By contrast, sneaker males had the higher CNS expression, especially for 11betaHSD, in the region containing an expansive vocal pacemaker circuit that directly determines the temporal attributes of natural calls. We propose for territorial males that higher enzyme expression in testis underlies its greater plasma 11KT levels, which in vocal muscle provides both gluconeogenic and androgenic support for its long duration calling. We further propose for sneaker males that higher enzyme expression in the vocal CNS contributes to known cortisol-specific effects on its vocal physiology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Otolith morphology varies between populations, sexes and male alternative reproductive tactics in a vocal toadfish Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Bose, A P H; Adragna, J B; Balshine, S

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the morphology of sagittal otoliths of the plainfin midshipman fish Porichthys notatus was compared between populations, sexes and male alternative reproductive phenotypes (known as 'type I males or guarders' and 'type II males or sneakers'). Sagitta size increased with P. notatus size and changes in shape were also detected with increasing body size. Porichthys notatus sagittae begin as simple rounded structures, but then elongate as they grow and take on a more triangular and complex shape with several prominent notches and indentations along the dorsal and caudal edges. Moreover, the sagittae of the two geographically and genetically distinct populations of P. notatus (northern and southern) differed in shape. Porichthys notatus from the north possessed taller sagittae with deeper caudal indentations compared to P. notatus from the south. Sagitta shape also differed between females and males of the conventional guarder tactic. Furthermore, guarder males had smaller sagittae for their body size than did sneaker males or females. These differences in sagittal otolith morphology are discussed in relation to ecological and life history differences between the sexes and male tactics of this species. This is the first study to investigate teleost otolith morphology from the perspective of alternative reproductive tactics. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Gene expression underlying enhanced, steroid-dependent auditory sensitivity of hair cell epithelium in a vocal fish.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Daniel J; Feng, Ni Y; Bass, Andrew H

    2015-10-14

    Successful animal communication depends on a receiver's ability to detect a sender's signal. Exemplars of adaptive sender-receiver coupling include acoustic communication, often important in the context of seasonal reproduction. During the reproductive summer season, both male and female midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) exhibit similar increases in the steroid-dependent frequency sensitivity of the saccule, the main auditory division of the inner ear. This form of auditory plasticity enhances detection of the higher frequency components of the multi-harmonic, long-duration advertisement calls produced repetitively by males during summer nights of peak vocal and spawning activity. The molecular basis of this seasonal auditory plasticity has not been fully resolved. Here, we utilize an unbiased transcriptomic RNA sequencing approach to identify differentially expressed transcripts within the saccule's hair cell epithelium of reproductive summer and non-reproductive winter fish. We assembled 74,027 unique transcripts from our saccular epithelial sequence reads. Of these, 6.4 % and 3.0 % were upregulated in the reproductive and non-reproductive saccular epithelium, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses of the differentially expressed transcripts showed that the reproductive saccular epithelium was transcriptionally, translationally, and metabolically more active than the non-reproductive epithelium. Furthermore, the expression of a specific suite of candidate genes, including ion channels and components of steroid-signaling pathways, was upregulated in the reproductive compared to the non-reproductive saccular epithelium. We found reported auditory functions for 14 candidate genes upregulated in the reproductive midshipman saccular epithelium, 8 of which are enriched in mouse hair cells, validating their hair cell-specific functions across vertebrates. We identified a suite of differentially expressed genes belonging to neurotransmission and

  7. The Impact of Religiosity on Midshipman Adjustment and Feelings of Acceptance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    the military nature , if a midshipman is accepting of homosexuals he is often looked on as strange. Like if you have a gay friend it is looked on...grown exponentially over the past fifty years. Significant growth of religious diversity and religious media support the growing nature of popular...however, is still limited in scope and depth. The covert or personal nature of an individual’s beliefs makes acceptance and tolerance issues more

  8. Seasonal plasticity of auditory hair cell frequency sensitivity correlates with plasma steroid levels in vocal fish

    PubMed Central

    Rohmann, Kevin N.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Vertebrates displaying seasonal shifts in reproductive behavior provide the opportunity to investigate bidirectional plasticity in sensory function. The midshipman teleost fish exhibits steroid-dependent plasticity in frequency encoding by eighth nerve auditory afferents. In this study, evoked potentials were recorded in vivo from the saccule, the main auditory division of the inner ear of most teleosts, to test the hypothesis that males and females exhibit seasonal changes in hair cell physiology in relation to seasonal changes in plasma levels of steroids. Thresholds across the predominant frequency range of natural vocalizations were significantly less in both sexes in reproductive compared with non-reproductive conditions, with differences greatest at frequencies corresponding to call upper harmonics. A subset of non-reproductive males exhibiting an intermediate saccular phenotype had elevated testosterone levels, supporting the hypothesis that rising steroid levels induce non-reproductive to reproductive transitions in saccular physiology. We propose that elevated levels of steroids act via long-term (days to weeks) signaling pathways to upregulate ion channel expression generating higher resonant frequencies characteristic of non-mammalian auditory hair cells, thereby lowering acoustic thresholds. PMID:21562181

  9. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  10. Quantifying vocal fatigue recovery: Dynamic vocal recovery trajectories after a vocal loading exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the recovery of voice following a 2-hour vocal loading exercise (oral reading). Methods 86 adult participants tracked their voice recovery using short vocal tasks and perceptual ratings after an initial vocal loading exercise and for the following two days. Results Short-term recovery was apparent with 90% recovery within 4-6 hours and full recovery at 12-18 hours. Recovery was shown to be similar to a dermal wound healing trajectory. Conclusions The new recovery trajectory highlighted by the vocal loading exercise in the current study is called a vocal recovery trajectory. By comparing vocal fatigue to dermal wound healing, this trajectory is parallel to a chronic wound healing trajectory (as opposed to an acute wound healing trajectory). This parallel suggests that vocal fatigue from the daily use of the voice could be treated as a chronic wound, with the healing and repair mechanisms in a state of constant repair. In addition, there is likely a vocal fatigue threshold at which point the level of tissue damage would shift the chronic healing trajectory to an acute healing trajectory. PMID:19663377

  11. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  12. Artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract in vocal training methods.

    PubMed

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2005-01-01

    It is common practice in vocal training to make use of vocal exercise techniques that involve partial occlusion of the vocal tract. Various techniques are used; some of them form an occlusion within the front part of the oral cavity or at the lips. Another vocal exercise technique involves lengthening the vocal tract; for example, the method of phonation into small tubes. This essay presents some studies made on the effects of various vocal training methods that involve an artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract. The influence of sufficient acoustic impedance on vocal fold vibration and economical voice production is presented.

  13. Vocal Tremor Analysis with the Vocal Demodulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winholtz, William S.; Ramig, Lorraine Olson

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Vocal Demodulator as a new device for analysis of vocal tremor. The Vocal Demodulator produces amplitude-demodulated and frequency-demodulated outputs and measures the frequency and level of low-frequency tremor components in sustained phonation. The paper describes quantification of the demodulation process, validation…

  14. Vocal Fold Vibration Following Surgical Intervention in Three Vocal Pathologies: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenli; Woo, Peak; Murry, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    High-speed videoendoscopy captures the cycle-to-cycle vibratory motion of each individual vocal fold in normal and severely disordered phonation. Therefore, it provides a direct method to examine the specific vibratory changes following vocal fold surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the vocal fold vibratory pattern changes in the surgically treated pathologic vocal fold and the contralateral vocal fold in three vocal pathologies: vocal polyp (n = 3), paresis or paralysis (n = 3), and scar (n = 3). Digital kymography was used to extract high-speed kymographic vocal fold images at the mid-membranous region of the vocal fold. Spectral analysis was subsequently applied to the digital kymography to quantify the cycle-to-cycle movements of each vocal fold, expressed as a spectrum. Surgical modification resulted in significantly improved spectral power of the treated pathologic vocal fold. Furthermore, the contralateral vocal fold also presented with improved spectral power irrespective of vocal pathology. In comparison with normal vocal fold spectrum, postsurgical vocal fold vibrations continued to demonstrate decreased vibratory amplitude in both vocal folds. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of preventive vocal hygiene education on the vocal hygiene habits and perceptual vocal characteristics of training singers.

    PubMed

    Broaddus-Lawrence, P L; Treole, K; McCabe, R B; Allen, R L; Toppin, L

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of vocal hygiene education on the vocal hygiene behaviors and perceptual vocal characteristics of untrained singers. Eleven adult untrained singers served as subjects. They attended four 1-hour class sessions on vocal hygiene, including anatomy and physiology of the phonatory mechanism, vocally abusive behaviors, voice disorders commonly seen in singers, and measures to prevent voice disorders. Pre- and postinstruction surveys were used to record subjects' vocal abuses and their perceptions of their speaking and singing voice. They also rated their perceived value of vocal hygiene education. Results revealed minimal changes in vocal hygiene behaviors and perceptual voice characteristics. The subjects did report a high degree of benefit and learning, however.

  16. Vocal Dose Measures: Quantifying Accumulated Vibration Exposure in Vocal Fold Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo R.; Švec, Jan G.; Popolo, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    To measure the exposure to self-induced tissue vibration in speech, three vocal doses were defined and described: distance dose, which accumulates the distance that tissue particles of the vocal folds travel in an oscillatory trajectory; energy dissipation dose, which accumulates the total amount of heat dissipated over a unit volume of vocal fold tissues; and time dose, which accumulates the total phonation time. These doses were compared to a previously used vocal dose measure, the vocal loading index, which accumulates the number of vibration cycles of the vocal folds. Empirical rules for viscosity and vocal fold deformation were used to calculate all the doses from the fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) values of speech. Six participants were asked to read in normal, monotone, and exaggerated speech and the doses associated with these vocalizations were calculated. The results showed that large F0 and SPL variations in speech affected the dose measures, suggesting that accumulation of phonation time alone is insufficient. The vibration exposure of the vocal folds in normal speech was related to the industrial limits for hand-transmitted vibration, in which the safe distance dose was derived to be about 500 m. This limit was found rather low for vocalization; it was related to a comparable time dose of about 17 min of continuous vocalization, or about 35 min of continuous reading with normal breathing and unvoiced segments. The voicing pauses in normal speech and dialogue effectively prolong the safe time dose. The derived safety limits for vocalization will likely require refinement based on a more detailed knowledge of the differences in hand and vocal fold tissue morphology and their response to vibrational stress, and on the effect of recovery of the vocal fold tissue during voicing pauses. PMID:12959470

  17. Vocal dose measures: quantifying accumulated vibration exposure in vocal fold tissues.

    PubMed

    Titze, Ingo R; Svec, Jan G; Popolo, Peter S

    2003-08-01

    To measure the exposure to self-induced tissue vibration in speech, three vocal doses were defined and described: distance dose, which accumulates the distance that tissue particles of the vocal folds travel in an oscillatory trajectory; energy dissipation dose, which accumulates the total amount of heat dissipated over a unit volume of vocal fold tissues; and time dose, which accumulates the total phonation time. These doses were compared to a previously used vocal dose measure, the vocal loading index, which accumulates the number of vibration cycles of the vocal folds. Empirical rules for viscosity and vocal fold deformation were used to calculate all the doses from the fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) values of speech. Six participants were asked to read in normal, monotone, and exaggerated speech and the doses associated with these vocalizations were calculated. The results showed that large F0 and SPL variations in speech affected the dose measures, suggesting that accumulation of phonation time alone is insufficient. The vibration exposure of the vocal folds in normal speech was related to the industrial limits for hand-transmitted vibration, in which the safe distance dose was derived to be about 500 m. This limit was found rather low for vocalization; it was related to a comparable time dose of about 17 min of continuous vocalization, or about 35 min of continuous reading with normal breathing and unvoiced segments. The voicing pauses in normal speech and dialogue effectively prolong the safe time dose. The derived safety limits for vocalization will likely require refinement based on a more detailed knowledge of the differences in hand and vocal fold tissue morphology and their response to vibrational stress, and on the effect of recovery of the vocal fold tissue during voicing pauses.

  18. Cooperative vocal control in marmoset monkeys via vocal feedback

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung Yoon; Takahashi, Daniel Y.

    2015-01-01

    Humans adjust speech amplitude as a function of distance from a listener; we do so in a manner that would compensate for such distance. This ability is presumed to be the product of high-level sociocognitive skills. Nonhuman primates are thought to lack such socially related flexibility in vocal production. Using predictions from a simple arousal-based model whereby vocal feedback from a conspecific modulates the drive to produce a vocalization, we tested whether another primate exhibits this type of cooperative vocal control. We conducted a playback experiment with marmoset monkeys and simulated “far-away” and “nearby” conspecifics using contact calls that differed in sound intensity. We found that marmoset monkeys increased the amplitude of their contact calls and produced such calls with shorter response latencies toward more distant conspecifics. The same was not true in response to changing levels of background noise. To account for how simulated conspecific distance can change both the amplitude and timing of vocal responses, we developed a model that incorporates dynamic interactions between the auditory system and limbic “drive” systems. Overall, our data show that, like humans, marmoset monkeys cooperatively control the acoustics of their vocalizations according to changes in listener distance, increasing the likelihood that a conspecific will hear their call. However, we propose that such cooperative vocal control is a system property that does not necessitate any particularly advanced sociocognitive skill. At least in marmosets, this vocal control can be parsimoniously explained by the regulation of arousal states across two interacting individuals via vocal feedback. PMID:25925323

  19. Directional Hearing and Sound Source Localization in Fishes.

    PubMed

    Sisneros, Joseph A; Rogers, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the capacity for sound source localization is common to mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, but surprisingly it is not known whether fish locate sound sources in the same manner (e.g., combining binaural and monaural cues) or what computational strategies they use for successful source localization. Directional hearing and sound source localization in fishes continues to be important topics in neuroethology and in the hearing sciences, but the empirical and theoretical work on these topics have been contradictory and obscure for decades. This chapter reviews the previous behavioral work on directional hearing and sound source localization in fishes including the most recent experiments on sound source localization by the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus), which has proven to be an exceptional species for fish studies of sound localization. In addition, the theoretical models of directional hearing and sound source localization for fishes are reviewed including a new model that uses a time-averaged intensity approach for source localization that has wide applicability with regard to source type, acoustic environment, and time waveform.

  20. Audio-vocal responses of vocal fundamental frequency and formant during sustained vowel vocalizations in different noises.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shao-Hsuan; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Lee, Guo-She

    2015-06-01

    Sustained vocalizations of vowels [a], [i], and syllable [mə] were collected in twenty normal-hearing individuals. On vocalizations, five conditions of different audio-vocal feedback were introduced separately to the speakers including no masking, wearing supra-aural headphones only, speech-noise masking, high-pass noise masking, and broad-band-noise masking. Power spectral analysis of vocal fundamental frequency (F0) was used to evaluate the modulations of F0 and linear-predictive-coding was used to acquire first two formants. The results showed that while the formant frequencies were not significantly shifted, low-frequency modulations (<3 Hz) of F0 significantly increased with reduced audio-vocal feedback across speech sounds and were significantly correlated with auditory awareness of speakers' own voices. For sustained speech production, the motor speech controls on F0 may depend on a feedback mechanism while articulation should rely more on a feedforward mechanism. Power spectral analysis of F0 might be applied to evaluate audio-vocal control for various hearing and neurological disorders in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Singers' Vocal Function Knowledge Levels, Sensorimotor Self-awareness of Vocal Tract, and Impact of Functional Voice Rehabilitation on the Vocal Function Knowledge and Self-awareness of Vocal Tract.

    PubMed

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Sobol, Maria; Kazanecka, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated vocal function knowledge and vocal tract sensorimotor self-awareness and the impact of functional voice rehabilitation on vocal function knowledge and self-awareness. This is a prospective, randomized study. Twenty singers (study group [SG]) completed a questionnaire before and after functional voice rehabilitation. Twenty additional singers, representing the control group, also completed the questionnaire without functional voice rehabilitation at a 3-month interval. The questionnaire consisted of three parts. The first part evaluated the singers' attitude to the anatomical and physiological knowledge of the vocal tract and their self-esteem of the knowledge level. The second part assessed the theoretical knowledge of the singers' vocal tract physiology. The third part of the questionnaire assessed singers' sensorimotor self-awareness of the vocal tract. The results showed that most singers indicated that knowledge of the vocal tract's anatomy and physiology is useful (59% SG, 67% control group). However, 75% of all participants defined their knowledge of the vocal tract's anatomy and physiology as weak or inadequate. In the SG, vocal function knowledge at the first assessment was 45%. After rehabilitation, the level increased to 67.7%. Vocal tract sensorimotor self-awareness initially was 38.9% in SG but rose to 66.7%. Findings of the study suggest that classical singers lack knowledge about the physiology of the vocal mechanism, especially the breathing patterns. In addition, they have low sensorimotor self-awareness of their vocal tract. The results suggest that singers would benefit from receiving services from phoniatrists and speech-language pathologists during their voice training. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A case of bilateral vocal fold mucosal bridges, bilateral trans-vocal fold type III sulci vocales, and an intracordal polyp.

    PubMed

    Tan, Melin; Pitman, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    We present a patient with a novel finding of bilateral mucosal bridges, bilateral type III trans-vocal fold sulci vocales, and a vocal fold polyp. Although sulci and mucosal bridges occur in the vocal folds, it is rare to find multiples of these lesions in a single patient, and it is even more uncommon when they occur in conjunction with a vocal fold polyp. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a vocal fold polyp in combination with multiple vocal fold bridges and multiple type III sulci vocales in a single patient. To describe and visually present the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with an intracordal polyp, bilateral mucosal bridges, as well as bilateral type III trans-vocal fold sulci vocales. Presentation of a set of high definition intraoperative photos displaying the extent of the vocal fold lesions and the resection of the intracordal polyp. This patient presented with only 6 months of significant dysphonia. It was felt that the recent change in voice was because of the polyp and not the bridges or sulci vocales. Considering the patient's presentation and the possible morbidity of resection of mucosal bridges and sulci, only the polyp was excised. Postoperatively, the patient's voice returned to his acceptable mild baseline dysphonia, and the benefit has persisted 6 months postoperatively. The combination of bilateral mucosal bridges, bilateral type III sulcus vocalis, and an intracordal polyp in one patient is rare if not novel. Treatment of the polyp alone returned the patient's voice to his lifelong baseline of mild dysphonia. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. University Vocal Training and Vocal Health of Music Educators and Music Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…

  4. Vocal coordination and vocal imitation: a role for mirror neurons?

    PubMed

    Newman, John D

    2014-04-01

    Some birds and mammals have vocal communication systems in which coordination between individuals is important. Examples would include duetting or antiphonal calling in some birds and mammals, rapid exchanges of the same vocalization, and vocal exchanges between paired individuals and other nearby pairs. Mirror neurons may play a role in such systems but become functional only after experience.

  5. Dependence of phonation threshold pressure on vocal tract acoustics and vocal fold tissue mechanics.

    PubMed

    Chan, Roger W; Titze, Ingo R

    2006-04-01

    Analytical and computer simulation studies have shown that the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract as well as the viscoelastic properties of vocal fold tissues are critical for determining the dynamics and the energy transfer mechanism of vocal fold oscillation. In the present study, a linear, small-amplitude oscillation theory was revised by taking into account the propagation of a mucosal wave and the inertive reactance (inertance) of the supraglottal vocal tract as the major energy transfer mechanisms for flow-induced self-oscillation of the vocal fold. Specifically, analytical results predicted that phonation threshold pressure (Pth) increases with the viscous shear properties of the vocal fold, but decreases with vocal tract inertance. This theory was empirically tested using a physical model of the larynx, where biological materials (fat, hyaluronic acid, and fibronectin) were implanted into the vocal fold cover to investigate the effect of vocal fold tissue viscoelasticity on Pth. A uniform-tube supraglottal vocal tract was also introduced to examine the effect of vocal tract inertance on Pth. Results showed that Pth decreased with the inertive impedance of the vocal tract and increased with the viscous shear modulus (G") or dynamic viscosity (eta') of the vocal fold cover, consistent with theoretical predictions. These findings supported the potential biomechanical benefits of hyaluronic acid as a surgical bioimplant for repairing voice disorders involving the superficial layer of the lamina propria, such as scarring, sulcus vocalis, atrophy, and Reinke's edema.

  6. Vocal exercise may attenuate acute vocal fold inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Katherine Verdolini; Li, Nicole Y.K.; Branski, Ryan C.; Rosen, Clark A.; Grillo, Elizabeth; Steinhauer, Kimberly; Hebda, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypotheses The objective was to assess the utility of selected “resonant voice” exercises for the reduction of acute vocal fold inflammation. The hypothesis was that relatively large-amplitude, low-impact exercises associated with resonant voice would reduce inflammation more than spontaneous speech and possibly more than voice rest. Study Design The study design was prospective, randomized, double-blind. Methods Nine vocally healthy adults underwent a 1-hr vocal loading procedure, followed by randomization to (a) a spontaneous speech condition, (b) a vocal rest condition, or (c) a resonant voice exercise condition. Treatments were monitored in clinic for 4 hr, and continued extra-clinically until the next morning. At baseline, immediately following loading, after the 4-hr in-clinic treatment, and 24 hr post baseline, secretions were suctioned from the vocal folds bilaterally and submitted to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate concentrations of key markers of tissue injury and inflammation: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-8, and IL-10. Results Complete data sets were obtained for 3 markers -- IL-1β, IL-6, and MMP-8 -- for one subject in each treatment condition. For those markers, results were poorest at 24-hr follow-up in the spontaneous speech condition, sharply improved in the voice rest condition, and best in the resonant voice condition. Average results for all markers, for all responsive subjects with normal baseline mediator concentrations, revealed an almost identical pattern. Conclusions Some forms of tissue mobilization may be useful to attenuate acute vocal fold inflammation. PMID:23177745

  7. Gender differences affecting vocal health of women in vocally demanding careers

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.; Smith, Marshall E.; Tanner, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that occupational voice users have a greater incidence of vocal issues than the general population. Women have been found to experience vocal health problems more frequently than men, regardless of their occupation. Traditionally, it has been assumed that differences in the laryngeal system are the cause of this disproportion. Nevertheless, it is valuable to identify other potential gender distinctions which may make women more vulnerable to voice disorders. A search of the literature was conducted for gender-specific characteristics which might impact the vocal health of women. This search can be used by healthcare practitioners to help female patients avoid serious vocal health injuries, as well as to better treat women who already suffer from such vocal health issues. PMID:21722077

  8. Vocalization Subsystem Responses to a Temporarily Induced Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croake, Daniel J.; Andreatta, Richard D.; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to quantify the interactions of the 3 vocalization subsystems of respiration, phonation, and resonance before, during, and after a perturbation to the larynx (temporarily induced unilateral vocal fold paralysis) in 10 vocally healthy participants. Using dynamic systems theory as a guide, we hypothesized that…

  9. The Risk of Vocal Fold Atrophy after Serial Corticosteroid Injections of the Vocal Fold.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lucy L; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the risk of vocal fold atrophy in patients who receive serial subepithelial steroid injections for vocal fold scar. This study is a retrospective case report of two patients who underwent a series of weekly subepithelial infusions of 10 mg/mL dexamethasone for benign vocal fold lesion. Shortly after the procedures, both patients developed a weak and breathy voice. The first patient was a 53-year-old man with radiation-induced vocal fold stiffness. Six injections were performed unilaterally, and 1 week later, he developed unilateral vocal fold atrophy with new glottal insufficiency. The second patient was a 67-year-old woman with severe vocal fold inflammation related to laryngitis and calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophagean dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome. Five injections were performed bilaterally, and 1 week later, she developed bilateral vocal fold atrophy with a large midline glottal gap during phonation. In both cases, the steroid-induced vocal atrophy resolved spontaneously after 4 months. Serial subepithelial steroid infusions of the vocal folds, although safe in the majority of patients, carry the risk of causing temporary vocal fold atrophy when given at short intervals. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    PubMed

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vocal Health Education and Medical Resources for Graduate-Level Vocal Performance Students.

    PubMed

    Latham, Katherine; Messing, Barbara; Bidlack, Melissa; Merritt, Samantha; Zhou, Xian; Akst, Lee M

    2017-03-01

    Most agree that education about vocal health and physiology can help singers avoid the development of vocal disorders. However, little is known about how this kind of education is provided to singers as part of their formal training. This study describes the amount of instruction in these topics provided through graduate-level curricula, who provides this instruction, and the kinds of affiliations such graduate singing programs have with medical professionals. This is an online survey of music schools with graduate singing programs. Survey questions addressed demographics of the programs, general attitudes about vocal health instruction for singers, the amount of vocal health instruction provided and by whom it was taught, perceived barriers to including more vocal health instruction, and any affiliations the voice program might have with medical personnel. Eighty-one survey responses were received. Instruction on vocal health was provided in 95% of the schools. In 55% of the schools, none of this instruction was given by a medical professional. Limited time in the curriculum, lack of financial support, and lack of availability of medical professional were the most frequently reported barriers to providing more instruction. When programs offered more hours of instruction, they were more likely to have some of that instruction given by a medical professional (P = 0.008) and to assess the amount of instruction provided positively (P = 0.001). There are several perceived barriers to incorporating vocal health education into graduate singing programs. Opportunity exists for more collaboration between vocal pedagogues and medical professionals in the education of singers about vocal health. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nocturnal "humming" vocalizations: adding a piece to the puzzle of giraffe vocal communication.

    PubMed

    Baotic, Anton; Sicks, Florian; Stoeger, Angela S

    2015-09-09

    Recent research reveals that giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis sp.) exhibit a socially structured, fission-fusion system. In other species possessing this kind of society, information exchange is important and vocal communication is usually well developed. But is this true for giraffes? Giraffes are known to produce sounds, but there is no evidence that they use vocalizations for communication. Reports on giraffe vocalizations are mainly anecdotal and the missing acoustic descriptions make it difficult to establish a call nomenclature. Despite inconclusive evidence to date, it is widely assumed that giraffes produce infrasonic vocalizations similar to elephants. In order to initiate a more detailed investigation of the vocal communication in giraffes, we collected data of captive individuals during day and night. We particularly focussed on detecting tonal, infrasonic or sustained vocalizations. We collected over 947 h of audio material in three European zoos and quantified the spectral and temporal components of acoustic signals to obtain an accurate set of acoustic parameters. Besides the known burst, snorts and grunts, we detected harmonic, sustained and frequency-modulated "humming" vocalizations during night recordings. None of the recorded vocalizations were within the infrasonic range. These results show that giraffes do produce vocalizations, which, based on their acoustic structure, might have the potential to function as communicative signals to convey information about the physical and motivational attributes of the caller. The data further reveal that the assumption of infrasonic communication in giraffes needs to be considered with caution and requires further investigations in future studies.

  13. Vocal tract length and acoustics of vocalization in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Riede, T; Fitch, T

    1999-10-01

    The physical nature of the vocal tract results in the production of formants during vocalisation. In some animals (including humans), receivers can derive information (such as body size) about sender characteristics on the basis of formant characteristics. Domestication and selective breeding have resulted in a high variability in head size and shape in the dog (Canis familiaris), suggesting that there might be large differences in the vocal tract length, which could cause formant behaviour to affect interbreed communication. Lateral radiographs were made of dogs from several breeds ranging in size from a Yorkshire terrier (2.5 kg) to a German shepherd (50 kg) and were used to measure vocal tract length. In addition, we recorded an acoustic signal (growling) from some dogs. Significant correlations were found between vocal tract length, body mass and formant dispersion, suggesting that formant dispersion can deliver information about the body size of the vocalizer. Because of the low correlation between vocal tract length and the first formant, we predict a non-uniform vocal tract shape.

  14. Effects of speech style, room acoustics, and vocal fatigue on vocal effort

    PubMed Central

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Vocal effort is a physiological measure that accounts for changes in voice production as vocal loading increases. It has been quantified in terms of sound pressure level (SPL). This study investigates how vocal effort is affected by speaking style, room acoustics, and short-term vocal fatigue. Twenty subjects were recorded while reading a text at normal and loud volumes in anechoic, semi-reverberant, and reverberant rooms in the presence of classroom babble noise. The acoustics in each environment were modified by creating a strong first reflection in the talker position. After each task, the subjects answered questions addressing their perception of the vocal effort, comfort, control, and clarity of their own voice. Variation in SPL for each subject was measured per task. It was found that SPL and self-reported effort increased in the loud style and decreased when the reflective panels were present and when reverberation time increased. Self-reported comfort and control decreased in the loud style, while self-reported clarity increased when panels were present. The lowest magnitude of vocal fatigue was experienced in the semi-reverberant room. The results indicate that early reflections may be used to reduce vocal effort without modifying reverberation time. PMID:27250179

  15. Modeling vocalization with ECoG cortical activity recorded during vocal production in the macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Fujii, Naotaka; Averbeck, Bruno B; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2014-01-01

    Vocal production is an example of controlled motor behavior with high temporal precision. Previous studies have decoded auditory evoked cortical activity while monkeys listened to vocalization sounds. On the other hand, there have been few attempts at decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production. Here we recorded cortical activity during vocal production in the macaque with a chronically implanted electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrode array. The array detected robust activity in motor cortex during vocal production. We used a nonlinear dynamical model of the vocal organ to reduce the dimensionality of `Coo' calls produced by the monkey. We then used linear regression to evaluate the information in motor cortical activity for this reduced representation of calls. This simple linear model accounted for circa 65% of the variance in the reduced sound representations, supporting the feasibility of using the dynamical model of the vocal organ for decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production.

  16. High-speed imaging of vocal fold vibrations and larynx movements within vocalizations of different vowels.

    PubMed

    Maurer, D; Hess, M; Gross, M

    1996-12-01

    Theoretic investigations of the "source-filter" model have indicated a pronounced acoustic interaction of glottal source and vocal tract. Empirical investigations of formant pattern variations apart from changes in vowel identity have demonstrated a direct relationship between the fundamental frequency and the patterns. As a consequence of both findings, independence of phonation and articulation may be limited in the speech process. Within the present study, possible interdependence of phonation and phoneme was investigated: vocal fold vibrations and larynx position for vocalizations of different vowels in a healthy man and woman were examined by high-speed light-intensified digital imaging. We found 1) different movements of the vocal folds for vocalizations of different vowel identities within one speaker and at similar fundamental frequency, and 2) constant larynx position within vocalization of one vowel identity, but different positions for vocalizations of different vowel identities. A possible relationship between the vocal fold vibrations and the phoneme is discussed.

  17. An annotated dataset of Egyptian fruit bat vocalizations across varying contexts and during vocal ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Prat, Yosef; Taub, Mor; Pratt, Ester; Yovel, Yossi

    2017-10-03

    Animal acoustic communication research depends on our ability to record the vocal behaviour of different species. Only rarely do we have the opportunity to continuously follow the vocal behaviour of a group of individuals of the same species for a long period of time. Here, we provide a database of Egyptian fruit bat vocalizations, which were continuously recorded in the lab in several groups simultaneously for more than a year. The dataset includes almost 300,000 files, a few seconds each, containing social vocalizations and representing the complete vocal repertoire used by the bats in the experiment period. Around 90,000 files are annotated with details about the individuals involved in the vocal interactions, their behaviours and the context. Moreover, the data include the complete vocal ontogeny of pups, from birth to adulthood, in different conditions (e.g., isolated or in a group). We hope that this comprehensive database will stimulate studies that will enhance our understanding of bat, and mammal, social vocal communication.

  18. Dopaminergic Contributions to Vocal Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Lukas A.; Saravanan, Varun; Wood, Alynda N.; He, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although the brain relies on auditory information to calibrate vocal behavior, the neural substrates of vocal learning remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that lesions of the dopaminergic inputs to a basal ganglia nucleus in a songbird species (Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata var. domestica) greatly reduced the magnitude of vocal learning driven by disruptive auditory feedback in a negative reinforcement task. These lesions produced no measureable effects on the quality of vocal performance or the amount of song produced. Our results suggest that dopaminergic inputs to the basal ganglia selectively mediate reinforcement-driven vocal plasticity. In contrast, dopaminergic lesions produced no measurable effects on the birds' ability to restore song acoustics to baseline following the cessation of reinforcement training, suggesting that different forms of vocal plasticity may use different neural mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT During skill learning, the brain relies on sensory feedback to improve motor performance. However, the neural basis of sensorimotor learning is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in regulating vocal learning in the Bengalese finch, a songbird with an extremely precise singing behavior that can nevertheless be reshaped dramatically by auditory feedback. Our findings show that reduction of dopamine inputs to a region of the songbird basal ganglia greatly impairs vocal learning but has no detectable effect on vocal performance. These results suggest a specific role for dopamine in regulating vocal plasticity. PMID:26888928

  19. A rare case of non-surgical vocal cord paralysis: Vocal cord hematoma.

    PubMed

    Arıkan, Akif Enes; Teksöz, Serkan; Bilgin, İsmail Ahmet; Tarhan, Özge; Özyeğin, Ateş

    2017-01-01

    Although vocal cord paralysis (VCP) following thyroidectomy is primarily associated with surgical trauma, it is not the sole etiology. Vocal cord paralysis following thyroidectomy can be caused by a vocal cord hematoma with an incidence of 1.4% due to direct injury during orotracheal intubation. In this article, we present a case of VCP caused by vocal cord hematoma. A 32-year-old male patient who has been receiving propylthiouracil treatment for toxic multinodular goiter since 10 years was admitted to our hospital to be operated because of persisting complaints. The patient was hospitalized for sutureless thyroidectomy after he became euthyroid. Preoperative fiberoptic laryngoscopy performed by the ear, nose, and throat department revealed bilaterally motile vocal folds and a completely open airway. Patient underwent sutureless total thyroidectomy with a vessel sealing device (Ligasure TM LF1212, Covidien, CO), and a minivac drainage system was placed in the thyroid lodge. On the morning of the first postoperative day, 50 mL of serosanguinous fluid was drained. The patient's voice was normal, and there was no ecchymosis. Postoperative fiberoptic laryngoscopy revealed a hematoma near the right vocal fold and paralysis of the right vocal fold; however, the airway was open. It should be kept in mind that VCP is not solely due to surgery but can also result from intubation, as observed in this case.

  20. A rare case of non-surgical vocal cord paralysis: Vocal cord hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Arıkan, Akif Enes; Teksöz, Serkan; Bilgin, İsmail Ahmet; Tarhan, Özge; Özyeğin, Ateş

    2017-01-01

    Although vocal cord paralysis (VCP) following thyroidectomy is primarily associated with surgical trauma, it is not the sole etiology. Vocal cord paralysis following thyroidectomy can be caused by a vocal cord hematoma with an incidence of 1.4% due to direct injury during orotracheal intubation. In this article, we present a case of VCP caused by vocal cord hematoma. A 32-year-old male patient who has been receiving propylthiouracil treatment for toxic multinodular goiter since 10 years was admitted to our hospital to be operated because of persisting complaints. The patient was hospitalized for sutureless thyroidectomy after he became euthyroid. Preoperative fiberoptic laryngoscopy performed by the ear, nose, and throat department revealed bilaterally motile vocal folds and a completely open airway. Patient underwent sutureless total thyroidectomy with a vessel sealing device (LigasureTM LF1212, Covidien, CO), and a minivac drainage system was placed in the thyroid lodge. On the morning of the first postoperative day, 50 mL of serosanguinous fluid was drained. The patient’s voice was normal, and there was no ecchymosis. Postoperative fiberoptic laryngoscopy revealed a hematoma near the right vocal fold and paralysis of the right vocal fold; however, the airway was open. It should be kept in mind that VCP is not solely due to surgery but can also result from intubation, as observed in this case. PMID:29260141

  1. Vocal learning beyond imitation: mechanisms of adaptive vocal development in songbirds and human infants

    PubMed Central

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Marcus, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of vocal learning in songbirds typically focus on the acquisition of sensory templates for song imitation and on the consequent process of matching song production to templates. However, functional vocal development also requires the capacity to adaptively diverge from sensory templates, and to flexibly assemble vocal units. Examples of adaptive divergence include the corrective imitation of abnormal songs, and the decreased tendency to copy overabundant syllables. Such frequency-dependent effects might mirror tradeoffs between the assimilation of group identity (culture) while establishing individual and flexibly expressive songs. Intriguingly, although the requirements for vocal plasticity vary across songbirds, and more so between birdsong and language, the capacity to flexibly assemble vocal sounds develops in a similar, stepwise manner across species. Therefore, universal features of vocal learning go well beyond the capacity to imitate. PMID:25005823

  2. Monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; de Boer, Bart; Mathur, Neil; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2016-12-01

    For four decades, the inability of nonhuman primates to produce human speech sounds has been claimed to stem from limitations in their vocal tract anatomy, a conclusion based on plaster casts made from the vocal tract of a monkey cadaver. We used x-ray videos to quantify vocal tract dynamics in living macaques during vocalization, facial displays, and feeding. We demonstrate that the macaque vocal tract could easily produce an adequate range of speech sounds to support spoken language, showing that previous techniques based on postmortem samples drastically underestimated primate vocal capabilities. Our findings imply that the evolution of human speech capabilities required neural changes rather than modifications of vocal anatomy. Macaques have a speech-ready vocal tract but lack a speech-ready brain to control it.

  3. Variability of normal vocal fold dynamics for different vocal loading in one healthy subject investigated by phonovibrograms.

    PubMed

    Doellinger, Michael; Lohscheller, Joerg; McWhorter, Andrew; Kunduk, Melda

    2009-03-01

    We investigate the potential of high-speed digital imaging technique (HSI) and the phonovibrogram (PVG) analysis in normal vocal fold dynamics by studying the effects of continuous voice use (vocal loading) during the workday. One healthy subject was recorded at sustained phonation 13 times within 2 consecutive days in the morning before and in the afternoon after vocal loading, respectively. Vocal fold dynamics were extracted and visualized by PVGs. The characteristic PVG patterns were extracted representing vocal fold vibration types. The parameter values were then analyzed by statistics regarding vocal load, left-right PVG asymmetries, anterior-posterior PVG asymmetries, and opening-closing differences. For the first time, the direct impact of vocal load could be determined by analyzing vocal fold dynamics. For same vocal loading conditions, equal dynamical behavior of the vocal folds were confirmed. Comparison of recordings performed in the morning with the recordings after work revealed significant changes in vibration behavior, indicating impact of occurring vocal load. Left-right asymmetries in vocal fold dynamics were found confirming earlier assumptions. Different dynamics between opening and closing procedure as well as for anterior and posterior parts were found. Constant voice usage stresses the vocal folds even in healthy subjects and can be detected by applying the PVG technique. Furthermore, left-right PVG asymmetries do occur in healthy voice to a certain extent. HSI in combination with PVG analysis seems to be a promising tool for investigation of vocal fold fatigue and pathologies resulting in small forms of dynamical changes.

  4. Shear properties of vocal fold mucosal tissues and their effect on vocal fold oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Roger Wai Kai

    Viscoelastic shear properties of vocal fold mucosal tissues and phonosurgical biomaterials were measured with a parallel-plate rotational rheometer. Elastic, viscous and damping properties were quantified as a function of frequency (0.01 Hz to 15 Hz) for human vocal fold mucosal tissues (N = 15), implantable biomaterials commonly used in the treatment of vocal fold paralysis (Teflon, gelatin, and collagen) (the non-mucosal group), and biomaterials currently or potentially useful in the treatment of vocal fold mucosal defects (adipose tissue or fat, hyaluronic acid, and fibronectin) (the mucosal group). It was found that intersubject differences as large as an order of magnitude were often observed for the shear properties of vocal fold mucosal tissues, part of which may be age- and gender-related. Shear properties of the non-mucosal group biomaterials were often much higher than those of the mucosal group biomaterials, which were relatively close to the shear properties of mucosal tissues. Viscoelastic and rheological modeling showed that shear properties of human vocal fold mucosa may be described by a quasi-linear viscoelastic theory and a statistical network theory, based upon which extrapolations to audio frequencies were possible. A theory of small-amplitude vocal fold oscillation was revisited to describe the effects of tissue shear properties on vocal fold oscillation and phonation threshold pressure, a measure of the 'ease' of phonation and an objective indication of vocal function. It was found that phonation threshold pressure is directly related to the viscous shear modulus or the 'effective damping modulus', a concept proposed to quantify the effective amount of damping in vocal fold oscillation. The mucosal group biomaterials were incorporated into the artificial vocal fold mucosa of a physical model in order to empirically assess their effects on phonation threshold pressure. Results showed that higher threshold pressures were consistently observed

  5. Effect of artificially lengthened vocal tract on vocal fold oscillation's fundamental frequency.

    PubMed

    Hanamitsu, Masakazu; Kataoka, Hideyuki

    2004-06-01

    The fundamental frequency of vocal fold oscillation (F(0)) is controlled by laryngeal mechanics and aerodynamic properties. F(0) change per unit change of transglottal pressure (dF/dP) using a shutter valve has been studied and found to have nonlinear, V-shaped relationship with F(0). On the other hand, the vocal tract is also known to affect vocal fold oscillation. This study examined the effect of artificially lengthened vocal tract length on dF/dP. dF/dP was measured in six men using two mouthpieces of different lengths. The dF/dP graph for the longer vocal tract was shifted leftward relative to the shorter one. Using the one-mass model, the nadir of the "V" on the dF/dP graph was strongly influenced by the resonance around the first formant frequency. However, a more precise model is needed to account for the effects of viscosity and turbulence.

  6. The objective vocal quality, vocal risk factors, vocal complaints, and corporal pain in Dutch female students training to be speech-language pathologists during the 4 years of study.

    PubMed

    Van Lierde, Kristiane M; D'haeseleer, Evelien; Wuyts, Floris L; De Ley, Sophia; Geldof, Ruben; De Vuyst, Julie; Sofie, Claeys

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the objective vocal quality and the vocal characteristics (vocal risk factors, vocal and corporal complaints) in 197 female students in speech-language pathology during the 4 years of study. The objective vocal quality was measured by means of the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). Perceptual voice assessment, the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), questionnaires addressing vocal risks, and vocal and corporal complaints during and/or after voice usage were performed. Speech-language pathology (SLP) students have a borderline vocal quality corresponding to a DSI% of 68. The analysis of variance revealed no significant change of the objective vocal quality between the first bachelor year and the master year. No psychosocial handicapping effect of the voice was observed by means of the VHI total, though there was an effect at the functional VHI level in addition to some vocal complaints. Ninety-three percent of the student SLPs reported the presence of corporal pain during and/or after speaking. In particular, sore throat and headache were mentioned as the prevalent corporal pain symptoms. A longitudinal study of the objective vocal quality of the same subjects during their career as an SLP might provide new insights. 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vocal development in a Waddington landscape

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Yayoi; Takahashi, Daniel Y; Holmes, Philip; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2017-01-01

    Vocal development is the adaptive coordination of the vocal apparatus, muscles, the nervous system, and social interaction. Here, we use a quantitative framework based on optimal control theory and Waddington’s landscape metaphor to provide an integrated view of this process. With a biomechanical model of the marmoset monkey vocal apparatus and behavioral developmental data, we show that only the combination of the developing vocal tract, vocal apparatus muscles and nervous system can fully account for the patterns of vocal development. Together, these elements influence the shape of the monkeys’ vocal developmental landscape, tilting, rotating or shifting it in different ways. We can thus use this framework to make quantitative predictions regarding how interfering factors or experimental perturbations can change the landscape within a species, or to explain comparative differences in vocal development across species DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20782.001 PMID:28092262

  8. The Effect of Classroom Capacity on Vocal Fatigue as Quantified by the Vocal Fatigue Index.

    PubMed

    Banks, Russell E; Bottalico, Pasquale; Hunter, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has concluded that teachers are at a higher-than-normal risk for voice issues that can cause occupational limitations. While some risk factors have been identified, there are still many unknowns. A survey was distributed electronically with 506 female teacher respondents. The survey included questions to quantify three aspects of vocal fatigue as captured by the Vocal Fatigue Index (VFI): (1) general tiredness of voice (performance), (2) physical discomfort associated with voicing (pain), and (3) improvement of symptoms with rest (recovery). The effect of classroom capacity on US teachers' self-reported experience of vocal fatigue was analyzed. The results indicated that a classroom's capacity significantly affected teachers' reported amounts of vocal fatigue, while a teacher's age also appeared to significantly affect the reported amount of vocal fatigue. A quadratic rather than linear effect was seen, with the largest age effect occurring at around 40-45 years in all three factors of the VFI. Further factors which may affect vocal fatigue must be explored in future research. By understanding what increases the risk for vocal fatigue, educators and school administrators can take precautions to mitigate the occupational risk of short- and long-term vocal health issues in school teachers. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Comparison of vocal outcomes after angiolytic laser surgery and microflap surgery for vocal polyps.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Masanobu; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Kaneko, Mami; Tateya, Ichiro; Hirano, Shigeru

    2015-12-01

    The microflap technique is a standard procedure for the treatment of vocal fold polyps. Angiolytic laser surgery carried out under topical anesthesia is an alternative method for vocal polyp removal. However, it is not clear whether angiolytic laser surgery has the same effects on vocal outcomes as the microflap technique because of a lack of studies comparing both procedures. In the current study, vocal outcomes after both procedures were compared to clarify the effects of angiolytic laser surgery for vocal polyp removal. Vocal outcomes were reviewed for patients who underwent angiolytic laser surgery (n=20, laser group) or microflap surgery (n=34, microflap group) for vocal polyp removal. The data analyzed included patient and lesion characteristics, number of surgeries required for complete resolution, and aerodynamic and acoustic examinations before and after surgery. In the laser surgery group, complete resolution of the lesion was achieved with a single procedure in 17 cases (85%) and with two procedures in 3 cases (15%). Postoperative aerodynamic and acoustic parameters demonstrated significant improvement compared to preoperative parameters in both the laser surgery group and the microflap surgery group. There were no significant differences in any postoperative aerodynamic and acoustic parameters between the two groups. The current retrospective study demonstrated that angiolytic laser surgery achieved complete resolution of vocal polyps within two procedures. Postoperative effects on aerodynamic and acoustic functions were similar to those after microflap surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vocal Cord Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... paralysis. Known causes may include: Injury to the vocal cord during surgery. Surgery on or near your neck or upper ... Factors that may increase your risk of developing vocal cord paralysis include: Undergoing throat or chest surgery. People who need surgery on their thyroid, throat ...

  11. A Morphological Analyzer for Vocalized or Not Vocalized Arabic Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amine Abderrahim, Med; Breksi Reguig, Fethi

    This research has been to show the realization of a morphological analyzer of the Arabic language (vocalized or not vocalized). This analyzer is based upon our object model for the Arabic Natural Language Processing (NLP) and can be exploited by NLP applications such as translation machine, orthographical correction and the search for information.

  12. Objective Measurement of Vocal Fatigue in Classically Trained Singers: A Pilot Study of Vocal Dosimetry Data

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Thomas; Nix, John; Hunter, Eric; Titze, Ingo; Abaza, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate vocal fatigue by using objective and subjective measurements of dose recorded by the National Center for Voice and Speech (NCVS) Dosimeter™ (Dosimeter). Study Design and Setting Seven subjects completed a two-week study period. The Dosimeter recorded vocal load, soft phonation tasks and subjective soft voice ratings. Three vocal doses (time, distance, and cycle) were measured in classical singers' larynges during an intensive practice period. Results Spikes in vocal load are reflected as harsher subjective ratings on the same day as well as 24–72 hours later. When at least 48 hours of vocal rest occurred before a vocal load, improved subjective evaluations were seen after the load. Conclusions The NCVS Dosimeter appears to be an effective tool for data collection on prolonged use of the voice. Significance This is the first multi-day study comparing objective and subjective data on vocal fatigue in a group of professional singers. PMID:17011424

  13. Precise auditory-vocal mirroring in neurons for learned vocal communication.

    PubMed

    Prather, J F; Peters, S; Nowicki, S; Mooney, R

    2008-01-17

    Brain mechanisms for communication must establish a correspondence between sensory and motor codes used to represent the signal. One idea is that this correspondence is established at the level of single neurons that are active when the individual performs a particular gesture or observes a similar gesture performed by another individual. Although neurons that display a precise auditory-vocal correspondence could facilitate vocal communication, they have yet to be identified. Here we report that a certain class of neurons in the swamp sparrow forebrain displays a precise auditory-vocal correspondence. We show that these neurons respond in a temporally precise fashion to auditory presentation of certain note sequences in this songbird's repertoire and to similar note sequences in other birds' songs. These neurons display nearly identical patterns of activity when the bird sings the same sequence, and disrupting auditory feedback does not alter this singing-related activity, indicating it is motor in nature. Furthermore, these neurons innervate striatal structures important for song learning, raising the possibility that singing-related activity in these cells is compared to auditory feedback to guide vocal learning.

  14. Vocal cord dysfunction in children.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Blakeslee E; Kemp, James S

    2007-06-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction is characterised by paradoxical vocal cord adduction that occurs during inspiration, resulting in symptoms of dyspnoea, wheeze, chest or throat tightness and cough. Although the condition is well described in children and adults, confusion with asthma often triggers the use of an aggressive treatment regimen directed against asthma. The laryngoscopic demonstration of vocal cord adduction during inspiration has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction, but historical factors and pulmonary function findings may provide adequate clues to the correct diagnosis. Speech therapy, and in some cases psychological counselling, is often beneficial in this disorder. The natural course and prognosis of vocal cord dysfunction are still not well described in adults or children.

  15. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Mumović, Gordana; Veselinović, Mila; Arbutina, Tanja; Škrbić, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice) were also obtained by computer analysis. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in all dysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100) of adult patients and 29% (29/100) had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025) in all dysphonia parameters except SD FO and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD FO, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy) were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03). Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (p<0.05). Vocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affectinq diverse acoustic parameters.

  16. Protective Effect of Astaxanthin on Vocal Fold Injury and Inflammation Due to Vocal Loading: A Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Mami; Kishimoto, Yo; Suzuki, Ryo; Kawai, Yoshitaka; Tateya, Ichiro; Hirano, Shigeru

    2017-05-01

    Professional voice users, such as singers and teachers, are at greater risk of developing vocal fold injury from excessive use of voice; thus, protection of the vocal fold is essential. One of the most important factors that aggravates injury is the production of reactive oxygen species at the wound site. The purpose of the current study was to assess the effect of astaxanthin, a strong antioxidant, on the protection of the vocal fold from injury and inflammation due to vocal loading. This study is an institutional review board-approved human clinical trial. Ten male subjects underwent a 60-minute vocal loading session and received vocal assessments prior to, immediately after, and 30 minutes postvocal loading (AST(-) status). All subjects were then prescribed 24 mg/day of astaxanthin for 28 days, after which they received the same vocal task and assessments (AST(+) status). Phonatory parameters were compared between both groups. Aerodynamic assessment, acoustic analysis, and GRBAS scale (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain) were significantly worse in the AST(-) status immediately after vocal loading, but improved by 30 minutes after loading. In contrast, none of the phonatory parameters in the AST(+) status were statistically worse, even when measured immediately after vocal loading. No allergic responses or adverse effects were observed after administration of astaxanthin. The current results suggest that astaxanthin can protect the vocal fold from injury and inflammation caused by vocal loading possibly through the regulation of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning to detect vocal hyperfunction from ambulatory neck-surface acceleration features: initial results for vocal fold nodules.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Van Stan, Jarrad H; Mehta, Daryush D; Zañartu, Matías; Cheyne, Harold A; Hillman, Robert E; Guttag, John V

    2014-06-01

    Voice disorders are medical conditions that often result from vocal abuse/misuse which is referred to generically as vocal hyperfunction. Standard voice assessment approaches cannot accurately determine the actual nature, prevalence, and pathological impact of hyperfunctional vocal behaviors because such behaviors can vary greatly across the course of an individual's typical day and may not be clearly demonstrated during a brief clinical encounter. Thus, it would be clinically valuable to develop noninvasive ambulatory measures that can reliably differentiate vocal hyperfunction from normal patterns of vocal behavior. As an initial step toward this goal we used an accelerometer taped to the neck surface to provide a continuous, noninvasive acceleration signal designed to capture some aspects of vocal behavior related to vocal cord nodules, a common manifestation of vocal hyperfunction. We gathered data from 12 female adult patients diagnosed with vocal fold nodules and 12 control speakers matched for age and occupation. We derived features from weeklong neck-surface acceleration recordings by using distributions of sound pressure level and fundamental frequency over 5-min windows of the acceleration signal and normalized these features so that intersubject comparisons were meaningful. We then used supervised machine learning to show that the two groups exhibit distinct vocal behaviors that can be detected using the acceleration signal. We were able to correctly classify 22 of the 24 subjects, suggesting that in the future measures of the acceleration signal could be used to detect patients with the types of aberrant vocal behaviors that are associated with hyperfunctional voice disorders.

  18. Auditory-vocal mirroring in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory-vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory-vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory-vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain.

  19. [Temperament of children with vocal fold nodules].

    PubMed

    Wei, Youhua; Wang, Zhinan; Xu, Zhongqiang; Chen, Ping; Hao, Lili

    2009-11-01

    To examine the temperament of children with vocal fold nodules. To compare the temperament dimension and temperamental types of 42 children with vocal fold nodules with 46 vocally normal children, using Chinese children's Temperament Problem Screening system (CCTPSs). The children with vocal fold nodules differed significantly from the comparison group in their temperament dimension's adaptability, intensity of reaction, mood value, persistency and temperamental types. There are more difficult and slow-to-warm-up children in patients with vocal fold nodules than vocally normal children.

  20. The value of vocalizing: Five-month-old infants associate their own noncry vocalizations with responses from caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Michael H.; Schwade, Jennifer A.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    The early noncry vocalizations of infants are salient social signals. Caregivers spontaneously respond to 30-50% of these sounds, and their responsiveness to infants' prelinguistic noncry vocalizations facilitates the development of phonology and speech. Have infants learned that their vocalizations influence the behavior of social partners? If infants have learned the contingency between their vocalizing and the social responses of others, they should show an extinction burst when the contingency is removed, increasing their rate of noncry vocalizing then decreasing. Thirty-eight 5-month-olds were tested in the still-face paradigm, during which they engaged in a 2-min still-face interaction with an unfamiliar adult. When the adult assumed a still face, infants showed an extinction burst. This pattern of infant vocalizations suggests that 5-month-olds have learned the social efficacy of their vocalizations on caregivers' behavior. Furthermore, the magnitude of 5-month infants' extinction bursts predicted their language comprehension at 13 months. PMID:19489893

  1. Acoustic Analysis and Electroglottography in Elite Vocal Performers.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte-Gonzalez, Rocio; Valadez-Jimenez, Victor M; Sierra-Ramirez, Jose A; Ysunza, Pablo Antonio; Chavarria-Villafuerte, Karen; Hernandez-Lopez, Xochiquetzal

    2017-05-01

    Acoustic analysis of voice (AAV) and electroglottography (EGG) have been used for assessing vocal quality in patients with voice disorders. The effectiveness of these procedures for detecting mild disturbances in vocal quality in elite vocal performers has been controversial. To compare acoustic parameters obtained by AAV and EGG before and after vocal training to determine the effectiveness of these procedures for detecting vocal improvements in elite vocal performers. Thirty-three elite vocal performers were studied. The study group included 14 males and 19 females, ages 18-40 years, without a history of voice disorders. Acoustic parameters were obtained through AAV and EGG before and after vocal training using the Linklater method. Nonsignificant differences (P > 0.05) were found between values of fundamental frequency (F 0 ), shimmer, and jitter obtained by both procedures before vocal training. Mean F 0 was similar after vocal training. Jitter percentage as measured by AAV showed nonsignificant differences (P > 0.05) before and after vocal training. Shimmer percentage as measured by AAV demonstrated a significant reduction (P < 0.05) after vocal training. As measured by EGG after vocal training, shimmer and jitter were significantly reduced (P < 0.05); open quotient was significantly increased (P < 0.05); and irregularity was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). AAV and EGG were effective for detecting improvements in vocal function after vocal training in male and female elite vocal performers undergoing vocal training. EGG demonstrated better efficacy for detecting improvements and provided additional parameters as compared to AAV. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Auditory–vocal mirroring in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory–vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory–vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory–vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain. PMID:24778375

  3. Ultrasonic Vocalizations Emitted by Flying Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Murrant, Meghan N.; Bowman, Jeff; Garroway, Colin J.; Prinzen, Brian; Mayberry, Heather; Faure, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM) vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology. PMID:24009728

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Vocal Fold Vibration in Vocal Fold Paralysis With the Use of High-speed Digital Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this work was to objectively elucidate the vibratory characteristics of vocal fold paralysis (VFP) using high-speed digital imaging (HSDI). HSDI was performed in 29 vocally healthy subjects (12 women and 17 men) and in 107 patients with VFP (40 women and 67 men). Then, the HSDI data were evaluated by visual-perceptual rating, single-line kymography, multiline kymography, laryngotopography, and glottal area waveform analysis. Patients with VFP compared with vocally healthy subjects revealed more frequent incomplete glottal closure, greater asymmetry in amplitude, mucosal wave, frequency, and phase, as well as larger open quotient, smaller speed index, larger maximal and minimal glottal area, and smaller glottal area difference. Paralyzed vocal folds in VFP revealed reduced mucosal wave than nonparalyzed vocal folds in VFP or in intact vocal folds in vocally healthy subjects. HSDI was effective in documenting the characteristics of vocal fold vibrations in patients with VFP and in exploring the vibratory disturbance for estimating the severity of dysphonia. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma.

    PubMed

    Klein, Travis A L; Gaziano, Joy E; Ridley, Marion B

    2014-01-01

    A unique case of acute onset vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma is presented. The cause was forceful vocalization by a drill instructor on a firearm range. Imaging studies revealed extensive intralaryngeal and retropharyngeal hemorrhage. Laryngoscopy showed a complete left vocal fold paralysis. Relative voice rest was recommended, and the patient regained normal vocal fold mobility and function after approximately 12 weeks. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  6. Iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Marcus; Dale, Rick; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Studies of gestural communication systems find that they originate from spontaneously created iconic gestures. Yet, we know little about how people create vocal communication systems, and many have suggested that vocalizations do not afford iconicity beyond trivial instances of onomatopoeia. It is unknown whether people can generate vocal communication systems through a process of iconic creation similar to gestural systems. Here, we examine the creation and development of a rudimentary vocal symbol system in a laboratory setting. Pairs of participants generated novel vocalizations for 18 different meanings in an iterative 'vocal' charades communication game. The communicators quickly converged on stable vocalizations, and naive listeners could correctly infer their meanings in subsequent playback experiments. People's ability to guess the meanings of these novel vocalizations was predicted by how close the vocalization was to an iconic 'meaning template' we derived from the production data. These results strongly suggest that the meaningfulness of these vocalizations derived from iconicity. Our findings illuminate a mechanism by which iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols, analogous to the function of iconicity in gestural communication systems.

  7. Vocalizations of the Kittlitz's Murrelet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Pelt, Thomas I.; Piatt, John F.; Van Vliet, Gus B.

    1999-01-01

    We present the first documentation of Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) vocalizations, based on recordings made in Glacier Bay, Alaska, in 1994. We identified two apparently related types of calls: groan and quack. The Kittlitz's Murrelet calls were markedly different from the most common calls of the congeneric Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus), but shared characteristics with the Marbled Murrelet's less common 'groan' call. Phylogeny, breeding biology, and habitat characteristics may explain relationships between the congeneric vocalizations. More complete knowledge of the Kittlitz's Murrelet vocal repertoire is needed before vocalizations can be either used or discarded in the design of effective programs to monitor this rare and poorly-known species.

  8. An Investigation of Extinction-Induced Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Amber L.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Call, Nathan A.; Burton, Britney; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations through shaping and differential reinforcement, others rarely exhibit vocalizations, and alternative methods are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase…

  9. Vocal cord paralysis after aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    DiLisio, Ralph P; Mazzeffi, Michael A; Bodian, Carol A; Fischer, Gregory W

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate variables associated with vocal cord paralysis during complex aortic procedures. A retrospective review. A tertiary care center. Four hundred ninety-eight patients who underwent aortic surgery between 2002 and 2007. Two groups were studied. Group A patients had procedures only involving their aortic root and/or ascending aorta. Group B patients had procedures only involving their aortic arch and/or descending aorta. The incidence of vocal cord paralysis was higher (7.26% v 0.8%) in group B patients (p < 0.0001). Increasing the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass time was associated with an increased risk of vocal cord paralysis and death in both groups A and B (p = 0.0002 and 0.002, respectively). Additionally, within group B, descending aneurysms emerged as an independent risk factor associated with vocal cord paralysis (p = 0.03). Length of stay was statistically significantly longer among group A patients who suffered vocal cord paralysis (p = 0.017) and trended toward significance in group B patients who suffered vocal cord paralysis (p = 0.059). The association between tracheostomy and vocal cord paralysis among group A patients reached statistical significance (p = 0.007) and trended toward significance in group B patients (p = 0.057). Increasing duration of cardiopulmonary bypass time was associated with a higher risk of vocal cord paralysis in patients undergoing aortic surgery. Additionally, within group B patients, descending aortic aneurysm was an independent risk factor associated with vocal cord paralysis. Most importantly, vocal cord paralysis appeared to have an association between an increased length of stay and tracheostomy among a select group of patients undergoing aortic surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiple Coordination Patterns in Infant and Adult Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Abney, Drew H.; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Wallot, Sebastian; Kello, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    The study of vocal coordination between infants and adults has led to important insights into the development of social, cognitive, emotional and linguistic abilities. We used an automatic system to identify vocalizations produced by infants and adults over the course of the day for fifteen infants studied longitudinally during the first two years of life. We measured three different types of vocal coordination: coincidence-based, rate-based, and cluster-based. Coincidence-based and rate-based coordination are established measures in the developmental literature. Cluster-based coordination is new and measures the strength of matching in the degree to which vocalization events occur in hierarchically nested clusters. We investigated whether various coordination patterns differ as a function of vocalization type, whether different coordination patterns provide unique information about the dynamics of vocal interaction, and how the various coordination patterns each relate to infant age. All vocal coordination patterns displayed greater coordination for infant speech-related vocalizations, adults adapted the hierarchical clustering of their vocalizations to match that of infants, and each of the three coordination patterns had unique associations with infant age. Altogether, our results indicate that vocal coordination between infants and adults is multifaceted, suggesting a complex relationship between vocal coordination and the development of vocal communication. PMID:29375276

  11. Current treatment of vocal fold scarring.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Shigeru

    2005-06-01

    Vocal fold scarring still remains a therapeutic challenge, with the most problematic issue being the histologic changes that are primarily responsible for altering the viscoelasticity of the vocal fold mucosa. Optimal treatment for vocal fold scarring has not yet been established. To restore or regenerate damaged vocal folds, it is important to investigate the changes to the layer structure of the lamina propria. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine may provide new strategies for the prevention and treatment of vocal fold scarring. Recent developments in this field are reviewed in the present article. Histologic studies have revealed that hyaluronic acid, fibronectin, decorin, and various other extracellular matrix components, as well as collagen, may contribute to determining the vibratory properties of the vocal fold mucosa. Changes of these molecules are thought to affect the viscoelasticity of the scarred vocal folds. Based on such histologic findings, innovative approaches have been developed, including administration of hyaluronic acid into injured or scarred vocal folds. Other strategies that have recently shown advances include growth factor therapy and cell therapy using stem cells or mature fibroblasts. The effects of these new treatments have not fully been confirmed clinically, but there seems to be great therapeutic potential in such regenerative medical strategies. Recent research has revealed the detailed histologic and rheologic changes related to vocal fold scarring. Based on these findings, various new therapeutic strategies have been developed in animal models using tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, no clinical trials have been performed, and more studies are necessary to establish the optimum modality.

  12. What happens during vocal warm-up?

    PubMed

    Elliot, N; Sundberg, J; Gramming, P

    1995-03-01

    Most singers prefer to warm up their voices before performing. Although the subjective effect is often considerable, the underlying physiological effects are largely unknown. Because warm-up tends to increase blood flow in muscles, it seems likely that vocal warm-up might induce decreased viscosity in the vocal folds. According to the theory of vocal-fold vibration, such a decrease should lead to a lower phonation threshold pressure. In this investigation the effect of vocal warm-up on the phonation threshold pressure was examined in a group of male and female singers. The effect varied considerably between subjects, presumably because the vocal-fold viscosity was not a dominating factor for the phonation-threshold pressure.

  13. Numerical Simulation of the Self-Oscillations of the Vocal Folds and of the Resulting Acoustic Phenomena in the Vocal Tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švancara, P.; Horáček, J.; Švec, J. G.

    The study presents a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the flow-induced self-oscillation of the human vocal folds in interaction with acoustics of simplified vocal tract models. The 3D vocal tract models of the acoustic spaces shaped for simulation of phonation of Czech vowels [a:], [i:] and [u:] were created by converting the data from the magnetic resonance images (MRI). For modelling of the fluid-structure interaction, explicit coupling scheme with separated solvers for fluid and structure domain was utilized. The FE model comprises vocal folds pretension before starting phonation, large deformations of the vocal fold tissue, vocal-fold collisions, fluid-structure interaction, morphing the fluid mesh according to the vocal-fold motion (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach), unsteady viscous compressible airflow described by the Navier-Stokes equations and airflow separation. The developed FE model enables to study the relationship between flow-induced vibrations of the vocal folds and acoustic wave propagation in the vocal tract and can also be used to simulate for example pathological changes in the vocal fold tissue and their influence on the voice production.

  14. Vocal cysts: clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects.

    PubMed

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Santana, Marcela Ferreira; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Vocal cysts are benign laryngeal lesions, which affect children and adults. They can be classified as epidermic or mucous-retention cyst. The objective was to study the clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects of vocal cysts. We reviewed the medical charts of 72 patients with vocal cysts, considering age, gender, occupation, time of vocal symptoms, nasosinusal and gastroesophageal symptoms, vocal abuse, tabagism, alcoholism, associated lesions, treatment, and histological details. Of the 72 cases, 46 were adults (36 females and 10 male) and 26 were children (eight girls and 18 boys). As far as occupation is concerned, there was a higher incidence of students and teachers. All the patients had symptoms of chronic hoarseness. Nasosinusal (27.77%) and gastroesophageal (32%) symptoms were not relevant. Vocal abuse was reported by 45.83%, smoking by 18%, and alcoholism by 8.4% of the patients. Unilateral cysts were seen in 93% of the cases, 22 patients had associated lesions, such as bridge, sulcus vocalis, and microweb. Surgical treatment was performed in 46 cases. Histological analysis of the epidermic cysts revealed a cavity with caseous content, covered by stratified squamous epithelium, often keratinized. Mucous cysts presented mucous content, and the walls were coated by a cylindrical ciliated epithelium. Vocal cysts are benign vocal fold lesions that affect children and adults, being often associated with vocal overuse, which frequently affects people who use their voices professionally. Vocal symptoms are chronic in course, often times since childhood, and the treatment of choice is surgical removal. A careful examination of the vocal folds is necessary during surgery, because other laryngeal lesions may be associated with vocal cysts. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vocal Fold Surface Hydration: A review

    PubMed Central

    Leydon, Ciara; Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Falciglia, Danielle Lodewyck; Atkins, Christopher; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2009-01-01

    Vocal fold surface liquid homeostasis contributes to optimal vocal physiology. In this paper we review emerging evidence that vocal fold surface liquid is maintained in part by salt and water fluxes across the epithelium. Based on recent immunolocalization and electrophysiological findings, we describe a transcellular pathway as one mechanism for regulating superficial vocal fold hydration. We propose that the pathway includes the sodium-potassium pump, sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter, epithelial sodium channels, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator chloride channels, and aquaporin water channels. By integrating knowledge of the regulating mechanisms underlying ion and fluid transport with observations from hydration challenges and treatments using in vitro and in vivo studies, we provide a theoretical basis for understanding how environmental and behavioral challenges and clinical interventions may modify vocal fold surface liquid composition. We present converging evidence that clinical protocols directed at facilitating vocal fold epithelial ion and fluid transport may benefit healthy speakers, those with voice disorders, and those at risk for voice disorders. PMID:19111440

  16. Voice analysis before and after vocal rehabilitation in patients following open surgery on vocal cords.

    PubMed

    Bunijevac, Mila; Petrović-Lazić, Mirjana; Jovanović-Simić, Nadica; Vuković, Mile

    2016-02-01

    The major role of larynx in speech, respiration and swallowing makes carcinomas of this region and their treatment very influential for patients' life quality. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of voice therapy in patients after open surgery on vocal cords. This study included 21 male patients and the control group of 19 subjects. The vowel (A) was recorded and analyzed for each examinee. All the patients were recorded twice: firstly, when they contacted the clinic and secondly, after a three-month vocal therapy, which was held twiceper week on an outpatient basis. The voice analysis was carried out in the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Clinic, Clinical Hospital Center "Zvezdara" in Belgrade. The values of the acoustic parameters in the patients submitted to open surgery on the vocal cords before vocal rehabilitation and the control group subjects were significantly different in all specified parameters. These results suggest that the voice of the patients was damaged before vocal rehabilitation. The results of the acoustic parameters of the vowel (A) before and after vocal rehabilitation of the patients with open surgery on vocal cords were statistically significantly different. Among the parameters--Jitter (%), Shimmer (%)--the observed difference was highly statistically significant (p < 0.01). The voice turbulence index and the noise/harmonic ratio were also notably improved, and the observed difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The analysis of the tremor intensity index showed no significant improvement and the observed difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05 ). CONCLUSION. There was a significant improvement of the acoustic parameters of the vowel (A) in the study subjects three months following vocal therapy. Only one out of five representative parameters showed no significant improvement.

  17. Applicability of Cone Beam Computed Tomography to the Assessment of the Vocal Tract before and after Vocal Exercises in Normal Subjects.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elisângela Zacanti; Yamashita, Hélio Kiitiro; Garcia, Davi Sousa; Padovani, Marina Martins Pereira; Azevedo, Renata Rangel; Chiari, Brasília Maria

    2016-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), which represents an alternative to traditional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, may be a useful instrument to study vocal tract physiology related to vocal exercises. This study aims to evaluate the applicability of CBCT to the assessment of variations in the vocal tract of healthy individuals before and after vocal exercises. Voice recordings and CBCT images before and after vocal exercises performed by 3 speech-language pathologists without vocal complaints were collected and compared. Each participant performed 1 type of exercise, i.e., Finnish resonance tube technique, prolonged consonant "b" technique, or chewing technique. The analysis consisted of an acoustic analysis and tomographic imaging. Modifications of the vocal tract settings following vocal exercises were properly detected by CBCT, and changes in the acoustic parameters were, for the most part, compatible with the variations detected in image measurements. CBCT was shown to be capable of properly assessing the changes in vocal tract settings promoted by vocal exercises. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Viscoelasticity of rabbit vocal folds after injection augmentation.

    PubMed

    Dahlqvist, Ake; Gärskog, Ola; Laurent, Claude; Hertegård, Stellan; Ambrosio, Luigi; Borzacchiello, Assunta

    2004-01-01

    Vocal fold function is related to the viscoelasticity of the vocal fold tissue. Augmentation substances used for injection treatment of voice insufficiency may alter the viscoelastic properties of vocal folds and their vibratory capacity. The objective was to compare the mechanical properties (viscoelasticity) of various injectable substances and the viscoelasticity of rabbit vocal folds, 6 months after injection with one of these substances. Animal model. Cross-linked collagen (Zyplast), double cross-linked hyaluronan (hylan B gel), dextranomers in hyaluronan (DHIA), and polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) were injected into rabbit vocal folds. Six months after the injection, the animals were killed and the right- and left-side vocal folds were removed. Dynamic viscosity of the injected substances and the vocal folds was measured with a Bohlin parallel-plate rheometer during small-amplitude oscillation. All injected vocal folds showed a decreasing dynamic viscosity with increasing frequency. Hylan B gel and DiHA showed the lowest dynamic viscosity values, and vocal folds injected with these substances also showed the lowest dynamic viscosity (similar to noninjected control samples). Teflon (and vocal folds injected with Teflon) showed the highest dynamic viscosity values, followed by the collagen samples. Substances with low viscoelasticity alter the mechanical properties of the vocal fold to a lesser degree than substances with a high viscoelasticity. The data indicated that hylan B gel and DiHA render the most natural viscoelastic properties to the vocal folds. These substances seem to be appropriate for preserving or restoring the vibratory capacity of the vocal folds when glottal insufficiency is treated with augmentative injections.

  19. Responses of Middle-Frequency Modulations in Vocal Fundamental Frequency to Different Vocal Intensities and Auditory Feedback.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shao-Hsuan; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Guo-She

    2017-09-01

    Auditory feedback can make reflexive responses on sustained vocalizations. Among them, the middle-frequency power of F0 (MFP) may provide a sensitive index to access the subtle changes in different auditory feedback conditions. Phonatory airflow temperature was obtained from 20 healthy adults at two vocal intensity ranges under four auditory feedback conditions: (1) natural auditory feedback (NO); (2) binaural speech noise masking (SN); (3) bone-conducted feedback of self-generated voice (BAF); and (4) SN and BAF simultaneously. The modulations of F0 in low-frequency (0.2 Hz-3 Hz), middle-frequency (3 Hz-8 Hz), and high-frequency (8 Hz-25 Hz) bands were acquired using power spectral analysis of F0. Acoustic and aerodynamic analyses were used to acquire vocal intensity, maximum phonation time (MPT), phonatory airflow, and MFP-based vocal efficiency (MBVE). SN and high vocal intensity decreased MFP and raised MBVE and MPT significantly. BAF showed no effect on MFP but significantly lowered MBVE. Moreover, BAF significantly increased the perception of voice feedback and the sensation of vocal effort. Altered auditory feedback significantly changed the middle-frequency modulations of F0. MFP and MBVE could well detect these subtle responses of audio-vocal feedback. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pulsed dye laser-induced inflammatory response and extracellular matrix turnover in rat vocal folds and vocal fold fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ya; Yamashita, Masaru; Zhang, Jingxian; Ling, Changying; Welham, Nathan V

    2009-10-01

    Disruption of the vocal fold extracellular matrix (ECM) can induce a profound and refractory dysphonia. Pulsed dye laser (PDL) irradiation has shown early promise as a treatment modality for disordered ECM in patients with chronic vocal fold scar; however, there are limited data addressing the mechanism by which this laser energy might induce cellular and extracellular changes in vocal fold tissues. In this study, we examined the inflammatory and ECM modulating effects of PDL irradiation on normal vocal fold tissues and cultured vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs). We evaluated the effects of 585 nm PDL irradiation on inflammatory cytokine and collagen/collagenase gene transcription in normal rat vocal folds in vivo (3-168 hours following delivery of approximately 39.46 J/cm(2) fluence) and VFFs in vitro (3-72 hours following delivery of 4.82 or 9.64 J/cm(2) fluence). We also examined morphological vocal fold tissue changes 3 hours, 1 week, and 1 month post-irradiation. PDL irradiation altered inflammatory cytokine and procollagen/collagenase expression at the transcript level, both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, PDL irradiation induced an inflammatory repair process in vivo that was completed by 1 month with preservation of normal tissue morphology. PDL irradiation can modulate ECM turnover in phenotypically normal vocal folds. Additional work is required to determine if these findings extend to disordered ECM, such as is seen in vocal fold scar. Lasers Surg. Med. 41:585-594, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Assessing Vocal Development in Infants and Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Nathani, Suneeti; Ertmer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in prelinguistic vocal productions during the first 20 months of life. Vocalizations were classified into 23 mutually exclusive and exhaustive types, and grouped into five ascending levels using the Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development-Revised (SAEVD-R). Data from 30 typically developing infants, aged 0–20 months, show that older infants attained higher developmental levels on the SAEVD-R than younger infants. Infants 0–2, 3–5, and 6–8 months of age primarily produced vocalizations from Levels 1 (Reflexive), 2 (Control of Phonation), and 3 (Expansion). Infants 9–20 months of age also produced vocalizations from Level 4 (Basic Canonical Syllables). Only infants from 16–20 months of age produced Level 5 (Advanced Forms) vocalizations in significant quantities. The outcomes indicate that the SAEVD-R is a valuable instrument for evaluating prelinguistic vocal development. PMID:16728333

  2. Iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Marcus; Dale, Rick; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Studies of gestural communication systems find that they originate from spontaneously created iconic gestures. Yet, we know little about how people create vocal communication systems, and many have suggested that vocalizations do not afford iconicity beyond trivial instances of onomatopoeia. It is unknown whether people can generate vocal communication systems through a process of iconic creation similar to gestural systems. Here, we examine the creation and development of a rudimentary vocal symbol system in a laboratory setting. Pairs of participants generated novel vocalizations for 18 different meanings in an iterative ‘vocal’ charades communication game. The communicators quickly converged on stable vocalizations, and naive listeners could correctly infer their meanings in subsequent playback experiments. People's ability to guess the meanings of these novel vocalizations was predicted by how close the vocalization was to an iconic ‘meaning template’ we derived from the production data. These results strongly suggest that the meaningfulness of these vocalizations derived from iconicity. Our findings illuminate a mechanism by which iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols, analogous to the function of iconicity in gestural communication systems. PMID:26361547

  3. Viscoelastic properties of rabbit vocal folds after augmentation.

    PubMed

    Hertegård, Stellan; Dahlqvist, Ake; Laurent, Claude; Borzacchiello, Assunta; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2003-03-01

    Vocal fold function is closely related to tissue viscoelasticity. Augmentation substances may alter the viscoelastic properties of vocal fold tissues and hence their vibratory capacity. We sought to investigate the viscoelastic properties of rabbit vocal folds in vitro after injections of various augmentation substances. Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), cross-linked collagen (Zyplast), and cross-linked hyaluronan, hylan b gel (Hylaform) were injected into the lamina propria and the thyroarytenoid muscle of rabbit vocal folds. Dynamic viscosity of the injected vocal fold as a function of frequency was measured with a Bohlin parallel-plate rheometer during small-amplitude oscillation. All injected vocal folds showed a decreasing dynamic viscosity with increasing frequency. Vocal fold samples injected with hylan b gel showed the lowest dynamic viscosity, quite close to noninjected control samples. Vocal folds injected with polytetrafluoroethylene showed the highest dynamic viscosity followed by the collagen samples. The data indicated that hylan b gel in short-term renders the most natural viscoelastic properties to the vocal fold among the substances tested. This is of importance to restore/preserve the vibratory capacity of the vocal folds when glottal insufficiency is treated with injections.

  4. Resting-Associated Vocalization Emitted by Captive Asian House Shrews (Suncus murinus): Acoustic Structure and Variability in an Unusual Mammalian Vocalization

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals. PMID:25390304

  5. Repairing the vibratory vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    A vibratory vocal fold replacement would introduce a new treatment paradigm for structural vocal fold diseases such as scarring and lamina propria loss. This work implants a tissue-engineered replacement for vocal fold lamina propria and epithelium in rabbits and compares histology and function to injured controls and orthotopic transplants. Hypotheses were that the cell-based implant would engraft and control the wound response, reducing fibrosis and restoring vibration. Translational research. Rabbit adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) were embedded within a three-dimensional fibrin gel, forming the cell-based outer vocal fold replacement (COVR). Sixteen rabbits underwent unilateral resection of vocal fold epithelium and lamina propria, as well as reconstruction with one of three treatments: fibrin glue alone with healing by secondary intention, replantation of autologous resected vocal fold cover, or COVR implantation. After 4 weeks, larynges were examined histologically and with phonation. Fifteen rabbits survived. All tissues incorporated well after implantation. After 1 month, both graft types improved histology and vibration relative to injured controls. Extracellular matrix (ECM) of the replanted mucosa was disrupted, and ECM of the COVR implants remained immature. Immune reaction was evident when male cells were implanted into female rabbits. Best histologic and short-term vibratory outcomes were achieved with COVR implants containing male cells implanted into male rabbits. Vocal fold cover replacement with a stem cell-based tissue-engineered construct is feasible and beneficial in acute rabbit implantation. Wound-modifying behavior of the COVR implant is judged to be an important factor in preventing fibrosis. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:153-159, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Vocal classification of vocalizations of a pair of Asian small-clawed otters to determine stress.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Peter M; Johnson, Michael T; Fry, Michelle; Hamel, Benjamin; Laclede, Kathryn

    2015-07-01

    Asian Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinerea) are a small, protected but threatened species living in freshwater. They are gregarious and live in monogamous pairs for their lifetimes, communicating via scent and acoustic vocalizations. This study utilized a hidden Markov model (HMM) to classify stress versus non-stress calls from a sibling pair under professional care. Vocalizations were expertly annotated by keepers into seven contextual categories. Four of these-aggression, separation anxiety, pain, and prefeeding-were identified as stressful contexts, and three of them-feeding, training, and play-were identified as non-stressful contexts. The vocalizations were segmented, manually categorized into broad vocal type call types, and analyzed to determine signal to noise ratios. From this information, vocalizations from the most common contextual categories were used to implement HMM-based automatic classification experiments, which included individual identification, stress vs non-stress, and individual context classification. Results indicate that both individual identity and stress vs non-stress were distinguishable, with accuracies above 90%, but that individual contexts within the stress category were not easily separable.

  7. Clinical practice: vocal nodules in dysphonic children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Branco, Anete; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Gramuglia, Andrea Cristina Jóia

    2013-09-01

    Common among children, vocal symptoms are a cause of concern for parents who seek elucidation of their diagnosis and treatment. Vocal nodules are the major cause of dysphonias in children and are related to vocal abuse. We conducted a literature review considering clinical, physiopathological, epidemiological, and histological aspects of vocal nodules, as well as diagnostic methods, highlighting the main studies addressing this issue. The controversial points of treatments were also discussed.

  8. Integrating perspectives on vocal performance and consistency

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Jon T.; Vehrencamp, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent experiments in divergent fields of birdsong have revealed that vocal performance is important for reproductive success and under active control by distinct neural circuits. Vocal consistency, the degree to which the spectral properties (e.g. dominant or fundamental frequency) of song elements are produced consistently from rendition to rendition, has been highlighted as a biologically important aspect of vocal performance. Here, we synthesize functional, developmental and mechanistic (neurophysiological) perspectives to generate an integrated understanding of this facet of vocal performance. Behavioral studies in the field and laboratory have found that vocal consistency is affected by social context, season and development, and, moreover, positively correlated with reproductive success. Mechanistic investigations have revealed a contribution of forebrain and basal ganglia circuits and sex steroid hormones to the control of vocal consistency. Across behavioral, developmental and mechanistic studies, a convergent theme regarding the importance of vocal practice in juvenile and adult songbirds emerges, providing a basis for linking these levels of analysis. By understanding vocal consistency at these levels, we gain an appreciation for the various dimensions of song control and plasticity and argue that genes regulating the function of basal ganglia circuits and sex steroid hormones could be sculpted by sexual selection. PMID:22189763

  9. Effects of social games on infant vocalizations*.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Chin; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Fogel, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the contextual effects of social games on prelinguistic vocalizations. The two main goals were to (1) investigate the functions of vocalizations as symptoms of affective arousal and symbols of social understanding, and (2) explore form-function (de)coupling relations between vocalization types and game contexts. Seventy-one six-month-olds and sixty-four twelve-month-olds played with their mothers in normal and perturbed tickle and peek-a-boo games. The effects of infant age, game, game climax, and game perturbation on the frequency and types of infant vocalizations were examined. Results showed twelve-month-olds vocalized more mature canonical syllables during peek-a-boo and more primitive quasi-resonant nuclei during tickle than six-month-olds. Six- and twelve-month-olds increased their vocalizations from the set-up to climax during peek-a-boo, but they did not show such an increase during tickle. Findings support the symptom function of prelinguistic vocalizations reflecting affective arousal and the prevalence of form-function decoupling during the first year of life.

  10. Vocal release time: a quantification of vocal offset.

    PubMed

    Watson, Ben C; Roark, Rick M; Baken, R J

    2012-11-01

    To determine the vocal release time (VRT) for linguistically unconstrained voice offsets in a healthy young adult population. Sound pressure (SP) and electroglottographic (EGG) recordings were obtained for 57 female and 55 male subjects while producing multiple tokens of three tasks (sustained /ɑ:/, "always," and "hallways") at comfortable pitch and loudness. SP and EGG signals were digitally time reversed and generalized sinusoidal models of the SP and EGG signals were obtained to compare rates of amplitude change. VRT was computed from the time lag of the cross-correlation function. Adjusted mean VRT values were significantly greater for females than for males. There was no systematic effect of age on VRT. However, 25-29-year old and >40 year old females showed shorter VRT values than the youngest female age group. Normative data are presented for a new measure of the duration of vocal offset, VRT. Acquisition of this measure requires little user intervention, thereby minimizing effects of subjective decision making. Comparison with previously reported vocal attack time (VAT) values for the same population suggests phenomenological differences between linguistically and physiologically constrained voice onsets and unconstrained voice offsets. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vocal economy in vocally trained actresses and untrained female subjects.

    PubMed

    Master, Suely; Guzman, Marco; Dowdall, Jayme

    2013-11-01

    Vocally trained actresses are expected to have more vocal economy than nonactresses. Therefore, we hypothesize that there will be differences in the electroglottogram-based voice economy parameter quasi-output cost ratio (QOCR) between actresses and nonactresses. This difference should remain across different levels of intensity. A total of 30 actresses and 30 nonactresses were recruited for this study. Participants from both groups were required to sustain the vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/, in habitual, moderate, and high intensity levels. Acoustic variables such as sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), and glottal contact quotient (CQ) were obtained. The QOCR was then calculated. There were no significant differences among the groups for QOCR. Positive correlations were observed for QOCR versus SPL and QOCR versus F0 in all intensity levels. Negative correlation was found between QOCR and CQ in all intensity levels. Considering the differences among intensity levels, from habitual to moderate and from moderate to loud, only the CQ did not differ significantly. The QOCR, SPL, and F0 presented significant differences throughout the different intensity levels. The QOCR did not reflect the level of vocal training when comparing trained and nontrained female subjects in the present study. Both groups demonstrated more vocal economy in moderate and high intensity levels owing to more voice output without an increase in glottal adduction. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Brown meagre vocalization rate increases during repetitive boat noise exposures: a possible case of vocal compensation.

    PubMed

    Picciulin, Marta; Sebastianutto, Linda; Codarin, Antonio; Calcagno, Giuliana; Ferrero, Enrico A

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated whether or not boat noise causes variations in brown meagre (Sciaena umbra) vocalizations recorded in a nearshore Mediterranean marine reserve. Six nocturnal experimental sessions were carried out from June to September 2009. In each of them, a recreational boat passed over vocalizing fish 6 times with 1 boat passage every 10 min. For this purpose three different boats were used in random order: an 8.5-m cabin-cruiser (CC), a 5-m fiberglass boat (FB), and a 7-m inflatable boat (INF). In situ continuous acoustic recordings were collected using a self-standing sonobuoy. Because boat noise levels largely exceeded both background noise and S. umbra vocalizations in the species' hearing frequency range, masking of acoustic communication was assumed. Although no immediate effect was observed during a single boat passage, the S. umbra mean pulse rate increased over multiple boat passages in the experimental condition but not in the control condition, excluding that the observed effect was due to a natural rise in fish vocalizations. The observed vocal enhancement may result either from an increased density of callers or from an increased number of pulses/sounds produced by already acoustically active individuals, as a form of vocal compensation. These two explanations are discussed.

  13. Vocal fold hemorrhage: factors predicting recurrence.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Christen J; Murry, Thomas; Sulica, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold hemorrhage is an acute phonotraumatic injury treated with voice rest; recurrence is a generally accepted indication for surgical intervention. This study aims to identify factors predictive of recurrence based on outcomes of a large clinical series. Retrospective cohort. Retrospective review of cases of vocal fold hemorrhage presenting to a university laryngology service. Demographic information was compiled. Videostroboscopic exams were evaluated for hemorrhage extent, presence of varix, mucosal lesion, and/or vocal fold paresis. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurrence was the main outcome measure. Follow-up telephone survey was used to complement clinical data. Forty-seven instances of vocal fold hemorrhage were evaluated (25M:22F; 32 professional voice users). Twelve of the 47 (26%) patients experienced recurrence. Only the presence of varix demonstrated significant association with recurrence (P = 0.0089) on multivariate logistic regression. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurred in approximately 26% of patients. Varix was a predictor of recurrence, with 48% of those with varix experiencing recurrence. Monitoring, behavioral management and/or surgical intervention may be indicated to treat patients with such characteristics. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Oral breathing challenge in participants with vocal attrition.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V

    2003-12-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (Pth) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is more detrimental to phonation in healthy participants with a history of temporary vocal attrition. The effects of a 15-min oral or nasal breathing challenge on Pth and perceived expiratory vocal effort were compared for participants reporting symptoms of vocal attrition (N = 18, ages 19-38 years) and normal controls (N = 20, ages 19-33 years). Post-challenge-prechallenge differences in Pth (deltaPth) and effort (deltaEffort) revealed that oral breathing, but not nasal breathing, increased Pth (p < .001 ) and effort (p < .001) at low, comfortable, and high pitch. deltaPth was significantly greater in participants with vocal attrition than in normal controls (p < .001). Nasal breathing reduced Pth for all controls but not for all participants reporting vocal attrition. deltaPth was significantly and linearly correlated with deltaEffort (rvocal attrition = .81, p < .001; rcontrol = .84, p < .001). We speculate that the greater increases in Pth in participants reporting vocal attrition may result from delayed or inadequate compensatory response to superficial laryngeal dehydration. Obligatory oral breathing may place voice users at risk for exacerbating vocal attrition. That sol layer depletion by obligatory oral breathing increased Pth and vocal effort provides support for the role of superficial hydration in maintaining ease of phonation.

  15. Sarcoidosis Presenting as Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Justin M; Gnagi, Sharon H; Lott, David G

    2018-05-01

    Bilateral true vocal fold paralysis is rarely attributable to inflammatory diseases. Sarcoidosis is a rare but important etiology of bilateral true vocal fold paralysis by compressive lymphadenopathy, granulomatous infiltration, and neural involvement. We describe the first reported case of sarcoidosis presenting as bilateral vocal fold immobility caused by direct fixation by granulomatous infiltration severe enough to necessitate tracheostomy insertion. In addition, we discuss the presentation, the pathophysiology, and the treatment of this disease with a review of the literature of previously reported cases of sarcoidosis-related vocal fold immobility. Sarcoidosis should therefore be an important consideration for the otolaryngologist's differential diagnosis of true vocal fold immobility. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Temperature-dependent regulation of vocal pattern generator.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ayako; Gooler, David; Herrold, Amy; Patel, Shailja; Pong, Winnie W

    2008-12-01

    Vocalizations of Xenopus laevis are generated by central pattern generators (CPGs). The advertisement call of male X. laevis is a complex biphasic motor rhythm consisting of fast and slow trills (a train of clicks). We found that the trill rate of these advertisement calls is sensitive to temperature and that this rate modification of the vocal rhythms originates in the central pattern generators. In vivo the rates of fast and slow trills increased linearly with an increase in temperature. In vitro a similar linear relation between temperature and compound action potential frequency in the laryngeal nerve was found when fictive advertisement calls were evoked in the isolated brain. Temperature did not limit the contractile properties of laryngeal muscles within the frequency range of vocalizations. We next took advantage of the temperature sensitivity of the vocal CPG in vitro to localize the source of the vocal rhythms. We focused on the dorsal tegmental area of the medulla (DTAM), a brain stem nucleus that is essential for vocal production. We found that bilateral cooling of DTAM reduced both fast and slow trill rates. Thus we conclude that DTAM is a source of biphasic vocal rhythms.

  17. [A case of vocal cord contact granuloma after vocal cord polyp surgery].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhili; Jiang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    The vocal cord polyp is easy to relapse after surgery, but if the patient has recurrence in a short term, it is necessary to consider it as postoperative vocal cord contact granuloma. If the patients with contact granuloma after surgical treatment had severe impact on the pronunciation, it is necessary to be operated and confirmed by pathology and given the treatment of acid suppression, in order to avoid postoperative recurrence.

  18. Videolaryngostroboscopic observation of mucus layer during vocal cord vibration in patients with vocal nodules before and after surgery.

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Ming-Wang

    2004-03-01

    Under normal conditions, the vocal fold mucus layer is too thin to permit observation using videolaryngostroboscopy (VLS) during phonation. However, vocal nodules (VNs) typically cause congealed and sticky mucus to appear on the vocal fold. Reports in the literature regarding this phenomenon are limited. The aim of this study was to review VLS recordings of VN patients, analyzing changes that occurred in the mucus layer that covers the vocal fold during vibration following VN surgery. Using VLS, we studied the occurrence of, and changes in, vocal fold mucus layers in 160 VN patients before and after surgery. Eighty-eight patients (55%) were found to have a mucus layer during preoperative examinations. Of these mucus layers, 21 (13%) were located on the anterior commissure or anterior third of the vocal fold (A), 58 (36.3%) on the junction of the anterior and middle thirds (M), 1 (0.6%) on the posterior third (P), 5 (3.1%) on both A and M and 3 (1.9%) on both M and P. Fifty-six (35%) cases were found to have a mucus layer during postoperative examinations. Of these, 44 (27.5%) were located on A, 8 (5%) on M, 1 (0.6%) on P and 3 (1.9%) on both A and M. These results indicate that changes in the mechanical force on the vocal fold, alteration of the laryngeal secretory gland and improper aerodynamic airflow result in increased mucus viscosity and aggregation in VN patients and that the combination of these factors further increases the severity of dysphonia. Surgery to remove vocal nodes may be an effective method to eliminate both vocal bumps and aggregated mucus. Based on the present results, it is recommended that future research should compare surgery to remove VN against other mucus layer reduction methods in order to determine which is the most effective.

  19. Limiting parental feedback disrupts vocal development in marmoset monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Gultekin, Yasemin B.; Hage, Steffen R.

    2017-01-01

    Vocalizations of human infants undergo dramatic changes across the first year by becoming increasingly mature and speech-like. Human vocal development is partially dependent on learning by imitation through social feedback between infants and caregivers. Recent studies revealed similar developmental processes being influenced by parental feedback in marmoset monkeys for apparently innate vocalizations. Marmosets produce infant-specific vocalizations that disappear after the first postnatal months. However, it is yet unclear whether parental feedback is an obligate requirement for proper vocal development. Using quantitative measures to compare call parameters and vocal sequence structure we show that, in contrast to normally raised marmosets, marmosets that were separated from parents after the third postnatal month still produced infant-specific vocal behaviour at subadult stages. These findings suggest a significant role of social feedback on primate vocal development until the subadult stages and further show that marmoset monkeys are a compelling model system for early human vocal development. PMID:28090084

  20. Vocal tract characteristics in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gillivan-Murphy, Patricia; Carding, Paul; Miller, Nick

    2016-06-01

    Voice tremor is strongly linked to the Parkinson's disease speech-voice symptom complex. Little is known about the underlying anatomic source(s) of voice tremor when it occurs. We review recent literature addressing this issue. Additionally we report findings from a study we conducted employing rating of vocal tract structures viewed using nasolaryngoscopy during vocal and nonspeech tasks. In Parkinson's disease, using laryngeal electromyography, tremor has not been identified in muscles in the vocal folds even when perceived auditorily. Preliminary findings using nasolaryngoscopy suggest that Parkinson's disease voice tremor is not associated with the vocal folds and may involve the palate, the global larynx, and the arytenoids. Tremor in the vertical larynx on /a/, and tremor in the arytenoid cartilages on /s/ differentiated patients with Parkinson's disease from neurologically healthy controls. Visual reliable detection of tremor when it is absent or borderline present, is challenging. Parkinson's disease voice tremor is likely to be related to oscillatory movement in structures across the vocal tract rather than just the vocal folds. To progress clinical practice, more refined tools for the visual rating of tremor would be beneficial. How far voice tremor represents a functionally significant factor for speakers would also add to the literature.

  1. Improvement of Vocal Pathologies Diagnosis Using High-Speed Videolaryngoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi; Hachiya, Adriana; Dajer, Maria Eugenia; Ishikawa, Camila Cristina; Takahashi, Marystella Tomoe; Montagnoli, Arlindo Neto

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV) has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia). The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases) were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation. PMID:25992109

  2. Vocal Tones Influence Young Children’s Responses to Prohibitions

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Audun; Tran, Amy Q.

    2016-01-01

    Vocal reactions to child transgressions convey information about the nature of those transgressions. The present research investigated children’s ability to make use of such vocal reactions. Study 1 investigated infants’ compliance with a vocal prohibition telling them to stay away from a toy. Compared to younger infants, older infants showed greater compliance with prohibitions elicited by moral (interpersonal harm) transgressions, but not with prohibitions elicited by pragmatic (inconvenience) transgressions. Study 2 investigated preschoolers’ use of firm-stern vocalizations (associated with moral transgressions) and positive vocalizations (associated with pragmatic transgressions). Most children guessed that the firm-stern vocalizations were uttered in response to a moral transgression and the positive vocalization were uttered in response to a pragmatic transgression. These two studies suggest that children use vocal tones, along with other experiences, to guide their compliance with and interpretation of prohibitions. PMID:27518810

  3. The vocal monotony of monogamy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jeanette

    2003-04-01

    There are four phocids in waters around Antarctica: Weddell, leopard, crabeater, and Ross seals. These four species provide a unique opportunity to examine underwater vocal behavior in species sharing the same ecosystem. Some species live in pack ice, others in factice, but all are restricted to the Antarctic or sub-Antarctic islands. All breed and produce vocalizations under water. Social systems range from polygyny in large breeding colonies, to serial monogamy, to solitary species. The type of mating system influences the number of underwater vocalizations in the repertoire, with monogamous seals producing only a single call, polygynous species producing up to 35 calls, and solitary species an intermediate number of about 10 calls. Breeding occurs during the austral spring and each species carves-out an acoustic niche for communicating, with species using different frequency ranges, temporal patterns, and amplitude changes to convey their species-specific calls and presumably reduce acoustic competition. Some species exhibit geographic variations in their vocalizations around the continent, which may reflect discrete breeding populations. Some seals become silent during a vulnerable time of predation by killer whales, perhaps to avoid detection. Overall, vocalizations of these seals exhibit adaptive characteristics that reflect the co-evolution among species in the same ecosystem.

  4. The power of your vocal image.

    PubMed

    McCoy, L A

    1996-03-01

    Your vocal image is the impression that listeners form of you based on the sound of your voice. In a dental office, where the initial patient contact usually occurs over the phone, your vocal image is vitally important. According to social psychologists, people begin to make relatively durable first impressions within six to 12 seconds of perceiving a sensory cue. This means that patients begin to form their impressions of a telephone speaker almost immediately. Based on the qualities of the speaker's voice and how it is used, they'll form impressions related to everything from the speaker's physical and personality characteristics to his or her intellectual ability, and eventually even generalize their impressions to include the office that the speaker represents. If you want to improve your vocal image, you must first be aware of exactly what that image is. There are two factors that combine to create a vocal impression--the speaker's physical vocal tools and the sound that is created by them. The five physical tools involved are the lungs, vocal cords, throat, mouth and ears. At each stage in the sound production process, we can easily fall into negative habits and lazy patterns if we're not careful. Although we can't do much about our physical voice mechanism, we can certainly exercise a great deal of control over how our voice is used. A strong, confident voice is an essential part of effective interpersonal communication. If you want to project an image of confidence and professionalism, don't overlook the subtle benefits of effective vocal power.

  5. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo; Riede, Tobias; Mau, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size), range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1) laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2) nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid), so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers), increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations. PMID:27309543

  6. Enhanced processing of vocal melodies in childhood.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael W; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E; Dawber, Emily J

    2015-03-01

    Music cognition is typically studied with instrumental stimuli. Adults remember melodies better, however, when they are presented in a biologically significant timbre (i.e., the human voice) than in various instrumental timbres (Weiss, Trehub, & Schellenberg, 2012). We examined the impact of vocal timbre on children's processing of melodies. In Study 1, 9- to 11-year-olds listened to 16 unfamiliar folk melodies (4 each of voice, piano, banjo, or marimba). They subsequently listened to the same melodies and 16 timbre-matched foils, and judged whether each melody was old or new. Vocal melodies were recognized better than instrumental melodies, which did not differ from one another, and the vocal advantage was consistent across age. In Study 2, 5- to 6-year-olds and 7- to 8-year-olds were tested with a simplified design that included only vocal and piano melodies. Both age groups successfully differentiated old from new melodies, but memory was more accurate for the older group. The older children recognized vocal melodies better than piano melodies, whereas the younger children tended to label vocal melodies as old whether they were old or new. The results provide the first evidence of differential processing of vocal and instrumental melodies in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Determining the etiology of mild vocal fold hypomobility.

    PubMed

    Heman-Ackah, Yolanda D; Batory, Mark

    2003-12-01

    The prevalence of mild vocal fold hypomobility is unknown. In a study by Heman-Ackah et al, vocal fold hypomobility in a population of singing teachers was found to be associated more frequently with vocal complaints than was the presence of vocal fold masses. The etiology of mild vocal fold hypomobility has not been previously explored. In the present study, a retrospective chart review was performed of 134 patients who presented to a tertiary laryngology referral center over a 6-month period for evaluation of vocal complaints. Of the 134 patients, 61 (46%) were found to have mild vocal referring otolaryngologist. Imaging studies and laboratory tests to evaluate for structural, metabolic, and infectious causes of the decreased mobility had been ordered. Forty-nine patients completed the work-up. Of these, 41 out of 49 (84%) were found to have imaging or laboratory findings that could explain the hypomobility. Thyroid abnormalities were found to be associated with vocal fold hypomobility in 21 out of 49 (43%) of those with a complete evaluation. Other causes of vocal fold hypomobility included idiopathic (8 of 49, 16%), viral neuritis (5 of 49, 10%), central nervous system abnormality (4 of 49, 8%), neural tumor (3 of 49, 6%), joint dysfunction (3 of 49, 6%), iatrogenic nerve injury (2 of 49, 4%), myopathy (2 of 49, 4%), and noniatrogenic traumatic nerve injury (1 of 49, 2%), This study shows that unilateral vocal fold hypomobility often is associated with a physiologic process, and a complete investigation to determine the etiology is warranted in all cases.

  8. Effects of Social Games on Infant Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chin; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Fogel, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the contextual effects of social games on prelinguistic vocalizations. The two main goals were to (1) investigate the functions of vocalizations as symptoms of affective arousal and symbols of social understanding, and (2) explore form-function (de)coupling relations between vocalization types and game…

  9. Vocal learning in elephants: neural bases and adaptive context

    PubMed Central

    Stoeger, Angela S; Manger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade clear evidence has accumulated that elephants are capable of vocal production learning. Examples of vocal imitation are documented in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants, but little is known about the function of vocal learning within the natural communication systems of either species. We are also just starting to identify the neural basis of elephant vocalizations. The African elephant diencephalon and brainstem possess specializations related to aspects of neural information processing in the motor system (affecting the timing and learning of trunk movements) and the auditory and vocalization system. Comparative interdisciplinary (from behavioral to neuroanatomical) studies are strongly warranted to increase our understanding of both vocal learning and vocal behavior in elephants. PMID:25062469

  10. Dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joseph; Yung, Katherine C

    2014-11-01

    This case report is the first documentation of dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia as a complication of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Case report of a 40-year-old man with HHT presenting with 2 years of worsening hoarseness. Hoarseness corresponded with a period of anticoagulation. Endoscopy revealed vocal fold scarring, vocal fold telangiectasias, and plica ventricular is suggestive of previous submucosal vocal fold hemorrhage and subsequent counterproductive compensation with ventricular phonation. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may present as dysphonia with vocal fold telangiectasias and place patients at risk of vocal fold hemorrhage. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Avian vocal mimicry: a unified conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A; Igic, Branislav; Magrath, Robert D

    2015-05-01

    Mimicry is a classical example of adaptive signal design. Here, we review the current state of research into vocal mimicry in birds. Avian vocal mimicry is a conspicuous and often spectacular form of animal communication, occurring in many distantly related species. However, the proximate and ultimate causes of vocal mimicry are poorly understood. In the first part of this review, we argue that progress has been impeded by conceptual confusion over what constitutes vocal mimicry. We propose a modified version of Vane-Wright's (1980) widely used definition of mimicry. According to our definition, a vocalisation is mimetic if the behaviour of the receiver changes after perceiving the acoustic resemblance between the mimic and the model, and the behavioural change confers a selective advantage on the mimic. Mimicry is therefore specifically a functional concept where the resemblance between heterospecific sounds is a target of selection. It is distinct from other forms of vocal resemblance including those that are the result of chance or common ancestry, and those that have emerged as a by-product of other processes such as ecological convergence and selection for large song-type repertoires. Thus, our definition provides a general and functionally coherent framework for determining what constitutes vocal mimicry, and takes account of the diversity of vocalisations that incorporate heterospecific sounds. In the second part we assess and revise hypotheses for the evolution of avian vocal mimicry in the light of our new definition. Most of the current evidence is anecdotal, but the diverse contexts and acoustic structures of putative vocal mimicry suggest that mimicry has multiple functions across and within species. There is strong experimental evidence that vocal mimicry can be deceptive, and can facilitate parasitic interactions. There is also increasing support for the use of vocal mimicry in predator defence, although the mechanisms are unclear. Less progress has

  12. Endoscopic laterofixation in bilateral vocal cords paralysis in children.

    PubMed

    Lidia, Zawadzka-Glos; Magdalena, Frackiewicz; Mieczyslaw, Chmielik

    2010-06-01

    Vocal cords paralysis is the second most frequent cause of laryngeal stridor in children. Symptoms of congenital vocal cords paralysis can occur shortly after birth or later. Vocal cords paralysis can be unilateral or bilateral. Symptoms of unilateral paralysis include hoarse weeping or stridor during a deep inhalation. In children unilateral vocal cords paralysis often retreats spontaneously or can be completely compensated. Children with bilateral vocal cords paralysis present mainly breathing disorders while phonation is normal. Symptoms are different, starting from complete occlusion of respiratory tracts and ending on small symptoms connected with the lack of effort tolerance. When symptoms are severe, patients from this group require a tracheotomy. The lack of restoration of normal function of vocal cords or lack of complete compensation and maintenance of symptoms are an indication for surgical treatment. The aim of this study is to present results of the treatment of bilateral vocal cords paralysis in children using the endoscopic method of laterofixation of vocal cords. In the Pediatric ENT Department between 1998 and 2009 sixty four children with dyspnoea and/or phonation disorders caused by vocal cords paralysis were treated. In ten cases laterofixation of vocal cords was performed, in most cases with good result. In this article the authors present the method of endoscopic laterofixation and achieved results. Endoscopic laterofixation of vocal cords in children is a safe and an easy method of surgical treatment of bilateral vocal cords paralysis. This method can be used as a first and often as a one stage treatment of vocal cords paralysis. In some cases this procedure is insufficient and has to be completed with other methods. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Varices of the vocal cord: report of 21 cases].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-rang; Sun, Jian-jun

    2006-04-01

    To study the diagnosis and treatment of varices of the vocal cord. The clinical data of 21 cases with varix of vocal cord were analyzed. All the patients presented hoarseness. There were 15 female and 6 male cases with their ages ranged from 23 to 68 years (median 44 years old). The varix was found on the right vocal cord in 12 cases, on the left vocal cord in 9 cases. Isolated varix existed on the vocal cord in 10 cases, varix with vocal cord polyps or nodules in 10 cases, varix with vocal cord paralysis in 1 case. All the patients were diagnosed under the laryngovideoscopy. The lesions appeared on the superior surface of the vocal cord. Varices manifested as abnormally dilated capillary running in the anterior to posterior direction in 6 cases, as clusters of capillary in 3 cases, as a dot or small sheet or short line of capillary in 12 cases. The varices were disappeared in 2 of 8 cases with vocal cord varices and polyps after removed the polyps. The varices of others patients had no change after following up for more than 6 months, but one patient happened hemorrhage of the contralateral vocal cord. Varices are most commonly seen in female. Laryngovideoscopy is the key in determining the vocal fold varices. Management of patients with a varix includes medical therapy, speech therapy, and occasionally surgical vaporization.

  14. Vocal Generalization Depends on Gesture Identity and Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Sober, Samuel J.

    2014-01-01

    Generalization, the brain's ability to transfer motor learning from one context to another, occurs in a wide range of complex behaviors. However, the rules of generalization in vocal behavior are poorly understood, and it is unknown how vocal learning generalizes across an animal's entire repertoire of natural vocalizations and sequences. Here, we asked whether generalization occurs in a nonhuman vocal learner and quantified its properties. We hypothesized that adaptive error correction of a vocal gesture produced in one sequence would generalize to the same gesture produced in other sequences. To test our hypothesis, we manipulated the fundamental frequency (pitch) of auditory feedback in Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica) to create sensory errors during vocal gestures (song syllables) produced in particular sequences. As hypothesized, error-corrective learning on pitch-shifted vocal gestures generalized to the same gestures produced in other sequential contexts. Surprisingly, generalization magnitude depended strongly on sequential distance from the pitch-shifted syllables, with greater adaptation for gestures produced near to the pitch-shifted syllable. A further unexpected result was that nonshifted syllables changed their pitch in the direction opposite from the shifted syllables. This apparently antiadaptive pattern of generalization could not be explained by correlations between generalization and the acoustic similarity to the pitch-shifted syllable. These findings therefore suggest that generalization depends on the type of vocal gesture and its sequential context relative to other gestures and may reflect an advantageous strategy for vocal learning and maintenance. PMID:24741046

  15. Interstitial protein alterations in rabbit vocal fold with scar.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Susan L; Bless, Diane M; Gray, Steven D

    2003-09-01

    Fibrous and interstitial proteins compose the extracellular matrix of the vocal fold lamina propria and account for its biomechanic properties. Vocal fold scarring is characterized by altered biomechanical properties, which create dysphonia. Although alterations of the fibrous proteins have been confirmed in the rabbit vocal fold scar, interstitial proteins, which are known to be important in wound repair, have not been investigated to date. Using a rabbit model, interstitial proteins decorin, fibromodulin, and fibronectin were examined immunohistologically, two months postinduction of vocal fold scar by means of forcep biopsy. Significantly decreased decorin and fibromodulin with significantly increased fibronectin characterized scarred vocal fold tissue. The implications of altered interstitial proteins levels and their affect on the fibrous proteins will be discussed in relation to increased vocal fold stiffness and viscosity, which characterizes vocal fold scar.

  16. Automated Assessment of Child Vocalization Development Using LENA.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jeffrey A; Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmistha; Paul, Terrance

    2017-07-12

    To produce a novel, efficient measure of children's expressive vocal development on the basis of automatic vocalization assessment (AVA), child vocalizations were automatically identified and extracted from audio recordings using Language Environment Analysis (LENA) System technology. Assessment was based on full-day audio recordings collected in a child's unrestricted, natural language environment. AVA estimates were derived using automatic speech recognition modeling techniques to categorize and quantify the sounds in child vocalizations (e.g., protophones and phonemes). These were expressed as phone and biphone frequencies, reduced to principal components, and inputted to age-based multiple linear regression models to predict independently collected criterion-expressive language scores. From these models, we generated vocal development AVA estimates as age-standardized scores and development age estimates. AVA estimates demonstrated strong statistical reliability and validity when compared with standard criterion expressive language assessments. Automated analysis of child vocalizations extracted from full-day recordings in natural settings offers a novel and efficient means to assess children's expressive vocal development. More research remains to identify specific mechanisms of operation.

  17. Vocal contagion of emotions in non-human animals

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Communicating emotions to conspecifics (emotion expression) allows the regulation of social interactions (e.g. approach and avoidance). Moreover, when emotions are transmitted from one individual to the next, leading to state matching (emotional contagion), information transfer and coordination between group members are facilitated. Despite the high potential for vocalizations to influence the affective state of surrounding individuals, vocal contagion of emotions has been largely unexplored in non-human animals. In this paper, I review the evidence for discrimination of vocal expression of emotions, which is a necessary step for emotional contagion to occur. I then describe possible proximate mechanisms underlying vocal contagion of emotions, propose criteria to assess this phenomenon and review the existing evidence. The literature so far shows that non-human animals are able to discriminate and be affected by conspecific and also potentially heterospecific (e.g. human) vocal expression of emotions. Since humans heavily rely on vocalizations to communicate (speech), I suggest that studying vocal contagion of emotions in non-human animals can lead to a better understanding of the evolution of emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:29491174

  18. The Vocal Tract Organ: A New Musical Instrument Using 3-D Printed Vocal Tracts.

    PubMed

    Howard, David M

    2017-10-27

    The advent and now increasingly widespread availability of 3-D printers is transforming our understanding of the natural world by enabling observations to be made in a tangible manner. This paper describes the use of 3-D printed models of the vocal tract for different vowels that are used to create an acoustic output when stimulated with an appropriate sound source in a new musical instrument: the Vocal Tract Organ. The shape of each printed vocal tract is recovered from magnetic resonance imaging. It sits atop a loudspeaker to which is provided an acoustic L-F model larynx input signal that is controlled by the notes played on a musical instrument digital interface device such as a keyboard. The larynx input is subject to vibrato with extent and frequency adjustable as desired within the ranges usually found for human singing. Polyphonic inputs for choral singing textures can be applied via a single loudspeaker and vocal tract, invoking the approximation of linearity in the voice production system, thereby making multiple vowel stops a possibility while keeping the complexity of the instrument in reasonable check. The Vocal Tract Organ offers a much more human and natural sounding result than the traditional Vox Humana stops found in larger pipe organs, offering the possibility of enhancing pipe organs of the future as well as becoming the basis for a "multi-vowel" chamber organ in its own right. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reinke Edema: Watch For Vocal Fold Cysts.

    PubMed

    Tüzüner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Yavanoglu, Ahmet; Kurkcuoglu, Melih; Arslan, Necmi

    2015-06-01

    Reinke edema is one of the common cause of dysphonia middle-aged population, and severe thickening of vocal folds require surgical treatment. Smoking plays a major role on etiology. Vocal fold cysts are also benign lesions and vocal trauma blamed for acquired cysts. We would like to present 3 cases with vocal fold cyst related with Reinke edema. First case had a subepidermal epidermoid cyst with Reinke edema, which could be easily observed before surgery during laryngostroboscopy. Second case had a mucous retention cyst into the edematous Reinke tissue, which was detected during surgical intervention, and third case had a epidermoid cyst that occurred 2 months after before microlaryngeal operation regarding Reinke edema reduction. These 3 cases revealed that surgical management of Reinke edema needs a careful dissection and close follow-up after surgery for presence of vocal fold cysts.

  20. Laryngeal and vocal alterations after thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Iyomasa, Renata Mizusaki; Tagliarini, José Vicente; Rodrigues, Sérgio Augusto; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Martins, Regina Helena Garcia

    2017-09-21

    Dysphonia is a common symptom after thyroidectomy. To analyze the vocal symptoms, auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal, videolaryngoscopy, the surgical procedures and histopathological findings in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Prospective study. Patients submitted to thyroidectomy were evaluated as follows: anamnesis, laryngoscopy, and acoustic vocal assessments. Moments: pre-operative, 1st post (15 days), 2nd post (1 month), 3rd post (3 months), and 4th post (6 months). Among the 151 patients (130 women; 21 men). Type of surgery: lobectomy+isthmectomy n=40, total thyroidectomy n=88, thyroidectomy+lymph node dissection n=23. Vocal symptoms were reported by 42 patients in the 1st post (27.8%) decreasing to 7.2% after 6 months. In the acoustic analysis, f0 and APQ were decreased in women. Videolaryngoscopies showed that 144 patients (95.3%) had normal exams in the preoperative moment. Vocal fold palsies were diagnosed in 34 paralyzes at the 1st post, 32 recurrent laryngeal nerve (lobectomy+isthmectomy n=6; total thyroidectomy n=17; thyroidectomy+lymph node dissection n=9) and 2 superior laryngeal nerve (lobectomy+isthmectomy n=1; Total thyroidectomy+lymph node dissection n=1). After 6 months, 10 patients persisted with paralysis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (6.6%). Histopathology and correlation with vocal fold palsy: colloid nodular goiter (n=76; palsy n=13), thyroiditis (n=8; palsy n=0), and carcinoma (n=67; palsy n=21). Vocal symptoms, reported by 27.8% of the patients on the 1st post decreased to 7% in 6 months. In the acoustic analysis, f0 and APQ were decreased. Transient paralysis of the vocal folds secondary to recurrent and superior laryngeal nerve injury occurred in, respectively, 21% and 1.3% of the patients, decreasing to 6.6% and 0% after 6 months. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Do Talkativeness and Vocal Loudness Correlate With Laryngeal Pathology? A Study of the Vocal Overdoer/Underdoer Continuum.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Robert W; Thomas, James P

    2016-09-01

    Assess the correlation between self-rating scales of talkativeness and loudness with various types of voice disorders. This is a retrospective study. A total of 974 patients were analyzed. The cohort study included 430 consecutive patients presenting to the senior author with voice complaints from December 1995 to December 1998. The case-control study added 544 consecutive patients referred to the same examiner from January 1988 to December 1998 for vocal fold examination before thyroid, parathyroid, and carotid surgery. Patient responses on seven-point Likert self-rating scales of talkativeness and loudness were compared with laryngeal disease. Mucosal lesions clearly associated with vibratory trauma are strongly associated with a high self-rating of talkativeness. Laryngeal deconditioning disorders were associated with a low self-rating of talkativeness. Use of a simple self-rating scale of vocal loudness and talkativeness during history taking can reliably orient the examiner to the types of voice disorders likely to be diagnosed subsequently during vocal capability testing and visual laryngeal examination. The high degree of talkativeness and loudness seen in vocal overdoers correlates well with mucosal disorders such as nodules, polyps, capillary ectasia, epidermoid inclusion cysts, and hemorrhage. A lower degree of talkativeness correlates with muscle deconditioning disorders such as vocal fold bowing, atrophy, presbyphonia, and vocal fatigue syndrome. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?

    PubMed Central

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad set of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

  3. Individual vocal signatures in barn owl nestlings: does individual recognition have an adaptive role in sibling vocal competition?

    PubMed

    Dreiss, A N; Ruppli, C A; Roulin, A

    2014-01-01

    To compete over limited parental resources, young animals communicate with their parents and siblings by producing honest vocal signals of need. Components of begging calls that are sensitive to food deprivation may honestly signal need, whereas other components may be associated with individual-specific attributes that do not change with time such as identity, sex, absolute age and hierarchy. In a sib-sib communication system where barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings vocally negotiate priority access to food resources, we show that calls have individual signatures that are used by nestlings to recognize which siblings are motivated to compete, even if most vocalization features vary with hunger level. Nestlings were more identifiable when food-deprived than food-satiated, suggesting that vocal identity is emphasized when the benefit of winning a vocal contest is higher. In broods where siblings interact iteratively, we speculate that individual-specific signature permits siblings to verify that the most vocal individual in the absence of parents is the one that indeed perceived the food brought by parents. Individual recognition may also allow nestlings to associate identity with individual-specific characteristics such as position in the within-brood dominance hierarchy. Calls indeed revealed age hierarchy and to a lower extent sex and absolute age. Using a cross-fostering experimental design, we show that most acoustic features were related to the nest of origin (but not the nest of rearing), suggesting a genetic or an early developmental effect on the ontogeny of vocal signatures. To conclude, our study suggests that sibling competition has promoted the evolution of vocal behaviours that signal not only hunger level but also intrinsic individual characteristics such as identity, family, sex and age. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Central pattern generators for social vocalization: Androgen-dependent neurophysiological mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Andrew H.; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2008-01-01

    Historically, most studies of vertebrate central pattern generators (CPGs) have focused on mechanisms for locomotion and respiration. Here, we highlight new results for ectothermic vertebrates, namely teleost fish and amphibians, showing how androgenic steroids can influence the temporal patterning of CPGs for social vocalization. Investigations of vocalizing teleosts show how androgens can rapidly (within minutes) modulate the neurophysiological output of the vocal CPG (fictive vocalizations that mimic the temporal properties of natural vocalizations) inclusive of their divergent actions between species, as well as intraspecific differences between male reproductive morphs. Studies of anuran amphibians (frogs) demonstrate that long-term steroid treatments (wks) can masculinize the fictive vocalizations of females, inclusive of its sensitivity to rapid modulation by serotonin. Given the conserved organization of vocal control systems across vertebrate groups, the vocal CPGs of fish and amphibians provide tractable models for identifying androgen-dependent events that are fundamental to the mechanisms of vocal motor patterning. These basic mechanisms can also inform our understanding of the more complex CPGs for vocalization, and social behaviors in general, that have evolved among birds and mammals. PMID:18262186

  5. Classification for animal vocal fold surgery: resection margins impact histological outcomes of vocal fold injury.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Thibeault, Susan L; Leydon, Ciara

    2014-11-01

    Extent of vocal fold injury impacts the nature and timing of wound healing and voice outcomes. However, depth and extent of the lesion created to study wound healing in animal models vary across studies, likely contributing to different outcomes. Our goal was to create a surgery classification system to enable comparison of postoperative outcomes across animal vocal fold wound-healing studies. Prospective, controlled animal study. Rats underwent one of three types of unilateral vocal fold surgeries classified by depth and length of resection. The surgeries were: for subepithelial injury, resection of epithelium and superficial layer of the lamina propria at the midmembranous portion of the vocal fold; for transmucosal injury, resection of epithelium and lamina propria; and for transmuscular injury, resection of epithelium, lamina propria, and superficial portion of the vocalis muscle. Wound healing was evaluated histologically at various time points up to 35 days postinjury. Complete healing occurred by 14 days postsurgery for subepithelial injury, and by day 35 for transmucosal injury. Injury remained present at day 35 for transmuscular injury. Timing and completeness of healing varied by extent and depth of resection. Scarless healing occurred rapidly following subepithelial injury, whereas scarring was observed at 5 weeks after transmuscular injury. The proposed classification system may facilitate comparison of surgical outcomes across vocal fold wound-healing studies. N/A. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Vocal patterns in infants with autism spectrum disorder: canonical babbling status and vocalization frequency.

    PubMed

    Patten, Elena; Belardi, Katie; Baranek, Grace T; Watson, Linda R; Labban, Jeffrey D; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2014-10-01

    Canonical babbling is a critical milestone for speech development and is usually well in place by 10 months. The possibility that infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show late onset of canonical babbling has so far eluded evaluation. Rate of vocalization or "volubility" has also been suggested as possibly aberrant in infants with ASD. We conducted a retrospective video study examining vocalizations of 37 infants at 9-12 and 15-18 months. Twenty-three of the 37 infants were later diagnosed with ASD and indeed produced low rates of canonical babbling and low volubility by comparison with the 14 typically developing infants. The study thus supports suggestions that very early vocal patterns may prove to be a useful component of early screening and diagnosis of ASD.

  7. Current Understanding and Future Directions for Vocal Fold Mechanobiology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nicole Y.K.; Heris, Hossein K.; Mongeau, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The vocal folds, which are located in the larynx, are the main organ of voice production for human communication. The vocal folds are under continuous biomechanical stress similar to other mechanically active organs, such as the heart, lungs, tendons and muscles. During speech and singing, the vocal folds oscillate at frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 3 kHz with amplitudes of a few millimeters. The biomechanical stress associated with accumulated phonation is believed to alter vocal fold cell activity and tissue structure in many ways. Excessive phonatory stress can damage tissue structure and induce a cell-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in a pathological vocal fold lesion. On the other hand, phonatory stress is one major factor in the maturation of the vocal folds into a specialized tri-layer structure. One specific form of vocal fold oscillation, which involves low impact and large amplitude excursion, is prescribed therapeutically for patients with mild vocal fold injuries. Although biomechanical forces affect vocal fold physiology and pathology, there is little understanding of how mechanical forces regulate these processes at the cellular and molecular level. Research into vocal fold mechanobiology has burgeoned over the past several years. Vocal fold bioreactors are being developed in several laboratories to provide a biomimic environment that allows the systematic manipulation of physical and biological factors on the cells of interest in vitro. Computer models have been used to simulate the integrated response of cells and proteins as a function of phonation stress. The purpose of this paper is to review current research on the mechanobiology of the vocal folds as it relates to growth, pathogenesis and treatment as well as to propose specific research directions that will advance our understanding of this subject. PMID:24812638

  8. Microvascular lesions of the true vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Postma, G N; Courey, M S; Ossoff, R H

    1998-06-01

    Microvascular lesions, also called varices or capillary ectasias, in contrast to vocal fold polyps with telangiectatic vessels, are relatively small lesions arising from the microcirculation of the vocal fold. Varices are most commonly seen in female professional vocalists and may be secondary to repetitive trauma, hormonal variations, or repeated inflammation. Microvascular lesions may either be asymptomatic or cause frank dysphonia by interrupting the normal vibratory pattern, mass, or closure of the vocal folds. They may also lead to vocal fold hemorrhage, scarring, or polyp formation. Laryngovideostroboscopy is the key in determining the functional significance of vocal fold varices. Management of patients with a varix includes medical therapy, speech therapy, and occasionally surgical vaporization. Indications for surgery are recurrent hemorrhage, enlargement of the varix, development of a mass in conjunction with the varix or hemorrhage, and unacceptable dysphonia after maximal medical and speech therapy due to a functionally significant varix.

  9. Automated Assessment of Child Vocalization Development Using LENA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jeffrey A.; Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmistha; Paul, Terrance

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To produce a novel, efficient measure of children's expressive vocal development on the basis of automatic vocalization assessment (AVA), child vocalizations were automatically identified and extracted from audio recordings using Language Environment Analysis (LENA) System technology. Method: Assessment was based on full-day audio…

  10. Biomechanical effects of hydration in vocal fold tissues.

    PubMed

    Chan, Roger W; Tayama, Niro

    2002-05-01

    It has often been hypothesized, with little empirical support, that vocal fold hydration affects voice production by mediating changes in vocal fold tissue rheology. To test this hypothesis, we attempted in this study to quantify the effects of hydration on the viscoelastic shear properties of vocal fold tissues in vitro. Osmotic changes in hydration (dehydration and rehydration) of 5 excised canine larynges were induced by sequential incubation of the tissues in isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutions. Elastic shear modulus (G'), dynamic viscosity eta' and the damping ratio zeta of the vocal fold mucosa (lamina propria) were measured as a function of frequency (0.01 to 15 Hz) with a torsional rheometer. Vocal fold tissue stiffness (G') and viscosity (eta) increased significantly (by 4 to 7 times) with the osmotically induced dehydration, whereas they decreased by 22% to 38% on the induced rehydration. Damping ratio (zeta) also increased with dehydration and decreased with rehydration, but the detected differences were not statistically significant at all frequencies. These findings support the long-standing hypothesis that hydration affects vocal fold vibration by altering tissue rheologic (or viscoelastic) properties. Our results demonstrated the biomechanical importance of hydration in vocal fold tissues and suggested that hydration approaches may potentially improve the biomechanics of phonation in vocal fold lesions involving disordered fluid balance.

  11. Responses of primate frontal cortex neurons during natural vocal communication.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cory T; Thomas, A Wren; Nummela, Samuel U; de la Mothe, Lisa A

    2015-08-01

    The role of primate frontal cortex in vocal communication and its significance in language evolution have a controversial history. While evidence indicates that vocalization processing occurs in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurons, vocal-motor activity has been conjectured to be primarily subcortical and suggestive of a distinctly different neural architecture from humans. Direct evidence of neural activity during natural vocal communication is limited, as previous studies were performed in chair-restrained animals. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons across multiple regions of prefrontal and premotor cortex while freely moving marmosets engaged in a natural vocal behavior known as antiphonal calling. Our aim was to test whether neurons in marmoset frontal cortex exhibited responses during vocal-signal processing and/or vocal-motor production in the context of active, natural communication. We observed motor-related changes in single neuron activity during vocal production, but relatively weak sensory responses for vocalization processing during this natural behavior. Vocal-motor responses occurred both prior to and during call production and were typically coupled to the timing of each vocalization pulse. Despite the relatively weak sensory responses a population classifier was able to distinguish between neural activity that occurred during presentations of vocalization stimuli that elicited an antiphonal response and those that did not. These findings are suggestive of the role that nonhuman primate frontal cortex neurons play in natural communication and provide an important foundation for more explicit tests of the functional contributions of these neocortical areas during vocal behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Responses of primate frontal cortex neurons during natural vocal communication

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, A. Wren; Nummela, Samuel U.; de la Mothe, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of primate frontal cortex in vocal communication and its significance in language evolution have a controversial history. While evidence indicates that vocalization processing occurs in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurons, vocal-motor activity has been conjectured to be primarily subcortical and suggestive of a distinctly different neural architecture from humans. Direct evidence of neural activity during natural vocal communication is limited, as previous studies were performed in chair-restrained animals. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons across multiple regions of prefrontal and premotor cortex while freely moving marmosets engaged in a natural vocal behavior known as antiphonal calling. Our aim was to test whether neurons in marmoset frontal cortex exhibited responses during vocal-signal processing and/or vocal-motor production in the context of active, natural communication. We observed motor-related changes in single neuron activity during vocal production, but relatively weak sensory responses for vocalization processing during this natural behavior. Vocal-motor responses occurred both prior to and during call production and were typically coupled to the timing of each vocalization pulse. Despite the relatively weak sensory responses a population classifier was able to distinguish between neural activity that occurred during presentations of vocalization stimuli that elicited an antiphonal response and those that did not. These findings are suggestive of the role that nonhuman primate frontal cortex neurons play in natural communication and provide an important foundation for more explicit tests of the functional contributions of these neocortical areas during vocal behaviors. PMID:26084912

  13. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  14. Assessing and treating vocal stereotypy in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, William H; Clark, Kathy M; MacDonald, Rebecca P F; Chung, Bo In

    2007-01-01

    Previous research implies that stereotypic behavior tends to be maintained by the sensory consequences produced by engaging in the response. Few investigations, however, have focused on vocal stereotypy. The current study examined the noncommunicative vocalizations of 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder. First, functional analyses were conducted in an attempt to identify the function of each child's behavior. For each of the participants, it was found that vocal stereotypy was likely not maintained by the social consequences. Following assessment, response interruption and redirection (RIRD) was implemented in an ABAB design to determine whether vocal stereotypy could be successfully redirected. RIRD involved a teacher issuing a series of vocal demands the child readily complied with during regular academic programming. Vocal demands were presented contingent on the occurrence of vocal stereotypy and were continuously presented until the child complied with three consecutively issued demands without emitting vocal stereotypy. For each child, RIRD produced levels of vocal stereotypy substantially lower than those observed in baseline. For 3 of the children, an increase in appropriate communication was also observed. The children's teachers were trained to implement RIRD. Brief follow-up probes and anecdotal information implied that the treatment had a positive impact in the natural environment.

  15. Assessing and Treating Vocal Stereotypy in children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ahearn, William H; Clark, Kathy M; MacDonald, Rebecca P.F; In Chung, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Previous research implies that stereotypic behavior tends to be maintained by the sensory consequences produced by engaging in the response. Few investigations, however, have focused on vocal stereotypy. The current study examined the noncommunicative vocalizations of 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder. First, functional analyses were conducted in an attempt to identify the function of each child's behavior. For each of the participants, it was found that vocal stereotypy was likely not maintained by the social consequences. Following assessment, response interruption and redirection (RIRD) was implemented in an ABAB design to determine whether vocal stereotypy could be successfully redirected. RIRD involved a teacher issuing a series of vocal demands the child readily complied with during regular academic programming. Vocal demands were presented contingent on the occurrence of vocal stereotypy and were continuously presented until the child complied with three consecutively issued demands without emitting vocal stereotypy. For each child, RIRD produced levels of vocal stereotypy substantially lower than those observed in baseline. For 3 of the children, an increase in appropriate communication was also observed. The children's teachers were trained to implement RIRD. Brief follow-up probes and anecdotal information implied that the treatment had a positive impact in the natural environment. PMID:17624067

  16. Wavelet based detection of manatee vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, Berke M.; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2005-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. Several boater warning systems, based upon manatee vocalizations, have been proposed to reduce the number of collisions. Three detection methods based on the Fourier transform (threshold, harmonic content and autocorrelation methods) were previously suggested and tested. In the last decade, the wavelet transform has emerged as an alternative to the Fourier transform and has been successfully applied in various fields of science and engineering including the acoustic detection of dolphin vocalizations. As of yet, no prior research has been conducted in analyzing manatee vocalizations using the wavelet transform. Within this study, the wavelet transform is used as an alternative to the Fourier transform in detecting manatee vocalizations. The wavelet coefficients are analyzed and tested against a specified criterion to determine the existence of a manatee call. The performance of the method presented is tested on the same data previously used in the prior studies, and the results are compared. Preliminary results indicate that using the wavelet transform as a signal processing technique to detect manatee vocalizations shows great promise.

  17. Modeling the biomechanical influence of epilaryngeal stricture on the vocal folds: a low-dimensional model of vocal-ventricular fold coupling.

    PubMed

    Moisik, Scott R; Esling, John H

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE Physiological and phonetic studies suggest that, at moderate levels of epilaryngeal stricture, the ventricular folds impinge upon the vocal folds and influence their dynamical behavior, which is thought to be responsible for constricted laryngeal sounds. In this work, the authors examine this hypothesis through biomechanical modeling. METHOD The dynamical response of a low-dimensional, lumped-element model of the vocal folds under the influence of vocal-ventricular fold coupling was evaluated. The model was assessed for F0 and cover-mass phase difference. Case studies of simulations of different constricted phonation types and of glottal stop illustrate various additional aspects of model performance. RESULTS Simulated vocal-ventricular fold coupling lowers F0 and perturbs the mucosal wave. It also appears to reinforce irregular patterns of oscillation, and it can enhance laryngeal closure in glottal stop production. CONCLUSION The effects of simulated vocal-ventricular fold coupling are consistent with sounds, such as creaky voice, harsh voice, and glottal stop, that have been observed to involve epilaryngeal stricture and apparent contact between the vocal folds and ventricular folds. This supports the view that vocal-ventricular fold coupling is important in the vibratory dynamics of such sounds and, furthermore, suggests that these sounds may intrinsically require epilaryngeal stricture.

  18. Mechanomimetic hydrogels for vocal fold lamina propria regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kutty, Jaishankar K; Webb, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Vocal fold injury commonly leads to reduced vocal quality due to scarring-induced alterations in matrix composition and tissue biomechanics. The long-term hypothesis motivating our work is that rapid restoration of phonation and the associated dynamic mechanical environment will reduce scarring and promote regenerative healing. Toward this end, the objective of this study was to develop mechanomimetic, degradable hydrogels approximating the viscoelastic properties of the vocal ligament and mucosa that may be photopolymerized in situ to restore structural integrity to vocal fold tissues. The tensile and rheological properties of hydrogels (targeting the vocal ligament and mucosa, respectively) were varied as a function of macromer concentration. PEG diacrylate-based hydrogels exhibited linear stress-strain response and elastic modulus consistent with the properties of the vocal ligament at low strains (0-15%), but did not replicate the non-linear behavior observed in native tissue at higher strains. Methacrylated hyaluronic acid hydrogels displayed dynamic viscosity consistent with native vocal mucosa, while elastic shear moduli values were several-fold higher. Cell culture studies indicated that both hydrogels supported spreading, proliferation and collagen/proteoglycan matrix deposition by encapsulated fibroblasts throughout the 3D network.

  19. Bilateral vocal cord paralysis in children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Eunice Y; Inglis, Andrew F

    2008-10-01

    Bilateral vocal cord paralysis in children with its many causes presents a challenging problem to the pediatric otolaryngologist. Traditionally, management of bilateral vocal cord paralysis includes securing the airway with a tracheotomy and waiting for spontaneous recovery. Surgeons have tried a variety of surgical procedures in lieu of or in addition to tracheotomy, but none are perfect solutions to the problem. This article reviews the current surgical procedures for bilateral vocal cord paralysis in the pediatric population with a particular focus on the senior author's experience with the endoscopic posterior costal cartilage grafting procedure.

  20. Gestures, vocalizations, and memory in language origins.

    PubMed

    Aboitiz, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES THE POSSIBLE HOMOLOGIES BETWEEN THE HUMAN LANGUAGE NETWORKS AND COMPARABLE AUDITORY PROJECTION SYSTEMS IN THE MACAQUE BRAIN, IN AN ATTEMPT TO RECONCILE TWO EXISTING VIEWS ON LANGUAGE EVOLUTION: one that emphasizes hand control and gestures, and the other that emphasizes auditory-vocal mechanisms. The capacity for language is based on relatively well defined neural substrates whose rudiments have been traced in the non-human primate brain. At its core, this circuit constitutes an auditory-vocal sensorimotor circuit with two main components, a "ventral pathway" connecting anterior auditory regions with anterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas, and a "dorsal pathway" connecting auditory areas with parietal areas and with posterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas via the arcuate fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In humans, the dorsal circuit is especially important for phonological processing and phonological working memory, capacities that are critical for language acquisition and for complex syntax processing. In the macaque, the homolog of the dorsal circuit overlaps with an inferior parietal-premotor network for hand and gesture selection that is under voluntary control, while vocalizations are largely fixed and involuntary. The recruitment of the dorsal component for vocalization behavior in the human lineage, together with a direct cortical control of the subcortical vocalizing system, are proposed to represent a fundamental innovation in human evolution, generating an inflection point that permitted the explosion of vocal language and human communication. In this context, vocal communication and gesturing have a common history in primate communication.

  1. Influence of abusive vocal habits, hydration, mastication, and sleep in the occurrence of vocal symptoms in teachers.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leslie Piccolotto; de Oliveira Latorre, Maria do Rosario Dias; Pinto Giannini, Susana Pimentel; de Assis Moura Ghirardi, Ana Carolina; de Fraga e Karmann, Delmira; Silva, Eliana Egerland; Figueira, Silmara

    2010-01-01

    Some vocal disorders in teachers are associated with occupational factors, but there are few studies that analyze the influence of vocal habits, fluid intake, mastication, and sleep on these disorders. The objective was to analyze the occurrence of vocal fatigue, hoarseness, and dry throat in elementary and high school teachers and their association with vocal habits, fluid intake, mastication, and sleep. A sample of 422 elementary and secondary school teachers was studied using a specific questionnaire. The multiple regression analysis showed that hoarseness was associated with absence of water intake (odds ratio (OR)=1.7; P=0.047), yelling/speaking loudly (OR=1.6; P=0.058), jaw-opening limitations (OR=3.8; P=0.003), average of 6 hours of sleep/night (OR=1.7; P=0.039), and waking-up feeling replenished (OR=2.0; P=0.020). The presence of vocal fatigue was significantly associated with yelling/speaking loudly (OR=2.2; P=0.013), speaking excessively (OR=2.4; P=0.023), difficulty to open the mouth to masticate (OR=6.6; P=0.003), less than 6 hours of sleep (OR=4.0; P=0.008), and waking-up feeling replenished (sometimes OR=2.8; P=0.003; or never OR=3.3; P=0.002). The presence of dry throat was associated with being a former smoker (OR=3.3; P=0.011) and having jaw-opening limitations (OR=3.9; P=0.021). In recent years, speech and hearing interventions with teachers have focused on health-care promotion actions and prevention of vocal disorders, prioritizing issues related with hydration and healthy vocal use habits. However, the findings in the present study show the need to further focus on lifestyle habits related to sleep and eating habits. Copyright 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. What automated vocal analysis reveals about the vocal production and language learning environment of young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Warren, Steven F; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A; Oller, D Kimbrough; Xu, Dongxin; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmistha

    2010-05-01

    The study compared the vocal production and language learning environments of 26 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to 78 typically developing children using measures derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processor and audio-processing algorithms measured the amount of adult words to children and the amount of vocalizations they produced during 12-h recording periods in their natural environments. The results indicated significant differences between typically developing children and children with ASD in the characteristics of conversations, the number of conversational turns, and in child vocalizations that correlated with parent measures of various child characteristics. Automated measurement of the language learning environment of young children with ASD reveals important differences from the environments experienced by typically developing children.

  3. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Vocal Folds: A Study on a Chronic Vocal Fold Scar

    PubMed Central

    Vassiliki, Kalodimou; Irini, Messini; Nikolaos, Psychalakis; Karampela, Eleftheria; Apostolos, Papalois

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to assess the histological effects of autologous infusion of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) on a chronic vocal fold scar in a rabbit model as compared to an untreated scar as well as in injection of hyaluronic acid. Study Design. Animal experiment. Method. We used 74 New Zealand rabbits. Sixteen of them were used as control/normal group. We created a bilateral vocal fold wound in the remaining 58 rabbits. After 18 months we separated our population into three groups. The first group served as control/scarred group. The second one was injected with hyaluronic acid in the vocal folds, and the third received an autologous adipose-derived stem cell infusion in the scarred vocal folds (ADSC group). We measured the variation of thickness of the lamina propria of the vocal folds and analyzed histopathologic changes in each group after three months. Results. The thickness of the lamina propria was significantly reduced in the group that received the ADSC injection, as compared to the normal/scarred group. The collagen deposition, the hyaluronic acid, the elastin levels, and the organization of elastic fibers tend to return to normal after the injection of ADSC. Conclusions. Autologous injection of adipose-derived stem cells on a vocal fold chronic scar enhanced the healing of the vocal folds and the reduction of the scar tissue, even when compared to other treatments. PMID:26933440

  4. Vocal patterns in infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Canonical babbling status and vocalization frequency

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Elena; Belardi, Katie; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Labban, Jeffrey D.; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Canonical babbling is a critical milestone for speech development and is usually well in place by 10 months. The possibility that infants with ASD show late onset of canonical babbling has so far eluded evaluation. Rate of vocalization or “volubility” has also been suggested as possibly aberrant in infants with ASD. We conducted a retrospective video study examining vocalizations of 37 infants at 9–12 and 15–18 months. Twenty-three of the 37 infants were later diagnosed with ASD and indeed produced low rates of canonical babbling and low volubility by comparison with the 14 typically developing infants. The study thus supports suggestions that very early vocal patterns may prove to be a useful component of early screening and diagnosis of ASD. PMID:24482292

  5. Female Presence and Estrous State Influence Mouse Ultrasonic Courtship Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jessica L.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is an emerging model for context-dependent vocal signaling and reception. Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations are robustly produced in social contexts. In adults, male vocalization during courtship has become a model of interest for signal-receiver interactions. These vocalizations can be grouped into syllable types that are consistently produced by different subspecies and strains of mice. Vocalizations are unique to individuals, vary across development, and depend on social housing conditions. The behavioral significance of different syllable types, including the contexts in which different vocalizations are made and the responses listeners have to different types of vocalizations, is not well understood. We examined the effect of female presence and estrous state on male vocalizations by exploring the use of syllable types and the parameters of syllables during courtship. We also explored correlations between vocalizations and other behaviors. These experimental manipulations produced four main findings: 1) vocalizations varied among males, 2) the production of USVs and an increase in the use of a specific syllable type were temporally related to mounting behavior, 3) the frequency (kHz), bandwidth, and duration of syllables produced by males were influenced by the estrous phase of female partners, and 4) syllable types changed when females were removed. These findings show that mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations are sensitive to changes in female phase and presence, further demonstrating the context-sensitivity of these calls. PMID:22815817

  6. Histopathologic investigations of the unphonated human child vocal fold mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kiminori; Umeno, Hirohito; Nakashima, Tadashi; Nonaka, Satoshi; Harabuchi, Yasuaki

    2012-01-01

    Vocal fold stellate cells (VFSCs) in the maculae flavae (MFe) located at both ends of the vocal fold mucosa are inferred to be involved in the metabolism of extracellular matrices. MFe are also considered to be an important structure in the growth and development of the human vocal fold mucosa. Tension caused by phonation (vocal fold vibration) is hypothesized to stimulate VFSCs to accelerate production of extracellular matrices. Human child vocal fold mucosae unphonated since birth were investigated histologically. Histologic analysis of human child vocal fold mucosa. Vocal fold mucosae, which have remained unphonated since birth, of two children (7 and 12 years old) with cerebral palsy were investigated by light and electron microscopy and compared with normal subjects. Vocal fold mucosae and MFe were hypoplastic and rudimentary and did not have a vocal ligament, Reinke's space, or the layered structure. The lamina propria appeared as a uniform structure. Some VFSCs in the MFe showed degeneration and not many vesicles were present at the periphery of the cytoplasm. The VFSCs synthesized fewer extracellular matrices, such as fibrous protein and glycosaminoglycan. The VFSCs appeared to have decreased activity. Vocal fold vibration (phonation) after birth is an important factor in the growth and development of the human vocal fold mucosa. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Krauter, K. G.

    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain imagesmore » as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.« less

  8. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  9. Discriminating Simulated Vocal Tremor Source Using Amplitude Modulation Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Kathy M.; Lester, Rosemary A.; Story, Brad H.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Sources of vocal tremor are difficult to categorize perceptually and acoustically. This paper describes a preliminary attempt to discriminate vocal tremor sources through the use of spectral measures of the amplitude envelope. The hypothesis is that different vocal tremor sources are associated with distinct patterns of acoustic amplitude modulations. Study Design Statistical categorization methods (discriminant function analysis) were used to discriminate signals from simulated vocal tremor with different sources using only acoustic measures derived from the amplitude envelopes. Methods Simulations of vocal tremor were created by modulating parameters of a vocal fold model corresponding to oscillations of respiratory driving pressure (respiratory tremor), degree of vocal fold adduction (adductory tremor) and fundamental frequency of vocal fold vibration (F0 tremor). The acoustic measures were based on spectral analyses of the amplitude envelope computed across the entire signal and within select frequency bands. Results The signals could be categorized (with accuracy well above chance) in terms of the simulated tremor source using only measures of the amplitude envelope spectrum even when multiple sources of tremor were included. Conclusions These results supply initial support for an amplitude-envelope based approach to identify the source of vocal tremor and provide further evidence for the rich information about talker characteristics present in the temporal structure of the amplitude envelope. PMID:25532813

  10. Comparative analysis of perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis and indirect laryngoscopy for vocal assessment of a population with vocal complaint.

    PubMed

    Nemr, Kátia; Amar, Ali; Abrahão, Marcio; Leite, Grazielle Capatto de Almeida; Köhle, Juliana; Santos, Alexandra de O; Correa, Luiz Artur Costa

    2005-01-01

    As a result of technology evolution and development, methods of voice evaluation have changed both in medical and speech and language pathology practice. To relate the results of perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis and medical evaluation in the diagnosis of vocal and/or laryngeal affections of the population with vocal complaint. Clinical prospective. 29 people that attended vocal health protection campaign were evaluated. They were submitted to perceptual evaluation (AFPA), acoustic analysis (AA), indirect laryngoscopy (LI) and telelaryngoscopy (TL). Correlations between medical and speech language pathology evaluation methods were established, verifying possible statistical signification with the application of Fischer Exact Test. There were statistically significant results in the correlation between AFPA and LI, AFPA and TL, LI and TL. This research study conducted in a vocal health protection campaign presented correlations between speech language pathology evaluation and perceptual evaluation and clinical evaluation, as well as between vocal affection and/or laryngeal medical exams.

  11. A Computational Study of Vocal Fold Dehydration During Phonation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2017-12-01

    While vocal fold dehydration is often considered an important factor contributing to vocal fatigue, it still remains unclear whether vocal fold vibration alone is able to induce severe dehydration that has a noticeable effect on phonation and perceived vocal effort. A three-dimensional model was developed to investigate vocal fold systemic dehydration and surface dehydration during phonation. Based on the linear poroelastic theory, the model considered water resupply from blood vessels through the lateral boundary, water movement within the vocal folds, water exchange between the vocal folds and the surface liquid layer through the epithelium, and surface fluid accumulation and discharge to the glottal airway. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate water loss within the vocal folds and from the surface after a 5-min sustained phonation under different permeability and vibration conditions. The results showed that the dehydration generally increased with increasing vibration amplitude, increasing epithelial permeability, and reduced water resupply. With adequate water resupply, a large-amplitude vibration can induce an overall systemic dehydration as high as 3%. The distribution of water loss within the vocal folds was non-uniform, and a local dehydration higher than 5% was observed even under conditions of a low overall systemic dehydration (<1%). Such high level of water loss may severely affect tissue properties, muscular functions, and phonations characteristics. In contrast, water loss of the surface liquid layer was generally an order of magnitude higher than water loss inside the vocal folds, indicating that the surface dehydration level is likely not a good indicator of the systemic dehydration.

  12. Vocal activity of lesser galagos (Galago spp.) at zoos.

    PubMed

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan; Štefanská, Lucie; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Lhota, Stanislav; Brandl, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Almost nothing is known about the natural vocal behavior of lesser galagos living in zoos. This is perhaps because they are usually kept in nocturnal exhibits separated from the visitors by a transparent and acoustically insulating glass barrier. The aim of the present study was therefore to fill this gap in knowledge of the vocal behavior of lesser galagos from zoos. This knowledge might be beneficial because the vocalizations of these small primates can be used for species determination. We performed a 10-day-long acoustic monitoring of vocal activity in each of seven various groups of Galago senegalensis and G. moholi living at four zoos. We quantitatively evaluated the occurrence of four loud vocalization types present in both species, including the most species-specific advertisement call. We found that qualitative as well as quantitative differences exist in the vocal behavior of the studied groups. We confirmed that the observed vocalization types can be collected from lesser galagos living at zoos, and the success can be increased by selecting larger and more diverse groups. We found two distinct patterns of diel vocal activity in the most vocally active groups. G. senegalensis groups were most vocally active at the beginning and at the end of their activity period, whereas one G. moholi group showed an opposite pattern. The latter is surprising, as it is generally accepted that lesser galagos emit advertisement calls especially at dawn and dusk, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of their diel activity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Experimental analysis of the characteristics of artificial vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Misun, Vojtech; Svancara, Pavel; Vasek, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Specialized literature presents a number of models describing the function of the vocal folds. In most of those models, an emphasis is placed on the air flowing through the glottis and, further, on the effect of the parameters of the air alone (its mass, speed, and so forth). The article focuses on the constructional definition of artificial vocal folds and their experimental analysis. The analysis is conducted for voiced source voice phonation and for the changing mean value of the subglottal pressure. The article further deals with the analysis of the pressure of the airflow through the vocal folds, which is cut (separated) into individual pulses by the vibrating vocal folds. The analysis results show that air pulse characteristics are relevant to voice generation, as they are produced by the flowing air and vibrating vocal folds. A number of artificial vocal folds have been constructed to date, and the aforementioned view of their phonation is confirmed by their analysis. The experiments have confirmed that man is able to consciously affect only two parameters of the source voice, that is, its fundamental frequency and voice intensity. The main forces acting on the vocal folds during phonation are as follows: subglottal air pressure and elastic and inertia forces of the vocal folds' structure. The correctness of the function of the artificial vocal folds is documented by the experimental verification of the spectra of several types of artificial vocal folds. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early experience shapes vocal neural coding and perception in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds, like humans, are highly accomplished vocal learners. The many parallels between speech and birdsong and conserved features of mammalian and avian auditory systems have led to the emergence of the songbird as a model system for studying the perceptual mechanisms of vocal communication. Laboratory research on songbirds allows the careful control of early life experience and high-resolution analysis of brain function during vocal learning, production and perception. Here, I review what songbird studies have revealed about the role of early experience in the development of vocal behavior, auditory perception and the processing of learned vocalizations by auditory neurons. The findings of these studies suggest general principles for how exposure to vocalizations during development and into adulthood influences the perception of learned vocal signals. PMID:22711657

  15. Mechanical properties of the vocal fold. Stress-strain studies.

    PubMed

    Haji, T; Mori, K; Omori, K; Isshiki, N

    1992-01-01

    The viscoelasticity of the vocal and ventricular folds was experimentally assessed by analyzing the stress-strain relationships obtained using a newly developed measuring system. The degree of stiffness of the mid-membranous portion of the vocal fold was less than that near the anterior commissure or the vocal process. The ventricular fold was much less stiff and significantly more viscous than the vocal fold. At the membranous portion of the vocal fold, the degree of stiffness was less and that of viscosity greater at 2 mm above and below the free margin than at the free margin itself.

  16. Side population cells in the human vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Masaru; Hirano, Shigeru; Kanemaru, Shin-ichi; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Suehiro, Atsushi; Ito, Juichi

    2007-11-01

    The regenerative processes of the vocal fold, or the existence of stem cells in the folds, are unknown. Side population (SP) cells are defined as cells that have the ability to exclude the DNA binding dye, Hoechst 33342. They are regarded as a cell population enriched with stem cells and can be isolated from non-SP cells by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. This study was designed to determine whether SP cells exist in the human vocal fold, as a first step in elucidating the regenerative mechanisms of the vocal fold. Seven human excised larynges were used in this study. Two were used for fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, and 5 were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis with antibodies against an adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter family member, ABCG2, which is expressed in SP cells. The number of SP cells in the human vocal fold was about 0.2% of the total number of cells. ABCG2-positive cells were identified in both the epithelium and subepithelial tissue throughout the entire vocal fold. This preliminary study demonstrated the existence of SP cells in the human vocal fold. Further studies are warranted to clarify how these cells work in the vocal fold, particularly in the regenerative process.

  17. The Vocal Repertoire of Adult and Neonate Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis)

    PubMed Central

    Mumm, Christina A. S.; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    Animals use vocalizations to exchange information about external events, their own physical or motivational state, or about individuality and social affiliation. Infant babbling can enhance the development of the full adult vocal repertoire by providing ample opportunity for practice. Giant otters are very social and frequently vocalizing animals. They live in highly cohesive groups, generally including a reproductive pair and their offspring born in different years. This basic social structure may vary in the degree of relatedness of the group members. Individuals engage in shared group activities and different social roles and thus, the social organization of giant otters provides a basis for complex and long-term individual relationships. We recorded and analysed the vocalizations of adult and neonate giant otters from wild and captive groups. We classified the adult vocalizations according to their acoustic structure, and described their main behavioural context. Additionally, we present the first description of vocalizations uttered in babbling bouts of new born giant otters. We expected to find 1) a sophisticated vocal repertoire that would reflect the species’ complex social organisation, 2) that giant otter vocalizations have a clear relationship between signal structure and function, and 3) that the vocal repertoire of new born giant otters would comprise age-specific vocalizations as well as precursors of the adult repertoire. We found a vocal repertoire with 22 distinct vocalization types produced by adults and 11 vocalization types within the babbling bouts of the neonates. A comparison within the otter subfamily suggests a relation between vocal and social complexity, with the giant otters being the socially and vocally most complex species. PMID:25391142

  18. Histopathologic study of human vocal fold mucosa unphonated over a decade.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kiminori; Umeno, Hirohito; Ono, Takeharu; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2011-12-01

    Mechanotransduction caused by vocal fold vibration could possibly be an important factor in the maintenance of extracellular matrices and layered structure of the human adult vocal fold mucosa as a vibrating tissue after the layered structure has been completed. Vocal fold stellate cells (VFSCs) in the human maculae flavae of the vocal fold mucosa are inferred to be involved in the metabolism of extracellular matrices of the vocal fold mucosa. Maculae flavae are also considered to be an important structure in the growth and development of the human vocal fold mucosa. Tension caused by phonation (vocal fold vibration) is hypothesized to stimulate the VFSCs to accelerate production of extracellular matrices. A human adult vocal fold mucosa unphonated over a decade was investigated histopathologically. Vocal fold mucosa unphonated for 11 years and 2 months of a 64-year-old male with cerebral hemorrhage was investigated by light and electron microscopy. The vocal fold mucosae (including maculae flavae) were atrophic. The vocal fold mucosa did not have a vocal ligament, Reinke's space or a layered structure. The lamina propria appeared as a uniform structure. Morphologically, the VFSCs synthesized fewer extracellular matrices, such as fibrous protein and glycosaminoglycan. Consequently, VFSCs appeared to decrease their level of activity.

  19. The Effect of Vocal Hygiene and Behavior Modification Instruction on the Self-Reported Vocal Health Habits of Public School Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…

  20. Hemispheric processing of vocal emblem sounds.

    PubMed

    Neumann-Werth, Yael; Levy, Erika S; Obler, Loraine K

    2013-01-01

    Vocal emblems, such as shh and brr, are speech sounds that have linguistic and nonlinguistic features; thus, it is unclear how they are processed in the brain. Five adult dextral individuals with left-brain damage and moderate-severe Wernicke's aphasia, five adult dextral individuals with right-brain damage, and five Controls participated in two tasks: (1) matching vocal emblems to photographs ('picture task') and (2) matching vocal emblems to verbal translations ('phrase task'). Cross-group statistical analyses on items on which the Controls performed at ceiling revealed lower accuracy by the group with left-brain damage (than by Controls) on both tasks, and lower accuracy by the group with right-brain damage (than by Controls) on the picture task. Additionally, the group with left-brain damage performed significantly less accurately than the group with right-brain damage on the phrase task only. Findings suggest that comprehension of vocal emblems recruits more left- than right-hemisphere processing.

  1. Vascular lesions of the vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Gökcan, Kürşat Mustafa; Dursun, Gürsel

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to present symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical course, management modalities, and consequences of vascular lesions of vocal fold. This study examined 162 patients, the majority professional voice users, with vascular lesions regarding their presenting symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical courses and treatment results. The most common complaint was sudden hoarseness with hemorrhagic polyp. Microlaryngoscopic surgery was performed in 108 cases and the main indication of surgery was the presence of vocal fold mass or development of vocal polyp during clinical course. Cold microsurgery was utilized for removal of vocal fold masses and feeding vessels cauterized using low power, pulsed CO(2) laser. Acoustic analysis of patients revealed a significant improvement of jitter, shimmer and harmonics/noise ratio values after treatment. Depending on our clinical findings, we propose treatment algorithm where voice rest and behavioral therapy is the integral part and indications of surgery are individualized for each patient.

  2. Physiological aspects of a vocal exercise.

    PubMed

    Elliot, N; Sundberg, J; Gramming, P

    1997-06-01

    The physiological aim of vocal exercises is mostly understood in intuitive terms only. This article presents an attempt to document the phonatory behavior induced by a vocal exercise. An elevated vertical position of the larynx is frequently associated with hyperfunctional phonatory habits, presumably because it induces an exaggerated vocal fold adduction. Using the multichannel electroglottograph (MEGG), the laryngeal position was determined in a group of subjects who performed a voice exercise that contained extremely prolonged versions of the consonant/b:/. This exercise is used by the coauthor (N.E.) as part of a standard vocal exercise program. Two of the seven subjects were dysphonic phonastenic patients, and the rest were normal trained or untrained persons. Different attempts to calibrate the MEGG confirmed a linear relationship with larynx height, provided electrode positioning was correct. The results showed that the exercise induced substantial vertical displacements of the larynx. Comparison with larynx height during voicing of other consonants showed that the/b/, in particular, tended to lower the larynx.

  3. Vocal Learning via Social Reinforcement by Infant Marmoset Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daniel Y; Liao, Diana A; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2017-06-19

    For over half a century now, primate vocalizations have been thought to undergo little or no experience-dependent acoustic changes during development [1]. If any changes are apparent, then they are routinely (and quite reasonably) attributed to the passive consequences of growth. Indeed, previous experiments on squirrel monkeys and macaque monkeys showed that social isolation [2, 3], deafness [2], cross-fostering [4] and parental absence [5] have little or no effect on vocal development. Here, we explicitly test in marmoset monkeys-a very vocal and cooperatively breeding species [6]-whether the transformation of immature into mature contact calls by infants is influenced by contingent parental vocal feedback. Using a closed-loop design, we experimentally provided more versus less contingent vocal feedback to twin infant marmoset monkeys over their first 2 months of life, the interval during which their contact calls transform from noisy, immature calls to tonal adult-like "phee" calls [7, 8]. Infants who received more contingent feedback had a faster rate of vocal development, producing mature-sounding contact calls earlier than the other twin. The differential rate of vocal development was not linked to genetics, perinatal experience, or body growth; nor did the amount of contingency influence the overall rate of spontaneous vocal production. Thus, we provide the first experimental evidence for production-related vocal learning during the development of a nonhuman primate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The importance of hyaluronic acid in vocal fold biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Chan, R W; Gray, S D; Titze, I R

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the biomechanical properties of the human vocal fold cover (the superficial layer of the lamina propria). Vocal fold tissues were freshly excised from 5 adult male cadavers and were treated with bovine testicular hyaluronidase to selectively remove HA from the lamina propria extracellular matrix (ECM). Linear viscoelastic shear properties (elastic shear modulus and dynamic viscosity) of the tissue samples before and after enzymatic treatment were quantified as a function of frequency (0.01 to 15 Hz) by a parallel-plate rotational rheometer at 37 degrees C. On removing HA from the vocal fold ECM, the elastic shear modulus (G' ) or stiffness of the vocal fold cover decreased by an average of around 35%, while the dynamic viscosity (eta') increased by 70% at higher frequencies (>1 Hz). The results suggested that HA plays an important role in determining the biomechanical properties of the vocal fold cover. As a highly hydrated glycosaminoglycan in the vocal fold ECM, it likely contributes to the maintenance of an optimal tissue viscosity that may facilitate phonation, and an optimal tissue stiffness that may be important for vocal fundamental frequency control. HA has been proposed as a potential bioimplant for the surgical repair of vocal fold ECM defects (eg, vocal fold scarring and sulcus vocalis). Our results suggested that such clinical use may be potentially optimal for voice production from a biomechanical perspective.

  5. Differential short-term memorisation for vocal and instrumental rhythms.

    PubMed

    Klyn, Niall A M; Will, Udo; Cheong, Yong-Jeon; Allen, Erin T

    2016-07-01

    This study explores differential processing of vocal and instrumental rhythms in short-term memory with three decision (same/different judgments) and one reproduction experiment. In the first experiment, memory performance declined for delayed versus immediate recall, with accuracy for the two rhythms being affected differently: Musicians performed better than non-musicians on clapstick but not on vocal rhythms, and musicians were better on vocal rhythms in the same than in the different condition. Results for the second experiment showed that concurrent sub-vocal articulation and finger-tapping differentially affected the two rhythms and same/different decisions, but produced no evidence for articulatory loop involvement in delayed decision tasks. In a third experiment, which tested rhythm reproduction, concurrent sub-vocal articulation decreased memory performance, with a stronger deleterious effect on the reproduction of vocal than of clapstick rhythms. This suggests that the articulatory loop may only be involved in delayed reproduction not in decision tasks. The fourth experiment tested whether differences between filled and empty rhythms (continuous vs. discontinuous sounds) can explain the different memorisation of vocal and clapstick rhythms. Though significant differences were found for empty and filled instrumental rhythms, the differences between vocal and clapstick can only be explained by considering additional voice specific features.

  6. Determination of West Indian manatee vocalization levels and rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich

    2004-05-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, based upon the vocalizations of manatees, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. The feasibility of this warning system would depend mainly upon two factors: the rate at which manatees vocalize and the distance in which the manatees can be detected. The research presented in this paper verifies that the average vocalization rate of the West Indian manatee is approximately one to two times per 5-min period. Several different manatee vocalization recordings were broadcast to the manatees and their response was observed. It was found that during the broadcast periods, the vocalization rates for the manatees increased substantially when compared with the average vocalization rates during nonbroadcast periods. An array of four hydrophones was used while recording the manatees. This allowed for position estimation techniques to be used to determine the location of the vocalizing manatee. Knowing the position of the manatee, the source level was determined and it was found that the mean source level of the manatee vocalizations is approximately 112 dB (re:1 Pa) @ 1 m.

  7. Determination of West Indian manatee vocalization levels and rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2004-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, based upon the vocalizations of manatees, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. The feasibility of this warning system would depend mainly upon two factors: the rate at which manatees vocalize and the distance in which the manatees can be detected. The research presented in this paper verifies that the average vocalization rate of the West Indian manatee is approximately one to two times per 5-min period. Several different manatee vocalization recordings were broadcast to the manatees and their response was observed. It was found that during the broadcast periods, the vocalization rates for the manatees increased substantially when compared with the average vocalization rates during nonbroadcast periods. An array of four hydrophones was used while recording the manatees. This allowed for position estimation techniques to be used to determine the location of the vocalizing manatee. Knowing the position of the manatee, the source level was determined and it was found that the mean source level of the manatee vocalizations is approximately 112 dB (re 1 μPa) @ 1 m.

  8. The impact of intraglottal vortices on vocal fold dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron; Pirnia, Alireza; Peterson, Sean

    2016-11-01

    During voiced speech a critical pressure is produced in the lungs that separates the vocal folds and creates a passage (the glottis) for airflow. As air passes through the vocal folds the resulting aerodynamic loading, coupled with the tissue properties of the vocal folds, produces self-sustained oscillations. Throughout each cycle a complex flow field develops, characterized by a plethora of viscous flow phenomena. Air passing through the glottis creates a jet, with periodically-shed vortices developing due to flow separation and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer. These vortices have been hypothesized to be a crucial mechanism for producing vocal fold vibrations. In this study the effect of vortices on the vocal fold dynamics is investigated experimentally by passing a vortex ring over a flexible beam with the same non-dimensional mechanical properties as the vocal folds. Synchronized particle image velocimetry data are acquired in tandem with the beam dynamics. The resulting impact of the vortex ring loading on vocal fold dynamics is discussed in detail. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant CBET #1511761.

  9. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vocal repertoire of the social giant otter.

    PubMed

    Leuchtenberger, Caroline; Sousa-Lima, Renata; Duplaix, Nicole; Magnusson, William E; Mourão, Guilherme

    2014-11-01

    According to the "social intelligence hypothesis," species with complex social interactions have more sophisticated communication systems. Giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) live in groups with complex social interactions. It is likely that the vocal communication of giant otters is more sophisticated than previous studies suggest. The objectives of the current study were to describe the airborne vocal repertoire of giant otters in the Pantanal area of Brazil, to analyze call types within different behavioral contexts, and to correlate vocal complexity with level of sociability of mustelids to verify whether or not the result supports the social intelligence hypothesis. The behavior of nine giant otters groups was observed. Vocalizations recorded were acoustically and statistically analyzed to describe the species' repertoire. The repertoire was comprised by 15 sound types emitted in different behavioral contexts. The main behavioral contexts of each sound type were significantly associated with the acoustic variable ordination of different sound types. A strong correlation between vocal complexity and sociability was found for different species, suggesting that the communication systems observed in the family mustelidae support the social intelligence hypothesis.

  11. On the role of the reticular formation in vocal pattern generation.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Uwe; Hage, Steffen R

    2007-09-04

    This review is an attempt to localize the brain region responsible for pattern generation of species-specific vocalizations. A catalogue is set up, listing the criteria considered to be essential for a vocal pattern generator. According to this catalogue, a vocal pattern generator should show vocalization-correlated activity, starting before vocal onset and reflecting specific acoustic features of the vocalization. Artificial activation by electrical or glutamatergic stimulation should produce artificially sounding vocalization. Lesioning is expected to have an inhibitory or deteriorating effect on vocalization. Anatomically, a vocal pattern generator can be assumed to have direct or, at least, oligosynaptic connections with all the motoneuron pools involved in phonation. A survey of the literature reveals that the only area meeting all these criteria is a region, reaching from the parvocellular pontine reticular formation just above the superior olive through the lateral reticular formation around the facial nucleus and nucleus ambiguus down to the caudalmost medulla, including the dorsal and ventral reticular nuclei and nucleus retroambiguus. It is proposed that vocal pattern generation takes place within this whole region.

  12. Vocal tract and glottal function during and after vocal exercising with resonance tube and straw.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Marco; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Krupa, Petr; Horáček, Jaromir; Švec, Jan G; Geneid, Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the vocal tract and glottal function during and after phonation into a tube and a stirring straw. A male classically trained singer was assessed. Computerized tomography (CT) was performed when the subject produced [a:] at comfortable speaking pitch, phonated into the resonance tube and when repeating [a:] after the exercise. Similar procedure was performed with a narrow straw after 15 minutes silence. Anatomic distances and area measures were obtained from CT midsagittal and transversal images. Acoustic, perceptual, electroglottographic (EGG), and subglottic pressure measures were also obtained. During and after phonation into the tube or straw, the velum closed the nasal passage better, the larynx position lowered, and hypopharynx area widened. Moreover, the ratio between the inlet of the lower pharynx and the outlet of the epilaryngeal tube became larger during and after tube/straw phonation. Acoustic results revealed a stronger spectral prominence in the singer/speaker's formant cluster region after exercising. Listening test demonstrated better voice quality after straw/tube than before. Contact quotient derived from EGG decreased during both tube and straw and remained lower after exercising. Subglottic pressure increased during straw and remained somewhat higher after it. CT and acoustic results indicated that vocal exercises with increased vocal tract impedance lead to increased vocal efficiency and economy. One of the major changes was the more prominent singer's/speaker's formant cluster. Vocal tract and glottal modifications were more prominent during and after straw exercising compared with tube phonation. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adapted to Roar: Functional Morphology of Tiger and Lion Vocal Folds

    PubMed Central

    Klemuk, Sarah A.; Riede, Tobias; Walsh, Edward J.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2011-01-01

    Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between morphology and vocal function of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and morphological data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary function is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice. PMID:22073246

  14. Differential Expression of Glutamate Receptors in Avian Neural Pathways for Learned Vocalization

    PubMed Central

    WADA, KAZUHIRO; SAKAGUCHI, HIRONOBU; JARVIS, ERICH D.; HAGIWARA, MASATOSHI

    2008-01-01

    Learned vocalization, the substrate for human language, is a rare trait. It is found in three distantly related groups of birds—parrots, hummingbirds, and songbirds. These three groups contain cerebral vocal nuclei for learned vocalization not found in their more closely related vocal nonlearning relatives. Here, we cloned 21 receptor subunits/subtypes of all four glutamate receptor families (AMPA, kainate, NMDA, and metabotropic) and examined their expression in vocal nuclei of songbirds. We also examined expression of a subset of these receptors in vocal nuclei of hummingbirds and parrots, as well as in the brains of dove species as examples of close vocal nonlearning relatives. Among the 21 subunits/subtypes, 19 showed higher and/or lower prominent differential expression in songbird vocal nuclei relative to the surrounding brain subdivisions in which the vocal nuclei are located. This included relatively lower levels of all four AMPA subunits in lMAN, strikingly higher levels of the kainite subunit GluR5 in the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), higher and lower levels respectively of the NMDA subunits NR2A and NR2B in most vocal nuclei and lower levels of the metabotropic group I subtypes (mGluR1 and -5) in most vocal nuclei and the group II subtype (mGluR2), showing a unique expression pattern of very low levels in RA and very high levels in HVC. The splice variants of AMPA subunits showed further differential expression in vocal nuclei. Some of the receptor subunits/subtypes also showed differential expression in hummingbird and parrot vocal nuclei. The magnitude of differential expression in vocal nuclei of all three vocal learners was unique compared with the smaller magnitude of differences found for nonvocal areas of vocal learners and vocal nonlearners. Our results suggest that evolution of vocal learning was accompanied by differential expression of a conserved gene family for synaptic transmission and plasticity in vocal nuclei. They also

  15. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. The developmental dynamics of marmoset monkey vocal production.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, D Y; Fenley, A R; Teramoto, Y; Narayanan, D Z; Borjon, J I; Holmes, P; Ghazanfar, A A

    2015-08-14

    Human vocal development occurs through two parallel interactive processes that transform infant cries into more mature vocalizations, such as cooing sounds and babbling. First, natural categories of sounds change as the vocal apparatus matures. Second, parental vocal feedback sensitizes infants to certain features of those sounds, and the sounds are modified accordingly. Paradoxically, our closest living ancestors, nonhuman primates, are thought to undergo few or no production-related acoustic changes during development, and any such changes are thought to be impervious to social feedback. Using early and dense sampling, quantitative tracking of acoustic changes, and biomechanical modeling, we showed that vocalizations in infant marmoset monkeys undergo dramatic changes that cannot be solely attributed to simple consequences of growth. Using parental interaction experiments, we found that contingent parental feedback influences the rate of vocal development. These findings overturn decades-old ideas about primate vocalizations and show that marmoset monkeys are a compelling model system for early vocal development in humans. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Vocal Atypicalities of Preverbal Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Mundy, Peter; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Steffens, Michele

    2000-01-01

    A study compared 11 preschool children with developmental delays and 15 with autism to evaluate early vocal behaviors in young children with autism. Results indicated that children with autism did not have difficulty with the expression of well-formed syllables, however they did display significant impairments in vocal quality. (Contains…

  17. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of vocal fold nodules.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jacqui E; Belafsky, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    Promising new techniques in the management of vocal fold nodules have been developed in the past 2 years. Simultaneously, the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin has rapidly expanded. This review explores the use of botulinum toxin in treatment of vocal nodules and summarizes current therapeutic concepts. New microsurgical instruments and techniques, refinements in laser technology, radiosurgical excision and steroid intralesional injections are all promising new techniques in the management of vocal nodules. Botulinum toxin-induced 'voice rest' is a new technique we have employed in patients with recalcitrant nodules. Successful resolution of nodules is possible with this technique, without the risk of vocal fold scarring inherent in dissection/excision techniques. Botulinum toxin usage is exponentially increasing, and large-scale, long-term studies demonstrate its safety profile. Targeted vocal fold temporary paralysis induced by botulinum toxin injection is a new, well tolerated and efficacious treatment in patients with persistent vocal fold nodules.

  18. The Effect of Teaching Experience and Specialty (Vocal or Instrumental) on Vocal Health Ratings of Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2010-01-01

    The current study sought to determine the relationship among music teachers' length of teaching experience, specialty (vocal or instrumental), and ratings of behaviors and teaching activities related to vocal health. Participants (N = 379) were experienced (n = 208) and preservice (n = 171) music teachers, further categorized by specialty, either…

  19. Auditory responses in the amygdala to social vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    The underlying goal of this dissertation is to understand how the amygdala, a brain region involved in establishing the emotional significance of sensory input, contributes to the processing of complex sounds. The general hypothesis is that communication calls of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) transmit relevant information about social context that is reflected in the activity of amygdalar neurons. The first specific aim analyzed social vocalizations emitted under a variety of behavioral contexts, and related vocalizations to an objective measure of internal physiological state by monitoring the heart rate of vocalizing bats. These experiments revealed a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a sender. The second specific aim characterized the responsiveness of single neurons in the basolateral amygdala to a range of social syllables. Neurons typically respond to the majority of tested syllables, but effectively discriminate among vocalizations by varying the response duration. This novel coding strategy underscores the importance of persistent firing in the general functioning of the amygdala. The third specific aim examined the influence of acoustic context by characterizing both the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to natural vocal sequences. Vocal sequences differentially modify the internal affective state of a listening bat, with lower aggression vocalizations evoking the greatest change in heart rate. Amygdalar neurons employ two different coding strategies: low background neurons respond selectively to very few stimuli, whereas high background neurons respond broadly to stimuli but demonstrate variation in response magnitude and timing. Neurons appear to discriminate the valence of stimuli, with aggression sequences evoking robust population-level responses across all sound levels. Further, vocal sequences show improved discrimination among stimuli

  20. Vocal education for the professional voice user and singer.

    PubMed

    Murry, T; Rosen, C A

    2000-10-01

    Providing education on voice-related anatomy, physiology, and vocal hygiene information is the responsibility of every voice care professional. This article discusses the importance of a vocal education program for singers and professional voice users. An outline of a vocal education lecture is provided.

  1. Is laughter a better vocal change detector than a growl?

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Barros, Carla; Vasconcelos, Margarida; Obermeier, Christian; Kotz, Sonja A

    2017-07-01

    The capacity to predict what should happen next and to minimize any discrepancy between an expected and an actual sensory input (prediction error) is a central aspect of perception. Particularly in vocal communication, the effective prediction of an auditory input that informs the listener about the emotionality of a speaker is critical. What is currently unknown is how the perceived valence of an emotional vocalization affects the capacity to predict and detect a change in the auditory input. This question was probed in a combined event-related potential (ERP) and time-frequency analysis approach. Specifically, we examined the brain response to standards (Repetition Positivity) and to deviants (Mismatch Negativity - MMN), as well as the anticipatory response to the vocal sounds (pre-stimulus beta oscillatory power). Short neutral, happy (laughter), and angry (growls) vocalizations were presented both as standard and deviant stimuli in a passive oddball listening task while participants watched a silent movie and were instructed to ignore the vocalizations. MMN amplitude was increased for happy compared to neutral and angry vocalizations. The Repetition Positivity was enhanced for happy standard vocalizations. Induced pre-stimulus upper beta power was increased for happy vocalizations, and predicted the modulation of the standard Repetition Positivity. These findings indicate enhanced sensory prediction for positive vocalizations such as laughter. Together, the results suggest that positive vocalizations are more effective predictors in social communication than angry and neutral ones, possibly due to their high social significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Profiles of Vocal Development in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Ertmer, David J.; Young, Nancy M.; Nathani, Suneeti

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine prelinguistic vocal development in very young cochlear implant recipients. A prospective longitudinal research design was used to observe the sequence and time-course of vocal development in seven children who were implanted between 10 and 36 months of age. Speech samples were collected twice before implant activation and on a monthly basis thereafter for up to 2 years. Children’s vocalizations were classified according to the levels of the Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development- Revised (SAEVD-R; Nathani, Ertmer, & Stark, in press). The main findings were (a) six of seven children made advancements in vocal development after implantation, (b) children implanted between 12 and 36 months progressed through SAEVD-R levels in the predicted sequence whereas a child implanted at a younger age showed a different sequence, (c) milestones in vocal development were often achieved with fewer months of hearing experience than observed in typically developing infants and appeared to be influenced by age at implantation, and (d) in general, children implanted at younger ages completed vocal development at younger chronological ages than those implanted later in life. Clinical indicators of benefit from implant use were also identified. PMID:17463237

  3. Cause of vocal fold scar.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jacqui

    2010-12-01

    The prolonged debilitation, loss of income, and decrement in quality of life caused by vocal fold scar is exacerbated by our inability to successfully treat this difficult problem. As technology focuses on developing innovative treatments, we need to fully appreciate and understand the mechanisms giving rise to glottal scar, on both a macroscopic and microscopic level. This review examines recent literature pertaining to the gross and molecular mechanisms which give rise to vocal fold scar. Mechanisms of vocal fold scar production have been examined in both macroscopic and microscopic detail. Trauma and injury involving any aspect of the lamina propria, particularly the deeper layers, may result in epithelial tethering and scar formation. At the molecular level, early inflammatory cytokines activate and recruit fibroblasts which then drive the fibrotic cascade. Transforming growth factor-β enhances fibrosis and is balanced by tissue matrix metalloproteinases and hepatocyte growth factor activity. Molecular signaling offers novel opportunities to intervene in scar formation. New work investigating the cause of vocal fold scar identifies complex molecular processes leading to fibrosis in the lamina propria. Improved mechanistic understanding offers insight into prevention strategies and possible targets for antifibrotic therapies that may help prevent or treat this debilitating condition.

  4. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bohlender, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis. PMID:24403969

  5. Human mutant huntingtin disrupts vocal learning in transgenic songbirds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Kohn, Jessica; Szwed, Sarah K; Pariser, Eben; Sepe, Sharon; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Oshimori, Naoki; Marsala, Martin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Lee, Ramee

    2015-11-01

    Speech and vocal impairments characterize many neurological disorders. However, the neurogenetic mechanisms of these disorders are not well understood, and current animal models do not have the necessary circuitry to recapitulate vocal learning deficits. We developed germline transgenic songbirds, zebra finches (Taneiopygia guttata) expressing human mutant huntingtin (mHTT), a protein responsible for the progressive deterioration of motor and cognitive function in Huntington's disease (HD). Although generally healthy, the mutant songbirds had severe vocal disorders, including poor vocal imitation, stuttering, and progressive syntax and syllable degradation. Their song abnormalities were associated with HD-related neuropathology and dysfunction of the cortical-basal ganglia (CBG) song circuit. These transgenics are, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimentally created, functional mutant songbirds. Their progressive and quantifiable vocal disorder, combined with circuit dysfunction in the CBG song system, offers a model for genetic manipulation and the development of therapeutic strategies for CBG-related vocal and motor disorders.

  6. Knockout of Foxp2 disrupts vocal development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Castellucci, Gregg A.; McGinley, Matthew J.; McCormick, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP2 gene is important for the development of proper speech motor control in humans. However, the role of the gene in general vocal behavior in other mammals, including mice, is unclear. Here, we track the vocal development of Foxp2 heterozygous knockout (Foxp2+/−) mice and their wildtype (WT) littermates from juvenile to adult ages, and observe severe abnormalities in the courtship song of Foxp2+/− mice. In comparison to their WT littermates, Foxp2+/− mice vocalized less, produced shorter syllable sequences, and possessed an abnormal syllable inventory. In addition, Foxp2+/− song also exhibited irregular rhythmic structure, and its development did not follow the consistent trajectories observed in WT vocalizations. These results demonstrate that the Foxp2 gene is critical for normal vocal behavior in juvenile and adult mice, and that Foxp2 mutant mice may provide a tractable model system for the study of the gene’s role in general vocal motor control. PMID:26980647

  7. Knockout of Foxp2 disrupts vocal development in mice.

    PubMed

    Castellucci, Gregg A; McGinley, Matthew J; McCormick, David A

    2016-03-16

    The FOXP2 gene is important for the development of proper speech motor control in humans. However, the role of the gene in general vocal behavior in other mammals, including mice, is unclear. Here, we track the vocal development of Foxp2 heterozygous knockout (Foxp2+/-) mice and their wildtype (WT) littermates from juvenile to adult ages, and observe severe abnormalities in the courtship song of Foxp2+/- mice. In comparison to their WT littermates, Foxp2+/- mice vocalized less, produced shorter syllable sequences, and possessed an abnormal syllable inventory. In addition, Foxp2+/- song also exhibited irregular rhythmic structure, and its development did not follow the consistent trajectories observed in WT vocalizations. These results demonstrate that the Foxp2 gene is critical for normal vocal behavior in juvenile and adult mice, and that Foxp2 mutant mice may provide a tractable model system for the study of the gene's role in general vocal motor control.

  8. Ultrasonic vocalizations in mouse models for speech and socio-cognitive disorders: insights into the evolution of vocal communication

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, J; Hammerschmidt, K

    2011-01-01

    Comparative analyses used to reconstruct the evolution of traits associated with the human language faculty, including its socio-cognitive underpinnings, highlight the importance of evolutionary constraints limiting vocal learning in non-human primates. After a brief overview of this field of research and the neural basis of primate vocalizations, we review studies that have addressed the genetic basis of usage and structure of ultrasonic communication in mice, with a focus on the gene FOXP2 involved in specific language impairments and neuroligin genes (NL-3 and NL-4) involved in autism spectrum disorders. Knockout of FoxP2 leads to reduced vocal behavior and eventually premature death. Introducing the human variant of FoxP2 protein into mice, in contrast, results in shifts in frequency and modulation of pup ultrasonic vocalizations. Knockout of NL-3 and NL-4 in mice diminishes social behavior and vocalizations. Although such studies may provide insights into the molecular and neural basis of social and communicative behavior, the structure of mouse vocalizations is largely innate, limiting the suitability of the mouse model to study human speech, a learned mode of production. Although knockout or replacement of single genes has perceptible effects on behavior, these genes are part of larger networks whose functions remain poorly understood. In humans, for instance, deficiencies in NL-4 can lead to a broad spectrum of disorders, suggesting that further factors (experiential and/or genetic) contribute to the variation in clinical symptoms. The precise nature as well as the interaction of these factors is yet to be determined. PMID:20579107

  9. The vocal load of Reform Jewish cantors in the USA.

    PubMed

    Hapner, Edie; Gilman, Marina

    2012-03-01

    Jewish cantors comprise a subset of vocal professionals that is not well understood by vocal health professionals. This study aimed to document the vocal demands, vocal training, reported incidence of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior of Reform Jewish cantors. The study used a prospective observational design to anonymously query Reform Jewish cantors using a 35-item multiple-choice survey distributed online. Demographic information, medical history, vocal music training, cantorial duties, history of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior were addressed. Results indicated that many of the commonly associated risk factors for developing voice disorders were present in this population, including high vocal demands, reduced vocal downtime, allergies, and acid reflux. Greater than 65% of the respondents reported having had a voice problem that interfered with their ability to perform their duties at some time during their careers. Reform Jewish cantors are a population of occupational voice users who may be currently unidentified and underserved by vocal health professionals. The results of the survey suggest that Reform Jewish cantors are occupational voice users and are at high risk for developing voice disorders. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-frequency vocalizations in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Katherine; Frisch, Stefan

    2003-10-01

    Vocalizations produced by Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) have been characterized as being of relatively high frequency, with fundamental tones ranging from 2500-5000 Hz. These sounds have been variously described as squeaks, squeals, and chirps. Vocalizations below 500 Hz have not been previously reported. Two captive-born Florida manatees were recorded at Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota, Florida. The analysis of these vocalizations provides evidence of a new category of low-frequency sounds produced by manatees. These sounds are often heard in conjunction with higher-frequency vocalizations. The low-frequency vocalizations are relatively brief and of low amplitude. These vocalizations are perceived as a series of impulses rather than a low-frequency periodic tone. Knowledge of these low-frequency vocalizations could be useful to those developing future management strategies. Interest has recently increased in the development of acoustic detection and deterrence devices to reduce the number of manatee watercraft interactions. The design of appropriate devices must take into account the apparent ability of manatees to perceive and produce sounds of both high and low frequency. It is also important to consider the possibility that acoustic deterrence devices may disrupt the potentially communicative frequencies of manatee vocalizations.

  11. Vocal fold contact patterns based on normal modes of vibration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Simeon L; Titze, Ingo R

    2018-05-17

    The fluid-structure interaction and energy transfer from respiratory airflow to self-sustained vocal fold oscillation continues to be a topic of interest in vocal fold research. Vocal fold vibration is driven by pressures on the vocal fold surface, which are determined by the shape of the glottis and the contact between vocal folds. Characterization of three-dimensional glottal shapes and contact patterns can lead to increased understanding of normal and abnormal physiology of the voice, as well as to development of improved vocal fold models, but a large inventory of shapes has not been directly studied previously. This study aimed to take an initial step toward characterizing vocal fold contact patterns systematically. Vocal fold motion and contact was modeled based on normal mode vibration, as it has been shown that vocal fold vibration can be almost entirely described by only the few lowest order vibrational modes. Symmetric and asymmetric combinations of the four lowest normal modes of vibration were superimposed on left and right vocal fold medial surfaces, for each of three prephonatory glottal configurations, according to a surface wave approach. Contact patterns were generated from the interaction of modal shapes at 16 normalized phases during the vibratory cycle. Eight major contact patterns were identified and characterized by the shape of the flow channel, with the following descriptors assigned: convergent, divergent, convergent-divergent, uniform, split, merged, island, and multichannel. Each of the contact patterns and its variation are described, and future work and applications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-06

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357030-11$15.00/0.

  13. Computational model for vocal tract dynamics in a suboscine bird.

    PubMed

    Assaneo, M F; Trevisan, M A

    2010-09-01

    In a recent work, active use of the vocal tract has been reported for singing oscines. The reconfiguration of the vocal tract during song serves to match its resonances to the syringeal fundamental frequency, demonstrating a precise coordination of the two main pieces of the avian vocal system for songbirds characterized by tonal songs. In this work we investigated the Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulfuratus), a suboscine bird whose calls display a rich harmonic content. Using a recently developed mathematical model for the syrinx and a mobile vocal tract, we set up a computational model that provides a plausible reconstruction of the vocal tract movement using a few spectral features taken from the utterances. Moreover, synthetic calls were generated using the articulated vocal tract that accounts for all the acoustical features observed experimentally.

  14. Geographical variation of St. Lucia Parrot flight vocalizations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleeman, Patrick M.; Gilardi, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Parrots are vocal learners and many species of parrots are capable of learning new calls, even as adults. This capability gives parrots the potential to develop communication systems that can vary dramatically over space. St. Lucia Parrot (Amazona versicolor) flight vocalizations were examined for geographic variation between four different sites on the island of St. Lucia. Spectrographic cross-correlation analysis of a commonly used flight vocalization, the p-chow call, demonstrated quantitative differences between sites. Additionally, the similarity of p-chows decreased as the distance between sites increased. Flight call repertoires also differed among sites; parrots at the Des Bottes and Quilesse sites each used one flight call unique to those sites, while parrots at the Barre de L'Isle site used a flight call that Quilesse parrots gave only while perched. It is unclear whether the vocal variation changed clinally with distance, or whether there were discrete dialect boundaries as in a congener, the Yellow-naped Parrot (Amazona auropalliata, Wright 1996). The geographical scale over which the St. Lucia Parrot's vocal variation occurred was dramatically smaller than that of the Yellow-naped Parrot. Similar patterns of fine-scale vocal variation may be more widespread among other parrot species in the Caribbean than previously documented.

  15. Material parameter computation for multi-layered vocal fold models.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bastian; Stingl, Michael; Leugering, Günter; Berry, David A; Döllinger, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Today, the prevention and treatment of voice disorders is an ever-increasing health concern. Since many occupations rely on verbal communication, vocal health is necessary just to maintain one's livelihood. Commonly applied models to study vocal fold vibrations and air flow distributions are self sustained physical models of the larynx composed of artificial silicone vocal folds. Choosing appropriate mechanical parameters for these vocal fold models while considering simplifications due to manufacturing restrictions is difficult but crucial for achieving realistic behavior. In the present work, a combination of experimental and numerical approaches to compute material parameters for synthetic vocal fold models is presented. The material parameters are derived from deformation behaviors of excised human larynges. The resulting deformations are used as reference displacements for a tracking functional to be optimized. Material optimization was applied to three-dimensional vocal fold models based on isotropic and transverse-isotropic material laws, considering both a layered model with homogeneous material properties on each layer and an inhomogeneous model. The best results exhibited a transversal-isotropic inhomogeneous (i.e., not producible) model. For the homogeneous model (three layers), the transversal-isotropic material parameters were also computed for each layer yielding deformations similar to the measured human vocal fold deformations.

  16. The Neural Basis of Vocal Pitch Imitation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Belyk, Michel; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Liotti, Mario; Brown, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Vocal imitation is a phenotype that is unique to humans among all primate species, and so an understanding of its neural basis is critical in explaining the emergence of both speech and song in human evolution. Two principal neural models of vocal imitation have emerged from a consideration of nonhuman animals. One hypothesis suggests that putative mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis of Broca's area may be important for imitation. An alternative hypothesis derived from the study of songbirds suggests that the corticostriate motor pathway performs sensorimotor processes that are specific to vocal imitation. Using fMRI with a sparse event-related sampling design, we investigated the neural basis of vocal imitation in humans by comparing imitative vocal production of pitch sequences with both nonimitative vocal production and pitch discrimination. The strongest difference between these tasks was found in the putamen bilaterally, providing a striking parallel to the role of the analogous region in songbirds. Other areas preferentially activated during imitation included the orofacial motor cortex, Rolandic operculum, and SMA, which together outline the corticostriate motor loop. No differences were seen in the inferior frontal gyrus. The corticostriate system thus appears to be the central pathway for vocal imitation in humans, as predicted from an analogy with songbirds.

  17. A new measure of child vocal reciprocity in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Amy L; Woynaroski, Tiffany G; Tapp, Jon; Wade, Joshua W; Warlaumont, Anne S; Yoder, Paul J

    2018-06-01

    Children's vocal development occurs in the context of reciprocal exchanges with a communication partner who models "speechlike" productions. We propose a new measure of child vocal reciprocity, which we define as the degree to which an adult vocal response increases the probability of an immediately following child vocal response. Vocal reciprocity is likely to be associated with the speechlikeness of vocal communication in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Two studies were conducted to test the utility of the new measure. The first used simulated vocal samples with randomly sequenced child and adult vocalizations to test the accuracy of the proposed index of child vocal reciprocity. The second was an empirical study of 21 children with ASD who were preverbal or in the early stages of language development. Daylong vocal samples collected in the natural environment were computer analyzed to derive the proposed index of child vocal reciprocity, which was highly stable when derived from two daylong vocal samples and was associated with speechlikeness of vocal communication. This association was significant even when controlling for chance probability of child vocalizations to adult vocal responses, probability of adult vocalizations, or probability of child vocalizations. A valid measure of children's vocal reciprocity might eventually improve our ability to predict which children are on track to develop useful speech and/or are most likely to respond to language intervention. A link to a free, publicly-available software program to derive the new measure of child vocal reciprocity is provided. Autism Res 2018, 11: 903-915. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Children and adults often engage in back-and-forth vocal exchanges. The extent to which they do so is believed to support children's early speech and language development. Two studies tested a new measure of child vocal reciprocity using computer

  18. Evolutionary Origins for Social Vocalization in a Vertebrate Hindbrain–Spinal Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Andrew H.; Gilland, Edwin H.; Baker, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The macroevolutionary events leading to neural innovations for social communication, such as vocalization, are essentially unexplored. Many fish vocalize during female courtship and territorial defense, as do amphibians, birds, and mammals. Here, we map the neural circuitry for vocalization in larval fish and show that the vocal network develops in a segment-like region across the most caudal hindbrain and rostral spinal cord. Taxonomic analysis demonstrates a highly conserved pattern between fish and all major lineages of vocal tetrapods. We propose that the vocal basis for acoustic communication among vertebrates evolved from an ancestrally shared developmental compartment already present in the early fishes. PMID:18635807

  19. Tissue engineering therapies for the vocal fold lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Kutty, Jaishankar K; Webb, Ken

    2009-09-01

    The vocal folds are laryngeal connective tissues with complex matrix composition/organization that provide the viscoelastic mechanical properties required for voice production. Vocal fold injury results in alterations in tissue structure and corresponding changes in tissue biomechanics that reduce vocal quality. Recent work has begun to elucidate the biochemical changes underlying injury-induced pathology and to apply tissue engineering principles to the prevention and reversal of vocal fold scarring. Based on the extensive history of injectable biomaterials in laryngeal surgery, a major focus of regenerative therapies has been the development of novel scaffolds with controlled in vivo residence time and viscoelastic properties approximating the native tissue. Additional strategies have included cell transplantation and delivery of the antifibrotic cytokine hepatocyte growth factor, as well as investigation of the effects of the unique vocal fold vibratory microenvironment using in vitro dynamic culture systems. Recent achievements of significant reductions in fibrosis and improved recovery of native tissue viscoelasticity and vibratory/functional performance in animal models are rapidly moving vocal fold tissue engineering toward clinical application.

  20. The Effect of Surface Electrical Stimulation on Vocal Fold Position

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Ianessa A.; Poletto, Christopher J.; Saxon, Keith G.; Kearney, Pamela R.; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Closure of the true and false vocal folds is a normal part of airway protection during swallowing. Individuals with reduced or delayed true vocal fold closure can be at risk for aspiration and benefit from intervention to ameliorate the problem. Surface electrical stimulation is currently used during therapy for dysphagia, despite limited knowledge of its physiological effects. Design Prospective single effects study. Methods The immediate physiological effect of surface stimulation on true vocal fold angle was examined at rest in 27 healthy adults using ten different electrode placements on the submental and neck regions. Fiberoptic nasolaryngoscopic recordings during passive inspiration were used to measure change in true vocal fold angle with stimulation. Results Vocal fold angles changed only to a small extent during two electrode placements (p ≤ 0.05). When two sets of electrodes were placed vertically on the neck the mean true vocal fold abduction was 2.4 degrees; while horizontal placements of electrodes in the submental region produced a mean adduction of 2.8 degrees (p=0.03). Conclusions Surface electrical stimulation to the submental and neck regions does not produce immediate true vocal fold adduction adequate for airway protection during swallowing and one position may produce a slight increase in true vocal fold opening. PMID:18043496

  1. What Automated Vocal Analysis Reveals about the Vocal Production and Language Learning Environment of Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Steven F.; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Xu, Dongxin; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmistha

    2010-01-01

    The study compared the vocal production and language learning environments of 26 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to 78 typically developing children using measures derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processor and audio-processing algorithms measured the amount of adult words to children and the amount of…

  2. Vocal Accuracy and Neural Plasticity Following Micromelody-Discrimination Training

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Jean Mary; Delhommeau, Karine; Wood, Sean; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent behavioral studies report correlational evidence to suggest that non-musicians with good pitch discrimination sing more accurately than those with poorer auditory skills. However, other studies have reported a dissociation between perceptual and vocal production skills. In order to elucidate the relationship between auditory discrimination skills and vocal accuracy, we administered an auditory-discrimination training paradigm to a group of non-musicians to determine whether training-enhanced auditory discrimination would specifically result in improved vocal accuracy. Methodology/Principal Findings We utilized micromelodies (i.e., melodies with seven different interval scales, each smaller than a semitone) as the main stimuli for auditory discrimination training and testing, and we used single-note and melodic singing tasks to assess vocal accuracy in two groups of non-musicians (experimental and control). To determine if any training-induced improvements in vocal accuracy would be accompanied by related modulations in cortical activity during singing, the experimental group of non-musicians also performed the singing tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Following training, the experimental group exhibited significant enhancements in micromelody discrimination compared to controls. However, we did not observe a correlated improvement in vocal accuracy during single-note or melodic singing, nor did we detect any training-induced changes in activity within brain regions associated with singing. Conclusions/Significance Given the observations from our auditory training regimen, we therefore conclude that perceptual discrimination training alone is not sufficient to improve vocal accuracy in non-musicians, supporting the suggested dissociation between auditory perception and vocal production. PMID:20567521

  3. Visual classification of feral cat Felis silvestris catus vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Jessica L.; Olsen, Mariana; Fontaine, Amy; Kloth, Christopher; Kershenbaum, Arik

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cat vocal behavior, in particular, the vocal and social behavior of feral cats, is poorly understood, as are the differences between feral and fully domestic cats. The relationship between feral cat social and vocal behavior is important because of the markedly different ecology of feral and domestic cats, and enhanced comprehension of the repertoire and potential information content of feral cat calls can provide both better understanding of the domestication and socialization process, and improved welfare for feral cats undergoing adoption. Previous studies have used conflicting classification schemes for cat vocalizations, often relying on onomatopoeic or popular descriptions of call types (e.g., “miow”). We studied the vocalizations of 13 unaltered domestic cats that complied with our behavioral definition used to distinguish feral cats from domestic. A total of 71 acoustic units were extracted and visually analyzed for the construction of a hierarchical classification of vocal sounds, based on acoustic properties. We identified 3 major categories (tonal, pulse, and broadband) that further breakdown into 8 subcategories, and show a high degree of reliability when sounds are classified blindly by independent observers (Fleiss’ Kappa K = 0.863). Due to the limited behavioral contexts in this study, additional subcategories of cat vocalizations may be identified in the future, but our hierarchical classification system allows for the addition of new categories and new subcategories as they are described. This study shows that cat vocalizations are diverse and complex, and provides an objective and reliable classification system that can be used in future studies. PMID:29491992

  4. Visual classification of feral cat Felis silvestris catus vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jessica L; Olsen, Mariana; Fontaine, Amy; Kloth, Christopher; Kershenbaum, Arik; Waller, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Cat vocal behavior, in particular, the vocal and social behavior of feral cats, is poorly understood, as are the differences between feral and fully domestic cats. The relationship between feral cat social and vocal behavior is important because of the markedly different ecology of feral and domestic cats, and enhanced comprehension of the repertoire and potential information content of feral cat calls can provide both better understanding of the domestication and socialization process, and improved welfare for feral cats undergoing adoption. Previous studies have used conflicting classification schemes for cat vocalizations, often relying on onomatopoeic or popular descriptions of call types (e.g., "miow"). We studied the vocalizations of 13 unaltered domestic cats that complied with our behavioral definition used to distinguish feral cats from domestic. A total of 71 acoustic units were extracted and visually analyzed for the construction of a hierarchical classification of vocal sounds, based on acoustic properties. We identified 3 major categories (tonal, pulse, and broadband) that further breakdown into 8 subcategories, and show a high degree of reliability when sounds are classified blindly by independent observers (Fleiss' Kappa K  = 0.863). Due to the limited behavioral contexts in this study, additional subcategories of cat vocalizations may be identified in the future, but our hierarchical classification system allows for the addition of new categories and new subcategories as they are described. This study shows that cat vocalizations are diverse and complex, and provides an objective and reliable classification system that can be used in future studies.

  5. Vocal fold submucosal infusion technique in phonomicrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Kass, E S; Hillman, R E; Zeitels, S M

    1996-05-01

    Phonomicrosurgery is optimized by maximally preserving the vocal fold's layered microstructure (laminae propriae). The technique of submucosal infusion of saline and epinephrine into the superficial lamina propria (SLP) was examined to delineate how, when, and why it was helpful toward this surgical goal. A retrospective review revealed that the submucosal infusion technique was used to enhance the surgery in 75 of 152 vocal fold procedures that were performed over the last 2 years. The vocal fold epithelium was noted to be adherent to the vocal ligament in 29 of the 75 cases: 19 from previous surgical scarring, 4 from cancer, 3 from sulcus vocalis, 2 from chronic hemorrhage, and 1 from radiotherapy. The submucosal infusion technique was most helpful when the vocal fold epithelium required resection and/or when extensive dissection in the SLP was necessary. The infusion enhanced the surgery by vasoconstriction of the microvasculature in the SLP, which improved visualization during cold-instrument tangential dissection. Improved visualization facilitated maximal preservation of the SLP, which is necessary for optimal pliability of the overlying epithelium. The infusion also improved the placement of incisions at the perimeter of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions, and thereby helped preserve epithelium uninvolved by the disorder.

  6. Convergent Differential Regulation of Parvalbumin in the Brains of Vocal Learners

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Erina; Rivas, Miriam V.; Ward, James M.; Okanoya, Kazuo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2012-01-01

    Spoken language and learned song are complex communication behaviors found in only a few species, including humans and three groups of distantly related birds – songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds. Despite their large phylogenetic distances, these vocal learners show convergent behaviors and associated brain pathways for vocal communication. However, it is not clear whether this behavioral and anatomical convergence is associated with molecular convergence. Here we used oligo microarrays to screen for genes differentially regulated in brain nuclei necessary for producing learned vocalizations relative to adjacent brain areas that control other behaviors in avian vocal learners versus vocal non-learners. A top candidate gene in our screen was a calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV). In situ hybridization verification revealed that PV was expressed significantly higher throughout the song motor pathway, including brainstem vocal motor neurons relative to the surrounding brain regions of all distantly related avian vocal learners. This differential expression was specific to PV and vocal learners, as it was not found in avian vocal non-learners nor for control genes in learners and non-learners. Similar to the vocal learning birds, higher PV up-regulation was found in the brainstem tongue motor neurons used for speech production in humans relative to a non-human primate, macaques. These results suggest repeated convergent evolution of differential PV up-regulation in the brains of vocal learners separated by more than 65–300 million years from a common ancestor and that the specialized behaviors of learned song and speech may require extra calcium buffering and signaling. PMID:22238614

  7. The Interaction of Surface Hydration and Vocal Loading on Voice Measures.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Robert Brinton; Chapleau, Abigail; Sundarrajan, Anusha; McKenna, Victoria; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2017-03-01

    Vocal loading tasks provide insight regarding the mechanisms underlying healthy laryngeal function. Determining the manner in which the larynx can most efficiently be loaded is a complex task. The goal of this study was to determine if vocal loading could be achieved in 30 minutes by altering phonatory mode. Owing to the fact that surface hydration facilitates efficient vocal fold oscillation, the effects of environmental humidity on vocal loading were also examined. This study also investigated whether the detrimental effects of vocal loading could be attenuated by increasing environmental humidity. Sixteen vocally healthy adults (8 men, 8 women) completed a 30-minute vocal loading task in low and moderate humidity. The order of humidities was counterbalanced across subjects. The vocal loading task consisted of reading with elevated pitch and pressed vocal quality and low pitch and pressed and/or raspy vocal quality in the presence of 65 dB ambient, multi-talker babble noise. Significant effects were observed for (1) cepstral peak prominence on soft sustained phonation at 10th and 80th pitches, (2) perceived phonatory effort, and (3) perceived tiredness ratings. No loading effects were observed for cepstral peak prominence on the rainbow passage, although fundamental frequency on the rainbow passage increased post loading. No main effect was observed for humidity. Following a 30-minute vocal loading task involving altering laryngeal vibratory mode in combination with increased volume. Also, moderate environmental humidity did not significantly attenuate the negative effects of loading. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neural coding of syntactic structure in learned vocalizations in the songbird.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Hisataka; Hasegawa, Taku; Watanabe, Dai

    2011-07-06

    Although vocal signals including human languages are composed of a finite number of acoustic elements, complex and diverse vocal patterns can be created from combinations of these elements, linked together by syntactic rules. To enable such syntactic vocal behaviors, neural systems must extract the sequence patterns from auditory information and establish syntactic rules to generate motor commands for vocal organs. However, the neural basis of syntactic processing of learned vocal signals remains largely unknown. Here we report that the basal ganglia projecting premotor neurons (HVC(X) neurons) in Bengalese finches represent syntactic rules that generate variable song sequences. When vocalizing an alternative transition segment between song elements called syllables, sparse burst spikes of HVC(X) neurons code the identity of a specific syllable type or a specific transition direction among the alternative trajectories. When vocalizing a variable repetition sequence of the same syllable, HVC(X) neurons not only signal the initiation and termination of the repetition sequence but also indicate the progress and state-of-completeness of the repetition. These different types of syntactic information are frequently integrated within the activity of single HVC(X) neurons, suggesting that syntactic attributes of the individual neurons are not programmed as a basic cellular subtype in advance but acquired in the course of vocal learning and maturation. Furthermore, some auditory-vocal mirroring type HVC(X) neurons display transition selectivity in the auditory phase, much as they do in the vocal phase, suggesting that these songbirds may extract syntactic rules from auditory experience and apply them to form their own vocal behaviors.

  9. Limiting parental interaction during vocal development affects acoustic call structure in marmoset monkeys

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Human vocal development is dependent on learning by imitation through social feedback between infants and caregivers. Recent studies have revealed that vocal development is also influenced by parental feedback in marmoset monkeys, suggesting vocal learning mechanisms in nonhuman primates. Marmoset infants that experience more contingent vocal feedback than their littermates develop vocalizations more rapidly, and infant marmosets with limited parental interaction exhibit immature vocal behavior beyond infancy. However, it is yet unclear whether direct parental interaction is an obligate requirement for proper vocal development because all monkeys in the aforementioned studies were able to produce the adult call repertoire after infancy. Using quantitative measures to compare distinct call parameters and vocal sequence structure, we show that social interaction has a direct impact not only on the maturation of the vocal behavior but also on acoustic call structures during vocal development. Monkeys with limited parental interaction during development show systematic differences in call entropy, a measure for maturity, compared with their normally raised siblings. In addition, different call types were occasionally uttered in motif-like sequences similar to those exhibited by vocal learners, such as birds and humans, in early vocal development. These results indicate that a lack of parental interaction leads to long-term disturbances in the acoustic structure of marmoset vocalizations, suggesting an imperative role for social interaction in proper primate vocal development. PMID:29651461

  10. Limiting parental interaction during vocal development affects acoustic call structure in marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Yasemin B; Hage, Steffen R

    2018-04-01

    Human vocal development is dependent on learning by imitation through social feedback between infants and caregivers. Recent studies have revealed that vocal development is also influenced by parental feedback in marmoset monkeys, suggesting vocal learning mechanisms in nonhuman primates. Marmoset infants that experience more contingent vocal feedback than their littermates develop vocalizations more rapidly, and infant marmosets with limited parental interaction exhibit immature vocal behavior beyond infancy. However, it is yet unclear whether direct parental interaction is an obligate requirement for proper vocal development because all monkeys in the aforementioned studies were able to produce the adult call repertoire after infancy. Using quantitative measures to compare distinct call parameters and vocal sequence structure, we show that social interaction has a direct impact not only on the maturation of the vocal behavior but also on acoustic call structures during vocal development. Monkeys with limited parental interaction during development show systematic differences in call entropy, a measure for maturity, compared with their normally raised siblings. In addition, different call types were occasionally uttered in motif-like sequences similar to those exhibited by vocal learners, such as birds and humans, in early vocal development. These results indicate that a lack of parental interaction leads to long-term disturbances in the acoustic structure of marmoset vocalizations, suggesting an imperative role for social interaction in proper primate vocal development.

  11. Effect of pneumotach on measurement of vocal function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Gage; McPhail, Michael; Krane, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Aerodynamic and acoustic measurements of vocal function were performed in a physical model of the human airway with and without a pneumotach (Rothenberg mask), used by clinicians to measure vocal volume flow. The purpose of these experiments was to assess whether the device alters acoustic and aerodynamic conditions sufficiently to change phonation behavior. The airway model, which mimics acoustic behavior of an adult human airway from trachea to mouth, consists of a 31.5cm long straight duct with a 2.54cm square cross section. Model vocal folds comprised of molded silicone rubber were set into vibration by introducing airflow from a compressed air source. Measurements included transglottal pressure difference, mean volume flow, vocal fold vibratory motion, and sound pressure measured at the mouth. The experiments show that while the pneumotach imparted measurable aerodynamic and acoustic loads on the system, measurement of mean glottal resistance was not affected. Acoustic pressure levels were attenuated, however, suggesting clinical acoustic measurements of vocal function need correction when performed in conjunction with a pneumotach Acknowledge support from NIH DC R01005642-11.

  12. The role of vocal individuality in conservation

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Andrew MR; Peake, Tom M; McGregor, Peter K

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the individuals within a population can generate information on life history parameters, generate input data for conservation models, and highlight behavioural traits that may affect management decisions and error or bias within census methods. Individual animals can be discriminated by features of their vocalisations. This vocal individuality can be utilised as an alternative marking technique in situations where the marks are difficult to detect or animals are sensitive to disturbance. Vocal individuality can also be used in cases were the capture and handling of an animal is either logistically or ethically problematic. Many studies have suggested that vocal individuality can be used to count and monitor populations over time; however, few have explicitly tested the method in this role. In this review we discuss methods for extracting individuality information from vocalisations and techniques for using this to count and monitor populations over time. We present case studies in birds where vocal individuality has been applied to conservation and we discuss its role in mammals. PMID:15960848

  13. Modeling the Pathophysiology of Phonotraumatic Vocal Hyperfunction With a Triangular Glottal Model of the Vocal Folds

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Gabriel E.; Peterson, Sean D.; Erath, Byron D.; Castro, Christian; Hillman, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Our goal was to test prevailing assumptions about the underlying biomechanical and aeroacoustic mechanisms associated with phonotraumatic lesions of the vocal folds using a numerical lumped-element model of voice production. Method A numerical model with a triangular glottis, posterior glottal opening, and arytenoid posturing is proposed. Normal voice is altered by introducing various prephonatory configurations. Potential compensatory mechanisms (increased subglottal pressure, muscle activation, and supraglottal constriction) are adjusted to restore an acoustic target output through a control loop that mimics a simplified version of auditory feedback. Results The degree of incomplete glottal closure in both the membranous and posterior portions of the folds consistently leads to a reduction in sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, harmonic richness, and harmonics-to-noise ratio. The compensatory mechanisms lead to significantly increased vocal-fold collision forces, maximum flow-declination rate, and amplitude of unsteady flow, without significantly altering the acoustic output. Conclusion Modeling provided potentially important insights into the pathophysiology of phonotraumatic vocal hyperfunction by demonstrating that compensatory mechanisms can counteract deterioration in the voice acoustic signal due to incomplete glottal closure, but this also leads to high vocal-fold collision forces (reflected in aerodynamic measures), which significantly increases the risk of developing phonotrauma. PMID:28837719

  14. Catecholaminergic contributions to vocal communication signals.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2015-05-01

    Social context affects behavioral displays across a variety of species. For example, social context acutely influences the acoustic and temporal structure of vocal communication signals such as speech and birdsong. Despite the prevalence and importance of such social influences, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying the social modulation of communication. Catecholamines are implicated in the regulation of social behavior and motor control, but the degree to which catecholamines influence vocal communication signals remains largely unknown. Using a songbird, the Bengalese finch, we examined the extent to which the social context in which song is produced affected immediate early gene expression (EGR-1) in catecholamine-synthesising neurons in the midbrain. Further, we assessed the degree to which administration of amphetamine, which increases catecholamine concentrations in the brain, mimicked the effect of social context on vocal signals. We found that significantly more catecholaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra (but not the central grey, locus coeruleus or subcoeruleus) expressed EGR-1 in birds that were exposed to females and produced courtship song than in birds that produced non-courtship song in isolation. Furthermore, we found that amphetamine administration mimicked the effects of social context and caused many aspects of non-courtship song to resemble courtship song. Specifically, amphetamine increased the stereotypy of syllable structure and sequencing, the repetition of vocal elements and the degree of sequence completions. Taken together, these data highlight the conserved role of catecholamines in vocal communication across species, including songbirds and humans. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Coos, booms, and hoots: The evolution of closed-mouth vocal behavior in birds.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Eliason, Chad M; Miller, Edward H; Goller, Franz; Clarke, Julia A

    2016-08-01

    Most birds vocalize with an open beak, but vocalization with a closed beak into an inflating cavity occurs in territorial or courtship displays in disparate species throughout birds. Closed-mouth vocalizations generate resonance conditions that favor low-frequency sounds. By contrast, open-mouth vocalizations cover a wider frequency range. Here we describe closed-mouth vocalizations of birds from functional and morphological perspectives and assess the distribution of closed-mouth vocalizations in birds and related outgroups. Ancestral-state optimizations of body size and vocal behavior indicate that closed-mouth vocalizations are unlikely to be ancestral in birds and have evolved independently at least 16 times within Aves, predominantly in large-bodied lineages. Closed-mouth vocalizations are rare in the small-bodied passerines. In light of these results and body size trends in nonavian dinosaurs, we suggest that the capacity for closed-mouth vocalization was present in at least some extinct nonavian dinosaurs. As in birds, this behavior may have been limited to sexually selected vocal displays, and hence would have co-occurred with open-mouthed vocalizations. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. [Surgery of benign vocal fold lesions].

    PubMed

    Olthoff, A

    2016-09-01

    Surgical treatment of benign vocal fold lesions can be indicated for clinical or functional reasons. The principles of phonosurgery have to be maintained in either case. The appropriate phonosurgical technique depends on the type of vocal fold lesion. Depending on the findings, phonosurgery aims to maintain or improve voice quality. The evaluation of clinical and functional results includes indirect laryngoscopy, videostroboscopy, and voice analysis.

  17. Identification of a motor to auditory pathway important for vocal learning

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Todd F.; Hisey, Erin; Tanaka, Masashi; Kearney, Matthew; Chattree, Gaurav; Yang, Cindy F.; Shah, Nirao M.; Mooney, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Summary Learning to vocalize depends on the ability to adaptively modify the temporal and spectral features of vocal elements. Neurons that convey motor-related signals to the auditory system are theorized to facilitate vocal learning, but the identity and function of such neurons remain unknown. Here we identify a previously unknown neuron type in the songbird brain that transmits vocal motor signals to the auditory cortex. Genetically ablating these neurons in juveniles disrupted their ability to imitate features of an adult tutor’s song. Ablating these neurons in adults had little effect on previously learned songs, but interfered with their ability to adaptively modify the duration of vocal elements and largely prevented the degradation of song’s temporal features normally caused by deafening. These findings identify a motor to auditory circuit essential to vocal imitation and to the adaptive modification of vocal timing. PMID:28504672

  18. Relationship between patient-perceived vocal handicap and clinician-rated level of vocal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Childs, Lesley F; Bielinski, Clifford; Toles, Laura; Hamilton, Amy; Deane, Janis; Mau, Ted

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between patient-reported vocal handicap and clinician-rated measures of vocal dysfunction is not understood. This study aimed to determine if a correlation exists between the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and the Voice Functional Communication Measure rating in the National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS). Retrospective case series. Four hundred and nine voice evaluations over 12 months at a tertiary voice center were reviewed. The VHI-10 and NOMS scores, diagnoses, and potential comorbid factors were collected and analyzed. For the study population as a whole, there was a moderate negative correlation between the NOMS rating and the VHI-10 (Pearson r = -0.57). However, for a given NOMS level, there could be considerable spread in the VHI-10. In addition, as the NOMS decreased stepwise below level 4, there was a corresponding increase in the VHI-10. However, a similar trend in VHI-10 was not observed for NOMS above level 4, indicating the NOMS versus VHI-10 correlation was not linear. Among diagnostic groups, the strongest correlation was found for subjects with functional dysphonia. The NOMS versus VHI-10 correlation was not affected by gender or the coexistence of a psychiatric diagnosis. A simple relationship between VHI-10 and NOMS rating does not exist. Patients with mild vocal dysfunction have a less direct relationship between their NOMS ratings and the VHI-10. These findings provide insight into the interpretation of patient-perceived and clinician-rated measures of vocal function and may allow for better management of expectations and patient counseling in the treatment of voice disorders. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Homeostasis of Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Scarred Vocal Folds

    PubMed Central

    Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Watanuki, Makoto; Bless, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives/Hypothesis Vocal fold scarring is one of the most challenging laryngeal disorders to treat. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the main component of lamina propria, and it plays an important role in proper vocal fold vibration and is also thought to be important in fetal wound healing without scarring. Although several animal models of vocal fold scarring have been reported, little is known about the way in which HA is maintained in vocal folds. The purpose of this study was to clarify the homeostasis of HA by examining the expression of hyaluronan synthase (Has) and hyaluronidase (Hyal), which produce and digest HA, respectively. Study Design Experimental prospective animal study. Methods Vocal fold stripping was performed on 38 Sprague-Dawley rats. Vocal fold tissue was collected at five time points (3 days–2 months). Expression of HA was examined by immunohistochemistry, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Has and Hyal was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and in-situ hybridization. Results In scarred vocal folds, expression of Has1 and Has2 increased at day 3 together with expression of HA and returned to normal at 2 weeks. At 2 months, Has3 and Hyal3 mRNA showed higher expressions than normal. Conclusions Expression patterns of Has and Hyal genes differed between normal, acute-scarred, and chronic-scarred vocal folds, indicating the distinct roles of each enzyme in maintaining HA. Continuous upregulation of Has genes in the acute phase may be necessary to achieve scarless healing of vocal folds. PMID:25499520

  20. Radiation Fibrosis of the Vocal Fold: From Man to Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Michael M.; Kolachala, Vasantha; Berg, Eric; Muller, Susan; Creighton, Frances X.; Branski, Ryan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize fundamental late tissue effects in the human vocal fold following radiation therapy. To develop a murine model of radiation fibrosis to ultimately develop both treatment and prevention paradigms. Design Translational study using archived human and fresh murine irradiated vocal fold tissue. Methods 1) Irradiated vocal fold tissue from patients undergoing laryngectomy for loss of function from radiation fibrosis were identified from pathology archives. Histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and whole-genome microarray as well as real-time transcriptional analyses was performed. 2) Focused radiation to the head and neck was delivered to mice in a survival fashion. One month following radiation, vocal fold tissue was analyzed with histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and real-time PCR transcriptional analysis for selected markers of fibrosis. Results Human irradiated vocal folds demonstrated increased collagen transcription with increased deposition and disorganization of collagen in both the thyroarytenoid muscle and the superficial lamina propria. Fibronectin were increased in the superficial lamina propria. Laminin decreased in the thyroarytenoid muscle. Whole genome microarray analysis demonstrated increased transcription of markers for fibrosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, glycosaminoglycan production and apoptosis. Irradiated murine vocal folds demonstrated increases in collagen and fibronectin transcription and deposition in the lamina propria. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β increased in the lamina propria. Conclusion Human irradiated vocal folds demonstrate molecular changes leading to fibrosis that underlie loss of vocal fold pliability that occurs in patients following laryngeal irradiation. Irradiated murine tissue demonstrates similar findings, and this mouse model may have utility in creating prevention and treatment strategies for vocal fold radiation fibrosis. PMID:23242839

  1. Vocal Hyperfunction in Parents of Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Teresa, Garcia-Real; Díaz-Román, Tomás M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of habits and symptoms of vocal hyperfunction in the parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents of 24 children with ADHD and 30 children of a control group completed a specific questionnaire to detect the hyperfunctional use of the voice (excessive talking, excessive loudness, talking too fast, and shouting), hoarseness, vocal fatigue, mental and physical fatigue, and the degree of parental concern for the vocal health of their child. Parents of children with ADHD spoke more often, faster, and stronger than the parents of the control group; in addition, they also used a louder volume than they usually used when they spoke to their children. The parents manifested more vocal, mental, and physical fatigue than the parents of the control group. There was a significant correlation between the "concern" for the vocal health of their children with respect to vocal symptoms of the children, the habits of vocal hyperfunctioning, and the symptoms suffered by the parents. These results suggest that the parents of children with ADHD change their vocal attitude when communicating with their children. Most likely, the increased concern of parents with ADHD children and their respective level of stress lead to hyperfunctional vocal usage. This subsequently leads to symptoms of vocal, physical, and mental fatigue at the end of the day. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) in Infant Vocalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathani, Suneeti; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Cobo-Lewis, Alan B.

    2003-01-01

    Sought to verify research findings that suggest there may be a U-shaped developmental trajectory for final syllable lengthening (FSL). Attempted to determine whether vocal maturity and deafness influence FSL . Eight normally hearing infants and eight deaf infants were examined at three levels of prelinguistic vocal development. (Author/VWL)

  3. Using Hyaluronic Acid for Improving Vocal Function in a Prepubescent Boy With an Atrophied Right Vocal Fold.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Wendy; Wynne, David McGregor

    2015-07-01

    A single case study is reported of a child who underwent several surgical procedures as result of congenital grade III subglottic stenosis. The anterior aspect of the right vocal cord was damaged and underwent atrophy during one of these procedures. Now, an active 10-year-old, the patient has become increasingly aware of his vocal limitations on functional activities. Injection of hyaluronic acid into the vocal folds has been known to provide improved voice quality in adults although there are no known cases reported of this procedure in children. This article reports voice outcomes after injection of hyaluronic acid into the Reinke's space in a single case study. Voice recordings were made before, after, and 1 month after injection. The voice recordings were subject to acoustic and perceptual analysis. Post and follow-up voice recordings demonstrate decreased jitter, shimmer, and harmonics-to-noise ratio. Perceptual evaluation indicates improved voice quality. Injection of hyaluronic acid in children who require voice augmentation is possible and may contribute to increased vocal function and improved voice outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Vocal Register Use and Age on the Perceived Vocal Health of Male Elementary Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ryan A.; Scott, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vocal register use and age on the perceived vocal health of male elementary music teachers. Participants (N = 160) consisted of male elementary music teachers from two neighboring states in the south-central region of the United States. Participants responded to various demographic questions…

  5. Bicarbonate availability for vocal fold epithelial defense to acidic challenge.

    PubMed

    Durkes, Abigail; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Bicarbonate is critical for acid-base tissue homeostasis. In this study we investigated the role of bicarbonate ion transport in vocal fold epithelial defense to acid challenges. Acidic insults to the larynx are common in gastric reflux, carcinogenesis and metastasis, and acute inflammation. Ion transport was measured in viable porcine vocal fold epithelium. First, 18 vocal folds were exposed to either the carbonic anhydrase antagonist acetazolamide or to vehicle. Second, 32 vocal folds were exposed to either a control buffer or a bicarbonate-free buffer on their luminal or basolateral surface or both. Third, 32 vocal folds were challenged with acid in the presence of bicarbonate-free or control buffer. The vocal fold transepithelial resistance was greater than 300 Ω*cm(2), suggesting robust barrier integrity. Ion transport did not change after exposure to acetazolamide (p > 0.05). Exposure to bicarbonate-free buffer did not compromise vocal fold ion transport (p > 0.05). Ion transport increased after acid challenge. This increase approached statistical significance and was the greatest for the control buffer and for the bicarbonate-free buffer applied to the basolateral surface. Bicarbonate secretion may contribute to vocal fold defense against acid challenge. Our data offer a potential novel role for bicarbonate as a therapeutic agent to reduce pH abnormalities in the larynx and prevent associated pathological changes.

  6. Ultrasonic vocalization changes and FOXP2 expression after experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Doran, Sarah J; Trammel, Cassandra; Benashaski, Sharon E; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; McCullough, Louise D

    2015-04-15

    Speech impairments affect one in four stroke survivors. However, animal models of post-ischemic vocalization deficits are limited. Male mice vocalize at ultrasonic frequencies when exposed to an estrous female mouse. In this study we assessed vocalization patterns and quantity in male mice after cerebral ischemia. FOXP2, a gene associated with verbal dyspraxia in humans, with known roles in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, was also examined after injury. Using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, we assessed correlates of vocal impairment at several time-points after stroke. Further, to identify possible lateralization of vocalization deficits induced by left and right hemispheric strokes were compared. Significant differences in vocalization quantity were observed between stroke and sham animals that persisted for a month after injury. Injury to the left hemisphere reduced early vocalizations more profoundly than those to the right hemisphere. Nuclear expression of Foxp2 was elevated early after stroke (at 6h), but significantly decreased 24h after injury in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Neuronal Foxp2 expression increased in stroke mice compared to sham animals 4 weeks after injury. This study demonstrates that quantifiable deficits in ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are seen after stroke. USV may be a useful tool to assess chronic behavioral recovery in murine models of stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bicarbonate Availability for Vocal Fold Epithelial Defense to Acidic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Durkes, Abigail; Sivasankar, M. Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Bicarbonate is critical for acid-base tissue homeostasis. In this study we investigated the role of bicarbonate ion transport in vocal fold epithelial defense to acid challenges. Acidic insults to the larynx are common in gastric reflux, carcinogenesis and metastasis, and acute inflammation. Methods Ion transport was measured in viable, porcine vocal fold epithelium. First, 18 vocal folds were exposed to either the carbonic anhydrase antagonist acetazolamide or to vehicle. Second, 32 vocal folds were exposed to either a control buffer or a bicarbonate-free buffer on their luminal or basolateral surface or both. Third, vocal folds were challenged with acid in the presence of bicarbonate-free or control buffer. Results The vocal fold transepithelial resistance was greater than 300 Ω*cm2, suggesting robust barrier integrity. Ion transport did not change after exposure to acetazolamide (p > 0.05). Exposure to bicarbonate-free buffer did not compromise vocal fold ion transport (p > 0.05). Ion transport increased after acid challenge. This increase approached statistical significance and was the greatest for the control buffer and for the bicarbonate-free buffer applied to the basolateral surface. Conclusions Bicarbonate secretion may contribute to vocal fold defense against acid challenge. Our data offer a potential novel role for bicarbonate as a therapeutic agent to reduce pH abnormalities in the larynx and prevent associated pathological changes. PMID:24574427

  8. Vocal cord paralysis after aortic arch surgery: predictors and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Noriyuki; Kuratani, Toru; Hagihira, Satoshi; Kazumi, Ken-Ichiro; Kaneko, Mitsunori; Mori, Takahiko

    2006-04-01

    This study is retrospective cohort study of data on vocal cord paralysis after aortic arch surgery collected during 14 years at a general hospital. We investigated factors in the development of vocal cord paralysis after aortic arch surgery and the effect of vocal cord paralysis on clinical course and outcome. We reviewed data for 182 patients who underwent aortic arch surgery for aortic arch aneurysm and aortic dissection between 1989 and 2003, of whom 58 patients had proximal aortic repair, 62 had distal arch repair, and 62 had total arch repair. We assessed factors associated with the development of vocal cord paralysis and examined in detail the clinical outcome of patients with vocal cord paralysis. Postoperative vocal cord paralysis occurred in 40 patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed the following risk factors with odds ratios (OR) for vocal cord paralysis: extension of procedures into distal arch (OR, 17.0), chronic dilatation of the aorta at the left subclavian artery (OR, 9.14), and total arch repair (OR, 4.24). Adoption of open-style stent-grafts reduced the incidence of vocal cord paralysis (OR, 0.031). The postoperative occurrence of vocal cord paralysis itself emerges as an independent predictor of pulmonary complications (OR, 4.12) and leads to a longer duration of hospital stay. The risk of vocal cord paralysis after aortic arch surgery depends on surgical factors, such as aneurysmal involvement of the distal arch, or the application of newer, less invasive surgical procedures. Vocal cord paralysis after aortic arch surgery itself, under aggressive postoperative respiratory management, did not increase aspiration pneumonia but was associated with postoperative complications leading to higher hospital mortality and prolonged hospitalization.

  9. Histological changes in vocal fold growth and aging.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Maggie A

    2014-12-01

    Sophisticated descriptions of the highly specialized vocal fold microarchitecture have been available for over three decades, but how this anatomy evolves with growth and aging remains an area of active investigation and, at times, a source of controversy. As our aging population expands and interest in pediatric voice disorders blossoms, it is timely to consider our contemporary understanding of evolving vocal fold histology and its implications for voice production. Novel applications of existing and emerging biotechnology, development of animal models and skillful use of human specimens have afforded greater insights into the histologic vocal fold changes seen throughout the lifespan in health and disease. Burgeoning knowledge has laid the foundation for more comprehensive models of vocal fold histology and has led to the development of innovative therapies for challenging voice disorders.

  10. The nature of primary vocal tremor.

    PubMed

    Hachinski, V C; Thomsen, I V; Buch, N H

    1975-08-01

    Three elderly women with marked progressive voice tremor, without other neurological symptoms, and negative family histories were investigated. All had a 4-5 Hz respiratory tremor in expiration and, to a lesser degree, in inspiration; and all had vocal tremulousness synchronous with their respiratory irregularity. Articulation of phonemes was normal. In two cases the neurological examination was otherwise normal; in the third case there was a minimal 71/2 Hz tremor in the left thumb and index finger. Simultaneous speech and vocal air pressure recordings, as well as cinematographic studies of the vocal apparatus and diaphragm were carried out. It is suggested that these cases represent primarily an action tremor of respiration, that they belong in the spectrum of essential tremor, and hence may be amenable to treatment with propranolol.

  11. Spontaneous motor entrainment to music in multiple vocal mimicking species.

    PubMed

    Schachner, Adena; Brady, Timothy F; Pepperberg, Irene M; Hauser, Marc D

    2009-05-26

    The human capacity for music consists of certain core phenomena, including the tendency to entrain, or align movement, to an external auditory pulse [1-3]. This ability, fundamental both for music production and for coordinated dance, has been repeatedly highlighted as uniquely human [4-11]. However, it has recently been hypothesized that entrainment evolved as a by-product of vocal mimicry, generating the strong prediction that only vocal mimicking animals may be able to entrain [12, 13]. Here we provide comparative data demonstrating the existence of two proficient vocal mimicking nonhuman animals (parrots) that entrain to music, spontaneously producing synchronized movements resembling human dance. We also provide an extensive comparative data set from a global video database systematically analyzed for evidence of entrainment in hundreds of species both capable and incapable of vocal mimicry. Despite the higher representation of vocal nonmimics in the database and comparable exposure of mimics and nonmimics to humans and music, only vocal mimics showed evidence of entrainment. We conclude that entrainment is not unique to humans and that the distribution of entrainment across species supports the hypothesis that entrainment evolved as a by-product of selection for vocal mimicry.

  12. Vocal fold ion transport and mucin expression following acrolein exposure

    PubMed Central

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Sivasankar, M. Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The vocal fold epithelium is exposed to inhaled particulates including pollutants during breathing in everyday environments. Yet, our understanding of the effects of pollutants on vocal fold epithelial function is extremely limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin synthesis. These mechanisms were chosen as each plays a critical role in vocal defense and in maintaining surface hydration which is necessary for optimal voice production. Healthy, native porcine vocal folds (N=85) were excised and exposed to an acrolein or sham challenge. A 60 minute acrolein, but not sham challenge significantly reduced ion transport and inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent increases in ion transport. Decreases in ion transport were associated with reduced sodium absorption. Within the same timeline, no significant acrolein-induced changes in mucin gene or protein expression were observed. These results improve our understanding of the effects of acrolein on key vocal fold epithelial functions and inform the development of future investigations that seek to elucidate the impact of a wide range of pollutant exposures on vocal fold health. PMID:24648011

  13. Vocal fold tissue failure: preliminary data and constitutive modeling.

    PubMed

    Chan, Roger W; Siegmund, Thomas

    2004-08-01

    In human voice production (phonation), linear small-amplitude vocal fold oscillation occurs only under restricted conditions. Physiologically, phonation more often involves large-amplitude oscillation associated with tissue stresses and strains beyond their linear viscoelastic limits, particularly in the lamina propria extracellular matrix (ECM). This study reports some preliminary measurements of tissue deformation and failure response of the vocal fold ECM under large-strain shear The primary goal was to formulate and test a novel constitutive model for vocal fold tissue failure, based on a standard-linear cohesive-zone (SL-CZ) approach. Tissue specimens of the sheep vocal fold mucosa were subjected to torsional deformation in vitro, at constant strain rates corresponding to twist rates of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 rad/s. The vocal fold ECM demonstrated nonlinear stress-strain and rate-dependent failure response with a failure strain as low as 0.40 rad. A finite-element implementation of the SL-CZ model was capable of capturing the rate dependence in these preliminary data, demonstrating the model's potential for describing tissue failure. Further studies with additional tissue specimens and model improvements are needed to better understand vocal fold tissue failure.

  14. Singers' interest and knowledge levels of vocal function and dysfunction: survey findings.

    PubMed

    Braun-Janzen, Colleen; Zeine, Lina

    2009-07-01

    A questionnaire investigating the levels of interest in and knowledge of vocal function and dysfunction was completed by 129 singers. Those with professional singing experience indicated significantly greater interest and higher perceived knowledge levels than amateurs in areas of vocal anatomy and physiology, vocal hygiene, and functional vocal pathologies. Greater interest levels, but not higher perceived knowledge levels were reported by professional singers (PSs) in the area of the role of the speech-language pathologist (SLP) and the voice. Professionals answered significantly more knowledge-based questions correctly than amateurs in all areas except the role of the SLP and the voice. However, findings indicated wide variability in knowledge levels of both groups. Singing teachers (STs) within the group significantly outperformed the remainder of the group in areas of vocal anatomy and physiology, vocal hygiene, and functional vocal pathologies. Scores of the choir directors (CDs) within the group were not significantly superior to the remainder of the group except in the area of functional vocal pathologies. Implications for a preventative approach to vocal health are discussed.

  15. Velocity field measurements in oblique static divergent vocal fold models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron

    2005-11-01

    During normal phonation, the vocal fold cycle is characterized by the glottal opening transitioning from a convergent to a divergent passage and then closing before the cycle is repeated. Under ordinary phonatory conditions, both vocal folds, which form the glottal passage, move in phase with each other, creating a time-varying symmetric opening. However, abnormal pathological conditions, such as unilateral paralysis, and polyps, can result in geometrical asymmetries between the vocal folds throughout the phonatory cycle. This study investigates pulsatile flow fields through 7.5 times life-size vocal fold models with included divergence angles of 5 to 30 degrees, and obliquities between the vocal folds of up to 15 degrees. Flow conditions were scaled to match physiological parameters. Data were taken at the anterior posterior mid-plane using phase-averaged Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Viscous flow phenomena including the Coanda effect, flow separation points, and jet "flapping" were investigated. The results are compared to previously reported work of flow through symmetric divergent vocal fold models.

  16. The voice conveys specific emotions: evidence from vocal burst displays.

    PubMed

    Simon-Thomas, Emiliana R; Keltner, Dacher J; Sauter, Disa; Sinicropi-Yao, Lara; Abramson, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Studies of emotion signaling inform claims about the taxonomic structure, evolutionary origins, and physiological correlates of emotions. Emotion vocalization research has tended to focus on a limited set of emotions: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, and for the voice, also tenderness. Here, we examine how well brief vocal bursts can communicate 22 different emotions: 9 negative (Study 1) and 13 positive (Study 2), and whether prototypical vocal bursts convey emotions more reliably than heterogeneous vocal bursts (Study 3). Results show that vocal bursts communicate emotions like anger, fear, and sadness, as well as seldom-studied states like awe, compassion, interest, and embarrassment. Ancillary analyses reveal family-wise patterns of vocal burst expression. Errors in classification were more common within emotion families (e.g., 'self-conscious,' 'pro-social') than between emotion families. The three studies reported highlight the voice as a rich modality for emotion display that can inform fundamental constructs about emotion.

  17. Vocal parameters that indicate threat level correlate with FOS immunolabeling in social and vocal control brain regions.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jesse M S; Riters, Lauren V

    2012-01-01

    Transmitting information via communicative signals is integral to interacting with conspecifics, and some species achieve this task by varying vocalizations to reflect context. Although signal variation is critical to social interactions, the underlying neural control has not been studied. In response to a predator, black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla) produce mobbing calls (chick-a-dee calls) with various parameters, some of which convey information about the threat stimulus. We predicted that vocal parameters indicative of threat would be associated with distinct patterns of neuronal activity within brain areas involved in social behavior and those involved in the sensorimotor control of vocal production. To test this prediction, we measured the syntax and structural aspects of chick-a-dee call production in response to a hawk model and assessed the protein product of the immediate early gene FOS in brain regions implicated in context-specific vocal and social behavior. These regions include the medial preoptic area (POM) and lateral septum (LS), as well as regions involved in vocal motor control, including the dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex and the HVC. We found correlations linking call rate (previously demonstrated to reflect threat) to labeling in the POM and LS. Labeling in the HVC correlated with the number of D notes per call, which may also signal threat level. Labeling in the call control region dorsomedial nucleus was associated with the structure of D notes and the overall number of notes, but not call rate or type of notes produced. These results suggest that the POM and LS may influence attributes of vocalizations produced in response to predators and that the brain region implicated in song control, the HVC, also influences call production. Because variation in chick-a-dee call rate indicates predator threat, we speculate that these areas could integrate with motor control regions to imbue mobbing signals with additional

  18. Vocal fold motion outcome based on excellent prognosis with laryngeal electromyography.

    PubMed

    Smith, Libby J; Rosen, Clark A; Munin, Michael C

    2016-10-01

    As laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) becomes more refined, accurate predictions of vocal fold motion recovery are possible. Focus has been on outcomes for patients with poor prognosis for vocal fold motion recovery. Limited information is available regarding the expected rate of purposeful vocal fold motion recovery when there is good to normal motor recruitment, no signs of denervation, and no signs of synkinetic activity with LEMG, termed excellent prognosis. The objective of this study is to determine the rate of vocal fold motion recovery with excellent prognosis findings on LEMG after acute recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Retrospective review. Patients undergoing a standardized LEMG protocol, consisting of qualitative (evaluation of motor recruitment, motor unit configuration, detection of fibrillations, presence of synkinesis) and quantitative (turns analysis) measurements were evaluated for purposeful vocal-fold motion recovery, calculated after at least 6 months since onset of injury. Twenty-three patients who underwent LEMG for acute vocal fold paralysis met the inclusion criteria of excellent prognosis. Eighteen patients (78.3%) recovered vocal fold motion, as determined by flexible laryngoscopy. Nearly 80% of patients determined to have excellent prognosis for vocal fold motion recovery experienced return of vocal fold motion. This information will help clinicians not only counsel their patients on expectations but will also help guide treatment. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2310-2314, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. [3D visualization and analysis of vocal fold dynamics].

    PubMed

    Bohr, C; Döllinger, M; Kniesburges, S; Traxdorf, M

    2016-04-01

    Visual investigation methods of the larynx mainly allow for the two-dimensional presentation of the three-dimensional structures of the vocal fold dynamics. The vertical component of the vocal fold dynamics is often neglected, yielding a loss of information. The latest studies show that the vertical dynamic components are in the range of the medio-lateral dynamics and play a significant role within the phonation process. This work presents a method for future 3D reconstruction and visualization of endoscopically recorded vocal fold dynamics. The setup contains a high-speed camera (HSC) and a laser projection system (LPS). The LPS projects a regular grid on the vocal fold surfaces and in combination with the HSC allows a three-dimensional reconstruction of the vocal fold surface. Hence, quantitative information on displacements and velocities can be provided. The applicability of the method is presented for one ex-vivo human larynx, one ex-vivo porcine larynx and one synthetic silicone larynx. The setup introduced allows the reconstruction of the entire visible vocal fold surfaces for each oscillation status. This enables a detailed analysis of the three dimensional dynamics (i. e. displacements, velocities, accelerations) of the vocal folds. The next goal is the miniaturization of the LPS to allow clinical in-vivo analysis in humans. We anticipate new insight on dependencies between 3D dynamic behavior and the quality of the acoustic outcome for healthy and disordered phonation.

  20. The Effectiveness of Low-Level Light Therapy in Attenuating Vocal Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Loraine Sydney; Heaton, James T

    2017-05-01

    Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is effective in reducing inflammation, promoting wound healing, and preventing tissue damage, but has not yet been studied in the treatment of voice disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible effectiveness of LLLT in attenuating symptoms of vocal fatigue created by a vocal loading task as measured by acoustic, aerodynamic, and self-reported vocal effort. In a randomized, prospective study, 16 vocally healthy adults divided into four groups underwent a 1-hour vocal loading procedure, followed by infrared wavelength LLLT (828 nm), red wavelength LLLT (628 nm), heat, or no heat-light (control) treatment targeting the laryngeal region of the ventral neck surface. Phonation threshold pressure (PTP), relative fundamental frequency (RFF), and the inability to produce soft voice (IPSV) self-perceptual rating scale were recorded (1) at baseline, (2) immediately after vocal loading, (3) after treatment, and (4) 1 hour after treatment. Vocal loading significantly increased PTP and IPSV and decreased onset and offset RFFs, consistent with a shift toward vocal dysfunction. Red light significantly normalized the combination of PTP, IPSV, and RFF measures compared to other conditions. RFF is sensitive to a vocal loading task in conjunction with PTP and IPSV, and red LLLT may have a normalizing effect on objective and subjective measures of vocal fatigue. The results of this study lay the groundwork and rationale for future research to optimize LLLT wavelength combinations and overall dose. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Conserved mechanisms of vocalization coding in mammalian and songbird auditory midbrain.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Sarah M N; Portfors, Christine V

    2013-11-01

    The ubiquity of social vocalizations among animals provides the opportunity to identify conserved mechanisms of auditory processing that subserve communication. Identifying auditory coding properties that are shared across vocal communicators will provide insight into how human auditory processing leads to speech perception. Here, we compare auditory response properties and neural coding of social vocalizations in auditory midbrain neurons of mammalian and avian vocal communicators. The auditory midbrain is a nexus of auditory processing because it receives and integrates information from multiple parallel pathways and provides the ascending auditory input to the thalamus. The auditory midbrain is also the first region in the ascending auditory system where neurons show complex tuning properties that are correlated with the acoustics of social vocalizations. Single unit studies in mice, bats and zebra finches reveal shared principles of auditory coding including tonotopy, excitatory and inhibitory interactions that shape responses to vocal signals, nonlinear response properties that are important for auditory coding of social vocalizations and modulation tuning. Additionally, single neuron responses in the mouse and songbird midbrain are reliable, selective for specific syllables, and rely on spike timing for neural discrimination of distinct vocalizations. We propose that future research on auditory coding of vocalizations in mouse and songbird midbrain neurons adopt similar experimental and analytical approaches so that conserved principles of vocalization coding may be distinguished from those that are specialized for each species. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Vocal Qualities in Music Theater Voice: Perceptions of Expert Pedagogues.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Tracy; Kenny, Dianna

    2016-01-01

    To gather qualitative descriptions of music theater vocal qualities including belt, legit, and mix from expert pedagogues to better define this voice type. This is a prospective, semistructured interview. Twelve expert teachers from United States, United Kingdom, Asia, and Australia were interviewed by Skype and asked to identify characteristics of music theater vocal qualities including vocal production, physiology, esthetics, pitch range, and pedagogical techniques. Responses were compared with published studies on music theater voice. Belt and legit were generally described as distinct sounds with differing physiological and technical requirements. Teachers were concerned that belt should be taught "safely" to minimize vocal health risks. There was consensus between teachers and published research on the physiology of the glottis and vocal tract; however, teachers were not in agreement about breathing techniques. Neither were teachers in agreement about the meaning of "mix." Most participants described belt as heavily weighted, thick folds, thyroarytenoid-dominant, or chest register; however, there was no consensus on an appropriate term. Belt substyles were named and generally categorized by weightedness or tone color. Descriptions of male belt were less clear than for female belt. This survey provides an overview of expert pedagogical perspectives on the characteristics of belt, legit, and mix qualities in the music theater voice. Although teacher responses are generally in agreement with published research, there are still many controversial issues and gaps in knowledge and understanding of this vocal technique. Breathing techniques, vocal range, mix, male belt, and vocal registers require continuing investigation so that we can learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in music theater singing. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Wild chimpanzees' use of single and combined vocal and gestural signals.

    PubMed

    Hobaiter, C; Byrne, R W; Zuberbühler, K

    2017-01-01

    We describe the individual and combined use of vocalizations and gestures in wild chimpanzees. The rate of gesturing peaked in infancy and, with the exception of the alpha male, decreased again in older age groups, while vocal signals showed the opposite pattern. Although gesture-vocal combinations were relatively rare, they were consistently found in all age groups, especially during affiliative and agonistic interactions. Within behavioural contexts rank (excluding alpha-rank) had no effect on the rate of male chimpanzees' use of vocal or gestural signals and only a small effect on their use of combination signals. The alpha male was an outlier, however, both as a prolific user of gestures and recipient of high levels of vocal and gesture-vocal signals. Persistence in signal use varied with signal type: chimpanzees persisted in use of gestures and gesture-vocal combinations after failure, but where their vocal signals failed they tended to add gestural signals to produce gesture-vocal combinations. Overall, chimpanzees employed signals with a sensitivity to the public/private nature of information, by adjusting their use of signal types according to social context and by taking into account potential out-of-sight audiences. We discuss these findings in relation to the various socio-ecological challenges that chimpanzees are exposed to in their natural forest habitats and the current discussion of multimodal communication in great apes. All animal communication combines different types of signals, including vocalizations, facial expressions, and gestures. However, the study of primate communication has typically focused on the use of signal types in isolation. As a result, we know little on how primates use the full repertoire of signals available to them. Here we present a systematic study on the individual and combined use of gestures and vocalizations in wild chimpanzees. We find that gesturing peaks in infancy and decreases in older age, while vocal signals

  4. Vocal exploration is locally regulated during song learning

    PubMed Central

    Ravbar, Primoz; Parra, Lucas C.; Lipkind, Dina; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory variability is essential for sensory-motor learning, but it is not known how and at what time scales it is regulated. We manipulated song learning in zebra finches to experimentally control the requirements for vocal exploration in different parts of their song. We first trained birds to perform a one-syllable song, and once they mastered it we added a new syllable to the song model. Remarkably, when practicing the modified song, birds rapidly alternated between high and low acoustic variability to confine vocal exploration to the newly added syllable. Further, even within syllables, acoustic variability changed independently across song elements that were only milliseconds apart. Analysis of the entire vocal output during learning revealed that the variability of each song element decreased as it approached the target, correlating with momentary local distance from the target and less so with the overall distance. We conclude that vocal error is computed locally in sub-syllabic time scales and that song elements can be learned and crystalized independently. Songbirds have dedicated brain circuitry for vocal babbling in the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), which generates exploratory song patterns that drive premotor neurons at the song nucleus RA (robust nucleus of the arcopallium). We hypothesize that either AFP adjusts the gain of vocal exploration in fine time scales, or that the sensitivity of RA premotor neurons to AFP/HVC inputs varies across song elements. PMID:22399765

  5. Histologic and rheologic characterization of vocal fold scarring.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Susan L; Gray, Steven D; Bless, Diane M; Chan, Roger W; Ford, Charles N

    2002-03-01

    Scarring of the vocal fold causes considerable dysphonia and presents significant treatment challenges. A rabbit model was developed to investigate the histologic ultrastructure and rheologic properties of the scarred vocal fold lamina propria. Eleven rabbit larynges were scarred by means of forcep biopsy. Sixty days postoperatively, the rabbits were sacrificed and their vocal folds were harvested. Histological analysis of the scarred and normal lamina propria was completed for collagen, procollagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of the tissues were also measured, including elastic shear modulus and dynamic viscosity. Compared to normal vocal fold lamina propria, scarred tissues demonstrated significantly less collagen, an increase in procollagen, and a decrease in elastin. Rheologically, both elastic shear modulus and dynamic viscosity were significantly higher for the scarred tissues. Increased stiffness and viscosity do not appear to result from an increase in collagen, but rather appear to be related to the presence of new, disorganized collagen scaffolding. Results are interpreted in terms of the possible role of interstitial proteins in the etiology of increased stiffness and viscosity, which requires further investigation. This animal model should allow for systematic future investigations of vocal fold scarring and its treatment.

  6. Automatic classification of animal vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemins, Patrick J.

    2005-11-01

    Bioacoustics, the study of animal vocalizations, has begun to use increasingly sophisticated analysis techniques in recent years. Some common tasks in bioacoustics are repertoire determination, call detection, individual identification, stress detection, and behavior correlation. Each research study, however, uses a wide variety of different measured variables, called features, and classification systems to accomplish these tasks. The well-established field of human speech processing has developed a number of different techniques to perform many of the aforementioned bioacoustics tasks. Melfrequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) coefficients are two popular feature sets. The hidden Markov model (HMM), a statistical model similar to a finite autonoma machine, is the most commonly used supervised classification model and is capable of modeling both temporal and spectral variations. This research designs a framework that applies models from human speech processing for bioacoustic analysis tasks. The development of the generalized perceptual linear prediction (gPLP) feature extraction model is one of the more important novel contributions of the framework. Perceptual information from the species under study can be incorporated into the gPLP feature extraction model to represent the vocalizations as the animals might perceive them. By including this perceptual information and modifying parameters of the HMM classification system, this framework can be applied to a wide range of species. The effectiveness of the framework is shown by analyzing African elephant and beluga whale vocalizations. The features extracted from the African elephant data are used as input to a supervised classification system and compared to results from traditional statistical tests. The gPLP features extracted from the beluga whale data are used in an unsupervised classification system and the results are compared to labels assigned by experts. The

  7. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-06-14

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor's songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning.

  8. Vocal Cord Paralysis and Laryngeal Trauma in Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Yuan; Chia, Yeo-Yee; Wang, Pa-Chun; Lin, Hsiu-Yen; Tsai, Chiu-Ling; Hou, Shaw-Min

    2017-11-01

    Cardiac surgery - associated iatrogenic laryngeal trauma is often overlooked. We investigated the risk factors of vocal cord paralysis in cardiac surgery. Medical records were reviewed from 169 patients who underwent elective or emergency cardiac surgeries. Patients had transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) placed either under video fiberscopic image guidance (guided group) or blind placement (blind group). Routine postoperative otolaryngologist consultation with video laryngoscopic recording were performed. Vocal cord paralyses were found in 18 patients (10.7%; left-13, right-4, bilateral-1). The risk of vocal cord paralysis was associated with emergency operation [odds ratio, 97.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9 to 366), p = 0.01]. Use of fiberscope-guided TEE [odds ratio, 0.04 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.87), p = 0.04] can effectively reduce vocal cord injury. Emergency cardiac surgery increased the risk of vocal cord paralysis. Fiberscope-guided TEE placement is recommended for all patients having cardiac surgery to decrease the risk of severe peri-operative laryngeal trauma.

  9. Human vocal attractiveness as signaled by body size projection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Lee, Albert; Wu, Wing-Li; Liu, Xuan; Birkholz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.

  10. Precise Motor Control Enables Rapid Flexibility in Vocal Behavior of Marmoset Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Pomberger, Thomas; Risueno-Segovia, Cristina; Löschner, Julia; Hage, Steffen R

    2018-03-05

    Investigating the evolution of human speech is difficult and controversial because human speech surpasses nonhuman primate vocal communication in scope and flexibility [1-3]. Monkey vocalizations have been assumed to be largely innate, highly affective, and stereotyped for over 50 years [4, 5]. Recently, this perception has dramatically changed. Current studies have revealed distinct learning mechanisms during vocal development [6-8] and vocal flexibility, allowing monkeys to cognitively control when [9, 10], where [11], and what to vocalize [10, 12, 13]. However, specific call features (e.g., duration, frequency) remain surprisingly robust and stable in adult monkeys, resulting in rather stereotyped and discrete call patterns [14]. Additionally, monkeys seem to be unable to modulate their acoustic call structure under reinforced conditions beyond natural constraints [15, 16]. Behavioral experiments have shown that monkeys can stop sequences of calls immediately after acoustic perturbation but cannot interrupt ongoing vocalizations, suggesting that calls consist of single impartible pulses [17, 18]. Using acoustic perturbation triggered by the vocal behavior itself and quantitative measures of resulting vocal adjustments, we show that marmoset monkeys are capable of producing calls with durations beyond the natural boundaries of their repertoire by interrupting ongoing vocalizations rapidly after perturbation onset. Our results indicate that marmosets are capable of interrupting vocalizations only at periodic time points throughout calls, further supported by the occurrence of periodically segmented phees. These ideas overturn decades-old concepts on primate vocal pattern generation, indicating that vocalizations do not consist of one discrete call pattern but are built of many sequentially uttered units, like human speech. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Permeability of canine vocal fold lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jacob P; Kvit, Anton A; Devine, Erin E; Jiang, Jack

    2015-04-01

    Determine the permeability of excised canine vocal fold lamina propria. Basic science. Vocal folds were excised from canine larynges and mounted within a device to measure the flow of 0.9% saline through the tissue over time. The resultant fluid volume displaced over time was then used in a variation of Darcy's law to calculate the permeability of the tissue. Permeability was found through each anatomical plane of the vocal fold, with five samples per plane. Permeability was also found for lamina propria stretched to 10%, 20%, and 30% of its initial length to determine the effects of tensile strain on permeability, with five samples per level of strain. Permeability was found to be 1.40 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg through the sagittal plane, 1.00 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg through the coronal plane, and 4.02 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg through the axial plane. It was significantly greater through the axial plane than both the sagittal (P = .025) and coronal (P = .009) planes. Permeability under strain through the sagittal plane was found to be 1.94 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg under 10% strain, 3.35 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg under 20% strain, and 4.80 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg under 30% strain. The permeability significantly increased after 20% strain (P < .05). Permeability in canine vocal fold lamina propria was found to be increased along the anterior-posterior axis, following the length of the vocal folds. This may influence fluid distribution within the lamina propria during and after vibration. Similarly, permeability increased after 20% strain was imposed on the lamina propria, and may influence vocal fold dynamics during certain phonation tasks. NA Laryngoscope, 125:941-945, 2015. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Paediatric vocal fold paralysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Isabel; Peñorrocha-Teres, Julio; Perez-Ortin, Magdalena; Cerpa, Mauricio; Rabanal, Ignacio; Gavilan, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is a relatively common cause of stridor and dysphonia in the paediatric population. This report summarises our experience with VFP in the paediatric age group. All patients presenting with vocal fold paralysis over a 12-month period were included. Medical charts were revised retrospectively. The diagnosis was performed by flexible endoscopic examination. The cases were evaluated with respect to aetiology of the paralysis, presenting symptoms, delay in diagnosis, affected side, vocal fold position, need for surgical treatment and outcome. The presenting symptoms were stridor and dysphonia. Iatrogenic causes formed the largest group, followed by idiopathic, neurological and obstetric VFP. Unilateral paralysis was found in most cases. The median value for delay in diagnosis was 1 month and it was significantly higher in the iatrogenic group. Surgical treatment was not necessary in most part of cases. The diagnosis of VFP may be suspected based on the patient's symptoms and confirmed by flexible endoscopy. Infants who develop stridor or dysphonia following a surgical procedure have to be examined without delay. The surgeon has to keep in mind that there is a possibility of late spontaneous recovery or compensation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. High-precision spatial localization of mouse vocalizations during social interaction.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Jesse J; Proville, Rémi; Heckman, Gert J; Azarfar, Alireza; Celikel, Tansu; Englitz, Bernhard

    2017-06-07

    Mice display a wide repertoire of vocalizations that varies with age, sex, and context. Especially during courtship, mice emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of high complexity, whose detailed structure is poorly understood. As animals of both sexes vocalize, the study of social vocalizations requires attributing single USVs to individuals. The state-of-the-art in sound localization for USVs allows spatial localization at centimeter resolution, however, animals interact at closer ranges, involving tactile, snout-snout exploration. Hence, improved algorithms are required to reliably assign USVs. We develop multiple solutions to USV localization, and derive an analytical solution for arbitrary vertical microphone positions. The algorithms are compared on wideband acoustic noise and single mouse vocalizations, and applied to social interactions with optically tracked mouse positions. A novel, (frequency) envelope weighted generalised cross-correlation outperforms classical cross-correlation techniques. It achieves a median error of ~1.4 mm for noise and ~4-8.5 mm for vocalizations. Using this algorithms in combination with a level criterion, we can improve the assignment for interacting mice. We report significant differences in mean USV properties between CBA mice of different sexes during social interaction. Hence, the improved USV attribution to individuals lays the basis for a deeper understanding of social vocalizations, in particular sequences of USVs.

  14. Non-song vocalizations of pygmy blue whales in Geographe Bay, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Recalde-Salas, A; Salgado Kent, C P; Parsons, M J G; Marley, S A; McCauley, R D

    2014-05-01

    Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with song, and thus were identified as non-song vocalizations. Five of these were not previously described for this population. Their acoustic characteristics and context are presented. Given that 56% of groups vocalized, 86% of which produced non-song vocalizations and 14% song units, the inclusion of non-song vocalizations in passive-acoustic monitoring is proposed.

  15. The effect of superior auditory skills on vocal accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Ofer; Amir, Noam; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2003-02-01

    The relationship between auditory perception and vocal production has been typically investigated by evaluating the effect of either altered or degraded auditory feedback on speech production in either normal hearing or hearing-impaired individuals. Our goal in the present study was to examine this relationship in individuals with superior auditory abilities. Thirteen professional musicians and thirteen nonmusicians, with no vocal or singing training, participated in this study. For vocal production accuracy, subjects were presented with three tones. They were asked to reproduce the pitch using the vowel /a/. This procedure was repeated three times. The fundamental frequency of each production was measured using an autocorrelation pitch detection algorithm designed for this study. The musicians' superior auditory abilities (compared to the nonmusicians) were established in a frequency discrimination task reported elsewhere. Results indicate that (a) musicians had better vocal production accuracy than nonmusicians (production errors of 1/2 a semitone compared to 1.3 semitones, respectively); (b) frequency discrimination thresholds explain 43% of the variance of the production data, and (c) all subjects with superior frequency discrimination thresholds showed accurate vocal production; the reverse relationship, however, does not hold true. In this study we provide empirical evidence to the importance of auditory feedback on vocal production in listeners with superior auditory skills.

  16. Distress vocalization sequences broadcasted by bats carry redundant information.

    PubMed

    Hechavarría, Julio C; Beetz, M Jerome; Macias, Silvio; Kössl, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Distress vocalizations (also known as alarm or screams) are an important component of the vocal repertoire of a number of animal species, including bats, humans, monkeys and birds, among others. Although the behavioral relevance of distress vocalizations is undeniable, at present, little is known about the rules that govern vocalization production when in alarmful situations. In this article, we show that when distressed, bats of the species Carollia perspicillata produce repetitive vocalization sequences in which consecutive syllables are likely to be similar to one another regarding their physical attributes. The uttered distress syllables are broadband (12-73 kHz) with most of their energy focussing at 23 kHz. Distress syllables are short (~4 ms), their average sound pressure level is close to 70 dB SPL, and they are produced at high repetition rates (every 14 ms). We discuss that, because of their physical attributes, bat distress vocalizations could serve a dual purpose: (1) advertising threatful situations to conspecifics, and (2) informing the threatener that the bats are ready to defend themselves. We also discuss possible advantages of advertising danger/discomfort using repetitive utterances, a calling strategy that appears to be ubiquitous across the animal kingdom.

  17. Tissue Engineering-based Therapeutic Strategies for Vocal Fold Repair and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linqing; Stiadle, Jeanna M.; Lau, Hang K.; Zerdoum, Aidan B.; Jia, Xinqiao; L.Thibeault, Susan; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2016-01-01

    Vocal folds are soft laryngeal connective tissues with distinct layered structures and complex multicomponent matrix compositions that endow phonatory and respiratory functions. This delicate tissue is easily damaged by various environmental factors and pathological conditions, altering vocal biomechanics and causing debilitating vocal disorders that detrimentally affect the daily lives of suffering individuals. Modern techniques and advanced knowledge of regenerative medicine have led to a deeper understanding of the microstructure, microphysiology, and micropathophysiology of vocal fold tissues. State-of-the-art materials ranging from extracecullar-matrix (ECM)-derived biomaterials to synthetic polymer scaffolds have been proposed for the prevention and treatment of voice disorders including vocal fold scarring and fibrosis. This review intends to provide a thorough overview of current achievements in the field of vocal fold tissue engineering, including the fabrication of injectable biomaterials to mimic in vitro cell microenvironments, novel designs of bioreactors that capture in vivo tissue biomechanics, and establishment of various animal models to characterize the in vivo biocompatibility of these materials. The combination of polymeric scaffolds, cell transplantation, biomechanical stimulation, and delivery of antifibrotic growth factors will lead to successful restoration of functional vocal folds and improved vocal recovery in animal models, facilitating the application of these materials and related methodologies in clinical practice. PMID:27619243

  18. Vocal Features of Song and Speech: Insights from Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Julia; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Similarities and differences between speech and song are often examined. However, the perceptual definition of these two types of vocalization is challenging. Indeed, the prototypical characteristics of speech or song support top-down processes, which influence listeners' perception of acoustic information. In order to examine vocal features associated with speaking and singing, we propose an innovative approach designed to facilitate bottom-up mechanisms in perceiving vocalizations by using material situated between speech and song: Speechsong. 25 participants were asked to evaluate 20 performances of a speechsong composition by Arnold Schoenberg, "Pierrot lunaire" op. 21 from 1912, evaluating 20 features of vocal-articulatory expression. Raters provided reliable judgments concerning the vocal features used by the performers and did not show strong appeal or specific expectations in reference to Schoenberg's piece. By examining the relationship between the vocal features and the impression of song or speech, the results confirm the importance of pitch (height, contour, range), but also point to the relevance of register, timbre, tension and faucal distance. Besides highlighting vocal features associated with speech and song, this study supports the relevance of the present approach of focusing on a theoretical middle category in order to better understand vocal expression in song and speech.

  19. Vocal Features of Song and Speech: Insights from Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Julia; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Similarities and differences between speech and song are often examined. However, the perceptual definition of these two types of vocalization is challenging. Indeed, the prototypical characteristics of speech or song support top-down processes, which influence listeners' perception of acoustic information. In order to examine vocal features associated with speaking and singing, we propose an innovative approach designed to facilitate bottom-up mechanisms in perceiving vocalizations by using material situated between speech and song: Speechsong. 25 participants were asked to evaluate 20 performances of a speechsong composition by Arnold Schoenberg, “Pierrot lunaire” op. 21 from 1912, evaluating 20 features of vocal-articulatory expression. Raters provided reliable judgments concerning the vocal features used by the performers and did not show strong appeal or specific expectations in reference to Schoenberg's piece. By examining the relationship between the vocal features and the impression of song or speech, the results confirm the importance of pitch (height, contour, range), but also point to the relevance of register, timbre, tension and faucal distance. Besides highlighting vocal features associated with speech and song, this study supports the relevance of the present approach of focusing on a theoretical middle category in order to better understand vocal expression in song and speech. PMID:28744233

  20. Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier in Health and Injury A Research Review

    PubMed Central

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Leydon, Ciara; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vocal fold epithelium is composed of layers of individual epithelial cells joined by junctional complexes constituting a unique interface with the external environment. This barrier provides structural stability to the vocal folds and protects underlying connective tissue from injury while being nearly continuously exposed to potentially hazardous insults including environmental or systemic-based irritants such as pollutants and reflux, surgical procedures, and vibratory trauma. Small disruptions in the epithelial barrier may have a large impact on susceptibility to injury and overall vocal health. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad-based review of our current knowledge of the vocal fold epithelial barrier. Methods A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted. Details of the structure of the vocal fold epithelial barrier are presented and evaluated in the context of function in injury and pathology. The importance of the epithelial-associated vocal fold mucus barrier is also introduced. Results/Conclusions Information presented in this review is valuable for clinicians and researchers as it highlights the importance of this understudied portion of the vocal folds to overall vocal health and disease. Prevention and treatment of injury to the epithelial barrier is a significant area awaiting further investigation. PMID:24686981

  1. Characterizing the graded structure of false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Murray, S O; Mercado, E; Roitblat, H L

    1998-09-01

    The vocalizations from two, captive false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) were analyzed. The structure of the vocalizations was best modeled as lying along a continuum with trains of discrete, exponentially damped sinusoidal pulses at one end and continuous sinusoidal signals at the other end. Pulse trains were graded as a function of the interval between pulses where the minimum interval between pulses could be zero milliseconds. The transition from a pulse train with no inter-pulse interval to a whistle could be modeled by gradations in the degree of damping. There were many examples of vocalizations that were gradually modulated from pulse trains to whistles. There were also vocalizations that showed rapid shifts in signal type--for example, switching immediately from a whistle to a pulse train. These data have implications when considering both the possible function(s) of the vocalizations and the potential sound production mechanism(s). A short-time duty cycle measure was developed to characterize the graded structure of the vocalizations. A random sample of 500 vocalizations was characterized by combining the duty cycle measure with peak frequency measurements. The analysis method proved to be an effective metric for describing the graded structure of false killer whale vocalizations.

  2. The effect of voice amplification on occupational vocal dose in elementary school teachers.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Christopher S; O'Brien, Shenendoah G; Tinter, Sara R

    2012-09-01

    Two elementary school teachers, one with and one without a history of vocal complaints, wore a vocal dosimeter all day at school for a 3-week period. In the second week, each teacher wore a portable voice amplifier. Each teacher showed a reduction in vocal intensity during the week of amplification, with a larger effect for the teacher with vocal difficulties. This teacher also showed a decrease in hourly vocal fold distance dose as measured by the dosimeter despite incurring longer phonation times. Fundamental frequency and vocal fold cycle dose did not appear to be affected by the use of amplification during the teaching day. Both teachers showed evidence of a possible moderate effect of adjusting vocal intensity in the week after amplification, possibly as a means to recalibrate their perceived vocal loudness. This study demonstrates the usefulness of both vocal dosimetry and amplification in monitoring and modifying vocal dose in an occupational setting and reinforces previous data suggesting the effectiveness of amplification in reducing the vocal load in schoolteachers. Implications of the data for future research regarding prevention and treatment of occupational voice disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Breathing and Vocal Control: The Respiratory System as both a Driver and Target of Telencephalic Vocal Motor Circuits in Songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Marc F.; McLean, Judith; Goller, Franz

    2011-01-01

    The production of vocalizations is intimately linked to the respiratory system. Despite our understanding of neural circuits that generate normal respiratory patterns, very little is understood regarding how these ponto-medullary circuits become engaged during vocal production. Songbirds offer a potentially powerful model system for addressing this relationship. Songs dramatically alter the respiratory pattern in ways that are often highly predictable and songbirds have a specialized telencephalic vocal motor circuit that provides massive innervation to a brainstem respiratory network that shares many similarities with its mammalian counterpart. In this review, we highlight interactions between the song motor circuit and the respiratory system, describing how both systems likely interact to produce the complex respiratory patterns that are observed during vocalization. We also discuss how the respiratory system, through its bilateral bottom-up projections to thalamus, might play a key role in sending precisely timed signals that synchronize premotor activity in both hemispheres. PMID:21984733

  4. Nonlinear dynamic mechanism of vocal tremor from voice analysis and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2008-09-01

    Nonlinear dynamic analysis and model simulations are used to study the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of vocal folds with vocal tremor, which can typically be characterized by low-frequency modulation and aperiodicity. Tremor voices from patients with disorders such as paresis, Parkinson's disease, hyperfunction, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia show low-dimensional characteristics, differing from random noise. Correlation dimension analysis statistically distinguishes tremor voices from normal voices. Furthermore, a nonlinear tremor model is proposed to study the vibrations of the vocal folds with vocal tremor. Fractal dimensions and positive Lyapunov exponents demonstrate the evidence of chaos in the tremor model, where amplitude and frequency play important roles in governing vocal fold dynamics. Nonlinear dynamic voice analysis and vocal fold modeling may provide a useful set of tools for understanding the dynamic mechanism of vocal tremor in patients with laryngeal diseases.

  5. Effect of hydration and vocal rest on the vocal fatigue in amateur karaoke singers.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Edwin M L; Chan, Rainy M M

    2003-06-01

    Karaoke singing is a very popular entertainment among young people in Asia. It is a leisure singing activity with the singer's voice amplified with special acoustic effects in the backdrop of music. Music video and song captions are shown on television screen to remind the singers during singing. It is not uncommon to find participants singing continuously for four to five hours each time. As most of the karaoke singers have no formal training in singing, these amateur singers are more vulnerable to developing voice problems under these intensive singing activities. This study reports the performance of 20 young amateur singers (10 males and 10 females, aged between 20-25 years) on a series of phonatory function tasks carried out during continuous karaoke singing. Half of the singers were given water to drink and short duration of vocal rests at regular intervals during singing and the other half sang continuously without taking any water or rest. The subjects who were given hydration and vocal rests sang significantly longer than those who did not take any water or rest. The voice quality, as measured by perceptual and acoustic measures, and vocal function, as measured by phonetogram, did not show any significant changes during singing in the subjects who were given water and rest during the singing. However, subjects who sang continuously without drinking water and taking rests showed significant changes in the jitter measure and the highest pitch they could produce during singing. These results suggest that hydration and vocal rests are useful strategies to preserve voice function and quality during karaoke singing. This information is useful educational information for karaoke singers.

  6. Comprehensive Outcome Researches of Intralesional Steroid Injection on Benign Vocal Fold Lesions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Te; Lai, Mei-Shu; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated multidimensional treatment outcomes, including prognostic factors and side effects of vocal fold steroid injection (VFSI). We recruited 126 consecutive patients, including patients with 49 nodules, 47 polyps, and 30 mucus retention cysts. All the patients received VFSI under local anesthesia in the office settings. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 and 2 months after the procedure, including endoscopic evaluation, perceptual voice quality (GRB scores), acoustic analysis, and 10-item Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10). More than 80% of the patients reported subjective improvements after VFSI. Objective measurements revealed significant improvements from baseline in most of the outcome parameters (P<0.05). Higher occupational vocal demands and fibrotic vocal nodules were significantly associated with poorer clinical responses as measured by the VHI-10 and GRB scores, respectively. For vocal polyps, dysphonia for more than 12 months were significantly associated with higher postoperative VHI-10 scores, whereas patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) showed significantly poor postoperative voice quality as measured by GRB scores. Side effects after VFSI included hematoma (27%), triamcinolone deposits (4%), and vocal atrophy (1%), which resolved spontaneously within 1-2 months. Presentation with vocal fold ectasias/varicosities and higher vocal demands were significantly correlated with postoperative vocal hematoma. This study demonstrated significant improvements after VFSI in vocal nodules, polyps, and cysts. Occupational vocal demand and subtypes of vocal nodules are closely related to the treatment outcomes after VFSI, whereas symptom duration and LPR were significant prognostic factors for VFSI treatment outcomes in vocal polyps. Side effects after receiving VFSI were mostly self-limited without sequel, whereas the incidence rates might be varied by the injection approach and the timing for postoperative follow-up. Copyright © 2015 The

  7. Functional morphology of the Alligator mississippiensis larynx with implications for vocal production.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Li, Zhiheng; Tokuda, Isao T; Farmer, Colleen G

    2015-04-01

    Sauropsid vocalization is mediated by the syrinx in birds and the larynx in extant reptiles; but whereas avian vocal production has received much attention, the vocal mechanism of basal reptilians is poorly understood. The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) displays a large vocal repertoire during mating and in parent-offspring interactions. Although vocal outputs of these behaviors have received some attention, the underlying mechanism of sound production remains speculative. Here, we investigate the laryngeal anatomy of juvenile and adult animals by macroscopic and histological methods. Observations of the cartilaginous framework and associated muscles largely corroborate earlier findings, but one muscle, the cricoarytenoideus, exhibits a heretofore unknown extrinsic insertion that has important implications for effective regulation of vocal fold length and tension. Histological investigation of the larynx revealed a layered vocal fold morphology. The thick lamina propria consists of non-homogenous extracellular matrix containing collagen fibers that are tightly packed below the epithelium but loosely organized deep inside the vocal fold. We found few elastic fibers but comparatively high proportions of hyaluronan. Similar organizational complexity is also seen in mammalian vocal folds and the labia of the avian syrinx: convergent morphologies that suggest analogous mechanisms for sound production. In tensile tests, alligator vocal folds demonstrated a linear stress-strain behavior in the low strain region and nonlinear stress responses at strains larger than 15%, which is similar to mammalian vocal fold tissue. We have integrated morphological and physiological data in a two-mass vocal fold model, providing a systematic description of the possible acoustic space that could be available to an alligator larynx. Mapping actual call production onto possible acoustic space validates the model's predictions. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists

  8. Animal models of speech and vocal communication deficits associated with psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Genevieve; Roberts, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in speech, language and vocal communication are hallmarks of several neuropsychiatric disorders, most notably autism spectrum disorders. Historically, the use of animal models to dissect molecular pathways and connect them to behavioral endophenotypes in cognitive disorders has proven to be an effective approach for developing and testing disease-relevant therapeutics. The unique aspects of human language when compared to vocal behaviors in other animals make such an approach potentially more challenging. However, the study of vocal learning in species with analogous brain circuits to humans may provide entry points for understanding this human-specific phenotype and diseases. Here, we review animal models of vocal learning and vocal communication, and specifically link phenotypes of psychiatric disorders to relevant model systems. Evolutionary constraints in the organization of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity result in similarities in the brain mechanisms for vocal learning and vocal communication. Comparative approaches and careful consideration of the behavioral limitations among different animal models can provide critical avenues for dissecting the molecular pathways underlying cognitive disorders that disrupt speech, language and vocal communication. PMID:26232298

  9. Synthetic, multi-layer, self-oscillating vocal fold model fabrication.

    PubMed

    Murray, Preston R; Thomson, Scott L

    2011-12-02

    Sound for the human voice is produced via flow-induced vocal fold vibration. The vocal folds consist of several layers of tissue, each with differing material properties. Normal voice production relies on healthy tissue and vocal folds, and occurs as a result of complex coupling between aerodynamic, structural dynamic, and acoustic physical phenomena. Voice disorders affect up to 7.5 million annually in the United States alone and often result in significant financial, social, and other quality-of-life difficulties. Understanding the physics of voice production has the potential to significantly benefit voice care, including clinical prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of voice disorders. Existing methods for studying voice production include in vivo experimentation using human and animal subjects, in vitro experimentation using excised larynges and synthetic models, and computational modeling. Owing to hazardous and difficult instrument access, in vivo experiments are severely limited in scope. Excised larynx experiments have the benefit of anatomical and some physiological realism, but parametric studies involving geometric and material property variables are limited. Further, they are typically only able to be vibrated for relatively short periods of time (typically on the order of minutes). Overcoming some of the limitations of excised larynx experiments, synthetic vocal fold models are emerging as a complementary tool for studying voice production. Synthetic models can be fabricated with systematic changes to geometry and material properties, allowing for the study of healthy and unhealthy human phonatory aerodynamics, structural dynamics, and acoustics. For example, they have been used to study left-right vocal fold asymmetry, clinical instrument development, laryngeal aerodynamics, vocal fold contact pressure, and subglottal acoustics (a more comprehensive list can be found in Kniesburges et al.) Existing synthetic vocal fold models, however, have either

  10. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E.; Sakata, Jon T.

    2016-01-01

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor’s songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning. PMID:27247385

  11. A Mutation Associated with Stuttering Alters Mouse Pup Ultrasonic Vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Terra D; Wozniak, David F; Gutierrez, Joanne; Han, Tae-Un; Drayna, Dennis; Holy, Timothy E

    2016-04-13

    A promising approach to understanding the mechanistic basis of speech is to study disorders that affect speech without compromising other cognitive or motor functions. Stuttering, also known as stammering, has been linked to mutations in the lysosomal enzyme-targeting pathway, but how this remarkably specific speech deficit arises from mutations in a family of general "cellular housekeeping" genes is unknown. To address this question, we asked whether a missense mutation associated with human stuttering causes vocal or other abnormalities in mice. We compared vocalizations from mice engineered to carry a mutation in the Gnptab (N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase subunits alpha/beta) gene with wild-type littermates. We found significant differences in the vocalizations of pups with the human Gnptab stuttering mutation compared to littermate controls. Specifically, we found that mice with the mutation emitted fewer vocalizations per unit time and had longer pauses between vocalizations and that the entropy of the temporal sequence was significantly reduced. Furthermore, Gnptab missense mice were similar to wild-type mice on an extensive battery of non-vocal behaviors. We then used the same language-agnostic metrics for auditory signal analysis of human speech. We analyzed speech from people who stutter with mutations in this pathway and compared it to control speech and found abnormalities similar to those found in the mouse vocalizations. These data show that mutations in the lysosomal enzyme-targeting pathway produce highly specific effects in mouse pup vocalizations and establish the mouse as an attractive model for studying this disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neural Correlates of Vocal Production and Motor Control in Human Heschl's Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Oya, Hiroyuki; Nourski, Kirill V.; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Larson, Charles R.; Brugge, John F.; Howard, Matthew A.; Greenlee, Jeremy D.W.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how pitch frequency, a perceptually relevant aspect of periodicity in natural human vocalizations, is encoded in Heschl's gyrus (HG), and how this information may be used to influence vocal pitch motor control. We recorded local field potentials from multicontact depth electrodes implanted in HG of 14 neurosurgical epilepsy patients as they vocalized vowel sounds and received brief (200 ms) pitch perturbations at 100 Cents in their auditory feedback. Event-related band power responses to vocalizations showed sustained frequency following responses that tracked voice fundamental frequency (F0) and were significantly enhanced in posteromedial HG during speaking compared with when subjects listened to the playback of their own voice. In addition to frequency following responses, a transient response component within the high gamma frequency band (75–150 Hz) was identified. When this response followed the onset of vocalization, the magnitude of the response was the same for the speaking and playback conditions. In contrast, when this response followed a pitch shift, its magnitude was significantly enhanced during speaking compared with playback. We also observed that, in anterolateral HG, the power of high gamma responses to pitch shifts correlated with the magnitude of compensatory vocal responses. These findings demonstrate a functional parcellation of HG with neural activity that encodes pitch in natural human voice, distinguishes between self-generated and passively heard vocalizations, detects discrepancies between the intended and heard vocalization, and contains information about the resulting behavioral vocal compensations in response to auditory feedback pitch perturbations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The present study is a significant contribution to our understanding of sensor-motor mechanisms of vocal production and motor control. The findings demonstrate distinct functional parcellation of core and noncore areas within human

  13. Slowing down presentation of facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and induces facial-vocal imitation in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Carole; Lainé, France; Rodriguez, Mélissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on CD-Rom, under audio or silent conditions, and under dynamic visual conditions (slowly, very slowly, at normal speed) plus a static control. Overall, children with autism showed lower performance in expression recognition and more induced facial-vocal imitation than controls. In the autistic group, facial expression recognition and induced facial-vocal imitation were significantly enhanced in slow conditions. Findings may give new perspectives for understanding and intervention for verbal and emotional perceptive and communicative impairments in autistic populations.

  14. Vocal cord collapse during phrenic nerve-paced respiration in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Mark C; Preciado, Diego A

    2012-01-01

    Phrenic nerve pacing can be used to treat congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). We report how the lack of normal vocal cord tone during phrenic paced respiration can result in passive vocal cord collapse and produce obstructive symptoms. We describe a case of passive vocal cord collapse during phrenic nerve paced respiration in a patient with CCHS. As far as we know, this is the first report of this etiology of airway obstruction. The patient, a 7-year-old with CCHS and normal waking vocal cord movement, continued to require nightly continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) despite successful utilization of phrenic nerve pacers. On direct laryngoscopy, the patient's larynx was observed while the diaphragmatic pacers were sequentially engaged. No abnormal vocal cord stimulation was witnessed during engaging of either phrenic nerve stimulator. However, the lack of normal inspiratory vocal cord abduction during phrenic nerve-paced respiration resulted in vocal cord collapse and partial obstruction due to passive adduction of the vocal cords through the Bernoulli effect. Bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation resulted in more vocal cord collapse than unilateral stimulation. The lack of vocal cord abduction on inspiration presents a limit to phrenic nerve pacers.

  15. Vocal emotion of humanoid robots: a study from brain mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youhui; Hu, Xiaohua; Dai, Weihui; Zhou, Jie; Kuo, Taitzong

    2014-01-01

    Driven by rapid ongoing advances in humanoid robot, increasing attention has been shifted into the issue of emotion intelligence of AI robots to facilitate the communication between man-machines and human beings, especially for the vocal emotion in interactive system of future humanoid robots. This paper explored the brain mechanism of vocal emotion by studying previous researches and developed an experiment to observe the brain response by fMRI, to analyze vocal emotion of human beings. Findings in this paper provided a new approach to design and evaluate the vocal emotion of humanoid robots based on brain mechanism of human beings.

  16. Vocal Emotion of Humanoid Robots: A Study from Brain Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youhui; Hu, Xiaohua; Zhou, Jie; Kuo, Taitzong

    2014-01-01

    Driven by rapid ongoing advances in humanoid robot, increasing attention has been shifted into the issue of emotion intelligence of AI robots to facilitate the communication between man-machines and human beings, especially for the vocal emotion in interactive system of future humanoid robots. This paper explored the brain mechanism of vocal emotion by studying previous researches and developed an experiment to observe the brain response by fMRI, to analyze vocal emotion of human beings. Findings in this paper provided a new approach to design and evaluate the vocal emotion of humanoid robots based on brain mechanism of human beings. PMID:24587712

  17. An Analysis of Vocal Stereotypy and Therapist Fading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athens, Elizabeth S.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Pipkin, Claire St. Peter

    2008-01-01

    A functional analysis for a boy with Down syndrome and autism suggested that vocal stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement. The analysis also showed that instructions and noncontingent attention suppressed vocal stereotypy. A treatment package consisting of noncontingent attention, contingent demands, and response cost effectively…

  18. Everyday bat vocalizations contain information about emitter, addressee, context, and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Prat, Yosef; Taub, Mor; Yovel, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    Animal vocal communication is often diverse and structured. Yet, the information concealed in animal vocalizations remains elusive. Several studies have shown that animal calls convey information about their emitter and the context. Often, these studies focus on specific types of calls, as it is rarely possible to probe an entire vocal repertoire at once. In this study, we continuously monitored Egyptian fruit bats for months, recording audio and video around-the-clock. We analyzed almost 15,000 vocalizations, which accompanied the everyday interactions of the bats, and were all directed toward specific individuals, rather than broadcast. We found that bat vocalizations carry ample information about the identity of the emitter, the context of the call, the behavioral response to the call, and even the call’s addressee. Our results underline the importance of studying the mundane, pairwise, directed, vocal interactions of animals. PMID:28005079

  19. Reduced auditory processing capacity during vocalization in children with Selective Mutism.

    PubMed

    Arie, Miri; Henkin, Yael; Lamy, Dominique; Tetin-Schneider, Simona; Apter, Alan; Sadeh, Avi; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2007-02-01

    Because abnormal Auditory Efferent Activity (AEA) is associated with auditory distortions during vocalization, we tested whether auditory processing is impaired during vocalization in children with Selective Mutism (SM). Participants were children with SM and abnormal AEA, children with SM and normal AEA, and normally speaking controls, who had to detect aurally presented target words embedded within word lists under two conditions: silence (single task), and while vocalizing (dual task). To ascertain specificity of auditory-vocal deficit, effects of concurrent vocalizing were also examined during a visual task. Children with SM and abnormal AEA showed impaired auditory processing during vocalization relative to children with SM and normal AEA, and relative to control children. This impairment is specific to the auditory modality and does not reflect difficulties in dual task per se. The data extends previous findings suggesting that deficient auditory processing is involved in speech selectivity in SM.

  20. Conversational Entrainment of Vocal Fry in Young Adult Female American English Speakers.

    PubMed

    Borrie, Stephanie A; Delfino, Christine R

    2017-07-01

    Conversational entrainment, the natural tendency for people to modify their behaviors to more closely match their communication partner, is examined as one possible mechanism modulating the prevalence of vocal fry in the speech of young American women engaged in spoken dialogue. Twenty young adult female American English speakers engaged in two spoken dialogue tasks-one with a young adult female American English conversational partner who exhibited substantial vocal fry and one with a young adult female American English conversational partner who exhibited quantifiably less vocal fry. Dialogues were analyzed for proportion of vocal fry, by speaker, and two measures of communicative success (efficiency and enjoyment). Participants employed significantly more vocal fry when conversing with the partner who exhibited substantial vocal fry than when conversing with the partner who exhibited quantifiably less vocal fry. Further, greater similarity between communication partners in their use of vocal fry tracked with higher scores of communicative efficiency and communicative enjoyment. Conversational entrainment offers a mechanistic framework that may be used to explain, to some degree, the frequency with which vocal fry is employed by young American women engaged in spoken dialogue. Further, young American women who modulated their vocal patterns during dialogue to match those of their conversational partner gained more efficiency and enjoyment from their interactions, demonstrating the cognitive and social benefits of entrainment. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Causes of vocal cord dyscinesia and its original factors after endotracheal intubation].

    PubMed

    Sun, Anke; Zhang, Tiezheng; Liu, Wenyuan; Tang, Weiwei; Guo, Xiaohong

    2012-03-01

    To research the causes of postintubation vocal cord dyskinesia and its contributing factors. The causes of vocal cord dyskinesia were confirmed by laryngoscope, three-dimensional spiral CT, stroboscope, and the analysis of therapy. The factors relevant to the causes of vocal cord dyskinesia were analysed based on the following elements: (1) the anatomic or pathological condition of patients or the technical skills of anesthetists. (2) emaciated or obese body and neck. (3) the age of patients. (4) the duration of endotracheal tube retention. (5) the types of operations. (6) anesthesia procedure. Among 135 patients, 128 cases (94.81%) manifested arytenoid dislocation, 7 cases (5.19%) vocal cord paralysis. The study showed that the vocal cord dyskinesia associated with anatomic or pathological condition of patients and technical skills of anesthetists (with intubation difficulty) accounted for 76.30%. The patients with relative emaciated body or neck accounted for 90.62% in cases without intubation difficulty. Age had no significant analytical relationship with vocal cord dyskinesia. Prolonged intubation (endotracheal tube retention over 12 hours) was accounted for only 17.64%. The incidence of vocal cord dyskinesia was nearly 0.5% in patients underwent cardio-thoracic surgery, accounting for 59.26% of all the patients. There are two major causes of vocal cord dyskinesia: arytenoid dislocation and vocal cord paralysis, and the rate of vocal cord dyskinesia could be reduced by the improvement of technical skill of anesthetists and/or sufficient attention to the intubation condition of patients.

  2. Factors associated with vocal fold pathologies in teachers.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carla Lima de; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges Dos; Lima, Verônica Maria Cadena; Porto, Lauro Antonio

    2011-10-01

    To analyze factors associated with the prevalence of the medical diagnosis of vocal fold pathologies in teachers. A census-based epidemiological, cross-sectional study was conducted with 4,495 public primary and secondary school teachers in the city of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil, between March and April 2006. The dependent variable was the self-reported medical diagnosis of vocal fold pathologies and the independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics; professional activity; work organization/interpersonal relationships; physical work environment characteristics; frequency of common mental disorders, measured by the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20 >7); and general health conditions. Descriptive statistical, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis techniques were used. The prevalence of self-reported medical diagnosis of vocal fold pathologies was 18.9%. In the logistic regression analysis, the variables that remained associated with this medical diagnosis were as follows: being female, having worked as a teacher for more than seven years, excessive voice use, reporting more than five unfavorable physical work environment characteristics and presence of common mental disorders. The presence of self-reported vocal fold pathologies was associated with factors that point out the need of actions that promote teachers' vocal health and changes in their work structure and organization.

  3. Spatial location influences vocal interactions in bullfrog choruses

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Mary E.; Cropp, Brett F.; Gonchar, Marina; Knowles, Jeffrey; Simmons, James A.; Simmons, Andrea Megela

    2010-01-01

    A multiple sensor array was employed to identify the spatial locations of all vocalizing male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) in five natural choruses. Patterns of vocal activity collected with this array were compared with computer simulations of chorus activity. Bullfrogs were not randomly spaced within choruses, but tended to cluster into closely spaced groups of two to five vocalizing males. There were nonrandom, differing patterns of vocal interactions within clusters of closely spaced males and between different clusters. Bullfrogs located within the same cluster tended to overlap or alternate call notes with two or more other males in that cluster. These near-simultaneous calling bouts produced advertisement calls with more pronounced amplitude modulation than occurred in nonoverlapping notes or calls. Bullfrogs located in different clusters more often alternated entire calls or overlapped only small segments of their calls. They also tended to respond sequentially to calls of their farther neighbors compared to their nearer neighbors. Results of computational analyses showed that the observed patterns of vocal interactions were significantly different than expected based on random activity. The use of a multiple sensor array provides a richer view of the dynamics of choruses than available based on single microphone techniques. PMID:20370047

  4. Social Vocalizations of Big Brown Bats Vary with Behavioral Context

    PubMed Central

    Gadziola, Marie A.; Grimsley, Jasmine M. S.; Faure, Paul A.; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Bats are among the most gregarious and vocal mammals, with some species demonstrating a diverse repertoire of syllables under a variety of behavioral contexts. Despite extensive characterization of big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) biosonar signals, there have been no detailed studies of adult social vocalizations. We recorded and analyzed social vocalizations and associated behaviors of captive big brown bats under four behavioral contexts: low aggression, medium aggression, high aggression, and appeasement. Even limited to these contexts, big brown bats possess a rich repertoire of social vocalizations, with 18 distinct syllable types automatically classified using a spectrogram cross-correlation procedure. For each behavioral context, we describe vocalizations in terms of syllable acoustics, temporal emission patterns, and typical syllable sequences. Emotion-related acoustic cues are evident within the call structure by context-specific syllable types or variations in the temporal emission pattern. We designed a paradigm that could evoke aggressive vocalizations while monitoring heart rate as an objective measure of internal physiological state. Changes in the magnitude and duration of elevated heart rate scaled to the level of evoked aggression, confirming the behavioral state classifications assessed by vocalizations and behavioral displays. These results reveal a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a caller. PMID:22970247

  5. Bupropion XL-induced motor and vocal tics.

    PubMed

    Kayhan, Fatih; Uguz, Faruk; Kayhan, Ayşegül; Toktaş, Fikriye Ilay

    2014-01-01

    Tics are stereotypical repetitive involuntary movements (motor tics) or sounds (vocal tics). Although the emergence of tics were reported in a few cases with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, there was no case with bupropion extended-release (Bupropion XL). The current case report presents a male patient developing motor and vocal tics with the use of bupropion XL.

  6. Vocal Cord Paralysis and Laryngeal Trauma in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Yuan; Chia, Yeo-Yee; Wang, Pa-Chun; Lin, Hsiu-Yen; Tsai, Chiu-Ling; Hou, Shaw-Min

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiac surgery – associated iatrogenic laryngeal trauma is often overlooked. We investigated the risk factors of vocal cord paralysis in cardiac surgery. Methods Medical records were reviewed from 169 patients who underwent elective or emergency cardiac surgeries. Patients had transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) placed either under video fiberscopic image guidance (guided group) or blind placement (blind group). Routine postoperative otolaryngologist consultation with video laryngoscopic recording were performed. Results Vocal cord paralyses were found in 18 patients (10.7%; left-13, right-4, bilateral-1). The risk of vocal cord paralysis was associated with emergency operation [odds ratio, 97.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9 to 366), p = 0.01]. Use of fiberscope-guided TEE [odds ratio, 0.04 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.87), p = 0.04] can effectively reduce vocal cord injury. Conclusions Emergency cardiac surgery increased the risk of vocal cord paralysis. Fiberscope-guided TEE placement is recommended for all patients having cardiac surgery to decrease the risk of severe peri-operative laryngeal trauma. PMID:29167615

  7. Killer whales are capable of vocal learning

    PubMed Central

    Foote, Andrew D; Griffin, Rachael M; Howitt, David; Larsson, Lisa; Miller, Patrick J.O; Rus Hoelzel, A

    2006-01-01

    The production learning of vocalizations by manipulation of the sound production organs to alter the physical structure of sound has been demonstrated in only a few mammals. In this natural experiment, we document the vocal behaviour of two juvenile killer whales, Orcinus orca, separated from their natal pods, which are the only cases of dispersal seen during the three decades of observation of their populations. We find mimicry of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) barks, demonstrating the vocal production learning ability for one of the calves. We also find differences in call usage (compared to the natal pod) that may reflect the absence of a repertoire model from tutors or some unknown effect related to isolation or context. PMID:17148275

  8. Zinc sulfate therapy of vocal process granuloma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guang-Bin; Sun, Na; Tang, Hai-Hong; Zhu, Qiu-Bei; Wen, Wu; Zheng, Hong-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Vocal process granuloma is a benign lesion that occurs on the arytenoid cartilage. It tends to recur locally, and there is a great diversity of methods to treat it. Here, we reviewed the effects of zinc sulfate therapy program in 16 patients with vocal process granulomas. Eleven patients had a history of trauma or laryngeal intubation and five patients had unknown origin. Eleven had recurrence after one to three failed surgeries, and the others had no prior treatment. Symptoms included hoarseness, sore throat, lump sensation in the throat and cough that apparently improved. The granulomas did not recur for at least 1 year. No complications occurred. For vocal process granuloma, zinc sulfate therapy is good either as an initial or compensatory treatment.

  9. Objective vocal quality in children using cochlear implants: a multiparameter approach.

    PubMed

    Baudonck, Nele; D'haeseleer, Evelien; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the objective vocal quality in 36 prelingually deaf children using cochlear implant (CI) with a mean age of 9 years. An additional purpose was to compare the objective vocal quality of these 36 CI users with 25 age-matched children with prelingual severe hearing loss using conventional hearing aids (HAs) and 25 normal hearing (NH) children. The design for this cross-sectional study was a multigroup posttest-only design. The objective vocal quality was measured by means of the dysphonia severity index (DSI). Moreover, perceptual voice assessment using the GRBASI scale was performed. CI children have a vocal quality by means of the DSI of +1.8, corresponding with a DSI% of 68%, indicating a borderline vocal quality situated 2% above the limit of normality. The voice was perceptually characterized by the presence of a very slight grade of hoarseness, roughness, strained phonation, and higher pitch and intensity levels. No significant objective vocal quality differences were measured between the voices of the CI children, HA users, and NH children. According to the results, one aspect of the vocal approach in children with CI and using HAs must be focused on the improvement of the strained vocal characteristic and the use of a lower pitch and intensity level. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vocal cord dysfunction in a child.

    PubMed

    Juliá, J C; Martorell, A; Armengot, M A; Lluch, R; Boluda, C F; Cerdá, J C; Alvarez, V

    1999-07-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) involves paradoxical adduction of the vocal cord during the respiratory cycle. This usually occurs during inspiration, but can also be seen in expiration. Vocal cord appositioning produces airflow obstruction sufficient to cause wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. These symptoms often imitate the respiratory alterations of asthma, thus leading to inappropriate treatment; intubation or tracheotomy may prove necessary. An 11-year-old girl was admitted with intractable dyspnea. She had been diagnosed with atopic asthma, although she failed to respond to an increase in antiasthma medication, including high-dose oral steroids. Flow-volume loops were abnormal, with evidence of variable extrathoracic airway obstruction, manifested as a flat inspiratory loop. No structural abnormalities were seen with either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fibroscopy revealed paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords during the respiratory cycle, no obstructive disorder being observed. After the diagnosis of VCD, the clinical manifestations resolved with psychiatric treatment. Adduction was not demonstrable at repeat fibroscopy after treatment. VCD may simulate bronchial asthma; it may also be associated with that disorder, thus masking the diagnosis. It should be suspected in patients with recurrent wheezing who fail to respond to usual asthma treatment. An early diagnosis avoids unnecessary aggressive management. Treatment should consist of respiratory and phonatory exercises; psychotherapy may be useful.

  11. Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations are bound to active sniffing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sirotin, Yevgeniy B.; Costa, Martín Elias; Laplagne, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    During rodent active behavior, multiple orofacial sensorimotor behaviors, including sniffing and whisking, display rhythmicity in the theta range (~5–10 Hz). During specific behaviors, these rhythmic patterns interlock, such that execution of individual motor programs becomes dependent on the state of the others. Here we performed simultaneous recordings of the respiratory cycle and ultrasonic vocalization emission by adult rats and mice in social settings. We used automated analysis to examine the relationship between breathing patterns and vocalization over long time periods. Rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs, “50 kHz”) were emitted within stretches of active sniffing (5–10 Hz) and were largely absent during periods of passive breathing (1–4 Hz). Because ultrasound was tightly linked to the exhalation phase, the sniffing cycle segmented vocal production into discrete calls and imposed its theta rhythmicity on their timing. In turn, calls briefly prolonged exhalations, causing an immediate drop in sniffing rate. Similar results were obtained in mice. Our results show that ultrasonic vocalizations are an integral part of the rhythmic orofacial behavioral ensemble. This complex behavioral program is thus involved not only in active sensing but also in the temporal structuring of social communication signals. Many other social signals of mammals, including monkey calls and human speech, show structure in the theta range. Our work points to a mechanism for such structuring in rodent ultrasonic vocalizations. PMID:25477796

  12. Evolution of Courtship Songs in Xenopus : Vocal Pattern Generation and Sound Production.

    PubMed

    Leininger, Elizabeth C; Kelley, Darcy B

    2015-01-01

    The extant species of African clawed frogs (Xenopus and Silurana) provide an opportunity to link the evolution of vocal characters to changes in the responsible cellular and molecular mechanisms. In this review, we integrate several robust lines of research: evolutionary trajectories of Xenopus vocalizations, cellular and circuit-level mechanisms of vocalization in selected Xenopus model species, and Xenopus evolutionary history and speciation mechanisms. Integrating recent findings allows us to generate and test specific hypotheses about the evolution of Xenopus vocal circuits. We propose that reduced vocal sex differences in some Xenopus species result from species-specific losses of sexually differentiated neural and neuromuscular features. Modification of sex-hormone-regulated developmental mechanisms is a strong candidate mechanism for reduced vocal sex differences.

  13. Vocal fry may undermine the success of young women in the labor market.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rindy C; Klofstad, Casey A; Mayew, William J; Venkatachalam, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fry is speech that is low pitched and creaky sounding, and is increasingly common among young American females. Some argue that vocal fry enhances speaker labor market perceptions while others argue that vocal fry is perceived negatively and can damage job prospects. In a large national sample of American adults we find that vocal fry is interpreted negatively. Relative to a normal speaking voice, young adult female voices exhibiting vocal fry are perceived as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive, and less hirable. The negative perceptions of vocal fry are stronger for female voices relative to male voices. These results suggest that young American females should avoid using vocal fry speech in order to maximize labor market opportunities.

  14. The prevalence and factors associate with vocal nodules in general population

    PubMed Central

    Won, Seong Jun; Kim, Rock Bum; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Jung Je; Kwon, Min Su; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of vocal nodules and to identify factors related with an increased risk for vocal nodules. This study was conducted using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2011. The subjects consisted of 19,636 men and women aged ≥19 years. Related factors such as age, marital status, incomes, and education level were assessed in individual interviews, and health-related behaviors including smoking, alcohol, and activity were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. Also, examination survey such as laryngoscopy examination, basic physical examination, and blood sampling was conducted. The prevalence of vocal nodules was 1.31% (n = 258). Among variable factors, age, education level, and voice disorder were related with the presence of vocal nodules (P < 0.05). Other factors including sex, alcohol, smoking, physical activities, hypertension, obesity, waist circumference and metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, serum calcium, and vitamin D did not show any meaningful relationship with the presence of vocal nodules. This result may help reduce the incidence of vocal nodules and offer proper management for patients with vocal nodules, and may also facilitate efficient allocation of public health resources. PMID:27684845

  15. Trends in Utilization of Vocal Fold Injection Procedures.

    PubMed

    Rosow, David E

    2015-11-01

    Office-based vocal fold injections have become increasingly popular over the past 15 years. Examination of trends in procedure coding for vocal fold injections in the United States from 2000 to 2012 was undertaken to see if they reflect this shift. The US Part B Medicare claims database was queried from 2000 through 2012 for multiple Current Procedural Terminology codes. Over the period studied, the number of nonoperative laryngoscopic injections (31513, 31570) and operative medialization laryngoplasties (31588) remained constant. Operative vocal fold injection (31571) demonstrated marked linear growth over the 12-year study period, from 744 procedures in 2000 to 4788 in 2012-an increase >640%. The dramatic increased incidence in the use of code 31571 reflects an increasing share of vocal fold injections being performed in the operating room and not in an office setting, running counter to the prevailing trend toward awake, office-based injection procedures. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  16. Effect on long-term average spectrum of pop singers' vocal warm-up with vocal function exercises.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Marco; Angulo, Mabel; Muñoz, Daniel; Mayerhoff, Ross

    2013-04-01

    Abstract This case-control study aimed to investigate if there is any change on the spectral slope declination immediately after vocal function exercises (VFE) vs traditional vocal warm-up exercises in normal singers. Thirty-eight pop singers with perceptually normal voices were divided into two groups: an experimental group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 18). One single session with VFE for the experimental group and traditional singing warm-up exercises for the control group was applied. Voice was recorded before and after the exercises. The recorded tasks were to read a phonetically balanced text and to sing a song. Long-term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis included alpha ratio, L1-L0 ratio, and singing power ratio (SPR). Acoustic parameters of voice samples pre- and post-training were compared. Comparison between VFE and control group was also performed. Significant changes after treatment included the alpha ratio and singing power ratio in speaking voice, and SPR in the singing voice for VFE group. The traditional vocal warm-up of the control group also showed pre-post changes. Significant differences between VFE group and control group for alpha ratio and SPR were found in speaking voice samples. This study demonstrates that VFE have an immediate effect on the spectrum of the voice, specifically a decrease on the spectral slope declination. The results of this study provide support for the advantageous effect of VFE as vocal warm-up on voice quality.

  17. Vocal handicap index in popular and erudite professional singers.

    PubMed

    Loiola-Barreiro, Camila Miranda; Silva, Marta Assumpção de Andrada E

    To compare the voice handicap index of popular and erudite professional singers according to gender, age, professional experience time, and presence or absence of self-reported vocal complaints. One hundred thirty-two professional singers, 74 popular and 58 erudite, who responded to a questionnaire with regards to identification, age, gender, professional experience time in singing, musical genres (for popular singers), vocal classification (for erudite singers), presence of self-reported vocal complaints, and the specific protocols for popular (Modern Singing Handicap Index - MSHI) and erudite (Classical Singing Handicap Index - CSHI) singing. Higher proportion of women and higher incidence of vocal complaints were observed in the popular singers compared with the erudite singers. Most of the popular singers belonged to the genre of Brazilian Popular Music. Regarding the classification of erudite singers, there was greater participation of sopranos and tenors. No statistical differences were observed with respect to age and professional experience time between the groups. Comparison of the MSHI and CSHI scores showed no statistically significant difference between these scores and genre or age in both groups of singers. Professional experience time was related to the total score and the subscales disability and impairment in the MSHI, only for popular singers with vocal complaints. There was no correlation between these variables and the CSHI for erudite singers. The impact of vocal difficulty/problem interferes differently in these two musical genres when related to vocal complaint and professional experience time. The MSHI and CSHI protocols proved to be important tools not only for the identification of problems, but also for the understanding of how these individuals relate their voices with this occupational activity.

  18. Contextual influences on children's use of vocal affect cues during referential interpretation.

    PubMed

    Berman, Jared M J; Graham, Susan A; Chambers, Craig G

    2013-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated 5-year-olds' sensitivity to speaker vocal affect during referential interpretation in cases where the indeterminacy is or is not resolved by speech information. In Experiment 1, analyses of eye gaze patterns and pointing behaviours indicated that 5-year-olds used vocal affect cues at the point where an ambiguous description was encountered. In Experiments 2 and 3, we used unambiguous situations to investigate how the referential context influences the ability to use affect cues earlier in the utterance. Here, we found a differential use of speaker vocal affect whereby 5-year-olds' referential hypotheses were influenced by negative vocal affect cues in advance of the noun, but not by positive affect cues. Together, our findings reveal how 5-year-olds use a speaker's vocal affect to identify potential referents in different contextual situations and also suggest that children may be more attuned to negative vocal affect than positive vocal affect, particularly early in an utterance.

  19. Auditory and audio-vocal responses of single neurons in the monkey ventral premotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R

    2018-03-20

    Monkey vocalization is a complex behavioral pattern, which is flexibly used in audio-vocal communication. A recently proposed dual neural network model suggests that cognitive control might be involved in this behavior, originating from a frontal cortical network in the prefrontal cortex and mediated via projections from the rostral portion of the ventral premotor cortex (PMvr) and motor cortex to the primary vocal motor network in the brainstem. For the rapid adjustment of vocal output to external acoustic events, strong interconnections between vocal motor and auditory sites are needed, which are present at cortical and subcortical levels. However, the role of the PMvr in audio-vocal integration processes remains unclear. In the present study, single neurons in the PMvr were recorded in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while volitionally producing vocalizations in a visual detection task or passively listening to monkey vocalizations. Ten percent of randomly selected neurons in the PMvr modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. More than four-fifths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of the vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the PMvr might be well positioned to mediate higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output to the primary vocal motor network. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the premotor cortex might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Phoniatric surgery and conservative treatment of vocal cord hematoma].

    PubMed

    Milutinović, Z

    1997-01-01

    Functional-traumatic lesions of the vocal fold include mucous stranding, "nodular" lesions, polyps, cysts, contact hyperplasia and haematoma of the vocal fold. An acute voice overuse may result in bleeding (haematoma) within the vocal fold. This may be in the form of petechial bleeding, or a genuine haematoma develops within the tissues of the vocal fold. Haematoma may also arise as a consequence of prolonged cough, forceful vomiting, lifting of a heavy weight, various effortful activities, etc. Haematoma is usually located close to the vocal fold free edge and therefore disturbs the glottic closure during phonation. The treatment is adapted to the size and localization of haematoma, as well as to the time elapsed from onset of the lesion. Phonosurgery can be used in therapy, as well as corticosteroid treatment. A series of 102 vocal fold haematomas has been treated by phonosurgery (39) and conservative therapy (63). Phonosurgical interventions were performed by an indirect approach, by use of microstroboscopy (28 patients) and videostroboscopy (11 causes). Conservative treatment consisted of corticosteroid therapy. During a 10-year period 1550 phonosurgical operations were performed for benign lesions of the vocal fold, including 39 haematomas (2.5%). It was established that recovery of vibration pattern was significantly faster in the surgery group in comparison to the group of patients treated conservatively. All surgical patients were operated within the first several days after the onset of symptoms. In case of a vocal fold haematoma, it is very important to establish the diagnosis as soon as possible in order to start with the therapy early enough. Within the first several days after the onset (the best within 24-48 hours) a phonosurgical treatment is indicated, preferably by the use of indirect videostroboscopy. If the treatment is started later we use corticoids. However, the results are inferior as compared to surgery. We did not perform direct

  1. Pupils dilate for vocal or familiar music.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael W; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Habashi, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Previous research reveals that vocal melodies are remembered better than instrumental renditions. Here we explored the possibility that the voice, as a highly salient stimulus, elicits greater arousal than nonvocal stimuli, resulting in greater pupil dilation for vocal than for instrumental melodies. We also explored the possibility that pupil dilation indexes memory for melodies. We tracked pupil dilation during a single exposure to 24 unfamiliar folk melodies (half sung to la la, half piano) and during a subsequent recognition test in which the previously heard melodies were intermixed with 24 novel melodies (half sung, half piano) from the same corpus. Pupil dilation was greater for vocal melodies than for piano melodies in the exposure phase and in the test phase. It was also greater for previously heard melodies than for novel melodies. Our findings provide the first evidence that pupillometry can be used to measure recognition of stimuli that unfold over several seconds. They also provide the first evidence of enhanced arousal to vocal melodies during encoding and retrieval, thereby supporting the more general notion of the voice as a privileged signal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Phonology and Vocal Behavior in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Elizabeth; Paul, Rhea; Chawarska, Katyrzyna

    2011-01-01

    Scientific Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine the phonological and other vocal productions of children, 18-36 months, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare these productions to those of age-matched and language-matched controls. Speech samples were obtained from 30 toddlers with ASD, 11 age-matched toddlers and 23 language-matched toddlers during either parent-child or clinician-child play sessions. Samples were coded for a variety of speech-like and non-speech vocalization productions. Toddlers with ASD produced speech-like vocalizations similar to those of language-matched peers, but produced significantly more atypical non-speech vocalizations when compared to both control groups.Toddlers with ASD show speech-like sound production that is linked to their language level, in a manner similar to that seen in typical development. The main area of difference in vocal development in this population is in the production of atypical vocalizations. Findings suggest that toddlers with autism spectrum disorders might not tune into the language model of their environment. Failure to attend to the ambient language environment negatively impacts the ability to acquire spoken language. PMID:21308998

  3. Behavior-Linked FoxP2 Regulation Enables Zebra Finch Vocal Learning

    PubMed Central

    Heston, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the FOXP2 transcription factor cause an inherited speech and language disorder, but how FoxP2 contributes to learning of these vocal communication signals remains unclear. FoxP2 is enriched in corticostriatal circuits of both human and songbird brains. Experimental knockdown of this enrichment in song control neurons of the zebra finch basal ganglia impairs tutor song imitation, indicating that adequate FoxP2 levels are necessary for normal vocal learning. In unmanipulated birds, vocal practice acutely downregulates FoxP2, leading to increased vocal variability and dynamic regulation of FoxP2 target genes. To determine whether this behavioral regulation is important for song learning, here, we used viral-driven overexpression of FoxP2 to counteract its downregulation. This manipulation disrupted the acute effects of song practice on vocal variability and caused inaccurate song imitation. Together, these findings indicate that dynamic behavior-linked regulation of FoxP2, rather than absolute levels, is critical for vocal learning. PMID:25698728

  4. Vocal effort modulates the motor planning of short speech structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taitz, Alan; Shalom, Diego E.; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2018-05-01

    Speech requires programming the sequence of vocal gestures that produce the sounds of words. Here we explored the timing of this program by asking our participants to pronounce, as quickly as possible, a sequence of consonant-consonant-vowel (CCV) structures appearing on screen. We measured the delay between visual presentation and voice onset. In the case of plosive consonants, produced by sharp and well defined movements of the vocal tract, we found that delays are positively correlated with the duration of the transition between consonants. We then used a battery of statistical tests and mathematical vocal models to show that delays reflect the motor planning of CCVs and transitions are proxy indicators of the vocal effort needed to produce them. These results support that the effort required to produce the sequence of movements of a vocal gesture modulates the onset of the motor plan.

  5. North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arya, Divya D.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…

  6. Vocal communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Soltis, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Research on vocal communication in African elephants has increased in recent years, both in the wild and in captivity, providing an opportunity to present a comprehensive review of research related to their vocal behavior. Current data indicate that the vocal repertoire consists of perhaps nine acoustically distinct call types, "rumbles" being the most common and acoustically variable. Large vocal production anatomy is responsible for the low-frequency nature of rumbles, with fundamental frequencies in the infrasonic range. Additionally, resonant frequencies of rumbles implicate the trunk in addition to the oral cavity in shaping the acoustic structure of rumbles. Long-distance communication is thought possible because low-frequency sounds propagate more faithfully than high-frequency sounds, and elephants respond to rumbles at distances of up to 2.5 km. Elephant ear anatomy appears designed for detecting low frequencies, and experiments demonstrate that elephants can detect infrasonic tones and discriminate small frequency differences. Two vocal communication functions in the African elephant now have reasonable empirical support. First, closely bonded but spatially separated females engage in rumble exchanges, or "contact calls," that function to coordinate movement or reunite animals. Second, both males and females produce "mate attraction" rumbles that may advertise reproductive states to the opposite sex. Additionally, there is evidence that the structural variation in rumbles reflects the individual identity, reproductive state, and emotional state of callers. Growth in knowledge about the communication system of the African elephant has occurred from a rich combination of research on wild elephants in national parks and captive elephants in zoological parks.

  7. Treatment for Vocal Polyps: Lips and Tongue Trill.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Daniela; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira Camargo; de Araújo, Cláudia Marina Tavares

    2017-03-01

    Vocal polyps do not have a well-defined therapeutic indication. The recommended treatment is often laryngeal microsurgery, followed by postoperative speech therapy. Speech therapy as the initial treatment for polyps is a new concept and aims to modify inappropriate vocal behavior, adjust the voice quality, and encourage regression of the lesion. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the sonorous lips and tongue trill technique in the treatment of vocal polyps. The sample consisted of 10 adults diagnosed with a polyp who were divided into two subgroups: treatment and control. Ten speech therapy sessions were conducted, each lasting 30-45 minutes, based on the sonorous lips and tongue trill technique, accompanied by continuous guidance about vocal health. Speech therapy was effective in three of the five participants. The number of symptoms presented by the participants decreased significantly after voice therapy (P = 0.034) and vocal self-evaluation (P = 0.034). The acoustic evaluation showed improvements in parameters of noise values (P = 0.028) and jitter (P = 0.034). The size of the polyp and the degree of severity of dysphonia, hoarseness, and breathiness showed a significant reduction after treatment (P = 0.043). Among the remaining two participants, one opted out of laryngeal surgery, indicating that the improvement obtained was sufficient to avoid surgery. The sonorous lips and tongue trill technique was thus considered effective in 60% of the participants, and as laryngeal surgery was avoided in 80% of them, it should be considered a treatment option for vocal polyps. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vocal training in an anthropometrical aspect.

    PubMed

    Wyganowska-Świątkowska, Marzena; Kowalkowska, Iwona; Flicińska-Pamfil, Grażyna; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kopczyński, Przemysław; Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bożena

    2017-12-01

    As shown in our previous paper, the dimensions of the cerebral parts of the cranium and face of the vocal students were higher than those of the non-singing students. The aim of the present study was to analyse the type of voice and its development depending on selected dimensions. A total of 56 vocal students - 36 women and 20 men - who underwent anthropometric measurements were divided into groups according to their voice type. Two professors of singing made a subjective, independent evaluation of individual students' vocal development progress during the four years of training. The findings were analysed statistically with the current licensed versions of Statistica software. We found statistically significant positive correlation between: the head length, head and face width, depth of upper and middle face, nose length and student's voice development. The dimensions of the head and the face have no impact on type of voice; however, some anatomical characteristics may have impact on voice development.

  9. Hierarchical Diagnosis of Vocal Fold Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkhah-Bahrami, Mansour; Ahmadi-Noubari, Hossein; Seyed Aghazadeh, Babak; Khadivi Heris, Hossein

    This paper explores the use of hierarchical structure for diagnosis of vocal fold disorders. The hierarchical structure is initially used to train different second-level classifiers. At the first level normal and pathological signals have been distinguished. Next, pathological signals have been classified into neurogenic and organic vocal fold disorders. At the final level, vocal fold nodules have been distinguished from polyps in organic disorders category. For feature selection at each level of hierarchy, the reconstructed signal at each wavelet packet decomposition sub-band in 5 levels of decomposition with mother wavelet of (db10) is used to extract the nonlinear features of self-similarity and approximate entropy. Also, wavelet packet coefficients are used to measure energy and Shannon entropy features at different spectral sub-bands. Davies-Bouldin criterion has been employed to find the most discriminant features. Finally, support vector machines have been adopted as classifiers at each level of hierarchy resulting in the diagnosis accuracy of 92%.

  10. Measurement of Young's modulus in the in vivo human vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Tran, Q T; Berke, G S; Gerratt, B R; Kreiman, J

    1993-08-01

    Currently, surgeons have no objective means to evaluate and optimize results of phonosurgery intraoperatively. Instead, they usually judge the vocal folds subjectively by visual inspection or by listening to the voice. This paper describes a new device that measures Young's (elastic) modulus values for the human vocal fold intraoperatively. Physiologically, the modulus of the vocal fold may be important in determining the nature of vocal fold vibration in normal and pathologic states. This study also reports the effect of recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation on Young's modulus of the human vocal folds, measured by means of transcutaneous nerve stimulation techniques. Young's modulus increased with increases in current stimulation to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Ultimately, Young's modulus values may assist surgeons in optimizing the results of various phonosurgeries.

  11. Phase-Specific Vocalizations of Male Mice at the Initial Encounter during the Courtship Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yui K.; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations featuring a variety of syllables. Vocalizations are observed during social interactions. In particular, males produce numerous syllables during courtship. Previous studies have shown that vocalizations change according to sexual behavior, suggesting that males vary their vocalizations depending on the phase of the courtship sequence. To examine this process, we recorded large sets of mouse vocalizations during male–female interactions and acoustically categorized these sounds into 12 vocal types. We found that males emitted predominantly short syllables during the first minute of interaction, more long syllables in the later phases, and mainly harmonic sounds during mounting. These context- and time-dependent changes in vocalization indicate that vocal communication during courtship in mice consists of at least three stages and imply that each vocalization type has a specific role in a phase of the courtship sequence. Our findings suggest that recording for a sufficiently long time and taking the phase of courtship into consideration could provide more insights into the role of vocalization in mouse courtship behavior in future study. PMID:26841117

  12. Memory-dependent adjustment of vocal response latencies in a territorial songbird.

    PubMed

    Geberzahn, Nicole; Hultsch, Henrike; Todt, Dietmar

    2013-06-01

    Vocal interactions in songbirds can be used as a model system to investigate the interplay of intrinsic singing programmes (e.g. influences from vocal memories) and external variables (e.g. social factors). When characterizing vocal interactions between territorial rivals two aspects are important: (1) the timing of songs in relation to the conspecific's singing and (2) the use of a song pattern that matches the rival's song. Responses in both domains can be used to address a territorial rival. This study is the first to investigate the relation of the timing of vocal responses to (1) the vocal memory of a responding subject and (2) the selection of the song pattern that the subject uses as a response. To this end, we conducted interactive playback experiments with adult nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos) that had been hand-reared and tutored in the laboratory. We analysed the subjects' vocal response latencies towards broadcast playback stimuli that they either had in their own vocal repertoire (songs shared with playback) or that they had not heard before (unknown songs). Likewise, we compared vocal response latencies between responses that matched the stimulus song and those that did not. Our findings showed that the latency of singing in response to the playback was shorter for shared versus unknown song stimuli when subjects overlapped the playback stimuli with their own song. Moreover birds tended to overlap faster when vocally matching the stimulus song rather than when replying with a non-matching song type. We conclude that memory of song patterns influenced response latencies and discuss possible mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Auditory Signal Processing in Communication: Perception and Performance of Vocal Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Learning and maintaining the sounds we use in vocal communication require accurate perception of the sounds we hear performed by others and feedback-dependent imitation of those sounds to produce our own vocalizations. Understanding how the central nervous system integrates auditory and vocal-motor information to enable communication is a fundamental goal of systems neuroscience, and insights into the mechanisms of those processes will profoundly enhance clinical therapies for communication disorders. Gaining the high-resolution insight necessary to define the circuits and cellular mechanisms underlying human vocal communication is presently impractical. Songbirds are the best animal model of human speech, and this review highlights recent insights into the neural basis of auditory perception and feedback-dependent imitation in those animals. Neural correlates of song perception are present in auditory areas, and those correlates are preserved in the auditory responses of downstream neurons that are also active when the bird sings. Initial tests indicate that singing-related activity in those downstream neurons is associated with vocal-motor performance as opposed to the bird simply hearing itself sing. Therefore, action potentials related to auditory perception and action potentials related to vocal performance are co-localized in individual neurons. Conceptual models of song learning involve comparison of vocal commands and the associated auditory feedback to compute an error signal that is used to guide refinement of subsequent song performances, yet the sites of that comparison remain unknown. Convergence of sensory and motor activity onto individual neurons points to a possible mechanism through which auditory and vocal-motor signals may be linked to enable learning and maintenance of the sounds used in vocal communication. PMID:23827717

  14. Rheometric properties of canine vocal fold tissues: Variation with anatomic location

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Miwako; Mau, Ted; Chan, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in vitro rheometric properties of the canine vocal fold lamina propria and muscle at phonatory frequencies, and their changes with anatomic location. Methods Six canine larynges were harvested immediately postmortem. Viscoelastic shear properties of anterior, middle, and posterior portions of the vocal fold cover (lamina propria) as well as those of the medial thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle (vocalis muscle) were quantified by a linear, controlled-strain simple-shear rheometer. Measurements of elastic shear modulus (G’) and dynamic viscosity (η’) of the specimens were conducted with small-amplitude sinusoidal shear deformation over a frequency range of 1 Hz to 250 Hz. Results All specimens showed similar frequency dependence of the viscoelastic functions, with G’ gradually increasing with frequency and η’ decreasing with frequency monotonically. G’ and η’ of the canine vocalis muscle were significantly higher than those of the canine vocal fold cover, and η’ of the canine vocal fold cover was significantly higher than that of the human vocal fold cover. There were no significant differences in G’ and in η’ between different portions of the canine vocal fold cover. Conclusion These preliminary data based on the canine model suggested that the vocalis muscle, while in a relaxed state in vitro, is significantly stiffer and more viscous than the vocal fold cover during vibration at phonatory frequencies. For large-amplitude vocal fold vibration involving the medial portion of the TA muscle, such distinct differences in viscoelastic properties of different layers of the vocal fold should be taken into account in multi-layered biomechanical models of phonation. PMID:21035291

  15. Vocalization-Induced Enhancement of the Auditory Cortex Responsiveness during Voice F0 Feedback Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Karvelis, Laura; Liu, Hanjun; Larson, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated whether self-vocalization enhances auditory neural responsiveness to voice pitch feedback perturbation and how this vocalization-induced neural modulation can be affected by the extent of the feedback deviation. Method Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 15 subjects in response to +100, +200 and +500 cents pitch-shifted voice auditory feedback during active vocalization and passive listening to the playback of the self-produced vocalizations. Result The amplitude of the evoked P1 (latency: 73.51 ms) and P2 (latency: 199.55 ms) ERP components in response to feedback perturbation were significantly larger during vocalization than listening. The difference between P2 peak amplitudes during vocalization vs. listening was shown to be significantly larger for +100 than +500 cents stimulus. Conclusion Results indicate that the human auditory cortex is more responsive to voice F0 feedback perturbations during vocalization than passive listening. Greater vocalization-induced enhancement of the auditory responsiveness to smaller feedback perturbations may imply that the audio-vocal system detects and corrects for errors in vocal production that closely match the expected vocal output. Significance Findings of this study support previous suggestions regarding the enhanced auditory sensitivity to feedback alterations during self-vocalization, which may serve the purpose of feedback-based monitoring of one’s voice. PMID:19520602

  16. Responses of prefrontal multisensory neurons to mismatching faces and vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Maria M; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2014-08-20

    Social communication relies on the integration of auditory and visual information, which are present in faces and vocalizations. Evidence suggests that the integration of information from multiple sources enhances perception compared with the processing of a unimodal stimulus. Our previous studies demonstrated that single neurons in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) respond to and integrate conspecific vocalizations and their accompanying facial gestures. We were therefore interested in how VLPFC neurons respond differentially to matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) faces and vocalizations. We recorded VLPFC neurons during the presentation of movies with congruent or incongruent species-specific facial gestures and vocalizations as well as their unimodal components. Recordings showed that while many VLPFC units are multisensory and respond to faces, vocalizations, or their combination, a subset of neurons showed a significant change in neuronal activity in response to incongruent versus congruent vocalization movies. Among these neurons, we typically observed incongruent suppression during the early stimulus period and incongruent enhancement during the late stimulus period. Incongruent-responsive VLPFC neurons were both bimodal and nonlinear multisensory, fostering their ability to respond to changes in either modality of a face-vocalization stimulus. These results demonstrate that ventral prefrontal neurons respond to changes in either modality of an audiovisual stimulus, which is important in identity processing and for the integration of multisensory communication information. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411233-11$15.00/0.

  17. The Infant Monitor of Vocal Production: Simple Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robyn Cantle

    2014-01-01

    The Infant Monitor of vocal Production (IMP) was conceived as an educational strategy to help parents understand the nature and pace of their baby's vocal development following neonatal diagnosis and amplification for hearing loss. The potential for other clinical applications emerged with use. The instrument presents as a series of…

  18. Differential coding of conspecific vocalizations in the ventral auditory cortical stream.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Leopold, David A; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2014-03-26

    The mammalian auditory cortex integrates spectral and temporal acoustic features to support the perception of complex sounds, including conspecific vocalizations. Here we investigate coding of vocal stimuli in different subfields in macaque auditory cortex. We simultaneously measured auditory evoked potentials over a large swath of primary and higher order auditory cortex along the supratemporal plane in three animals chronically using high-density microelectrocorticographic arrays. To evaluate the capacity of neural activity to discriminate individual stimuli in these high-dimensional datasets, we applied a regularized multivariate classifier to evoked potentials to conspecific vocalizations. We found a gradual decrease in the level of overall classification performance along the caudal to rostral axis. Furthermore, the performance in the caudal sectors was similar across individual stimuli, whereas the performance in the rostral sectors significantly differed for different stimuli. Moreover, the information about vocalizations in the caudal sectors was similar to the information about synthetic stimuli that contained only the spectral or temporal features of the original vocalizations. In the rostral sectors, however, the classification for vocalizations was significantly better than that for the synthetic stimuli, suggesting that conjoined spectral and temporal features were necessary to explain differential coding of vocalizations in the rostral areas. We also found that this coding in the rostral sector was carried primarily in the theta frequency band of the response. These findings illustrate a progression in neural coding of conspecific vocalizations along the ventral auditory pathway.

  19. Differential Coding of Conspecific Vocalizations in the Ventral Auditory Cortical Stream

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Richard C.; Leopold, David A.; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian auditory cortex integrates spectral and temporal acoustic features to support the perception of complex sounds, including conspecific vocalizations. Here we investigate coding of vocal stimuli in different subfields in macaque auditory cortex. We simultaneously measured auditory evoked potentials over a large swath of primary and higher order auditory cortex along the supratemporal plane in three animals chronically using high-density microelectrocorticographic arrays. To evaluate the capacity of neural activity to discriminate individual stimuli in these high-dimensional datasets, we applied a regularized multivariate classifier to evoked potentials to conspecific vocalizations. We found a gradual decrease in the level of overall classification performance along the caudal to rostral axis. Furthermore, the performance in the caudal sectors was similar across individual stimuli, whereas the performance in the rostral sectors significantly differed for different stimuli. Moreover, the information about vocalizations in the caudal sectors was similar to the information about synthetic stimuli that contained only the spectral or temporal features of the original vocalizations. In the rostral sectors, however, the classification for vocalizations was significantly better than that for the synthetic stimuli, suggesting that conjoined spectral and temporal features were necessary to explain differential coding of vocalizations in the rostral areas. We also found that this coding in the rostral sector was carried primarily in the theta frequency band of the response. These findings illustrate a progression in neural coding of conspecific vocalizations along the ventral auditory pathway. PMID:24672012

  20. Cetacean vocal learning and communication.

    PubMed

    Janik, Vincent M

    2014-10-01

    The cetaceans are one of the few mammalian clades capable of vocal production learning. Evidence for this comes from synchronous changes in song patterns of baleen whales and experimental work on toothed whales in captivity. While baleen whales like many vocal learners use this skill in song displays that are involved in sexual selection, toothed whales use learned signals in individual recognition and the negotiation of social relationships. Experimental studies demonstrated that dolphins can use learned signals referentially. Studies on wild dolphins demonstrated how this skill appears to be useful in their own communication system, making them an interesting subject for comparative communication studies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Acoustic correlate of vocal effort in spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Eadie, Tanya L; Stepp, Cara E

    2013-03-01

    This study characterized the relationship between relative fundamental frequency (RFF) and listeners' perceptions of vocal effort and overall spasmodic dysphonia severity in the voices of 19 individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Twenty inexperienced listeners evaluated the vocal effort and overall severity of voices using visual analog scales. The squared correlation coefficients (R2) between average vocal effort and overall severity and RFF measures were calculated as a function of the number of acoustic instances used for the RFF estimate (from 1 to 9, of a total of 9 voiced-voiceless-voiced instances). Increases in the number of acoustic instances used for the RFF average led to increases in the variance predicted by the RFF at the first cycle of voicing onset (onset RFF) in the perceptual measures; the use of 6 or more instances resulted in a stable estimate. The variance predicted by the onset RFF for vocal effort (R2 range, 0.06 to 0.43) was higher than that for overall severity (R2 range, 0.06 to 0.35). The offset RFF was not related to the perceptual measures, irrespective of the sample size. This study indicates that onset RFF measures are related to perceived vocal effort in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. These results have implications for measuring outcomes in this population.

  2. Vocal fold hemorrhage associated with coumadin therapy in an opera singer.

    PubMed

    Neely, J L; Rosen, C

    2000-06-01

    Vocal fold hemorrhage can represent a disastrous and potentially career ending injury to a singer or professional voice user. The risk factors of vocal fold hemorrhage, including laryngeal trauma, phonotrauma, aspirin and nonsteroidal antiinflammatories, and hormonal imbalances are well known. We present a case of an opera singer who developed recurrent vocal fold hemorrhage associated with coumadin anticoagulation therapy. This case highlights the importance of the risk of vocal fold hemorrhage to professional singers and professional voice users and offers an alternative to long-term coumadin therapy in this select population.

  3. Optical coherence tomography monitoring of vocal fold femtosecond laser microsurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisweh, Henning; Merkel, Ulrich; Hüller, Ann-Kristin; Lüerßen, Kathrin; Lubatschowski, Holger

    2007-07-01

    Surgery of benign pathological alterations of the vocal folds results in permanent disphonia if the bounderies of the vocal fold layers are disregarded. Precise cutting with a femtosecond laser (fs-laser) combined with simultanous imaging of the layered structure enables accurate resections with respect to the layer boundaries. Earlier works demonstrated the capability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for utilization on vocal folds. The layered structure can be imaged with a spatial resolution of 10-20μm up to a depth of 1.5mm. The performance of fs-laser cutting was analyzed on extracted porcine vocal folds with OCT monitoring. Histopathological sections of the same processed samples could be well correlated with the OCT images. With adequate laser parameters thermal effects induced only negligable damage to the processed tissue. The dimensions of the thermal necrosis were determined to be smaller than 1μm. OCT contolled fs-laser cutting of porcine vocal fold tissue in the μm range with minimal tissue damage is presented.

  4. Measurement of flow separation in a human vocal folds model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šidlof, Petr; Doaré, Olivier; Cadot, Olivier; Chaigne, Antoine

    2011-07-01

    The paper provides experimental data on flow separation from a model of the human vocal folds. Data were measured on a four times scaled physical model, where one vocal fold was fixed and the other oscillated due to fluid-structure interaction. The vocal folds were fabricated from silicone rubber and placed on elastic support in the wall of a transparent wind tunnel. A PIV system was used to visualize the flow fields immediately downstream of the glottis and to measure the velocity fields. From the visualizations, the position of the flow separation point was evaluated using a semiautomatic procedure and plotted for different airflow velocities. The separation point position was quantified relative to the orifice width separately for the left and right vocal folds to account for flow asymmetry. The results indicate that the flow separation point remains close to the narrowest cross-section during most of the vocal fold vibration cycle, but moves significantly further downstream shortly prior to and after glottal closure.

  5. Acoustic, respiratory kinematic and electromyographic effects of vocal training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Ana Paula De Brito Garcia

    The longitudinal effects of vocal training on the respiratory, phonatory and articulatory systems were investigated in this study. During four semesters, fourteen voice major students were recorded while speaking and singing. Acoustic, temporal, respiratory kinematic and electromyographic parameters were measured to determine changes in the three systems as a function of vocal training. Acoustic measures of the speaking voice included fundamental frequency, sound pressure level (SPL), percent jitter and shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Temporal measures included duration of sentences, diphthongs and the closure durations of stop consonants. Acoustic measures of the singing voice included fundamental frequency and sound pressure level of the phonational range, vibrato pulses per second, vibrato amplitude variation and the presence of the singer's formant. Analysis of the data revealed that vocal training had a significant effect on the singing voice. Fundamental frequency and SPL of the 90% level and 90--10% of the phonational range increased significantly during four semesters of vocal training. Physiological data was collected from four subjects during three semesters of vocal training. Respiratory kinematic measures included lung volume, rib cage and abdominal excursions extracted from spoken sung samples. Descriptive statistics revealed that rib cage and abdominal excursions increased from the 1st to the 2nd semester and decrease from the 2nd to the 3rd semester of vocal training. Electromyographic measures of the pectoralis major, rectus abdominis and external obliques muscles revealed that burst duration means decreased from the 1st to the 2nd semester and increased from the 2nd to the 3rd semester. Peak amplitude means increased from the 1st to the 2nd and decreased from the 2nd to the 3rd semester of vocal training. Chest wall excursions and muscle force generation of the three muscles increased as the demanding level and the length of the phonatory

  6. Prevalence of arytenoid asymmetry in relation to vocal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, A-L; Nassar, J; Ashkar, J; Sibai, A

    2011-03-01

    (1) To assess the prevalence of arytenoid asymmetry during adduction, and (2) to correlate arytenoid asymmetry with vocal symptoms. The medical records and video recordings of 116 patients who presented to the voice clinic were reviewed for the presence of arytenoid asymmetry, as regards sharpening of the aryepiglottic fold angle and altered positioning of the cuneiform and corniculate cartilages. There were 61 males and 55 females, with a mean age of 39 years and a standard deviation of 15 years. Almost one-third had a history of reflux, 25 per cent had a history of smoking and 9.6 per cent had a history of allergy. Hoarseness was the most common symptom, occurring in 42.2 per cent of patients, followed by vocal fatigue (25 per cent) and inability to project the voice. The most common type of asymmetry was corniculate asymmetry, present in 27.6 per cent of the cases and accounting for 74.39 per cent of cases. This was followed by cuneiform cartilage asymmetry, present in 15.5 per cent of cases. There was no correlation between arytenoid asymmetry and vocal symptoms, except for vocal fatigue (p = 0.038). The prevalence of arytenoid asymmetry during adduction is common. The presence of vocal symptoms such as hoarseness, breathiness, inability to project the voice and straining does not generally seem to correlate with the prevalence of arytenoid asymmetry. However, subjects with vocal fatigue are more likely to have cuneiform asymmetry.

  7. [Surgical excision and botulinum toxin A injection for vocal process granuloma].

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijing; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Jingying; Yang, Qingwen; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To study the efficacy of treatment with microsurgery in combination with local injection of type A botulinum toxin for vocal process granuloma. 28 patients with vocal process granuloma received endotracheal intubation under general anesthesia. The lesion was removed with micro-scissor and CO2 laster under a self-retaining laryngoscope and microscope. The incision and mucous membrane surrounding the wound was closed with 8-0 absorbable suture. 4-point injection of botulinum toxin type A 8-15 u was then performed along the thyroarytenoid muscle and arytenoid muscle of the same side. Postoperative medication was administered based on disease causes. All patients experienced vocal cord dyskinesia of the injected side 2-3 days after surgery. At 1 month after the surgery, wound healing was good in all the 28 patients, and the vocal cord movement was limited at the injected side. At 3 months, movement of the bilateral vocal cords was normal, and the vocal cord process mucosa was smooth. Patients were followed up for more than a year, and only one patient had recurrence in 2 months after surgery. The cure rate was 96. 4%. Combination of laryngeal microsurgery and type A botulinum toxin local injection can shorten the treatment course of vocal process granuloma.

  8. The vocal repertoire of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana): A quantitative classification.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Sofia K; Sheeran, Lori K; Wagner, R Steven; Li, Jin-Hua; Koda, Hiroki

    2016-09-01

    Vocal repertoires are basic and essential components for describing vocal communication in animals. Studying the entire suite of vocal signals aids investigations on the variation of acoustic structure across social contexts, comparisons on the complexity of communication systems across taxa, and in exploration of the evolutionary origins of species-specific vocalizations. Here, we describe the vocal repertoire of the largest species in the macaque genus, Macaca thibetana. We extracted thirty acoustic parameters from call recordings. Post hoc validation through quantitative analyses of the a priori repertoire classified eleven call types: coo, squawk, squeal, noisy scream, growl, bark, compound squeak, leap coo, weeping, modulated tonal scream, and pant. In comparison to the rest of the genus, Tibetan macaques uttered a wider array of vocalizations in the context of copulations. Previous reports did not include modulated tonal screams and pants during harassment of copulatory dyads. Furthermore, in comparison to the rest of the genus, Tibetan macaque females emit acoustically distinct copulation calls. The vocal repertoire of Tibetan macaques contributes to the literature on the emergence of species-specific calls in the genus Macaca with potential insights from social, reproductive, and ecological comparisons across species. Am. J. Primatol. 78:937-949, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Vocalizations produced by humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) calves recorded in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Zoidis, Ann M; Smultea, Mari A; Frankel, Adam S; Hopkins, Julia L; Day, Andy; McFarland, A Sasha; Whitt, Amy D; Fertl, Dagmar

    2008-03-01

    Although humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) calves are reported to vocalize, this has not been measurably verified. During March 2006, an underwater video camera and two-element hydrophone array were used to record nonsong vocalizations from a mother-calf escort off Hawaii. Acoustic data were analyzed; measured time delays between hydrophones provided bearings to 21 distinct vocalizations produced by the male calf. Signals were pulsed (71%), frequency modulated (19%), or amplitude modulated (10%). They were of simple structure, low frequency (mean=220 Hz), brief duration (mean=170 ms), and relatively narrow bandwidth (mean=2 kHz). The calf produced three series of "grunts" when approaching the diver. During winters of the years 2001-2005 in Hawaii, nonsong vocalizations were recorded in 109 (65%) of 169 groups with a calf using an underwater video and single (omnidirectional) hydrophone. Nonsong vocalizations were most common (34 of 39) in lone mother-calf pairs. A subsample from this dataset of 60 signals assessed to be vocalizations provided strong evidence that 10 male and 18 female calves vocalized based on statistical similarity to the 21 verified calf signals, proximity to an isolated calf (27 of 28 calves), strong signal-to-noise ratio, and/or bubble emissions coincident to sound.

  10. Atypical neural responses to vocal anger in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Chronaki, Georgia; Benikos, Nicholas; Fairchild, Graeme; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2015-04-01

    Deficits in facial emotion processing, reported in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), have been linked to both early perceptual and later attentional components of event-related potentials (ERPs). However, the neural underpinnings of vocal emotion processing deficits in ADHD have yet to be characterised. Here, we report the first ERP study of vocal affective prosody processing in ADHD. Event-related potentials of 6-11-year-old children with ADHD (n = 25) and typically developing controls (n = 25) were recorded as they completed a task measuring recognition of vocal prosodic stimuli (angry, happy and neutral). Audiometric assessments were conducted to screen for hearing impairments. Children with ADHD were less accurate than controls at recognising vocal anger. Relative to controls, they displayed enhanced N100 and attenuated P300 components to vocal anger. The P300 effect was reduced, but remained significant, after controlling for N100 effects by rebaselining. Only the N100 effect was significant when children with ADHD and comorbid conduct disorder (n = 10) were excluded. This study provides the first evidence linking ADHD to atypical neural activity during the early perceptual stages of vocal anger processing. These effects may reflect preattentive hyper-vigilance to vocal anger in ADHD. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. The role of finite displacements in vocal fold modeling.

    PubMed

    Chang, Siyuan; Tian, Fang-Bao; Luo, Haoxiang; Doyle, James F; Rousseau, Bernard

    2013-11-01

    Human vocal folds experience flow-induced vibrations during phonation. In previous computational models, the vocal fold dynamics has been treated with linear elasticity theory in which both the strain and the displacement of the tissue are assumed to be infinitesimal (referred to as model I). The effect of the nonlinear strain, or geometric nonlinearity, caused by finite displacements is yet not clear. In this work, a two-dimensional model is used to study the effect of geometric nonlinearity (referred to as model II) on the vocal fold and the airflow. The result shows that even though the deformation is under 1 mm, i.e., less than 10% of the size of the vocal fold, the geometric nonlinear effect is still significant. Specifically, model I underpredicts the gap width, the flow rate, and the impact stress on the medial surfaces as compared to model II. The study further shows that the differences are caused by the contact mechanics and, more importantly, the fluid-structure interaction that magnifies the error from the small-displacement assumption. The results suggest that using the large-displacement formulation in a computational model would be more appropriate for accurate simulations of the vocal fold dynamics.

  12. Vocal Changes Following Thyroid Surgery: Prospective Study of Objective and Subjective Parameters.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Vargas, Beatriz; Lloris Romero-Salazar, Azucena; Cobeta, Ignacio

    2017-10-19

    Vocal changes are frequent following a surgical procedure to the thyroid gland. Even though they are a recognized morbidity, their bases are yet to be defined as well as their effect on vocal parameters. This study investigates the objective and subjective changes that occur after the surgery. This study is a prospective analysis of consecutive cases. This study was conducted in a single-center tertiary care facility. Patients programmed for any thyroid procedure in Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal were enrolled consecutively to perform the vocal analysis before and after the surgery from April 2014 to April 2016. Patients were divided according to the vocal fold motility, and their vocal and aerodynamic parameters were obtained by means of electroglottography and phonatory aerodynamic system. Patients filled in the 10-item Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10) questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed comparing vocal and aerodynamic parameters and quality of life before and after the surgery. 218 patients met inclusion criteria and completed the protocol. A total of 86.6% of the sample showed no vocal motility impairment, whereas the rest of the patients showed a paresis or a paralysis. Maximum phonatory time and VHI-10 questionnaire showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between groups. No differences were assessed regarding other vocal parameters. Efforts are still needed to understand the groundings and magnitude of the vocal changes after a thyroid surgery. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuronal Control of Mammalian Vocalization, with Special Reference to the Squirrel Monkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgens, Uwe

    Squirrel monkey vocalization can be considered as a suitable model for the study in humans of the neurobiological basis of nonverbal emotional vocal utterances, such as laughing, crying, and groaning. Evaluation of electrical and chemical brain stimulation data, lesioning studies, single-neurone recordings, and neuroanatomical tracing work leads to the following conclusions: The periaqueductal gray and laterally bordering tegmentum of the midbrain represent a crucial area for the production of vocalization. This area collects the various vocalization-triggering stimuli, such as auditory, visual, and somatosensory input from diverse sensory-processing structures, motivation-controlling input from some limbic structures, and volitional impulses from the anterior cingulate cortex. Destruction of this area causes mutism. It is still under dispute whether the periaqueductal region harbors the vocal pattern generator or merely couples vocalization-triggering information to motor-coordinating structures further downward in the brainstem. The periaqueductal region is connected with the phonatory motoneuron pools indirectly via one or several interneurons. The nucleus retroambiguus represents a crucial relay station for the laryngeal and expiratory component of vocalization. The articulatory component reaches the orofacial motoneuron pools via the parvocellular reticular formation. Essential proprioceptive feedback from the larynx and lungs enter the vocal-controlling network via the solitary tract nucleus.

  14. Vocal fold granulomas in six brachycephalic dogs: clinical, macroscopical and histological features.

    PubMed

    Sarran, D; Caron, A; Billet, J P

    2018-06-05

    Vocal cord granulomas are rarely observed in brachycephalic breeds but often reported in humans as contact granulomas. Six French bulldogs were included in this retrospective descriptive study. Endoscopic laryngeal examinations were performed on all dogs under general anaesthesia. Vocal cord lesions were exclusively unilateral, exophytic, approximately 3-mm wide ulcerated mucosal nodules, arising from the vocal cord. Histopathological examination mainly revealed chronic inflammatory changes on the laryngeal epithelium which were consistent with laryngeal granulomas described in humans, except for the location: vocal cord in dogs versus vocal process in humans. In humans, granulomas result from chronic physical or chemical insult to laryngeal mucosa (chronic cough or throat clearing, vocal abuse, gastro-esophageal reflux). In brachycephalic breeds, chronic inspiratory efforts and air turbulences and gastro-esophageal reflux are suspected to result in chronic laryngeal inflammation. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  15. Exploring vocal recovery after cranial nerve injury in Bengalese finches.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Catherine M; Peterson, Jennifer R; Cooper, Brenton G

    2013-02-08

    Songbirds and humans use auditory feedback to acquire and maintain their vocalizations. The Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) is a songbird species that rapidly modifies its vocal output to adhere to an internal song memory. In this species, the left side of the bipartite vocal organ is specialized for producing louder, higher frequencies (≥2.2kHz) and denervation of the left vocal muscles eliminates these notes. Thus, the return of higher frequency notes after cranial nerve injury can be used as a measure of vocal recovery. Either the left or right side of the syrinx was denervated by resection of the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve. Histologic analyses of syringeal muscle tissue showed significant muscle atrophy in the denervated side. After left nerve resection, songs were mainly composed of lower frequency syllables, but three out of five birds recovered higher frequency syllables. Right nerve resection minimally affected phonology, but it did change song syntax; syllable sequence became abnormally stereotyped after right nerve resection. Therefore, damage to the neuromuscular control of sound production resulted in reduced motor variability, and Bengalese finches are a potential model for functional vocal recovery following cranial nerve injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vocal tract resonances in speech, singing, and playing musical instruments

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Joe; Garnier, Maëva; Smith, John

    2009-01-01

    In both the voice and musical wind instruments, a valve (vocal folds, lips, or reed) lies between an upstream and downstream duct: trachea and vocal tract for the voice; vocal tract and bore for the instrument. Examining the structural similarities and functional differences gives insight into their operation and the duct-valve interactions. In speech and singing, vocal tract resonances usually determine the spectral envelope and usually have a smaller influence on the operating frequency. The resonances are important not only for the phonemic information they produce, but also because of their contribution to voice timbre, loudness, and efficiency. The role of the tract resonances is usually different in brass and some woodwind instruments, where they modify and to some extent compete or collaborate with resonances of the instrument to control the vibration of a reed or the player’s lips, and∕or the spectrum of air flow into the instrument. We give a brief overview of oscillator mechanisms and vocal tract acoustics. We discuss recent and current research on how the acoustical resonances of the vocal tract are involved in singing and the playing of musical wind instruments. Finally, we compare techniques used in determining tract resonances and suggest some future developments. PMID:19649157

  17. Vocal tract resonances in speech, singing, and playing musical instruments.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Joe; Garnier, Maëva; Smith, John

    2009-01-01

    IN BOTH THE VOICE AND MUSICAL WIND INSTRUMENTS, A VALVE (VOCAL FOLDS, LIPS, OR REED) LIES BETWEEN AN UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM DUCT: trachea and vocal tract for the voice; vocal tract and bore for the instrument. Examining the structural similarities and functional differences gives insight into their operation and the duct-valve interactions. In speech and singing, vocal tract resonances usually determine the spectral envelope and usually have a smaller influence on the operating frequency. The resonances are important not only for the phonemic information they produce, but also because of their contribution to voice timbre, loudness, and efficiency. The role of the tract resonances is usually different in brass and some woodwind instruments, where they modify and to some extent compete or collaborate with resonances of the instrument to control the vibration of a reed or the player's lips, andor the spectrum of air flow into the instrument. We give a brief overview of oscillator mechanisms and vocal tract acoustics. We discuss recent and current research on how the acoustical resonances of the vocal tract are involved in singing and the playing of musical wind instruments. Finally, we compare techniques used in determining tract resonances and suggest some future developments.

  18. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities.

  19. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephanie L.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Wells, Randall S.; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in other animals, addressing with learned signals is very much an affiliative signal. We studied the function of vocal copying in a mammal that shows vocal learning as well as complex cognitive and social behaviour, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Copying occurred almost exclusively between close associates such as mother–calf pairs and male alliances during separation and was not followed by aggression. All copies were clearly recognizable as such because copiers consistently modified some acoustic parameters of a signal when copying it. We found no evidence for the use of copying in aggression or deception. This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defence of resources. PMID:23427174

  20. Correlation between vocal tract symptoms and modern singing handicap index in church gospel singers.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Joel; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves; Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Ramos, Janine Santos; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Zambon, Fabiana; Behlau, Mara

    2017-08-24

    To verify the correlation between vocal tract discomfort symptoms and perceived voice handicaps in gospel singers, analyzing possible differences according to gender. 100 gospel singers volunteered, 50 male and 50 female. All participants answered two questionnaires: Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD) scale and the Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) that investigates the vocal handicap perceived by singers, linking the results of both instruments (p<0.05). Women presented more perceived handicaps and also more frequent and higher intensity vocal tract discomfort. Furthermore, the more frequent and intense the vocal tract symptoms, the higher the vocal handicap for singing. Female gospel singers present higher frequency and intensity of vocal tract discomfort symptoms, as well as higher voice handicap for singing than male gospel singers. The higher the frequency and intensity of the laryngeal symptoms, the higher the vocal handicap will be.

  1. FE Modelling of the Fluid-Structure-Acoustic Interaction for the Vocal Folds Self-Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švancara, Pavel; Horáček, J.; Hrůza, V.

    The flow induced self-oscillation of the human vocal folds in interaction with acoustic processes in the simplified vocal tract model was explored by three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model. Developed FE model includes vocal folds pretension before phonation, large deformations of the vocal fold tissue, vocal folds contact, fluid-structure interaction, morphing the fluid mesh according the vocal folds motion (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach), unsteady viscous compressible airflow described by the Navier-Stokes equations and airflow separation during the glottis closure. Iterative partitioned approach is used for modelling the fluid-structure interaction. Computed results prove that the developed model can be used for simulation of the vocal folds self-oscillation and resulting acoustic waves. The developed model enables to numerically simulate an influence of some pathological changes in the vocal fold tissue on the voice production.

  2. Behavior-linked FoxP2 regulation enables zebra finch vocal learning.

    PubMed

    Heston, Jonathan B; White, Stephanie A

    2015-02-18

    Mutations in the FOXP2 transcription factor cause an inherited speech and language disorder, but how FoxP2 contributes to learning of these vocal communication signals remains unclear. FoxP2 is enriched in corticostriatal circuits of both human and songbird brains. Experimental knockdown of this enrichment in song control neurons of the zebra finch basal ganglia impairs tutor song imitation, indicating that adequate FoxP2 levels are necessary for normal vocal learning. In unmanipulated birds, vocal practice acutely downregulates FoxP2, leading to increased vocal variability and dynamic regulation of FoxP2 target genes. To determine whether this behavioral regulation is important for song learning, here, we used viral-driven overexpression of FoxP2 to counteract its downregulation. This manipulation disrupted the acute effects of song practice on vocal variability and caused inaccurate song imitation. Together, these findings indicate that dynamic behavior-linked regulation of FoxP2, rather than absolute levels, is critical for vocal learning. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352885-10$15.00/0.

  3. Vocal warm-up practices and perceptions in vocalists: a pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Gish, Allison; Kunduk, Melda; Sims, Loraine; McWhorter, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Investigated in a pilot study the type, duration, and frequency of vocal warm-up regimens in the singing community using a survey. One hundred seventeen participants completed an online survey. Participants included voice students from undergraduate, masters, and doctoral music programs and professional singers. Fifty-four percent of participants reported always using vocal warm-up before singing. Twenty-two percent of the participants used vocal cool down. The most preferred warm-up duration was of 5-10 minutes in duration. Despite using vocal warm-up, 26% of the participants reported experiencing voice problems. Females tended to use vocal warm-up more frequently than males. Females also tended to use longer warm-up sessions than males. Education of the participants did not appear to have any noticeable effect on the vocal warm-up practices. The most commonly used singing warm-up exercises were ascending/descending five-note scales, ascending/descending octave scales, legato arpeggios, and glissandi. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender Differences in the Recognition of Vocal Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Lausen, Adi; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2018-01-01

    The conflicting findings from the few studies conducted with regard to gender differences in the recognition of vocal expressions of emotion have left the exact nature of these differences unclear. Several investigators have argued that a comprehensive understanding of gender differences in vocal emotion recognition can only be achieved by replicating these studies while accounting for influential factors such as stimulus type, gender-balanced samples, number of encoders, decoders, and emotional categories. This study aimed to account for these factors by investigating whether emotion recognition from vocal expressions differs as a function of both listeners' and speakers' gender. A total of N = 290 participants were randomly and equally allocated to two groups. One group listened to words and pseudo-words, while the other group listened to sentences and affect bursts. Participants were asked to categorize the stimuli with respect to the expressed emotions in a fixed-choice response format. Overall, females were more accurate than males when decoding vocal emotions, however, when testing for specific emotions these differences were small in magnitude. Speakers' gender had a significant impact on how listeners' judged emotions from the voice. The group listening to words and pseudo-words had higher identification rates for emotions spoken by male than by female actors, whereas in the group listening to sentences and affect bursts the identification rates were higher when emotions were uttered by female than male actors. The mixed pattern for emotion-specific effects, however, indicates that, in the vocal channel, the reliability of emotion judgments is not systematically influenced by speakers' gender and the related stereotypes of emotional expressivity. Together, these results extend previous findings by showing effects of listeners' and speakers' gender on the recognition of vocal emotions. They stress the importance of distinguishing these factors to explain

  5. Nonlinear laser scanning microscopy of human vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Miri, Amir K; Tripathy, Umakanta; Mongeau, Luc; Wiseman, Paul W

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to apply nonlinear laser scanning microscopy (NLSM) for visualizing the morphology of extracellular matrix proteins within human vocal folds. This technique may potentially assist clinicians in making rapid diagnoses of vocal fold tissue disease or damage. Microstructural characterization based on NLSM provides valuable information for better understanding molecular mechanisms and tissue structure. Experimental, ex vivo human vocal fold. A custom-built multimodal nonlinear laser scanning microscope was used to scan fibrillar proteins in three 4% formaldehyde-fixed cadaveric samples. Collagen and elastin, key extracellular matrix proteins in the vocal fold lamina propria, were imaged by two nonlinear microscopy modalities: second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF), respectively. An experimental protocol was introduced to characterize the geometrical properties of the imaged fibrous proteins. NLSM revealed the biomorphology of the human vocal fold fibrous proteins. No photobleaching was observed for the incident laser power of ∼60 mW before the excitation objective. Types I and III fibrillar collagen were imaged without label in the tissue by intrinsic SHG. Imaging while rotating the incident laser light-polarization direction confirmed a helical shape for the collagen fibers. The amplitude, periodicity, and overall orientation were then computed for the helically distributed collagen network. The elastin network was simultaneously imaged via TPF and found to have a basket-like structure. In some regions, particularly close to the epithelium, colocalization of both extracellular matrix components were observed. A benchmark study is presented for quantitative real-time, ex vivo, NLSM imaging of the extracellular macromolecules in human vocal fold lamina propria. The results are promising for clinical applications. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Vocal performance affects metabolic rate in dolphins: implications for animals communicating in noisy environments.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Dunkin, Robin C; Williams, Terrie M

    2015-06-01

    Many animals produce louder, longer or more repetitious vocalizations to compensate for increases in environmental noise. Biological costs of increased vocal effort in response to noise, including energetic costs, remain empirically undefined in many taxa, particularly in marine mammals that rely on sound for fundamental biological functions in increasingly noisy habitats. For this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that an increase in vocal effort would result in an energetic cost to the signaler by experimentally measuring oxygen consumption during rest and a 2 min vocal period in dolphins that were trained to vary vocal loudness across trials. Vocal effort was quantified as the total acoustic energy of sounds produced. Metabolic rates during the vocal period were, on average, 1.2 and 1.5 times resting metabolic rate (RMR) in dolphin A and B, respectively. As vocal effort increased, we found that there was a significant increase in metabolic rate over RMR during the 2 min following sound production in both dolphins, and in total oxygen consumption (metabolic cost of sound production plus recovery costs) in the dolphin that showed a wider range of vocal effort across trials. Increases in vocal effort, as a consequence of increases in vocal amplitude, repetition rate and/or duration, are consistent with behavioral responses to noise in free-ranging animals. Here, we empirically demonstrate for the first time in a marine mammal, that these vocal modifications can have an energetic impact at the individual level and, importantly, these data provide a mechanistic foundation for evaluating biological consequences of vocal modification in noise-polluted habitats. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Infant Vocal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hursh, Daniel E.

    In Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior, three categories of environmental control over instances of verbal behavior appear to be relevant to the study of infant vocal development: the mand, the tact, and the echoic categories. Procedures used in the remediation of language deficiencies and procedures found in work in the area of language…

  8. Self-masking: Listening during vocalization. Normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Borg, Erik; Bergkvist, Christina; Gustafsson, Dan

    2009-06-01

    What underlying mechanisms are involved in the ability to talk and listen simultaneously and what role does self-masking play under conditions of hearing impairment? The purpose of the present series of studies is to describe a technique for assessment of masked thresholds during vocalization, to describe normative data for males and females, and to focus on hearing impairment. The masking effect of vocalized [a:] on narrow-band noise pulses (250-8000 Hz) was studied using the maximum vocalization method. An amplitude-modulated series of sound pulses, which sounded like a steam engine, was masked until the criterion of halving the perceived pulse rate was reached. For masking of continuous reading, a just-follow-conversation criterion was applied. Intra-session test-retest reproducibility and inter-session variability were calculated. The results showed that female voices were more efficient in masking high frequency noise bursts than male voices and more efficient in masking both a male and a female test reading. The male had to vocalize 4 dBA louder than the female to produce the same masking effect on the test reading. It is concluded that the method is relatively simple to apply and has small intra-session and fair inter-session variability. Interesting gender differences were observed.

  9. Gelada vocal sequences follow Menzerath's linguistic law.

    PubMed

    Gustison, Morgan L; Semple, Stuart; Ferrer-I-Cancho, Ramon; Bergman, Thore J

    2016-05-10

    Identifying universal principles underpinning diverse natural systems is a key goal of the life sciences. A powerful approach in addressing this goal has been to test whether patterns consistent with linguistic laws are found in nonhuman animals. Menzerath's law is a linguistic law that states that, the larger the construct, the smaller the size of its constituents. Here, to our knowledge, we present the first evidence that Menzerath's law holds in the vocal communication of a nonhuman species. We show that, in vocal sequences of wild male geladas (Theropithecus gelada), construct size (sequence size in number of calls) is negatively correlated with constituent size (duration of calls). Call duration does not vary significantly with position in the sequence, but call sequence composition does change with sequence size and most call types are abbreviated in larger sequences. We also find that intercall intervals follow the same relationship with sequence size as do calls. Finally, we provide formal mathematical support for the idea that Menzerath's law reflects compression-the principle of minimizing the expected length of a code. Our findings suggest that a common principle underpins human and gelada vocal communication, highlighting the value of exploring the applicability of linguistic laws in vocal systems outside the realm of language.

  10. Functional flexibility of infant vocalization and the emergence of language

    PubMed Central

    Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ramsdell, Heather L.; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Chorna, Lesya; Bakeman, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We report on the emergence of functional flexibility in vocalizations of human infants. This vastly underappreciated capability becomes apparent when prelinguistic vocalizations express a full range of emotional content—positive, neutral, and negative. The data show that at least three types of infant vocalizations (squeals, vowel-like sounds, and growls) occur with this full range of expression by 3–4 mo of age. In contrast, infant cry and laughter, which are species-specific signals apparently homologous to vocal calls in other primates, show functional stability, with cry overwhelmingly expressing negative and laughter positive emotional states. Functional flexibility is a sine qua non in spoken language, because all words or sentences can be produced as expressions of varying emotional states and because learning conventional “meanings” requires the ability to produce sounds that are free of any predetermined function. Functional flexibility is a defining characteristic of language, and empirically it appears before syntax, word learning, and even earlier-developing features presumed to be critical to language (e.g., joint attention, syllable imitation, and canonical babbling). The appearance of functional flexibility early in the first year of human life is a critical step in the development of vocal language and may have been a critical step in the evolution of human language, preceding protosyntax and even primitive single words. Such flexible affect expression of vocalizations has not yet been reported for any nonhuman primate but if found to occur would suggest deep roots for functional flexibility of vocalization in our primate heritage. PMID:23550164

  11. Phonetogram changes for trained singers over a nine-month period of vocal training.

    PubMed

    LeBorgne, Wendy DeLeo; Weinrich, Barbara D

    2002-03-01

    Professional vocalists encounter demands requiring voluntary control of phonation, while utilizing a considerable range of frequency and intensity. These quantifiable acoustic events can be measured and represented in a phonetogram. Previous research has compared the phonetograms of trained and untrained voices and found significant differences between these groups. This study was designed to assess the effects of vocal training for singers over a period of nine months. Phonetogram contour changes were examined, with the primary focus on expansion of frequency range and/or intensity control. Twenty-one first-year, master's level, vocal music students, who were engaged in an intensive vocal performance curriculum, participated in this study. Following nine months of vocal training, significant differences were revealed in the subjects' mean frequency range and minimum vocal intensity across frequency levels. There was no significant difference for the mean maximum vocal intensity across frequency levels following vocal training.

  12. Viscoelastic measurements after vocal fold scarring in rabbits--short-term results after hyaluronan injection.

    PubMed

    Hertegård, S; Dahlqvist, A; Goodyer, E

    2006-07-01

    The scarring model resulted in significant damage and elevated viscoelasticity of the lamina propria. Hyaluronan preparations may alter viscoelasticity in scarred rabbit vocal folds. Vocal fold scarring results in stiffness of the lamina propria and severe voice problems. The aims of this study were to examine the degree of scarring achieved in the experiment and to measure the viscoelastic properties after injection of hyaluronan in rabbit vocal folds. Twenty-two vocal folds from 15 New Zealand rabbits were scarred, 8 vocal folds were controls. After 8 weeks 12 of the scarred vocal folds received injections with 2 types of cross-linked hyaluronan products and 10 scarred folds were injected with saline. After 11 more weeks the animals were sacrificed. After dissection, 15 vocal folds were frozen for viscoelastic measurements, whereas 14 vocal folds were prepared and stained. Measurements were made of the lamina propria thickness. Viscoelasticity was measured on intact vocal folds with a linear skin rheometer (LSR) adapted to laryngeal measurements. Measurements on the digitized slides showed a thickened lamina propria in the scarred samples as compared with the normal vocal folds (p<0.05). The viscoelastic analysis showed a tendency to stiffening of the scarred vocal folds as compared with the normal controls (p=0.05). There was large variation in stiffness between the two injected hyaluronan products.

  13. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of scarred vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Heris, Hossein K; Miri, Amir K; Ghattamaneni, Nageswara R; Li, Nicole Y K; Thibeault, Susan L; Wiseman, Paul W; Mongeau, Luc

    2015-02-26

    The goal of this study was to characterize the vocal folds microstructure and elasticity using nonlinear laser scanning microscopy and atomic force microscopy-based indentation, respectively. As a pilot study, the vocal folds of fourteen rats were unilaterally injured by full removal of lamina propria; the uninjured folds of the same animals served as controls. The area fraction of collagen fibrils was found to be greater in scarred tissues two months after injury than the uninjured controls. A novel mathematical model was also proposed to relate collagen concentration and tissue bulk modulus. This work presents a first step towards systematic investigation of microstructural and mechanical characteristics in scarred vocal fold tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) in infant vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Nathani, Suneeti; Oller, D Kimbrough; Cobo-Lewis, Alan B

    2003-02-01

    Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) has been extensively examined in infant vocalizations in order to determine whether its basis is biological or learned. Findings suggest there may be a U-shaped developmental trajectory for FSL. The present study sought to verify this pattern and to determine whether vocal maturity and deafness influence FSL. Eight normally hearing infants, aged 0;3 to 1;0, and eight deaf infants, aged 0;8 to 4;0, were examined at three levels of prelinguistic vocal development: precanonical, canonical, and postcanonical. FSL was found at all three levels suggesting a biological basis for this phenomenon. Individual variability was, however, considerable. Reduction in the magnitude of FSL across the three sessions provided some support for a downward trend for FSL in infancy. Findings further indicated that auditory deprivation can significantly affect temporal aspects of infant speech production.

  15. Visualizing sound emission of elephant vocalizations: evidence for two rumble production types.

    PubMed

    Stoeger, Angela S; Heilmann, Gunnar; Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Ganswindt, André; Hensman, Sean; Charlton, Benjamin D

    2012-01-01

    Recent comparative data reveal that formant frequencies are cues to body size in animals, due to a close relationship between formant frequency spacing, vocal tract length and overall body size. Accordingly, intriguing morphological adaptations to elongate the vocal tract in order to lower formants occur in several species, with the size exaggeration hypothesis being proposed to justify most of these observations. While the elephant trunk is strongly implicated to account for the low formants of elephant rumbles, it is unknown whether elephants emit these vocalizations exclusively through the trunk, or whether the mouth is also involved in rumble production. In this study we used a sound visualization method (an acoustic camera) to record rumbles of five captive African elephants during spatial separation and subsequent bonding situations. Our results showed that the female elephants in our analysis produced two distinct types of rumble vocalizations based on vocal path differences: a nasally- and an orally-emitted rumble. Interestingly, nasal rumbles predominated during contact calling, whereas oral rumbles were mainly produced in bonding situations. In addition, nasal and oral rumbles varied considerably in their acoustic structure. In particular, the values of the first two formants reflected the estimated lengths of the vocal paths, corresponding to a vocal tract length of around 2 meters for nasal, and around 0.7 meters for oral rumbles. These results suggest that African elephants may be switching vocal paths to actively vary vocal tract length (with considerable variation in formants) according to context, and call for further research investigating the function of formant modulation in elephant vocalizations. Furthermore, by confirming the use of the elephant trunk in long distance rumble production, our findings provide an explanation for the extremely low formants in these calls, and may also indicate that formant lowering functions to increase call

  16. Visualizing Sound Emission of Elephant Vocalizations: Evidence for Two Rumble Production Types

    PubMed Central

    Stoeger, Angela S.; Heilmann, Gunnar; Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Ganswindt, André; Hensman, Sean; Charlton, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent comparative data reveal that formant frequencies are cues to body size in animals, due to a close relationship between formant frequency spacing, vocal tract length and overall body size. Accordingly, intriguing morphological adaptations to elongate the vocal tract in order to lower formants occur in several species, with the size exaggeration hypothesis being proposed to justify most of these observations. While the elephant trunk is strongly implicated to account for the low formants of elephant rumbles, it is unknown whether elephants emit these vocalizations exclusively through the trunk, or whether the mouth is also involved in rumble production. In this study we used a sound visualization method (an acoustic camera) to record rumbles of five captive African elephants during spatial separation and subsequent bonding situations. Our results showed that the female elephants in our analysis produced two distinct types of rumble vocalizations based on vocal path differences: a nasally- and an orally-emitted rumble. Interestingly, nasal rumbles predominated during contact calling, whereas oral rumbles were mainly produced in bonding situations. In addition, nasal and oral rumbles varied considerably in their acoustic structure. In particular, the values of the first two formants reflected the estimated lengths of the vocal paths, corresponding to a vocal tract length of around 2 meters for nasal, and around 0.7 meters for oral rumbles. These results suggest that African elephants may be switching vocal paths to actively vary vocal tract length (with considerable variation in formants) according to context, and call for further research investigating the function of formant modulation in elephant vocalizations. Furthermore, by confirming the use of the elephant trunk in long distance rumble production, our findings provide an explanation for the extremely low formants in these calls, and may also indicate that formant lowering functions to increase call

  17. Evaluation of interventions to reduce multiply controlled vocal stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, Rachel; Henry, Kelsey; Davis, Tonya N; Amos, Kally; Zoch, Tamara; Turchan, Sarah; Wagner, Tara

    2015-07-01

    This study examined four interventions targeted at decreasing multiply controlled vocal stereotypy for a 12-year-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and a severe intellectual disability. These interventions included Noncontingent Music, Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors, Self-Recording, and Functional Communication Training (FCT). In addition to measuring vocal stereotypy during each condition, task engagement and challenging behavior were also monitored. Across conditions, vocal stereotypy did not vary significantly from baseline except in FCT, when it decreased significantly. Task engagement was higher in this condition as well. It is hypothesized that FCT provided an enriched environment by increasing social interaction and access to desired items as well as removal of less preferred activities. For these reasons, there was a decrease in the need for the participant to engage in vocal stereotypy and challenging behavior and increase in his ability to engage in a task. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Irritant vocal cord dysfunction at first misdiagnosed as reactive airway dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Galdi, Eugenia; Perfetti, Luca; Pagella, Fabio; Bertino, Giulia; Ferrari, Massimo; Moscato, Gianna

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a case of vocal cord dysfunction at first misdiagnosed as reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS). A woman developed recurrent episodes of cough, dyspnea, and wheezing unresponsive to asthma therapy after irritant exposure to glutaraldehyde. Direct laryngoscopy was performed immediately after the induction of symptoms. Laryngoscopy showed a paradoxical adduction of the vocal cord on inspiration. Vocal cord dysfunction was diagnosed. A case of vocal cord dysfunction occurred after exposure to glutaraldhyde in a person with a history highly suggestive of RADS. Vocal cord dysfunction should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute respiratory symptoms after exposure to irritants and with asthma-like symptoms that fail to respond to conventional asthma therapy.

  19. Vocal Fry Use in Adult Female Speakers Exposed to Two Languages.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Todd A; Summers, Connie; Walls, Sydney

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have identified the widespread use of vocal fry among American women. Popular explanations for this phenomenon appeal to sociolinguistic purposes that likely take significant time for second language users to learn. The objective of this study was to determine if mere exposure to this vocal register, as opposed to nuanced sociolinguistic motivations, might explain its widespread use. This study used multigroup within- and between-subjects design. Fifty-eight women from one of three language background groups (functionally monolingual in English, functionally monolingual in Spanish, and Spanish-English bilinguals) living in El Paso, Texas, repeated a list of nonwords conforming to the sound rules of English and another list of nonwords conforming to the sound rules of Spanish. Perceptual analysis identified each episode of vocal fry. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in their frequency of vocal fry use despite large differences in their amount of English-language exposure. All groups produced more vocal fry when repeating English than when repeating Spanish nonwords. Because the human perceptual system encodes for vocal qualities even after minimal language experience, the widespread use of vocal fry among female residents in the United States likely is owing to mere exposure to English rather than nuanced sociolinguistic motivations. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Shortening of the front vibrating part of the vocal folds in phonation.

    PubMed

    Pesák, J; Jindra, P

    2005-01-01

    We have tried to make use of the opportunity of repeated observations through the analysis of the recorded movements of the phonating vocal folds by means of the phonating vocal folds through indirect videolaryngostroboscopic technique. The results of our investigation correspond, among others, with Hála and Sovák's diagrammatic description of continual and gradual changes in the vibration of the vocal folds in an uninterrupted sequence of tones of the human voice. In the initial chapter mention has been made of Hála and Honty's works and of Pressmann's work dealing with the described behaviour of the glottis when phonating high-pitched tones. The conclusions analogous to our findings have also been described by means of stereoscopically measuring the length of the phonating vocal folds. In conclusion, by measuring the distances between the anterior commissure and the junction between the membranous part of the vocal fold and vocal process of the arytenoid and the anterior commissure to the posterior nodal point of the vibrating part of the vocal folds we have verified the correctness of the findings published by Czermak, Hála and Honty, Pressmann, and Sovák, who pointed out the phenomenon of the shortening of the front vibrating part of the vocal folds in phonating high-pitched tones of the human voice. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Tissue-Engineered Vocal Fold Mucosa Implantation in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Travis L; Hardy, Jordan; Luegmair, Georg; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Long, Jennifer L

    2016-04-01

    To assess phonatory function and wound healing of a tissue-engineered vocal fold mucosa (TE-VFM) in rabbits. An "artificial" vocal fold would be valuable for reconstructing refractory scars and resection defects, particularly one that uses readily available autologous cells and scaffold. This work implants a candidate TE-VFM after resecting native epithelium and lamina propria in rabbits. Prospective animal study. Research laboratory. Rabbit adipose-derived stem cells were isolated and cultured in three-dimensional fibrin scaffolds to form TE-VFM. Eight rabbits underwent laryngofissure, unilateral European Laryngologic Society type 2 cordectomy, and immediate reconstruction with TE-VFM. After 4 weeks, larynges were excised, phonated, and examined by histology. Uniform TE-VFM implants were created, with rabbit mesenchymal cells populated throughout fibrin hydrogels. Rabbits recovered uneventfully after implantation. Phonation was achieved in all, with mucosal waves evident at the implant site. Histology after 4 weeks showed resorbed fibrin matrix, continuous epithelium, and mildly increased collagen relative to contralateral unoperated vocal folds. Elastic fiber appearance was highly variable. Inflammatory cell infiltrate was limited to animals receiving sex-mismatched implants. TE-VFMs were successfully implanted into 8 rabbits, with minor evidence of scar formation and immune reaction. Vibration was preserved 4 weeks after resecting and reconstructing the complete vocal fold cover layer. Further studies will investigate the mechanism and durability of improvement. TE-VFM with autologous cells is a promising new approach for vocal fold reconstruction. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  2. Exploring the anatomical encoding of voice with a mathematical model of the vocal system.

    PubMed

    Assaneo, M Florencia; Sitt, Jacobo; Varoquaux, Gael; Sigman, Mariano; Cohen, Laurent; Trevisan, Marcos A

    2016-11-01

    The faculty of language depends on the interplay between the production and perception of speech sounds. A relevant open question is whether the dimensions that organize voice perception in the brain are acoustical or depend on properties of the vocal system that produced it. One of the main empirical difficulties in answering this question is to generate sounds that vary along a continuum according to the anatomical properties the vocal apparatus that produced them. Here we use a mathematical model that offers the unique possibility of synthesizing vocal sounds by controlling a small set of anatomically based parameters. In a first stage the quality of the synthetic voice was evaluated. Using specific time traces for sub-glottal pressure and tension of the vocal folds, the synthetic voices generated perceptual responses, which are indistinguishable from those of real speech. The synthesizer was then used to investigate how the auditory cortex responds to the perception of voice depending on the anatomy of the vocal apparatus. Our fMRI results show that sounds are perceived as human vocalizations when produced by a vocal system that follows a simple relationship between the size of the vocal folds and the vocal tract. We found that these anatomical parameters encode the perceptual vocal identity (male, female, child) and show that the brain areas that respond to human speech also encode vocal identity. On the basis of these results, we propose that this low-dimensional model of the vocal system is capable of generating realistic voices and represents a novel tool to explore the voice perception with a precise control of the anatomical variables that generate speech. Furthermore, the model provides an explanation of how auditory cortices encode voices in terms of the anatomical parameters of the vocal system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vocalizations associated with anxiety and fear in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoko; Gokan, Hayato; Oh-Nishi, Arata; Suhara, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Shigeru; Minamimoto, Takafumi

    2014-12-15

    Vocalizations of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) were examined under experimental situations related to fear or anxiety. When marmosets were isolated in an unfamiliar environment, they frequently vocalized "tsik-egg" calls, which were the combination calls of 'tsik' followed by several 'egg'. Tsik-egg calls were also observed after treatment with the anxiogenic drug FG-7142 (20mg/kg, sc). In contrast, when marmosets were exposed to predatory stimuli as fear-evoking situations, they frequently vocalized tsik solo calls as well as tsik-egg calls. These results suggest that marmosets dissociate the vocalization of tsik-egg and tsik calls under conditions related to fear/anxiety; tsik-egg solo vocalizations were emitted under anxiety-related conditions (e.g., isolation and anxiogenic drug treatment), whereas a mixed vocalization of tsik-egg and tsik was emitted when confronted with fear-provoking stimuli (i.e., threatening predatory stimuli). Tsik-egg call with/without tsik can be used as a specific vocal index of fear/anxiety in marmosets, which allows us to understand the neural mechanism of negative emotions in primate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vocal cord mucosal flap for the treatment of acquired anterior laryngeal web.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yang; Wang, Jun; Han, Demin; Ma, Lijing; Ye, Jingying; Xu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Anterior glottic web is one type of laryngeal stenosis. Previous surgical methods had some drawbacks, such as large surgical trauma, long postoperative recovery time, and multiple-stage surgery. This study aimed to explore better treatment to repair anterior glottis web. We performed vocal cord mucosal flap procedure on 32 patients with anterior laryngeal webs. All subjects received vocal cord scar releasing and vocal cord mucosal flap repair and suture under general anesthesia with selfretaining laryngoscope. All 32 patients completed surgery in one stage, without postoperative laryngeal edema, difficulty in breathing, or other complications. After the surgery, the anterior commissure of vocal cords recovered to a decent triangle shape in 28 patients; however, in four patients there were 2 to 3 mm adhesion residuals on the anterior ends of the vocal cords, accompanied by scar appearance of bilateral vocal cords. The GRB score, voice handicap index scores, and maximum phonation time score significantly improved in all patients after the surgery. There was no evidence of recurrent laryngeal webbing in the 6-month follow-up. Vocal cords mucosal flap repair surgery has the advantages of less trauma, quick recovery, and significant improvement of the voice in the treatment of laryngeal webs.

  5. Vocal function in introverts and extraverts during a psychological stress reactivity protocol.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Maria; Verdolini Abbott, Katherine

    2012-06-01

    To examine the proposal that introversion predictably influences extralaryngeal and vocal behavior in vocally healthy individuals compared with individuals with extraversion and whether differences are of a nature that may support a risk hypothesis for primary muscle tension dysphonia. Fifty-four vocally healthy female adults between the ages of 18 and 35 years were divided into 2 groups: introversion (n = 27) and extraversion (n = 27). All participants completed a psychological stress reactivity experiment. Before, during, and after the stressor (public speaking), participants were assessed on extralaryngeal muscle activity (surface electromyography: submental, infrahyoid; control site: tibialis anterior), perceived vocal effort, and vocal acoustics (fundamental frequency and intensity). Participants in the introversion group exhibited significantly greater infrahyoid muscle activity throughout the protocol and during perceived stress than participants in the extraversion group. For both groups, perceived vocal effort significantly increased during stress, and acoustic measures significantly decreased. Infrahyoid muscle activity during the stress phase was significantly correlated with introversion and Voice Handicap Index scores but not with vocal effort scores. The data provided evidence of distinct differences in extralaryngeal behavior between introverts and extraverts. The findings are consistent with the trait theory of voice disorders (Roy & Bless, 2000).

  6. The perceptual features of vocal fatigue as self-reported by a group of actors and singers.

    PubMed

    Kitch, J A; Oates, J

    1994-09-01

    Performers (10 actors/10 singers) rated via a self-report questionnaire the severity of their voice-related changes when vocally fatigued. Similar frequency patterns and perceptual features of vocal fatigue were found across subjects. Actors rated "power" aspects (e.g., voice projection) and singers rated vocal dynamic aspects (e.g., pitch range) of their voices as most affected when vocally fatigued. Vocal fatigue was evidenced by changes in kinesthetic/proprioceptive sensations and vocal dynamics. The causes and context of vocal fatigue were vocal misuse, being "run down," high performance demands, and using high pitch/volume levels. Further research is needed to delineate the perceptual features of "normal" levels of vocal fatigue and its possible causes.

  7. Interaction in planning vocalizations and grasping.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vainio, Martti; Komeilipoor, Naeem; Vainio, Lari

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have shown a congruency effect between manual grasping and syllable articulation. For instance, a power grip is associated with syllables whose articulation involves the tongue body and/or large mouth aperture ([kɑ]) whereas a precision grip is associated with articulations that involve the tongue tip and/or small mouth aperture ([ti]). Previously, this effect has been observed in manual reaction times. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate whether this congruency effect also takes place in vocal responses and to investigate involvement of action selection processes in the effect. The congruency effect was found in vocal and manual responses regardless of whether or not the syllable or grip was known a priori, suggesting that the effect operates with minimal or absent action selection processes. In addition, the effect was observed in vocal responses even when the grip was only prepared but not performed, suggesting that merely planning a grip response primes the corresponding articulatory response. These results support the view that articulation and grasping are processed in a partially overlapping network.

  8. Genetic identification of a hindbrain nucleus essential for innate vocalization.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Miranda, Luis Rodrigo; Ruffault, Pierre-Louis; Bouvier, Julien C; Murray, Andrew J; Morin-Surun, Marie-Pierre; Zampieri, Niccolò; Cholewa-Waclaw, Justyna B; Ey, Elodie; Brunet, Jean-Francois; Champagnat, Jean; Fortin, Gilles; Birchmeier, Carmen

    2017-07-25

    Vocalization in young mice is an innate response to isolation or mechanical stimulation. Neuronal circuits that control vocalization and breathing overlap and rely on motor neurons that innervate laryngeal and expiratory muscles, but the brain center that coordinates these motor neurons has not been identified. Here, we show that the hindbrain nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is essential for vocalization in mice. By generating genetically modified newborn mice that specifically lack excitatory NTS neurons, we show that they are both mute and unable to produce the expiratory drive required for vocalization. Furthermore, the muteness of these newborns results in maternal neglect. We also show that neurons of the NTS directly connect to and entrain the activity of spinal (L1) and nucleus ambiguus motor pools located at positions where expiratory and laryngeal motor neurons reside. These motor neurons control expiratory pressure and laryngeal tension, respectively, thereby establishing the essential biomechanical parameters used for vocalization. In summary, our work demonstrates that the NTS is an obligatory component of the neuronal circuitry that transforms breaths into calls.

  9. Biases in facial and vocal emotion recognition in chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Dondaine, Thibaut; Robert, Gabriel; Péron, Julie; Grandjean, Didier; Vérin, Marc; Drapier, Dominique; Millet, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    There has been extensive research on impaired emotion recognition in schizophrenia in the facial and vocal modalities. The literature points to biases toward non-relevant emotions for emotional faces but few studies have examined biases in emotional recognition across different modalities (facial and vocal). In order to test emotion recognition biases, we exposed 23 patients with stabilized chronic schizophrenia and 23 healthy controls (HCs) to emotional facial and vocal tasks asking them to rate emotional intensity on visual analog scales. We showed that patients with schizophrenia provided higher intensity ratings on the non-target scales (e.g., surprise scale for fear stimuli) than HCs for the both tasks. Furthermore, with the exception of neutral vocal stimuli, they provided the same intensity ratings on the target scales as the HCs. These findings suggest that patients with chronic schizophrenia have emotional biases when judging emotional stimuli in the visual and vocal modalities. These biases may stem from a basic sensorial deficit, a high-order cognitive dysfunction, or both. The respective roles of prefrontal-subcortical circuitry and the basal ganglia are discussed. PMID:25202287

  10. Data analysis of response interruption and redirection as a treatment for vocal stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Kara L; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Vocal stereotypy, or repetitive, noncontextual vocalizations, is a problematic form of behavior exhibited by many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has evaluated the efficacy of response interruption and redirection (RIRD) in the reduction of vocal stereotypy. Research has indicated that RIRD often results in reductions in the level of vocal stereotypy; however, many previous studies have only presented data on vocal stereotypy that occurred outside RIRD implementation. The current study replicated the procedures of previous studies that have evaluated the efficacy of RIRD and compared 2 data-presentation methods: inclusion of only data collected outside RIRD implementation and inclusion of all vocal stereotypy data from the entirety of each session. Subjects were 7 children who had been diagnosed with ASD. Results indicated that RIRD appeared to be effective when we evaluated the level of vocal stereotypy outside RIRD implementation, but either no reductions or more modest reductions in the level of vocal stereotypy during the entirety of sessions were obtained for all subjects. Results suggest that data-analysis methods used in previous research may overestimate the efficacy of RIRD. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Vocal Function in Introverts and Extraverts during a Psychological Stress Reactivity Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Maria; Verdolini Abbott, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the proposal that introversion predictably influences extralaryngeal and vocal behavior in vocally healthy individuals compared with individuals with extraversion and whether differences are of a nature that may support a risk hypothesis for primary muscle tension dysphonia. Method: Fifty-four vocally healthy female adults…

  12. Sexual selection on male vocal fundamental frequency in humans and other anthropoids.

    PubMed

    Puts, David A; Hill, Alexander K; Bailey, Drew H; Walker, Robert S; Rendall, Drew; Wheatley, John R; Welling, Lisa L M; Dawood, Khytam; Cárdenas, Rodrigo; Burriss, Robert P; Jablonski, Nina G; Shriver, Mark D; Weiss, Daniel; Lameira, Adriano R; Apicella, Coren L; Owren, Michael J; Barelli, Claudia; Glenn, Mary E; Ramos-Fernandez, Gabriel

    2016-04-27

    In many primates, including humans, the vocalizations of males and females differ dramatically, with male vocalizations and vocal anatomy often seeming to exaggerate apparent body size. These traits may be favoured by sexual selection because low-frequency male vocalizations intimidate rivals and/or attract females, but this hypothesis has not been systematically tested across primates, nor is it clear why competitors and potential mates should attend to vocalization frequencies. Here we show across anthropoids that sexual dimorphism in fundamental frequency (F0) increased during evolutionary transitions towards polygyny, and decreased during transitions towards monogamy. Surprisingly, humans exhibit greater F0 sexual dimorphism than any other ape. We also show that low-F0 vocalizations predict perceptions of men's dominance and attractiveness, and predict hormone profiles (low cortisol and high testosterone) related to immune function. These results suggest that low male F0 signals condition to competitors and mates, and evolved in male anthropoids in response to the intensity of mating competition. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  14. Collagen Content Limits Optical Coherence Tomography Image Depth in Porcine Vocal Fold Tissue.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jordan A; Benboujja, Fouzi; Beaudette, Kathy; Rogers, Derek; Maurer, Rie; Boudoux, Caroline; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2016-11-01

    Vocal fold scarring, a condition defined by increased collagen content, is challenging to treat without a method of noninvasively assessing vocal fold structure in vivo. The goal of this study was to observe the effects of vocal fold collagen content on optical coherence tomography imaging to develop a quantifiable marker of disease. Excised specimen study. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. Porcine vocal folds were injected with collagenase to remove collagen from the lamina propria. Optical coherence tomography imaging was performed preinjection and at 0, 45, 90, and 180 minutes postinjection. Mean pixel intensity (or image brightness) was extracted from images of collagenase- and control-treated hemilarynges. Texture analysis of the lamina propria at each injection site was performed to extract image contrast. Two-factor repeated measure analysis of variance and t tests were used to determine statistical significance. Picrosirius red staining was performed to confirm collagenase activity. Mean pixel intensity was higher at injection sites of collagenase-treated vocal folds than control vocal folds (P < .0001). Fold change in image contrast was significantly increased in collagenase-treated vocal folds than control vocal folds (P = .002). Picrosirius red staining in control specimens revealed collagen fibrils most prominent in the subepithelium and above the thyroarytenoid muscle. Specimens treated with collagenase exhibited a loss of these structures. Collagen removal from vocal fold tissue increases image brightness of underlying structures. This inverse relationship may be useful in treating vocal fold scarring in patients. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  15. Treatment outcome of vocal cord leukoplakia by transoral laser microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Chao, Wei-Chieh; Lee, Yun-Shien; Chang, Liang-Che; Hsieh, Tsan-Yu; Chen, Tai-An; Luo, Cheng-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the treatment outcome and analyze the associated factors of postoperative recurrence in patients who received transoral laser microsurgery for vocal cord leukoplakia. The demographic, histopathological data were retrospectively reviewed and the factors associated with recurrence of vocal leukoplakia after surgery were analyzed statistically. A total of 44 patients, including 36 males and 8 females, with a mean age of 50.4 ± 13.4 years, were enrolled. All the patients received excision of the vocal leukoplakia by carbon dioxide laser (2-4 Watt, ultrapulse mode) under general anesthesia. No patients had malignant transformation after surgery. Postoperative recurrence occurred in 10 patients (22.7 %). Univariate analysis showed that patients who had the habit of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease tended to recur. Among these risk factors, presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (odds ratio 8.43) was the independent prognostic factor for recurrence using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Carbon dioxide laser excision is effective for treating vocal leukoplakia that is still confined to dysplasia of any degree, with acceptable morbidity. This study suggests that the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease is the prognostic indicator for postoperative recurrence of vocal leukoplakia. Aggressive treatment of reflux disease for those who have received surgical excision for vocal leukoplakia is indicated.

  16. Vocal Tract Morphology in Inhaling Singing: An MRI-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Moerman, Mieke; Vanhecke, Françoise; Van Assche, Lieven; Vercruysse, Johan; Daemers, Kristin; Leman, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Inhaling singing is a recently developed singing technique explored by the soprano singer Françoise Vanhecke. It is based on an inspiratory airflow instead of an expiratory airflow. This article describes the anatomical structural differences of the vocal tract between inhaling and exhaling singing. We hypothesize that the vocal tract alters significantly in inhaling singing, especially concerning the configuration of the anatomical structures in the oral cavity and the subglottal region. This is a prospective study. A professional singer (F.V.) performed sustained tones from F5 chromatically rising up to Bb5 on the vowel /a/. Vocal tract anatomy is assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Wilcoxon directional testing demonstrates (1) that the vocal tract volume above the glottal region does not differ statistically in contrast to the subglottal region and (2) significant changes in the configuration of the tongue, the upright position of the epiglottis, the length of the floor of mouth, and the distance between the teeth. The narrowing of the subglottis is considered to be secondary to suction forces used in the inhaling singing technique. The changes in the anatomical structures above the vocal folds possibly suggest a valve-like function controlling the air inlet together with the regulator function of the resonator capacities of the vocal tract. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vocal Interaction between Children with Down syndrome and their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy S.; Warren, Steven F.; Brady, Nancy; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe differences in parent input and child vocal behaviors of children with Down syndrome (DS) compared to typically developing (TD) children. The goals were to describe the language learning environments at distinctly different ages in early childhood. Method Nine children with DS and 9 age-matched TD children participated; four children in each group were ages 9–11 months and five were between 25–54 months. Measures were derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processer measured the richness of the child’s language environment, including number of adult words, conversational turns, and child vocalizations. Results Analyses indicated no significant differences in words spoken by parents of younger vs. older children with DS, and significantly more words spoken by parents of TD children than parents of children with DS. Differences between the DS and TD groups were observed in rates of all vocal behaviors; with no differences noted between the younger vs. older children with DS, and the younger TD children did not vocalize significantly more than the younger DS children. Conclusions Parents of children with DS continue to provide consistent levels of input across the early language learning years; however, child vocal behaviors remain low after the age of 24 months suggesting the need for additional and alternative intervention approaches. PMID:24686777

  18. Vocal interaction between children with Down syndrome and their parents.

    PubMed

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy S; Warren, Steven F; Brady, Nancy; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe differences in parent input and child vocal behaviors of children with Down syndrome (DS) compared with typically developing (TD) children. The goals were to describe the language learning environments at distinctly different ages in early childhood. Nine children with DS and 9 age-matched TD children participated; 4 children in each group were ages 9-11 months, and 5 were between 25 and 54 months. Measures were derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processor measured the richness of the child's language environment, including number of adult words, conversational turns, and child vocalizations. Analyses indicated no significant differences in words spoken by parents of younger versus older children with DS and significantly more words spoken by parents of TD children than parents of children with DS. Differences between the DS and TD groups were observed in rates of all vocal behaviors, with no differences noted between the younger versus older children with DS, and the younger TD children did not vocalize significantly more than the younger DS children. Parents of children with DS continue to provide consistent levels of input across the early language learning years; however, child vocal behaviors remain low after the age of 24 months, suggesting the need for additional and alternative intervention approaches.

  19. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    PubMed Central

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars). PMID:26325076

  20. The Distribution and Severity of Tremor in Speech Structures of Persons with Vocal Tremor.

    PubMed

    Hemmerich, Abby L; Finnegan, Eileen M; Hoffman, Henry T

    2017-05-01

    Vocal tremor may be associated with cyclic oscillations in the pulmonary, laryngeal, velopharyngeal, or oral regions. This study aimed to correlate the overall severity of vocal tremor with the distribution and severity of tremor in structures involved. Endoscopic and clinical examinations were completed on 20 adults with vocal tremor and two age-matched controls during sustained phonation. Two judges rated the severity of vocal tremor and the severity of tremor affecting each of 13 structures. Participants with mild vocal tremor typically presented with tremor in three laryngeal structures, moderate vocal tremor in five structures (laryngeal and another region), and severe vocal tremor in eight structures affecting all regions. The severity of tremor was lowest (mean = 1.2 out of 3) in persons with mild vocal tremor and greater in persons with moderate (mean = 1.5) and severe vocal tremor (mean = 1.4). Laryngeal structures were most frequently (95%) and severely (1.7 out of 3) affected, followed by velopharynx (40% occurrence, 1.3 severity), pulmonary (40% occurrence, 1.1 severity), and oral (40% occurrence, 1.0 severity) regions. Regression analyses indicated tremor severity of the supraglottic structures, and vertical laryngeal movement contributed most to vocal tremor severity during sustained phonation (r = 0.77, F = 16.17, P < 0.0001). A strong positive correlation (r = 0.72) was found between the Tremor Index and the severity of the vocal tremor during sustained phonation. It is useful to obtain a wide endoscopic view of the larynx to visualize tremor, which is rarely isolated to the true vocal folds alone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Vocal cord paralysis after surgery to the descending thoracic aorta via left posterolateral thoracotomy.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Noriyuki; Mori, Takahiko

    2007-11-01

    Vocal cord paralysis is one of the frequently encountered complications after aortic surgery. However, reports of vocal cord paralysis after aortic surgery have been limited. In a retrospective cohort study of vocal cord paralysis after aortic surgery at a general hospital, we sought factors related to its development after aortic surgery to the descending thoracic aorta via left posterolateral thoracotomy. We reviewed data for a total of 69 patients who, between 1989 and 1995, underwent aortic surgery to the descending thoracic aorta. We assessed factors associated with the development of vocal cord paralysis and postoperative complications. Postoperative vocal cord paralysis appeared in 19 patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed two risk factors for vocal cord paralysis: chronic dilatation of the aorta at the left subclavian artery (odds ratio = 8.67) and anastomosis proximal to the left subclavian artery (odds ratio = 17.7). The duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly prolonged for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Certain surgical factors associated with left subclavian artery increase the risk of vocal cord paralysis after surgery on the descending thoracic aorta. Vocal cord paralysis after aortic surgery did not increase aspiration pneumonia but was associated with pulmonary complications.

  2. Ordinary Interactions Challenge Proposals That Maternal Verbal Responses Shape Infant Vocal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Mary K.; Doveikis, Kate N.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested proposals that maternal verbal responses shape infant vocal development, proposals based in part on evidence that infants modified their vocalizations to match mothers' experimentally manipulated vowel or consonant-vowel responses to most (i.e., 70%-80%) infant vocalizations. We tested the proposal in ordinary rather…

  3. Learning while Babbling: Prelinguistic Object-Directed Vocalizations Indicate a Readiness to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Michael H.; Schwade, Jennifer; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Syal, Supriya

    2010-01-01

    Two studies illustrate the functional significance of a new category of prelinguistic vocalizing--object-directed vocalizations (ODVs)--and show that these sounds are connected to learning about words and objects. Experiment 1 tested 12-month-old infants' perceptual learning of objects that elicited ODVs. Fourteen infants' vocalizations were…

  4. Impact of Visual, Vocal, and Lexical Cues on Judgments of Counselor Qualities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strahan, Carole; Zytowski, Donald G.

    1976-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N=130) rated Carl Rogers via visual, lexical, vocal, or vocal-lexical communication channels. Lexical cues were more important in creating favorable impressions among females. Subsequent exposure to combined visual-vocal-lexical cues resulted in warmer and less distant ratings, but not on a consistent basis. (Author)

  5. Long-term consequences of vocal fold hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kerwin, Lewis J; Estes, Christine; Oromendia, Clara; Christos, Paul; Sulica, Lucian

    2017-04-01

    To assess the long-term impact of vocal fold hemorrhage (VFH) on vocal function and health, and compare these parameters to those in similar patients who have not had VFH. Retrospective cohort study. Patients with a history of VFH (N = 41) were characterized through a review of records and assessed by means of a survey for vocal health and professional functioning as well as the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and, if appropriate (n = 30, 73.2%), the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI-10). They were compared to a group of demographically and occupationally similar patients without VFH (N = 25, 60.9%). Patients with multiple episodes of VFH (n = 9, 22.0%) were compared to patients with a single event. After a median of 41 months follow-up, patients with VFH had favorable vocal function assessment and low median VHI-10 and SVHI-10 scores (4 and 6, respectively), substantially similar to patients without VFH (VHI-10, P = .905 and SVHI 10, P =.991). The two groups showed similarly low rates of change in occupation (7.3%vs. 8.0%, P =.999). Patients with VFH were more likely to have missed days of work due to a voice problem. Analysis of patients with one versus multiple VFH episodes showed no differences, except patients with multiple episodes had significantly greater confidence in their ability to address future VFH. Contrary to commonly held belief, VFH appears to have no significant long-term impact on vocational stability, subjective voice quality, or perceptions of vocal function. Moreover, among those with VFH, recurrence seems only to diminish anxiety over this transient injury. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:900-906, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Effects of music on vocal stereotypy in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Lanovaz, Marc J; Sladeczek, Ingrid E; Rapp, John T

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of manipulating the intensity (i.e., volume) of music on engagement in vocal stereotypy in 2 children with autism. Noncontingent access to music decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for each participant, but it produced only marginal effects on subsequent engagement in the behavior (i.e., after withdrawal). Manipulating the intensity of music did not produce differential effects on immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy. The implications of the results and applications for future research are discussed.

  7. EFFECTS OF MUSIC ON VOCAL STEREOTYPY IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

    PubMed Central

    Lanovaz, Marc J; Sladeczek, Ingrid E; Rapp, John T

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of manipulating the intensity (i.e., volume) of music on engagement in vocal stereotypy in 2 children with autism. Noncontingent access to music decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for each participant, but it produced only marginal effects on subsequent engagement in the behavior (i.e., after withdrawal). Manipulating the intensity of music did not produce differential effects on immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy. The implications of the results and applications for future research are discussed. PMID:21941398

  8. Coding of vocalizations by single neurons in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Plakke, Bethany; Diltz, Mark D; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Neuronal activity in single prefrontal neurons has been correlated with behavioral responses, rules, task variables and stimulus features. In the non-human primate, neurons recorded in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) have been found to respond to species-specific vocalizations. Previous studies have found multisensory neurons which respond to simultaneously presented faces and vocalizations in this region. Behavioral data suggests that face and vocal information are inextricably linked in animals and humans and therefore may also be tightly linked in the coding of communication calls in prefrontal neurons. In this study we therefore examined the role of VLPFC in encoding vocalization call type information. Specifically, we examined previously recorded single unit responses from the VLPFC in awake, behaving rhesus macaques in response to 3 types of species-specific vocalizations made by 3 individual callers. Analysis of responses by vocalization call type and caller identity showed that ∼19% of cells had a main effect of call type with fewer cells encoding caller. Classification performance of VLPFC neurons was ∼42% averaged across the population. When assessed at discrete time bins, classification performance reached 70 percent for coos in the first 300 ms and remained above chance for the duration of the response period, though performance was lower for other call types. In light of the sub-optimal classification performance of the majority of VLPFC neurons when only vocal information is present, and the recent evidence that most VLPFC neurons are multisensory, the potential enhancement of classification with the addition of accompanying face information is discussed and additional studies recommended. Behavioral and neuronal evidence has shown a considerable benefit in recognition and memory performance when faces and voices are presented simultaneously. In the natural environment both facial and vocalization information is present simultaneously and

  9. Vocal development and auditory perception in CBA/CaJ mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziwon, Kelly E.

    Mice are useful laboratory subjects because of their small size, their modest cost, and the fact that researchers have created many different strains to study a variety of disorders. In particular, researchers have found nearly 100 naturally occurring mouse mutations with hearing impairments. For these reasons, mice have become an important model for studies of human deafness. Although much is known about the genetic makeup and physiology of the laboratory mouse, far less is known about mouse auditory behavior. To fully understand the effects of genetic mutations on hearing, it is necessary to determine the hearing abilities of these mice. Two experiments here examined various aspects of mouse auditory perception using CBA/CaJ mice, a commonly used mouse strain. The frequency difference limens experiment tested the mouse's ability to discriminate one tone from another based solely on the frequency of the tone. The mice had similar thresholds as wild mice and gerbils but needed a larger change in frequency than humans and cats. The second psychoacoustic experiment sought to determine which cue, frequency or duration, was more salient when the mice had to identify various tones. In this identification task, the mice overwhelmingly classified the tones based on frequency instead of duration, suggesting that mice are using frequency when differentiating one mouse vocalization from another. The other two experiments were more naturalistic and involved both auditory perception and mouse vocal production. Interest in mouse vocalizations is growing because of the potential for mice to become a model of human speech disorders. These experiments traced mouse vocal development from infant to adult, and they tested the mouse's preference for various vocalizations. This was the first known study to analyze the vocalizations of individual mice across development. Results showed large variation in calling rates among the three cages of adult mice but results were highly

  10. Vocalizations of adult male Asian koels (Eudynamys scolopacea) in the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Aziz; Qureshi, Irfan Zia

    2017-01-01

    Defining the vocal repertoire provides a basis for understanding the role of acoustic signals in sexual and social interactions of an animal. The Asian koel (Eudynamys scolopacea) is a migratory bird which spends its summer breeding season in the plains of Pakistan. The bird is typically wary and secretive but produces loud and distinct calls, making it easily detected when unseen. Like the other birds in the wild, presumably Asian koels use their calls for social cohesion and coordination of different behaviors. To date, the description of vocal repertoire of the male Asian koel has been lacking. Presently we analyzed and described for the first time the vocalizations of the adult male Asian koel, recorded in two consecutive breeding seasons. Using 10 call parameters, we categorized the vocalization type into six different categories on the basis of spectrogram and statistical analyses, namely the; "type 1 cooee call", "type 2 cooee call", "type 1 coegh call", "type 2 coegh call", "wurroo call" and "coe call". These names were assigned not on the basis of functional analysis and were therefore onomatopoeic. Stepwise cross validated discriminant function analysis classified the vocalization correctly (100%) into the predicted vocal categories that we initially classified on the basis of spectrographic examination. Our findings enrich the biological knowledge about vocalizations of the adult male Asian koel and provide a foundation for future acoustic monitoring of the species, as well as for comparative studies with vocalizations of other bird species of the cuckoo family. Further studies on the vocalizations of the Asian koel are required to unravel their functions in sexual selection and individual recognition.

  11. Cross-cultural recognition of basic emotions through nonverbal emotional vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Disa A.; Eisner, Frank; Ekman, Paul; Scott, Sophie K.

    2010-01-01

    Emotional signals are crucial for sharing important information, with conspecifics, for example, to warn humans of danger. Humans use a range of different cues to communicate to others how they feel, including facial, vocal, and gestural signals. We examined the recognition of nonverbal emotional vocalizations, such as screams and laughs, across two dramatically different cultural groups. Western participants were compared to individuals from remote, culturally isolated Namibian villages. Vocalizations communicating the so-called “basic emotions” (anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise) were bidirectionally recognized. In contrast, a set of additional emotions was only recognized within, but not across, cultural boundaries. Our findings indicate that a number of primarily negative emotions have vocalizations that can be recognized across cultures, while most positive emotions are communicated with culture-specific signals. PMID:20133790

  12. Short-Term Effect of Two Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract Training Programs on the Vocal Quality of Future Occupational Voice Users: "Resonant Voice Training Using Nasal Consonants" versus "Straw Phonation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerschman, Iris; Van Lierde, Kristiane; Peeters, Karen; Meersman, Eline; Claeys, Sofie; D'haeseleer, Evelien

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term effect of 2 semi-occluded vocal tract training programs, "resonant voice training using nasal consonants" versus "straw phonation," on the vocal quality of vocally healthy future occupational voice users. Method: A multigroup pretest--posttest randomized control…

  13. Relevance of the Implementation of Teeth in Three-Dimensional Vocal Tract Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traser, Louisa; Birkholz, Peter; Flügge, Tabea Viktoria; Kamberger, Robert; Burdumy, Michael; Richter, Bernhard; Korvink, Jan Gerrit; Echternach, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, efforts have been made to investigate the vocal tract using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to technical limitations, teeth were omitted in many previous studies on vocal tract acoustics. However, the knowledge of how teeth influence vocal tract acoustics might be important in order to estimate the necessity of…

  14. Apoptosis and Vocal Fold Disease: Clinically Relevant Implications of Epithelial Cell Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Carter, Bruce D.; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Ridner, Sheila H.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Vocal fold diseases affecting the epithelium have a detrimental impact on vocal function. This review article provides an overview of apoptosis, the most commonly studied type of programmed cell death. Because apoptosis can damage epithelial cells, this article examines the implications of apoptosis on diseases affecting the vocal fold…

  15. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Regulation of Ion Transport in Porcine Vocal Fold Mucosae

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Nofziger, Charity; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important biological molecule that regulates ion transport and inflammatory responses in epithelial tissue. The present study examined whether the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, would increase cAMP concentration in porcine vocal fold mucosa and whether the effects of increased cAMP would be manifested as a functional increase in transepithelial ion transport. Additionally, changes in cAMP concentrations following exposure to an inflammatory mediator, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) were investigated. Study Design In vitro experimental design with matched treatment and control groups. Methods Porcine vocal fold mucosae (N = 30) and tracheal mucosae (N = 20) were exposed to forskolin, TNFα, or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) treatment. cAMP concentrations were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ion transport was measured using electrophysiological techniques. Results Thirty minute exposure to forskolin significantly increased cAMP concentration and ion transport in porcine vocal fold and tracheal mucosae. However, 30-minute and 2-hour exposure to TNFα did not significantly alter cAMP concentration. Conclusions We demonstrate that forskolin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase is present in vocal fold mucosa, and further, that the product, cAMP increases vocal fold ion transport. The results presented here contribute to our understanding of the intracellular mechanisms underlying vocal fold ion transport. As ion transport is important for maintaining superficial vocal fold hydration, data demonstrating forskolin-stimulated ion transport in vocal fold mucosa suggest opportunities for developing pharmacological treatments that increase surface hydration. PMID:18596479

  16. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Archbold, Jahmaira; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus). We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the “peep”) across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative) in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility. PMID:26290789

  17. [Pursed Lips Inspiration for Vocal Cord Dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yumiko; Tsukada, Yayoi; Hirai, Nobuyuki; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2015-01-01

    Paradoxical vocal cord motion (PVCM) during vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) generally occurs spasmodically and transiently. After we had experienced 36 cases of VCD and successfully treated with conservative treatment including "pursed lips inspiration" method, we experienced a boy who had persistent PVCM. It was observed his PVCM vanished when he breathed in through pursed lips, while it appeared again when he stopped pursed lips inspiration. An airway reflex has been reported where the negative pressure in the subglottic space resulting from the inspiratory effort against a narrowed glottis activates the vocal cord adductor. VCD is considered to have both acceleration of laryngeal closure reflex against airway stimuli and active adductive movement of vocal cords against negative pressure in the subglottic space as underlying factors. The pursed lips inspiration method enables VCD patients not only to accomplish slow and light breathing but also to decrease the difference in the pressure between the supra--and subglottic space by occluding the nasal cavity and voluntary puckering up of the mouth which generate negative pressure in the supraglottic space. This is the first report of the pursed lips inspiration method as a treatment for VCD. Pursed lips inspiration is a simple method which is easy to perform anytime, anywhere without any special equipment, and is considered to be worth trying for VCD.

  18. Vocal fold immobility: a longitudinal analysis of etiology over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Laura H Swibel; Benninger, Michael S; Deeb, Robert H

    2007-10-01

    To determine the current etiology of vocal fold immobility, identify changing trends over the last 20 years, and compare results to historical reports. The present study is a retrospective analysis of all patients seen within a tertiary care institution between 1996 and 2005 with vocal fold immobility. The results were combined with a previous study of patients within the same institution from 1985 through 1995. Results were compared to the literature. The medical records of all patients assigned a primary or additional diagnostic code for vocal cord paralysis were obtained from the electronic database. Eight hundred twenty-seven patients were available for analysis (435 from the most recent cohort), which is substantially larger than any reported series to date. Vocal fold immobility was most commonly associated with a surgical procedure (37%). Nonthyroid surgeries (66%), such as anterior cervical approaches to the spine and carotid endarterectomies, have surpassed thyroid surgery (33%) as the most common iatrogenic causes. These data represent a change from historical figures in which extralaryngeal malignancies were considered the major cause of unilateral immobility. Thyroidectomy continues to cause the majority (80%) of iatrogenic bilateral vocal fold immobility and 30% of all bilateral immobility. This 20-year longitudinal assessment revealed that the etiology of unilateral vocal fold immobility has changed such that there has been a shift from extralaryngeal malignancies to nonthyroid surgical procedures as the major cause. Thyroid surgery remains the most common cause of bilateral vocal fold immobility.

  19. Vibration stimulates vocal mucosa-like matrix expression by hydrogel-encapsulated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kutty, Jaishankar K; Webb, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The composition and organization of the vocal fold extracellular matrix (ECM) provide the viscoelastic mechanical properties that are required to sustain high-frequency vibration during voice production. Although vocal injury and pathology are known to produce alterations in matrix physiology, the mechanisms responsible for the development and maintenance of vocal fold ECM are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of physiologically relevant vibratory stimulation on ECM gene expression and synthesis by fibroblasts encapsulated within hyaluronic acid hydrogels that approximate the viscoelastic properties of vocal mucosa. Relative to static controls, samples exposed to vibration exhibited significant increases in mRNA expression levels of HA synthase 2, decorin, fibromodulin and MMP-1, while collagen and elastin expression were relatively unchanged. Expression levels exhibited a temporal response, with maximum increases observed after 3 and 5 days of vibratory stimulation and significant downregulation observed at 10 days. Quantitative assays of matrix accumulation confirmed significant increases in sulphated glycosaminoglycans and significant decreases in collagen after 5 and 10 days of vibratory culture, relative to static controls. Cellular remodelling and hydrogel viscosity were affected by vibratory stimulation and were influenced by varying the encapsulated cell density. These results indicate that vibration is a critical epigenetic factor regulating vocal fold ECM and suggest that rapid restoration of the phonatory microenvironment may provide a basis for reducing vocal scarring, restoring native matrix composition and improving vocal quality. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A Framework for Automated Marmoset Vocalization Detection And Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-08

    recent push to automate vocalization monitoring in a range of mammals. Such efforts have been used to classify bird songs [11], African elephants [12... Elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) Vocalizations,” vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 956–963, 2005. [13] J. C. Brown, “Automatic classification of killer whale

  1. A study of vocal nonlinearities in humpback whale songs: from production mechanisms to acoustic analysis.

    PubMed

    Cazau, Dorian; Adam, Olivier; Aubin, Thierry; Laitman, Jeffrey T; Reidenberg, Joy S

    2016-10-10

    Although mammalian vocalizations are predominantly harmonically structured, they can exhibit an acoustic complexity with nonlinear vocal sounds, including deterministic chaos and frequency jumps. Such sounds are normative events in mammalian vocalizations, and can be directly traceable to the nonlinear nature of vocal-fold dynamics underlying typical mammalian sound production. In this study, we give qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses of nonlinearities in the song repertoire of humpback whales from the Ste Marie channel (Madagascar) to provide more insight into the potential communication functions and underlying production mechanisms of these features. A low-dimensional biomechanical modeling of the whale's U-fold (vocal folds homolog) is used to relate specific vocal mechanisms to nonlinear vocal features. Recordings of living humpback whales were searched for occurrences of vocal nonlinearities (instabilities). Temporal distributions of nonlinearities were assessed within sound units, and between different songs. The anatomical production sources of vocal nonlinearities and the communication context of their occurrences in recordings are discussed. Our results show that vocal nonlinearities may be a communication strategy that conveys information about the whale's body size and physical fitness, and thus may be an important component of humpback whale songs.

  2. A study of vocal nonlinearities in humpback whale songs: from production mechanisms to acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazau, Dorian; Adam, Olivier; Aubin, Thierry; Laitman, Jeffrey T.; Reidenberg, Joy S.

    2016-10-01

    Although mammalian vocalizations are predominantly harmonically structured, they can exhibit an acoustic complexity with nonlinear vocal sounds, including deterministic chaos and frequency jumps. Such sounds are normative events in mammalian vocalizations, and can be directly traceable to the nonlinear nature of vocal-fold dynamics underlying typical mammalian sound production. In this study, we give qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses of nonlinearities in the song repertoire of humpback whales from the Ste Marie channel (Madagascar) to provide more insight into the potential communication functions and underlying production mechanisms of these features. A low-dimensional biomechanical modeling of the whale’s U-fold (vocal folds homolog) is used to relate specific vocal mechanisms to nonlinear vocal features. Recordings of living humpback whales were searched for occurrences of vocal nonlinearities (instabilities). Temporal distributions of nonlinearities were assessed within sound units, and between different songs. The anatomical production sources of vocal nonlinearities and the communication context of their occurrences in recordings are discussed. Our results show that vocal nonlinearities may be a communication strategy that conveys information about the whale’s body size and physical fitness, and thus may be an important component of humpback whale songs.

  3. Primate vocal communication: a useful tool for understanding human speech and language evolution?

    PubMed

    Fedurek, Pawel; Slocombe, Katie E

    2011-04-01

    Language is a uniquely human trait, and questions of how and why it evolved have been intriguing scientists for years. Nonhuman primates (primates) are our closest living relatives, and their behavior can be used to estimate the capacities of our extinct ancestors. As humans and many primate species rely on vocalizations as their primary mode of communication, the vocal behavior of primates has been an obvious target for studies investigating the evolutionary roots of human speech and language. By studying the similarities and differences between human and primate vocalizations, comparative research has the potential to clarify the evolutionary processes that shaped human speech and language. This review examines some of the seminal and recent studies that contribute to our knowledge regarding the link between primate calls and human language and speech. We focus on three main aspects of primate vocal behavior: functional reference, call combinations, and vocal learning. Studies in these areas indicate that despite important differences, primate vocal communication exhibits some key features characterizing human language. They also indicate, however, that some critical aspects of speech, such as vocal plasticity, are not shared with our primate cousins. We conclude that comparative research on primate vocal behavior is a very promising tool for deepening our understanding of the evolution of human speech and language, but much is still to be done as many aspects of monkey and ape vocalizations remain largely unexplored.

  4. Major depressive disorder discrimination using vocal acoustic features.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Takaya; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Suzuki, Masayuki; Nagano, Toru; Tachibana, Ryuki; Nishimura, Masafumi; Arai, Tetsuaki

    2018-01-01

    The voice carries various information produced by vibrations of the vocal cords and the vocal tract. Though many studies have reported a relationship between vocal acoustic features and depression, including mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCCs) which applied to speech recognition, there have been few studies in which acoustic features allowed discrimination of patients with depressive disorder. Vocal acoustic features as biomarker of depression could make differential diagnosis of patients with depressive state. In order to achieve differential diagnosis of depression, in this preliminary study, we examined whether vocal acoustic features could allow discrimination between depressive patients and healthy controls. Subjects were 36 patients who met the criteria for major depressive disorder and 36 healthy controls with no current or past psychiatric disorders. Voices of reading out digits before and after verbal fluency task were recorded. Voices were analyzed using OpenSMILE. The extracted acoustic features, including MFCCs, were used for group comparison and discriminant analysis between patients and controls. The second dimension of MFCC (MFCC 2) was significantly different between groups and allowed the discrimination between patients and controls with a sensitivity of 77.8% and a specificity of 86.1%. The difference in MFCC 2 between the two groups reflected an energy difference of frequency around 2000-3000Hz. The MFCC 2 was significantly different between depressive patients and controls. This feature could be a useful biomarker to detect major depressive disorder. Sample size was relatively small. Psychotropics could have a confounding effect on voice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Vocal warm-up increases phonation threshold pressure in soprano singers at high pitch.

    PubMed

    Motel, Tamara; Fisher, Kimberly V; Leydon, Ciara

    2003-06-01

    Vocal warm-up is thought to optimize singing performance. We compared effects of short-term, submaximal, vocal warm-up exercise with those of vocal rest on the soprano voice (n = 10, ages 19-21 years). Dependent variables were the minimum subglottic air pressure required for vocal fold oscillation to occur (phonation threshold pressure, Pth), and the maximum and minimum phonation fundamental frequency. Warm-up increased Pth for high pitch phonation (p = 0.033), but not for comfortable (p = 0.297) or low (p = 0.087) pitch phonation. No significant difference in the maximum phonation frequency (p = 0.193) or minimum frequency (p = 0.222) was observed. An elevated Pth at controlled high pitch, but an unchanging maximum and minimum frequency production suggests that short-term vocal exercise may increase the viscosity of the vocal fold and thus serve to stabilize the high voice.

  6. The effect of music on repetitive disruptive vocalizations of persons with dementia.

    PubMed

    Casby, J A; Holm, M B

    1994-10-01

    This study examined the effect of classical music and favorite music on the repetitive disruptive vocalizations of long-term-care facility (LTCF) residents with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). Three subjects diagnosed with DAT who had a history of repetitive disruptive vocalizations were selected for the study. Three single-subject withdrawal designs (ABA, ACA, and ABCA) were used to assess subjects' repetitive disruptive vocalizations during each phase: no intervention (A); relaxing, classical music (B); and favorite music (C). Classical music and favorite music significantly decreased the number of vocalizations in two of the three subjects (p < .05). These findings support a method that was effective in decreasing the disruptive vocalization pattern common in those with DAT in the least restrictive manner, as mandated by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987.

  7. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women.

    PubMed

    Louzada, Talita; Beraldinelle, Roberta; Berretin-Felix, Giédre; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK) in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. For this study, 28 voice recordings of women from 19 to 54 years old, diagnosed with dysphonia and submitted to a voice assessment from speech pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist, were used. The control group included 30 nondysphonic women evaluated in prior research from normal adults. The analysis parameters like number and duration of emissions, as well as the regularity of the repetition of syllables "pa", "ta", "ka" and the vowels "a" and "i," were provided by the Advanced Motor Speech Profile program (MSP) Model-5141, version-2.5.2 (KayPentax). The DDK sequence "pataka" was analyzed quantitatively through the Sound Forge 7.0 program, as well as manually with the audio-visual help of sound waves. Average values of oral and vocal fold DDK dysphonic and nondysphonic women were compared using the "t Student" test and were considered significant when p<0.05. The findings showed no significant differences between populations; however, the coefficient of variation of period (CvP) and jitter of period (JittP) average of the "ka," "a" and "i" emissions, respectively, were higher in dysphonic women (CvP=10.42%, 12.79%, 12.05%; JittP=2.05%, 6.05%, 3.63%) compared to the control group (CvP=8.86%; 10.95%, 11.20%; JittP=1.82%, 2.98%, 3.15%). Although the results do not indicate any difficulties in oral and laryngeal motor control in the dysphonic group, the largest instability in vocal fold DDK in the experimental group should be considered, and studies of this ability in individuals with communication disorders must

  8. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women

    PubMed Central

    LOUZADA, Talita; BERALDINELLE, Roberta; BERRETIN-FELIX, Giédre; BRASOLOTTO, Alcione Ghedini

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK) in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. Objective To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. Material and methods For this study, 28 voice recordings of women from 19 to 54 years old, diagnosed with dysphonia and submitted to a voice assessment from speech pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist, were used. The control group included 30 nondysphonic women evaluated in prior research from normal adults. The analysis parameters like number and duration of emissions, as well as the regularity of the repetition of syllables "pa", "ta", "ka" and the vowels "a" and "i," were provided by the Advanced Motor Speech Profile program (MSP) Model-5141, version-2.5.2 (KayPentax). The DDK sequence "pataka" was analyzed quantitatively through the Sound Forge 7.0 program, as well as manually with the audio-visual help of sound waves. Average values of oral and vocal fold DDK dysphonic and nondysphonic women were compared using the "t Student" test and were considered significant when p<0.05. Results The findings showed no significant differences between populations; however, the coefficient of variation of period (CvP) and jitter of period (JittP) average of the "ka," "a" and "i" emissions, respectively, were higher in dysphonic women (CvP=10.42%, 12.79%, 12.05%; JittP=2.05%, 6.05%, 3.63%) compared to the control group (CvP=8.86%; 10.95%, 11.20%; JittP=1.82%, 2.98%, 3.15%). Conclusion Although the results do not indicate any difficulties in oral and laryngeal motor control in the dysphonic group, the largest instability in vocal fold DDK in the experimental group should be considered, and studies of this

  9. Characterization of ultrasonic vocalizations of Fragile X mice.

    PubMed

    Belagodu, Amogh P; Johnson, Aaron M; Galvez, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the leading form of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by the transcriptional silencing of FMR1, the gene which codes for the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). Patients who have FXS exhibit numerous behavioral and cognitive impairments, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and autistic-like behaviors. In addition to these behavioral abnormalities, FXS patients have also been shown to exhibit various deficits in communication such as abnormal sentence structures, increased utterances, repetition of sounds and words, and reduced articulation. These deficits can dramatically hinder communication for FXS patients, exacerbating learning and cognition impairments while decreasing their quality of life. To examine the biological underpinnings of these communication abnormalities, studies have used a mouse model of the Fragile X Syndrome; however, these vocalization studies have resulted in inconsistent findings that often do not correlate with abnormalities observed in FXS patients. Interestingly, a detailed examination of frequency modulated vocalizations that are believed to be a better assessment of rodent communication has never been conducted. The following study used courtship separation to conduct a detailed examination of frequency modulated ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in FXS mice. Our analyses of frequency modulated USVs demonstrated that adult FXS mice exhibited longer phrases and more motifs. Phrases are vocalizations consisting of multiple frequency modulated ultrasonic vocalizations, while motifs are repeated frequency modulated USV patterns. Fragile X mice had a higher proportion of "u" syllables in all USVs and phrases while their wildtype counterparts preferred isolated "h" syllables. Although the specific importance of these syllables towards communication deficits still needs to be evaluated, these findings in production of USVs are consistent with the

  10. Visualizing Collagen Network Within Human and Rhesus Monkey Vocal Folds Using Polarized Light Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Julias, Margaret; Riede, Tobias; Cook, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Collagen fiber content and orientation affect the viscoelastic properties of the vocal folds, determining oscillation characteristics during speech and other vocalization. The investigation and reconstruction of the collagen network in vocal folds remains a challenge, because the collagen network requires at least micron-scale resolution. In this study, we used polarized light microscopy to investigate the distribution and alignment of collagen fibers within the vocal folds. Methods Data were collected in sections of human and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vocal folds cut at 3 different angles and stained with picrosirius red. Results Statistically significant differences were found between different section angles, implying that more than one section angle is required to capture the network’s complexity. In the human vocal folds, the collagen fiber distribution continuously varied across the lamina propria (medial to lateral). Distinct differences in birefringence distribution were observed between the species. For the human vocal folds, high birefringence was observed near the thyroarytenoid muscle and near the epithelium. However, in the rhesus monkey vocal folds, high birefringence was observed near the epithelium, and lower birefringence was seen near the thyroarytenoid muscle. Conclusions The differences between the collagen networks in human and rhesus monkey vocal folds provide a morphological basis for differences in viscoelastic properties between species. PMID:23534129

  11. Characterization of chronic vocal fold scarring in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Bernard; Hirano, Shigeru; Chan, Roger W; Welham, Nathan V; Thibeault, Susan L; Ford, Charles N; Bless, Diane M

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the histologic and rheologic properties of the scarred vocal fold lamina propria during a chronic phase of wound repair in a rabbit model. Eighteen rabbit larynges were scarred using a procedure that involved stripping the vocal fold lamina propria down to the thyroarytenoid muscle, using 3-mm microforceps. The approximate dimension of injury to the vocal fold was 3 x 1.5 x 0.5 mm [length x width x depth]. At 6 months postoperatively, histologic analysis of the scarred and control lamina propria in eight of these rabbits was completed for collagen, procollagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid. Compared with control samples, scarred tissue samples revealed fragmented and disorganized elastin fibers. Additionally, collagen was significantly increased, organized, and formed thick bundles in the scarred vocal fold lamina propria. Measurements of the viscoelastic shear properties of the scarred and control lamina propria in the remaining 10 rabbits revealed increased elastic shear modulus (G') in 8 of 10 scarred samples and increased dynamic viscosity (eta') in 9 of 10 scarred samples. Although rheologic differences were not statistically significant, they revealed that on average, scarred samples were stiffer and more viscous than the normal controls. Histologic data are interpreted as indicating that by 6 months postinjury, the scarred rabbit vocal fold has reached a mature phase of wound repair, characterized by an increased, organized, and thick bundle collagen matrix. Rheologic data are interpreted as providing support for the potential role of increased, thick bundle collagen, and a disorganized elastin network on shear stiffness and dynamic viscosity in the chronic vocal fold scar. Based on these results, a 6-month postoperative time frame is proposed for future studies of chronic vocal fold scarring using the rabbit animal model.

  12. Vocal power and pressure–flow relationships in excised tiger larynges

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo R.; Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Hunter, Eric J.; Alipour, Fariborz; Montequin, Douglas; Armstrong, Douglas L.; McGee, JoAnn; Walsh, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the functional importance of loud, low-pitched vocalizations in big cats of the genus Panthera, little is known about the physics and physiology of the mechanisms producing such calls. We investigated laryngeal sound production in the laboratory using an excised-larynx setup combined with sound-level measurements and pressure–flow instrumentation. The larynges of five tigers (three Siberian or Amur, one generic non-pedigreed tiger with Bengal ancestry and one Sumatran), which had died of natural causes, were provided by Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo over a five-year period. Anatomical investigation indicated the presence of both a rigid cartilaginous plate in the arytenoid portion of the glottis, and a vocal fold fused with a ventricular fold. Both of these features have been confusingly termed ‘vocal pads’ in the previous literature. We successfully induced phonation in all of these larynges. Our results showed that aerodynamic power in the glottis was of the order of 1.0 W for all specimens, acoustic power radiated (without a vocal tract) was of the order of 0.1 mW, and fundamental frequency ranged between 20 and 100 Hz when a lung pressure in the range of 0–2.0 kPa was applied. The mean glottal airflow increased to the order of 1.0 l s–1 per 1.0 kPa of pressure, which is predictable from scaling human and canine larynges by glottal length and vibrational amplitude. Phonation threshold pressure was remarkably low, on the order of 0.3 kPa, which is lower than for human and canine larynges phonated without a vocal tract. Our results indicate that a vocal fold length approximately three times greater than that of humans is predictive of the low fundamental frequency, and the extraordinarily flat and broad medial surface of the vocal folds is predictive of the low phonation threshold pressure. PMID:21037066

  13. Vocal power and pressure-flow relationships in excised tiger larynges.

    PubMed

    Titze, Ingo R; Fitch, W Tecumseh; Hunter, Eric J; Alipour, Fariborz; Montequin, Douglas; Armstrong, Douglas L; McGee, Joann; Walsh, Edward J

    2010-11-15

    Despite the functional importance of loud, low-pitched vocalizations in big cats of the genus Panthera, little is known about the physics and physiology of the mechanisms producing such calls. We investigated laryngeal sound production in the laboratory using an excised-larynx setup combined with sound-level measurements and pressure-flow instrumentation. The larynges of five tigers (three Siberian or Amur, one generic non-pedigreed tiger with Bengal ancestry and one Sumatran), which had died of natural causes, were provided by Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo over a five-year period. Anatomical investigation indicated the presence of both a rigid cartilaginous plate in the arytenoid portion of the glottis, and a vocal fold fused with a ventricular fold. Both of these features have been confusingly termed 'vocal pads' in the previous literature. We successfully induced phonation in all of these larynges. Our results showed that aerodynamic power in the glottis was of the order of 1.0 W for all specimens, acoustic power radiated (without a vocal tract) was of the order of 0.1 mW, and fundamental frequency ranged between 20 and 100 Hz when a lung pressure in the range of 0-2.0 kPa was applied. The mean glottal airflow increased to the order of 1.0 l s(-1) per 1.0 kPa of pressure, which is predictable from scaling human and canine larynges by glottal length and vibrational amplitude. Phonation threshold pressure was remarkably low, on the order of 0.3 kPa, which is lower than for human and canine larynges phonated without a vocal tract. Our results indicate that a vocal fold length approximately three times greater than that of humans is predictive of the low fundamental frequency, and the extraordinarily flat and broad medial surface of the vocal folds is predictive of the low phonation threshold pressure.

  14. [Clinical study on vocal cords spontaneous rehabilitation after CO2 laser surgery].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingxiang; Hu, Huiying; Sun, Guoyan; Yu, Zhenkun

    2014-10-01

    To study the spontaneous rehabilitation and phonation quality of vocal cords after different types of CO2 laser microsurgery. Surgical procedures based on Remacle system Type I, Type II, Type III, Type IV and Type V a respectively. Three hundred and fifteen cases with hoarseness based on strobe laryngoscopy results were prospectively assigned to different group according to vocal lesions apperence,vocal vibration and imaging of larynx CT/MRI. Each group holded 63 cases. The investigation included the vocal cords morphological features,the patients' subjective feelings and objective results of vocal cords. There are no severe complications for all patients in perioperative period. Vocal scar found in Type I ,1 case; Type II, 9 cases ;Type III, 47 cases; Type IV, 61 cases and Type Va 63 cases respectively after surgery. The difference of Vocal scar formation after surgery between surgical procedures are statistical significance (χ2 = 222.24, P < 0.05). Hoarseness improved after the surgery in 59 cases of Type I , 51 cases of Type II, 43 cases of Type III, 21 cases of Type IV and 17 cases of Type Va. There are statistically significance (χ2 = 89.46, P < 0.05) between different surgical procedures. The parameters of strobe laryngoscope: there are statistical significance on jitter between procedures (F 44.51, P < 0.05), but without difference within Type I and Type II (P > 0.05). This happened in shimmer parameter and the maximum phonation time (MPT) as jitter. There are no statistical significance between Type IV and Type Va on MPT (P > 0.05). Morphological and functional rehabilitation of vocal cord will be affected obviously when the body layer is injured. The depth and range of the CO2 laser microsurgery are the key factors affecting the vocal rehabilitation.

  15. Two organizing principles of vocal production: Implications for nonhuman and human primates.

    PubMed

    Owren, Michael J; Amoss, R Toby; Rendall, Drew

    2011-06-01

    Vocal communication in nonhuman primates receives considerable research attention, with many investigators arguing for similarities between this calling and speech in humans. Data from development and neural organization show a central role of affect in monkey and ape sounds, however, suggesting that their calls are homologous to spontaneous human emotional vocalizations while having little relation to spoken language. Based on this evidence, we propose two principles that can be useful in evaluating the many and disparate empirical findings that bear on the nature of vocal production in nonhuman and human primates. One principle distinguishes production-first from reception-first vocal development, referring to the markedly different role of auditory-motor experience in each case. The second highlights a phenomenon dubbed dual neural pathways, specifically that when a species with an existing vocal system evolves a new functionally distinct vocalization capability, it occurs through emergence of a second parallel neural pathway rather than through expansion of the extant circuitry. With these principles as a backdrop, we review evidence of acoustic modification of calling associated with background noise, conditioning effects, audience composition, and vocal convergence and divergence in nonhuman primates. Although each kind of evidence has been interpreted to show flexible cognitively mediated control over vocal production, we suggest that most are more consistent with affectively grounded mechanisms. The lone exception is production of simple, novel sounds in great apes, which is argued to reveal at least some degree of volitional vocal control. If also present in early hominins, the cortically based circuitry surmised to be associated with these rudimentary capabilities likely also provided the substrate for later emergence of the neural pathway allowing volitional production in modern humans. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Paradoxical Vocal Cord Motion in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Palla, John; Friedman, Aaron D

    2016-05-01

    Paradoxical vocal cord motion (PVCM), also termed vocal cord dysfunction, is a poorly understood disorder of episodic dyspnea characterized by inappropriate vocal cord adduction during inspiration and potentially during expiration. It can coexist or be confused with asthma, so appropriate diagnosis is key to optimizing treatment success. Although many patients with PVCM may have underlying psychologic issues, there is emerging evidence to suggest that this entity is not psychogenic in every patient. Both laryngeal irritants and exercise have been identified as additional contributing factors in PVCM. Diagnosis of PVCM requires awake laryngoscopic confirmation. However, many patients do not exhibit signs of PVCM during this examination, despite provocation during testing. Therefore, clinical history remains key in determining which patients should proceed with behavioral therapy under the guidance of a speech pathologist. In addition, treatment may include limiting patient exposure to potential sources of laryngeal irritation. Refractory patients may benefit from psychologic assessment and treatment. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(5):e184-e188.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Bilateral vocal cord paralysis secondary to head and neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Muhammet; Acar, Gul Ozbilen; Kaytaz, Asim; Savrun, Feray Karaali; Çelik, Melek; Cam, Osman Halit

    2012-01-01

    Even endotracheal intubation could be considered safe in operations under general anesthesia; rarely, it could cause recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis as a complication. As mentioned in the literature, as a possible reason for this, anterior branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in the larynx could suffer from compression between the posteromedial part of the thyroid cartilage and the cuff of the tube. In the literature, unilateral vocal cord paralysis due to endotracheal intubation occurs more frequently in comparison to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. These types of palsies usually totally improve in approximately 6 months. A patient who experienced bilateral vocal cord paralysis in the early postoperative period after undergoing an endotracheal intubation process for general anesthesia and primary partial lip resection and supraomohyoid neck dissection due to lower lip carcinoma is presented in our article. Although vocal cord paralysis occurring after head and neck surgery is first thought as a complication of the surgery, endotracheal intubation should be considered as a possible cause of this paralysis. In relation with this patient, causes, clinical symptoms, and treatment procedures of vocal cord paralysis due to endotracheal intubation are discussed under guidance of the literature.

  18. Production of ultrasonic vocalizations by Peromyscus mice in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C; Metheny, Jackie D; Vonhof, Maarten J

    2006-01-01

    Background There has been considerable research on rodent ultrasound in the laboratory and these sounds have been well quantified and characterized. Despite the value of research on ultrasound produced by mice in the lab, it is unclear if, and when, these sounds are produced in the wild, and how they function in natural habitats. Results We have made the first recordings of ultrasonic vocalizations produced by two free-living species of mice in the genus Peromyscus (P. californicus and P. boylii) on long term study grids in California. Over 6 nights, we recorded 65 unique ultrasonic vocalization phrases from Peromyscus. The ultrasonic vocalizations we recorded represent 7 different motifs. Within each motif, there was considerable variation in the acoustic characteristics suggesting individual and contextual variation in the production of ultrasound by these species. Conclusion The discovery of the production of ultrasonic vocalizations by Peromyscus in the wild highlights an underappreciated component in the behavior of these model organisms. The ability to examine the production of ultrasonic vocalizations in the wild offers excellent opportunities to test hypotheses regarding the function of ultrasound produced by rodents in a natural context. PMID:16507093

  19. Multidimensional assessment of vocal changes in benign vocal fold lesions after voice therapy.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Antonio; Mozzanica, Francesco; Maruzzi, Patrizia; Atac, Murat; De Cristofaro, Valeria; Ottaviani, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate through a multidimensional protocol voice changes after voice therapy in patients with benign vocal fold lesions. 65 consecutive patients affected by benign vocal fold lesions were enrolled. Depending on videolaryngostroboscopy the patients were divided into 3 groups: 23 patients with Reinke's oedema, 22 patients with vocal fold cysts and 20 patients with gelatinous polyp. Each subject received 10 voice therapy sessions and was evaluated, before and after voice therapy, through a multidimensional protocol including videolaryngostroboscopy, perception, acoustics, aerodynamics and self-rating by the patient. Data were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyse the mean variation difference between the three groups of patients. Mann-Whitney test was used for post hoc analysis. Only in 11 cases videolaryngostroboscopy revealed an improvement of the initial pathology. However a significant improvement was observed in perceptual, acoustic and self-assessment ratings in the 3 groups of patients. In particular the parameters of G, R and A of the GIRBAS scale, and the noise to harmonic ratio, Jitter and shimmer scores improved after rehabilitation. A significant improvement of all the parameters of Voice Handicap Index after rehabilitation treatment was found. No significant difference among the three groups of patients was visible, except for self-assessment ratings. Voice therapy may provide a significant improvement in perceptual, acoustic and self-assessed voice quality in patients with benign glottal lesions. Utilization of voice therapy may allow some patients to avoid surgical intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Management of vocal fold scar with autologous fat implantation: perceptual results.

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, M C; Sataloff, R T; Abaza, M M; Hawkshaw, M J; Reiter, D; Spiegel, J R

    2001-06-01

    Vocal fold scar disrupts the mucosal wave and interferes with glottic closure. Treatment involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes voice therapy, medical management, and sometimes surgery. We reviewed the records of the first eight patients who underwent autologous fat implantation for vocal fold scar. Information on the etiology of scar, physical findings, and prior interventions were collected. Videotapes of videostroboscopic findings and perceptual voice ratings [Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain (GRBAS)] were randomized and analyzed independently by four blinded observers. Etiology of scar included mass excision (7), vocal fold stripping (3), congenital sulcus (2), and hemorrhage (1). Prior surgical procedures performed included thyroplasty (1), autologous fat injection (9), excision of scar (2), and lysis of adhesions (2). Strobovideolaryngoscopy: Statistically significant improvement was found in glottic closure, mucosal wave, and stiffness (P = 0.05). Perceptual ratings (GRBAS): Statistically significant improvement was found in all five parameters, including overall Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain (P = 0.05). Patients appear to have improved vocal fold function and quality of voice after autologous fat implantation in the vocal fold. Autologous fat implantation is an important adjunctive procedure in the management of vocal fold scar, and a useful addition to the armamentarium of the experienced phonomicrosurgeon.

  1. Manatee (Trichechus manatus) vocalization usage in relation to environmental noise levels.

    PubMed

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Tyack, Peter L

    2009-03-01

    Noise can interfere with acoustic communication by masking signals that contain biologically important information. Communication theory recognizes several ways a sender can modify its acoustic signal to compensate for noise, including increasing the source level of a signal, its repetition, its duration, shifting frequency outside that of the noise band, or shifting the timing of signal emission outside of noise periods. The extent to which animals would be expected to use these compensation mechanisms depends on the benefit of successful communication, risk of failure, and the cost of compensation. Here we study whether a coastal marine mammal, the manatee, can modify vocalizations as a function of behavioral context and ambient noise level. To investigate whether and how manatees modify their vocalizations, natural vocalization usage and structure were examined in terms of vocalization rate, duration, frequency, and source level. Vocalizations were classified into two call types, chirps and squeaks, which were analyzed independently. In conditions of elevated noise levels, call rates decreased during feeding and social behaviors, and the duration of each call type was differently influenced by the presence of calves. These results suggest that ambient noise levels do have a detectable effect on manatee communication and that manatees modify their vocalizations as a function of noise in specific behavioral contexts.

  2. Endoscopic vocal fold injection using a 25-gauge butterfly needle.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, M A; Riffat, F; Palme, C E

    2016-04-01

    To describe a useful technique for infiltrating a bulking agent using a butterfly needle, as part of a transoral endoscopic vocal fold medialisation procedure. This paper describes the procedure of grasping the needle with phonosurgery forceps and administering the injectate to the vocal fold through careful application of the syringe plunger via a length of rubber tubing from outside the mouth. This procedure is performed routinely in our institution without complication. The advantages of this technique are discussed. This is a safe and easy method of injecting into a vocal fold.

  3. Vocal Fold Mucus Aggregation in Persons with Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; White, Lisa; Kuckhahn, Kelsey; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Deliyski, Dimitar D.

    2012-01-01

    Mucus aggregation on the vocal folds is a common finding from laryngeal endoscopy. Patients with voice disorders report the presence of mucus aggregation. Patients also report that mucus aggregation causes them to clear their throat, a behavior believed to be harmful to vocal fold mucosa. Even though clinicians and patients report and discuss…

  4. Role of immediate recurrent laryngeal nerve reconstruction in surgery for thyroid cancers with fixed vocal cords.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Shinobu; Maeda, Tatsuyoshi; Saito, Miki; Otsuki, Naoki; Takahashi, Miki; Wakui, Emi; Shinomiya, Hirotaka; Morimoto, Koichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Masuoka, Hiroo; Miyauchi, Akira; Nibu, Ken-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    Quality of voice after immediate recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) reconstruction in thyroid cancers has not been thoroughly studied. Thirteen patients with fixed vocal cords (fixed vocal cord group) and 8 patients with intact or impaired mobile vocal cords (mobile vocal cord group) who had immediate RLN reconstruction simultaneously with total thyroidectomy, and patients who had arytenoid adduction and thyroplasty for vocal cord paralysis caused by previous surgery (arytenoid adduction thyroplasty group) were enrolled in this study. Preoperative phonation efficiency index was significantly lower (p = .008) in the fixed vocal cord group than in the mobile vocal cord group. One year after surgery, all voice parameters of the patients in the fixed vocal cord group had improved, compared with their preoperative data. The fixed vocal cord group had attained satisfactory voice qualities equivalent to those of the mobile vocal cord group in terms of various voice parameters. The present results support the idea that immediate RLN reconstruction at the time of surgery for thyroid cancers may spare the need for subsequent arytenoid adduction thyroplasty even in the patients with preoperatively fixed vocal cords. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 427-431, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of Environmental Stimulation on Infant Vocalizations and Orofacial Dynamics at the Onset of Canonical Babbling

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Meredith Poore; Barlow, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The vocalizations and jaw kinematics of 30 infants aged 6–8 months were recorded using a Motion Analysis System and audiovisual technologies. This study represents the first attempt to determine the effect of play environment on infants’ rate of vocalization and jaw movement. Four play conditions were compared: watching videos, social contingent reinforcement and vocal modeling with an adult, playing alone with small toys, and playing alone with large toys. The fewest vocalizations and spontaneous movement were observed when infants were watching videos or interacting with an adult. Infants vocalized most when playing with large toys. The small toys, which naturally elicited gross motor movement (e.g., waving, banging, shaking), educed fewer vocalizations. This study was also the first to quantify the kinematics of vocalized and non-vocalized jaw movements of 6–8 month-old infants. Jaw kinematics did not differentiate infants who produced canonical syllables from those who did not. All infants produced many jaw movements without vocalization. However, during vocalization, infants were unlikely to move their jaw. This contradicts current theories that infant protophonic vocalizations are jaw dominant. Results of the current study can inform socio-linguistic and kinematic theories of canonical babbling. PMID:23261792

  6. Vocal communication between male Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Martha L; Barnard, Candace; O'Hagan, Robert; Horng, Sam H; Rand, Masha; Kelley, Darcy B

    2004-02-01

    This study focuses on the role of male-male vocal communication in the reproductive repertoire of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis . Six male and two female call types were recorded from native ponds in the environs of Cape Town, South Africa. These include all call types previously recorded in the laboratory as well as one previously unidentified male call: chirping. The amount of calling and the number of call types increased as the breeding season progressed. Laboratory recordings indicated that all six male call types were directed to males; three of these were directed to both sexes and three were directed exclusively to males. Both female call types were directed exclusively to males. The predominant call type, in both field and laboratory recordings, was the male advertisement call. Sexual state affected male vocal behaviour. Male pairs in which at least one male was sexually active (gonadotropin injected) produced all call types, whereas pairs of uninjected males rarely called. Some call types were strongly associated with a specific behaviour and others were not. Clasped males always growled and clasping males typically produced amplectant calls or chirps; males not engaged in clasping most frequently advertised. The amount of advertising produced by one male was profoundly affected by the presence of another male. Pairing two sexually active males resulted in suppression of advertisement calling in one; suppression was released when males were isolated after pairing. Vocal dominance was achieved even in the absence of physical contact (clasping). We suggest that X. laevis males gain a reproductive advantage by competing for advertisement privileges and by vocally suppressing neighbouring males.

  7. Biomechanics of fundamental frequency regulation: Constitutive modeling of the vocal fold lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Chan, Roger W; Siegmund, Thomas; Zhang, Kai

    2009-12-01

    Accurate characterization of biomechanical characteristics of the vocal fold is critical for understanding the regulation of vocal fundamental frequency (F(0)), which depends on the active control of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles as well as the passive biomechanical response of the vocal fold lamina propria. Specifically, the tissue stress-strain response and viscoelastic properties under cyclic tensile deformation are relevant, when the vocal folds are subjected to length and tension changes due to posturing. This paper describes a constitutive modeling approach quantifying the relationship between vocal fold stress and strain (or stretch), and establishes predictions of F(0) with the string model of phonation based on the constitutive parameters. Results indicated that transient and time-dependent changes in F(0), including global declinations in declarative sentences, as well as local F(0) overshoots and undershoots, can be partially attributed to the time-dependent viscoplastic response of the vocal fold cover.

  8. A Joyful Noise: The Vocal Health of Worship Leaders and Contemporary Christian Singers.

    PubMed

    Neto, Leon; Meyer, David

    2017-03-01

    Contemporary commercial music (CCM) is a term that encompasses many styles of music. A growing subset of CCM is contemporary Christian music, a genre that has outpaced other popular styles such as Latin, jazz, and classical music. Contemporary Christian singers (CCSs) and worship leaders (WLs) are a subset of CCM musicians that face unique vocal demands and risks. They typically lack professional training and often perform in acoustically disadvantageous venues with substandard sound reinforcement systems. The vocal needs and risks of these singers are not well understood, and because of this, their training and care may be suboptimal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the vocal health of this growing population and their awareness of standard vocal hygiene principles. An online questionnaire was designed and administered to participants in the Americas, Europe, Australia, and Asia. A total of 614 participants responded to the questionnaire, which is made available in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Many participants reported vocal symptoms such as vocal fatigue (n = 213; 34.7%), tickling or choking sensation (n = 149; 24.3%), loss of upper range (n = 172; 28%), and complete loss of voice (n = 25; 4.1%). One third of the participants (n = 210; 34%) indicated that they do not warm up their voices before performances and over half of the participants (n = 319; 52%) have no formal vocal training. Results suggest that this population demonstrates low awareness of vocal hygiene principles, frequently experience difficulty with their voices, and may face elevated risk of vocal pathology. Future studies of this population may confirm the vocal risks that our preliminary findings suggest. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ectasias and varices of the vocal fold: clearing the striking zone.

    PubMed

    Hochman, I; Sataloff, R T; Hillman, R E; Zeitels, S M

    1999-01-01

    Vascular malformations such as ectasias and varices (Es and Vs) are frequently encountered in patients who present with recurrent vocal fold hemorrhage and/or other traumatic vocal fold lesions. This study examined Es and Vs with regard to their anatomic presentation, phonomicrosurgical management, and treatment outcome. Forty-two patients (39 of them singers) were treated for a total of 87 Es and Vs: 67 of 87 (77%) were on the superior surface of the vocal fold and 20 of 87 (23%) were on the medial surface of the vocal fold. Eighty-three percent were located in the middle musculomembranous region (the striking zone), where the greatest aerodynamically induced shearing stresses occur during phonation. Treatment was performed with carbon dioxide laser cauterization (13 patients), or a new technique utilizing cold instrument excision by means of epithelial cordotomies (23 patients), while a combined approach was employed in 6 patients. Comparisons of preoperative and postoperative stroboscopy revealed improvement or no significant change in all patients in whom the cold instrument technique was used, and increased epithelial stiffness was noted in 4 of 19 patients in whom the carbon dioxide laser was used. Clearing the striking zone appears to have halted further hemorrhages by removing the the fragile Es and Vs from this injury-prone region of the vocal fold. Interpretations of stroboscopic examinations were directed at providing new insights into the biomechanical forces of vocal fold vibration that probably contribute to the genesis of Es and Vs in the vocal folds.

  10. Multifunctional and Context-Dependent Control of Vocal Acoustics by Individual Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kyle H.; Elemans, Coen P.H.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between muscle activity and behavioral output determines how the brain controls and modifies complex skills. In vocal control, ensembles of muscles are used to precisely tune single acoustic parameters such as fundamental frequency and sound amplitude. If individual vocal muscles were dedicated to the control of single parameters, then the brain could control each parameter independently by modulating the appropriate muscle or muscles. Alternatively, if each muscle influenced multiple parameters, a more complex control strategy would be required to selectively modulate a single parameter. Additionally, it is unknown whether the function of single muscles is fixed or varies across different vocal gestures. A fixed relationship would allow the brain to use the same changes in muscle activation to, for example, increase the fundamental frequency of different vocal gestures, whereas a context-dependent scheme would require the brain to calculate different motor modifications in each case. We tested the hypothesis that single muscles control multiple acoustic parameters and that the function of single muscles varies across gestures using three complementary approaches. First, we recorded electromyographic data from vocal muscles in singing Bengalese finches. Second, we electrically perturbed the activity of single muscles during song. Third, we developed an ex vivo technique to analyze the biomechanical and acoustic consequences of single-muscle perturbations. We found that single muscles drive changes in multiple parameters and that the function of single muscles differs across vocal gestures, suggesting that the brain uses a complex, gesture-dependent control scheme to regulate vocal output. PMID:26490859

  11. Insights Into the Role of Collagen in Vocal Fold Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sharon S; Mohad, Vidisha; Gowda, Madhu; Thibeault, Susan L

    2017-09-01

    As one of the key fibrous proteins in the extracellular matrix, collagen plays a significant role in the structural and biomechanical characteristics of the vocal fold. Anchored fibrils of collagen create secure structural regions within the vocal folds and are strong enough to sustain vibratory impact and stretch during phonation. This contributes tensile strength, density, and organization to the vocal folds and influences health and pathogenesis. This review offers a comprehensive summary for a current understanding of collagen within normal vocal fold tissues throughout the life span as well as vocal pathology and wound repair. Further, collagen's molecular structure and biosynthesis are discussed. Finally, collagen alterations in tissue injury and repair and the incorporation of collagen-based biomaterials as a method of treating voice disorders are reviewed. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Viscosities of implantable biomaterials in vocal fold augmentation surgery.

    PubMed

    Chan, R W; Titze, I R

    1998-05-01

    Vocal fold vibration depends critically on the viscoelasticity of vocal fold tissues. For instance, phonation threshold pressure, a measure of the "ease" of phonation, has been shown to be directly related to the viscosity of the vibrating mucosa. Various implantable biomaterials have been used in vocal fold augmentation surgery, with implantation sites sometimes close to or inside the mucosa. Yet their viscosities or other mechanical properties are seldom known. This study attempts to provide data on viscosities of commonly used phonosurgical biomaterials. Using a parallel-plate rotational rheometer, oscillatory shear experiments were performed on implantable polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon or Polytef; Mentor Inc., Hingham, MA), collagen (Zyderm; Collagen Corp., Palo Alto, CA), glutaraldehyde crosslinked (GAX) collagen (Phonagel or Zyplast; Collagen Corp.), absorbable gelatin (Gelfoam; Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, MI), and human abdominal subcutaneous fat. Samples of human vocal fold mucosal tissues were also tested. Under sinusoidal oscillatory shear at 10 Hz and at 37 degrees C, the dynamic viscosity was 116 Pascal-seconds (Pa-s) for polytetrafluoroethylene, 21 Pa-s for gelatin, 8-13 Pa-s for the two types of collagen, 3 Pa-s for fat, and 1 to 3 Pa-s for vocal fold mucosa. Results extrapolated to 100 Hz also show similar differences among the biomaterials, but all values are an order of magnitude lower because of the typical inverse frequency relation (shear thinning effect) for polymeric and biologic materials. The data suggest that the use of fat for vocal fold augmentation may be more conducive to the "ease" of phonation because of its relatively low viscosity, which is closest to physiologic levels. This implication is probably the most relevant in predicting initial outcome of the postoperative voice before there is any significant assimilation (e.g., resorption and fibrosis) of the implanted biomaterial.

  13. Social learning of vocal structure in a nonhuman primate?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-human primate communication is thought to be fundamentally different from human speech, mainly due to vast differences in vocal control. The lack of these abilities in non-human primates is especially striking if compared to some marine mammals and bird species, which has generated somewhat of an evolutionary conundrum. What are the biological roots and underlying evolutionary pressures of the human ability to voluntarily control sound production and learn the vocal utterances of others? One hypothesis is that this capacity has evolved gradually in humans from an ancestral stage that resembled the vocal behavior of modern primates. Support for this has come from studies that have documented limited vocal flexibility and convergence in different primate species, typically in calls used during social interactions. The mechanisms underlying these patterns, however, are currently unknown. Specifically, it has been difficult to rule out explanations based on genetic relatedness, suggesting that such vocal flexibility may not be the result of social learning. Results To address this point, we compared the degree of acoustic similarity of contact calls in free-ranging Campbell's monkeys as a function of their social bonds and genetic relatedness. We calculated three different indices to compare the similarities between the calls' frequency contours, the duration of grooming interactions and the microsatellite-based genetic relatedness between partners. We found a significantly positive relation between bond strength and acoustic similarity that was independent of genetic relatedness. Conclusion Genetic factors determine the general species-specific call repertoire of a primate species, while social factors can influence the fine structure of some the call types. The finding is in line with the more general hypothesis that human speech has evolved gradually from earlier primate-like vocal communication. PMID:22177339

  14. The vocal sac of Hylodidae (Amphibia, Anura): Phylogenetic and functional implications of a unique morphology.

    PubMed

    Elias-Costa, Agustin J; Montesinos, Rachel; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2017-11-01

    Anuran vocal sacs are elastic chambers that recycle exhaled air during vocalizations and are present in males of most species of frogs. Most knowledge of the diversity of vocal sacs relates to external morphology; detailed information on internal anatomy is available for few groups of frogs. Frogs of the family Hylodidae, which is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil and adjacent Argentina and Paraguay, have three patterns of vocal sac morphology-that is, single, subgular; paired, lateral; and absent. The submandibular musculature and structure of the vocal sac mucosa (the internal wall of the vocal sac) of exemplar species of this family and relatives were studied. In contrast to previous accounts, we found that all species of Crossodactylus and Hylodes possess paired, lateral vocal sacs, with the internal mucosa of each sac being separate from the contralateral one. Unlike all other frogs for which data are available, the mucosa of the vocal sacs in these genera is not supported externally by the mm. intermandibularis and interhyoideus. Rather, the vocal sac mucosa projects through the musculature and is free in the submandibular lymphatic sac. The presence of paired, lateral vocal sacs, the internal separation of the sac mucosae, and their projection through the m. interhyoideus are synapomorphies of the family. Furthermore, the specific configuration of the m. interhyoideus allows asymmetric inflation of paired vocal sacs, a feature only reported in species of these diurnal, stream-dwelling frogs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Listen up! Processing of intensity change differs for vocal and nonvocal sounds.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Annett; Simpson, Elizabeth; Escoffier, Nicolas

    2007-10-24

    Changes in the intensity of both vocal and nonvocal sounds can be emotionally relevant. However, as only vocal sounds directly reflect communicative intent, intensity change of vocal but not nonvocal sounds is socially relevant. Here we investigated whether a change in sound intensity is processed differently depending on its social relevance. To this end, participants listened passively to a sequence of vocal or nonvocal sounds that contained rare deviants which differed from standards in sound intensity. Concurrently recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed a mismatch negativity (MMN) and P300 effect for intensity change. Direction of intensity change was of little importance for vocal stimulus sequences, which recruited enhanced sensory and attentional resources for both loud and soft deviants. In contrast, intensity change in nonvocal sequences recruited more sensory and attentional resources for loud as compared to soft deviants. This was reflected in markedly larger MMN/P300 amplitudes and shorter P300 latencies for the loud as compared to soft nonvocal deviants. Furthermore, while the processing pattern observed for nonvocal sounds was largely comparable between men and women, sex differences for vocal sounds suggest that women were more sensitive to their social relevance. These findings extend previous evidence of sex differences in vocal processing and add to reports of voice specific processing mechanisms by demonstrating that simple acoustic change recruits more processing resources if it is socially relevant.

  16. Vocal Fold Pathologies and Three-Dimensional Flow Separation Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostoli, Adam G.; Weiland, Kelley S.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Polyps and nodules are two different pathologies, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, and have been shown to significantly disrupt a person's ability to communicate. Although the mechanism by which the vocal folds self-oscillate and the three-dimensional nature of the glottal jet has been studied, the effect of irregularities caused by pathologies is not fully understood. Examining the formation and evolution of vortical structures created by a geometric protuberance is important, not only for understanding the aerodynamic forces exerted by these structures on the vocal folds, but also in the treatment of the above-mentioned pathological conditions. Using a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, the present investigation considers three-dimensional flow separation induced by a model vocal fold polyp. Building on previous work using skin friction line visualization, both the velocity flow field and wall pressure measurements around the model polyp are presented and compared. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-1236351 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  17. Long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations by African lions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinnell, Jon; van Dyk, Gus; Slotow, Rob

    2005-09-01

    Animals that use and evaluate long-distance signals have the potential to glean valuable information about others in their environment via eavesdropping. In those areas where they coexist, African lions (Panthera leo) are a significant eavesdropper on spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), often using hyena vocalizations to locate and scavenge from hyena kills. This relationship was used to test African lions' long-term memory of the vocalizations of spotted hyenas via playback experiments. Hyena whoops and a control sound (Canis lupus howls) were played to three populations of lions in South Africa: (1) lions with past experience of spotted hyenas; (2) lions with current experience; and (3) lions with no experience. The results strongly suggest that lions have the cognitive ability to remember the vocalizations of spotted hyenas even after 10 years with no contact of any kind with them. Such long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations may be widespread in species that gain fitness benefits from eavesdropping on others, but where such species are sympatric and often interact it may pass unrecognized as short-term memory instead.

  18. Glottal aerodynamics in compliant, life-sized vocal fold models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhail, Michael; Dowell, Grant; Krane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    This talk presents high-speed PIV measurements in compliant, life-sized models of the vocal folds. A clearer understanding of the fluid-structure interaction of voiced speech, how it produces sound, and how it varies with pathology is required to improve clinical diagnosis and treatment of vocal disorders. Physical models of the vocal folds can answer questions regarding the fundamental physics of speech, as well as the ability of clinical measures to detect the presence and extent of disorder. Flow fields were recorded in the supraglottal region of the models to estimate terms in the equations of fluid motion, and their relative importance. Experiments were conducted over a range of driving pressures with flow rates, given by a ball flowmeter, and subglottal pressures, given by a micro-manometer, reported for each case. Imaging of vocal fold motion, vector fields showing glottal jet behavior, and terms estimated by control volume analysis will be presented. The use of these results for a comparison with clinical measures, and for the estimation of aeroacoustic source strengths will be discussed. Acknowledge support from NIH R01 DC005642.

  19. Functional assessment of the ex vivo vocal folds through biomechanical testing: A review

    PubMed Central

    Dion, Gregory R.; Jeswani, Seema; Roof, Scott; Fritz, Mark; Coelho, Paulo; Sobieraj, Michael; Amin, Milan R.; Branski, Ryan C.

    2016-01-01

    The human vocal folds are complex structures made up of distinct layers that vary in cellular and extracellular composition. The mechanical properties of vocal fold tissue are fundamental to the study of both the acoustics and biomechanics of voice production. To date, quantitative methods have been applied to characterize the vocal fold tissue in both normal and pathologic conditions. This review describes, summarizes, and discusses the most commonly employed methods for vocal fold biomechanical testing. Force-elongation, torsional parallel plate rheometry, simple-shear parallel plate rheometry, linear skin rheometry, and indentation are the most frequently employed biomechanical tests for vocal fold tissues and each provide material properties data that can be used to compare native tissue verses diseased for treated tissue. Force-elongation testing is clinically useful, as it allows for functional unit testing, while rheometry provides physiologically relevant shear data, and nanoindentation permits micrometer scale testing across different areas of the vocal fold as well as whole organ testing. Thoughtful selection of the testing technique during experimental design to evaluate a hypothesis is important to optimizing biomechanical testing of vocal fold tissues. PMID:27127075

  20. Vocal production mechanisms in a non-human primate: morphological data and a model.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Bronson, Ellen; Hatzikirou, Haralambos; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Human beings are thought to be unique amongst the primates in their capacity to produce rapid changes in the shape of their vocal tracts during speech production. Acoustically, vocal tracts act as resonance chambers, whose geometry determines the position and bandwidth of the formants. Formants provide the acoustic basis for vowels, which enable speakers to refer to external events and to produce other kinds of meaningful communication. Formant-based referential communication is also present in non-human primates, most prominently in Diana monkey alarm calls. Previous work has suggested that the acoustic structure of these calls is the product of a non-uniform vocal tract capable of some degree of articulation. In this study we test this hypothesis by providing morphological measurements of the vocal tract of three adult Diana monkeys, using both radiography and dissection. We use these data to generate a vocal tract computational model capable of simulating the formant structures produced by wild individuals. The model performed best when it combined a non-uniform vocal tract consisting of three different tubes with a number of articulatory manoeuvres. We discuss the implications of these findings for evolutionary theories of human and non-human vocal production.

  1. A Brain for Speech. Evolutionary Continuity in Primate and Human Auditory-Vocal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Aboitiz, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    In this review article, I propose a continuous evolution from the auditory-vocal apparatus and its mechanisms of neural control in non-human primates, to the peripheral organs and the neural control of human speech. Although there is an overall conservatism both in peripheral systems and in central neural circuits, a few changes were critical for the expansion of vocal plasticity and the elaboration of proto-speech in early humans. Two of the most relevant changes were the acquisition of direct cortical control of the vocal fold musculature and the consolidation of an auditory-vocal articulatory circuit, encompassing auditory areas in the temporoparietal junction and prefrontal and motor areas in the frontal cortex. This articulatory loop, also referred to as the phonological loop, enhanced vocal working memory capacity, enabling