Science.gov

Sample records for voies aerodigestives superieures

  1. Condylomatous lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Nash, M; Lucente, F E; Srinivasan, K; Gould, W J

    1987-12-01

    Condyloma acuminatum is one of four types of common human verrucous lesions that are of viral etiology. Also known as "moist wart," condyloma acuminatum is most often seen on the mucosal surfaces of the anogenital area. However, occurrences in the mucosal lined areas of the head and neck region are quite rare. Since 1901, 30 cases of condylomatous lesions have been reported in the upper aerodigestive tract, occurring mainly in the various regions of the oral cavity. Eighteen of the cases were confirmed by histopathologic documentation, while the remainder were anecdotal. We have recently encountered six new cases of condyloma acuminatum, verified by histologic examination. One occurred on the tongue, another in the tonsillar fossa, one in the hypopharynx and three on the vocal cords. We present these cases and review the previously reported cases. In addition, we will discuss the differential diagnosis of these lesions, and their importance to the practicing otolaryngologist.

  2. Construction site Voice Operated Information System (VOIS) test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Debbie J.; Hettchen, William

    1991-01-01

    The Voice Activated Information System (VAIS), developed by USACERL, allows inspectors to verbally log on-site inspection reports on a hand held tape recorder. The tape is later processed by the VAIS, which enters the information into the system's database and produces a written report. The Voice Operated Information System (VOIS), developed by USACERL and Automated Sciences Group, through a ESACERL cooperative research and development agreement (CRDA), is an improved voice recognition system based on the concepts and function of the VAIS. To determine the applicability of the VOIS to Corps of Engineers construction projects, Technology Transfer Test Bad (T3B) funds were provided to the Corps of Engineers National Security Agency (NSA) Area Office (Fort Meade) to procure and implement the VOIS, and to train personnel in its use. This report summarizes the NSA application of the VOIS to quality assurance inspection of radio frequency shielding and to progress payment logs, and concludes that the VOIS is an easily implemented system that can offer improvements when applied to repetitive inspection procedures. Use of VOIS can save time during inspection, improve documentation storage, and provide flexible retrieval of stored information.

  3. [Recurrence of upper aerodigestive tract tumors].

    PubMed

    Martin, Laurent; Zoubir, Mustapha; Le Tourneau, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Recurrences of tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract are frequent despite the improvement of the primary treatment and they limit the rate of survival long-term. They occur in patients with multiple co-morbidities, often associated with sequelae or side effects of earlier treatments. The salvage treatment will add a cumulative toxicity and therapeutic options are limited. The choice will go from curator to palliative treatment. The report benefit-risk must be assessed in each case depending on the terrain and prognostic factors that have been identified, such as performance status, the time between initial disease and the recurrence, the site and the stratification of the recurrence. In operable non-metastatic recurrence surgery remains the treatment of choice. Multimodal treatment involving surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy in this context is being evaluated. Non-operable tumors have long been considered only in a palliative context. The evaluation of detailed irradiation as bifractionnated radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy helped establish protocols allowing long-term survivals and consider these treatments as potentially curators. However, the toxicity of these treatments is important. That is why the technical innovations of the radiation and the development of new chemotherapeutic agents today offer opportunities remaining to assess. The use of irradiation targeted by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and stereotactic radiotherapy by decreasing the irradiated volume should decrease the toxicity. Generally better tolerated than conventional chemotherapy agents, targeted therapies also took their places associated with radiotherapy in the treatment of these patients already treated. Cetuximab was the first agent obtaining an indication. Other agents are being evaluated in metastatic recurrent tumors, including exploring the possibilities of radiopotentialisation nanoparticles and the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins.

  4. Screening for cancer of the aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Smart, C R

    1993-08-01

    In the United States, cancer of the oral cavity is the only region of the aerodigestive tract that lends itself to routine screening of the asymptomatic population older than 50 years. Although the incidence and mortality rate for oral cancer is nearly double that of cancer of the cervix (30,300 versus 13,500 and 7950 versus 4400, respectively), conducting a pelvic examination and Pap smear appears more acceptable than looking in the mouth. The inspection of the oral cavity should be part of every physical examination in the dentist's or the physician's office, particularly in patients older than 50 years who are heavy users of tobacco and alcohol. Ninety percent of all squamous cell cancers arise from the floor of the mouth, the ventrolateral aspect of the tongue, and the soft palate complex. The detection rate is increased from approximately 1 per 1000 in asymptomatic individuals older than 50 years to 1 per 200 in high-risk smokers and drinkers and to 1 in 7 for individuals once treated for oral cancer. Screening detects earlier stage cancers, for which treatment results in higher survival rates. While no randomized screening trials with a mortality end-point have been conducted (or are likely), there is evidence that population-based case-fatality rates are lower in races treated with earlier stages of oral cancer. This evidence is of little solace when the majority of patients are diagnosed with advanced disease when symptoms appear, rather than through screening at an earlier stage when asymptomatic. In one study, 94% of patients with oral cancer were seen by a doctor within the previous year. The average oral cancer patient had 10.7 physician encounters within 3 years of the diagnosis. In the United States, the early detection of cancers of the larynx and esophagus should be based upon early symptoms rather than on screening. A routine oral screening examination should be a part of every physical examination by a doctor or a dentist. It will detect earlier

  5. Concordance of Two Endoscopic Procedures for Diagnosis of Carcinoma of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-15

    Upper Aerodigestive Tract Lesions; Neoplasms, Oropharyngeal; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Neoplasms, Hypopharyngeal; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Head and Neck Neoplasms; UADT Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Papilloma

  6. Aerodigestive tract burn from ingestion of microwaved food.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Michael; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Aerodigestive tract burns represent a rare but potentially devastating injury pattern throughout the world. Although the majority of these injuries do not require intervention, these burns have the potential for poor outcomes. Traditionally this disease has been caused by superheated gases found in explosions or fire-related injury. However, as technology advances, it brings novel methods for injury that require physician awareness of potential hazards. We describe a case of laryngeal and esophageal thermal burn caused by a microwave heated food bolus.

  7. Effects of air pollution on the upper aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Holt, G R

    1996-02-01

    The main route of contamination of the human body with airborne pollutants is through the upper air and food passages. Because of the delicate balance of the mucous membranes and special sensory organs of these passages with respect to mucociliary activity, local and recruited immune responses, rapid uptake of chemicals, and carcinogenic potential, the ingestion or inhalation of pollutants in the air can be harmful to these internal body barriers. The particular target organs for air pollution effects on the upper aerodigestive tract include the mucosa, olfactory epithelium, auditory receptor cells, glottic epithelium, and adjacent neural and muscular tissues. Hearing loss caused by noise exposure may be aggravated by the concomitant inhalation of solvents. The strongest evidence for the carcinogenic effect of occupational inhalants in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is seen with exposure to hardwood dust, tobacco smoke, furniture making, and leather tanning. With the exception of tobacco smoke, which produces squamous cell carcinomas, the majority of the occupationally related cancers are adenocarcinomas, usually of the intestinal variety. Tobacco smoke, passive or active, may lead to end-artery obliteration at the level of the otic end organ, causing a progressive sensorineural hearing loss. Further environmental research in the upper aerodigestive tract should aim at developing biologic markers to determine early, premalignant tissue changes; identifying the effects of chronic, low-dose toxic exposure on mucous membranes and neurosensory organs; providing field-tested tools for the standardized screening of large at-risk populations.

  8. Optimal target VOI size for accurate 4D coregistration of DCE-MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Brian; Mikheev, Artem; Zaim Wadghiri, Youssef; Bertrand, Anne; Novikov, Dmitry; Chandarana, Hersh; Rusinek, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI has emerged as a reliable and diagnostically useful functional imaging technique. DCE protocol typically lasts 3-15 minutes and results in a time series of N volumes. For automated analysis, it is important that volumes acquired at different times be spatially coregistered. We have recently introduced a novel 4D, or volume time series, coregistration tool based on a user-specified target volume of interest (VOI). However, the relationship between coregistration accuracy and target VOI size has not been investigated. In this study, coregistration accuracy was quantitatively measured using various sized target VOIs. Coregistration of 10 DCE-MRI mouse head image sets were performed with various sized VOIs targeting the mouse brain. Accuracy was quantified by measures based on the union and standard deviation of the coregistered volume time series. Coregistration accuracy was determined to improve rapidly as the size of the VOI increased and approached the approximate volume of the target (mouse brain). Further inflation of the VOI beyond the volume of the target (mouse brain) only marginally improved coregistration accuracy. The CPU time needed to accomplish coregistration is a linear function of N that varied gradually with VOI size. From the results of this study, we recommend the optimal size of the VOI to be slightly overinclusive, approximately by 5 voxels, of the target for computationally efficient and accurate coregistration.

  9. Button battery injuries in the pediatric aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Ettyreddy, Abhinav R; Georg, Matthew W; Chi, David H; Gaines, Barbara A; Simons, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Children with a button battery impaction present with nonspecific symptoms that may account for a delay in medical care. We conducted a retrospective study of the clinical presentation, management, and complications associated with button battery ingestion in the pediatric aerodigestive tract and to evaluate the associated long-term morbidity. We reviewed the medical records of 23 patients who were treated for button battery impaction at our tertiary care children's hospital from Jan. 1, 2000, through July 31, 2013. This population was made up of 14 boys and 9 girls, aged 7 days to 12 years (mean: 4 yr). Patients were divided into three groups based on the site of impaction; there were 9 impactions in the esophagus and 7 each in the nasal cavity and stomach. We compiled information on the type and size of each battery, the duration of the impaction, presenting symptoms, treatment, and outcomes. The mean duration of battery impaction was 40.6, 30.7, and 21.0 hours in the esophagus, nasal cavity, and stomach, respectively. We were able to identify the specific type of battery in 13 cases; 11 of these cases (85%) involved a 3-V 20-mm lithium ion battery, including all cases of esophageal impaction in which the type of battery was identified. The most common presenting signs and symptoms were vomiting (n = 7 [30%]), difficulty feeding (n = 5 [22%]), cough (n = 5), and bloody nasal discharge (n = 5); none of the presenting signs and symptoms predicted the severity of the injury or the outcome. The median length of hospital stay was far greater in the esophageal group (12 days) than in the nasal and stomach groups (1 day each; p = 0.006). Battery impaction in the esophagus for more than 15 hours was associated with a significantly longer postoperative hospital stay than impaction for less than 15 hours (p = 0.04). Esophageal complications included strictures (n = 5), perforation (n = 3), and tracheoesophageal fistula formation (n = 2). Clinicians should consider battery

  10. Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung Ja; Khang, Shin Kwang; Lee, Seung Sook; Koh, Jae Soo; Chung, Jin Haeng; Lee, Yong Sik; Shim, Yoon Sang

    2002-01-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) constitute 3.5-4% of all malignancies. Since the majority of cases are squamous cell carcinomas which are related with epidemiologic factors, a different pattern of UADT cancer might be present between the Western and Asian populations. We performed a pathology based statistical study on UADT cancers in Korean patients. Cases from Korea Cancer Center Hospital, from January 1, 1988 through December 31, 1998, were subjected to the study. Among 2,842 cases, epithelial malignancies accounted for 87.8%, with squamous cell carcinoma as the major type (76.5%). The larynx was the most commonly affected site (26%), followed by the oral cavity (25.1%), oropharynx (13%), nasopharynx (9%), hypopharynx (8.4%), paranasal sinuses (6.4%), nasal cavity (6%) and salivary glands (6.1%). The percentage of squamous cell carcinoma was highest (98.7%) at the hypopharynx, and lowest at the nasal cavity (42.3%), which showed the most diverse tumor entities. Korean patients with UADT cancers presented with a higher incidence of non-epidermoid malignancy including sarcoma (1.5%) and malignant melanoma (1.4%), and a higher frequency of involvement of the sinonasal tract, compared with the Western patients. PMID:11850583

  11. Epigenetic pathogenesis of human papillomavirus in upper aerodigestive tract cancers.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Fazlur Rahman; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Laskar, Ruhina Shirin; Kannan, Ravi; Choudhury, Biswadeep; Bhowmik, Arup

    2015-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been recently associated with squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract (SCC of UADT), but its possible role in promoting aberrant methylation in these tumors has largely remained unexplored. Herein, we investigated the association of HPV with aberrant methylation in tumor-related genes/loci consisting of the classical CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) panel markers (p16, MLH1, MINT1, MINT2, and MINT31) and other frequently methylated cancer-related genes (DAPK1, GSTP1, BRCA1, ECAD, and RASSF1) and survival of UDAT cancers. The study includes 219 SCC of UADT patients from different hospitals of Northeast India. Detection of HPV and aberrant promoter methylation was performed by PCR and Methylation Specific PCR respectively. Association study was conducted by Logistic regression analysis and overall survival analysis was done by Kaplan-Meier plot. HPV was detected in 37% of cases, with HPV-18 as the major high-risk sub-type. Although HPV presence did not seem to affect survival in overall UADT cancers, but was associated with a favourable prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Hierarchical clustering revealed three distinct clusters with different methylation profile and HPV presence. Among these, the CIMP-high subgroup exhibited the highest HPV positive cases (66%). Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed a strong synergistic association of HPV and tobacco towards modulating promoter hypermethylation in UADT cancer (OR = 27.50 [95% CI = 11.51-88.03] for CIMP-high vs. CIMP-low). The present study proposes a potential role of HPV in impelling aberrant methylation in specific tumor related loci, which might contribute in the initiation and progression of SCC of UADT. PMID:25213493

  12. Epigenetic pathogenesis of human papillomavirus in upper aerodigestive tract cancers.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Fazlur Rahman; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Laskar, Ruhina Shirin; Kannan, Ravi; Choudhury, Biswadeep; Bhowmik, Arup

    2015-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been recently associated with squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract (SCC of UADT), but its possible role in promoting aberrant methylation in these tumors has largely remained unexplored. Herein, we investigated the association of HPV with aberrant methylation in tumor-related genes/loci consisting of the classical CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) panel markers (p16, MLH1, MINT1, MINT2, and MINT31) and other frequently methylated cancer-related genes (DAPK1, GSTP1, BRCA1, ECAD, and RASSF1) and survival of UDAT cancers. The study includes 219 SCC of UADT patients from different hospitals of Northeast India. Detection of HPV and aberrant promoter methylation was performed by PCR and Methylation Specific PCR respectively. Association study was conducted by Logistic regression analysis and overall survival analysis was done by Kaplan-Meier plot. HPV was detected in 37% of cases, with HPV-18 as the major high-risk sub-type. Although HPV presence did not seem to affect survival in overall UADT cancers, but was associated with a favourable prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Hierarchical clustering revealed three distinct clusters with different methylation profile and HPV presence. Among these, the CIMP-high subgroup exhibited the highest HPV positive cases (66%). Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed a strong synergistic association of HPV and tobacco towards modulating promoter hypermethylation in UADT cancer (OR = 27.50 [95% CI = 11.51-88.03] for CIMP-high vs. CIMP-low). The present study proposes a potential role of HPV in impelling aberrant methylation in specific tumor related loci, which might contribute in the initiation and progression of SCC of UADT.

  13. Effect of nasal noninvasive respiratory support methods on pharyngeal provocation-induced aerodigestive reflexes in infants.

    PubMed

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Sitaram, Swetha; Clouse, Brian J; Slaughter, Jonathan L; Shaker, Reza

    2016-06-01

    The pharynx is a locus of provocation among infants with aerodigestive morbidities manifesting as dysphagia, life-threatening events, aspiration-pneumonia, atelectasis, and reflux, and such infants often receive nasal respiratory support. We determined the impact of different oxygen delivery methods on pharyngeal stimulation-induced aerodigestive reflexes [room air (RA), nasal cannula (NC), and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP)] while hypothesizing that the sensory motor characteristics of putative reflexes are distinct. Thirty eight infants (28.0 ± 0.7 wk gestation) underwent pharyngoesophageal manometry and respiratory inductance plethysmography to determine the effects of graded pharyngeal stimuli (n = 271) on upper and lower esophageal sphincters (UES, LES), swallowing, and deglutition-apnea. Comparisons were made between NC (n = 19), nCPAP (n = 9), and RA (n = 10) groups. Importantly, NC or nCPAP (vs. RA) had: 1) delayed feeding milestones (P < 0.05), 2) increased pharyngeal waveform recruitment and duration, greater UES nadir pressure, decreased esophageal contraction duration, decreased distal esophageal contraction amplitude, and decreased completely propagated esophageal peristalsis (all P < 0.05), and 3) similarly developed UES contractile and LES relaxation reflexes (P > 0.05). We conclude that aerodigestive reflexes were similarly developed in infants using noninvasive respiratory support with adequate upper and lower aerodigestive protection. Increased concern for GERD is unfounded in this population. These infants may benefit from targeted oromotor feeding therapies and safe pharyngeal bolus transit to accelerate feeding milestones. PMID:27012774

  14. [Neuronal mechanisms of motor signal transmission in thalamic Voi nucleus in spasmodic torticollis patients].

    PubMed

    Sedov, A S; Raeva, S N; Pavlenko, V B

    2014-01-01

    Neural mechanisms of motor signal transmission in ventrooral (Voi) nucleus of motor thalamus during the realization-of voluntary and involuntary abnormal (dystonic) movements in patients with spasmodic torticollis were investigated by means of microelectrode technique. The high reactivity of the cellular Voi elements to various functional (mainly motor) tests was proved. Analysis of neuronal activity showed: (1) the difference of neural mechanisms of motor signal transmission in the realization of voluntary movement with and without the involvement of the pathological axial neck muscles, as well as passive and abnormal involuntary dystonic movements; (2) significance of sensory component in the mechanisms of sensorimotor interactions during realization of voluntary and involuntary dystonic head and neck movements, causing the activation of the axial neck muscles; (3) important role of the rhythmic and synchronized neuronal activity in motor signal transmission during the realization of active and passive movements. Participation of Voi nucleus in pathological mechanisms of spasmodic torticollis was shown. The data obtained can be used for identificatiori of Voi thalamic nucleus during stereotactic neurosurgical operations in patients with spasmodic torticollis for selection the optimum destruction (stimulation) target and reduction of postoperative effects.

  15. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  16. ErbB receptors in the biology and pathology of the aerodigestive tract

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Sarah; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2009-02-15

    The most common sites of malignancies in the aerodigestive tract include the lung, head and neck and the esophagus. Esophageal adenocarcinomas (EA), esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC), and squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN) are the primary focus of this review. Traditional treatment for aerodigestive tract cancers includes primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) or surgical resection followed by radiation (or CRT). Recent developments in treatment have focused increasingly on molecular targeting strategies including cetuximab (a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)). Cetuximab was FDA approved in 2006 for treatment of SCCHN, underscoring the importance of understanding the biology of these malignancies. EGFR is a member of the ErbB family of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases. The major pathways activated by ErbB receptors include Ras/Raf/MAPK; PI3K/AKT; PLC{gamma} and STATs, all of which lead to the transcription of target genes that may contribute to aerodigestive tumor progression. This review explores the expression of ErbB receptors in EA, ESCC and SCCHN and the signaling pathways of EGFR in SCCHN.

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome caused by uncommon tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shao-Jun; Wang, Qin-Ying; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Bao, Yang-Yang; Wang, Shen-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is always caused by anatomic abnormalities, including nasal cavity, pharynx, and neuromuscular dysfunctions, leading to airway narrowing. OSAS associated with a mass in the aerodigestive tract is rare. In the present study, we report OSAS caused by 9 cases of preoperative uncommon tumors in the aerodigestive tract. Two tumors in the parapharyngeal space were pleomorphic adenoma, one oropharyngeal tumor was mucoepidermoid carcinoma, one tumor in the right tonsil was schwannoma, and five tumors were non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Of the five NHL cases, one in the nasopharynx was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, two were mantle cell lymphoma, one was chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, and one was NHL. Tumors in the aerodigestive tract should be considered in the differential diagnosis of OSAS upon exacerbation of snoring or sudden gasping. Further examinations should be performed, including a routine workup (computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging) and positron emission tomography/CT. PMID:25400748

  18. A Volume of Interest (VOI) Atlas for the Analysis of Neurophysiological Image Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrett, Sean; Evans, Alan C.; Collins, D. L.; Peters, Terence M.

    1989-05-01

    Accurate and precise neuroanatomical descriptions are essential for the meaningful quantification of Positron Emission Tomographic (PET) images of the human brain. This task is difficult since the radio-tracer distribution imaged by PET does not neccessarily reflect structure. A two-dimensional brain atlas that features the use of a deformable Region-of-Interest (ROI) template has previously been shown to be an effective method for integrating anatomical (Magnetic Resonance Imaging - MRI) images and physiological (PET) data, with an observed reduction in the coefficient of variation amongst observers from 8.1% to 3.4% 1. This method has been adopted for routine MRI image correlation and PET image analysis at our centre. The atlas is most effective when used in studies in which PET and MRI images are acquired in planes parallel to those of the original brain atlas. To allow arbitrary image/atlas orientation, we have implemented a Volume of Interest (VOI) atlas that extends the ROI methodology to three dimensions. The major advantage is that, given adequate axial sampling, arbitrary orientations of PET and MRI scans can be matched to the VOI atlas with no loss in structural recovery. In addition, the VOI atlas can be employed in the quantification of metabolic parameters directly from volumetric PET studies rather than performing the analysis on a slice by slice basis.

  19. A new endotracheal tube for carbon dioxide and KTP laser surgery of the aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Ossoff, R H; Aly, A; Gonzales, D; Koriwchak, M J; Houchin, N

    1993-01-01

    We have tested the fire-resistance of a new endotracheal tube designed for use in laser surgery of the upper aerodigestive tract. This Teflon/metallic-wrapped silicone tube seems capable of withstanding occasional, accidental pulsed laser impact at power settings used clinically (1 to 10 watts) without fire. On rare occasions when continuous mode is used, the tube seems capable of withstanding at least several seconds of continuous irradiation at clinical power settings without igniting. When used with other recommended safety procedures, this tube should minimize the risk of endotracheal tube fire from accidental laser impact. PMID:8437882

  20. Tonsillar and other upper aerodigestive tract cancers among cervical cancer patients and their husbands.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, K; Dong, C; Frisch, M

    2000-12-01

    The study aimed at probing the possible role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, with a special reference to tonsillar cancer. We used the Swedish Family Cancer Database to analyse second cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract of women first diagnosed with in-situ or invasive cervical cancer. First cancers of their husbands were also analysed. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for female and male cancers, adjusted for age at diagnosis, period, sex, socio-economic status and residential area. Among women, increases were observed at many sites, but tonsillar cancers were increased only among women aged 50 years or more at diagnosis of in-situ cervical cancer (SIR 2.58). The increases at these sites are probably ascribed to the effects HPV, smoking, alcohol or their interaction. Husbands of cervical cancer patients developed an excess (SIR over 2.00) of both tonsillar cancer (SIR 2.39 when wife with in-situ cancer and SIR 2.72 when wife with invasive cervical cancer) and cancer of the tongue. The excess of tonsillar cancer among husbands of women with HPV-associated neoplastic lesions of the cervix supports the a priori hypothesis that HPV may be involved in tonsillar carcinogenesis.

  1. Truncation correction for VOI C-arm CT using scattered radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bier, Bastian; Maier, Andreas; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Schwemmer, Chris; Xia, Yan; Struffert, Tobias; Hornegger, Joachim

    2013-03-01

    In C-arm computed tomography, patient dose reduction by volume-of-interest (VOI) imaging is of increasing interest for many clinical applications. A remaining limitation of VOI imaging is the truncation artifact when reconstructing a 3D volume. It can either be cupping towards the boundaries of the field-of-view (FOV) or an incorrect offset in the Hounsfield values of the reconstructed voxels. In this paper, we present a new method for correction of truncation artifacts in a collimated scan. When axial or lateral collimation are applied, scattered radiation still reaches the detector and is recorded outside of the FOV. If the full area of the detector is read out we can use this scattered signal to estimate the truncated part of the object. We apply three processing steps: detection of the collimator edge, adjustment of the area outside the FOV, and interpolation of the collimator edge. Compared to heuristic truncation correction methods we were able to reconstruct high contrast structures like bones outside of the FOV. Inside the FOV we achieved similar reconstruction results as with water cylinder truncation correction. These preliminary results indicate that scattered radiation outside the FOV can be used to improve image quality and further research in this direction seems beneficial.

  2. Migrating foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract: a surgical challenge.

    PubMed

    Shergill, Gurshinderpal Singh; Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Dora, Asheesh; Shergill, Ankur Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Migrating foreign bodies in the aerodigestive tract are uncommon but can pose serious complications. Long-standing migrating foreign bodies can exist manifesting chronic and unusual symptoms such as chronic cough, recurrent episodes of dyspnoea and fever. Adverse body reactions to foreign objects such as adhesions can cause difficulty in their diagnosis, localisation and removal. A thorough clinical and radiographical approach is of immense value in such cases. We report two difficult cases of migrated foreign bodies: a 2-year-old child with a long-standing foreign body that migrated to the upper mediastinum, and an adult patient with a fish bone that migrated to the oropharyngeal muscles. Presentations of these cases were not alike, with chronic unusual recurrent symptoms in one and typical acute symptoms in the other. The diagnosis and precise localisation of both foreign bodies was challenging, and an open approach was employed to remove them.

  3. Rapid sequence treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Moloy, P.J.; Moran, E.M.; Azawi, S. )

    1991-01-01

    A review of the literature suggested that prolonged treatment time may lessen the probability of cure for patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. To shorten treatment time, rapid sequence treatment (RST) was devised in which chemotherapy, surgery, and irradation were administered in a total treatment time of 8 weeks. Twelve patients were treated and followed 3 years or longer. Medical complications were minor. Osteonecrosis occurred in each of the first five patients and was the only major complication of the protocol. Surgical techniques were modified, and no additional patient developed osteonecrosis. No patient developed local or regional recurrence. Two patients developed distant metastases and three other patients developed second primaries. Absolute survival was 50%. Rapid sequence treatment is an aggressive and potentially hazardous protocol that yielded encouraging results in this pilot study.

  4. Jaw mobility changes in patients with upper aerodigestive tract cancer undergoing radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wienandts, Patrícia; Mozzini, Carolina; Pinto, Rosélie; da Motta, Neiro; Jotz, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation therapy is a therapeutic modality widely used for treatment of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) neoplasms. However, its action is not restricted to tumor cells, and it may cause a variety of adverse reactions, including reduced jaw mobility. Material and Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted to assess changes in jaw mobility in patients with UADT cancer undergoing radiation therapy. Results Fifty-six patients completed the study. The results showed a significant reduction in mouth opening (p<0.001), right lateral excursion (p=0.038) and left lateral excursion (p=0.035) of the jaw, a significant increase in the presence (p<0.001) and severity of oral mucositis (p<0.001), and a significant decrease in performance status (p<0.001) after radiation therapy. Thirty-six patients (64.3%) exhibited reduction in mouth opening after treatment. The variables significantly associated with mouth opening reduction on bivariate analysis were: modification of diet (p=0.037), radiation field (p=0.024), presence of mucositis (p=0.003), and reduction in performance status (p=0.007). After adjustment by the multivariate model, the only variables that remained significantly associated with reduction in mouth opening were presence of mucositis (p=0.018) and reduction in performance status (p=0.47). Conclusions These findings indicate that patients with upper aerodigestive tract cancer experience reduced jaw mobility after radiation therapy, which is strongly correlated with mucositis and reduced functional ability. Key words:Head and neck neoplasms, vertical dimension, radiation therapy, mucositis, temporomandibular joint, joint range of motion, trismus. PMID:26449427

  5. Feasibility and Efficacy of an Addiction Treatment Program in Patients With Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer.

    PubMed

    Perney, Pascal; Duny, Yohan; Nalpas, Bertrand; Lallemant, Benjamin; Rigole, Hélène; Cartier, César; Garrel, Renaud; Azria, The Addict-Orl Study Group David; Blanc, François; Duhamel, Olivier; Neka, Meissa; Ichou, Marc; Le Bars, Yves; Pelletier, Stéphanie; Quantin, Xavier; Stoebner, Anne

    2013-08-01

    Background: Continuing to smoke or to drink after the treatment of an upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer is known to worsen the prognosis. We assessed the feasibility and efficacy of an addiction treatment program integrated into the cancer treatment. Method: In four units devoted to UADT tumors, we proposed an addiction treatment to all patients still drinking or smoking at the end of the cancer treatment; the abstinence rate was assessed 6 and 12 months later. Results: One hundred and sixteen patients were included. Among the 73 patients still drinking and/or smoking at the end of the cancer treatment, 46.6% accepted an addiction treatment. In the latter, abstinence rate was increased, 52.2% versus 31.03% ( p = .07) at M12. In patients both drinking and smoking, addiction treatment doubled the rate of abstinence of both products (31% vs. 14%). Conclusion: Offering addiction treatment to patients with UADT cancer improves abstinence rate and helps maintain long-term withdrawal.

  6. Curcumin Induces Apoptosis of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer Cells by Targeting Multiple Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Amin, A. R. M. Ruhul; Haque, Abedul; Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Khuri, Fadlo Raja; Shin, Dong Moon

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound isolated from the Indian spice "Haldi" or "curry powder", has been used for centuries as a traditional remedy for many ailments. Recently, the potential use of curcumin in cancer prevention and therapy urges studies to uncover the molecular mechanisms associated with its anti-tumor effects. In the current manuscript, we investigated the mechanism of curcumin-induced apoptosis in upper aerodigestive tract cancer cell lines and showed that curcumin-induced apoptosis is mediated by the modulation of multiple pathways such as induction of p73, and inhibition of p-AKT and Bcl-2. Treatment of cells with curcumin induced both p53 and the related protein p73 in head and neck and lung cancer cell lines. Inactivation of p73 by dominant negative p73 significantly protected cells from curcumin-induced apoptosis, whereas ablation of p53 by shRNA had no effect. Curcumin treatment also strongly inhibited p-AKT and Bcl-2 and overexpression of constitutively active AKT or Bcl-2 significantly inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our findings suggest that curcumin-induced apoptosis is mediated via activating tumor suppressor p73 and inhibiting p-AKT and Bcl-2. PMID:25910231

  7. The role of glutamine supplementation in thoracic and upper aerodigestive malignancies.

    PubMed

    Papanikolopoulou, Amalia; Syrigos, Konstantinos N; Drakoulis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    In cancer patients, marked glutamine (gln) depletion develops over time. Host tissues (epithelial cells and lymphocytes) that depend upon adequate stores of gln for optimal functioning can be negatively influenced. In addition, radiation and/or chemotherapy cause normal tissues damage that might be enhanced by this depletion effect. The present review evaluates in vivo clinical data about the potential beneficial role of gln administration in the prevention of host tissue toxicity, in a patient group with thoracic and upper aerodigestive malignancies (T&UAM) during cancer treatment. Publications were identified in a systematic review of MEDLINE Database from the last 2 decades (1994-2014) using key search terms and through manual searches. Overall, 13 clinical studies (9 oral/4 parenteral) evaluated the safety and tolerance of gln supply, showing a beneficial effect in the grade, duration of mucositis and esophagitis, decreased gut permeability, and weight loss. Only 1 Phase 1 clinical trial had negative results because the chemo-radiotherapy combined treatment was not feasible. The use of oral gln may especially have an important role in the prevention of acute radiation toxicities, the weight loss and the need for analgesics in patients with T&UAM, especially if the treatment plan includes combined modality therapy with chemo-radiation.

  8. Hyaluronic Acid: Perspectives in Upper Aero-Digestive Tract. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Manuele; Moffa, Antonio; Sabatino, Lorenzo; Pace, Annalisa; Oliveto, Giuseppe; Vitali, Massimiliano; Baptista, Peter; Salvinelli, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, topical therapies guarantee a better delivery of high concentrations of pharmacologic agents to the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). The use of topical drugs, which are able to reduce mucosal inflammation and to improve healing tissues, can represent a relevant therapeutic advance. Topical sodium hyaluronate (SH) has recently been recognized as adjuvant treatment in the chronic inflammatory disease of the UADT. Aims The aim of our work was to review the published literature regarding all the potential therapeutic effects of SH in the chronic inflammatory disease of UADT. Methods Relevant published studies were searched in Pubmed, Google Scholar, Ovid using keywords (“sodium hyaluronate” and “upper airways”) or Medical Subject Headings. Results At the end of our selection process, sixteen publications have been included. Six of them in the post-operative period of nasal-sinus surgery, 2 of them in pediatric patients affected by recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, 4 of them in reducing symptoms and preventing exacerbations of chronic upper airways in adult population, 4 of them in patients with chronic inflammatory disease of UADT, including gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Conclusions Topical administration of SH plays a pivotkey role in the postoperative phase of patients undergoing FESS and nasal surgery, and positive results are generally observed in all the patients suffering from UADT chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:26120837

  9. Early percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion maintains nutritional state in patients with aerodigestive tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Beer, Karl T; Krause, Kerstin B; Zuercher, Theres; Stanga, Zeno

    2005-01-01

    Patients with upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) cancers often suffer from malnutrition and compromised functional ability. We compared clinical outcome with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube feeding begun at two different time points. The records of 151 patients with UAT carcinomas were reviewed retrospectively. We included patients undergoing radical radiochemotherapy and PEG tube feeding. Subjects were evaluated before PEG insertion and at the end of the treatment. Patients (n=15, 100%) were divided into two groups according to the presence (group A) or absence (group B) of mucositis. Group A (51.7% of patients) received early PEG: before or within 2 wk of radiotherapy. Group B (48.3%) received delayed PEG: between 2 wk and 3 mo after the start of radiotherapy. Mean weight loss was 1.03 kg in group A vs. 4.0 kg in group B, P=0.004. Treatment interruptions were significantly (P=0.01) more common in group B. Early PEG placement at the beginning of radiochemotherapy in patients with UAT tumors maintains the patient's nutritional state and reduces treatment interruptions.

  10. Optical detection of cancer and precancerous lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract: methods for assessment of vertical extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Marcel; Arens, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    Introduction: Endoscopic imaging can be used in the assessment of cancer and precancerous lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract. The objective of this presentation is to describe vertical imaging methods. Methods: The working principle and technique of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as well as endosonography (EUS) are briefly illustrated. Results: The main indications, normal and pathologic findings of each method, frequent pitfalls, and clinical results up to now are presented in detail. Conclusions: Endosonography helps in determining the exact extension of advanced carcinomas beyond 3 mm, while OCT, due to its better resolution, is superior in the assessment of precancerous and early cancerous lesions up to 2 mm thickness.

  11. Augmentation of Radiation Response by Panitumumab in Models of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kruser, Tim J.; Armstrong, Eric A.; Ghia, Amol J.; Huang Shyhmin; Wheeler, Deric L.; Radinsky, Robert; Freeman, Daniel J.; Harari, Paul M.

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To examine the interaction between panitumumab, a fully human anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody, and radiation in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma and non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts. Methods and Materials: The head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma lines UM-SCC1 and SCC-1483, as well as the non-small-cell lung cancer line H226, were studied. Tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice were used to assess the in vivo activity of panitumumab alone and combined with radiation. In vitro assays were performed to assess the effect of panitumumab on radiation-induced cell signaling, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Results: Panitumumab increased the radiosensitivity as measured by the clonogenic survival assay. Radiation-induced epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation and downstream signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was inhibited by panitumumab. Panitumumab augmented radiation-induced DNA damage by 1.2-1.6-fold in each of the cell lines studied as assessed by residual {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX foci after radiation. Radiation-induced apoptosis was increased 1.4-1.9-fold by panitumumab, as evidenced by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining and flow cytometry. In vivo, the combination therapy of panitumumab and radiation was superior to panitumumab or radiation alone in the H226 xenografts (p = 0.01) and showed a similar trend in the SCC-1483 xenografts (p = 0.08). In vivo, immunohistochemistry demonstrated the ability of panitumumab to augment the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of radiation. Conclusion: These studies have identified a favorable interaction in the combination of radiation and panitumumab in upper aerodigestive tract tumor models, both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that clinical investigations examining the combination of radiation and panitumumab in the treatment of epithelial tumors warrant

  12. Optimal tracking and testing of U.S. and Canadian herds for BSE: a value-of-information (VOI) approach.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony; Popken, Douglas A; VanSickle, John J; Sahu, Ranajit

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) tests a subset of cattle slaughtered in the United States for bovine spongiform encephalitis (BSE). Knowing the origin of cattle (U.S. vs. Canadian) at testing could enable new testing or surveillance policies based on the origin of cattle testing positive. For example, if a Canadian cow tests positive for BSE, while no U.S. origin cattle do, the United States could subject Canadian cattle to more stringent testing. This article illustrates the application of a value-of-information (VOI) framework to quantify and compare potential economic costs to the United States of implementing tracking cattle origins to the costs of not doing so. The potential economic value of information from a tracking program is estimated to exceed its costs by more than five-fold if such information can reduce future losses in export and domestic markets and reduce future testing costs required to reassure or win back customers. Sensitivity analyses indicate that this conclusion is somewhat robust to many technical, scientific, and market uncertainties, including the current prevalence of BSE in the United States and/or Canada and the likely reactions of consumers to possible future discoveries of BSE in the United States and/or Canada. Indeed, the potential value of tracking information is great enough to justify locating and tracking Canadian cattle already in the United States when this can be done for a reasonable cost. If aggressive tracking and testing can win back lost exports, then the VOI of a tracking program may increase to over half a billion dollars per year.

  13. Association between OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and risk of upper aero-digestive tract and gastrointestinal cancers: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Das, Sambuddha; Nath, Sayantan; Bhowmik, Aditi; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Choudhury, Yashmin

    2016-01-01

    Cancers of the upper aero-digestive and gastrointestinal tract are one of the major causes of mortality around the world. DNA repair genes play a vital role in preventing carcinogenesis by maintaining genomic integrity. Polymorphisms in the nucleotide sequence of DNA repair genes are often reported to be associated with an increased risk for different cancers. The OGG1 gene encodes the enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase which removes oxidatively damaged bases of DNA. Several studies report that the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism increases the risk for cancers of the upper aero-digestive and gastrointestinal tract. However, other studies provide evidence that such an association does not exist. A meta-analysis to assess the role of OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism in the cancers of the upper aero-digestive and gastrointestinal tract was therefore undertaken in order to resolve this ambiguity. Seventeen studies were recruited for this meta-analysis after screening 58 articles with a total of 5533 cases and 6834 controls for which the odds ratio with 95 % confidence interval was calculated. Begg's funnel test and Egger's test were performed for calculating publication bias. Our study reveals an association between OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and cancer susceptibility of the upper aero-digestive and gastrointestinal tract (CG + GG vs CC; odds ratio, OR 1.22; 95 % CI 1.05-1.41; GG vs CG + CC; OR 1.36; 95 % CI 1.09-1.70; GG vs CC; OR 1.46; 95 % CI 1.12-1.92). Subgroup analysis based on cancer types and ethnicity also revealed the association of OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism to the risk for upper aero-digestive and gastrointestinal tract cancers among both the Asian and the Caucasian populations. No risk was however observed for smoking habits and OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism. In conclusion, OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism may be associated with the increased risk for aero-digestive tract and gastro-intestinal cancers in both Asian and Caucasian populations. PMID:27026921

  14. Improved longitudinal [(18)F]-AV45 amyloid PET by white matter reference and VOI-based partial volume effect correction.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Matthias; Högenauer, Marcus; Delker, Andreas; Sauerbeck, Julia; Bartenstein, Peter; Seibyl, John; Rominger, Axel

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid positron-emission-tomography (PET) offers an important research and diagnostic tool for investigating Alzheimer's disease (AD). The majority of amyloid PET studies have used the cerebellum as a reference region, and clinical studies have not accounted for atrophy-based partial volume effects (PVE). Longitudinal studies using cerebellum as reference tissue have revealed only small mean increases and high inter-subject variability in amyloid binding. We aimed to test the effects of different reference regions and PVE-correction (PVEC) on the discriminatory power and longitudinal performance of amyloid PET. We analyzed [(18)F]-AV45 PET and T1-weighted MRI data of 962 subjects at baseline and two-year follow-up data of 258 subjects. Cortical composite volume-of-interest (VOI) values (COMP) for tracer uptake were generated using either full brain atlas VOIs, gray matter segmented VOIs or gray matter segmented VOIs after VOI-based PVEC. Standard-uptake-value ratios (SUVR) were calculated by scaling the COMP values to uptake in cerebellum (SUVRCBL), brainstem (SUVRBST) or white matter (SUVRWM). Mean SUV, SUVR, and changes after PVEC were compared at baseline between diagnostic groups of healthy controls (HC; N=316), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=483) and AD (N=163). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were calculated for the discriminations between HC, MCI and AD, and expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Finally, the longitudinal [(18)F]-AV45-PET data were used to analyze the impact of quantitation procedures on apparent changes in amyloid load over time. Reference region SUV was most constant between diagnosis groups for the white matter. PVEC led to decreases of COMP-SUV in HC (-18%) and MCI (-10%), but increases in AD (+7%). Highest AUCs were found when using PVEC with white matter scaling for the contrast between HC/AD (0.907) or with brainstem scaling for the contrast between HC/MCI (0.658). Longitudinal increases were greatest in all diagnosis

  15. The 12p13.33/RAD52 locus and genetic susceptibility to squamous cell cancers of upper aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon; Oliver, Javier; Timofeeva, Maria N; Gaborieau, Valérie; Johansson, Mattias; Chabrier, Amélie; Wozniak, Magdalena B; Brenner, Darren R; Vallée, Maxime P; Anantharaman, Devasena; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Thakker, Nalin S; Conway, David I; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Eluf-Neto, José; Boffetta, Paolo; Garrote, Leticia Fernández; Serraino, Diego; Lener, Marcin; Jaworowska, Ewa; Lubiński, Jan; Boccia, Stefania; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samant, Tanuja A; Mahimkar, Manoj B; Matsuo, Keitaro; Franceschi, Silvia; Byrnes, Graham; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variants located within the 12p13.33/RAD52 locus have been associated with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Here, within 5,947 UADT cancers and 7,789 controls from 9 different studies, we found rs10849605, a common intronic variant in RAD52, to be also associated with upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) squamous cell carcinoma cases (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15, p = 6x10(-4)). We additionally identified rs10849605 as a RAD52 cis-eQTL inUADT(p = 1x10(-3)) and LUSC (p = 9x10(-4)) tumours, with the UADT/LUSC risk allele correlated with increased RAD52 expression levels. The 12p13.33 locus, encompassing rs10849605/RAD52, was identified as a significant somatic focal copy number amplification in UADT(n = 374, q-value = 0.075) and LUSC (n = 464, q-value = 0.007) tumors and correlated with higher RAD52 tumor expression levels (p = 6x10(-48) and p = 3x10(-29) in UADT and LUSC, respectively). In combination, these results implicate increased RAD52 expression in both genetic susceptibility and tumorigenesis of UADT and LUSC tumors.

  16. Roles of retinoids and their nuclear receptors in the development and prevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Lotan, R

    1997-01-01

    Vitamin A analogs (retinoids) suppress oral and lung carcinogenesis in animal models and prevent the development of second primary tumors in head, neck, and lung cancer patients. These effects result from changes in the expression of genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Retinoic acid receptors (RARs; -alpha, -beta, and -gamma) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs; -alpha, -beta, and, -gamma) are retinoid-activated transcription factors, which mediate effects of retinoids on gene expression. Therefore, alterations in receptor expression or function could interfere with the retinoid signaling pathway and thereby enhance cancer development. We found that the expression of RAR beta was suppressed in more than 50% of oral and lung premalignant lesions in individuals without cancer and in dysplastic lesions adjacent to cancer and in malignant oral and lung carcinomas. The expression of the other receptors was not different among normal, dysplastic, and malignant oral tissues. However, the expression of RAR gamma and RXR beta was somewhat decreased in lung cancers. These results show that RAR beta expression is lost at early stages of carcinogenesis in the aerodigestive tract and support the hypothesis that the loss of RAR beta expression may facilitate the development of some of these cancers. PMID:9255592

  17. Under which conditions, additional monitoring data are worth gathering for improving decision making? Application of the VOI theory in the Bayesian Event Tree eruption forecasting framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loschetter, Annick; Rohmer, Jérémy

    2016-04-01

    Standard and new generation of monitoring observations provide in almost real-time important information about the evolution of the volcanic system. These observations are used to update the model and contribute to a better hazard assessment and to support decision making concerning potential evacuation. The framework BET_EF (based on Bayesian Event Tree) developed by INGV enables dealing with the integration of information from monitoring with the prospect of decision making. Using this framework, the objectives of the present work are i. to propose a method to assess the added value of information (within the Value Of Information (VOI) theory) from monitoring; ii. to perform sensitivity analysis on the different parameters that influence the VOI from monitoring. VOI consists in assessing the possible increase in expected value provided by gathering information, for instance through monitoring. Basically, the VOI is the difference between the value with information and the value without additional information in a Cost-Benefit approach. This theory is well suited to deal with situations that can be represented in the form of a decision tree such as the BET_EF tool. Reference values and ranges of variation (for sensitivity analysis) were defined for input parameters, based on data from the MESIMEX exercise (performed at Vesuvio volcano in 2006). Complementary methods for sensitivity analyses were implemented: local, global using Sobol' indices and regional using Contribution to Sample Mean and Variance plots. The results (specific to the case considered) obtained with the different techniques are in good agreement and enable answering the following questions: i. Which characteristics of monitoring are important for early warning (reliability)? ii. How do experts' opinions influence the hazard assessment and thus the decision? Concerning the characteristics of monitoring, the more influent parameters are the means rather than the variances for the case considered

  18. Immunophenotypic and Clinical Differences Between the Nasal and Extranasal Subtypes of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qing-Feng; Wang, Wei-Hu; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Huang, Wen-Ting; Lu, Ning; Zhou, Li-Qiang; Ouyang, Han; Jin, Jing; Li, Ye-Xiong

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate, in a large cohort of patients, the immunophenotypic and clinical differences of nasal and extranasal extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT-NKTCL) and examine the relevance of the immunophenotype on the clinical behavior, prognosis, and treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 231 patients with UADT-NKTCL were recruited. One hundred eighty-one patients had primary location in the nasal cavity (nasal UADT-NKTCL), and 50 patients had primary extranasal UADT-NKTCL. Results: Patients with extranasal UADT-NKTCL had more adverse clinical features, including advanced-stage disease, regional lymph node involvement, B symptoms, and poor performance status, than patients with nasal UADT-NKTCL. In addition, CD56 and granzyme B were less frequently expressed in extranasal UADT-NKTCL. The 5-year overall survival rate was 74.1% for the entire group and 76.0% for early-stage disease. The 5-year overall survival rate for extranasal UADT-NKTCL was similar or superior to that of nasal UADT-NKTCL for all disease stages (76.9% vs 73.4%, P=.465), stage I disease (75.9% vs 79.2%, P=.786), and stage II disease (83.3% vs 50.3%, P=.018). CD56 expression and a Ki-67 proliferation rate ≥50% predicted poorer survival for extranasal UADT-NKTCL but not for nasal UADT-NKTCL. Conclusions: Patients with nasal and extranasal UADT-NKTCL have significantly different clinical features, immunophenotypes, and prognosis. Extranasal UADT-NKTCL should be considered as a distinct subgroup apart from the most commonly diagnosed prototype of nasal UADT-NKTCL.

  19. Associations of red and processed meat with survival among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract and lung.

    PubMed

    Miles, Fayth L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald; Rao, Jian-Yu; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The effect of red and processed meats on cancer survival is unclear. We sought to examine the role of total and processed red meat consumption on all-cause mortality among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) and lung, in order to test our hypothesis that red or processed meat was associated with overall mortality in these patients. Using data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Los Angeles County, we conducted a case-only analysis to examine the association of red or processed meat consumption on mortality after 12 years of follow-up, using a diet history questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for potential confounders. Of 601 UADT cancer cases and 611 lung cancer cases, there were 248 and 406 deaths, respectively, yielding crude mortality rates of 0.07 and 0.12 deaths per year. Comparing the highest with lowest quartile of red meat consumption, the adjusted HR was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.04-2.57) among UADT cancer cases; for red or processed meat, the adjusted HR was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.10-2.82). A dose-response trend was observed. A weaker association was observed with red meat consumption and overall mortality among lung cancer cases. In conclusion, this case-only analysis demonstrated that increased consumption of red or processed meats was associated with mortality among UADT cancer cases and WAS weakly associated with mortality among lung cancer cases.

  20. Descriptive epidemiology of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in France: incidence over 1980-2005 and projection to 2010.

    PubMed

    Ligier, Karine; Belot, Aurélien; Launoy, Guy; Velten, Michel; Bossard, Nadine; Iwaz, Jean; Righini, Christian Adrien; Delafosse, Patricia; Guizard, Anne-Valérie

    2011-04-01

    Over the 1998-2002 period, some French Départements have been shown to have the world's highest incidence of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers in men. The objectives were to describe the changes in UADT cancer incidence in France over the 1980-2005 period, present projections for 2010, and describe the anatomical and histological characteristics of these tumours. The trend of cancer-incidence over 1980-2005 and projection up to 2010 were obtained using age-period-cohort models (data from eleven cancer registries) and incidence/mortality ratios in the area covered by these registries. The description of UADT cancers by anatomical and histological characteristics concerned data collected between 1980 and 2004 in eleven cancer registries. In men, cancer incidence decreased in all cancer sites and the world-standardized incidence rates decreased by 42.9% for lip-oral cavity-pharynx (LOCP) cancers and 50.4% for larynx cancer. In women, the world-standardized incidence rates increased by 48.6% for LOCP cancers and 66.7% for larynx cancer. Incidence increased the most for oropharynx, palate, and hypopharynx cancers. Incidence analysis by one-year cohorts revealed a progressive shift of the incidence peak towards younger and younger generations, with no change as yet in the mean age at diagnosis. In France, the incidence of these cancers is still higher than in other European and North American countries. This urges actions towards reducing the major risk factors for those cancers, namely alcohol and tobacco consumption, especially among young people, and reducing exposure to risk factors due to social inequalities. PMID:21397551

  1. Genetic variants in DNA repair pathways and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers: combined analysis of data from two genome-wide association studies in European populations.

    PubMed

    Babron, Marie-Claude; Kazma, Rémi; Gaborieau, Valérie; McKay, James; Brennan, Paul; Sarasin, Alain; Benhamou, Simone

    2014-07-01

    DNA repair pathways are good candidates for upper aerodigestive tract cancer susceptibility because of their critical role in maintaining genome integrity. We have selected 13 pathways involved in DNA repair representing 212 autosomal genes. To assess the role of these pathways and their associated genes, two European data sets from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium were pooled, totaling 1954 cases and 3121 controls, with documented demographic, lifetime alcohol and tobacco consumption information. We applied an innovative approach that tests single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-sets within DNA repair pathways and then within genes belonging to the significant pathways. We showed an association between the polymerase pathway and oral cavity/pharynx cancers (P-corrected = 4.45 × 10(-) (2)), explained entirely by the association with one SNP, rs1494961 (P = 2.65 × 10(-) (4)), a missense mutation V306I in the second exon of HELQ gene. We also found an association between the cell cycle regulation pathway and esophagus cancer (P-corrected = 1.48 × 10(-) (2)), explained by three SNPs located within or near CSNK1E gene: rs1534891 (P = 1.27 × 10(-) (4)), rs7289981 (P = 3.37 × 10(-) (3)) and rs13054361 (P = 4.09 × 10(-) (3)). As a first attempt to investigate pathway-level associations, our results suggest a role of specific DNA repair genes/pathways in specific upper aerodigestive tract cancer sites. PMID:24658182

  2. High-Resolution Optical Imaging of Benign and Malignant Mucosa in the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: An Atlas for Image-Guided Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L.; Vila, Peter M.; Park, Richard W.; Schwarz, Richard; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Teng, Marita S.; Gurudutt, Vivek V.; Genden, Eric M.; Miles, Brett; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Background High-resolution optical imaging provides real-time visualization of mucosa in the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) which allows non-invasive discrimination of benign and neoplastic epithelium. The high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) utilizes a fiberoptic probe in conjunction with a tissue contrast agent to display nuclei and cellular architecture. This technology has broad potential applications to intraoperative margin detection and early cancer detection. Methods Our group has created an extensive image collection of both neoplastic and normal epithelium of the UADT. Here, we present and describe imaging characteristics of benign, dysplastic, and malignant mucosa in the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and esophagus. Results There are differences in the nuclear organization and overall tissue architecture of benign and malignant mucosa which correlate with histopathologic diagnosis. Different anatomic subsites also display unique imaging characteristics. Conclusion HRME allows discrimination between benign and neoplastic mucosa, and familiarity with the characteristics of each subsite facilitates correct diagnosis. PMID:23641314

  3. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogense-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, alcohol flushing, mean corpuscular volume, and aerodigestive tract neoplasia in Japanese drinkers.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Akira; Mizukami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) modulate exposure levels to ethanol/acetaldehyde. Endoscopic screening of 6,014 Japanese alcoholics yielded high detection rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 4.1%) and head and neck SCC (1.0%). The risks of upper aerodigestive tract SCC/dysplasia, especially of multiple SCC/dysplasia, were increased in a multiplicative fashion by the presence of a combination of slow-metabolizing ADH1B*1/*1 and inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 because of prolonged exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol/acetaldehyde. A questionnaire asking about current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass (≈180 mL) of beer is a reliable tool for detecting the presence of inactive ALDH2. We invented a health-risk appraisal (HRA) model including the flushing questionnaire and drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. Esophageal SCC was detected at a high rate by endoscopic mass-screening in high HRA score persons. A total of 5.0% of 4,879 alcoholics had a history of (4.0%) or newly diagnosed (1.0%) gastric cancer. Their high frequency of a history of gastric cancer is partly explained by gastrectomy being a risk factor for alcoholism because of altered ethanol metabolism, e.g., by blood ethanol level overshooting. The combination of H. pylori-associated atrophic gastritis and ALDH2*1/*2 showed the greatest risk of gastric cancer in alcoholics. High detection rates of advanced colorectal adenoma/carcinoma were found in alcoholics, 15.7% of 744 immunochemical fecal occult blood test (IFOBT)-negative alcoholics and 31.5% of the 393 IFOBT-positive alcoholics. Macrocytosis with an MCV≥106 fl increased the risk of neoplasia in the entire aerodigestive tract of alcoholics, suggesting that poor nutrition as well as ethanol/acetaldehyde exposure plays an important role in neoplasia.

  4. Photodetection of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi using photofrin II and colorectal adenocarcinoma with fluoresceinated monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagnieres, Georges A.; Braichotte, Daniel; Chatelain, Andre; Depeursinge, Christian D.; Monnier, Philippe; Savary, Jean-Francois; Fontolliet, Charlotte; Calmes, J.-M.; Givel, Jean-Claude; Chapuis, G.; Folli, S.; Pelegrin, A.; Buchegger, F.; Mach, J.-P.; van den Bergh, Hubert

    1991-11-01

    The performance of a fluorescence endoscope for the detection of early cancer is clinically evaluated. the apparatus is based on the imaging of the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of a dye which localizes in the tumor after IV injection with a higher concentration than in the surrounding normal tissue. The tests are carried out in several of the hollow organs, such as the upper aerodigestive tract, the bronchi, and the colon. In the two former cases the dye used is photofrin II, whereas in the latter case conjugates between monoclonal antibodies (Mab) directed against carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA) and fluorescein molecules are injected. The fluorescence contrast between tumor and surrounding tissue is enhanced by real-time image processing which eliminates most of the tissue autofluorescence as well as the fluorescence due to the relatively small amount of dye localized in the normal tissue. This is done by recording the fluorescence image in two spectral domains, after which these two images are digitized and manipulated with a mathematical operator (lookup-table). The sources of false positives and false negatives are evaluated in terms of the fluorescent dye and tissue optical properties.

  5. Radiotherapy in the treatment of mucosal melanoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: Analysis of 74 cases. A Rare Cancer Network study

    SciTech Connect

    Krengli, Marco . E-mail: krengli@tera.it; Masini, Laura; Kaanders, Johannes; Maingon, Philippe; Oei, Swan Bing; Zouhair, Abderrahim; Ozyar, Enis; Roelandts, Martine; Amichetti, Maurizio; Bosset, Mathieu; Mirimanoff, Rene-Olivier

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze a series of mucosal melanoma of the upper aerodigestive tract to determine the prognostic factors and contribute to understanding the role of radiotherapy in the therapeutic strategy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients were analyzed. The most frequent locations were nasal and oral, in 31 patients (41.9%) and 12 patients (16.2%), respectively. Sixty-three patients (85.1%) were in Stage I, 5 (6.8%) in Stage II, and 6 (8.1%) in Stage III. Treatment consisted of surgery in 17 patients (23.0%), surgery and radiotherapy in 42 (56.8%), radiotherapy in 11 (14.9%), and chemo-immunotherapy in 4 (5.4%). Median follow-up was 20 months. Results: Local control at 3 years was 57% after surgery alone and 71% after surgery and radiotherapy. Overall and disease-free survival rates, respectively, were 41% and 31% at 3 years and 14% and 22% at 10 years. After univariate analysis, female gender, melanosis, tumor size {<=}3 cm, Stage I, postoperative radiotherapy, and complete remission were favorable prognostic factors. Stage I and melanosis were confirmed by multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Local control was improved by postoperative radiotherapy, despite survival being as poor as in other published series. Stage I and melanosis at diagnosis were the most favorable prognostic factors.

  6. Meat and heme iron intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aero-digestive tract in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Annika; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Jakszyn, Paula; Amiano, Pilar; Quirós, J. Ramón; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Ferrari, Pietro; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Siersema, Peter D.; Peeters, Petra HM; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Skeie, Guri; Hallmanns, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Borgquist, Signe; Ericson, Ulrika; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Grote, Verena; Li, Kuanrong; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Pantzalis, Menelaos; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Naccarati, Alessio; Mouw, Traci; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Norat, Teresa; Boeing, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence from prospective studies on intake of meat and fish and risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) is scarce. We prospectively investigated the association of meat and fish intake with risk of SCC of the UADT and the possible mechanism via heme iron in the large multi-center European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods Multivariable proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks of SCC of the UADT in relation to intake of total meat, as well as subtypes of meat, fish and heme iron among 348,738 individuals from 7 European countries. Results During an average follow-up of 11.8 years, a total of 682 incident cases of UADT SCC were accrued. Intake of processed meat was positively associated with risk of SCC of the UADT in the total cohort (highest versus lowest quintile: RR=1.41; 95% CI=1.03-1.94), however, in stratified analyses, this association was confined to the group of current smokers (highest versus lowest quintile: RR=1.89; 95% CI=1.22-2.93). Red meat, poultry, fish and heme iron were not consistently related to UADT SCC. Conclusion Higher intake of processed meat was positively associated with SCC of the UADT among smokers. Although this finding was stable in various sensitivity analyses, we cannot rule out residual confounding by smoking. Confirmation in future studies and identification of biological mechanisms is warranted. Impact Smokers may further increase their risk for SCC of the UADT if they additionally consume large amounts of processed meat. PMID:23033453

  7. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms and a new strategy for prevention and screening for cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract in East Asians.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Akira; Omori, Tai; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    The ethanol in alcoholic beverages and the acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption are Group 1 human carcinogens (WHO, International Agency for Research on Cancer). The combination of alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, the inactive heterozygous aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype (ALDH2*1/*2) and the less-active homozygous alcohol dehydrogenase-1B genotype (ADH1B*1/*1) increases the risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) in a multiplicative fashion in East Asians. In addition to being exposed to locally high levels of ethanol, the UADT is exposed to a very high concentration of acetaldehyde from a variety of sources, including that as an ingredient of alcoholic beverages per se and that found in tobacco smoke; acetaldehyde is also produced by salivary microorganisms and mucosal enzymes and is present as blood acetaldehyde. The inefficient degradation of acetaldehyde by weakly expressed ALDH2 in the UADT may be cri! tical to the local accumulation of acetaldehyde, especially in ALDH2*1/*2 carriers. ADH1B*1/*1 carriers tend to experience less intense alcohol flushing and are highly susceptible to heavy drinking and alcoholism. Heavy drinking by persons with the less-active ADH1B*1/*1 leads to longer exposure of the UADT to salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde. The ALDH2*1/*2 genotype is a very strong predictor of synchronous and metachronous multiple SCCs in the UADT. High red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV), esophageal dysplasia, and melanosis in the UADT, all of which are frequently found in ALDH2*1/*2 drinkers, are useful for identifying high-risk individuals. We invented a simple flushing questionnaire that enables prediction of the ALDH2 phenotype. New health appraisal models that include ALDH2 genotype, the simple flushing questionnaire, or MCV are powerful tools for devising a new strategy for prevention and screening for UADT cancer in East Asians.

  8. Risk factors for developing a second upper aerodigestive cancer after radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancers: An exploratory outcomes analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Taussky, Daniel . E-mail: daniel.taussky.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca; Rufibach, Kaspar M.Sc.; Huguenin, Pia; Allal, Abdelkarim S.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess the influence of treatment-related and patient-related factors on the risk of developing a second primary tumor (SPT) of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) in patients with locoregionally advanced nonmetastatic carcinomas of the head-and-neck region. Methods and Materials: The data of 521 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were pooled: 224 patients from the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK) 10/94 trial, treated with 1.2 Gy b.i.d. to 74.4 Gy, and randomized to receive or not to receive simultaneous chemotherapy with cisplatin (excluding nasopharyngeal and maxillary sinus carcinomas); and 297 patients from Geneva, all treated with accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant boost to 69.9 Gy and predominantly cisplatin-based concomitant chemotherapy in 33% of patients (including 21 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas). An exploratory analysis using competing risk methodology was performed. Results: A total of 65 SPT of the UADT were observed after a median observation time of 4.7 years. The overall risk of experiencing an SPT of the UADT at 10 years in the presence of all other possible events was estimated to be 33%. There were no SPTs after treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, there was no difference in occurrence of SPT at 3 years with respect to the administration of chemotherapy (p = 0.31), age (p 0.62), performance status (p = 0.61), gender (p = 0.27), presence of nodal disease (p = 0.51), or T stage (p = 0.72). However, patients treated with concomitant boost had fewer SPTs (p = 0.0093). Conclusions: Our data do not suggest that addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy influences the incidence of second cancers in patients with head-and-neck cancer. The difference in the incidence of SPT between the two radiotherapy schedule groups merits further exploration.

  9. Deletion of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) reduces cell migration and invasion, conferring protection from aerodigestive tract carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Jadav, Rathan S; Kumar, Dharmika; Buwa, Natasha; Ganguli, Shubhra; Thampatty, Sitalakshmi R; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj; Bhandari, Rashna

    2016-08-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), a family of enzymes found in all eukaryotes, are responsible for the synthesis of 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7) from inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). Three isoforms of IP6Ks are found in mammals, and gene deletions of each isoform lead to diverse, non-overlapping phenotypes in mice. Previous studies show a facilitatory role for IP6K2 in cell migration and invasion, properties that are essential for the early stages of tumorigenesis. However, IP6K2 also has an essential role in cancer cell apoptosis, and mice lacking this protein are more susceptible to the development of aerodigestive tract carcinoma upon treatment with the oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Not much is known about the functions of the equally abundant and ubiquitously expressed IP6K1 isoform in cell migration, invasion and cancer progression. We conducted a gene expression analysis on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking IP6K1, revealing a role for this protein in cell receptor-extracellular matrix interactions that regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Consequently, cells lacking IP6K1 manifest defects in adhesion-dependent signaling, evident by lower FAK and Paxillin activation, leading to reduced cell spreading and migration. Expression of active, but not inactive IP6K1 reverses migration defects in IP6K1 knockout MEFs, suggesting that 5-IP7 synthesis by IP6K1 promotes cell locomotion. Actin cytoskeleton remodeling and cell migration support the ability of cancer cells to achieve their complete oncogenic potential. Cancer cells with lower IP6K1 levels display reduced migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. When fed an oral carcinogen, mice lacking IP6K1 show reduced progression from epithelial dysplasia to invasive carcinoma. Thus, our data reveal that like IP6K2, IP6K1 is also involved in early cytoskeleton remodeling events during cancer progression. However, unlike IP6K2, IP6K1 is essential for 4NQO

  10. Deletion of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) reduces cell migration and invasion, conferring protection from aerodigestive tract carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Jadav, Rathan S; Kumar, Dharmika; Buwa, Natasha; Ganguli, Shubhra; Thampatty, Sitalakshmi R; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj; Bhandari, Rashna

    2016-08-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), a family of enzymes found in all eukaryotes, are responsible for the synthesis of 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7) from inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). Three isoforms of IP6Ks are found in mammals, and gene deletions of each isoform lead to diverse, non-overlapping phenotypes in mice. Previous studies show a facilitatory role for IP6K2 in cell migration and invasion, properties that are essential for the early stages of tumorigenesis. However, IP6K2 also has an essential role in cancer cell apoptosis, and mice lacking this protein are more susceptible to the development of aerodigestive tract carcinoma upon treatment with the oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Not much is known about the functions of the equally abundant and ubiquitously expressed IP6K1 isoform in cell migration, invasion and cancer progression. We conducted a gene expression analysis on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking IP6K1, revealing a role for this protein in cell receptor-extracellular matrix interactions that regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Consequently, cells lacking IP6K1 manifest defects in adhesion-dependent signaling, evident by lower FAK and Paxillin activation, leading to reduced cell spreading and migration. Expression of active, but not inactive IP6K1 reverses migration defects in IP6K1 knockout MEFs, suggesting that 5-IP7 synthesis by IP6K1 promotes cell locomotion. Actin cytoskeleton remodeling and cell migration support the ability of cancer cells to achieve their complete oncogenic potential. Cancer cells with lower IP6K1 levels display reduced migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. When fed an oral carcinogen, mice lacking IP6K1 show reduced progression from epithelial dysplasia to invasive carcinoma. Thus, our data reveal that like IP6K2, IP6K1 is also involved in early cytoskeleton remodeling events during cancer progression. However, unlike IP6K2, IP6K1 is essential for 4NQO

  11. Evaluation with mTHPC of early squamous cell carcinomas of the cheek pouch mucosa of Golden Syrian hamsters as a model for clinical PDT of early cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Forrer, Martin; Braichotte, Daniel; Wagnieres, Georges A.; van den Bergh, Hubert; Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe

    1995-03-01

    Golden Syrian hamsters are evaluated as an animal model for light induced fluorescence (LIF) photodetection and phototherapy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus, and the traecheo-bronchial tree. Carcinomas of this type are induced on the hamster cheek pouch mucosa by the application of the carcinogen 7,12-DMBA. For phototherapeutic experiments on the animals we utilized meso-(tetrahydoxyphenyl) chlorin (mTHPC). This drug is currently in phase I and II clinical trials for ENT patients presenting superficial `early' squamous cell carcinomas. By means of LIF we measured in vivo the kinetics of the uptake and removal of mTHPC in the normal and tumoral cheek mucosa and in the skin. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) reaction of the tissue after excitation of the photosensitizer with laser light at 652 nm was studied. Both pharmacokinetics and PDT efficacy are compared between animal model and clinical results with special emphasis on selectivity between normal and tumoral mucosa. These first experiments show that this tumor model in the hamster cheek pouch seems to be suitable for testing new photosensitizers preceding their clinical application as well as for optimization of the multiple parameters of clinical PDT.

  12. Impact of alcohol consumption and body mass index on mortality from nonneoplastic liver diseases, upper aerodigestive tract cancers, and alcohol use disorders in Korean older middle-aged men: Prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Yi, Jee-Jeon; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for the global disease burden including liver diseases. However, the combined effect of alcohol use and body mass index (BMI) on alcohol-related diseases has seldom been examined. We examined whether alcohol consumption and BMI could act together to increase mortality from nonneoplastic liver diseases, upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers, and alcohol use disorders (AUD) in middle-aged Korean men.107,735 men (mean age, 58.8 years) participated in a postal survey in 2004 and were followed until 2010, by linkage to national death records. Hazard ratios (HRs) of cause-specific death were calculated after adjustment for confounders.Each 5-drink (approximately 45 g alcohol) higher weekly alcohol consumption was associated with increased mortality, by approximately 70% for nonneoplastic liver disease mortality (HR = 1.70, P < 0.001), approximately 60% for UADT cancer mortality (HR = 1.64, P < 0.001), and approximately 70% for AUD mortality (HR = 1.71, P < 0.001). Generally, BMI was inversely associated with these alcohol-related diseases (HR per each 5 kg/m higher BMI = 0.18-0.46, P < 0.001 for each cause), while, in participants with BMI ≥25 kg/m, each 5 kg/m higher BMI was also associated with an elevated mortality from nonneoplastic liver diseases of approximately 150% (HR = 2.52, P = 0.001). Men with BMI < 21 kg/m and weekly alcohol consumption ≥14 drinks showed markedly higher mortality from nonneoplastic liver diseases (HR = 5.7), alcoholic liver diseases (HR = 9.3), UADT cancers (HR = 10.5), and esophageal cancer (HR = 15.5), compared to men drinking less than 1 drink/wk with BMI ≥25 kg/m. The combined effect of low BMI and high weekly alcohol consumption was 2.25- to 3.29-fold greater than the additive effect of each factor for these alcohol-related diseases (P < 0.05 for each cause).Alcohol consumption and low BMI were related to deaths from nonneoplastic liver diseases, UADT

  13. The nature of the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) shear zone: Constraints from structural, microstructural and fabric analyses of metamorphic rocks from the Diancang Shan, Ailao Shan and Day Nui Con Voi massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junlai; Tang, Yuan; Tran, My-Dung; Cao, Shuyun; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Zhaochong; Zhao, Zhidan; Chen, Wen

    2012-03-01

    The structural geology, timing of shearing, and tectonic implications of the ASRR shear zone, one of the most striking lineaments in Southeast Asia, have been the topics of extensive studies over the past few decades. The Xuelong Shan (XLS), Diancang Shan (DCS), Ailao Shan (ALS) and Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) metamorphic massifs along the shear zone have preserved important information on its structural and tectonic evolution. Our field structural analysis, detailed microstructural and fabric analysis, as well as the quartz, sillimanite and garnet fabric studies of the sheared rocks from the massifs demonstrate the dominant roles of three deformation episodes during Cenozoic tectonic evolution in the shear zone. Among the contrasting structural and microstructural associations in the shear zone, D2 structures, which were formed at the brittle to ductile transition during large-scale left-lateral shearing in the second deformation episode, predominate over the structural styles of the other two deformation episodes. Discrete micro-shear zones with intensive grain size reduction compose the characteristic structural style of D2 deformation. In addition, several types of folds (early shearing folds, F21, and late-shearing folds, F22) were formed in the sheared rocks, including discrete to distributed mylonitic foliation, stretching lineation and shear fabrics (e.g., mica fish, domino structures, as well as sigma and delta fabrics). A sequence of microstructures from syn-kinematic magmatic flow, high-temperature solid-state deformation, to brittle-ductile shearing is well-preserved in the syn-kinematic leucocratic intrusions. Deformation structures from the first episode (D1) are characterized by F1 folds and distributed foliations (S1) in rocks due to pure shearing at high temperatures. They are preserved in weakly sheared (D2) rocks along the eastern margin of the ALS belt or in certain low-strain tectonic enclaves within the shear zone. Furthermore, semi

  14. La Reforme de l'enseignement superieur (Higher Education Reform).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorand, Christian

    1973-01-01

    This article attempts an analysis of the present-day French university system and an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the educational reforms which have been instituted since the upheaval of May 1968. Educational legislation relevant to the new directions in the French universities is discussed, as well as the organization of the…

  15. An Integrated Digital Campus Delivers ROI and VOI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsstrom, Jan; Ham, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Five years ago, North Shore Community College (NSCC) encountered rising enrollments in the face of lagging state funding. The addition of two new campuses stretched NSCC thin as it attempted to provide administrative and academic services across five (more recently consolidated to four) locations. Its students increasingly struggled to balance the…

  16. Oil and Gas Exploration Planning using VOI Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peskova, D. N.; Sizykh, A. V.; Rukavishnikov, V. S.

    2016-03-01

    Paper deals with actual problem about making decisions during field development. The main aim was to apply method “Value of information” in order to estimate the necessity of field exploration works and show the effectiveness of this method. The object of analysis - field X, which is located in the Eastern Siberia. The reservoir is B13 formation of Vend age. The Field has complex structure, and divided into blocks by faults. During evaluation of the project, main uncertainties and oil in place were obtained for three blocks of the field. According to uncertainty analysis, it was suggested to drill a new exploration well, and value of information method was applied to estimate results from this exploration works. Economic evaluation of the value of information method was made by choosing optimal development strategy. According to the obtained results, drilling of the exploration wells for blocks 1 and 3 of the field X is a good decision, while drilling a well in the second block is risky and not recommended. Also using the value of information, optimal well locations were advised - well l_le for the first block, and well 33 for the third block.

  17. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Caustic ingestion injury of the upper aerodigestive tract in adults

    PubMed Central

    Jaulim, A; Vaz, F; Sandhu, G; Wood, S; Birchall, M; Dawas, K

    2015-01-01

    Adult ingestion of caustic substances is an unusual but serious surgical problem, with injuries likely to be more extensive than those in the corresponding paediatric population. After initial stabilisation and airway management, clinicians are presented with a complex multisystemic problem, frequently requiring a multidisciplinary approach involving several surgical disciplines and associated therapies. A new multidisciplinary team was convened to discuss complex ingestion injury in adults and established techniques were used to bring forward a proposed treatment algorithm. An algorithm may potentially improve clinical efficacy and risk in the management of these complex patients. PMID:26263940

  19. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approa | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers.

  20. Training in Human Relations for Engineers at the Ecole Superieure D'Informatique-Electronique-Automatique (ESIEA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafargue, M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Points out the need to provide engineers with training in human relations. Describes the process of developing a document defining the problem and steps to be taken toward solution, submitted to students for their evaluation. (JM)

  1. Pratique d'apprentissage en ligne aux etudes superieures (Online Learning for Higher Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Louise

    2001-01-01

    Online learning requires new approaches to teaching and learning. At the University of Montreal, 28 graduate students in education and adult students specializing in educational technology attended an experimental distance education course. Students identified advantages and disadvantages of online learning/teaching and reflected on how the course…

  2. From "Ecoles Superieures de Commerce" to "Management Schools": Transformations and Continuity in French Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Part of the national system of grandes Ecoles, French Business schools have known radical changes since the 1980s, notably in size, and have become more attractive to students both at a national and an international level. As a consequence, the French elitist system has been questioned by the competition of foreign--especially Anglo-Saxon--models.…

  3. L'enseignement superieur tunisien: Enjeux et avenir (Higher Education in Tunisia: Challenges and Opportunities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report presents findings of a study of higher education in Tunisia. It finds that higher education in Tunisia is a largely effective and well-performing system. However, it notes an expected doubling of enrollment over the next 10 years which will create obstacles that prevent it from playing the role expected of it by a society and economy…

  4. Coulees volcaniques dans le paleozoique superieur des zones internes helleniques (Grece continentale) — environnement sedimentaire et caracterisation petrographique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Bernard; Lapierre, Henriette

    1980-12-01

    Volcanic flows of Late Paleozoic age in the Pelagonian zone belonging to the internal Hellenic zones, have been studied, for the first time, from petrographical and geochemical viewpoints. Relevant petrographical data and the geochemical analysis lead us to consider that: (a) the basic lavas can be linked to tholeitic basalts. (b) the acid lavas are associated to metarhyolites. (c) the two magmatic flows do not originate from the same parental magma. The geochemical results obtained, compared to those from other deposits of nearly the same age outcropping around the Mediterranean, indicate that the latest Hercynian volcanism has been affected by intra-plate distension phenomena preceding the great Lower Mesozoic break-up which caused the formation of the Tethys Ocean. It is remarkable that in the Mesogean Basin the sedimentary environment is nearly similar to that described in this paper. The volcanic flows end up in a sialic sedimentary basin containing coarse detritic formations that resulted from erosion of the Variscan chain along the southern margin of the European continent.

  5. Transoral robotic surgery: role in the management of upper aerodigestive tract tumors.

    PubMed

    Genden, Eric M; O'Malley, Bert W; Weinstein, Gregory S; Stucken, Chaz L; Selber, Jesse C; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Hockstein, Neil G; Ozer, Enver; Mallet, Yann; Satava, Richard M; Moore, Eric J; Silver, Carl E; Ferlito, Alfio

    2012-06-01

    The toxicity associated with concomitant chemoradiation for the management of laryngeal and pharyngeal carcinoma has been well documented. Minimally invasive surgical techniques offer the potential to extirpate the malignancy as a single-modality therapy and provide essential information that may direct subsequent treatment. In selected patients, radiation doses may be reduced and systemic chemotherapy may be withheld after tumor extirpation. Transoral laser microsurgery has proven effective, although inability to manipulate and suture tissue by this modality limits ablation and reconstruction of extensive defects. Transoral robotic surgery is a relatively new technique that provides several unique advantages, which include a 3-dimensional magnified view, ability to see and work around curves or angles, and the availability of 2 or 3 robotic arms that can be used to reconstruct extensive defects using either local, regional, or free flaps. Preliminary data suggest that transoral robotic surgery may provide a technique for ablation and reconstruction of pharyngeal defects that may be superior to other transoral techniques. It may also provide a means for personalizing therapy for oropharyngeal and supraglottic carcinoma. PMID:22610591

  6. [Involvement of human papillomavirus in upper aero-digestive tracts cancers].

    PubMed

    Neufcoeur, P Ernoux; Arafa, M; Delvenne, P; Saussez, S

    2009-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted infection in the world. France and Belgium present one of the highest incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) worldwide. Besides, considering only the male population, HNSCCs represent the fourth most frequent cancer after prostate, lung and colon cancers. Although the causal link between high-risk HPVs and cervical carcinoma is well established, the implication of this viral infection in HNSCC remains debatable. Here, we discuss current knowledge concerning the HPV implication in HNSCCs. Based on our literature review, 20 to 25% of HNSCCs could be associated with oncogenic HPVs, in particular HPV type 16. The oropharynx--more precisely the tonsil--is the head and neck location presenting the highest incidence of HPV infection. Moreover, a clear increase of tonsillar carcinoma incidence has been described. As observed in cervical carcinomas, HPV positive HNSCCs are sexually transmitted and characterized by alterations of p53 and pRb signalling pathways. Several studies have shown that HPV positive subgroup presented better prognosis particularly if these patients overexpressed p16INK4. New studies regarding HPV status in HNSCCs are warranted to provide a rationale for large scale HPV vaccination in young male populations.

  7. Active Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Unusual causes of fatal upper aerodigestive tract obstruction in wild Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops aduncus).

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Tomo, Ikuko; Kemper, Catherine M; Gibbs, Susan E; Bossley, Mike; Machado, Aaron; Hill, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Necropsy examination of dolphins living in Gulf St Vincent, Australia is routinely undertaken to enable the evaluation of disease processes and to provide rapid medicolegal assessment of any inflicted and/or accidental injuries. Two Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) are reported to demonstrate conditions that may result in unexpected death involving upper airway compromise by quite unusual mechanisms. In the first case an adult male was found with extensive soft tissue trauma suggesting human interaction. At necropsy, death was due instead to upper airway obstruction from an impacted Slender-spined Porcupine Fish (Diodon nichthemerus) in the posterior pharynx and upper esophagus. In the second case, an adult male dolphin was found to have died, following several weeks' illness, from upper airway obstruction due to extensive respiratory tract papillomatosis within the blowhole. Given the infectious etiology of this condition the local population will be monitored for similar lesions. These cases demonstrate rare causes of upper airway obstruction in wild dolphins that were identifiable only after detailed necropsy examination. The possibility of human involvement in the deaths could be excluded. PMID:20165933

  9. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. From Higher Education To Employment. Volume I: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Germany = De l'enseignement superieur a l'emploi. Volume I: Allemagne, Australie, Autriche, Belgique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume presents reports on the flows of graduates from higher education and on their entry into working life in Germany, Austria, Belgium, and Australia. Each paper is written according to detailed guidelines designed to assemble information from many sources, to reflect the state of the art, and to illustrate a variety of approaches,…

  11. Une experience de collaboration entre la BBC et des etablissements d'enseignement superieur britanniques (Collaboration Experiences between BBC and Some British Higher Education Institutions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Describes the BBC French language program and the activities that have resulted from BBC's collaboration with institutions such as the Brighton Polytechnic. These activites include the organization of intensive courses, the publication of instructional materials for teachers, and the development of correspondence studies. (MES)

  12. SPS 91 - Power from space; Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium, Ecole Superieure d'Electricite, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, Aug. 27-30, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on the concept of Solar Power Satellites (SPS) are presented. The general topics addressed include: global energy issues; SPS demonstration projects; extraterrestrial materials; power generation, conversion, and storage; environmental issues; development strategies.

  13. Local network interconnection through a satellite point-to-multipoint link. Ph.D. Thesis - Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, 6 Jul. 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duarte, O. Muniz Bandeira

    1986-01-01

    Four architectures to implement a point to multipoint satellite link protocol for communication services offered by the Telecom 1 satellite network are presented. A safe communication service with error correction and flow control facilities is described. It is shown that a time transparent communication system combines simplicity and cost advantages.

  14. Higher Education and Social Origin in France: A Statistical Study of Inequalities Since 1965 = Enseignement Superieur Et Origine Sociale En France: Etude Statistique Des Inegalites Depuis 1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaoul, Magali

    2004-01-01

    Mass education has the goal of guaranteeing the same education to all in order to moderate differences between individuals and promote a kind of "equality of opportunity." Nonetheless, it seems clear that lower-class youths do not benefit as much from their degree or university experience as do those who come from more privileged backgrounds. The…

  15. [Experimental hybridization of voies of the genus Microtus s.l. M. socialis with species of the group arvalis (Mammalia, Rodentia)].

    PubMed

    Koval'skaia, Iu M; Savinetskaia, L E; Aksenova, T G

    2014-01-01

    The results of interspecific crosses of the social vole Microtus socialis with the Altai vole M. obscurus, the East European vole M. rossiaemeridionalis, and the Transcaspian vole M. transcaspicus are presented. The role of the sperm head structure in the reproductive isolation of this species was studied. Hybrids were obtained in five of the six crossing combinations. It is established that significant differences in the sperm head shape in the social vole and in arvalis group species do not prevent fertilization. The sterility of hybrids indicates the existence of postcopulative mechanisms of reproductive isolation.

  16. WindVOiCe, a Self-Reporting Survey: Adverse Health Effects, Industrial Wind Turbines, and the Need for Vigilance Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Carmen M. E.; Gillis, Lorrie; Kouwen, Nicholas; Aramini, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Industrial wind turbines have been operating in many parts of the globe. Anecdotal reports of perceived adverse health effects relating to industrial wind turbines have been published in the media and on the Internet. Based on these reports, indications were that some residents perceived they were experiencing adverse health effects. The purpose…

  17. Autofluorescence spectroscopy of normal and malignant tissues: both in-vivo and ex-vivo measurements in the upper aero-digestive tract and lung tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A'Amar, Ousama M.; Lignon, Dominique; Menard, O.; Begorre, Henri; Guillemin, Francois H.; Yvroud, Edouard

    1996-04-01

    A spectroscopic system with flexible three optical fiber sensor had been developed to study tissue fluorescence for a clinical use. Autofluorescence spectra at 413 nm and 10 mW excitation light power from different tissues in oral cavity had been measured in vivo in 25 subjects. The correlation coefficient in spectral shape between individual spectra and the mean emission spectrum of each site was about 0.9 and fluorescence intensity variation ranged between 20% and 45% according to the examined site. The variation in fluorescence intensity of the main emission wavelength at about 520 nm between spectra of the lower part of tongue, gingiva, lips, floor of cavity, cheek and palate was not statistically significant. But the spectrum of the upper part of tongue had been characterized by an additional peak around 635 nm. Otherwise, autofluorescence spectra at 410 nm and 0.5 mW excitation light power of 8 carcinoma of buccal and lung tissues were measured. The fluorescence ratio at 520 emission peak between normal tissue and carcinoma was evaluated at a maximum value of 13 for a lung cancer (ex vivo measurement) and a minimum of 3.3 for a cancer of the oro-pharynx (in vivo measurement). On the other hand, a fluorescence peak at 635 nm had characterized the carcinoma of the floor of cavity and the upper part of tongue.

  18. Accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: a comparative study with aero-digestive lesions

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaobo; Xu, Hao; He, Mingjing; Han, Qi; Wang, Hui; Sun, Chongkui; Li, Jing; Jiang, Lu; Zhou, Yu; Dan, Hongxia; Feng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Presently, various studies had investigated the accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with diverse conclusions. This study aimed to assess its accuracy for OSCC and OPMD and to investigate its applicability in general dental practice. After a comprehensive literature search, a meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled diagnostic indexes of autofluorescence for premalignant lesions (PML) and malignant lesions (ML) of the oral cavity, lung, esophagus, stomach and colorectum and to compute indexes regarding the detection of OSCC aided by algorithms. Besides, a u test was performed. Twenty-four studies detecting OSCC and OPMD in 2761 lesions were included. This demonstrated that the overall accuracy of autofluorescence for OSCC and OPMD was superior to PML and ML of the lung, esophagus and stomach, slightly inferior to the colorectum. Additionally, the sensitivity and specificity for OSCC and OPMD were 0.89 and 0.8, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity could be remarkably improved by additional algorithms. With relatively high accuracy, autofluorescence could be potentially applied as an adjunct for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD. Moreover, approaches such as algorithms could enhance its specificity to ensure its efficacy in primary care. PMID:27416981

  19. La creation du CEGEP Marie-Victorin. Avis a la ministre de l'enseignement superieur et de la Science (The Creation of CEGEP Marie-Victorin. Advisory to the Minister of Higher Education and Science).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conseil des Colleges, Quebec (Quebec).

    A rationale is provided by the Council of Colleges for transforming Marie-Victorin College from a private institution into a public college of general and professional education (CEGEP). The council's analysis covers four areas: (1) access to postsecondary education, examined in light of demographic trends, geographic accessibility, adult…

  20. L'E.A.P. ou l'anglais enseigne dans les etudes superieures. Un guide pour le debutant (E.A.P. or English for Academic Purposes: A Guide for the Beginner).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Peter J.

    1981-01-01

    Addresses those readers who are not familiar with EAP, offering an introductory discussion of its objectives and methods, in two parts. Devotes the first part to the needs that justify an EAP approach, and the second to its methodology, with particular attention to interdisciplinary, task-oriented instruction. Societe Nouvelle Didier Erudition, 40…

  1. EDUCAFRICA, December 1986. Special Issue: Case Studies on Higher Education in Africa. Special Volume 1=EDUCAFRICA, Decembre 1986. Etudes de cas sur L'Enseignement Superieur en Afrique, Tome 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAFRICA, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Case studies of the development of higher education in 17 African countries are presented. Eleven of the case studies are written in French, and six are in English. The country reports that are in English are as follows: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Malawi, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania. The country reports in French are: Benin, Burkina Faso,…

  2. L'enseignement de l'anglais dans les colleges anglophones. Avis au ministre de l'enseignement superieur et de la science (English Instruction in English-Speaking Colleges. Advisory to the Minister of Higher Education and Science).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conseil des Colleges, Quebec (Quebec).

    The quality of language is a matter of concern in numerous educational systems throughout the world. In Quebec, questions of the health of both the French and English languages take on particular importance. This report makes a series of proposals to the Ministry of Higher Education and Science designed to ensure the coherence and quality of…

  3. Highlighting the Impacts of North-South Research Collaboration among Canadian and Southern Higher Education Partners (Principaux impacts des collaborations de recherche Nord-Sud entre les partenaires des etablissements d'enseignement superieur du Canada et du Sud)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) felt it was timely to create an academic forum in which university researchers have the opportunity to engage with their peers and relevant stakeholders and document the impacts of their North-South research collaboration in a peer-reviewed publication. The Association achieved this by…

  4. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-19

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  5. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  6. 28 CFR 91.56 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis Grant Program § 91.56 Actions that normally require the preparation of...

  7. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis Grant Program § 91.57 Actions that normally require the...

  8. Trial of Postoperative Radiation, Cisplatin, and Panitumumab in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-28

    Cancer of Head; Cancer of Head and Neck; Cancer of Neck; Cancer of the Head; Cancer of the Head and Neck; Cancer of the Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Head Cancer; Head Neoplasms; Head, Neck Neoplasms; Neck Cancer; Neck Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Head; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Neoplasms, Neck; Neoplasms, Upper Aerodigestive Tract; UADT Neoplasms; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Neoplasms

  9. Contrast-to-noise ratio improvement in volume-of-interest cone beam breast CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Youtao; Liu, Xinming; Lai, Chao-Jen; Zhong, Yuncheng; Yi, Ying; You, Zhicheng; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) improvement in breast cone beam CT (CBCT) using the volume-of-interest (VOI) scanning technique. In VOI breast CBCT, the breast is first scanned at a low exposure level. A pre-selected VOI is then scanned at a higher exposure level with collimated x-rays. The two image sets are combined together to reconstruct high quality 3-D images of the VOI. A flat panel detector based system was built to demonstrate and investigate the CNR improvement in VOI breast CBCT. The CNRs of the 8 plastic cones (Teflon, Delrin, polycarbonate, Lucite, solid water, high density polystyrene, nylon and polystyrene) in a breast phantom were measured in images obtained with the VOI CBCT technique and compared to those measured in standard full field CBCT images. CNRs in VOI CBCT images were found to be higher than those in regular CBCT images in all plastic cones. The mean glandular doses (MGDs) from the combination of a high exposure VOI scan and a low exposure full-field scan was estimated to be similar to that from regular full-field scan at standard exposure level. The VOI CBCT technique allows a VOI to be imaged with enhanced image quality with an MGD similar to that from regular CBCT technique.

  10. The Acquisition of Stereochemical Knowledge by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boukhechem, Mohamed-Salah; Dumon, Alain; Zouikri, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the level of difficulty found in learning stereochemistry concepts, by students intending to teach physical sciences at the Ecole Normale Superieure (ENS) Kouba (Algeria). A paper and pencil questionnaire was administered to 170 students to evaluate: their familiarity with Newman representations; their ability of linking…

  11. The Idea of a Normal University in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhoe, Ruth; Li, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of normal colleges and universities is an important component of building a modern country, which possesses different value ethos with the universities. The emergence of the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris and the local normal schools has set a new model for teacher education around the world and promoted values and knowledge…

  12. Conceptual Integration of Hybridization by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salah, Hazzi; Dumon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to assess the difficulties encountered by students of the Ecole Normale Superieure of Kouba (Algeria) intending to teach physical science in the integration of the hybridization of atomic orbitals. It is a concept that they should use in describing the formation of molecular orbitals ([sigma] and [pi]) in organic chemistry and gaps…

  13. Decrire et enseigner une competence de communication: remarques sur quelques solutions de continuite. L'Enseignement de la competence de communication en langues secondes. (Describing and Teaching Communicative Competence: Some Remarks on Solutions of Continuity. The Teaching of Communicative Competence in Second Languages.) Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coste, Daniel

    Two projects of the Ecole Normale Superieure de Saint-Cloud (CREDIF) are described and critically analyzed in this paper: the definition of a threshold level, "Niveau-seuil," in French and a learning module, "Looking for Work," intended to teach necessary written French to migrant workers. The threshold level section is a reference document for…

  14. The Normative Effects of Higher Education Policy in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Elise

    2012-01-01

    This student survey was a response to the French youth unrest in 2005 and 2006. It considers the degree to which French higher and secondary education institutions create social cohesion. Focusing on three distinct higher-education institutions: "L'institut d'etudes politiques de Paris" (Sciences Po), "Ecole Normale Superieure," Paris 8, and a…

  15. A Prestigious Image: Advantage or Obstacle in Attracting Candidates to French Elite Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draelants, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and twenty students successful at entering four of the most famous French "grandes ecoles" ("Ecole Normale Superieure" Ulm, Polytechnique, HEC, Sciences Po) were questioned about their institution's image. We focus on how the prestige of these institutions in the French society played a role in students' attraction and contributed to…

  16. High resolution dual detector volume-of-interest cone beam breast CT - Demonstration with a bench top system

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Youtao; Yi Ying; Zhong Yuncheng; Lai Chaojen; Liu Xinming; You Zhicheng; Ge Shuaiping; Wang Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: In this study, we used a small field high resolution detector in conjunction with a full field flat panel detector to implement and investigate the dual detector volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam breast computed tomography (CBCT) technique on a bench-top system. The potential of using this technique to image small calcifications without increasing the overall dose to the breast was demonstrated. Significant reduction of scatter components in the high resolution projection image data of the VOI was also shown. Methods: With the regular flat panel based CBCT technique, exposures were made at 80 kVp to generate an air kerma of 6 mGys at the isocenter. With the dual detector VOI CBCT technique, a high resolution small field CMOS detector was used to scan a cylindrical VOI (2.5 cm in diameter and height, 4.5 cm off-center) with collimated x-rays at four times of regular exposure level. A flat panel detector was used for full field scan with low x-ray exposures at half of the regular exposure level. The low exposure full field image data were used to fill in the truncated space in the VOI scan data and generate a complete projection image set. The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct high resolution images for the VOI. Two scanning techniques, one breast centered and the other VOI centered, were implemented and investigated. Paraffin cylinders with embedded thin aluminum (Al) wires were imaged and used in conjunction with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dose measurements to demonstrate the ability of this technique to image small calcifications without increasing the mean glandular dose (MGD). Results: Using exposures that produce an air kerma of 6 mGys at the isocenter, the regular CBCT technique was able to resolve the cross-sections of Al wires as thin as 254 {mu}m in diameter in the phantom. For the specific VOI studied, by increasing the exposure level by a factor of 4 for the VOI scan and reducing

  17. High resolution dual detector volume-of-interest cone beam breast CT––Demonstration with a bench top system

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Youtao; Yi, Ying; Zhong, Yuncheng; Lai, Chao-Jen; Liu, Xinming; You, Zhicheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we used a small field high resolution detector in conjunction with a full field flat panel detector to implement and investigate the dual detector volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam breast computed tomography (CBCT) technique on a bench-top system. The potential of using this technique to image small calcifications without increasing the overall dose to the breast was demonstrated. Significant reduction of scatter components in the high resolution projection image data of the VOI was also shown. Methods: With the regular flat panel based CBCT technique, exposures were made at 80 kVp to generate an air kerma of 6 mGys at the isocenter. With the dual detector VOI CBCT technique, a high resolution small field CMOS detector was used to scan a cylindrical VOI (2.5 cm in diameter and height, 4.5 cm off-center) with collimated x-rays at four times of regular exposure level. A flat panel detector was used for full field scan with low x-ray exposures at half of the regular exposure level. The low exposure full field image data were used to fill in the truncated space in the VOI scan data and generate a complete projection image set. The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct high resolution images for the VOI. Two scanning techniques, one breast centered and the other VOI centered, were implemented and investigated. Paraffin cylinders with embedded thin aluminum (Al) wires were imaged and used in conjunction with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dose measurements to demonstrate the ability of this technique to image small calcifications without increasing the mean glandular dose (MGD). Results: Using exposures that produce an air kerma of 6 mGys at the isocenter, the regular CBCT technique was able to resolve the cross-sections of Al wires as thin as 254 μm in diameter in the phantom. For the specific VOI studied, by increasing the exposure level by a factor of 4 for the VOI scan and reducing the

  18. When do we need more data? A primer on calculating the value of information for applied ecologists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canessa, Stefano; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Southwell, Darren M; Armstrong, Doug P.; Chadès, Iadine; Lacy, Robert C; Converse, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    The VoI depends on our current knowledge, the quality of the information collected and the expected outcomes of the available management actions. Collecting information can require significant investments of resources; VoI analysis assists managers in deciding whether these investments are justified.

  19. Semi-automatic classification of textures in thoracic CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P.; de Jong, Pim A.; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Wittenberg, Rianne; Tiehuis, Audrey M.; Gietema, Hester A.; Grutters, Jan C.; Viergever, Max A.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2016-08-01

    The textural patterns in the lung parenchyma, as visible on computed tomography (CT) scans, are essential to make a correct diagnosis in interstitial lung disease. We developed one automatic and two interactive protocols for classification of normal and seven types of abnormal lung textures. Lungs were segmented and subdivided into volumes of interest (VOIs) with homogeneous texture using a clustering approach. In the automatic protocol, VOIs were classified automatically by an extra-trees classifier that was trained using annotations of VOIs from other CT scans. In the interactive protocols, an observer iteratively trained an extra-trees classifier to distinguish the different textures, by correcting mistakes the classifier makes in a slice-by-slice manner. The difference between the two interactive methods was whether or not training data from previously annotated scans was used in classification of the first slice. The protocols were compared in terms of the percentages of VOIs that observers needed to relabel. Validation experiments were carried out using software that simulated observer behavior. In the automatic classification protocol, observers needed to relabel on average 58% of the VOIs. During interactive annotation without the use of previous training data, the average percentage of relabeled VOIs decreased from 64% for the first slice to 13% for the second half of the scan. Overall, 21% of the VOIs were relabeled. When previous training data was available, the average overall percentage of VOIs requiring relabeling was 20%, decreasing from 56% in the first slice to 13% in the second half of the scan.

  20. Value of Information Evaluation using Field Data

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor-Guitton, W.

    2015-06-15

    Value of information (VOI) provides the ability to identify and prioritize useful information gathering for a geothermal prospect, either hydrothermal or for enhanced geothermal systems. Useful information provides a value greater than the cost of the information; wasteful information costs more than the expected value of the information. In this project we applied and refined VOI methodologies on selected geothermal prospects.

  1. 28 CFR 91.54 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis Grant Program § 91.54... major federal action that might significantly impact the quality of the human environment. The CEQ regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 define “major federal actions” as actions with effects that may be major...

  2. Interactive annotation of textures in thoracic CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P.; de Jong, Pim A.; Gietema, Hester A.; Grutters, Jan C.; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram

    2010-03-01

    This study describes a system for interactive annotation of thoracic CT scans. Lung volumes in these scans are segmented and subdivided into roughly spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) with homogeneous texture using a clustering procedure. For each 3D VOI, 72 features are calculated. The observer inspects the scan to determine which textures are present and annotates, with mouse clicks, several VOIs of each texture. Based on these annotations, a k-nearest-neighbor classifier is trained, which classifies all remaining VOIs in the scan. The algorithm then presents a slice with suggested annotations to the user, in which the user can correct mistakes. The classifier is retrained, taking into account these new annotations, and the user is presented another slice for correction. This process continues until at least 50% of all lung voxels in the scan have been classified. The remaining VOIs are classified automatically. In this way, the entire lung volume is annotated. The system has been applied to scans of patients with usual and non-specific interstitial pneumonia. The results of interactive annotation are compared to a setup in which the user annotates all predefined VOIs manually. The interactive system is 3.7 times as fast as complete manual annotation of VOIs and differences between the methods are similar to interobserver variability. This is a first step towards precise volumetric quantitation of texture patterns in thoracic CT in clinical research and in clinical practice.

  3. Phenylketonuria: brain phenylalanine concentrations relate inversely to cerebral protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Martijn J; Sijens, Paul E; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Paans, Anne M; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2015-02-01

    In phenylketonuria, elevated plasma phenylalanine concentrations may disturb blood-to-brain large neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport and cerebral protein synthesis (CPS). We investigated the associations between these processes, using data obtained by positron emission tomography with l-[1-(11)C]-tyrosine ((11)C-Tyr) as a tracer. Blood-to-brain transport of non-Phe LNAAs was modeled by the rate constant for (11)C-Tyr transport from arterial plasma to brain tissue (K1), while CPS was modeled by the rate constant for (11)C-Tyr incorporation into cerebral protein (k3). Brain phenylalanine concentrations were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in three volumes of interest (VOIs): supraventricular brain tissue (VOI 1), ventricular brain tissue (VOI 2), and fluid-containing ventricular voxels (VOI 3). The associations between k3 and each predictor variable were analyzed by multiple linear regression. The rate constant k3 was inversely associated with brain phenylalanine concentrations in VOIs 2 and 3 (adjusted R(2)=0.826, F=19.936, P=0.021). Since brain phenylalanine concentrations in these VOIs highly correlated with each other, the specific associations of each predictor with k3 could not be determined. The associations between k3 and plasma phenylalanine concentration, K1, and brain phenylalanine concentrations in VOI 1 were nonsignificant. In conclusion, our study shows an inverse association between k3 and increased brain phenylalanine concentrations.

  4. Water Experiments Related To The "Von Karman Sodium" Dynamo Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, L.; Bourgoin, M.; Petrelis, F.; Roy, J.; Burguete, J.; Chiffaudel, A.; Daviaud, F.; Fauve, S.; Odier, P.; Pinton, J.-F.

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the "Von Karman Sodium" (V.K.S.) experiment is to study the "Dynamo Effect," namely the spontaneous generation of magnetic field in a flow of electrically conducting fluid. The device has been built at CEA / Cadarache, in collaboration with CEA / Saclay, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon and Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris. It consists of a cylindrical vessel, filled with liquid Sodium, in which two coaxial rotating disks induce a Von-Karman type flow. Several experimental runs have taken place since June 2000. In order to optimize the V.K.S. set-up, a half-scale water prototype has also been built. It has allowed us to measure mean velocity profiles, as well as pressure fluctuations and mechanical power dissipation. We have observed that under certain circumstances the mean component of the turbulent flow can undergo a global bifurcation.

  5. Une Exception Francaise: Les Grandes Ecoles (A French Exception: The Great Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role of exceptional schools in France that have produced famous personages such as Charles de Gaulle and Jean-Paul Sartre. The schools reviewed include L'Ecole Nationale d'Administration, L'Ecole Polytechnique, L'Ecole Normale Superieure, L'Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Saint-Cyr, and L'Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris.…

  6. 28 CFR 91.53 - Other guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Justice has also published NEPA procedures that incorporate the CEQ regulations at 28 CFR part 61... documents can be found at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/cpo. Application to VOI/TIS Grant Program...

  7. 28 CFR 91.52 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Environmental Policy Act, 40 CFR Parts 1500 through 1508, (CEQ Regulations), shall apply to the... Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program In General § 91.52 Definitions. The definitions supplied by the...

  8. 28 CFR 91.50 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program In General § 91.50 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to inform grant recipients under the Violent Offender Incarceration and Truth-in-Sentencing Incentive...

  9. The value of value of information: best informing research design and prioritization using current methods.

    PubMed

    Eckermann, Simon; Karnon, Jon; Willan, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    Value of information (VOI) methods have been proposed as a systematic approach to inform optimal research design and prioritization. Four related questions arise that VOI methods could address. (i) Is further research for a health technology assessment (HTA) potentially worthwhile? (ii) Is the cost of a given research design less than its expected value? (iii) What is the optimal research design for an HTA? (iv) How can research funding be best prioritized across alternative HTAs? Following Occam's razor, we consider the usefulness of VOI methods in informing questions 1-4 relative to their simplicity of use. Expected value of perfect information (EVPI) with current information, while simple to calculate, is shown to provide neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition to address question 1, given that what EVPI needs to exceed varies with the cost of research design, which can vary from very large down to negligible. Hence, for any given HTA, EVPI does not discriminate, as it can be large and further research not worthwhile or small and further research worthwhile. In contrast, each of questions 1-4 are shown to be fully addressed (necessary and sufficient) where VOI methods are applied to maximize expected value of sample information (EVSI) minus expected costs across designs. In comparing complexity in use of VOI methods, applying the central limit theorem (CLT) simplifies analysis to enable easy estimation of EVSI and optimal overall research design, and has been shown to outperform bootstrapping, particularly with small samples. Consequently, VOI methods applying the CLT to inform optimal overall research design satisfy Occam's razor in both improving decision making and reducing complexity. Furthermore, they enable consideration of relevant decision contexts, including option value and opportunity cost of delay, time, imperfect implementation and optimal design across jurisdictions. More complex VOI methods such as bootstrapping of the expected value of

  10. Value of Information Analysis within a Stakeholder-Driven Research Prioritization Process in a US Setting: An Application in Cancer Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Josh J.; Thariani, Rahber; Roth, Josh; Gralow, Julie; Henry, N. Lynn; Esmail, Laura; Deverka, Pat; Ramsey, Scott D.; Baker, Laurence; Veenstra, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of incorporating value of information (VOI) analysis into a stakeholder-driven research prioritization process in a US-based setting. Methods Within a program to prioritize comparative effectiveness research areas in cancer genomics, over a period of 7 months, we developed decision-analytic models and calculated upper-bound VOI estimates for three previously selected genomic tests. Thirteen stakeholders representing patient advocates, payers, test developers, regulators, policy-makers, and community-based oncologists ranked the tests before and after receiving VOI results. The stakeholders were surveyed about the usefulness and impact of the VOI findings. Results The estimated upper-bound VOI ranged from $33M to $2.8 billion for the three research areas. Seven stakeholders indicated the results modified their rankings, nine stated VOI data was useful, and all indicated they would support its use in future prioritization processes. Some stakeholders indicated expected value of sampled information might be the preferred choice when evaluating specific study designs. Limitations Our study was limited by the size and the potential for selection bias in the composition of the external stakeholder group, lack of a randomized design to assess effect of VOI data on rankings, and the use of expected value of perfect information versus expected value of sample information methods. Conclusions Value of information analyses may have a meaningful role in research topic prioritization for comparative effectiveness research in the US, particularly when large differences in VOI across topic areas are identified. Additional research is needed to facilitate the use of more complex value of information analyses in this setting. PMID:23635833

  11. Concentration maxima of volatile organic iodine compounds in the bottom layer water and the cold, dense water over the Chukchi Sea in the western Arctic Ocean: a possibility of production related to degradation of organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooki, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Kuma, K.; Nishino, S.; Kikuchi, T.

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a shipboard observation over the Chukchi Sea and the Canada Basin in the western Arctic Ocean in September and October 2012 to obtain vertical distributions of four volatile organic iodine compounds (VOIs) in seawater. VOIs are believed to play a role in ozone destruction in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The VOIs observed in this study were iodomethane (CH3I), iodoethane (C2H5I), diiodomethane (CH2I2) and chloroiodomethane (CH2ClI). Maximum concentrations of the four VOIs were found in the bottom layer water over the Chukchi Sea shelf, in which layer the maximum concentration of ammonium (NH4+) also occurred. A significant correlation was observed between C2H5I and NH4+ (correlate coefficient R = 0.93) and between CH3I and NH4+ (R = 0.77), suggesting production of these VOIs increased with degradation of organic matter. Over the northern Chukchi Sea shelf-slope area, concentration maxima of CH2I2, CH2ClI, and CH3I were found in the subsurface cold, dense water (CDW). A large nitrogen deficit (N-deficit = NH4+ + NO3- + NO2- - 16PO43-) simultaneously occurred in this water, suggesting production of the three VOIs in the sediment or the bottom layer water over the shelf, probably in association with degradation of organic matter. We conclude that VOI production over the Chukchi Sea shelf can be largely attributed to the degradation of organic matter that is produced in the highly productive shelf water. High concentrations of CH2ClI were also found in the Alaskan Coastal Water (ACW) from the Bering Strait to the surface of the northern Chukchi slope. The VOIs that originated at the Chukchi Sea shelf are expected to be laterally transported to the Arctic Ocean Basin though the subsurface CDW and the surface ACW.

  12. Computing Expected Value of Partial Sample Information from Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis Using Linear Regression Metamodeling.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hawre; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Kuntz, Karen M

    2015-07-01

    Decision makers often desire both guidance on the most cost-effective interventions given current knowledge and also the value of collecting additional information to improve the decisions made (i.e., from value of information [VOI] analysis). Unfortunately, VOI analysis remains underused due to the conceptual, mathematical, and computational challenges of implementing Bayesian decision-theoretic approaches in models of sufficient complexity for real-world decision making. In this study, we propose a novel practical approach for conducting VOI analysis using a combination of probabilistic sensitivity analysis, linear regression metamodeling, and unit normal loss integral function--a parametric approach to VOI analysis. We adopt a linear approximation and leverage a fundamental assumption of VOI analysis, which requires that all sources of prior uncertainties be accurately specified. We provide examples of the approach and show that the assumptions we make do not induce substantial bias but greatly reduce the computational time needed to perform VOI analysis. Our approach avoids the need to analytically solve or approximate joint Bayesian updating, requires only one set of probabilistic sensitivity analysis simulations, and can be applied in models with correlated input parameters. PMID:25840900

  13. Computing Expected Value of Partial Sample Information from Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis Using Linear Regression Metamodeling

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Hawre; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Kuntz, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Decision makers often desire both guidance on the most cost-effective interventions given current knowledge and also the value of collecting additional information to improve the decisions made [i.e., from value of information (VOI) analysis]. Unfortunately, VOI analysis remains underutilized due to the conceptual, mathematical and computational challenges of implementing Bayesian decision theoretic approaches in models of sufficient complexity for real-world decision making. In this study, we propose a novel practical approach for conducting VOI analysis using a combination of probabilistic sensitivity analysis, linear regression metamodeling, and unit normal loss integral function – a parametric approach to VOI analysis. We adopt a linear approximation and leverage a fundamental assumption of VOI analysis which requires that all sources of prior uncertainties be accurately specified. We provide examples of the approach and show that the assumptions we make do not induce substantial bias but greatly reduce the computational time needed to perform VOI analysis. Our approach avoids the need to analytically solve or approximate joint Bayesian updating, requires only one set of probabilistic sensitivity analysis simulations, and can be applied in models with correlated input parameters. PMID:25840900

  14. Solitary nodal metastases presenting as branchial cysts: a diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed Central

    Hardee, P. S.; Hutchison, I. L.

    1999-01-01

    Two patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma are presented. Both were initially clinically diagnosed as branchial cysts. The importance of a full examination of the upper aerodigestive tract, and fine needle aspiration cytology is emphasised to avoid the possibility of excision as a branchial cyst, which could lead to tumour dissemination. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10645169

  15. Thursday's Agenda | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    TimeAgenda8:30 am - 8:50 amRegistration - Networking8:50 am - 8:55 amWelcome and Opening RemarksLeslie Ford, MDAssociate Director for Clinical ResearchDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCIEva Szabo, MD Chief, Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group |

  16. Feeding & Motor Functioning: Start at the Hips to Get to the Lips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donato, Jessica; Fox, Cathy; Mormon, Johnnie; Mormon, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Swallowing is one of the most complex movement patterns that people must use accurately throughout the day and night from the time they are born. These movement patterns are very closely integrated with breathing and movement of food through the aerodigestive tract. Malalignment or dysfunction in any part of these integrated patterns and systems…

  17. Friday's Agenda | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    TimeAgenda8:00 am - 8:10 amWelcome and Opening RemarksLeslie Ford, MDAssociate Director for Clinical ResearchDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCIEva Szabo, MD Chief, Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research GroupDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCI8:10 am - 8:40 amClinical Trials Statistical Concepts for Non-Statisticians |

  18. Laryngotracheoesophageal clefts.

    PubMed

    Strychowsky, Julie E; Rahbar, Reza

    2016-06-01

    Laryngotracheoesophageal clefts are rare congenital anomalies of the aerodigestive tract. Patients may present with airway and/or swallowing impairments. An approach to evaluation and management is presented. Important pearls for conservative and surgical management are discussed. Open versus endoscopic surgical techniques are reviewed. PMID:27301597

  19. Concentration maxima of volatile organic iodine compounds in the bottom layer water and the cold, dense water over the Chukchi Sea in the western Arctic Ocean: a possibility of production related to the degradation of organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooki, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Kuma, K.; Nishino, S.; Kikuchi, T.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a shipboard observation over the Chukchi Sea and the Canada Basin in the western Arctic Ocean in September and October 2012 to obtain vertical distributions of four volatile organic iodine compounds (VOIs) in seawater. The VOIs observed in this study were iodomethane (CH3I), iodoethane (C2H5I), diiodomethane (CH2I2), and chloroiodomethane (CH2ClI). Maximum concentrations of the four VOIs were found in the bottom layer water over the Chukchi Sea shelf, in which layer the maximum concentration of ammonium (NH4+) also occurred. A significant correlation was observed between C2H5I and NH4+ (correlation coefficient R = 0.93, P < 0.01, n = 64) and between CH3I and NH4+ (R= 0.77, P < 0.01, n = 64), suggesting that the production of these VOIs increased with the degradation of organic matter. Over the northern Chukchi Sea shelf-slope area, concentration maxima of CHI2, CH2ClI, and CH3I were found in the subsurface cold, dense water (CDW). A large nitrogen deficit (N deficit = NH4++ NO3-+ NO2--16PO43-) occurred simultaneously in this water, suggesting the production of the three VOIs in the sediment or the bottom layer water over the shelf, probably in association with the degradation of organic matter. We conclude that VOI production over the Chukchi Sea shelf can be largely attributed to the degradation of organic matter that is produced in the highly productive shelf water. High concentrations of CH2ClI were also found in the Alaskan Coastal Water (ACW) from the Bering Strait to the surface of the northern Chukchi slope. The VOIs that originated at the Chukchi Sea shelf are expected to be laterally transported to the Arctic Ocean basin through the CDW and the surface ACW.

  20. SU-E-J-124: 18F-FDG PET Imaging to Improve RT Treatment Outcome for Locally Advanced Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shusharina, N; Khan, F; Sharp, G; Choi, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate spatial correlation between high uptake regions of pre- and 10-days-post therapy{sup 1} {sup 8}F-FDG PET in recurrent lung cancer and to evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation boosting only regions with high FDG uptake identified on baseline PET. Methods: Nineteen patients with stages II– IV inoperable lung cancer were selected. Volumes of interest (VOI) on pre-therapy FDG-PET were defined using an isocontour at ≥50% of SUVmax. VOI of pre- and post-therapy PET images were correlated for the extent of overlap. A highly optimized IMRT plan to 60 Gy prescribed to PTV defined on the planning CT was designed using clinical dose constraints for the organs at risk. A boost of 18 Gy was prescribed to the VOI defined on baseline PET. A composite plan of the total 78 Gy was compared with the base 60 Gy plan. Increases in dose to the lungs, spinal cord and heart were evaluated. IMRT boost plan was compared with proton RT and SBRT boost plans. Results: Overlap fraction of baseline PET VOI with the VOI on 10 days-post therapy PET was 0.8 (95% CI: 0.7 – 0.9). Using baseline VOI as a boosting volume, dose could be escalated to 78 Gy for 15 patients without compromising the dose constraints. For 4 patients, the dose limiting factors were V20Gy and Dmean for the total lung, and Dmax for the spinal cord. An increase of the dose to OARs correlated significantly with the relative size of the boost volume. Conclusion: VOI defined on baseline 18F-FDG PET by the SUVmax-≥50% isocontour may be a biological target volume for escalated radiation dose. Dose escalation to this volume may provide improved tumor control without breaching predefined dose constraints for OARs. The best treatment outcome may be achieved with proton RT for large targets and with SBRT for small targets.

  1. Pancreas segmentation from 3D abdominal CT images using patient-specific weighted subspatial probabilistic atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasawa, Kenichi; Oda, Masahiro; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Rueckert, Daniel; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal organ segmentations from CT volumes are now widely used in the computer-aided diagnosis and surgery assistance systems. Among abdominal organs, the pancreas is especially difficult to segment because of its large individual differences of the shape and position. In this paper, we propose a new pancreas segmentation method from 3D abdominal CT volumes using patient-specific weighted-subspatial probabilistic atlases. First of all, we perform normalization of organ shapes in training volumes and an input volume. We extract the Volume Of Interest (VOI) of the pancreas from the training volumes and an input volume. We divide each training VOI and input VOI into some cubic regions. We use a nonrigid registration method to register these cubic regions of the training VOI to corresponding regions of the input VOI. Based on the registration results, we calculate similarities between each cubic region of the training VOI and corresponding region of the input VOI. We select cubic regions of training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region. We subspatially construct probabilistic atlases weighted by the similarities in each cubic region. After integrating these probabilistic atlases in cubic regions into one, we perform a rough-to-precise segmentation of the pancreas using the atlas. The results of the experiments showed that utilization of the training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region led good results of the pancreas segmentation. The Jaccard Index and the average surface distance of the result were 58.9% and 2.04mm on average, respectively.

  2. Relationship between sample volumes and modulus of human vertebral trabecular bone in micro-finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin-Xin; Xu, Chao; Zong, Chun-Lin; Feng, Ya-Fei; Ma, Xiang-Yu; Wang, Fa-Qi; Yan, Ya-Bo; Lei, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Micro-finite element (μFE) models have been widely used to assess the biomechanical properties of trabecular bone. How to choose a proper sample volume of trabecular bone, which could predict the real bone biomechanical properties and reduce the calculation time, was an interesting problem. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between different sample volumes and apparent elastic modulus (E) calculated from μFE model. 5 Human lumbar vertebral bodies (L1-L5) were scanned by micro-CT. Cubic concentric samples of different lengths were constructed as the experimental groups and the largest possible volumes of interest (VOI) were constructed as the control group. A direct voxel-to-element approach was used to generate μFE models and steel layers were added to the superior and inferior surface to mimic axial compression tests. A 1% axial strain was prescribed to the top surface of the model to obtain the E values. ANOVA tests were performed to compare the E values from the different VOIs against that of the control group. Nonlinear function curve fitting was performed to study the relationship between volumes and E values. The larger cubic VOI included more nodes and elements, and more CPU times were needed for calculations. E values showed a descending tendency as the length of cubic VOI decreased. When the volume of VOI was smaller than (7.34mm(3)), E values were significantly different from the control group. The fit function showed that E values approached an asymptotic values with increasing length of VOI. Our study demonstrated that apparent elastic modulus calculated from μFE models were affected by the sample volumes. There was a descending tendency of E values as the length of cubic VOI decreased. Sample volume which was not smaller than (7.34mm(3)) was efficient enough and timesaving for the calculation of E.

  3. Radiation doses in volume-of-interest breast computed tomography—A Monte Carlo simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chao-Jen; Zhong, Yuncheng; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Cone beam breast computed tomography (breast CT) with true three-dimensional, nearly isotropic spatial resolution has been developed and investigated over the past decade to overcome the problem of lesions overlapping with breast anatomical structures on two-dimensional mammographic images. However, the ability of breast CT to detect small objects, such as tissue structure edges and small calcifications, is limited. To resolve this problem, the authors proposed and developed a volume-of-interest (VOI) breast CT technique to image a small VOI using a higher radiation dose to improve that region’s visibility. In this study, the authors performed Monte Carlo simulations to estimate average breast dose and average glandular dose (AGD) for the VOI breast CT technique. Methods: Electron–Gamma-Shower system code-based Monte Carlo codes were used to simulate breast CT. The Monte Carlo codes estimated were validated using physical measurements of air kerma ratios and point doses in phantoms with an ion chamber and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters. The validated full cone x-ray source was then collimated to simulate half cone beam x-rays to image digital pendant-geometry, hemi-ellipsoidal, homogeneous breast phantoms and to estimate breast doses with full field scans. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm long hemi-ellipsoidal homogeneous phantoms were used to simulate median breasts. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volumetric glandular fractions (VGFs) were used to investigate the influence on breast dose. The simulated half cone beam x-rays were then collimated to a narrow x-ray beam with an area of 2.5 × 2.5 cm2 field of view at the isocenter plane and to perform VOI field scans. The Monte Carlo results for the full field scans and the VOI field scans were then used to estimate the AGD for the VOI breast CT technique. Results: The ratios of air kerma ratios and dose measurement results from the Monte Carlo simulation to those from the physical measurements

  4. Radiation doses in volume-of-interest breast computed tomography—A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chao-Jen Zhong, Yuncheng; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Cone beam breast computed tomography (breast CT) with true three-dimensional, nearly isotropic spatial resolution has been developed and investigated over the past decade to overcome the problem of lesions overlapping with breast anatomical structures on two-dimensional mammographic images. However, the ability of breast CT to detect small objects, such as tissue structure edges and small calcifications, is limited. To resolve this problem, the authors proposed and developed a volume-of-interest (VOI) breast CT technique to image a small VOI using a higher radiation dose to improve that region’s visibility. In this study, the authors performed Monte Carlo simulations to estimate average breast dose and average glandular dose (AGD) for the VOI breast CT technique. Methods: Electron–Gamma-Shower system code-based Monte Carlo codes were used to simulate breast CT. The Monte Carlo codes estimated were validated using physical measurements of air kerma ratios and point doses in phantoms with an ion chamber and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters. The validated full cone x-ray source was then collimated to simulate half cone beam x-rays to image digital pendant-geometry, hemi-ellipsoidal, homogeneous breast phantoms and to estimate breast doses with full field scans. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm long hemi-ellipsoidal homogeneous phantoms were used to simulate median breasts. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volumetric glandular fractions (VGFs) were used to investigate the influence on breast dose. The simulated half cone beam x-rays were then collimated to a narrow x-ray beam with an area of 2.5 × 2.5 cm{sup 2} field of view at the isocenter plane and to perform VOI field scans. The Monte Carlo results for the full field scans and the VOI field scans were then used to estimate the AGD for the VOI breast CT technique. Results: The ratios of air kerma ratios and dose measurement results from the Monte Carlo simulation to those from the physical

  5. Completeness map evaluation demonstrated with candidate next-generation cardiac CT architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Baodong; Bennett, James; Wang Ge; De Man, Bruno; Zeng Kai; Yin Zhye; Fitzgerald, Paul; Yu Hengyong

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: In this report, the authors introduce the general concept of the completeness map, as a means to evaluate the completeness of data acquired by a given CT system design (architecture and scan mode). They illustrate the utility of completeness map by applying the completeness map concept to a number of candidate CT system designs, as part of a study to advance the state-of-the-art in cardiac CT. Methods: In order to optimally reconstruct a point within a volume of interest (VOI), the Radon transform on all possible planes through that point should be measured. The authors quantified the extent to which this ideal condition is satisfied for the entire image volume. They first determined a Radon completeness number for each point in the VOI, as the percentage of possible planes that is actually measured. A completeness map is then defined as a 3D matrix of the completeness numbers for the entire VOI. The authors proposed algorithms to analyze the projection datasets in Radon space and compute the completeness number for a fixed point and apply these algorithms to various architectures and scan modes that they are evaluating. In this report, the authors consider four selected candidate architectures, operating with different scan modes, for a total of five system design alternatives. Each of these alternatives is evaluated using completeness map. Results: If the detector size and cone angle are large enough to cover the entire cardiac VOI, a single-source circular scan can have {>=}99% completeness over the entire VOI. However, only the central z-slice can be exactly reconstructed, which corresponds to 100% completeness. For a typical single-source architecture, if the detector is limited to an axial dimension of 40 mm, a helical scan needs about five rotations to form an exact reconstruction region covering the cardiac VOI, while a triple-source helical scan only requires two rotations, leading to a 2.5x improvement in temporal resolution. If the source and

  6. Fast automatic delineation of cardiac volume of interest in MSCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Cristian; Lessick, Jonathan; Lavi, Guy; Bulow, Thomas; Renisch, Steffen

    2004-05-01

    Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) is an emerging modality for assessing cardiac anatomy. The delineation of the cardiac volume of interest (VOI) is a pre-processing step for subsequent visualization or image processing. It serves the suppression of anatomic structures being not in the primary focus of the cardiac application, such as sternum, ribs, spinal column, descending aorta and pulmonary vasculature. These structures obliterate standard visualizations such as direct volume renderings or maximum intensity projections. In addition, outcome and performance of post-processing steps such as ventricle suppression, coronary artery segmentation or the detection of short and long axes of the heart can be improved. The structures being part of the cardiac VOI (coronary arteries and veins, myocardium, ventricles and atria) differ tremendously in appearance. In addition, there is no clear image feature associated with the contour (or better cut-surface) distinguishing between cardiac VOI and surrounding tissue making the automatic delineation of the cardiac VOI a difficult task. The presented approach locates in a first step chest wall and descending aorta in all image slices giving a rough estimate of the location of the heart. In a second step, a Fourier based active contour approach delineates slice-wise the border of the cardiac VOI. The algorithm has been evaluated on 41 multi-slice CT data-sets including cases with coronary stents and venous and arterial bypasses. The typical processing time amounts to 5-10s on a 1GHz P3 PC.

  7. A detailed study on the use of polynomial functions for modeling geometric distortion in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deming; Yang, Zhengyi

    2008-03-01

    The use of polynomial functions for modeling geometric distortion in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that arises from scanner's hardware imperfection is studied in detail. In this work, the geometric distortion data from four representative MRI systems were used. Modeling of these data using polynomial functions of the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh orders was carried out. In order to investigate how this modeling performed for different size and shape of the volume of interest, the modeling was carried out for three different volumes of interest (VOI): a cube, a cylinder, and a sphere. The modeling's goodness was assessed using both the maximum and mean absolute errors. The modeling results showed that (i) for the cube VOI there appears to be an optimal polynomial function that gives the least modeling errors and the sixth order polynomial was found to be the optimal polynomial function for the size of the cubic VOI considered in the present work; (ii) for the cylinder VOI, all four polynomials performed approximately equally well but a trend of a slight decrease in the mean absolute error with the increasing order of the polynomial was noted; and (iii) for the sphere VOI, the maximum absolute error showed some variations with the order of the polynomial, with the fourth order polynomial producing the smallest maximum absolute errors. It is further noted that extrapolation could lead to very large errors so any extrapolation needs to be avoided. A detailed analysis on the modeling errors is presented.

  8. Synthesized interstitial lung texture for use in anthropomorphic computational phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, Marc F.; Solomon, Justin B.; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    A realistic model of the anatomical texture from the pulmonary interstitium was developed with the goal of extending the capability of anthropomorphic computational phantoms (e.g., XCAT, Duke University), allowing for more accurate image quality assessment. Contrast-enhanced, high dose, thorax images for a healthy patient from a clinical CT system (Discovery CT750HD, GE healthcare) with thin (0.625 mm) slices and filtered back- projection (FBP) were used to inform the model. The interstitium which gives rise to the texture was defined using 24 volumes of interest (VOIs). These VOIs were selected manually to avoid vasculature, bronchi, and bronchioles. A small scale Hessian-based line filter was applied to minimize the amount of partial-volumed supernumerary vessels and bronchioles within the VOIs. The texture in the VOIs was characterized using 8 Haralick and 13 gray-level run length features. A clustered lumpy background (CLB) model with added noise and blurring to match CT system was optimized to resemble the texture in the VOIs using a genetic algorithm with the Mahalanobis distance as a similarity metric between the texture features. The most similar CLB model was then used to generate the interstitial texture to fill the lung. The optimization improved the similarity by 45%. This will substantially enhance the capabilities of anthropomorphic computational phantoms, allowing for more realistic CT simulations.

  9. Volume-of-interest reconstruction from severely truncated data in dental cone-beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Kusnoto, Budi; Han, Xiao; Sidky, E. Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2015-03-01

    As cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has gained popularity rapidly in dental imaging applications in the past two decades, radiation dose in CBCT imaging remains a potential, health concern to the patients. It is a common practice in dental CBCT imaging that only a small volume of interest (VOI) containing the teeth of interest is illuminated, thus substantially lowering imaging radiation dose. However, this would yield data with severe truncations along both transverse and longitudinal directions. Although images within the VOI reconstructed from truncated data can be of some practical utility, they often are compromised significantly by truncation artifacts. In this work, we investigate optimization-based reconstruction algorithms for VOI image reconstruction from CBCT data of dental patients containing severe truncations. In an attempt to further reduce imaging dose, we also investigate optimization-based image reconstruction from severely truncated data collected at projection views substantially fewer than those used in clinical dental applications. Results of our study show that appropriately designed optimization-based reconstruction can yield VOI images with reduced truncation artifacts, and that, when reconstructing from only one half, or even one quarter, of clinical data, it can also produce VOI images comparable to that of clinical images.

  10. Physicists trap protons and count them one by one

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.

    1996-04-05

    Like a photograph on the printed page, light examined on the finest scale dissolves into grains-little bundles called photons. Although physicists have pictured light in that way for some 90 years, the experimental evidence for photons has generally been indirect or frustratingly nonintuitive. Physicists long to actually see the discrete nature of light-{open_quotes}to count photons in a box, like marbles,{close_quotes} as Serge Haroche of the Ecole Normale Superieure (ENS) in Paris puts it. Now they can, in data from an experiment by Haroche and his colleagues. This article summarizes two major experiments in this area.

  11. The cosmological microwave background radiation, cosmic and superconducting strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, N.; Signore, M.

    1989-03-01

    We study different kinds of anisotropies and distortions in the cosmological background radiation due to cosmic and superconducting strings: (i) temperature angular anisotropy by loop decay into gravitational waves and (ii) spectral distortions due to electromagnetic energy emission. We relate distortions produced by loops indifferent epochs of their evolution. We confront these predictions with observations, in particular with the submillimeter excess recently observed by the Nagoya-Berkeley experiment. This allows us to place constraints both of the string parameter Gμ and on the parameters governing loop evolution. UA 336 Laboratoire Associé au CNRS, Observatoire de Meudon et Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 reu Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.

  12. Application of value of information of tank waste characterization: A new paradigm for defining tank waste characterization requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L.L.; Brewster, M.E.; Brothers, A.J.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the rationale for adopting a recommended characterization strategy that uses a risk-based decision-making framework for managing the Tank Waste Characterization program at Hanford. The risk-management/value-of-information (VOI) strategy that is illustrated explicitly links each information-gathering activity to its cost and provides a mechanism to ensure that characterization funds are spent where they can produce the largest reduction in risk. The approach was developed by tailoring well-known decision analysis techniques to specific tank waste characterization applications. This report illustrates how VOI calculations are performed and demonstrates that the VOI approach can definitely be used for real Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) characterization problems.

  13. Volume-of-interest imaging of the inner ear in a human temporal bone specimen using a robot- driven C-arm flat panel detector CT system.

    PubMed

    Kolditz, D; Struffert, T; Kyriakou, Y; Bozzato, A; Dörfler, A; Kalender, W A

    2012-11-01

    VOI imaging can provide higher image quality at a reduced dose for a subregion. In this study with a robot-driven C-arm FDCT system, the goals were proof of feasibility for inner ear imaging, higher flexibility during data acquisition, and easier processing during reconstruction. First a low-dose OV scan was acquired allowing an orientation and enabling the selection of the VOI. The C-arm was then moved by the robotic system without a need for patient movement and the VOI was scanned with adapted parameters. Uncompromised artifact-free image quality was achieved by the 2-scan approach and the dose was reduced by 80%-90% in comparison with conventional MSCT and FPCT scans.

  14. Automated quantitative characterization of alginate/hydroxyapatite bone tissue engineering scaffolds by means of micro-CT image analysis.

    PubMed

    Brun, Francesco; Turco, Gianluca; Accardo, Agostino; Paoletti, Sergio

    2011-12-01

    Accurate image acquisition techniques and analysis protocols for a reliable characterization of tissue engineering scaffolds are yet to be well defined. To this aim, the most promising imaging technique seems to be the X-ray computed microtomography (μ-CT). However critical issues of the analysis process deal with the representativeness of the selected Volume of Interest (VOI) and, most significantly, its segmentation. This article presents an image analysis protocol that computes a set of quantitative descriptors suitable for characterizing the morphology and the micro-architecture of alginate/hydroxyapatite bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Considering different VOIs extracted from different μ-CT datasets, an automated segmentation technique is suggested and compared against a manual segmentation. Variable sizes of VOIs are also considered in order to assess their representativeness. The resulting image analysis protocol is reproducible, parameter-free and it automatically provides accurate quantitative information in addition to the simple qualitative observation of the acquired images.

  15. Cancers of the lung, head and neck on the rise: perspectives on the genotoxicity of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Ng, Yuen-Keng; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan

    2014-10-01

    Outdoor air pollution has been recently classified as a class I human carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cumulative evidence from across the globe shows that polluted air is associated with increased risk of lung, head and neck, and nasopharyngeal cancers--all of which affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Importantly, these cancers have been previously linked to smoking. In this article, we review epidemiologic and experimental evidence of the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of air pollution on DNA, purportedly a key mechanism for cancer development. The alarming increase in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Asia suggests a need to focus government efforts and research on reducing air pollution, promoting clean energy, and investigating the carcinogenic effects of air pollution on humans.

  16. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for classification of 18F-NaF uptake on PET/CT*

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Agnes Araujo; Duarte, Paulo Schiavom; Carvalho, Giovanna; Ono, Carla Rachel; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Sado, Heitor Naoki; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the cutoff values established by ROC curves to classify 18F-NaF uptake as normal or malignant. Materials and Methods PET/CT images were acquired 1 hour after administration of 185 MBq of 18F-NaF. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were drawn on three regions of the skeleton as follows: proximal right humerus diaphysis (HD), proximal right femoral diaphysis (FD) and first vertebral body (VB1), in a total of 254 patients, totalling 762 VOIs. The uptake in the VOIs was classified as normal or malignant on the basis of the radiopharmaceutical distribution pattern and of the CT images. A total of 675 volumes were classified as normal and 52 were classified as malignant. Thirty-five VOIs classified as indeterminate or nonmalignant lesions were excluded from analysis. The standardized uptake value (SUV) measured on the VOIs were plotted on an ROC curve for each one of the three regions. The area under the ROC (AUC) as well as the best cutoff SUVs to classify the VOIs were calculated. The best cutoff values were established as the ones with higher result of the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Results The AUCs were 0.933, 0.889 and 0.975 for UD, FD and VB1, respectively. The best SUV cutoffs were 9.0 (sensitivity: 73%; specificity: 99%), 8.4 (sensitivity: 79%; specificity: 94%) and 21.0 (sensitivity: 93%; specificity: 95%) for UD, FD and VB1, respectively. Conclusion The best cutoff value varies according to bone region of analysis and it is not possible to establish one value for the whole body. PMID:26929455

  17. Using PET/CT Bone Scan Dynamic Data to Evaluate Tibia Remodeling When a Taylor Spatial Frame Is Used: Short and Longer Term Differences.

    PubMed

    Lundblad, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q; Karlsson-Thur, Charlotte; Jonsson, Cathrine; Noz, Marilyn E; Zeleznik, Michael P; Jacobsson, Hans; Weidenhielm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen consecutive patients, treated with a Taylor Spatial Frame for complex tibia conditions, gave their informed consent to undergo Na(18)F(-) PET/CT bone scans. We present a Patlak-like analysis utilizing an approximated blood time-activity curve eliminating the need for blood aliquots. Additionally, standardized uptake values (SUV) derived from dynamic acquisitions were compared to this Patlak-like approach. Spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) were drawn to include broken bone, other (normal) bone, and muscle. The SUV m (t) (m = max, mean) and a series of slopes were computed as (SUV m (t i ) - SUV m (t j ))/(t i - t j ), for pairs of time values t i and t j . A Patlak-like analysis was performed for the same time values by computing ((VOI p (t i )/VOI e (t i ))-(VOI p (t j )/VOI e (t j )))/(t i - t j ), where p = broken bone, other bone, and muscle and e = expected activity in a VOI. Paired comparisons between Patlak-like and SUV m slopes showed good agreement by both linear regression and correlation coefficient analysis (r = 84%, r s = 78%-SUVmax, r = 92%, and r s = 91%-SUVmean), suggesting static scans could substitute for dynamic studies. Patlak-like slope differences of 0.1 min(-1) or greater between examinations and SUVmax differences of ~5 usually indicated good remodeling progress, while negative Patlak-like slope differences of -0.06 min(-1) usually indicated poor remodeling progress in this cohort. PMID:26436093

  18. CBCT with specification of imaging dose and CNR by anatomical volume of interest

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, Del; Robar, James L.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: A novel method has been developed for volume of interest (VOI) cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging using a 2.35 MV/Carbon target linac imaging beam line combined with dynamic multileaf collimator sequences. Methods: The authors demonstrate the concept of acquisition of multiple, separate imaging volumes, where volumes can be either completely separated or nested, and are associated with predetermined imaging dose and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) characteristics. Two individual MLC sequences were established in the planning system (Eclipse, Varian Medical) to collimate the beam according to a defined inner VOI (e.g., containing a target volume under image guidance) and an outer VOI (e.g., including surrounding landmarks or organs-at-risk). MLC sequences were interleaved as a function of gantry angle to produce a reconstructed CBCT image with nested VOIs. By controlling the ratio of inner-to-outer ratio of MLC segments (and thus Monitor Units) during acquisition, the relative dose and CNR in the two volumes can be controlled. Inner-to-outer ratios of 2:1 to 6:1 were examined. Results: The concept was explored using an anatomical head phantom to assess image quality. A geometric phantom was used to quantify absolute dose and CNR values for the various sequences. The authors found that the dose in the outer VOI decreased by a functional relationship dependent on the inner-to-outer sequence ratio, while the CNR varied by the square root of dose, as expected. Conclusions: In this study the authors demonstrate flexibility in VOI CBCT by tailoring the imaging dose and CNR distribution in separate volumes within the patient anatomy. This would allow for high quality imaging of a target volume for alignment purposes, with simultaneous low dose imaging of the surrounding anatomy (e.g., for coregistration)

  19. Fast, shape-directed, landmark-based deep gray matter segmentation for quantification of iron deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekin, Ahmet; Jasinschi, Radu; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Buchem, Mark A.; van Muiswinkel, Arianne

    2006-03-01

    This paper introduces image processing methods to automatically detect the 3D volume-of-interest (VOI) and 2D region-of-interest (ROI) for deep gray matter organs (thalamus, globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate nucleus) of patients with suspected iron deposition from MR dual echo images. Prior to the VOI and ROI detection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) region is segmented by a clustering algorithm. For the segmentation, we automatically determine the cluster centers with the mean shift algorithm that can quickly identify the modes of a distribution. After the identification of the modes, we employ the K-Harmonic means clustering algorithm to segment the volumetric MR data into CSF and non-CSF. Having the CSF mask and observing that the frontal lobe of the lateral ventricle has more consistent shape accross age and pathological abnormalities, we propose a shape-directed landmark detection algorithm to detect the VOI in a speedy manner. The proposed landmark detection algorithm utilizes a novel shape model of the front lobe of the lateral ventricle for the slices where thalamus, globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate nucleus are expected to appear. After this step, for each slice in the VOI, we use horizontal and vertical projections of the CSF map to detect the approximate locations of the relevant organs to define the ROI. We demonstrate the robustness of the proposed VOI and ROI localization algorithms to pathologies, including severe amounts of iron accumulation as well as white matter lesions, and anatomical variations. The proposed algorithms achieved very high detection accuracy, 100% in the VOI detection , over a large set of a challenging MR dataset.

  20. Pulmonary airways tree segmentation from CT examinations using adaptive volume of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Won Pil; Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph K.; Pu, Jiantao; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

    2009-02-01

    Airways tree segmentation is an important step in quantitatively assessing the severity of and changes in several lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis. It can also be used in guiding bronchoscopy. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated scheme for segmenting the airways tree structure depicted on chest CT examinations. After lung volume segmentation, the scheme defines the first cylinder-like volume of interest (VOI) using a series of images depicting the trachea. The scheme then iteratively defines and adds subsequent VOIs using a region growing algorithm combined with adaptively determined thresholds in order to trace possible sections of airways located inside the combined VOI in question. The airway tree segmentation process is automatically terminated after the scheme assesses all defined VOIs in the iteratively assembled VOI list. In this preliminary study, ten CT examinations with 1.25mm section thickness and two different CT image reconstruction kernels ("bone" and "standard") were selected and used to test the proposed airways tree segmentation scheme. The experiment results showed that (1) adopting this approach affectively prevented the scheme from infiltrating into the parenchyma, (2) the proposed method reasonably accurately segmented the airways trees with lower false positive identification rate as compared with other previously reported schemes that are based on 2-D image segmentation and data analyses, and (3) the proposed adaptive, iterative threshold selection method for the region growing step in each identified VOI enables the scheme to segment the airways trees reliably to the 4th generation in this limited dataset with successful segmentation up to the 5th generation in a fraction of the airways tree branches.

  1. Volume of interest-based [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET discriminates MCI converting to Alzheimer's disease from healthy controls. A European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC) study.

    PubMed

    Pagani, M; De Carli, F; Morbelli, S; Öberg, J; Chincarini, A; Frisoni, G B; Galluzzi, S; Perneczky, R; Drzezga, A; van Berckel, B N M; Ossenkoppele, R; Didic, M; Guedj, E; Brugnolo, A; Picco, A; Arnaldi, D; Ferrara, M; Buschiazzo, A; Sambuceti, G; Nobili, F

    2015-01-01

    An emerging issue in neuroimaging is to assess the diagnostic reliability of PET and its application in clinical practice. We aimed at assessing the accuracy of brain FDG-PET in discriminating patients with MCI due to Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. Sixty-two patients with amnestic MCI and 109 healthy subjects recruited in five centers of the European AD Consortium were enrolled. Group analysis was performed by SPM8 to confirm metabolic differences. Discriminant analyses were then carried out using the mean FDG uptake values normalized to the cerebellum computed in 45 anatomical volumes of interest (VOIs) in each hemisphere (90 VOIs) as defined in the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL) Atlas and on 12 meta-VOIs, bilaterally, obtained merging VOIs with similar anatomo-functional characteristics. Further, asymmetry indexes were calculated for both datasets. Accuracy of discrimination by a Support Vector Machine and the AAL VOIs was tested against a validated method (PALZ). At the voxel level SMP8 showed a relative hypometabolism in the bilateral precuneus, and posterior cingulate, temporo-parietal and frontal cortices. Discriminant analysis classified subjects with an accuracy ranging between .91 and .83 as a function of data organization. The best values were obtained from a subset of 6 meta-VOIs plus 6 asymmetry values reaching an area under the ROC curve of .947, significantly larger than the one obtained by the PALZ score. High accuracy in discriminating MCI converters from healthy controls was reached by a non-linear classifier based on SVM applied on predefined anatomo-functional regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetries. Data pre-processing was automated and simplified by an in-house created Matlab-based script encouraging its routine clinical use. Further validation toward nonconverter MCI patients with adequately long follow-up is needed.

  2. Primary Retroperitoneal Melanoma Presented in a Rare Extracutaneous Site for Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Alsharedi, Mohamed; Zgheib, Nadim Bou; Khelfa, Yousef; Raufi, Ali; Elmsherghi, Nabiha; Lebowicz, Yehuda

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma, as the name implies, is a malignant tumor of melanocytes, found in the skin, eyes, meningeal lining and the mucosal epithelium of the aero-digestive and genitourinary tracts. Malignant melanoma is typically skin malignancy, which rarely presents at extracutaneous site. Here we present a rare case of primary retroperitoneal melanoma and review the findings in comparison with other cases described in literature. PMID:27746882

  3. Prototype airway management system for use during laser surgery.

    PubMed

    Silver, C E; Schneider, K L; Merav, A D; Nagashima, H

    1984-11-01

    A Norton metal endotracheal tube with a Merav parachute cuff cemented to the distal end has solved many of the problems involved in administration of anesthesia for laser surgery of the upper aerodigestive tract. The tube is fireproof and provides an air-tight seal for positive pressure ventilation without the impediment of a cuff channel. It is ideal for laser surgery of the oral cavity and pharynx and may be used effectively for glottic lesions in many instances.

  4. Esophageal reflexes modulate frontoparietal response in neonates: Novel application of concurrent NIRS and provocative esophageal manometry.

    PubMed

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Pakiraih, Joanna F; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Dar, Irfaan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Bates, D Gregory; Kashou, Nasser H

    2014-07-01

    Central and peripheral neural regulation of swallowing and aerodigestive reflexes is unclear in human neonates. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method to measure changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD). Pharyngoesophageal manometry permits evaluation of aerodigestive reflexes. Modalities were combined to investigate feasibility and to test neonatal frontoparietal cortical changes during pharyngoesophageal (visceral) stimulation and/or swallowing. Ten neonates (45.6 ± 3.0 wk postmenstrual age, 4.1 ± 0.5 kg) underwent novel pharyngoesophageal manometry concurrent with NIRS. To examine esophagus-brain interactions, we analyzed cortical hemodynamic response (HDR) latency and durations during aerodigestive provocation and esophageal reflexes. Data are presented as means ± SE or percent. HDR rates were 8.84 times more likely with basal spontaneous deglutition compared with sham stimuli (P = 0.004). Of 182 visceral stimuli, 95% were analyzable for esophageal responses, 38% for HDR, and 36% for both. Of analyzable HDR (n = 70): 1) HbO concentration (μmol/l) baseline 1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 poststimulus was significant (P = 0.02), 2) HbD concentration (μmol/l) between baseline 0.1 ± 0.4 vs. poststimulus -0.5 ± 0.4 was not significant (P = 0.73), and 3) hemispheric lateralization was 21% left only, 29% right only, and 50% bilateral. During concurrent esophageal and NIRS responses (n = 66): 1) peristaltic reflexes were present in 74% and HDR in 61% and 2) HDR was 4.75 times more likely with deglutition reflex vs. secondary peristaltic reflex (P = 0.016). Concurrent NIRS with visceral stimulation is feasible in neonates, and frontoparietal cortical activation is recognized. Deglutition contrasting with secondary peristalsis is related to cortical activation, thus implicating higher hierarchical aerodigestive protective functional neural networks. PMID:24789204

  5. Lingual tonsil hypertrophy causing severe dysphagia: treatment with plasma-mediated radiofrequency-based ablation (Coblation).

    PubMed

    Mowry, Sarah E; Ament, Marvin; Shapiro, Nina L

    2010-03-01

    Lingual tonsil hypertrophy is an uncommon cause of upper aerodigestive tract pathology. We present the case of a 17-year-old boy who developed severe dysphagia and subsequent weight loss as a result of lingual tonsil hypertrophy. He was successfully treated with plasma-mediated radiofrequency-based ablation (Coblation). In the past, traditional surgical procedures for lingual tonsil hypertrophy were difficult to perform and recovery was difficult, but the introduction of Coblation has made lingual tonsillectomy much easier.

  6. Eva Szabo, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Eva Szabo is Chief of the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group at the NCI Division of Cancer Prevention. She graduated from Yale University with a BS in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, received her MD from Duke University, and completed her internal medicine residency at Bellevue-NYU Medical Center. After completing her medical oncology fellowship at the National Cancer Institute, Dr. Szabo led a laboratory effort studying lung cancer biology. |

  7. An orthodontic bracket embedded in the medial pterygoid surface: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wilmott, Sheryl E; Ikeagwuani, Okechukwu; McLeod, Niall M H

    2016-03-01

    There is a potential risk that orthodontic brackets can become dislodged into the aerodigestive tract. This case illustrates the management of an orthodontic bracket, which became embedded in the deep tissues of the oropharynx. We aim to highlight the potential risk misplaced dental instruments and materials pose, including that they may become embedded in the soft tissues of the throat and suggest that that this possibility should be considered when they cannot be localized.

  8. Pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Jassar, P; Stafford, N D; MacDonald, A W

    1999-05-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the commonest benign tumour of the major salivary glands. It can also occur in minor salivary glands, mainly in the oral cavity, but also in other sites in the head and neck both within and outwith the upper aerodigestive tract. We present a rare case of pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum with consideration of the clinical management and a review of the literature.

  9. Optical biopsy fiber-based fluorescence spectroscopy instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Alvin; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Yang, Yuanlong; Tang, Gui C.; Budansky, Yury; Celmer, Edward J.; Savage, Howard E.; Schantz, Stimson P.; Alfano, Robert R.

    1996-04-01

    Native fluorescence spectroscopy of biomolecules has emerged as a new modality to the medical community in characterizing the various physiological conditions of tissues. In the past several years, many groups have been working to introduce the spectroscopic methods to diagnose cancer. Researchers have successfully used native fluorescence to distinguish cancerous from normal tissue samples in rat and human tissue. We have developed three generations of instruments, called the CD-scan, CD-ratiometer and CD-map, to allow the medical community to use optics for diagnosing tissue. Using ultraviolet excitation and emission spectral measurements on both normal and cancerous tissue of the breast, gynecology, colon, and aerodigestive tract can be separated. For example, from emission intensities at 340 nm to 440 nm (300 nm excitation), a statistically consistent difference between malignant tissue and normal or benign tissue is observed. In order to utilize optical biopsy techniques in a clinical setting, the CD-scan instrument was developed, which allows for rapid and reliable in-vitro and in-vivo florescence measurements of the aerodigestive tract with high accuracy. The instrumentation employs high sensitivity detection techniques which allows for lamp excitation, small diameter optical fiber probes; the higher spatial resolution afforded by the small diameter probes can increase the ability to detect smaller tumors. The fiber optic probes allow for usage in the aerodigestive tract, cervix and colon. Needle based fiber probes have been developed for in-vivo detection of breast cancer.

  10. Esophageal Mechanosensitive Mechanisms Are Impaired in Neonates with Hypoxic–Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Crystal D.; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that esophageal mechanodistention in infants with hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) results in altered upper esophageal sphincter (UES), esophageal body, and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) responses, compared with controls. As a secondary aim, we tested the hypothesis that infants with HIE receiving therapeutic hypothermia had different aerodigestive reflex characteristics than infants with HIE who received traditional neonatal care. Study design Provocative esophageal manometry was performed in 34 neonates (27 with HIE and 7 controls). Mechanodistention was performed using graded volumes of air. Peristaltic reflexes, UES contractile reflexes, and LES relaxation reflexes were analyzed for frequency, magnitude, and aberrancies. Results Infants with HIE demonstrated more rapid recruitment of responses and greater UES magnitude (P < .05). They had more frequent secondary peristalsis and lower LES nadir pressures with prolonged LES nadir durations (P < .05). Most notable were the prolonged peristaltic response durations and increases in the number of polymorphic waveforms (P < .05). Compared with infants with HIE receiving traditional care, infants with HIE treated with hypothermia had higher UES pressures and shorter peristaltic response duration (P < .05). Conclusions Mechanodistention in infants with HIE results in upregulation of central vagal effects (ie, heightened cholinergic excitatory responses as demonstrated by exaggerated UES contractile reflex activity and heightened inhibitory responses evident by exaggerated LES relaxation reflex activity). Prolonged and poorly coordinated peristaltic responses may underlie dysfunction of aerodigestive regulation. Modulation of sensorimotor aspects of aerodigestive reflexes is altered in infants with HIE, and hypothermia may further modify such effects. PMID:23260103

  11. 28 CFR 91.68 - Compliance with other Federal environmental statutes, regulations and executive orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... initiated by State or local units of government with VOI/TIS grant funding are also subject, where..., (6) Federal Water Pollution Control Act, (7) Endangered Species Act, (8) Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, (9) National Historic Preservation Act, (10) Wilderness Act, (11) Farmland Protection Policy Act,...

  12. 28 CFR 91.68 - Compliance with other Federal environmental statutes, regulations and executive orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... initiated by State or local units of government with VOI/TIS grant funding are also subject, where..., (6) Federal Water Pollution Control Act, (7) Endangered Species Act, (8) Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, (9) National Historic Preservation Act, (10) Wilderness Act, (11) Farmland Protection Policy Act,...

  13. 28 CFR 91.68 - Compliance with other Federal environmental statutes, regulations and executive orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... initiated by State or local units of government with VOI/TIS grant funding are also subject, where..., (6) Federal Water Pollution Control Act, (7) Endangered Species Act, (8) Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, (9) National Historic Preservation Act, (10) Wilderness Act, (11) Farmland Protection Policy Act,...

  14. 28 CFR 91.68 - Compliance with other Federal environmental statutes, regulations and executive orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... initiated by State or local units of government with VOI/TIS grant funding are also subject, where..., (6) Federal Water Pollution Control Act, (7) Endangered Species Act, (8) Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, (9) National Historic Preservation Act, (10) Wilderness Act, (11) Farmland Protection Policy Act,...

  15. 28 CFR 91.68 - Compliance with other Federal environmental statutes, regulations and executive orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... initiated by State or local units of government with VOI/TIS grant funding are also subject, where..., (6) Federal Water Pollution Control Act, (7) Endangered Species Act, (8) Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, (9) National Historic Preservation Act, (10) Wilderness Act, (11) Farmland Protection Policy Act,...

  16. Left inferior parietal lobe engagement in social cognition and language.

    PubMed

    Bzdok, Danilo; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Reid, Andrew; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-09-01

    Social cognition and language are two core features of the human species. Despite distributed recruitment of brain regions in each mental capacity, the left parietal lobe (LPL) represents a zone of topographical convergence. The present study quantitatively summarizes hundreds of neuroimaging studies on social cognition and language. Using connectivity-based parcellation on a meta-analytically defined volume of interest (VOI), regional coactivation patterns within this VOI allowed identifying distinct subregions. Across parcellation solutions, two clusters emerged consistently in rostro-ventral and caudo-ventral aspects of the parietal VOI. Both clusters were functionally significantly associated with social-cognitive and language processing. In particular, the rostro-ventral cluster was associated with lower-level processing facets, while the caudo-ventral cluster was associated with higher-level processing facets in both mental capacities. Contrarily, in the (less stable) dorsal parietal VOI, all clusters reflected computation of general-purpose processes, such as working memory and matching tasks, that are frequently co-recruited by social or language processes. Our results hence favour a rostro-caudal distinction of lower- versus higher-level processes underlying social cognition and language in the left inferior parietal lobe. PMID:27241201

  17. 28 CFR 91.65 - Responsible OJP officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 91.65 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.65... of decisions resulting from the completion of environmental impact statements on projects subject...

  18. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS... of an environmental impact statement. Significant impact. For the proposed construction of a...

  19. 28 CFR 91.56 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... preparation of an environmental assessment. 91.56 Section 91.56 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant... environmental assessment. (a) Renovation or expansion of existing correctional facility. Renovation or...

  20. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS... of an environmental impact statement. Significant impact. For the proposed construction of a...

  1. 28 CFR 91.59 - OJP's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.59 OJP's... environmental impact statements, and their adequacy must, by statute, remain with OJP. Therefore, OJP, as...

  2. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64... environmental assessments or draft or final environmental impact statements if the grantee proposes to...

  3. 28 CFR 91.60 - Grantee's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 91.60 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.60 Grantee... must: (a) Work closely with OJP on the development and review of the environmental documents,...

  4. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64... environmental assessments or draft or final environmental impact statements if the grantee proposes to...

  5. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State Environmental Policy Acts. 91.67 Section 91.67 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements §...

  6. 28 CFR 91.60 - Grantee's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 91.60 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.60 Grantee... must: (a) Work closely with OJP on the development and review of the environmental documents,...

  7. 28 CFR 91.56 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... preparation of an environmental assessment. 91.56 Section 91.56 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant... environmental assessment. (a) Renovation or expansion of existing correctional facility. Renovation or...

  8. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64... environmental assessments or draft or final environmental impact statements if the grantee proposes to...

  9. 28 CFR 91.56 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... preparation of an environmental assessment. 91.56 Section 91.56 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant... environmental assessment. (a) Renovation or expansion of existing correctional facility. Renovation or...

  10. 28 CFR 91.56 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... preparation of an environmental assessment. 91.56 Section 91.56 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant... environmental assessment. (a) Renovation or expansion of existing correctional facility. Renovation or...

  11. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State Environmental Policy Acts. 91.67 Section 91.67 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements §...

  12. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64... environmental assessments or draft or final environmental impact statements if the grantee proposes to...

  13. 28 CFR 91.60 - Grantee's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 91.60 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.60 Grantee... must: (a) Work closely with OJP on the development and review of the environmental documents,...

  14. 28 CFR 91.65 - Responsible OJP officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 91.65 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.65... of decisions resulting from the completion of environmental impact statements on projects subject...

  15. 28 CFR 91.60 - Grantee's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 91.60 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.60 Grantee... must: (a) Work closely with OJP on the development and review of the environmental documents,...

  16. 28 CFR 91.59 - OJP's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.59 OJP's... environmental impact statements, and their adequacy must, by statute, remain with OJP. Therefore, OJP, as...

  17. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State Environmental Policy Acts. 91.67 Section 91.67 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements §...

  18. 28 CFR 91.59 - OJP's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.59 OJP's... environmental impact statements, and their adequacy must, by statute, remain with OJP. Therefore, OJP, as...

  19. 28 CFR 91.59 - OJP's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.59 OJP's... environmental impact statements, and their adequacy must, by statute, remain with OJP. Therefore, OJP, as...

  20. 28 CFR 91.65 - Responsible OJP officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 91.65 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.65... of decisions resulting from the completion of environmental impact statements on projects subject...

  1. 28 CFR 91.65 - Responsible OJP officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 91.65 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.65... of decisions resulting from the completion of environmental impact statements on projects subject...

  2. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State Environmental Policy Acts. 91.67 Section 91.67 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements §...

  3. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS... of an environmental impact statement. Significant impact. For the proposed construction of a...

  4. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS... of an environmental impact statement. Significant impact. For the proposed construction of a...

  5. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Environmental Policy Acts. 91.67 Section 91.67 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements §...

  6. 28 CFR 91.60 - Grantee's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grantee's responsibilities. 91.60 Section 91.60 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.60...

  7. 28 CFR 91.53 - Other guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program In General § 91.53 Other guidance. The Department of Justice has also published NEPA procedures that incorporate the CEQ regulations at 28 CFR part 61. Additionally, the Office of Justice Programs' Corrections Program Office has prepared a handbook for...

  8. 28 CFR 91.65 - Responsible OJP officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsible OJP officials. 91.65 Section 91.65 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures §...

  9. Automatic Liver Segmentation on Volumetric CT Images Using Supervoxel-Based Graph Cuts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Shuicai; Zhang, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Accurate segmentation of liver from abdominal CT scans is critical for computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy. Despite many years of research, automatic liver segmentation remains a challenging task. In this paper, a novel method was proposed for automatic delineation of liver on CT volume images using supervoxel-based graph cuts. To extract the liver volume of interest (VOI), the region of abdomen was firstly determined based on maximum intensity projection (MIP) and thresholding methods. Then, the patient-specific liver VOI was extracted from the region of abdomen by using a histogram-based adaptive thresholding method and morphological operations. The supervoxels of the liver VOI were generated using the simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) method. The foreground/background seeds for graph cuts were generated on the largest liver slice, and the graph cuts algorithm was applied to the VOI supervoxels. Thirty abdominal CT images were used to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect the liver accurately with significant reduction of processing time, especially when dealing with diseased liver cases. PMID:27127536

  10. SU-E-J-143: Short- and Near-Term Effects of Proton Therapy On Cerebral White Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Uh, J; Merchant, T; Ogg, R; Sabin, N; Hua, C; Indelicato, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess early effects of proton therapy on the structural integrity of cerebral white matter in relation to the subsequent near-term development of such effects. Methods: Sixteen children (aged 2–19 years) with craniopharyngioma underwent proton therapy of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) in a prospective therapeutic trial. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed at baseline before proton therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Tract-based spatial statics analysis of DTI data was performed to derive the fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) in 26 volumes of interest (VOIs). The dose distributions were spatially normalized to identify VOIs prone to high doses. The longitudinal percentage changes of the FA and RD in these VOIs at 3 and 12 months from the baseline were calculated, and their relationships were evaluated. Results: The average dose was highest to the cerebral peduncle (CP), corticospinal tract (CST) in the pons, pontine crossing tract (PCT), anterior/posterior limbs of the internal capsule (ALIC/PLIC), and genu of the corpus callosum (GCC). It ranged from 33.3 GCE (GCC) to 49.7 GCE (CP). A mild but statistically significant (P<0.05) decline of FA was observed 3 months after proton therapy in all VOIs except the PLIC and ranged from −1.7% (ALIC) to −2.8% (PCT). A significant increase of RD was found in the CP (3.5%) and ALIC (2.1%). The average longitudinal change from the baseline was reduced at 12 months for most VOIs. However, the standard deviation increased, indicating that the temporal pattern varied individually. The follow-up measurements at 3 and 12 months correlated for the CP, CST, PCT, and GCC (P < 0.04). Conclusion: DTI data suggest early (3 months) effects of proton therapy on microstructures in the white matter. The subsequent follow-up indicated individual variation of the changes, which was partly implied by the early effects.

  11. Interactive lung segmentation in abnormal human and animal chest CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P. Viergever, Max A.; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Brown, Matthew S.; Jong, Pim A. de; Ginneken, Bram van

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Many medical image analysis systems require segmentation of the structures of interest as a first step. For scans with gross pathology, automatic segmentation methods may fail. The authors’ aim is to develop a versatile, fast, and reliable interactive system to segment anatomical structures. In this study, this system was used for segmenting lungs in challenging thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods: In volumetric thoracic CT scans, the chest is segmented and divided into 3D volumes of interest (VOIs), containing voxels with similar densities. These VOIs are automatically labeled as either lung tissue or nonlung tissue. The automatic labeling results can be corrected using an interactive or a supervised interactive approach. When using the supervised interactive system, the user is shown the classification results per slice, whereupon he/she can adjust incorrect labels. The system is retrained continuously, taking the corrections and approvals of the user into account. In this way, the system learns to make a better distinction between lung tissue and nonlung tissue. When using the interactive framework without supervised learning, the user corrects all incorrectly labeled VOIs manually. Both interactive segmentation tools were tested on 32 volumetric CT scans of pigs, mice and humans, containing pulmonary abnormalities. Results: On average, supervised interactive lung segmentation took under 9 min of user interaction. Algorithm computing time was 2 min on average, but can easily be reduced. On average, 2.0% of all VOIs in a scan had to be relabeled. Lung segmentation using the interactive segmentation method took on average 13 min and involved relabeling 3.0% of all VOIs on average. The resulting segmentations correspond well to manual delineations of eight axial slices per scan, with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.933. Conclusions: The authors have developed two fast and reliable methods for interactive lung segmentation in

  12. Improving initial polyp candidate extraction for CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongbin; Fan, Yi; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2010-04-01

    Reducing the number of false positives (FPs) as much as possible is a challenging task for computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps. As part of a typical CAD pipeline, an accurate and robust process for segmenting initial polyp candidates (IPCs) will significantly benefit the successive FP reduction procedures, such as feature-based classification of false and true positives (TPs). In this study, we introduce an improved scheme for segmenting IPCs. It consists of two main components. One is geodesic distance-based merging, which merges suspicious patches (SPs) for IPCs. Based on the merged SPs, another component, called convex dilation, grows each SP beyond the inner surface of the colon wall to form a volume of interest (VOI) for that IPC, so that the inner border of the VOI beyond the colon inner surface could be segmented as convex, as expected. The IPC segmentation strategy was evaluated using a database of 50 patient studies, which include 100 scans at supine and prone positions with 84 polyps and masses sized from 6 to 35 mm. The presented IPC segmentation strategy (or VOI extraction method) demonstrated improvements, in terms of having no undesirably merged true polyp and providing more helpful mean and variance of the image intensities rooted from the extracted VOI for classification of the TPs and FPs, over two other VOI extraction methods (i.e. the conventional method of Nappi and Yoshida (2003 Med. Phys. 30 1592-601) and our previous method (Zhu et al 2009 Cancer Manag. Res. 1 1-13). At a by-polyp sensitivity of 0.90, these three methods generated the FP rate (number of FPs per scan) of 4.78 (new method), 6.37 (Nappi) and 7.01 (Zhu) respectively.

  13. The impact of 3D volume of interest definition on accuracy and precision of activity estimation in quantitative SPECT and planar processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.

    2010-06-01

    Accurate and precise estimation of organ activities is essential for treatment planning in targeted radionuclide therapy. We have previously evaluated the impact of processing methodology, statistical noise and variability in activity distribution and anatomy on the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates obtained with quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) and planar (QPlanar) processing. Another important factor impacting the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates is accuracy of and variability in the definition of organ regions of interest (ROI) or volumes of interest (VOI). The goal of this work was thus to systematically study the effects of VOI definition on the reliability of activity estimates. To this end, we performed Monte Carlo simulation studies using randomly perturbed and shifted VOIs to assess the impact on organ activity estimates. The 3D NCAT phantom was used with activities that modeled clinically observed 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan distributions. In order to study the errors resulting from misdefinitions due to manual segmentation errors, VOIs of the liver and left kidney were first manually defined. Each control point was then randomly perturbed to one of the nearest or next-nearest voxels in three ways: with no, inward or outward directional bias, resulting in random perturbation, erosion or dilation, respectively, of the VOIs. In order to study the errors resulting from the misregistration of VOIs, as would happen, e.g. in the case where the VOIs were defined using a misregistered anatomical image, the reconstructed SPECT images or projections were shifted by amounts ranging from -1 to 1 voxels in increments of with 0.1 voxels in both the transaxial and axial directions. The activity estimates from the shifted reconstructions or projections were compared to those from the originals, and average errors were computed for the QSPECT and QPlanar methods, respectively. For misregistration, errors in organ activity estimations were

  14. The impact of 3D volume of interest definition on accuracy and precision of activity estimation in quantitative SPECT and planar processing methods.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Frey, Eric C

    2010-06-21

    Accurate and precise estimation of organ activities is essential for treatment planning in targeted radionuclide therapy. We have previously evaluated the impact of processing methodology, statistical noise and variability in activity distribution and anatomy on the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates obtained with quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) and planar (QPlanar) processing. Another important factor impacting the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates is accuracy of and variability in the definition of organ regions of interest (ROI) or volumes of interest (VOI). The goal of this work was thus to systematically study the effects of VOI definition on the reliability of activity estimates. To this end, we performed Monte Carlo simulation studies using randomly perturbed and shifted VOIs to assess the impact on organ activity estimates. The 3D NCAT phantom was used with activities that modeled clinically observed (111)In ibritumomab tiuxetan distributions. In order to study the errors resulting from misdefinitions due to manual segmentation errors, VOIs of the liver and left kidney were first manually defined. Each control point was then randomly perturbed to one of the nearest or next-nearest voxels in three ways: with no, inward or outward directional bias, resulting in random perturbation, erosion or dilation, respectively, of the VOIs. In order to study the errors resulting from the misregistration of VOIs, as would happen, e.g. in the case where the VOIs were defined using a misregistered anatomical image, the reconstructed SPECT images or projections were shifted by amounts ranging from -1 to 1 voxels in increments of with 0.1 voxels in both the transaxial and axial directions. The activity estimates from the shifted reconstructions or projections were compared to those from the originals, and average errors were computed for the QSPECT and QPlanar methods, respectively. For misregistration, errors in organ activity estimations were

  15. Soft, fortified ice-cream for head and neck cancer patients: a useful first step in nutritional and swallowing difficulties associated with multi-modal management.

    PubMed

    Trinidade, Aaron; Martinelli, Katrina; Andreou, Zenon; Kothari, Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer have complex swallowing and nutritional concerns. Most patients are malnourished, and treatment modalities within the aerodigestive tract have profound effects on future swallowing and nutrition. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the introduction of fortified soft ice-cream to post-operative head and neck cancer patients would increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. Using a questionnaire study, an ice-cream machine that produces fortified soft ice-cream was introduced onto our ward, and 30 patients were asked to fill out questionnaires based on their experience in addition to their oral-feeding regime. Results indicate that overall patient satisfaction and compliance with oral-feeding regimes increased: 77% felt that the taste was excellent and also felt that it was easy to eat; 60% felt that it eased the symptoms associated with their symptoms, in particular its cold temperature. We conclude from the results that the inability of patients undergoing multi-modal treatment for upper aerodigestive tract cancer to enjoy normal foods and its effects on their quality of life is underestimated. Providing a food to that is palatable, familiar and acceptable as it is safe and nutritionally sound can increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. The ice-cream was safe to use in the early post-operative period, especially soothing in patients undergoing upper aerodigestive radiotherapy and high in protein and calorific content. Our practice may have wider benefits, including patients with oral and oropharyngeal infections, the elderly and patients with neurological dysphagia resulting from stroke.

  16. Household air pollution and cancers other than lung: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Josyula, Sowmya; Lin, Juan; Xue, Xiaonan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Rohan, Thomas E; Hosgood, H Dean

    2015-03-15

    Household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion contributes to 2.6% of the global burden of disease. HAP emissions are an established lung carcinogen; however, associations with other cancer sites have not been fully explored. We conducted a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies. Using fixed-effects models, utilizing the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from each study, we evaluated the association between HAP and cervical neoplasia (663 cases and 1747 controls) and upper aero-digestive tract cancers (6022 cases and 15 325 controls). We found that HAP was associated with cervical neoplasia (OR = 6.46; 95% CI = 3.12-13.36; 4 studies); oral (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.87-3.19; 4 studies; 1000 cases/3450 controls); nasopharyngeal (OR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.42-2.29; 6 studies; 2231 cases/2160 controls); pharyngeal (OR = 3.56; 95% CI = 2.22-5.70; 4 studies; 1036 cases/3746 controls); and laryngeal (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.72- 3.21; 5 studies; 1416 cases/4514 controls) cancers. The elevated risk for esophageal cancer (OR = 1.92; 95% CI = 0.82-4.49; 2 studies; 339 cases/1455 controls) was non-significant. HAP was associated with cervical neoplasia among studies that accounted for HPV infection (OR = 9.60; 95% CI = 3.79-24.32) and smoking (OR = 4.72; 95% CI = 1.84-12.07). Similarly, our observed associations between HAP and upper aero-digestive tract cancers remained significantly elevated when analyses were restricted to studies that controlled for smoking. No significant publication bias was detected. Our results suggest that the carcinogenic effect of HAP observed for lung cancer may extend to other cancers, including those of the cervix and the upper aero-digestive tract. Further research is needed to confirm these associations in prospective studies.

  17. Effects of birth asphyxia on the modulation of pharyngeal provocation-induced adaptive reflexes.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Ish K; Shubert, Theresa R; Sitaram, Swetha; Wei, Lai; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2015-10-15

    Perinatal asphyxia and aerodigestive symptoms are troublesome. We tested the hypothesis that pharyngeal provocation alters proximal and distal aerodigestive reflex coordination and kinetics in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), compared with healthy controls. Specifically, we characterized the sensory-motor properties of pharyngeal provocation-induced effects on upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) reflexes. Ten orally fed controls (32.0 ± 1.5 wk gestation) and 25 infants with HIE (38.1 ± 0.4 wk gestation) were evaluated at 39.7 ± 0.9 and 41.9 ± 0.6 wk postmenstrual age respectively. Pharyngo-esophageal reflexes evoked upon graded water stimuli were tested using water-perfusion micromanometry methods. Analysis included sensory-motor characteristics of pharyngeal reflexive swallow (PRS), pharyngo-UES-contractile reflex (PUCR), esophageal body-waveform kinetics, and pharyngo-LES-relaxation reflex (PLESRR). For controls vs. infants with HIE, median appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration (APGAR) scores were 6 vs. 1 at 1 min (P < 0.001) and 8 vs. 3 at 5 min (P < 0.001). Upon pharyngeal- stimulation, HIE infants (vs. controls) had frequent PUCR (P = 0.01); increased UES basal tone (P = 0.03); decreased LES basal tone (P = 0.002); increased pharyngeal-waveforms per stimulus (P = 0.03); decreased frequency of LES relaxation (P = 0.003); and decreased proximal esophageal contractile amplitude (P = 0.002), with prolonged proximal esophageal contractile duration (P = 0.008). Increased tonicity and reactivity of the UES and dysregulation of LES may provide the pathophysiological basis for pooling of secretions, improper bolus clearance, and aspiration risk. Deficits in function at the nuclear or supranuclear level involving glossopharyngeal and vagal neural networks and respiratory regulatory pathways involved with aerodigestive protection may be contributory. PMID:26272260

  18. TH-A-18C-11: An Investigation of KV CBCT Image Quality and Dose Reduction for Volume-Of-Interest Imaging Using Dynamic Collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, D; Robar, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The focus of this work was to investigate the improvements in image quality and dose reduction for volume-of-interest (VOI) kV-CBCT using dynamic collimation. Methods: A prototype iris aperture was used to track a VOI during a CBCT acquisition. The current aperture design is capable of one-dimensional translation as a function of gantry angle and dynamic adjustment of the iris radius. The aperture occupies the location of the bow-tie filter on a Varian OBI system. CBCT and planar image quality was investigated as a function of aperture radius, while maintaining the same dose to the VOI, for a 20 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom with a 9 mm diameter bone insert centered on isocenter. Corresponding scatter-to-primary ratios (SPR) were determined at the detector plane with Monte Carlo simulation using EGSnrc. Dose distributions for various anatomical sites were modeled using a dynamic BEAMnrc library and DOSXYZnrc. The resulting VOI dose distributions were compared to full-field distributions. Results: SPR was reduced by a factor of 8.4 when decreasing iris diameter from 21.2 cm to 2.4 cm (at isocenter). Similarly, this change in iris diameter corresponds to a factor increase of approximately 1.4 and 1.5 in image contrast for CBCT and planar images, respectively, and similarly a factor decrease in image noise of approximately 1.7 and 1.5. This results in a measured gain in contrast-to-noise ratio of a factor of approximately 2.3 for both CBCT and planar images. Depending upon the anatomical site, dose was reduced to 10%–70% of the full field value along the central axis plane and down to 2% along the axial planes, while maintaining the same dose to the VOI compared to full-field techniques. Conclusion: The presented VOI technique offers improved image quality for image-guided radiotherapy while sparing the surrounding volume of unnecessary dose compared to full-field techniques.

  19. Comparison of output-based approaches used to substantiate bovine tuberculosis free status in Danish cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Willeberg, Preben; Alban, Lis

    2015-09-01

    We compared two published studies based on different output-based surveillance models, which were used for evaluating the performance of two meat inspection systems in cattle and to substantiate freedom from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Denmark. The systems were the current meat inspection methods (CMI) vs. the visual-only inspection (VOI). In one study, the surveillance system sensitivity (SSe) was estimated to substantiate the bTB free status. The other study used SSe in the estimation of the probability of freedom (PFree), based on the epidemiological concept of negative predictive value to substantiate the bTB free status. Both studies found that changing from CMI to VOI would markedly decrease the SSe. However, the two studies reported diverging conclusions regarding the effect on the substantiation of Denmark as a bTB free country, if VOI were to be introduced. The objectives of this work were: (a) to investigate the reasons why conclusions based on the two models differed, and (b) to create a hybrid model based on elements from both studies to evaluate the impact of a change from CMI to VOI. The hybrid model was based on the PFree approach to substantiate freedom from bTB and was parametrized with inputs according to the newest available information. The PFree was updated on an annual basis for each of 42 years of test-negative surveillance data (1995-2037), while assuming a low (<1%) annual probability of introduction of bTB into Danish cattle herds. The most important reasons for the difference between the study conclusions were: the approach chosen to substantiate the bTB free status (SSe vs. PFree) and the number of years of surveillance data considered. With the hybrid model, the PFree reached a level >95% after the first year of surveillance and remained ≥96% with both the CMI and VOI systems until the end of the analyzed period. It is appropriate to use the PFree of the surveillance system to substantiate confidence in bTB free status, when test

  20. Hippocampal abnormalities of glutamate/glutamine, N-acetylaspartate and choline in patients with depression are related to past illness burden

    PubMed Central

    de Diego-Adeliño, Javier; Portella, Maria J.; Gómez-Ansón, Beatriz; López-Moruelo, Olga; Serra-Blasco, Maria; Vives, Yolanda; Puigdemont, Dolors; Pérez-Egea, Rosario; Álvarez, Enric; Pérez, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Background Smaller hippocampal volumes in major depressive disorder (MDD) have been linked with earlier onset, previous recurrences and treatment refractoriness. The aim of our study was to investigate metabolite abnormalities in the hippocampus associated with past depressive illness burden. Methods Glutamate/glutamine (Glx), N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline (Cho), potential markers of glial/neuronal integrity and membrane turnover, respectively, were measured in adults with depression and healthy controls using a 3 T magnetic resonance spectroscopy scanner. Voxels were placed in the head of the right and left hippocampus. We controlled for systematic differences resulting from volume-of-interest (VOI) tissue composition and total hippocampal volume. Results Our final sample comprised a total of 16 healthy controls and 52 adult patients with depression in different stages of the illness (20 treatment-resistant/chronic, 18 remitted-recurrent and 14 first-episode), comparable for age and sex distribution. Patients with treatment-resistant/chronic and remitted-recurrent depression had significantly lower levels of Glx and NAA than controls, especially in the right hippocampal region (p ≤ 0.025). Diminished levels of Glx were correlated with longer illness duration (left VOI r = −0.34, p = 0.01). By contrast, Cho levels were significantly higher in patients with treatment-resistant/chronic depression than those with first-episode depression or controls in the right and left hippocampus (up to 19% higher; all p ≤ 0.025) and were consistently related to longer illness duration (right VOI r = 0.30, p = 0.028; left VOI r = 0.38, p = 0.004) and more previous episodes (right VOI r = 0.46, p = 0.001; left VOI r = 0.44, p = 0.001). Limitations The cross-sectional design and the inclusion of treated patients are the main limitations of the study. Conclusion Our results support that metabolite alterations within the hippocampus are more pronounced in patients with a

  1. Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica of Bazex.

    PubMed Central

    Handfield-Jones, S E; Matthews, C N; Ellis, J P; Das, K B; McGibbon, D H

    1992-01-01

    Bazex disease is one of the rarer cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes. It is characterized by psoriasiform changes on the digits, and in some patients spread to the ears, nose and in later stages to the limbs and trunk. The associated malignancy is typically a squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. We review the literature regarding acrokeratosis paraneoplastica of Bazex and report three cases which illustrate both the typical and some of the less common changes that are seen in the condition. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:1433123

  2. Mayo Clinic Experience with Unfavorable Results After Free Tissue Transfer to Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Thomas H; Hayden, Richard E

    2016-10-01

    Free tissue transfer to the head and neck in the modern era has a high success rate. To maximize success with reconstructive surgery in the head and neck region, it helps to understand those factors that present unique challenges. These factors include contamination by the upper aerodigestive tract, tissue mobility, and a high percentage of patients receiving radiotherapy for oncologic treatment. This article reviews the authors' experience in the head and neck, specifically how addressing these factors can best lead to successful functional and aesthetic outcomes. The authors share surgical techniques and lessons learned from their successes and failures. PMID:27601391

  3. Respiratory papillomas

    PubMed Central

    Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Papillomas are known to occur in the lower respiratory tract. They are however, rare compared to their occurrence in the upper respiratory tract. These are generally exophytic tumors in the more proximal upper airways however cases with more distal location with an inverted growth pattern have also been described in the literature. These can be solitary or multiple and multifocality associated with multiple papillomas in the upper respiratory/aerodigestive tract. The four major types of respiratory papillomas are (1) Recurrent respiratory papillomas, (2) solitary squamous papillomas, (3) solitary glandular papillomas, (4) mixed papillomas. We review the incidence, etiopathology, diagnosis, and possible treatment modalities and algorithms for these respiratory papillomas.

  4. Esophageal Perforation with Unilateral Fluidothorax Caused by Nasogastric Tube

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Martin; Reiterer, Friedrich; Pilhatsch, Alexander; Gürtl-Lackner, Barbara; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants are highly susceptible to injuries following necessary and often life-saving medical interventions. Esophageal perforation is a rare, yet serious complication that can be caused by aerodigestive tract suction, endotracheal intubation, or nasogastric tube placement. We present the case of a neonate born at 23 weeks plus three days of gestation with chest radiography showing malposition of the nasogastric feeding tube and massive right-sided effusion of Iopamidol in the pleural cavity due to esophageal perforation. In addition, the article summarizes common signs and symptoms associated with esophageal perforation in infants and discusses diagnostic approaches. PMID:27803831

  5. Current philosophy in the surgical management of neck metastases for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, H. Hakan; Medina, Jesus E.; Robbins, K. Thomas; Silver, Carl E.; Strojan, Primož; Teymoortash, Afshin; Pellitteri, Phillip K.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Stoeckli, Sandro J.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Suçrez, Carlos; Hartl, Dana M.; de Bree, Remco; Takes, Robert P.; Hamoir, Marc; Pitman, Karen T.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-01-01

    Neck dissection is an important treatment for metastases from upper aerodigestive carcinoma; an event that markedly reduces survival. Since its inception, the philosophy of the procedure has undergone significant change from one of radicalism to the current conservative approach. Furthermore, nonsurgical modalities have been introduced, and, in many situations, have supplanted neck surgery. The refinements of imaging the neck based on the concept of neck level involvement has encouraged new philosophies to evolve that seem to benefit patient outcomes particularly as this relates to diminished morbidity. The purpose of this review was to highlight the new paradigms for surgical removal of neck metastases using an evidence-based approach. PMID:24623715

  6. Heterogeneous 18F-FDG uptake in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, John-Paul J; Barajas, Ramon F; Olorunsola, Dare; Sugrue, Leo P; Hernandez-Pampaloni, Miguel

    2013-05-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) describes an infection of the upper aerodigestive tract by the human papilloma virus most commonly affecting the larynx with rare lung involvement in 1%-2% of affected patients. We describe an unusual case of a 28-year-old male patient with a longstanding history of RRP where a whole-body PET/CT obtained for disease staging revealed multiple cavitary pulmonary nodules in addition to the more typical tracheobronchial papillomas. In the case described herein, we report heterogeneous uptake of 18F-FDG among these RRP lesions, suggesting significant unexpected variability in the underlying metabolic behavior of these lesions. PMID:23486321

  7. Respiratory papillomas.

    PubMed

    Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Papillomas are known to occur in the lower respiratory tract. They are however, rare compared to their occurrence in the upper respiratory tract. These are generally exophytic tumors in the more proximal upper airways however cases with more distal location with an inverted growth pattern have also been described in the literature. These can be solitary or multiple and multifocality associated with multiple papillomas in the upper respiratory/aerodigestive tract. The four major types of respiratory papillomas are (1) Recurrent respiratory papillomas, (2) solitary squamous papillomas, (3) solitary glandular papillomas, (4) mixed papillomas. We review the incidence, etiopathology, diagnosis, and possible treatment modalities and algorithms for these respiratory papillomas.

  8. Mayo Clinic Experience with Unfavorable Results After Free Tissue Transfer to Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Thomas H; Hayden, Richard E

    2016-10-01

    Free tissue transfer to the head and neck in the modern era has a high success rate. To maximize success with reconstructive surgery in the head and neck region, it helps to understand those factors that present unique challenges. These factors include contamination by the upper aerodigestive tract, tissue mobility, and a high percentage of patients receiving radiotherapy for oncologic treatment. This article reviews the authors' experience in the head and neck, specifically how addressing these factors can best lead to successful functional and aesthetic outcomes. The authors share surgical techniques and lessons learned from their successes and failures.

  9. Spindle Cell Carcinoma of the Mandibular Gingiva – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Patankar, Sangeeta R.; Bhandare, Prachi R.; Tripathi, Nidhi; Sridharan, Gokul

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a malignancy of epithelial origin often mimicking its mesenchymal counterpart thus posing a diagnostic challenge. It is a rare biphasic malignant tumour mostly encountered in the upper aerodigestive tract. The chief differential diagnoses of spindle cell carcinoma are true superficial sarcomas and they especially need to be differentiated from fibrosarcoma. This presentation reports a spindle cell carcinoma of the gingiva and highlights the difficulties encountered in the diagnosis. It also emphasizes the importance of accurate and thorough diagnosis of malignant spindle cell lesions to determine the appropriate therapeutic modality. PMID:27042594

  10. Respiratory papillomas

    PubMed Central

    Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Papillomas are known to occur in the lower respiratory tract. They are however, rare compared to their occurrence in the upper respiratory tract. These are generally exophytic tumors in the more proximal upper airways however cases with more distal location with an inverted growth pattern have also been described in the literature. These can be solitary or multiple and multifocality associated with multiple papillomas in the upper respiratory/aerodigestive tract. The four major types of respiratory papillomas are (1) Recurrent respiratory papillomas, (2) solitary squamous papillomas, (3) solitary glandular papillomas, (4) mixed papillomas. We review the incidence, etiopathology, diagnosis, and possible treatment modalities and algorithms for these respiratory papillomas. PMID:27625447

  11. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Naren N; Pine, Harold S; Underbrink, Michael P

    2012-06-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare, benign disease with no known cure. RRP is caused by infection of the upper aerodigestive tract with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Passage through the birth canal is thought to be the initial transmission event, but infection may occur in utero. HPV vaccines have helped to provide protection from cervical cancer; however, their role in the prevention of RRP is undetermined. Clinical presentation of initial symptoms of RRP may be subtle. RRP course varies, and current management focuses on surgical debulking of papillomatous lesions with or without concurrent adjuvant therapy. PMID:22588043

  12. SubMIR - a submillimeter and IR observations database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayet, E.; Rabasse, J. F.; Gerin, M.

    2005-12-01

    We have built the first submillimeter and IR observations database of the Laboratoire de Radioastronomie-Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris-LERMA (Observatoire de Paris) which contains already more than 1000 submm/mm spectra and several IR maps of nearby galaxies (D<10Mpc) from Bayet et al. 2004, 2005a, 2005b, 2006; Gerin & Phillips 1998, 2000. It has been developed to gather, classify and make available all the submm, mm, IR observations collected these last years and obtained not only for the nearby galaxies but also for more distant objects. SubMIR interacts and completes the already existing databases such as NED, ADS, SIMBAD, etc... Presently, the test periods are almost finished and we hope to open SubMIR very soon to the large astrophysical community. In this poster, we present the way the database works.

  13. Journees 2010: New challenges for reference systems and numerical standards in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, Nicole

    2011-10-01

    The Journees 2010 "Systemes de reference spatio-temporels", with the sub-title "New challenges for reference systems and numerical standards in astronomy", were organized from 20 to 22 September 2010 at Paris Observatory and Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, France. The scientific programme was focused on the issues related to the recent developments and new challenges in astronomical space and time reference systems and their relativistic aspects, astrometric catalogs, Earth orientation, astronomical constants and numerical standards, planetary ephemerides and modern astrometry. There have been presentations and discussions related to the IAU Division 1 commissions and IAU Working Group "Numerical Standards for Fundamental astronomy" (NSFA); there has been a special session for presenting the latest developments in the solar system ephemerides and comparing details in those ephemerides.

  14. Cell scientist to watch - Virgile Viasnoff.

    PubMed

    Bobrowska, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Virgile earned his first degree in soft matter physics at the École Normale Superieure in Paris. He then moved to Johns Hopkins University in the USA to complete a Masters degree, before returning to Paris to pursue his PhD at the École supérieure de physique et de chimie industrielles (ESPCI) in Francois Lequeux's laboratory. In 2006, after two years as a postdoctoral fellow in the group of Amit Meller at Harvard, Vigile started his own lab at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) at ESPCI. Between 2010 and 2011, Virgile spent two years on sabbatical at the Mechanobiology Institute (MBI) at the University of Singapore. He now holds a dual appointment between CNRS and MBI, and his lab in Singapore investigates how the physical and biochemical parameters of the cellular microenvironment regulate cell-cell adhesion and cell fate.

  15. Theoretical Study of All-Electrical Quantum Wire Valley Filters in Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Lue, Ning-Yuan; Chen, Yen-Chun; Jiang, Jia-Huei; Chou, Mei-Yin

    Graphene electrons carry valley pseudospin, due to the double valley degeneracy in graphene band structure. In gapped graphene, the pseudospin is coupled to an in-plane electric field, through the mechanism of valley-orbit interaction (VOI), Based on the VOI, a family of electrically-controlled valleytronic devices have been proposed. Here, we report the theoretical study of a recently proposed valley filter consisting of a Q1D channel in bilayer graphene defined and controlled by electrical gates. We discuss two types of calculations - those of energy subband structure in the channel and electron transmission through a valley valve consisting of two proposed filters. For the former, we have developed a tight binding formulation in the continuum limit. For the latter, we employ the recursive Green's function method. Results from the calculations will be presented. Financial support by MoST, Taiwan, ROC is acknowledged.

  16. Evolution insolite d'une plaie complexe de la voie biliaire principale post cholécystectomie cœlioscopique

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hedfi; Hala, Bouhafa; Youssef, Elcadhi; Abdelhedi, Cherif; Karim, Sassi; Azza, Sridi; Adnen, Chouchene

    2016-01-01

    Depuis l'avènement de la chirurgie coelioscopique de la lithiase biliaire le nombre de plaies des voies biliaires a sensiblement augmenté dans la littérature en rapport avec la courbe d'apprentissage des opérateurs. Les plaies méconnues peuvent avoir des conséquences immédiates dramatiques et évoluer vers la péritonite biliaire. Ailleurs la réparation des fistules biliaires externes au stade de dilatation des voies biliaires nécessite une anastomose bilio digestive ou des résections hépatiques réglées. PMID:27279975

  17. Prioritizing HIV Comparative Effectiveness Trials based on Value of Information: Generic vs. Brand-Name ART in the US

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Pamela P.; Weinstein, Milton C.; Li, X. Cynthia; Hughes, Michael D.; Paltiel, A. David; Hou, Taige; Parker, Robert A.; Gaynes, Melanie R.; Sax, Paul E.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Schackman, Bruce R.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Value of Information (VOI) analysis examines whether to acquire information before making a decision. We introduced VOI to the HIV audience, using the example of generic antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the US. Methods and Findings We used a mathematical model and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to generate probability distributions of survival (in quality-adjusted life years, QALYs) and cost for three potential first-line ART regimens: 3-pill generic, 2-pill generic, and 1-pill branded. These served as input for a comparison of two hypothetical two-arm trials: 3-pill generic vs. 1-pill branded; and 2-pill generic vs.1-pill branded. We modeled pre-trial uncertainty by defining probability distributions around key inputs, including 24-week HIV-RNA suppression and subsequent ART failure. We assumed that, without a trial, patients received the 1-pill branded strategy. Post-trial, we assumed that patients received the most cost-effective strategy. For both trials, we quantified the probability of changing to a generic-based regimen upon trial completion and the expected VOI in terms of improved health outcomes and costs. Assuming a willingness to pay threshold of $100,000/QALY, the 3-pill trial led to more treatment changes (84%) than the 2-pill trial (78%). Estimated VOI was $48,000 (3-pill trial) and $35,700 (2-pill trial) per future patient initiating ART. Conclusions A 3-pill trial of generic ART is more likely to lead to post-trial treatment changes and to provide more value than a 2-pill trial if policy decisions are based on cost-effectiveness. Value of Information analysis can identify trials likely to confer the greatest impact and value for HIV care. PMID:26651525

  18. A new 2.5D representation for lymph node detection using random sets of deep convolutional neural network observations.

    PubMed

    Roth, Holger R; Lu, Le; Seff, Ari; Cherry, Kevin M; Hoffman, Joanne; Wang, Shijun; Liu, Jiamin; Turkbey, Evrim; Summers, Ronald M

    2014-01-01

    Automated Lymph Node (LN) detection is an important clinical diagnostic task but very challenging due to the low contrast of surrounding structures in Computed Tomography (CT) and to their varying sizes, poses, shapes and sparsely distributed locations. State-of-the-art studies show the performance range of 52.9% sensitivity at 3.1 false-positives per volume (FP/vol.), or 60.9% at 6.1 FP/vol. for mediastinal LN, by one-shot boosting on 3D HAAR features. In this paper, we first operate a preliminary candidate generation stage, towards -100% sensitivity at the cost of high FP levels (-40 per patient), to harvest volumes of interest (VOI). Our 2.5D approach consequently decomposes any 3D VOI by resampling 2D reformatted orthogonal views N times, via scale, random translations, and rotations with respect to the VOI centroid coordinates. These random views are then used to train a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier. In testing, the CNN is employed to assign LN probabilities for all N random views that can be simply averaged (as a set) to compute the final classification probability per VOI. We validate the approach on two datasets: 90 CT volumes with 388 mediastinal LNs and 86 patients with 595 abdominal LNs. We achieve sensitivities of 70%/83% at 3 FP/vol. and 84%/90% at 6 FP/vol. in mediastinum and abdomen respectively, which drastically improves over the previous state-of-the-art work.

  19. Atlas-driven scan planning for high-resolution micro-SPECT data acquisition based on multi-view photographs: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiker, Martin; Vastenhouw, Brendan; Branderhorst, Woutjan; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Beekman, Freek; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.

    2009-02-01

    Highly focused Micro-SPECT scanners enable the acquisition of functional small animal data with very high-resolution. To acquire a maximum of emitted photons from a specific structure of interest and at the same time minimize the required acquisition time, typically only a small subvolume of the animal is scanned that contains the organs of interest. This Volume of Interest (VOI) can be defined manually based on photographs of the animal taken prior to SPECT scanning, for example two lateral views and a top view. In these photographs however, only the surface of the animal is visible and therefore visual estimation of the location of these organs may be difficult. In this paper, we propose a novel atlas-based technique for estimating the organ VOI for the major organs by mapping a small animal atlas to optical scout images. The user is required to outline the animal contour in one lateral view, and to mark two lateral landmarks in the top view photograph. These landmarks subsequently serve as fiducial landmarks to define a 3D Thin-Plate-Spline mapping of an anatomical mouse atlas to the photographic coordinate space. Planar projections of the mapped atlas organs on the photographs greatly facilitate the estimation of the size and position of the target organ. To validate the proposed approach, the estimated organ VOIs were compared to manually drawn organ outlines in a Micro-CT scan, which was co-registered to the scout photographs using physical landmarks. The results demonstrate a highly promising volume correspondence between the real and the estimated organ VOIs.

  20. Corrections of arterial input function for dynamic H215O PET to assess perfusion of pelvic tumours: arterial blood sampling versus image extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüdemann, L.; Sreenivasa, G.; Michel, R.; Rosner, C.; Plotkin, M.; Felix, R.; Wust, P.; Amthauer, H.

    2006-06-01

    Assessment of perfusion with 15O-labelled water (H215O) requires measurement of the arterial input function (AIF). The arterial time activity curve (TAC) measured using the peripheral sampling scheme requires corrections for delay and dispersion. In this study, parametrizations with and without arterial spillover correction for fitting of the tissue curve are evaluated. Additionally, a completely noninvasive method for generation of the AIF from a dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) acquisition is applied to assess perfusion of pelvic tumours. This method uses a volume of interest (VOI) to extract the TAC from the femoral artery. The VOI TAC is corrected for spillover using a separate tissue TAC and for recovery by determining the recovery coefficient on a coregistered CT data set. The techniques were applied in five patients with pelvic tumours who underwent a total of 11 examinations. Delay and dispersion correction of the blood TAC without arterial spillover correction yielded in seven examinations solutions inconsistent with physiology. Correction of arterial spillover increased the fitting accuracy and yielded consistent results in all patients. Generation of an AIF from PET image data was investigated as an alternative to arterial blood sampling and was shown to have an intrinsic potential to determine the AIF noninvasively and reproducibly. The AIF extracted from a VOI in a dynamic PET scan was similar in shape to the blood AIF but yielded significantly higher tissue perfusion values (mean of 104.0 ± 52.0%) and lower partition coefficients (-31.6 ± 24.2%). The perfusion values and partition coefficients determined with the VOI technique have to be corrected in order to compare the results with those of studies using a blood AIF.

  1. Assessing the value of information for water quality management: a watershed perspective from China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Zheng, Yi

    2013-04-01

    To tackle China's pervasive water pollution, tremendous efforts are needed to achieve more and better information. However, resources for information collection (e.g., water quality monitoring, field experiments, etc.) are very limited for large watersheds with significant nonpoint source pollution. Thus, it is crucial to identify the priority of information acquisition. Based on the theory of value of information (VOI), a stochastic optimization approach was developed in this study to evaluate the importance of information. The approach was applied to several key polluted water bodies in China (e.g., Lake Taihu, Lake Chaohu, and Lake Dianchi). The major findings include: (1) because of the severe pollution and large uncertainty, the VOI for the targeted water bodies is substantial; (2) when the uncertainty is significant, a stricter regulation would result in a higher VOI, and therefore provide more incentives for data collection; (3) due to the interaction among different information sources, collecting multiple types of information simultaneously could be more valuable than collecting one after another; and (4) the importance of a specific type of information could vary significantly across watersheds. The proposed approach can be readily extended to more complex models and more sophisticated watershed cases. It could effectively support watershed management in China, as well as in other countries.

  2. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method pro- vided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  3. Strawberry gingivitis: A diagnostic feature of gingival Wegener's granulomatosis!

    PubMed Central

    Heera, R.; Choudhary, Kanaram; Beena, V. T.; Simon, Rency

    2012-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is an immunologically mediated inflammatory disease characterized by granulomatous vasculitis of the upper and lower aerodigestive tracts together with glomerulonephritis. We are reporting a rare case of gingival WG that presented with erythematous and painful generalized gingival enlargement. Correlation of histopathology with routine hematoxylin and eosin and special stains [Grocott-Gomori methenamine-silver nitrate and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS)], Mantoux test, peripheral blood smear and clinical presentation were established in diagnosing this rare entity. By the above-mentioned procedures and methodology, we have arrived at the diagnosis of Wegner's granulomatosis limited to the upper aerodigestive tract. Therefore, the aim of reporting this case was to emphasize that, the dental surgeon often being the first person to examine the oral cavity, should be familiar with the typical appearance of gingival WG as “strawberry gingivitis,” its clinical course as well as diagnostic parameters and adequate management. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of WG manifesting as “strawberry gingivitis” in the Indian population. PMID:23814553

  4. Dysphagia, Speech, Voice, and Trismus following Radiotherapy and/or Chemotherapy in Patients with Head and Neck Carcinoma: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Koetsenruijter, K. W. J.; Swan, K.; Bogaardt, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with head and neck cancer suffer from various impairments due to the primary illness, as well as secondary consequences of the oncological treatment. This systematic review describes the effects of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy on the functions of the upper aerodigestive tract in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed by two independent reviewers using the electronic databases PubMed and Embase. All dates up to May 2016 were included. Results. Of the 947 abstracts, sixty articles met the inclusion criteria and described one or more aspects of the sequelae of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Forty studies described swallowing-related problems, 24 described voice-related problems, seven described trismus, and 25 studies described general quality of life. Only 14 articles reported that speech pathologists conducted the interventions, of which only six articles described in detail what the interventions involved. Conclusion. In general, voice quality improved following intervention, whereas quality of life, dysphagia, and oral intake deteriorated during and after treatment. However, as a consequence of the diversity in treatment protocols and patient characteristics, the conclusions of most studies cannot be easily generalised. Further research on the effects of oncological interventions on the upper aerodigestive tract is needed. PMID:27722170

  5. Expression of P16 in NUT carcinomas with no association with human papillomavirus (HPV).

    PubMed

    Salles, Paulo Guilherme de Oliveira; Moura, Rafael de Deus; Menezes, Letícia M; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2014-04-01

    NUT carcinoma (NC) is a rare malignant neoplasm usually located in the midline, including the upper aerodigestive tract. NC is an aggressive and highly lethal type of carcinoma. It is defined by the rearrangement of the nuclear protein in the testis (NUT) gene on chromosome 15q14. In most cases, the NUT is involved in a balanced translocation with the BRD4 gene on chromosome 19p13.1, an event that creates a BRD4-NUT fusion gene. The relationship between the human papillomavirus (HPV), p16, and upper aerodigestive tract cancer has been long postulated. In this study, we evaluated the relationship of the p16 expression in 4 cases of NCs and its eventual association with HPV. All 4 cases presented typical histopathologic findings with nuclear positivity of the NUT protein and strong expression for p16. None of these cases, however, showed an association with HPV evaluated by polymerase chain reaction. Despite the expression of p16, this negative result for HPV indicates that HPV infection probably does not play a role in the pathogenesis of NC.

  6. Reflux and cough.

    PubMed

    Merati, Albert L

    2010-02-01

    Reflux is a significant contributor to cough in otolaryngology practice; cough is just one marker of its many negative effects on the upper aerodigestive tract. Reflux causes cough both by direct irritation/inflammation and by increasing sensitivities to other noxious agents. Detailed and diligent clinical evaluation, including laryngoscopy, is useful in advancing the working diagnosis of reflux-associated cough. Supplemental testing, including impedance monitoring of esophageal refluxate, can be important to evaluate for both acidic and nonacidic reflux exposure. The mainstay of treatment continues to be dietary and other lifestyle interventions and drug therapy. Although proton-pump inhibitor therapy is effective in most patients, especially those with acid reflux disease, prokinetic therapy is probably very important with those with combined acid and nonacid disease and those with pure nonacid disease. It is likely that failure to improve can be due to behavioral and drug compliance issues. Antireflux surgery can yield long-lasting positive outcomes in carefully selected patients despite the lower efficacy of treatment for primary upper aerodigestive tract symptoms (cough, hoarseness, sore throat) compared with heartburn and regurgitation.

  7. Patient-bounded extrapolation using low-dose priors for volume-of-interest imaging in C-arm CT

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Y.; Maier, A.; Berger, M.; Hornegger, J.; Bauer, S.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) volume-of-interest (VOI) imaging with C-arm systems provides anatomical information in a predefined 3D target region at a considerably low x-ray dose. However, VOI imaging involves laterally truncated projections from which conventional reconstruction algorithms generally yield images with severe truncation artifacts. Heuristic based extrapolation methods, e.g., water cylinder extrapolation, typically rely on techniques that complete the truncated data by means of a continuity assumption and thus appear to be ad-hoc. It is our goal to improve the image quality of VOI imaging by exploiting existing patient-specific prior information in the workflow. Methods: A necessary initial step prior to a 3D acquisition is to isocenter the patient with respect to the target to be scanned. To this end, low-dose fluoroscopic x-ray acquisitions are usually applied from anterior–posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) views. Based on this, the patient is isocentered by repositioning the table. In this work, we present a patient-bounded extrapolation method that makes use of these noncollimated fluoroscopic images to improve image quality in 3D VOI reconstruction. The algorithm first extracts the 2D patient contours from the noncollimated AP and ML fluoroscopic images. These 2D contours are then combined to estimate a volumetric model of the patient. Forward-projecting the shape of the model at the eventually acquired C-arm rotation views gives the patient boundary information in the projection domain. In this manner, we are in the position to substantially improve image quality by enforcing the extrapolated line profiles to end at the known patient boundaries, derived from the 3D shape model estimate. Results: The proposed method was evaluated on eight clinical datasets with different degrees of truncation. The proposed algorithm achieved a relative root mean square error (rRMSE) of about 1.0% with respect to the reference reconstruction on

  8. Conception d'un circuit d'etouffement pour photodiodes a avalanche en mode geiger pour integration heterogene 3d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Alexandre

    Le Groupe de Recherche en Appareillage Medical de Sherbrooke (GRAMS) travaille actuellement sur un programme de recherche portant sur des photodiodes a avalanche mono-photoniques (PAMP) operees en mode Geiger en vue d'une application a la tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP). Pour operer dans ce mode; la PAMP, ou SPAD selon l'acronyme anglais (Single Photon Avalanche Diode), requiert un circuit d'etouffement (CE) pour, d'une part, arreter l'avalanche pouvant causer sa destruction et, d'autre part. la reinitialiser en mode d'attente d'un nouveau photon. Le role de ce CE comprend egalement une electronique de communication vers les etages de traitement avance de signaux. La performance temporelle optimale du CE est realisee lorsqu'il est juxtapose a la PAMP. Cependant, cela entraine une reduction de la surface photosensible ; un element crucial en imagerie. L'integration 3D, a base d'interconnexions verticales, offre une solution elegante et performante a cette problematique par l'empilement de circuits integres possedant differentes fonctions (PAMP, CE et traitement avance de signaux). Dans l'approche proposee, des circuits d'etouffement de 50 pm x 50 pm realises sur une technologie CMOS 130 mn 3D Tezzaron, contenant chacun 112 transistors, sont matrices afin de correspondre a une matrice de PAMP localisee sur une couche electronique superieure. Chaque circuit d'etouffement possede une gigue temporelle de 7,47 ps RMS selon des simulations faites avec le logiciel Cadence. Le CE a la flexibilite d'ajuster les temps d'etouffement et de recharge pour la PAMP tout en presentant une faible consommation de puissance (~ 0,33 mW a 33 Mcps). La conception du PAMP necessite de supporter des tensions superieures aux 3,3 V de la technologie. Pour repondre a ce probleme, des transistors a drain etendu (DEMOS) ont ete realises. En raison de retards de production par Ies fabricants, les circuits n'ont pu etre testes physiquement par des mesures. Les resultats de ce memoire

  9. Le changement comme tradition dans la recherche et la formation a la recherche en biotechnologie et en peripherie Etude de cas en sciences de la sante, sciences naturelles et genie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourque, Claude Julie

    Le champ de la recherche scientifique et de la formation a la recherche est traverse depuis quelques dizaines d'annees par plusieurs courants et discours associes au changement, mais peu de travaux empiriques permettent de comprendre ce qui change concretement. C'est la contribution originale de cette these au champ de l'education, plus specifiquement a l'etude sociologique de l'enseignement superieur ou sont concentrees les activites liees a la triade thematique du programme doctoral dans lequel elle a ete produite : recherche, formation et pratique. L'enquete-terrain a ete realisee en 2009 et 2010 aupres de 808 repondants affilies a 60 etablissements au Quebec et a produit un vaste materiau de nature mixte (donnees quantitatives et qualitatives). Un portrait de la nebuleuse biotechnologique qui touche les secteurs des sciences de la sante, des sciences naturelles et du genie a ete realise. Ce domaine concerne des dizaines de disciplines et se revele de nature transdisciplinaire, mais les pratiques n'y sont pas davantage marquees par le changement que celles d'autres domaines connexes. Les dynamiques sociales ont fait l'objet d'analyses comparatives dans quatre contextes: le choix des programmes, des objets et des methodes, le financement, la diffusion et la planification de la carriere. Les resultats indiquent que les echanges entre les agents traditionnellement situes au coeur des activites de recherche dominent ces dynamiques dans tous les contextes etudies. L'etude des representations au fondement des pratiques a revele l'existence de trois ecoles de pensee qui coexistent dans le champ scientifique: academique, pragmatique et economiste. Ces ecoles permettent de categoriser les agents en fonction des zones de fractures qui marquent leurs oppositions tout en identifiant ce qu'ils ont en commun. Les representations et les pratiques liees a la formation temoignent d'un habitus plutot homogene, alors que les contradictions semblent plus souvent ancrees dans des

  10. The Economic Value of Climate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    While demonstrating the economic value of science is challenging, it can be more direct for some Earth observations. For example, suppose a climate science mission can yield decisive information on climate change within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) provides a standard for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, stipulating uncertainty in climate sensitivity, using discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate response (DICE Optimal), and a strong response (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we would switch from BAU to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain also depends on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The resolving power of a climate observing system cannot exceed climate system natural variability. All climate observations add noise to natural variability caused by observing limitations, including calibration errors and space/time sampling uncertainty. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can advance the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems

  11. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  12. [Pathologists and the French network of expertise on rare cancers ENT: The REFCORpath].

    PubMed

    Badoual, Cécile; Baglin, Anne-Catherine; Wassef, Michel; Thariat, Juliette; Reyt, Emile; Janot, François; Baujat, Bertrand

    2014-02-01

    Aerodigestive tract tumors are very diverse, either in terms of location, or histologically. Also, this heterogeneity poses particular problems for the histological diagnosis but also for the establishment of the most appropriate treatment. Thus, the network REFCOR (réseau d'expertise français sur les cancers ORL rares/French expert network on rare ENT cancers) was created to better understand these issues, by proposing an epidemiological and diagnostic approach with research collaborations. This network is dedicated to all primary malignant tumors of the salivary glands, ear, nasal cavity and sinuses and all head and neck malignancies other than conventional squamous cell carcinoma. The REFCORpath network consists of expert pathologists and offers, through a network of scanned images, a second opinion or even a third.

  13. [Rare tumors of the head and neck; on behalf of the REFCOR, the French Network of rare head and neck tumors].

    PubMed

    Baujat, Bertrand; Thariat, Juliette; Baglin, Anne Catherine; Costes, Valérie; Testelin, Sylvie; Reyt, Emile; Janot, François

    2014-05-01

    Malignant tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract may be rare by their histology (sarcoma, variants of conventional squamous cell carcinomas) and/or location (sinuses, salivary glands, ear, of various histologies themselves). They represent less than 10% of head and neck neoplasms. The confirmation of their diagnosis often requires a medical expertise and sometimes biomolecular techniques complementary to classical histology and immunohistochemistry. Due to their location, their treatment often requires a specific surgical technique. Radiation therapy is indicated based on histoclinical characteristics common to other head and neck neoplasms but also incorporate grade. Further, the technique must often be adapted to take into account the proximity of organs at risk. For most histologies, chemotherapy is relatively inefficient but current molecular advances may allow to consider pharmaceutical developments in the coming years. The REFCOR, the French Network of head and neck cancers aims to organize and promote the optimal management of these rare and heterogeneous diseases, to promote research and clinical trials.

  14. Investigation of human papillomavirus DNA in colorectal carcinomas and adenomas.

    PubMed

    Yavuzer, Dilek; Karadayi, Nimet; Salepci, Taflan; Baloglu, Huseyin; Dabak, Resat; Bayramicli, Oya Uygur

    2011-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been considered to be an etiological agent for anogenital cancers, such as cervical cancer and possibly a subset of cancers of the aerodigestive tract. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of human papillomavirus DNA in colorectal carcinomas and adenomas. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded archival tissue samples were used for DNA extraction. One hundred and six colorectal carcinomas and 62 adenomas were screened by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HPV DNA with a control group of 49 cervical tissues with invasive cervical carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In the study group, we did not find HPV DNA positivity in any of all the colorectal carcinomas and adenomas. In the control group with cervical lesions, 34 out of 49 (69.4%) samples were positive for the HPV DNA. These results indicated that there was no correlation between HPV infection and colorectal carcinomas and adenomas. PMID:20082157

  15. Ablation of dermal and mucosal lesions with a new CO2 laser application system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Sergije; Sedlmaier, Benedikt W.; Fuehrer, Ariane

    1997-05-01

    Laser treatment of skin changes has become common practice in recent years. The high absorption of the wavelength of the carbon-dioxide laser (10600 nm) is responsible for its low penetration depth in biological tissue. Shortening the exposure time minimizes thermic side effects such as carbonization and coagulation. This effect can be achieved with the SilkTouchTM scanner 767, since the focused laser beam is moved over a defined area by rapidly rotating mirrors. This enables controlled and reliable removal of certain dermal lesions, particularly hypertrophic scars, scars after common acne, wrinkles, rhinophyma and benign neoplasms like verruca vulgaris. Cosmetically favorable reepithelialization of the lasered surfaces results within a very short period of time. Benign mucosal changes of the upper aerodigestive tract can also be treated. Ablation is less traumatic for papillomas, fibromas, hyperplasias in the area of Waldeyer's tonsillar ring and certain laryngotracheal pathologies. Clinical examples demonstrate the advantages of this new mode of application.

  16. Young adults with head and neck cancer express increased susceptibility to mutagen-induced chromosome damage

    SciTech Connect

    Schantz, S.P.; Hsu, T.C.; Ainslie, N.; Moser, R.P. )

    1989-12-15

    Factors that contribute to an increased prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract among young adults in the United States remain unknown. A potential etiologic factor may relate to a genetically controlled sensitivity to environmental carcinogens. This study, therefore, examined 20 young adult patients who had squamous cell carcinoma for mutagen-induced chromosome sensitivity. Lymphocytes from respective patients were cultured, exposed to the clastogen bleomycin, arrested during metaphase, and examined quantitatively for chromosome breakage. The young adult population with squamous cell carcinoma expressed a significantly increased number of bleomycin-induced chromosome breaks per cell. Furthermore, among the study patients, chromosome sensitivity was most apparent in the non-tobacco users and in patients less than 30 years of age. The expression of such chromosome fragility following mutagen exposure should be considered in epidemiologic studies that intend to define risk factors for development of head and neck cancer.

  17. Oropharyngeal cancer: an emergent disease?

    PubMed

    Granados-García, Martín

    2016-04-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer incidence has recently increased, thereby attracting public attention. Akin to other malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract, it has been attributed to the carcinogenic effects of tobacco and alcohol use. However, recent evidence shows that a substantial increase in the disease is attributable to the effects of human papillomavirus (HPV). Marked progress has been made in relation to the knowledge of molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in the genesis and progression of these cancers. This has led to the development of new and promising therapies of a more specific and less toxic nature that have prolonged life and improved its quality. However, these therapies have failed to significantly increase the proportion of patients who are cured. To decrease the mortality associated with these neoplasms, it is necessary to adopt public health measures aimed at prevention and early diagnosis. PMID:27557387

  18. Pediatric radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Halperin, E.C.; Kun, L.E.; Constine, L.S.; Tarbell, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    This text covers all aspects of radiation therapy for treatment of pediatric cancer. The book describes the proper use of irradiation in each of the malignancies of childhood, including tumors that are rarely encountered in adult practice. These include acute leukemia; supratentorial brain tumors; tumors of the posterior fossa of the brain and spinal canal; retinoblastoma and optic nerve glioma; neuroblastoma; Hodgkin's disease; malignant lymphoma; Ewing's sarcoma; osteosarcoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; Desmoid tumor; Wilms' tumor; liver and biliary tumors; germ cell and stromal cell tumors of the gonads; endocrine, aerodigestive tract, and breast tumors; Langerhans' cell histiocytosis; and skin cancer and hemangiomas. For each type of malignancy, the authors describe the epidemiology, common presenting signs and symptoms, staging, and proper diagnostic workup. Particular attention is given to the indications for radiation therapy and the planning of a course of radiotherapy, including the optimal radiation dose, field size, and technique.

  19. PubMed Central

    ORSI, A.; MARTINI, M.; ICARDI, G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a significant impact in male's health, as cause of clinical manifestations ranging from genital warts to several cancers of the anogenital and aero-digestive tract. HPV types which most frequently affect men are 6,11,16 and 18, included in the HPV quadrivalent vaccine, recently approved for use in males by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). Although several data about the safety and efficacy of quadrivalent vaccine are available, the implementation of proper immunization plans dedicate to male's population cannot ignore the knowledge of the characteristics of the disease in men, which in some aspects should be clarify, in particular clearance of type-specific HPV infections and transmission dynamics. Purpose of this review is to summarise the main information about the burden and the natural history of the HPV related disease in males. PMID:24396983

  20. Occult Pneumomediastinum in the Deployed Setting: Evaluation and Management.

    PubMed

    Reha, Jeffrey; Davis, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Pneumomediastinum can occur after both blunt and penetrating trauma. The greatest concern involving this finding in a trauma patient is an aerodigestive tract injury. Prompt evaluation, identification, and management of these injuries are extremely important. This case describes a soldier who was involved in an improvised explosive device blast with no evidence of cavity penetration. During the routine evaluation of his head and neck an occult pneumomediastinum was identified. The patient was asymptomatic and was further evaluated with computed tomography because of the absence of endoscopy and bronchoscopy in theatre. The imaging showed no evidence of esophageal or tracheobronchial injury. The patient was observed and when noted to be stable was transferred to the local Role 3 hospital for management of his other injuries. PMID:27483543

  1. Removal of a Wire Brush Bristle from the Hypopharynx Using Suspension, Microscope, and Fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Naunheim, Matthew R.; Dedmon, Matthew M.; Mori, Matthew C.; Sedaghat, Ahmad R.; Dowdall, Jayme R.

    2015-01-01

    Wire brush bristles are an increasingly recognized hazard that can present as a foreign body in the aerodigestive tract. Due to their small size and tendency to become embedded in surrounding tissue, these small metallic bristles present a unique operative challenge to otolaryngologists. Here we present a case of a 40-year-old woman who underwent endoscopic extraction of a wire bristle from the posterior pharyngeal wall using suspension, microscopy, and C-arm fluoroscopy. We believe this is the first published case of an endoscopic removal of a buried foreign body in the hypopharynx using these methods of localization concurrently. By leveraging multiple techniques for visualization, surgeons can avoid open exploration while ensuring complete removal of the object. Additionally, this case highlights the importance of regulatory oversight and consumer awareness of the hazards of grill brushes. PMID:25649460

  2. Facial, Cervical, and Mediastinal Emphysema of the Clarinet Player: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kesgin, Selcan; Tezcan, Erkan; Köybaşı, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervicofacial emphysema may arise due to the leakage of air from a defect in the aerodigestive tract to the fascial layers of neck and face. Rarely, it may be caused by insufflation of air through the Stensen’s duct. Case Report: We present a case with diffuse facial, cervical and mediastinal emphysema due to playing a wind instrument immediately after a facial trauma. There was no mucosal defect or laceration noticed by examination which could explain the origin of the emphysema. Despite the widespread cervicofacial emphysema with mediastinal involvement, the patient significantly improved within 48 hours without any intervention. Conclusion: Even though cervicofacial emphysema ameliorates spontaneously, increased care must be taken, especially when there is pneumomediastinum and/or pneumothorax. PMID:25667794

  3. Hodgkin’s disease presenting as discharging neck sinuses and a mediastinal mass

    PubMed Central

    Zolotar, Meira; Olaleye, Oladejo; Sherif, Ali; Howe, Rachael; Mathews, John

    2011-01-01

    A 23-year-old Asian lady presented with a hard indurated midline neck swelling of 2 months duration without any upper aerodigestive tract or systemic symptoms of note. Her inflammatory markers were elevated and she was commenced on antibiotics. Ultrasound scan and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) were inconclusive. A CT scan showed an ill-defined soft tissue mass anterior to and not well demarcated from the thyroid, and contiguous with a superior and anterior mediastinal mass. Incisional biopsy revealed necrosis and pockets of purulent material. Microbiology suggested a chronic pyogenic abscess negative for acid fast bacilli. She was treated with antituberculous therapy without resolution. She developed a discharging lateral neck mass with progressive increase of the mediastinal mass. She subsequently required a neck exploration and mediastinoscopy. Repeat mediastinal biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of Hodgkin’s disease and no organisms on culture. She was commenced on chemotherapeutic treatment with a satisfactory outcome. PMID:22689859

  4. An Unusual Localization of a Pleomorphic Adenoma in the Rhinopharynx

    PubMed Central

    Pagella, Fabio; Chu, Francesco; Pusateri, Alessandro; Matti, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of the parotid glands. Rarely it may arise from minor salivary glands of the upper aerodigestive tract. A 57-year-old woman was admitted at our institution presenting with nasal obstruction. Endoscopic evaluation revealed a pedicled mass in the rhinopharynx. After radiological examination, we opted for a transnasal endoscopic-assisted excision of the mass under general anaesthesia. Histological evaluation deponed for pleomorphic adenoma with clear surgical margins. No endoscopic evidence of local recurrence has been shown after 48 months of followup. In the literature, few cases of pleomorphic adenoma arising in the rhinopharynx have been reported. The introduction of endoscopy, as shown by our experience, leads to important benefits in the identification, treatment, and followup of such rhinopharyngeal benign tumors. PMID:22927861

  5. NK/T cell lymphoma associated with peripheral eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Yap, E; Wan Jamaluddin, W F; Tumian, N R; Mashuri, F; Mohammed, F; Tan, G C; Masir, N; Abdul Wahid, F S

    2014-12-01

    NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type is an aggressive and uncommon malignancy. Disease that occurs outside of the aerodigestive tract exhibits an even more aggressive clinical behaviour and does not respond as well to conventional therapy compared to its nasal counterpart. We report such a case of NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, that presented as an anterior chest wall mass, arising from the left pectoralis muscle. An interesting feature we wish to highlight is the associated eosinophilia that corresponded to disease activity, exhibiting fluctuations with surgical resection and chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge this is the third reported case of NK/T cell lymphoma that is associated with peripheral eosinophilia. Our case highlights the role of certain NK cell subsets that play a major role in eosinophilic activation in NK/T lymphomas and calls for more research into further classification of this disease by virtue of its NK cell subsets. PMID:25500520

  6. Molecular changes in the multistage pathogenesis of head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Brian J.; Chiosea, Simion I.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCCHN) arise in the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract at multiple anatomic sites. While tobacco and alcohol exposure remain the primary risk factors for this malignancy, infection with the human papilloma virus is emerging as a major contributing factor to cancers that arise primarily in the oropharynx. Despite therapeutic advances, survival has remained relatively unchanged over the past few decades. Increased understand of the cellular and molecular biology of these cancers will improve our understanding of this malignancy and facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. Alterations that have been studied to date include genetic and epigenetic changes. While the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is the only established molecular therapeutic target, other proteins and pathways are under active investigation to determine their contribution to SCCHN carcinogenesis and progression. PMID:22112483

  7. [The concept of field cancerization and its clinical application].

    PubMed

    Wei, Z H; Gong, W; Zhou, M; Chen, Q M

    2016-09-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma(HNSCC) is among the most common malignances worldwide. Patients with HNSCC often develop primary tumors at multiple sites and have tendency for local recurrences following curative resectional surgery. Field cancerization theory presumes that, after repeated carcinogenic exposures, the entire superficialepitheliium of the upper aerodigestive tract has an increased risk for developing (pre)malignant lesions because of multiple genetic abnormalities. This theorywell explains the strong potential with malignant transformation and loco-regional recurrence in HNSCC, and helps to better understand the pathogenesis, and thus provides a new idea for prevention and treatment of this disease. This paper will give an overview of field cancerization, including the concept and its clinical application. PMID:27596348

  8. [Specific aspects of anesthesiological management of laser surgery in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Wetsch, W A; Beutner, D; Stuermer, K J; Padosch, S A

    2014-03-01

    Transoral laser surgery has become a standard procedure in the treatment of benign and malignant neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract. As the laser cuts and coagulates simultaneously, intraoperative bleeding is reduced, thus improving visualization of the operative field. However, the specific risks for patients and personnel that are associated with this technique necessitate strict compliance with safety regulations and precautions. The safe anesthesiological and surgical management of such procedures requires explicit knowledge of the risks inherent to laser use, as well as close communication between surgeon and anesthesiologist throughout all operative and perioperative procedures. Although potentially fatal complications are rare, surgeon and anesthesiologist need to be aware of the dangers at all times and have exact knowledge of emergency measures. The use of suitable laser-resistant endotracheal tubes, total intravenous anesthesia and an optimized breathing gas mixture can contribute to minimize the occurrence of complications in otorhinolaryngology laser surgery.

  9. [Specific aspects of anesthesiological management of laser surgery in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Wetsch, W A; Beutner, D; Stuermer, K J; Padosch, S A

    2014-06-01

    Transoral laser surgery has become a standard procedure in the treatment of benign and malignant neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract. As the laser cuts and coagulates simultaneously, intraoperative bleeding is reduced, thus improving visualization of the operative field. However, the specific risks for patients and personnel that are associated with this technique necessitate strict compliance with safety regulations and precautions. The safe anesthesiological and surgical management of such procedures requires explicit knowledge of the risks inherent to laser use, as well as close communication between surgeon and anesthesiologist throughout all operative and perioperative procedures. Although potentially fatal complications are rare, surgeon and anesthesiologist need to be aware of the dangers at all times and have exact knowledge of emergency measures. The use of suitable laser-resistant endotracheal tubes, total intravenous anesthesia and an optimized breathing gas mixture can contribute to minimize the occurrence of complications in otorhinolaryngology laser surgery.

  10. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: a Mozambique overview.

    PubMed

    Pizzol, Damiano; Putoto, Giovanni; Chhaganlal, Kajal D

    2016-06-01

    Human Papillomavirus is agent of the most common sexually transmitted disease which is able to infect mucosal and cutaneous membranes of the anogenital region, upper aerodigestive tract, and other head and neck mucosal regions. Although mainly HPV infection can be asymptomatic and transient, it may persist and give rise to various lesions such as warts, condyloma dysplasia and cancers depending on low or high risk type of HPV infection. Moreover, growing recent evidence suggests a role of this virus in male and female fertility. To date no effective prevention, test, treatment and control strategies are provided for people in developing countries despite the reported high incidence of HPV both in women and men. This paper reviews the more recent literature about HPV infection highlighting epidemiology, related pathologies and possible fertility effects of HPV in male and female with particular attention to the Mozambique context.

  11. Oral adenosquamous carcinoma: Report of a rare entity with a special insight on its histochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sravya, Taneeru; Rao, Guttikonda Venkateswara; Kumar, Manchikatla Praveen; Sudheerkanth, K

    2016-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the head and neck (H and N) is an aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). They are described as SCC subtype with high infiltrative capacity and also presents with dual histomorphology, having both squamous and glandular cell components. ASC of the H and N region is considered as a controversial tumor, as it is similar to salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma. It has been described in a variety of body sites, including uterine cervix, lung and pancreas. ASC rarely develops in the upper aerodigestive tract, particularly in the oral cavity. The affected sites in oral cavity include palate, tonsillar pillar areas and floor of the mouth. To the best of our knowledge in the literature, only 17 cases of ASC in the floor of the mouth have been reported. Hereby, we report an additional case of ASC occurring in the floor of the mouth in a 70-year-old male patient. PMID:27721632

  12. Acute sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Feldt, Brent; Dion, Gregory R; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-10-01

    Sinusitis is a common patient complaint that carries with it a large economic burden. It is one of the most common reasons patients visit their primary care physician. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) can be distinguished from other forms of rhinosinusitis based on symptom duration of <4 weeks in a patient with purulent rhinorrhea associated with facial pain or pressure. Native upper aerodigestive tract bacteria are the most common etiologic agents. Treatment of ABRS is targeted primarily at symptom improvement. Amoxicillin can be used based on the clinical scenario and patient comorbidities. Computed tomographic scans are reserved for complicated presentations or when there is concern for intracranial extension or other complications. A systematic approach to ABRS will allow for improved patient quality of life and a decreased overall economic burden of this common entity.

  13. CT-clinical approach to patients with symptoms related to the V, VII, IX-XII cranial nerves and cervical sympathetics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalovidouris, A.; Mancuso, A.A.; Dillon, W.

    1984-06-01

    Forty-three patients who had signs and symptoms possibly related to the extracranial course of cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X-XII, and the cervical sympathetics were examined prospectively using high resolution CT to obtain images of thin sections during rapid drip infusion of contrast material. Anatomic areas in the scan protocols included the posterior fossa, cavernous and paranasal sinuses, skull base, temporal bone, nasopharynx, parotid gland, tongue base, and neck. Nine of the 23 patients with possible fifth nerve deficits had extracranial structural lesions that explained the symptoms; none of these nine, however, had typical trigeminal neuralgia. Of eight patients with peripheral seventh nerve abnormalities, two had positive findings on scans. Of five patients presenting with referred ear pain, three had carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. The authors' experience suggests that patients at high risk for structural lesions responsible for cranial nerve deficits can be selected by clinical criteria. Protocols for each clinical setting are presented.

  14. Do high-risk human papillomaviruses cause oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Mirghani, H; Amen, F; Moreau, F; Lacau St Guily, J

    2015-03-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are an established etiologic factor for a growing number of oropharyngeal cancers. However, their potential role in other upper aerodigestive tract locations is still a matter of debate, particularly in the oral cavity. This is of paramount importance as in the future diagnosis, treatment and follow up in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma may vary according to HPV status. This article reviews the recent published data and highlights some of the pitfalls that have hampered the accurate assessment of HR-HPV oncological role outside the oropharynx. We demonstrate that, in contrast to the oropharynx, only a small fraction of cancers located in the oral cavity seem to be HPV-related even in young non-smoking non-drinking patients. We emphasize several relevant factors to consider in assumed HPV-induced oral cavity cancers and discuss the current theories that explain why HPV-induced cancers arise preferentially in the oropharynx.

  15. Human papillomavirus promotes Epstein-Barr virus maintenance and lytic reactivation in immortalized oral keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Makielski, Kathleen R; Lee, Denis; Lorenz, Laurel D; Nawandar, Dhananjay M; Chiu, Ya-Fang; Kenney, Shannon C; Lambert, Paul F

    2016-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomaviruses are human tumor viruses that infect and replicate in upper aerodigestive tract epithelia and cause head and neck cancers. The productive phases of both viruses are tied to stratified epithelia highlighting the possibility that these viruses may affect each other's life cycles. Our lab has established an in vitro model system to test the effects of EBV and HPV co-infection in stratified squamous oral epithelial cells. Our results indicate that HPV increases maintenance of the EBV genome in the co-infected cells and promotes lytic reactivation of EBV in upper layers of stratified epithelium. Expression of the HPV oncogenes E6 and E7 were found to be necessary and sufficient to account for HPV-mediated lytic reactivation of EBV. Our findings indicate that HPV increases the capacity of epithelial cells to support the EBV life cycle, which could in turn increase EBV-mediated pathogenesis in the oral cavity. PMID:27179345

  16. HPV related diseases in males: a heavy vaccine-preventable burden.

    PubMed

    Canepa, P; Orsi, A; Martini, M; Icardi, G

    2013-06-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a significant impact in male's health, as cause of clinical manifestations ranging from genital warts to several cancers of the anogenital and aero-digestive tract. HPV types which most frequently affect men are 6, 11, 16 and 18, included in the HPV quadrivalent vaccine, recently approved for use in males by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). Although several data about the safety and efficacy of quadrivalent vaccine are available, the implementation of proper immunization plans dedicate to male's population cannot ignore the knowledge of the characteristics of the disease in men, which in some aspects should be clarify, in particular clearance of type-specific HPV infections and transmission dynamics. Purpose of this review is to summarise the main information about the burden and the natural history of the HPV related disease in males.

  17. Penetrating neck injury from a screwdriver: can the No Zone approach be applied to Zone I injuries?

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Nikita R; McMonagle, Morgan

    2015-11-27

    The newer approach to management of penetrating neck injuries (PNI) involves the No Zone approach: comprehensive physical examination combined with CT angiography for triage to effectively identify or exclude vascular and aerodigestive injury. This approach, however, has a low negative exploration rate; there is risk of missing occult injuries especially Zone I and III PNI. We report a case of a patient with PNI to Zone I of the neck who was haemodynamically stable at presentation; CT scan revealed complete occlusion of the common carotid artery. Immediate surgical exploration revealed an occult hypopharyngeal injury in addition to the arterial trauma, which was missed on the CT scan. Hence the No Zone approach needs cautious clinical application, especially in Zone I injuries.

  18. Hypoxia Imaging Endoscopy Equipped with Laser Light Source from Preclinical Live Animal Study to First-In-Human Subject Research

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Takaaki; Yano, Tomonori; Oono, Yasuhiro; Ikematsu, Hiroaki; Nomura, Shogo; Sato, Akihiro; Kojima, Motohiro; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    A goal in next-generation endoscopy is to develop functional imaging techniques to open up new opportunities for cancer diagnosis. Although spatial and temporal information on hypoxia is crucial for understanding cancer physiology and expected to be useful for cancer diagnosis, existing techniques using fluorescent indicators have limitations due to low spatial resolution and invasive administration. To overcome these problems, we developed an imaging technology based on hemoglobin oxygen saturation in both the tumor and surrounding mucosa using a laser endoscope system, and conducted the first human subject research for patients with aero-digestive tract cancer. The oxygen saturation map overlapped the images of cancerous lesions and indicated highly heterogeneous features of oxygen supply in the tumor. The hypoxic region of the tumor surface was found in both early cancer and cancer precursors. This technology illustrates a novel aspect of cancer biology as a potential biomarker and can be widely utilized in cancer diagnosis. PMID:24915532

  19. Duodenogastroesophageal reflux and its effect on extraesophageal tissues: a review.

    PubMed

    Blumin, Joel H; Merati, Albert L; Toohill, Robert J

    2008-04-01

    We conducted a literature review to identify elements of duodenogastroesophageal reflux (DGER)--namely pancreatic fluids, hydrochloric acid, pepsin, and bile--as to the effects each has when refluxed to the extraesophageal structures. Further, we wished to acquaint clinicians with the possibilities that, in addition to hydrochloric acid, the other components of DGER are likewise contributing to disease in the extraesophageal areas. Our review included studies that have indicated reflux of the above mentioned components of DGER to the pharynx, larynx, tracheobronchial tree, oral cavity, nasopharynx, nose and sinuses, eustachian tube, and middle ear. Findings demonstrate that injury to the upper aerodigestive tract can occur from a variety of substances secreted from the stomach and duodenum. Treatment for DGER is nonspecific. We conclude that patients with an incomplete response to acid suppression may have significant involvement of pepsin, bile, or both. Future studies are needed to clarify the importance of these elements and to suggest more precise treatments.

  20. Human papillomavirus promotes Epstein-Barr virus maintenance and lytic reactivation in immortalized oral keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Makielski, Kathleen R; Lee, Denis; Lorenz, Laurel D; Nawandar, Dhananjay M; Chiu, Ya-Fang; Kenney, Shannon C; Lambert, Paul F

    2016-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomaviruses are human tumor viruses that infect and replicate in upper aerodigestive tract epithelia and cause head and neck cancers. The productive phases of both viruses are tied to stratified epithelia highlighting the possibility that these viruses may affect each other's life cycles. Our lab has established an in vitro model system to test the effects of EBV and HPV co-infection in stratified squamous oral epithelial cells. Our results indicate that HPV increases maintenance of the EBV genome in the co-infected cells and promotes lytic reactivation of EBV in upper layers of stratified epithelium. Expression of the HPV oncogenes E6 and E7 were found to be necessary and sufficient to account for HPV-mediated lytic reactivation of EBV. Our findings indicate that HPV increases the capacity of epithelial cells to support the EBV life cycle, which could in turn increase EBV-mediated pathogenesis in the oral cavity.

  1. Effect of denoising on supervised lung parenchymal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayamani, Padmapriya; Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2012-03-01

    Denoising is a critical preconditioning step for quantitative analysis of medical images. Despite promises for more consistent diagnosis, denoising techniques are seldom explored in clinical settings. While this may be attributed to the esoteric nature of the parameter sensitve algorithms, lack of quantitative measures on their ecacy to enhance the clinical decision making is a primary cause of physician apathy. This paper addresses this issue by exploring the eect of denoising on the integrity of supervised lung parenchymal clusters. Multiple Volumes of Interests (VOIs) were selected across multiple high resolution CT scans to represent samples of dierent patterns (normal, emphysema, ground glass, honey combing and reticular). The VOIs were labeled through consensus of four radiologists. The original datasets were ltered by multiple denoising techniques (median ltering, anisotropic diusion, bilateral ltering and non-local means) and the corresponding ltered VOIs were extracted. Plurality of cluster indices based on multiple histogram-based pair-wise similarity measures were used to assess the quality of supervised clusters in the original and ltered space. The resultant rank orders were analyzed using the Borda criteria to nd the denoising-similarity measure combination that has the best cluster quality. Our exhaustive analyis reveals (a) for a number of similarity measures, the cluster quality is inferior in the ltered space; and (b) for measures that benet from denoising, a simple median ltering outperforms non-local means and bilateral ltering. Our study suggests the need to judiciously choose, if required, a denoising technique that does not deteriorate the integrity of supervised clusters.

  2. The influence of tumor oxygenation on 18F-FDG (Fluorine-18 Deoxyglucose) uptake: A mouse study using positron emission tomography (PET)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Linda W; Hapdey, Sebastien; English, Sean; Seidel, Jurgen; Carson, Joann; Sowers, Anastasia L; Krishna, Murali C; Green, Michael V; Mitchell, James B; Bacharach, Stephen L

    2006-01-01

    Background This study investigated whether changing a tumor's oxygenation would alter tumor metabolism, and thus uptake of 18F-FDG (fluorine-18 deoxyglucose), a marker for glucose metabolism using positron emission tomography (PET). Results Tumor-bearing mice (squamous cell carcinoma) maintained at 37°C were studied while breathing either normal air or carbogen (95% O2, 5% CO2), known to significantly oxygenate tumors. Tumor activity was measured within an automatically determined volume of interest (VOI). Activity was corrected for the arterial input function as estimated from image and blood-derived data. Tumor FDG uptake was initially evaluated for tumor-bearing animals breathing only air (2 animals) or only carbogen (2 animals). Subsequently, 5 animals were studied using two sequential 18F-FDG injections administered to the same tumor-bearing mouse, 60 min apart; the first injection on one gas (air or carbogen) and the second on the other gas. When examining the entire tumor VOI, there was no significant difference of 18F-FDG uptake between mice breathing either air or carbogen (i.e. air/carbogen ratio near unity). However, when only the highest 18F-FDG uptake regions of the tumor were considered (small VOIs), there was a modest (21%), but significant increase in the air/carbogen ratio suggesting that in these potentially most hypoxic regions of the tumor, 18F-FDG uptake and hence glucose metabolism, may be reduced by increasing tumor oxygenation. Conclusion Tumor 18F-FDG uptake may be reduced by increases in tumor oxygenation and thus may provide a means to further enhance 18F-FDG functional imaging. PMID:16722588

  3. Differences in Brainstem Fiber Tract Response to Radiation: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    SciTech Connect

    Uh, Jinsoo; Merchant, Thomas E.; Li, Yimei; Feng, Tianshu; Gajjar, Amar; Ogg, Robert J.; Hua, Chiaho

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation-induced changes in white matter tracts are uniform across the brainstem. Methods and Materials: We analyzed serial diffusion tensor imaging data, acquired before radiation therapy and over 48 to 72 months of follow-up, from 42 pediatric patients (age 6-20 years) with medulloblastoma. FSL software (FMRIB, Oxford, UK) was used to calculate fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial, radial, and mean diffusivities. For a consistent identification of volumes of interest (VOIs), the parametric maps of each patient were transformed to a standard brain space (MNI152), on which we identified VOIs including corticospinal tract (CST), medial lemniscus (ML), transverse pontine fiber (TPF), and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) at the level of pons. Temporal changes of DTI parameters in VOIs were compared using a linear mixed effect model. Results: Radiation-induced white matter injury was marked by a decline in FA after treatment. The decline was often accompanied by decreased axial diffusivity, increased radial diffusivity, or both. This implied axonal damage and demyelination. We observed that the magnitude of the changes was not always uniform across substructures of the brainstem. Specifically, the changes in DTI parameters for TPF were more pronounced than in other regions (P<.001 for FA) despite similarities in the distribution of dose. We did not find a significant difference among CST, ML, and MCP in these patients (P>.093 for all parameters). Conclusions: Changes in the structural integrity of white matter tracts, assessed by DTI, were not uniform across the brainstem after radiation therapy. These results support a role for tract-based assessment in radiation treatment planning and determination of brainstem tolerance.

  4. Detecting variable responses in time-series using repeated measures ANOVA: Application to physiologic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Macey, Paul M.; Schluter, Philip J.; Macey, Katherine E.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to analyzing physiologic timetrends recorded during a stimulus by comparing means at each time point using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA). The approach allows temporal patterns to be examined without an a priori model of expected timing or pattern of response. The approach was originally applied to signals recorded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) volumes-of-interest (VOI) during a physiologic challenge, but we have used the same technique to analyze continuous recordings of other physiological signals such as heart rate, breathing rate, and pulse oximetry. For fMRI, the method serves as a complement to whole-brain voxel-based analyses, and is useful for detecting complex responses within pre-determined brain regions, or as a post-hoc analysis of regions of interest identified by whole-brain assessments. We illustrate an implementation of the technique in the statistical software packages R and SAS. VOI timetrends are extracted from conventionally preprocessed fMRI images. A timetrend of average signal intensity across the VOI during the scanning period is calculated for each subject. The values are scaled relative to baseline periods, and time points are binned. In SAS, the procedure PROC MIXED implements the RMANOVA in a single step. In R, we present one option for implementing RMANOVA with the mixed model function “lme”. Model diagnostics, and predicted means and differences are best performed with additional libraries and commands in R; we present one example. The ensuing results allow determination of significant overall effects, and time-point specific within- and between-group responses relative to baseline. We illustrate the technique using fMRI data from two groups of subjects who underwent a respiratory challenge. RMANOVA allows insight into the timing of responses and response differences between groups, and so is suited to physiologic testing paradigms eliciting complex response patterns.

  5. Estimation of dynamic time activity curves from dynamic cardiac SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Hossain, J; Du, Y; Links, J; Rahmim, A; Karakatsanis, N; Akhbardeh, A; Lyons, J; Frey, E C

    2015-04-21

    Whole-heart coronary flow reserve (CFR) may be useful as an early predictor of cardiovascular disease or heart failure. Here we propose a simple method to extract the time-activity curve, an essential component needed for estimating the CFR, for a small number of compartments in the body, such as normal myocardium, blood pool, and ischemic myocardial regions, from SPECT data acquired with conventional cameras using slow rotation. We evaluated the method using a realistic simulation of (99m)Tc-teboroxime imaging. Uptake of (99m)Tc-teboroxime based on data from the literature were modeled. Data were simulated using the anatomically-realistic 3D NCAT phantom and an analytic projection code that realistically models attenuation, scatter, and the collimator-detector response. The proposed method was then applied to estimate time activity curves (TACs) for a set of 3D volumes of interest (VOIs) directly from the projections. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of estimated TACs and studied the effects of the presence of perfusion defects that were and were not modeled in the estimation procedure.The method produced good estimates of the myocardial and blood-pool TACS organ VOIs, with average weighted absolute biases of less than 5% for the myocardium and 10% for the blood pool when the true organ boundaries were known and the activity distributions in the organs were uniform. In the presence of unknown perfusion defects, the myocardial TAC was still estimated well (average weighted absolute bias <10%) when the total reduction in myocardial uptake (product of defect extent and severity) was ≤ 5%. This indicates that the method was robust to modest model mismatch such as the presence of moderate perfusion defects and uptake nonuniformities. With larger defects where the defect VOI was included in the estimation procedure, the estimated normal myocardial and defect TACs were accurate (average weighted absolute bias ≈ 5% for a defect with 25% extent and 100% severity).

  6. Estimation of dynamic time activity curves from dynamic cardiac SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, J.; Du, Y.; Links, J.; Rahmim, A.; Karakatsanis, N.; Akhbardeh, A.; Lyons, J.; Frey, E. C.

    2015-04-01

    Whole-heart coronary flow reserve (CFR) may be useful as an early predictor of cardiovascular disease or heart failure. Here we propose a simple method to extract the time-activity curve, an essential component needed for estimating the CFR, for a small number of compartments in the body, such as normal myocardium, blood pool, and ischemic myocardial regions, from SPECT data acquired with conventional cameras using slow rotation. We evaluated the method using a realistic simulation of 99mTc-teboroxime imaging. Uptake of 99mTc-teboroxime based on data from the literature were modeled. Data were simulated using the anatomically-realistic 3D NCAT phantom and an analytic projection code that realistically models attenuation, scatter, and the collimator-detector response. The proposed method was then applied to estimate time activity curves (TACs) for a set of 3D volumes of interest (VOIs) directly from the projections. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of estimated TACs and studied the effects of the presence of perfusion defects that were and were not modeled in the estimation procedure. The method produced good estimates of the myocardial and blood-pool TACS organ VOIs, with average weighted absolute biases of less than 5% for the myocardium and 10% for the blood pool when the true organ boundaries were known and the activity distributions in the organs were uniform. In the presence of unknown perfusion defects, the myocardial TAC was still estimated well (average weighted absolute bias <10%) when the total reduction in myocardial uptake (product of defect extent and severity) was ≤5%. This indicates that the method was robust to modest model mismatch such as the presence of moderate perfusion defects and uptake nonuniformities. With larger defects where the defect VOI was included in the estimation procedure, the estimated normal myocardial and defect TACs were accurate (average weighted absolute bias ≈5% for a defect with 25% extent and 100% severity).

  7. Risk constraint measures developed for the outcome-based strategy for tank waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, B.L.; Gajewski, S.J.; Glantz, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Information (VOI) approach for comparing the cost-effectiveness of characterizing versus mitigating particular waste tanks or tank clusters. The preference between characterizing or mitigating in order to prevent an accident depends on the cost of those activities relative to the cost of the consequences of the accident. The consequences are defined as adverse impacts measured across a broad set of risk categories such as worker dose, public cancers, ecological harm, and sociocultural impacts. Within each risk measure, various {open_quotes}constraint levels{close_quotes} have been identified that reflect regulatory standards or conventionally negotiated thresholds of harm to Hanford resources and values. The cost of consequences includes the {open_quotes}costs{close_quote} of exceeding those constraint levels as well as a strictly linear costing per unit of impact within each of the risk measures. In actual application, VOI based-decision making is an iterative process, with a preliminary low-precision screen of potential technical options against the major risk constraints, followed by VOI analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of gathering additional information and to select a preferred technical option, and finally a posterior screen to determine whether the preferred option meets all relevant risk constraints and acceptability criteria.

  8. Detecting variable responses in time-series using repeated measures ANOVA: Application to physiologic challenges.

    PubMed

    Macey, Paul M; Schluter, Philip J; Macey, Katherine E; Harper, Ronald M

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to analyzing physiologic timetrends recorded during a stimulus by comparing means at each time point using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA). The approach allows temporal patterns to be examined without an a priori model of expected timing or pattern of response. The approach was originally applied to signals recorded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) volumes-of-interest (VOI) during a physiologic challenge, but we have used the same technique to analyze continuous recordings of other physiological signals such as heart rate, breathing rate, and pulse oximetry. For fMRI, the method serves as a complement to whole-brain voxel-based analyses, and is useful for detecting complex responses within pre-determined brain regions, or as a post-hoc analysis of regions of interest identified by whole-brain assessments. We illustrate an implementation of the technique in the statistical software packages R and SAS. VOI timetrends are extracted from conventionally preprocessed fMRI images. A timetrend of average signal intensity across the VOI during the scanning period is calculated for each subject. The values are scaled relative to baseline periods, and time points are binned. In SAS, the procedure PROC MIXED implements the RMANOVA in a single step. In R, we present one option for implementing RMANOVA with the mixed model function "lme". Model diagnostics, and predicted means and differences are best performed with additional libraries and commands in R; we present one example. The ensuing results allow determination of significant overall effects, and time-point specific within- and between-group responses relative to baseline. We illustrate the technique using fMRI data from two groups of subjects who underwent a respiratory challenge. RMANOVA allows insight into the timing of responses and response differences between groups, and so is suited to physiologic testing paradigms eliciting complex response patterns.

  9. Detecting variable responses in time-series using repeated measures ANOVA: Application to physiologic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Macey, Paul M.; Schluter, Philip J.; Macey, Katherine E.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to analyzing physiologic timetrends recorded during a stimulus by comparing means at each time point using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA). The approach allows temporal patterns to be examined without an a priori model of expected timing or pattern of response. The approach was originally applied to signals recorded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) volumes-of-interest (VOI) during a physiologic challenge, but we have used the same technique to analyze continuous recordings of other physiological signals such as heart rate, breathing rate, and pulse oximetry. For fMRI, the method serves as a complement to whole-brain voxel-based analyses, and is useful for detecting complex responses within pre-determined brain regions, or as a post-hoc analysis of regions of interest identified by whole-brain assessments. We illustrate an implementation of the technique in the statistical software packages R and SAS. VOI timetrends are extracted from conventionally preprocessed fMRI images. A timetrend of average signal intensity across the VOI during the scanning period is calculated for each subject. The values are scaled relative to baseline periods, and time points are binned. In SAS, the procedure PROC MIXED implements the RMANOVA in a single step. In R, we present one option for implementing RMANOVA with the mixed model function “lme”. Model diagnostics, and predicted means and differences are best performed with additional libraries and commands in R; we present one example. The ensuing results allow determination of significant overall effects, and time-point specific within- and between-group responses relative to baseline. We illustrate the technique using fMRI data from two groups of subjects who underwent a respiratory challenge. RMANOVA allows insight into the timing of responses and response differences between groups, and so is suited to physiologic testing paradigms eliciting complex response patterns

  10. Detecting variable responses in time-series using repeated measures ANOVA: Application to physiologic challenges.

    PubMed

    Macey, Paul M; Schluter, Philip J; Macey, Katherine E; Harper, Ronald M

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to analyzing physiologic timetrends recorded during a stimulus by comparing means at each time point using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA). The approach allows temporal patterns to be examined without an a priori model of expected timing or pattern of response. The approach was originally applied to signals recorded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) volumes-of-interest (VOI) during a physiologic challenge, but we have used the same technique to analyze continuous recordings of other physiological signals such as heart rate, breathing rate, and pulse oximetry. For fMRI, the method serves as a complement to whole-brain voxel-based analyses, and is useful for detecting complex responses within pre-determined brain regions, or as a post-hoc analysis of regions of interest identified by whole-brain assessments. We illustrate an implementation of the technique in the statistical software packages R and SAS. VOI timetrends are extracted from conventionally preprocessed fMRI images. A timetrend of average signal intensity across the VOI during the scanning period is calculated for each subject. The values are scaled relative to baseline periods, and time points are binned. In SAS, the procedure PROC MIXED implements the RMANOVA in a single step. In R, we present one option for implementing RMANOVA with the mixed model function "lme". Model diagnostics, and predicted means and differences are best performed with additional libraries and commands in R; we present one example. The ensuing results allow determination of significant overall effects, and time-point specific within- and between-group responses relative to baseline. We illustrate the technique using fMRI data from two groups of subjects who underwent a respiratory challenge. RMANOVA allows insight into the timing of responses and response differences between groups, and so is suited to physiologic testing paradigms eliciting complex response patterns. PMID

  11. Z-score-based semi-quantitative analysis of the volume of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle on brain CT images.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Ohmura, Tomomi; Lee, Yongbum; Matsuyama, Eri; Toyoshima, Hideto; Tsai, Du-Yih

    2016-01-01

    The volume of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle (THLV) on brain computed tomography (CT) images is important for neurologic diagnosis. Our purpose in this study was to develop a z-score-based semi-quantitative analysis for estimation of the THLV volume by using voxel-based morphometry. The THLV volume was estimated by use of a z-score mapping method that consisted of four main steps: anatomic standardization, construction of a normal reference database, calculation of the z score, and calculation of the mean z score in a volume of interest (VOI). A mean z score of the CT value obtained from a VOI around the THLV was used as an index for the THLV volume. CT scans from 50 subjects were evaluated. For evaluation of the accuracy of this method for estimating the THLV volume, the THLV volume was determined manually by neuroradiologists (serving as the reference volume). A mean z score was calculated from the VOI for each THLV of the 50 subjects by use of the proposed method. The accuracy of this method was evaluated by use of the relationship between the mean z score and the reference volume. The quadratic polynomial regression equation demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between the mean z score and the reference volume of the THLV (R (2) = 0.94; P < 0.0001). In 92 of 100 THLVs (92 %), the 95 % prediction interval of the regional mean z score captured the reference volume of the THLV. The z-score-based semi-quantitative analysis has the potential quantitatively to estimate the THLV volume on CT images.

  12. Measuring the Value of Earth Observation Information with the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernknopf, R.; Kuwayama, Y.; Brookshire, D.; Macauley, M.; Zaitchik, B.; Pesko, S.; Vail, P.

    2014-12-01

    Determining how much to invest in earth observation technology depends in part on the value of information (VOI) that can be derived from the observations. We design a framework and then evaluate the value-in-use of the NASA Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for regional water use and reliability in the presence of drought. As a technology that allows measurement of water storage, the GRACE Data Assimilation System (DAS) provides information that is qualitatively different from that generated by other water data sources. It provides a global, reproducible grid of changes in surface and subsurface water resources on a frequent and regular basis. Major damages from recent events such as the 2012 Midwest drought and the ongoing drought in California motivate the need to understand the VOI from remotely sensed data such as that derived from GRACE DAS. Our conceptual framework models a dynamic risk management problem in agriculture. We base the framework on information from stakeholders and subject experts. The economic case for GRACE DAS involves providing better water availability information. In the model, individuals have a "willingness to pay" (wtp) for GRACE DAS - essentially, wtp is an expression of savings in reduced agricultural input costs and for costs that are influenced by regional policy decisions. Our hypothesis is that improvements in decision making can be achieved with GRACE DAS measurements of water storage relative to data collected from groundwater monitoring wells and soil moisture monitors that would be relied on in the absence of GRACE DAS. The VOI is estimated as a comparison of outcomes. The California wine grape industry has features that allow it to be a good case study and a basis for extrapolation to other economic sectors. We model water use in this sector as a sequential decision highlighting the attributes of GRACE DAS input as information for within-season production decisions as well as for longer-term water reliability.

  13. Fuzzy hidden Markov chains segmentation for volume determination and quantitation in PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatt, M.; Lamare, F.; Boussion, N.; Turzo, A.; Collet, C.; Salzenstein, F.; Roux, C.; Jarritt, P.; Carson, K.; Cheze-LeRest, C.; Visvikis, D.

    2007-07-01

    Accurate volume of interest (VOI) estimation in PET is crucial in different oncology applications such as response to therapy evaluation and radiotherapy treatment planning. The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm for automatic lesion volume delineation; namely the fuzzy hidden Markov chains (FHMC), with that of current state of the art in clinical practice threshold based techniques. As the classical hidden Markov chain (HMC) algorithm, FHMC takes into account noise, voxel intensity and spatial correlation, in order to classify a voxel as background or functional VOI. However the novelty of the fuzzy model consists of the inclusion of an estimation of imprecision, which should subsequently lead to a better modelling of the 'fuzzy' nature of the object of interest boundaries in emission tomography data. The performance of the algorithms has been assessed on both simulated and acquired datasets of the IEC phantom, covering a large range of spherical lesion sizes (from 10 to 37 mm), contrast ratios (4:1 and 8:1) and image noise levels. Both lesion activity recovery and VOI determination tasks were assessed in reconstructed images using two different voxel sizes (8 mm3 and 64 mm3). In order to account for both the functional volume location and its size, the concept of % classification errors was introduced in the evaluation of volume segmentation using the simulated datasets. Results reveal that FHMC performs substantially better than the threshold based methodology for functional volume determination or activity concentration recovery considering a contrast ratio of 4:1 and lesion sizes of <28 mm. Furthermore differences between classification and volume estimation errors evaluated were smaller for the segmented volumes provided by the FHMC algorithm. Finally, the performance of the automatic algorithms was less susceptible to image noise levels in comparison to the threshold based techniques. The analysis of both

  14. Efficient transmission of compressed data for remote volume visualization.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Karthik; Marcellin, Michael W; Bilgin, Ali; Nadar, Mariappan S

    2006-09-01

    One of the goals of telemedicine is to enable remote visualization and browsing of medical volumes. There is a need to employ scalable compression schemes and efficient client-server models to obtain interactivity and an enhanced viewing experience. First, we present a scheme that uses JPEG2000 and JPIP (JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol) to transmit data in a multi-resolution and progressive fashion. The server exploits the spatial locality offered by the wavelet transform and packet indexing information to transmit, in so far as possible, compressed volume data relevant to the clients query. Once the client identifies its volume of interest (VOI), the volume is refined progressively within the VOI from an initial lossy to a final lossless representation. Contextual background information can also be made available having quality fading away from the VOI. Second, we present a prioritization that enables the client to progressively visualize scene content from a compressed file. In our specific example, the client is able to make requests to progressively receive data corresponding to any tissue type. The server is now capable of reordering the same compressed data file on the fly to serve data packets prioritized as per the client's request. Lastly, we describe the effect of compression parameters on compression ratio, decoding times and interactivity. We also present suggestions for optimizing JPEG2000 for remote volume visualization and volume browsing applications. The resulting system is ideally suited for client-server applications with the server maintaining the compressed volume data, to be browsed by a client with a low bandwidth constraint.

  15. Radiation Doses to Structures Within and Adjacent to the Larynx are Correlated With Long-Term Diet- and Speech-Related Quality of Life

    SciTech Connect

    Dornfeld, Ken . E-mail: kenneth-dornfeld@uiowa.edu; Simmons, Joel R.; Karnell, Lucy; Karnell, Michael; Funk, Gerry; Yao Min; Wacha, Judith; Zimmerman, Bridget; Buatti, John M.

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that radiation dose to key sites in the upper aerodigestive tract is associated with long-term functional outcome after (chemo)radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancers. Methods and Materials: This study examined the outcome for 27 patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for definitive management of their head-and-neck cancer who were disease free for at least 1 year after treatment. Head-and-neck cancer-specific quality of life (QoL) was assessed before treatment and at 1 year after treatment. Type of diet tolerated, presence of a feeding tube, and degree of weight loss 1 year after treatment were also used as outcome measures. Radiation doses delivered to various points along the upper aerodigestive tract, including base of tongue, lateral pharyngeal walls, and laryngeal structures, were determined from each treatment plan. Radiation doses for each of these points were tested for correlation with outcome measures. Results: Higher doses delivered to the aryepiglottic folds, false vocal cords, and lateral pharyngeal walls near the false cords correlated with a more restrictive diet, and higher doses to the aryepiglottic folds correlated with greater weight loss (p < 0.05) 1 year after therapy. Better posttreatment speech QoL scores were associated with lower doses delivered to structures within and surrounding the larynx. Conclusion: Our data show an inverse relationship between radiation dose delivered to laryngeal structures and speech and diet and QoL outcomes after definitive (chemo)radiation treatment. These findings suggest that efforts to deliver lower doses to laryngeal structures may improve outcomes after definitive (chemo)radiation therapy.

  16. Acetaldehyde as an underestimated risk factor for cancer development: role of genetics in ethanol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Stickel, Felix

    2009-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is a strong risk factor for the development of certain types of cancer including those of the upper aerodigestive tract, the liver, the large intestine and the female breast. Multiple mechanisms are involved in alcohol-mediated carcinogenesis. Among those the action of acetaldehyde (AA), the first metabolite of ethanol oxidation is of particular interest. AA is toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments. AA binds to DNA and forms carcinogenic adducts. Direct evidence of the role of AA in alcohol-associated carcinogenesis derived from genetic linkage studies in alcoholics. Polymorphisms or mutations of genes coding for AA generation or detoxifying enzymes resulting in elevated AA concentrations are associated with increased cancer risk. Approximately 40% of Japanese, Koreans or Chinese carry the AA dehydrogenase 2*2 (ALDH2*2) allele in its heterozygous form. This allele codes for an ALDH2 enzyme with little activity leading to high AA concentrations after the consumption of even small amounts of alcohol. When individuals with this allele consume ethanol chronically, a significant increased risk for upper alimentary tract and colorectal cancer is noted. In Caucasians, alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 (ADH1C*1) allele encodes for an ADH isoenzyme which produces 2.5 times more AA than the corresponding allele ADH1C*2. In studies with moderate to high alcohol intake, ADH1C*1 allele frequency and rate of homozygosity was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk for cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, the liver, the colon and the female breast. These studies underline the important role of acetaldehyde in ethanol-mediated carcinogenesis. PMID:19847467

  17. Pharyngeal airway protective reflexes are triggered before the maximum volume of fluid that the hypopharynx can safely hold is exceeded

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Kulwinder; Surapaneni, Sri Naveen; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Hafeezullah, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Aerodigestive reflexes triggered by pharyngeal stimulation can protect the airways by clearing fluid from the pharynx. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the maximum capacity of fluid that can safely dwell in the hypopharynx [hypopharyngeal safe volume (HPSV)] before spilling into the larynx and the threshold volumes required to trigger pharyngoglottal closure reflex (PGCR), pharyngo-upper esophageal sphincter contractile reflex (PUCR), and reflexive pharyngeal swallow (RPS). Twenty-five healthy volunteers (mean age 24 yr, 8 males) were studied in the semi-inclined supine position. PGCR, PUCR, and RPS were elicited using techniques of concurrent upper esophageal sphincter manometry and pharyngo-laryngoscopy. The hypopharynx was then anesthetized to abolish RPS. HPSV was determined by infusing water in the pharynx, and perfusion was stopped when the infusate reached the superior margin of the interarytenoid fold. The threshold volumes for triggering PGCR, PUCR, and RPS by slow and rapid injections before pharyngeal anesthesia were 0.18 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 ml; 0.20 ± 0.020 and 0.13 ± 0.04 ml; and 0.61 ± 0.04 and 0.4 ± 0.06 ml, respectively. All of the above volumes were significantly smaller than the HPSV (0.70 ± 0.06 ml, P < 0.01) except for the threshold volume to elicit RPS during slow perfusion, which was not significantly different (P = 0.23). We conclude that pharyngeal aerodigestive reflexes are triggered by both slow and rapid pharyngeal perfusion of water at significantly smaller volumes than the maximum capacity of the hypopharynx to safely hold contents without spilling into the airway. These reflexes thereby aid in prevention of aspiration. PMID:21566013

  18. The effects of internal radiation exposure on cancer mortality in nuclear workers at Rocketdyne/Atomics International.

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, B; Morgenstern, H; Crawford-Brown, D; Young, B

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of chronic exposure to radionuclides, primarily uranium and mixed-fission products, on cancer mortality in a retrospective cohort study of workers enrolled in the radiation-monitoring program of a nuclear research and development facility. Between 1950 and 1994, 2,297 workers were monitored for internal radiation exposures, and 441 workers died, 134 (30.4%) of them from cancer as the underlying cause. We calculated internal lung-dose estimates based on urinalysis and whole-body and lung counts reported for individual workers. We examined cancer mortality of workers exposed at different cumulative lung-dose levels using complete risk-set analysis for cohort data, adjusting for age, pay type, time since first radiation monitored, and external radiation. In addition, we examined the potential for confounding due to chemical exposures and smoking, explored whether external radiation exposure modifies the effects of internal exposure, and estimated effects after excluding exposures likely to have been unrelated to disease onset. Dose-response relations were observed for death from hemato- and lymphopoietic cancers and from upper aerodigestive tract cancers, adjusting for age, time since first monitored, pay type, and external (gamma) radiation dose. No association was found for other cancers, including cancers of the lung. Despite the small number of exposed deaths from specific cancer types and possible bias due to measurement error and confounding, the positive findings and strong dose-response gradients observed suggest carcinogenic effects of internal radiation to the upper aerodigestive tract and the blood and lymph system in this occupational cohort. However, causal inferences require replication of our results in other populations or confirmation with an extended follow-up of this cohort. PMID:10964795

  19. Automated volume of interest delineation and rendering of cone beam CT images in interventional cardiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Cristian; Schäfer, Dirk; Eshuis, Peter; Carroll, John; Grass, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Interventional C-arm systems allow the efficient acquisition of 3D cone beam CT images. They can be used for intervention planning, navigation, and outcome assessment. We present a fast and completely automated volume of interest (VOI) delineation for cardiac interventions, covering the whole visceral cavity including mediastinum and lungs but leaving out rib-cage and spine. The problem is addressed in a model based approach. The procedure has been evaluated on 22 patient cases and achieves an average surface error below 2mm. The method is able to cope with varying image intensities, varying truncations due to the limited reconstruction volume, and partially with heavy metal and motion artifacts.

  20. Segmentation of pulmonary nodules in three-dimensional CT images by use of a spiral-scanning technique

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jiahui; Engelmann, Roger; Li Qiang

    2007-12-15

    Accurate segmentation of pulmonary nodules in computed tomography (CT) is an important and difficult task for computer-aided diagnosis of lung cancer. Therefore, the authors developed a novel automated method for accurate segmentation of nodules in three-dimensional (3D) CT. First, a volume of interest (VOI) was determined at the location of a nodule. To simplify nodule segmentation, the 3D VOI was transformed into a two-dimensional (2D) image by use of a key 'spiral-scanning' technique, in which a number of radial lines originating from the center of the VOI spirally scanned the VOI from the 'north pole' to the 'south pole'. The voxels scanned by the radial lines provided a transformed 2D image. Because the surface of a nodule in the 3D image became a curve in the transformed 2D image, the spiral-scanning technique considerably simplified the segmentation method and enabled reliable segmentation results to be obtained. A dynamic programming technique was employed to delineate the 'optimal' outline of a nodule in the 2D image, which corresponded to the surface of the nodule in the 3D image. The optimal outline was then transformed back into 3D image space to provide the surface of the nodule. An overlap between nodule regions provided by computer and by the radiologists was employed as a performance metric for evaluating the segmentation method. The database included two Lung Imaging Database Consortium (LIDC) data sets that contained 23 and 86 CT scans, respectively, with 23 and 73 nodules that were 3 mm or larger in diameter. For the two data sets, six and four radiologists manually delineated the outlines of the nodules as reference standards in a performance evaluation for nodule segmentation. The segmentation method was trained on the first and was tested on the second LIDC data sets. The mean overlap values were 66% and 64% for the nodules in the first and second LIDC data sets, respectively, which represented a higher performance level than those of two

  1. Apnée lors d'une intubation difficile prévisible pour un volumineux kyste laryngé

    PubMed Central

    Zalagh, Mohammed; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed; Boukhari, Ali; Attifi, Hicham; Hmidi, Mounir; Messary, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs présentent un cas d'obstruction aiguë des voies aériennes supérieures au moment de la tentative d'une intubation endotrachéale difficile prévisible en rapport avec un volumineux kyste du larynx. A travers ce cas clinique, les auteurs insistent sur la coopération étroite entre médecin anesthésiste et chirurgien ORL en termes d’échanges d'informations pré-opératoires, en particulier les données de la fibroscopie et la tomodensitométrie. PMID:25767649

  2. Local respiratory motion correction for PET/CT imaging: Application to lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lamare, F. Fernandez, P.; Fayad, H.; Visvikis, D.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Despite multiple methodologies already proposed to correct respiratory motion in the whole PET imaging field of view (FOV), such approaches have not found wide acceptance in clinical routine. An alternative can be the local respiratory motion correction (LRMC) of data corresponding to a given volume of interest (VOI: organ or tumor). Advantages of LRMC include the use of a simple motion model, faster execution times, and organ specific motion correction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of LMRC using various motion models for oncology (lung lesion) applications. Methods: Both simulated (NURBS based 4D cardiac-torso phantom) and clinical studies (six patients) were used in the evaluation of the proposed LRMC approach. PET data were acquired in list-mode and synchronized with respiration. The implemented approach consists first in defining a VOI on the reconstructed motion average image. Gated PET images of the VOI are subsequently reconstructed using only lines of response passing through the selected VOI and are used in combination with a center of gravity or an affine/elastic registration algorithm to derive the transformation maps corresponding to the respiration effects. Those are finally integrated in the reconstruction process to produce a motion free image over the lesion regions. Results: Although the center of gravity or affine algorithm achieved similar performance for individual lesion motion correction, the elastic model, applied either locally or to the whole FOV, led to an overall superior performance. The spatial tumor location was altered by 89% and 81% for the elastic model applied locally or to the whole FOV, respectively (compared to 44% and 39% for the center of gravity and affine models, respectively). This resulted in similar associated overall tumor volume changes of 84% and 80%, respectively (compared to 75% and 71% for the center of gravity and affine models, respectively). The application of the nonrigid

  3. CO2 Geological Storage Field Development - Application of Baseline, Monitoring and Verification Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simone, A.; Mackie, E.; Jenvey, N.

    2009-04-01

    The creation of a robust Baseline, Monitoring, and Verification (BMV)plan is key to assuring containment integrity in CO2 geological storage projects. A BMV plan has three main aims: Monitor CO2 movement in the subsurface, Calibrate dynamic earth models and finally, Verify volume of stored CO2. Wide ranges of potential BMV technologies available are currently tested in CCS pilots and industrial scale projects. This paper describes how to optimize the BMV plan design by adopting a risk-based approach and how the value of information (VOI) of specific monitoring technologies needs to be assessed to meet program objectives.

  4. The result of Venus Orbit Insertion of Akatsuki on December 7th, 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, K. I.; Nakamura, M.; Imamura, T.; Ishii, N.; Abe, T.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Hirose, C.; Satoh, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ueno, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Iwagami, N.; Watanabe, S.; Taguchi, M.; Fukuhara, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Yamada, M.; Imai, M.; Ohtsuki, S.; Uemizu, K.; Hashimoto, G. L.; Takagi, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ogohara, K.; Sato, N.; Kasaba, Y.; Kouyama, T.; Hirata, N.; Nakamura, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Horinouchi, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Hayashi, Y. Y.; Nakatsuka, J.; Kashimura, H.; Sakanoi, T.; Ando, H.; Murakami, S. Y.; Sato, T.; Takagi, S.; Nakajima, K.; Peralta, J.; Lee, Y. J.

    2015-12-01

    Japan launched Venus Climate Orbiter 'Akatsuki' (JAXA's mission code name: PLANET-C) to observe the dynamics of the Venus atmosphere globally and clarify the mechanism of the atmospheric circulation. The launch was on May 21st , 2010 from the Tanegashima Space Center. The cruise to Venus was smooth, however, the first Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI) trial on December 7th, 2010 tuned out to be a failure. Later Akatsuki has been orbiting the sun. Fortunately we keep the spacecraft in a healthy condition and surprisingly we have found another chance to let this spacecraft to meet Venus in 2015. Next VOI trial will be done on December 7th, 2015 and we report the result of this operation at this AGU meeting. This mission is planed to answer the question described below. The radius of the Earth and Venus are almost the same. In addition the radiation from the sun is also almost the same. The climates of these planets, however, are much different. For example, the strong zonal wind is observed on Venus with the period of 4 days, where Venus rotates westward with the period of 243 days. The wind speed is about 100 m s-1. This is called super rotation. We will investigate from data from Akatsuki what attributes to the difference of the climates between Earth and Venus. AKATSUKI was designed for remote sensing from an equatorial, elliptical orbit to tract the atmospheric motion at different altitudes using 5 cameras (3xIR, UV, Visible) and by the radio occultation technique. The first VOI has failed due to a malfunction of the propulsion system. The check valve between the helium tank and the fuel tank was blocked by an unexpected salt formation during the cruising from the Earth to Venus. As a result the main engine (orbital maneuvering engine, OME) became oxidizer-rich and fuel-poor condition, which led to an abnormal combustion in the engine with high temperature, and finally the engine was broken. We decide to use RCS thrusters for Trajectory Control Maneuvers' (TCMs) and

  5. Improved quantification for local regions of interest in preclinical PET imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cal-González, J.; Moore, S. C.; Park, M.-A.; Herraiz, J. L.; Vaquero, J. J.; Desco, M.; Udias, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    In Positron Emission Tomography, there are several causes of quantitative inaccuracy, such as partial volume or spillover effects. The impact of these effects is greater when using radionuclides that have a large positron range, e.g., 68Ga and 124I, which have been increasingly used in the clinic. We have implemented and evaluated a local projection algorithm (LPA), originally evaluated for SPECT, to compensate for both partial-volume and spillover effects in PET. This method is based on the use of a high-resolution CT or MR image, co-registered with a PET image, which permits a high-resolution segmentation of a few tissues within a volume of interest (VOI) centered on a region within which tissue-activity values need to be estimated. The additional boundary information is used to obtain improved activity estimates for each tissue within the VOI, by solving a simple inversion problem. We implemented this algorithm for the preclinical Argus PET/CT scanner and assessed its performance using the radionuclides 18F, 68Ga and 124I. We also evaluated and compared the results obtained when it was applied during the iterative reconstruction, as well as after the reconstruction as a postprocessing procedure. In addition, we studied how LPA can help to reduce the “spillover contamination”, which causes inaccurate quantification of lesions in the immediate neighborhood of large, “hot” sources. Quantification was significantly improved by using LPA, which provided more accurate ratios of lesion-to-background activity concentration for hot and cold regions. For 18F, the contrast was improved from 3.0 to 4.0 in hot lesions (when the true ratio was 4.0) and from 0.16 to 0.06 in cold lesions (true ratio = 0.0), when using the LPA postprocessing. Furthermore, activity values estimated within the VOI using LPA during reconstruction were slightly more accurate than those obtained by post-processing, while also visually improving the image contrast and uniformity within the VOI

  6. Tracking tumor boundary in MV-EPID images without implanted markers: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoyong Homma, Noriyasu; Ichiji, Kei; Takai, Yoshihiro; Yoshizawa, Makoto

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a markerless tracking algorithm to track the tumor boundary in megavoltage (MV)-electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images for image-guided radiation therapy. Methods: A level set method (LSM)-based algorithm is developed to track tumor boundary in EPID image sequences. Given an EPID image sequence, an initial curve is manually specified in the first frame. Driven by a region-scalable energy fitting function, the initial curve automatically evolves toward the tumor boundary and stops on the desired boundary while the energy function reaches its minimum. For the subsequent frames, the tracking algorithm updates the initial curve by using the tracking result in the previous frame and reuses the LSM to detect the tumor boundary in the subsequent frame so that the tracking processing can be continued without user intervention. The tracking algorithm is tested on three image datasets, including a 4-D phantom EPID image sequence, four digitally deformable phantom image sequences with different noise levels, and four clinical EPID image sequences acquired in lung cancer treatment. The tracking accuracy is evaluated based on two metrics: centroid localization error (CLE) and volume overlap index (VOI) between the tracking result and the ground truth. Results: For the 4-D phantom image sequence, the CLE is 0.23 ± 0.20 mm, and VOI is 95.6% ± 0.2%. For the digital phantom image sequences, the total CLE and VOI are 0.11 ± 0.08 mm and 96.7% ± 0.7%, respectively. In addition, for the clinical EPID image sequences, the proposed algorithm achieves 0.32 ± 0.77 mm in the CLE and 72.1% ± 5.5% in the VOI. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the authors’ proposed method both in tumor localization and boundary tracking in EPID images. In addition, compared with two existing tracking algorithms, the proposed method achieves a higher accuracy in tumor localization. Conclusions: In this paper, the authors presented a feasibility study of tracking

  7. Experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT using digital beam attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczykutowicz, T. P.; Mistretta, C. A.

    2014-03-01

    Tailoring CT scan acquisition parameters to individual patients is a topic of much research in the CT imaging community. It is now common place to find automatically adjusted tube current options for modern CT scanners. In addition, the use of beam shaping filters, commonly called bowtie filters, is available on most CT systems and allows for different body regions to receive different incident x-ray fluence distributions. However, no method currently exists which allows for the form of the incident x-ray fluence distribution to change as a function of the view angle. This study represents the first experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) for a c-arm geometry CT scan. X-ray fluence modulation is accomplished using a digital beam attenuator (DBA). The device is composed of ten iron wedge pairs that modulate the thickness of iron, the x-rays must traverse before reaching a patient. Using this device, experimental data was taken using a Siemens Zeego c-arm scanner. Scans were performed on a cylindrical polyethylene phantom and on two different sections of an anthropomorphic phantom. The DBA was used to equalize the x-ray fluence striking the detector for each scan. Non DBA, or ‘flat field’ scans were also acquired of the same phantom objects for comparison. In addition, a scan was performed in which the DBA was used to enable volume of interest (VOI) imaging. In VOI, only a small sub-volume within a patient receives full dose and the rest of the patient receives a much lower dose. Data corrections unique to using a piece-wise constant modulator were also developed. The feasibility of FFMCT implemented using a DBA device has been demonstrated. Initial results suggest dose reductions of up to 3.6 times relative to ‘flat field’ CT. In addition to dose reduction, the DBA enables a large improvement in image noise uniformity and the ability to provide regionally enhanced signal to noise using VOI imaging techniques. The results presented in

  8. SU-E-J-114: A Practical Hybrid Method for Improving the Quality of CT-CBCT Deformable Image Registration for Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C; Kumarasiri, A; Chetvertkov, M; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Siddiqui, F; Kim, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Accurate deformable image registration (DIR) between CT and CBCT in H&N is challenging. In this study, we propose a practical hybrid method that uses not only the pixel intensities but also organ physical properties, structure volume of interest (VOI), and interactive local registrations. Methods: Five oropharyngeal cancer patients were selected retrospectively. For each patient, the planning CT was registered to the last fraction CBCT, where the anatomy difference was largest. A three step registration strategy was tested; Step1) DIR using pixel intensity only, Step2) DIR with additional use of structure VOI and rigidity penalty, and Step3) interactive local correction. For Step1, a public-domain open-source DIR algorithm was used (cubic B-spline, mutual information, steepest gradient optimization, and 4-level multi-resolution). For Step2, rigidity penalty was applied on bony anatomies and brain, and a structure VOI was used to handle the body truncation such as the shoulder cut-off on CBCT. Finally, in Step3, the registrations were reviewed on our in-house developed software and the erroneous areas were corrected via a local registration using level-set motion algorithm. Results: After Step1, there were considerable amount of registration errors in soft tissues and unrealistic stretching in the posterior to the neck and near the shoulder due to body truncation. The brain was also found deformed to a measurable extent near the superior border of CBCT. Such errors could be effectively removed by using a structure VOI and rigidity penalty. The rest of the local soft tissue error could be corrected using the interactive software tool. The estimated interactive correction time was approximately 5 minutes. Conclusion: The DIR using only the image pixel intensity was vulnerable to noise and body truncation. A corrective action was inevitable to achieve good quality of registrations. We found the proposed three-step hybrid method efficient and practical for CT

  9. When is enough evidence enough? - Using systematic decision analysis and value-of-information analysis to determine the need for further evidence.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Uwe; Rochau, Ursula; Claxton, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Decision analysis (DA) and value-of-information (VOI) analysis provide a systematic, quantitative methodological framework that explicitly considers the uncertainty surrounding the currently available evidence to guide healthcare decisions. In medical decision making under uncertainty, there are two fundamental questions: 1) What decision should be made now given the best available evidence (and its uncertainty)?; 2) Subsequent to the current decision and given the magnitude of the remaining uncertainty, should we gather further evidence (i.e., perform additional studies), and if yes, which studies should be undertaken (e.g., efficacy, side effects, quality of life, costs), and what sample sizes are needed? Using the currently best available evidence, VoI analysis focuses on the likelihood of making a wrong decision if the new intervention is adopted. The value of performing further studies and gathering additional evidence is based on the extent to which the additional information will reduce this uncertainty. A quantitative framework allows for the valuation of the additional information that is generated by further research, and considers the decision maker's objectives and resource constraints. Claxton et al. summarise: "Value of information analysis can be used to inform a range of policy questions including whether a new technology should be approved based on existing evidence, whether it should be approved but additional research conducted or whether approval should be withheld until the additional evidence becomes available." [Claxton K. Value of information entry in Encyclopaedia of Health Economics, Elsevier, forthcoming 2014.] The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce the framework of systematic VoI analysis to guide further research. In our tutorial article, we explain the theoretical foundations and practical methods of decision analysis and value-of-information analysis. To illustrate, we use a simple case example of a foot ulcer (e.g., with

  10. Creation of an atlas of filter positions for fluence field modulated CT

    SciTech Connect

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Hermus, James

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) and volume of interest (VOI) CT imaging applications require adjustment of the profile of the x-ray fluence incident on a patient as a function of view angle. Since current FFMCT prototypes can theoretically take on an infinite number of configurations, measuring a calibration data set for all possible positions would not be feasible. The present work details a methodology for calculating an atlas of configurations that will span all likely body regions, patient sizes, patient positioning, and imaging modes. The hypothesis is that there exists a finite number of unique modulator configurations that effectively span the infinite number of possible fluence profiles with minimal loss in performance. Methods: CT images of a head, shoulder, thorax, abdominal, wrist, and leg anatomical slices were dilated and contracted to model small, medium, and large sized patients. Additionally, the images were positioned from iso-center by three different amounts. The modulator configurations required to compensate for each image were computed assuming a FFMCT prototype, digital beam attenuator, (DBA), was set to equalize the detector exposure. Each atlas configuration should be different from the other atlas configurations. The degree of difference was quantified using the sum of the absolute differences in filter thickness between configurations. Using this metric, a set of unique wedge configurations for which no two configurations have a metric value smaller than some threshold can be constructed. Differences in the total number of incident photons between the unconstrained filters and the atlas were studied as a function of the number of atlas positions for each anatomical site and size/off-centering combination. Results: By varying the threshold used in creating the atlas, it was found that roughly 322 atlas positions provided an incident number of photons within 20% of using 19 440 unique filters (the number of atlas entries

  11. Experimental investigation of factors affecting the absolute recovery coefficients in iodine-124 PET lesion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentzen, Walter

    2010-04-01

    The use of recovery coefficients (RCs) in 124I PET lesion imaging is a simple method to correct the imaged activity concentration (AC) primarily for the partial-volume effect and, to a minor extent, for the prompt gamma coincidence effect. The aim of this phantom study was to experimentally investigate a number of various factors affecting the 124I RCs. Three RC-based correction approaches were considered. These approaches differ with respect to the volume of interest (VOI) drawn, which determines the imaged AC and the RCs: a single voxel VOI containing the maximum value (maximum RC), a spherical VOI with a diameter of the scanner resolution (resolution RC) and a VOI equaling the physical object volume (isovolume RC). Measurements were performed using mainly a stand-alone PET scanner (EXACT HR+) and a latest-generation PET/CT scanner (BIOGRAPH mCT). The RCs were determined using a cylindrical phantom containing spheres or rotational ellipsoids and were derived from images acquired with a reference acquisition protocol. For each type of RC, the influence of the following factors on the RC was assessed: object shape, background activity spill in and iterative image reconstruction parameters. To evaluate the robustness of the RC-based correction approaches, the percentage deviation between RC-corrected and true ACs was determined from images acquired with a clinical acquisition protocol of different AC regimes. The observed results of the shape and spill-in effects were compared with simulation data derived from a convolution-based model. The study demonstrated that the shape effect was negligible and, therefore, was in agreement with theoretical expectations. In contradiction to the simulation results, the observed spill-in effect was unexpectedly small. To avoid variations in the determination of RCs due to reconstruction parameter changes, image reconstruction with a pixel length of about one-third or less of the scanner resolution and an OSEM 1 × 32 algorithm or

  12. When is enough evidence enough? - Using systematic decision analysis and value-of-information analysis to determine the need for further evidence.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Uwe; Rochau, Ursula; Claxton, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Decision analysis (DA) and value-of-information (VOI) analysis provide a systematic, quantitative methodological framework that explicitly considers the uncertainty surrounding the currently available evidence to guide healthcare decisions. In medical decision making under uncertainty, there are two fundamental questions: 1) What decision should be made now given the best available evidence (and its uncertainty)?; 2) Subsequent to the current decision and given the magnitude of the remaining uncertainty, should we gather further evidence (i.e., perform additional studies), and if yes, which studies should be undertaken (e.g., efficacy, side effects, quality of life, costs), and what sample sizes are needed? Using the currently best available evidence, VoI analysis focuses on the likelihood of making a wrong decision if the new intervention is adopted. The value of performing further studies and gathering additional evidence is based on the extent to which the additional information will reduce this uncertainty. A quantitative framework allows for the valuation of the additional information that is generated by further research, and considers the decision maker's objectives and resource constraints. Claxton et al. summarise: "Value of information analysis can be used to inform a range of policy questions including whether a new technology should be approved based on existing evidence, whether it should be approved but additional research conducted or whether approval should be withheld until the additional evidence becomes available." [Claxton K. Value of information entry in Encyclopaedia of Health Economics, Elsevier, forthcoming 2014.] The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce the framework of systematic VoI analysis to guide further research. In our tutorial article, we explain the theoretical foundations and practical methods of decision analysis and value-of-information analysis. To illustrate, we use a simple case example of a foot ulcer (e.g., with

  13. Design and fabrication of intake manifold for formula SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) race car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, Sylvie; Lavallee, Patrice

    1997-01-01

    Every year, a group of students from Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) in Montreal design and build a formula-type race car and compete in the Formula SAE competition. In this paper, we examine the design and fabrication of the ir intake system, A number of constraints challenge the designers. For example, to ensure the security of amateur drivers, motors are restrained to 600 cc and a circular restriction of 20 mm in diameter is placed at the entry of the system. Under these conditions, it is important to optimize the quality of the air/fuel mixture which depends mostly on the air intake system. A theoretical analysis reduced the field of possible runner length. However, the influence of runner configuration, plenum shape and size can only be determined experimentally. Polyacrylic functional prototypes were produced and tested on a dynamometric bench. A stereolithography model representing the inner passageways of the optimal intake manifold was built and used as a positive for a polyurethane mold. A composite lamination process was used to laminate the pre-production prototype over a molded wax plug. The major advantage of this approach over craftsmanship or even machining is the time saved to make the mold and the unlimited complexity of the shape permitted by the rapid prototyping systems.

  14. Turonian ammonite faunas from the southern Corbières, Aude, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, William James; Bilotte, Michel; Melchior, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    The Turonian successions of the southern Corbieres comprise three transgressive-regressive cycles in which ammonites occur in three intervals. The lowest comes from the glauconitic basal transgressive unit of the first cycle, and comprises 21 species, including Kamerunoceras douvillei (Pervinquiere, 1907), Kamerunoceras turoniense (d'Orbigny, 1850), Spathites (Jeanrogericeras) revelerianus (Courtiller, 1860), Spathites (Jeanrogericeras) combesi (d'Orbigny, 1856), Mammites nodosoides (Schluter, 1871), Mammites powelli Kennedy, Wright and Hancock, 1987, Fagesia tevestensis (Peron, 1896), Neoptychites cephalotus (Coutiller, 1860), Thomasites rollandi (Thomas and Peron, 1889), Wrightoceras wallsi Reyment, 1954, and Choffaticeras (Choffaticeras) quaasi (Peron, 1904). This is a Lower Turonian assemblage referred to the Mammites nodosoides Zone, although the possibility that elements from the preceding Fagesia catinus Zone are also present cannot be excluded. The fauna from the transgressive glauconitic interval of the succeeding cycle comprises nine species, including Romaniceras (Romaniceras) mexicanum Jones, 1938, Romaniceras (Yubariceras) ornatissimum (Stoliczka, 1864), Pseudotissotia galliennei (d'Orbigny, 1850), Collignoniceras woollgari (Mantell, 1822) sensu lato, Coilopoceras springeri Hyatt, 1903, and Eubostrychoceras (Eubostrychoceras) saxonicum (Schluter, 1872). They indicate the Middle Turonian Romaniceras (R.) mexicanum and R. (Y.) ornatissimum zones. The highest fauna, from the Marnes superieurs de Saint-Louis of the Saint-Louis syncline, is: Subprionocyclus sp. juv., Prionocyclus sp. and Worthoceras cf. rochatianum (d'Orbigny, 1850). The Subprionocyclus are minute individuals that resemble S. bravaisianus (d'Orbigny, 1841), and suggest the presence of the lower Upper Turonian bravaisianus Zone.

  15. Virtual firm in biomedical education: a very successful experience.

    PubMed

    Butterlin, Nadia; Flores, Steeven; Guyon, Florent; Blagosklonov, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    In May 2006, the Institut Superieur d'Ingenieurs de Franche-Comté (ISIFC) launched its own virtual firm, which was named Biotika® by students. Virtual means that this company has no real legal status. It is a pedagogic model; however, the situation scenario for the ISIFC student engineers is real. They are currently working in real conditions on the development of new medical devices and on the modernization of medical products. The need for these innovative medical devices was identified by the students during their second-year (6 weeks) internship in hospitals. Biotika® is open between March and December every year. The students are "recruited" following an imitation job interview and each is then entrusted with a mission (engineer, project manager etc.) in one of the company's four departments: Research & Design, Quality-regulatory affairs, Clinical investigations, and Public relations-marketing. The personnel of Biotika® work on the development of innovative medical devices and/or the preparation of CE or FDA certification for 2 days per week. Since its launch, Biotika® has developed eight products and obtained many grants and prizes from French research and governmental organizations. It is also certified ISO 13485.

  16. Melange a Quatre Ondes Degenere dans les Absorbants Saturables EN Milieu Mince

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Claire

    1995-01-01

    Le melange a quatre ondes est utilise notamment pour determiner la duree des temps de reorientation moleculaire et mesurer la grandeur des susceptibilites nonlineaires du troisieme ordre. Nous avons mis en evidence les particularites du melange a quatre ondes degenere en milieu absorbant mince a l'aide du formalisme de l'optique nonlineaire et de l'approche holographique. Des experiences realisees avec des impulsions de 33 ps ont permis de caracteriser la cinetique de la nonlinearite en regime transitoire des molecules de rhodamine 6G incorporees dans des matrices d'alcool polyvinylique; un milieu aussi compose d'absorbants anisotropes, les molecules de rhodamine 6G en solution aqueuse et un autre forme d'absorbants isotropes, les films minces de cristaux de semiconducteur CdS_ {x}Se_{1-x} ont ete etudies. Nous avons observe pour ces trois milieux les signaux generes aux ordres superieurs par melange a quatre ondes degenere en milieu mince pour differentes conditions de polarisation.

  17. Comparison of standardized uptake values measured on F-NaF PET/CT scans using three different tube current intensities

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Agnes Araujo; Duarte, Paulo Schiavom; Woellner, Eduardo Bechtloff; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze standardized uptake values (SUVs) using three different tube current intensities for attenuation correction on 18FNaF PET/CT scans. Materials and Methods A total of 254 18F-NaF PET/CT studies were analyzed using 10, 20 and 30 mAs. The SUVs were calculated in volumes of interest (VOIs) drawn on three skeletal regions, namely, right proximal humeral diaphysis (RH), right proximal femoral diaphysis (RF), and first lumbar vertebra (LV1) in a total of 712 VOIs. The analyses covered 675 regions classified as normal (236 RH, 232 RF, and 207 LV1). Results Mean SUV for each skeletal region was 3.8, 5.4 and 14.4 for RH, RF, and LV1, respectively. As the studies were grouped according to mAs value, the mean SUV values were 3.8, 3.9 and 3.7 for 10, 20 and 30 mAs, respectively, in the RH region; 5.4, 5.5 and 5.4 for 10, 20 and 30 mAs, respectively, in the RF region; 13.8, 14.9 and 14.5 for 10, 20 and 30 mAs, respectively, in the LV1 region. Conclusion The three tube current values yielded similar results for SUV calculation. PMID:25798003

  18. Interobserver and Intraobserver Reproducibility with Volume Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (DCE-CT) in Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lundsgaard Hansen, Martin; Fallentin, Eva; Axelsen, Thomas; Lauridsen, Carsten; Norling, Rikke; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of three different analytic methods to evaluate quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) measures from gastroesophageal junctional cancer. Twenty-five DCE-CT studies with gastroesophageal junction cancer were selected from a previous longitudinal study. Three radiologists independently reviewed all scans, and one repeated the analysis eight months later for intraobserver analysis. Review of the scans consisted of three analysis methods: (I) Four, fixed small sized regions of interest (2-dimensional (2D) fixed ROIs) placed in the tumor periphery, (II) 2-dimensional regions of interest (2D-ROI) along the tumor border in the tumor center, and (III) 3-dimensional volumes of interest (3D-VOI) containing the entire tumor volume. Arterial flow, blood volume and permeability (k(trans)) were recorded for each observation. Inter- and intra-observer variability were assessed by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman statistics. Interobserver ICC was excellent for arterial flow (0.88), for blood volume (0.89) and for permeability (0.91) with 3D-VOI analysis. The 95% limits of agreement were narrower for 3D analysis compared to 2D analysis. Three-dimensional volume DCE-CT analysis of gastroesophageal junction cancer provides higher inter- and intra-observer reproducibility with narrower limits of agreement between readers compared to 2D analysis.

  19. A Value of Information approach to data quality objectives for the Hanford high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, T.W.; Hunter, V.L.; Ulvila, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    This report summarizes a Pacific Northwest Laboratory review of the organic-nitrate reaction safety issue in the Hanford single-shell tanks. This study employed a decision analytic method known as Value of Information (VOI). VOI analysis is a special form of decision analysis that has an information collection alternative as one of the initial decision choices. This type of decision analysis, therefore results in the ability to specify the preferred information collection alternative, taking into account all information gathering and other relevant alternatives. For example, the risk reduction benefit associated with further sampling to quantify total organic carbon inventory or to improve information on energetics can be compared to the risk reduction benefit of better temperature monitoring, operational restrictions, or mitigation by moisture control. This approach allows freedom from built-in assumptions, e.g., that all tanks must be sampled to some degree or that all tanks must be deemed intrinsically safe by some means or another. It allows for each tank management decision to be judged in terms of risk reduction from the current state of affairs, and for that state of affairs to be continuously updated to incorporate new information on tank contents, the phenomenology of safety issues, or the effectiveness of mitigation schemes.

  20. Fully Automated Quantification of the Striatal Uptake Ratio of [99mTc]-TRODAT with SPECT Imaging: Evaluation of the Diagnostic Performance in Parkinson's Disease and the Temporal Regression of Striatal Tracer Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yu-Hua Dean; Chiu, Shao-Chieh; Lu, Chin-Song; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Weng, Yi-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We aimed at improving the existing methods for the fully automatic quantification of striatal uptake of [99mTc]-TRODAT with SPECT imaging. Procedures. A normal [99mTc]-TRODAT template was first formed based on 28 healthy controls. Images from PD patients (n = 365) and nPD subjects (28 healthy controls and 33 essential tremor patients) were spatially normalized to the normal template. We performed an inverse transform on the predefined striatal and reference volumes of interest (VOIs) and applied the transformed VOIs to the original image data to calculate the striatal-to-reference ratio (SRR). The diagnostic performance of the SRR was determined through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results. The SRR measured with our new and automatic method demonstrated excellent diagnostic performance with 92% sensitivity, 90% specificity, 92% accuracy, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.94. For the evaluation of the mean SRR and the clinical duration, a quadratic function fit the data with R2 = 0.84. Conclusions. We developed and validated a fully automatic method for the quantification of the SRR in a large study sample. This method has an excellent diagnostic performance and exhibits a strong correlation between the mean SRR and the clinical duration in PD patients. PMID:26366413

  1. Estimation of Local Bone Loads for the Volume of Interest.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Jin; Kim, Youkyung; Jang, In Gwun

    2016-07-01

    Computational bone remodeling simulations have recently received significant attention with the aid of state-of-the-art high-resolution imaging modalities. They have been performed using localized finite element (FE) models rather than full FE models due to the excessive computational costs of full FE models. However, these localized bone remodeling simulations remain to be investigated in more depth. In particular, applying simplified loading conditions (e.g., uniform and unidirectional loads) to localized FE models have a severe limitation in a reliable subject-specific assessment. In order to effectively determine the physiological local bone loads for the volume of interest (VOI), this paper proposes a novel method of estimating the local loads when the global musculoskeletal loads are given. The proposed method is verified for the three VOI in a proximal femur in terms of force equilibrium, displacement field, and strain energy density (SED) distribution. The effect of the global load deviation on the local load estimation is also investigated by perturbing a hip joint contact force (HCF) in the femoral head. Deviation in force magnitude exhibits the greatest absolute changes in a SED distribution due to its own greatest deviation, whereas angular deviation perpendicular to a HCF provides the greatest relative change. With further in vivo force measurements and high-resolution clinical imaging modalities, the proposed method will contribute to the development of reliable patient-specific localized FE models, which can provide enhanced computational efficiency for iterative computing processes such as bone remodeling simulations. PMID:27109554

  2. A sparse representation based method to classify pulmonary patterns of diffuse lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Xu, Rui; Hirano, Yasushi; Tachibana, Rie; Kido, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    We applied and optimized the sparse representation (SR) approaches in the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to classify normal tissues and five kinds of diffuse lung disease (DLD) patterns: consolidation, ground-glass opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and nodule. By using the K-SVD which is based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) and orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), it can achieve a satisfied recognition rate, but too much time was spent in the experiment. To reduce the runtime of the method, the K-Means algorithm was substituted for the K-SVD, and the OMP was simplified by searching the desired atoms at one time (OMP1). We proposed three SR based methods for evaluation: SR1 (K-SVD+OMP), SR2 (K-Means+OMP), and SR3 (K-Means+OMP1). 1161 volumes of interest (VOIs) were used to optimize the parameters and train each method, and 1049 VOIs were adopted to evaluate the performances of the methods. The SR based methods were powerful to recognize the DLD patterns (SR1: 96.1%, SR2: 95.6%, SR3: 96.4%) and significantly better than the baseline methods. Furthermore, when the K-Means and OMP1 were applied, the runtime of the SR based methods can be reduced by 98.2% and 55.2%, respectively. Therefore, we thought that the method using the K-Means and OMP1 (SR3) was efficient for the CAD of the DLDs.

  3. Detection of Amide and Aromatic Proton Resonances of Human Brain Metabolites Using Localized Correlated Spectroscopy Combined with Two Different Water Suppression Schemes.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Rajakumar; Ramadan, Saadallah; Thomas, M Albert

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the J-coupling connectivity network between the amide, aliphatic, and aromatic proton resonances of metabolites in human brain using two-dimensional (2D) localized correlated spectroscopy (L-COSY). Two different global water suppression techniques were combined with L-COSY, one before and another after localizing the volume of interest (VOI). Phantom solutions containing several cerebral metabolites at physiological concentrations were evaluated initially for sequence optimization. Nine healthy volunteers were scanned using a 3T whole body MRI scanner. The VOI for 2D L-COSY was placed in the right occipital white/gray matter region. The 2D cross and diagonal peak volumes were measured for several metabolites such as N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), free choline (Ch), glutamate/glutamine (Glx), aspartate (Asp), myo-inositol (mI), GABA, glutathione (GSH), phosphocholine (PCh), phosphoethanolamine (PE), tyrosine (Tyr), lactate (Lac), macromolecules (MM) and homocarnosine (Car). Using the pre-water suppression technique with L-COSY, the above mentioned metabolites were clearly identifiable and the relative ratios of metabolites were calculated. In addition to detecting multitude of aliphatic resonances in the high field region, we have demonstrated that the amide and aromatic resonances can also be detected using 2D L-COSY by pre water suppression more reliably than the post-water suppression. PMID:21546981

  4. Evaluation of non-animal methods for assessing skin sensitisation hazard: A Bayesian Value-of-Information analysis.

    PubMed

    Leontaridou, Maria; Gabbert, Silke; Van Ierland, Ekko C; Worth, Andrew P; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    This paper offers a Bayesian Value-of-Information (VOI) analysis for guiding the development of non-animal testing strategies, balancing information gains from testing with the expected social gains and costs from the adoption of regulatory decisions. Testing is assumed to have value, if, and only if, the information revealed from testing triggers a welfare-improving decision on the use (or non-use) of a substance. As an illustration, our VOI model is applied to a set of five individual non-animal prediction methods used for skin sensitisation hazard assessment, seven battery combinations of these methods, and 236 sequential 2-test and 3-test strategies. Their expected values are quantified and compared to the expected value of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) as the animal method. We find that battery and sequential combinations of non-animal prediction methods reveal a significantly higher expected value than the LLNA. This holds for the entire range of prior beliefs. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the testing strategy with the highest expected value does not necessarily have to follow the order of key events in the sensitisation adverse outcome pathway (AOP). PMID:27494625

  5. Using anisotropic 3D Minkowski functionals for trabecular bone characterization and biomechanical strength prediction in proximal femur specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; De, Titas; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Eckstein, Felix; Wismüller, Axel

    2014-04-01

    The ability of Anisotropic Minkowski Functionals (AMFs) to capture local anisotropy while evaluating topological properties of the underlying gray-level structures has been previously demonstrated. We evaluate the ability of this approach to characterize local structure properties of trabecular bone micro-architecture in ex vivo proximal femur specimens, as visualized on multi-detector CT, for purposes of biomechanical bone strength prediction. To this end, volumetric AMFs were computed locally for each voxel of volumes of interest (VOI) extracted from the femoral head of 146 specimens. The local anisotropy captured by such AMFs was quantified using a fractional anisotropy measure; the magnitude and direction of anisotropy at every pixel was stored in histograms that served as a feature vectors that characterized the VOIs. A linear multi-regression analysis algorithm was used to predict the failure load (FL) from the feature sets; the predicted FL was compared to the true FL determined through biomechanical testing. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each feature set. The best prediction performance was obtained from the fractional anisotropy histogram of AMF Euler Characteristic (RMSE = 1.01 ± 0.13), which was significantly better than MDCT-derived mean BMD (RMSE = 1.12 ± 0.16, p<0.05). We conclude that such anisotropic Minkowski Functionals can capture valuable information regarding regional trabecular bone quality and contribute to improved bone strength prediction, which is important for improving the clinical assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk.

  6. Predicting the biomechanical strength of proximal femur specimens with Minkowski functionals and support vector regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chien-Chun; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Huber, Markus B.; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Bauer, Jan S.; Baum, Thomas; Eckstein, Felix; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Link, Thomas M.; Wismüller, Axel

    2014-03-01

    Regional trabecular bone quality estimation for purposes of femoral bone strength prediction is important for improving the clinical assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk. In this study, we explore the ability of 3D Minkowski Functionals derived from multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images of proximal femur specimens in predicting their corresponding biomechanical strength. MDCT scans were acquired for 50 proximal femur specimens harvested from human cadavers. An automated volume of interest (VOI)-fitting algorithm was used to define a consistent volume in the femoral head of each specimen. In these VOIs, the trabecular bone micro-architecture was characterized by statistical moments of its BMD distribution and by topological features derived from Minkowski Functionals. A linear multiregression analysis and a support vector regression (SVR) algorithm with a linear kernel were used to predict the failure load (FL) from the feature sets; the predicted FL was compared to the true FL determined through biomechanical testing. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each feature set. The best prediction result was obtained from the Minkowski Functional surface used in combination with SVR, which had the lowest prediction error (RMSE = 0.939 ± 0.345) and which was significantly lower than mean BMD (RMSE = 1.075 ± 0.279, p<0.005). Our results indicate that the biomechanical strength prediction can be significantly improved in proximal femur specimens with Minkowski Functionals extracted from on MDCT images used in conjunction with support vector regression.

  7. Differentiating bladder carcinoma from bladder wall using 3D textural features: an initial study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaopan; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Yang; Tian, Qiang; Zhang, Guopeng; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    Differentiating bladder tumors from wall tissues is of critical importance for the detection of invasion depth and cancer staging. The textural features embedded in bladder images have demonstrated their potentials in carcinomas detection and classification. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of differentiating bladder carcinoma from bladder wall using three-dimensional (3D) textural features extracted from MR bladder images. The widely used 2D Tamura features were firstly wholly extended to 3D, and then different types of 3D textural features including 3D features derived from gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) and grey level-gradient co-occurrence matrix (GLGCM), as well as 3D Tamura features, were extracted from 23 volumes of interest (VOIs) of bladder tumors and 23 VOIs of patients' bladder wall. Statistical results show that 30 out of 47 features are significantly different between cancer tissues and wall tissues. Using these features with significant differences between these two types of tissues, classification performance with a supported vector machine (SVM) classifier demonstrates that the combination of three types of selected 3D features outperform that of using only one type of features. All the observations demonstrate that significant textural differences exist between carcinomatous tissues and bladder wall, and 3D textural analysis may be an effective way for noninvasive staging of bladder cancer.

  8. A homogeneous superconducting magnet design using a hybrid optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Zhipeng; Wang, Qiuliang; Liu, Feng; Yan, Luguang

    2013-12-01

    This paper employs a hybrid optimization algorithm with a combination of linear programming (LP) and nonlinear programming (NLP) to design the highly homogeneous superconducting magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The whole work is divided into two stages. The first LP stage provides a global optimal current map with several non-zero current clusters, and the mathematical model for the LP was updated by taking into account the maximum axial and radial magnetic field strength limitations. In the second NLP stage, the non-zero current clusters were discretized into practical solenoids. The superconducting conductor consumption was set as the objective function both in the LP and NLP stages to minimize the construction cost. In addition, the peak-peak homogeneity over the volume of imaging (VOI), the scope of 5 Gauss fringe field, and maximum magnetic field strength within superconducting coils were set as constraints. The detailed design process for a dedicated 3.0 T animal MRI scanner was presented. The homogeneous magnet produces a magnetic field quality of 6.0 ppm peak-peak homogeneity over a 16 cm by 18 cm elliptical VOI, and the 5 Gauss fringe field was limited within a 1.5 m by 2.0 m elliptical region.

  9. Return to Venus of the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter AKATSUKI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masato; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Chikako; Imamura, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuaki; Abe, Takumi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yamada, Manabu; Ogohara, Kazunori; Uemizu, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Shoko; Satoh, Takehiko; Suzuki, Makoto; Ueno, Munetaka; Nakatsuka, Junichi; Iwagami, Naomoto; Taguchi, Makoto; Watanabe, Shigeto; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Hashimoto, George L.; Yamamoto, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter/AKATSUKI was proposed in 2001 with strong support by international Venus science community and approved as an ISAS (The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science) mission soon after the proposal. The mission life we expected was more than two Earth years in Venus orbit. AKATSUKI was successfully launched at 06:58:22JST on May 21, 2010, by H-IIA F17. After the separation from H-IIA, the telemetry from AKATSUKI was normally detected by DSN Goldstone station (10:00JST) and the solar cell paddles' deployment was confirmed. After a successful cruise, the malfunction happened on the propulsion system during the Venus orbit insertion (VOI) on Dec. 7, 2010. The engine shut down before the planned reduction in speed to achieve. The spacecraft did not enter the Venus orbit but entered an orbit around the Sun with a period of 203 days. Most of the fuel still had remained, but the orbital maneuvering engine was found to be broken and unusable. However, we have found an alternate way of achieving orbit by using only the reaction control system (RSC). We had adopted the alternate way for orbital maneuver and three minor maneuvers in Nov. 2011 were successfully done so that AKATSUKI would meet Venus in 2015. We are considering several scenarios for VOI using only RCS.

  10. ICA based automatic segmentation of dynamic H(2)(15)O cardiac PET images.

    PubMed

    Margadán-Méndez, Margarita; Juslin, Anu; Nesterov, Sergey V; Kalliokoski, Kari; Knuuti, Juhani; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we applied an iterative independent component analysis (ICA) method for the separation of cardiac tissue components (myocardium, right, and left ventricle) from dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images. Previous phantom and animal studies have shown that ICA separation extracts the cardiac structures accurately. Our goal in this study was to investigate the methodology with human studies. The ICA separated cardiac structures were used to calculate the myocardial perfusion in two different cases: 1) the regions of interest were drawn manually on the ICA separated component images and 2) the volumes of interest (VOI) were automatically segmented from the component images. For the whole myocardium, the perfusion values of 25 rest and six drug-induced stress studies obtained with these methods were compared to the values from the manually drawn regions of interest on differential images. The separation of the rest and stress studies using ICA-based methods was successful in all cases. The visualization of the cardiac structures from H (2) (15) O PET studies was improved with the ICA separation. Also, the automatic segmentation of the VOI seemed to be feasible. PMID:19273031

  11. A sparse representation based method to classify pulmonary patterns of diffuse lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Xu, Rui; Hirano, Yasushi; Tachibana, Rie; Kido, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    We applied and optimized the sparse representation (SR) approaches in the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to classify normal tissues and five kinds of diffuse lung disease (DLD) patterns: consolidation, ground-glass opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and nodule. By using the K-SVD which is based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) and orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), it can achieve a satisfied recognition rate, but too much time was spent in the experiment. To reduce the runtime of the method, the K-Means algorithm was substituted for the K-SVD, and the OMP was simplified by searching the desired atoms at one time (OMP1). We proposed three SR based methods for evaluation: SR1 (K-SVD+OMP), SR2 (K-Means+OMP), and SR3 (K-Means+OMP1). 1161 volumes of interest (VOIs) were used to optimize the parameters and train each method, and 1049 VOIs were adopted to evaluate the performances of the methods. The SR based methods were powerful to recognize the DLD patterns (SR1: 96.1%, SR2: 95.6%, SR3: 96.4%) and significantly better than the baseline methods. Furthermore, when the K-Means and OMP1 were applied, the runtime of the SR based methods can be reduced by 98.2% and 55.2%, respectively. Therefore, we thought that the method using the K-Means and OMP1 (SR3) was efficient for the CAD of the DLDs. PMID:25821509

  12. Estimating the benefits of land imagery in environmental applications: a case study in nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Mishra, Shruti K.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Maccauley, Molly K.

    2012-01-01

    Moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is crucial to a more complete assessment of the cumulative, landscape-level effect of agricultural land use and land cover on environmental quality. If this improved assessment yields a net social benefit, then that benefit reflects the value of information (VOI) from MRLI. Environmental quality and the capacity to provide ecosystem services evolve because of human actions, changing natural conditions, and their interaction with natural physical processes. The human actions, in turn, are constrained and redirected by many institutions and regulations such as agricultural, energy, and environmental policies. We present a general framework for bringing together sociologic, biologic, physical, hydrologic, and geologic processes at meaningful scales to interpret environmental implications of MRLI applications. We set out a specific application using MRLI observations to identify crop planting patterns and thus estimate surface management activities that influence groundwater resources over a regional landscape. We tailor the application to the characteristics of nonpoint source groundwater pollution hazards in Iowa to illustrate a general framework in a land use-hydrologic-economic system. In the example, MRLI VOI derives from reducing the risk of both losses to agricultural production and damage to human health and other consequences of contaminated groundwater.

  13. [Typical Patterns of Neuronal Activity in Relay and Nonspecific Thalamic Nuclei in Patients with Spasmodic Torticollis].

    PubMed

    Devetiarov, D A; Semenova, U N; Butiaeva, L I; Sedov, A S

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal activity of 50 neurons in nonspecific (Rt, MD) and relay (Voi, Voa) thalamic nuclei was analyzed. Data were obtained by microelectrode technique during 14 stereotactic operations in patients with spasmodic torticollis. Application of Poincare maps and Gap-statistics allowed to reveal 3 main patterns of neuronal activity: irregular single spikes, low-threshold Ca(2+)-dependent rhythmic (3-5 Hz) bursts and combination of bursts and single spikes. In some cases, grouping (in Voi and Rt nuclei) and long burst (in Voa nucleus) patterns were observed. Grouping pattern consist of low-density groups of spikes with tendency to periodicity in range 1-1.5 Hz. Long burst pattern consist of long dense groups of spikes with random length and invariant interburst intervals. Main numerical estimations of 3 most spread patterns of neuronal activity were obtained by parametric analysis. In results, investigated thalamic nuclei significantly distinguished from each other by characteristics of burst activity but average firing rate of these nuclei hadn't significant differences. These data may be useful for functional identification of thalamic nuclei during stereotactic neurosurgery operation in patients with movement disorders.

  14. Influence of bone morphological properties on a new expandable orthopaedic fastener

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldakowski, M.; Oldakowska, I.; Kirk, T. B.; Ford, C. T.; Sercombe, T. B.; Hardcastle, P.; Day, R. E.

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bone morphological properties are a significant determinant of orthopaedic fastener fixation strength. The authors previously tested a new design of unthreaded expandable fastener (UEF) prototype against screws and demonstrated a significant increase in pull-out strength. However the effect of bone morphology on the pull-out strength of the UEF and expandable fasteners in general is unknown. This study assessed the correlation between failure force and maximum force against five microstructural parameters. The failure force of the UEF was correlated to the trabecular bone volume fraction, as with screws. Unlike screws, however, the maximum force of the UEF has an inverse relationship with cortical volume. No correlation was found between failure force and the Structural Model Index (SMI). Additionally the critical volume of interest (VOI) for the UEF is around the bottom of the fastener where the expansion occurs, whereas for the screw a full height VOI is critical. Furthermore, we observed that screw mechanical performance may be affected more by bone morphological parameters that are associated with poorer quality bone. Therefore the UEF may perform better than screws in low quality osteoporotic bone.

  15. Midazolam intranasal pour arrêter les convulsions en contexte extra-hospitalier

    PubMed Central

    Zelcer, Michal; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Il arrive parfois que des parents se présentent à ma clinique après que leur enfant eut eu une crise convulsive et qu’une deuxième crise ait lieu à la clinique. En attendant le transfert à l’hôpital, existe-t-il des moyens de mettre fin aux convulsions sans devoir obtenir l’accès intraveineux à la clinique? Réponse Le diazépam par voie intraveineuse est depuis de nombreuses années un traitement de première intention pour mettre fin aux crises convulsives chez les enfants. Il est aussi possible d’administrer le médicament par les voies intramusculaire, rectale ou buccale, mais ces voies d’administration s’accompagnent de plusieurs inconvénients. D’autres données probantes laissent croire que la voie intranasale est rapide et efficace chez les enfants, et le midazolam continue de se montrer prometteur pour mettre fin aux crises convulsives. Doté d’un bon profil d’innocuité, le midazolam intranasal s’utilise en clinique et en contexte préhospitalier pour arrêter les convulsions chez les enfants.

  16. Evaluation of non-animal methods for assessing skin sensitisation hazard: A Bayesian Value-of-Information analysis.

    PubMed

    Leontaridou, Maria; Gabbert, Silke; Van Ierland, Ekko C; Worth, Andrew P; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    This paper offers a Bayesian Value-of-Information (VOI) analysis for guiding the development of non-animal testing strategies, balancing information gains from testing with the expected social gains and costs from the adoption of regulatory decisions. Testing is assumed to have value, if, and only if, the information revealed from testing triggers a welfare-improving decision on the use (or non-use) of a substance. As an illustration, our VOI model is applied to a set of five individual non-animal prediction methods used for skin sensitisation hazard assessment, seven battery combinations of these methods, and 236 sequential 2-test and 3-test strategies. Their expected values are quantified and compared to the expected value of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) as the animal method. We find that battery and sequential combinations of non-animal prediction methods reveal a significantly higher expected value than the LLNA. This holds for the entire range of prior beliefs. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the testing strategy with the highest expected value does not necessarily have to follow the order of key events in the sensitisation adverse outcome pathway (AOP).

  17. Ultrasonic diaphragm tracking for cardiac interventional navigation on 3D motion compensated static roadmaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timinger, Holger; Kruger, Sascha; Dietmayer, Klaus; Borgert, Joern

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to cardiac interventional navigation on 3D motion-compensated static roadmaps is presented. Current coronary interventions, e.g. percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasties, are performed using 2D X-ray fluoroscopy. This comes along with well-known drawbacks like radiation exposure, use of contrast agent, and limited visualization, e.g. overlap and foreshortening, due to projection imaging. In the presented approach, the interventional device, i.e. the catheter, is tracked using an electromagnetic tracking system (MTS). Therefore, the catheters position is mapped into a static 3D image of the volume of interest (VOI) by means of an affine registration. In order to compensate for respiratory motion of the catheter with respect to the static image, a parameterized affine motion model is used which is driven by a respiratory sensor signal. This signal is derived from ultrasonic diaphragm tracking. The motion compensation for the heartbeat is done using ECG-gating. The methods are validated using a heart- and diaphragm-phantom. The mean displacement of the catheter due to the simulated organ motion decreases from approximately 9 mm to 1.3 mm. This result indicates that the proposed method is able to reconstruct the catheter position within the VOI accurately and that it can help to overcome drawbacks of current interventional procedures.

  18. Using PET/CT Bone Scan Dynamic Data to Evaluate Tibia Remodeling When a Taylor Spatial Frame Is Used: Short and Longer Term Differences

    PubMed Central

    Lundblad, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q.; Karlsson-Thur, Charlotte; Jonsson, Cathrine; Noz, Marilyn E.; Zeleznik, Michael P.; Jacobsson, Hans; Weidenhielm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen consecutive patients, treated with a Taylor Spatial Frame for complex tibia conditions, gave their informed consent to undergo Na18F− PET/CT bone scans. We present a Patlak-like analysis utilizing an approximated blood time-activity curve eliminating the need for blood aliquots. Additionally, standardized uptake values (SUV) derived from dynamic acquisitions were compared to this Patlak-like approach. Spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) were drawn to include broken bone, other (normal) bone, and muscle. The SUVm(t) (m = max, mean) and a series of slopes were computed as (SUVm(ti) − SUVm(tj))/(ti − tj), for pairs of time values ti and tj. A Patlak-like analysis was performed for the same time values by computing ((VOIp(ti)/VOIe(ti))−(VOIp(tj)/VOIe(tj)))/(ti − tj), where p = broken bone, other bone, and muscle and e = expected activity in a VOI. Paired comparisons between Patlak-like and SUVm slopes showed good agreement by both linear regression and correlation coefficient analysis (r = 84%, rs = 78%-SUVmax, r = 92%, and rs = 91%-SUVmean), suggesting static scans could substitute for dynamic studies. Patlak-like slope differences of 0.1 min−1 or greater between examinations and SUVmax differences of ~5 usually indicated good remodeling progress, while negative Patlak-like slope differences of −0.06 min−1 usually indicated poor remodeling progress in this cohort. PMID:26436093

  19. Value of Information: Comparing Surface-Wave Dispersion Curves Estimated from Conventional Seismometers Versus Distributed Acoustic Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainor Guitton, W.; Lancelle, C.; Wang, H. F.; Feigl, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    The efficacy of geophysical data to estimate key subsurface parameters is difficult to quantify given the complexity of both the signal and the earth, among many other factors. To address this, we utilize a metric from decision analysis known as the value of information (VOI). We analyze the uncertainty of surface-wave dispersion curves derived from travel times recorded by two types of seismological sensors: 3-component seismometers and Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS), a technique for measuring longitudinal strain in fiber-optic cables. Both data types were recorded at the Garner Valley test site in California. A 45 kN shear-shaker source produced a swept-frequency input from a few Hz to 10 Hz and back over 60 seconds. The geophone and DAS traces were filtered to remove harmonics from the source, traffic and other external noise. Source-Synchronous Filtering (Lord et al., AGU 2015) was applied to obtain waveforms. To measure the travel time from the source to the sensor, multiple zero-crossings are picked for frequencies between 4 and 20 Hz. These picks are used to estimate phase velocities as a function of frequency for both data types by plotting the travel times versus the distance of the sensor from the source. The slope of the best-fitting line provides an estimate of the phase velocity at a given frequency. To assess its uncertainty, we use a nonparametric bootstrap procedure [Efron & Tibshirani, 1986]. The resulting distributions of phase velocities describe the precision of the estimates for each data type. We then plot the phase velocities as a function of their frequency to generate many dispersion curves. These dispersion curves are inverted to estimate the posterior distribution of shear wave velocity with depth for each type of data. We hypothesize that this information is used to make a decision (e.g. how to develop a geothermal field), and therefore the VOI technique can be applied. This approach provides a metric for evaluating the VOI of each

  20. Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Medically Refractory Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haense, Cathleen; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Wilke, Florian; Schrader, Christoph; Capelle, Holger H; Geworski, Lilli; Bengel, Frank M; Krauss, Joachim K; Berding, Georg

    2016-01-01

    In this study, alterations in brain perfusion have been investigated in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) compared with control subjects. In addition, we investigated the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in both globus pallidus internus (GPi) and centromedian-parafascicular/ventralis oralis internus nuclei of the thalamus (CM/Voi) and sham (SHAM) stimulation on cerebral blood flow. In a prospective controlled, randomized, double-blind setting, five severely affected adult patients with TS with predominant motor or vocal tics (mean total tic score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale: 39) underwent serial brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography with (99m)Tc-ECD. Results were compared with data from six age-matched control subjects. All patients were investigated at four different time points: once before DBS implantation (preOP) and three times postoperatively. Postoperative scans were performed in a randomized order, each after 3 months of either GPi, CM/Voi, or SHAM stimulation. At each investigation, patients were injected at rest while awake, but scanned during anesthesia. This procedure ensured that neither anesthesia nor movement artifacts influenced our results. Control subjects were investigated only once at baseline (without DBS or anesthesia). At baseline, cerebral blood flow was significantly reduced in patients with TS (preOP) compared with controls in the central region, frontal, and parietal lobe, specifically in Brodmann areas 1, 4-9, 30, 31, and 40. Significantly increased perfusion was found in the cerebellum. When comparing SHAM stimulation to preOP condition, we found significantly decreased perfusion in basal ganglia and thalamus, but increased perfusion in different parts of the frontal cortex. Compared with SHAM condition both GPi and thalamic stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in cerebral blood flow in basal ganglia and cerebellum, while perfusion in the frontal cortex was significantly increased

  1. MO-C-17A-08: Evaluation of Lung Deformation Using Three Dimensional Strain Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, T; Huang, Q; Miller, W; Zhong, X; Yin, F; Cai, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a systematic approach to generate three dimensional (3D) strain maps of lung using the displacement vector field (DVF) during the respiratory deformation, and to demonstrate its application in evaluating deformable image registration (DIR). Methods: A DVF based strain tensor at each voxel of interest (VOI) was calculated from the relative displacements between the VOI and each of the six nearest neighbors. The maximum and minimum stretches of a VOI can be determined by the principal strains (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2} and E{sub 3}), which are the eigenvalues and the corresponding strain tensors. Two healthy volunteers enrolled in this study under IRB-approved protocol, each was scanned using 3D Hyperpolarized He-3 tagging-MRI and 3D proton-MRI with TrueFISP sequence at the endof- inhalation (EOI) and the end-of-exhalation (EOE) phases. 3D DVFs of tagging- and proton-MRI were obtained by the direct measurements of the tagging grid trajectory and by the DIR method implemented in commercial software. Results: 3D strain maps were successfully generated for all DVFs. The principal strain E1s were calculated as 0.43±0.05 and 0.17±0.25 for tagging-MRI and proton-MRI, respectively. The large values of E{sub 1} indicate the predominant lung motion in the superior-inferior (SI) direction. Given that the DVFs from the tagging images are considered as the ground truth, the discrepancies in the DIR-based strain maps suggest the inaccuracy of the DIR algorithm. In the E{sub 1} maps of tagging-MRI for subject 1, the fissures were distinguishable by the larger values (0.49±0.02) from the adjacent tissues (0.41±0.03) due to the larger relative displacement between the lung lobes. Conclusion: We have successfully developed a methodology to generate DVF-based 3D strain maps of lung. It can potentially enable us to better understand the pulmonary biomechanics and to evaluate and improve the DIR algorithms for the lung deformation. We are currently studying more

  2. An economic value of remote-sensing information—Application to agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Does remote-sensing information provide economic benefits to society, and can a value be assigned to those benefits? Can resource management and policy decisions be better informed by coupling past and present Earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) applied an established conceptual framework to answer these questions, as well as to estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote-sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate-resolution land-imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, the USGS modeled the relation between a population of the CDL's land uses and dynamic nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Employing various multiscaled, multitemporal geospatial datasets with MRLI to maximize the value of agricultural production, the approach develops and uses multiple environmental science models to address dynamic nitrogen loading and transport at specified distances from specific sites (wells) and at landscape scales (for example, across 35 counties and two aquifers). In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on the use of MRLI for the management of the major land uses in the study region-the production of corn and soybeans, which can impact groundwater quality. Derived methods and results include (1) economic and dynamic nitrate-pollution models, (2) probabilities of the survival of groundwater, and (3) a VOI for remote sensing. For the northeastern Iowa study region, the marginal benefit of the MRLI VOI (in 2010 dollars) is $858 million ±$197 million annualized, which corresponds to a net present value of $38

  3. Fuzzy hidden Markov chains segmentation for volume determination and quantitation in PET

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, Mathieu; Lamare, Frédéric; Boussion, Nicolas; Roux, Christian; Turzo, Alexandre; Cheze-Lerest, Catherine; Jarritt, Peter; Carson, Kathryn; Salzenstein, Fabien; Collet, Christophe; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    Accurate volume of interest (VOI) estimation in PET is crucial in different oncology applications such as response to therapy evaluation and radiotherapy treatment planning. The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm for automatic lesion volume delineation; namely the Fuzzy Hidden Markov Chains (FHMC), with that of current state of the art in clinical practice threshold based techniques. As the classical Hidden Markov Chain (HMC) algorithm, FHMC takes into account noise, voxel’s intensity and spatial correlation, in order to classify a voxel as background or functional VOI. However the novelty of the fuzzy model consists of the inclusion of an estimation of imprecision, which should subsequently lead to a better modelling of the “fuzzy” nature of the object on interest boundaries in emission tomography data. The performance of the algorithms has been assessed on both simulated and acquired datasets of the IEC phantom, covering a large range of spherical lesion sizes (from 10 to 37mm), contrast ratios (4:1 and 8:1) and image noise levels. Both lesion activity recovery and VOI determination tasks were assessed in reconstructed images using two different voxel sizes (8mm3 and 64mm3). In order to account for both the functional volume location and its size, the concept of % classification errors was introduced in the evaluation of volume segmentation using the simulated datasets. Results reveal that FHMC performs substantially better than the threshold based methodology for functional volume determination or activity concentration recovery considering a contrast ratio of 4:1 and lesion sizes of <28mm. Furthermore differences between classification and volume estimation errors evaluated were smaller for the segmented volumes provided by the FHMC algorithm. Finally, the performance of the automatic algorithms was less susceptible to image noise levels in comparison to the threshold based techniques. The analysis of both

  4. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim; Gilbert, Bob; Lake, Larry W.; Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Thomas, Sunil G.; Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo; Klie, Hector; Banchs, Rafael; Nunez, Emilio J.; Jablonowski, Chris

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  5. Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Medically Refractory Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Haense, Cathleen; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R.; Wilke, Florian; Schrader, Christoph; Capelle, Holger H.; Geworski, Lilli; Bengel, Frank M.; Krauss, Joachim K.; Berding, Georg

    2016-01-01

    In this study, alterations in brain perfusion have been investigated in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) compared with control subjects. In addition, we investigated the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in both globus pallidus internus (GPi) and centromedian-parafascicular/ventralis oralis internus nuclei of the thalamus (CM/Voi) and sham (SHAM) stimulation on cerebral blood flow. In a prospective controlled, randomized, double-blind setting, five severely affected adult patients with TS with predominant motor or vocal tics (mean total tic score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale: 39) underwent serial brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography with 99mTc-ECD. Results were compared with data from six age-matched control subjects. All patients were investigated at four different time points: once before DBS implantation (preOP) and three times postoperatively. Postoperative scans were performed in a randomized order, each after 3 months of either GPi, CM/Voi, or SHAM stimulation. At each investigation, patients were injected at rest while awake, but scanned during anesthesia. This procedure ensured that neither anesthesia nor movement artifacts influenced our results. Control subjects were investigated only once at baseline (without DBS or anesthesia). At baseline, cerebral blood flow was significantly reduced in patients with TS (preOP) compared with controls in the central region, frontal, and parietal lobe, specifically in Brodmann areas 1, 4–9, 30, 31, and 40. Significantly increased perfusion was found in the cerebellum. When comparing SHAM stimulation to preOP condition, we found significantly decreased perfusion in basal ganglia and thalamus, but increased perfusion in different parts of the frontal cortex. Compared with SHAM condition both GPi and thalamic stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in cerebral blood flow in basal ganglia and cerebellum, while perfusion in the frontal cortex was significantly increased

  6. SU-E-J-231: Comparison of Delineation Variability of Soft Tissue Volume and Position in Head-And-Neck Between Two T1-Weighted Pulse Sequences Using An MR-Simulator with Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, O; Lo, G; Yuan, J; Law, M; Ding, A; Cheng, K; Chan, K; Cheung, K; Yu, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: There is growing interests in applying MR-simulator(MR-sim) in radiotherapy but MR images subject to hardware, patient and pulse sequence dependent geometric distortion that may potentially influence target definition. This study aimed to evaluate the influence on head-and-neck tissue delineation, in terms of positional and volumetric variability, of two T1-weighted(T1w) MR sequences on a 1.5T MR-sim Methods: Four healthy volunteers were scanned (4 scans for each on different days) using both spin-echo (3DCUBE, TR/TE=500/14ms, TA=183s) and gradient-echo sequences (3DFSPGR, TE/TR=7/4ms, TA=173s) with identical coverage, voxel-size(0.8×0.8×1.0mm3), receiver-bandwidth(62.5kHz/pix) and geometric correction on a 1.5T MR-sim immobilized with personalized thermoplastic cast and head-rest. Under this setting, similar T1w contrast and signal-to-noise ratio were obtained, and factors other than sequence that might bias image distortion and tissue delineation were minimized. VOIs of parotid gland(PGR, PGL), pituitary gland(PIT) and eyeballs(EyeL, EyeR) were carefully drawn, and inter-scan coefficient-of-variation(CV) of VOI centroid position and volume were calculated for each subject. Mean and standard deviation(SD) of the CVs for four subjects were compared between sequences using Wilcoxon ranksum test. Results: The mean positional(<4%) and volumetric(<7%) CVs varied between tissues, majorly dependent on tissue inherent properties like volume, location, mobility and deformability. Smaller mean volumetric CV was found in 3DCUBE, probably due to its less proneness to tissue susceptibility, but only PGL showed significant difference(P<0.05). Positional CVs had no significant differences for all VOIs(P>0.05) between sequences, suggesting volumetric variation might be more sensitive to sequence-dependent delineation difference. Conclusion: Although 3DCUBE is considered less prone to tissue susceptibility-induced artifact and distortion, our preliminary data showed

  7. MO-C-17A-02: A Novel Method for Evaluating Hepatic Stiffness Based On 4D-MRI and Deformable Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, T; Liang, X; Czito, B; Palta, M; Bashir, M; Yin, F; Cai, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitative imaging of hepatic stiffness has significant potential in radiation therapy, ranging from treatment planning to response assessment. This study aims to develop a novel, noninvasive method to quantify liver stiffness with 3D strains liver maps using 4D-MRI and deformable image registration (DIR). Methods: Five patients with liver cancer were imaged with an institutionally developed 4D-MRI technique under an IRB-approved protocol. Displacement vector fields (DVFs) across the liver were generated via DIR of different phases of 4D-MRI. Strain tensor at each voxel of interest (VOI) was computed from the relative displacements between the VOI and each of the six adjacent voxels. Three principal strains (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2} and E{sub 3}) of the VOI were derived as the eigenvalue of the strain tensor, which represent the magnitudes of the maximum and minimum stretches. Strain tensors for two regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated and compared for each patient, one within the tumor (ROI{sub 1}) and the other in normal liver distant from the heart (ROI{sub 2}). Results: 3D strain maps were successfully generated fort each respiratory phase of 4D-MRI for all patients. Liver deformations induced by both respiration and cardiac motion were observed. Differences in strain values adjacent to the distant from the heart indicate significant deformation caused by cardiac expansion during diastole. The large E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} (∼2) and E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} (∼10) ratios reflect the predominance of liver deformation in the superior-inferior direction. The mean E{sub 1} in ROI{sub 1} (0.12±0.10) was smaller than in ROI{sub 2} (0.15±0.12), reflecting a higher degree of stiffness of the cirrhotic tumor. Conclusion: We have successfully developed a novel method for quantitatively evaluating regional hepatic stiffness based on DIR of 4D-MRI. Our initial findings indicate that liver strain is heterogeneous, and liver tumors may have lower principal strain values

  8. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis

  9. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis

  10. Quantification du champ electromagnetique et description quantique de la generation du second harmonique a l'interieur d'une microcavite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, Marc

    L'existence de particules virtuelles qui surgissent spontanement du vide pour disparaitre tres peu de temps apres leur apparition (les fluctuations du vide) trouve son origine dans le principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg. Par ailleurs, on sait que le phenomene de resonance par confinement explique l'amplification de l'intensite lumineuse a l'interieur d'une cavite ouverte aux frequences de resonances de celle-ci. C'est pourquoi le taux d'apparition des photons virtuels au sein des modes propres d'une cavite est lui aussi amplifie par le resonateur. Mathematiquement, cet effet quantique est decrit par l'existence d'un commutateur " anomal " entre les operateurs d'annihilation et de creation des photons. Nous decrivons les consequences de ce commutateur sur la generation du second harmonique optique (GSH), un processus photonique ou, dans un materiau optiquement non lineaire, deux photons de meme energie fusionnent pour n'en former qu'un seul. On commence ce travail avec un traitement complet et original sur la quantification du champ electromagnetique. On montre ensuite que les fluctuations du vide stimulent le signal de la GSH a l'interieur du milieu confine. Cependant, on constate aussi que les fluctuations du vide jouent le role d'un inhibiteur au declenchement du processus, c'est-a-dire que le seuil de la GSH augmente (il est superieur au seuil minimal de deux photons seulement). En conclusion, les mecanismes intimes de certains processus optiques non lineaires doivent etre reconsideres lorsqu'ils surviennent en presence d'un confinement electromagnetique.

  11. Elements optiques diffractifs concus avec des ouvertures trapezoidales et polygonales et de nouveaux algorithmes d'optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Jean-Numa

    Nous avons realise de nouveaux encodages et algorithmes d'optimisation destines aux elements optiques diffractis et hologrammes generes par ordinateur (HGO). Un algorithme novateur de condensation rapide simulee iterative permet la resolution de problemes avec plusieurs milliers de variables. Malgre un horaire de refroidissement rapide, de nombreuses solutions sous-optimales sont evitees par des reechelonnements de temperature ramenant le systeme a l'equilibre thermodynamique. L'etat final atteint par le nouvel algorithme a une energie beaucoup plus basse que celle obtenue par d'autres algorithmes. Les generateurs de tableaux irreguliers de points lumineux concus avec la condensation rapide simulee iterative et des ouvertures trapezoidales de hauteurs variables presentent de meilleures performances et beaucoup moins d'ouvertures comparativement a ceux concus avec d'autres methodes. Nous avons aussi realise un HGO multiplexe de taille extremement grande forme d'ouvertures polygonales et le nouvel algorithme iteratif de conception des sous-hologrammes pour generer des images de tres grandes dimensions. Nous utilisons la transformee d'Abbe pour calculer la diffraction des ouvertures polygonales, ce qui permet d'accelerer substantiellement le calcul de la transformee de Fourier de l'hologramme total. La taille en pixels de l'HGO multiplexe forme d'ouvertures polygonales est plus de mille fois superieure a celle d'un HGO conventionnel et sa fenetre objet beaucoup plus grande. L'HGO multiplexe forme d'ouvertures polygonales presente des performances beaucoup plus elevees que celles d'HGO conventionnels ou multiplexes concus avec les methodes precedentes.

  12. [Alfred Lacroix (Macon, 1863 - Paris, 1948), Chemist, Mineralogist, Volcanologist].

    PubMed

    Chaigneau, M

    1998-01-01

    His grandfather and his father were chemists in Macon. It was then natural for him to adopt such profession. After his studies at the Superior School of Chemistry of Paris (Ecole superieure de pharmacie de Paris), he passed as a first class chemist on december the seventh 1887. His passion for mineralogy, displayed since his youngest years, leads him to frequent scientists specialized in the earth's science, amongst who is Ferdinand Fouque, from the College of France (College de France), whom he used to accompany in his travels through the world between 1888 - the year when he parted from his pharmacy - and 1902. This very year, the eight of may, the terrifying eruption of the montagne Pelee on the isle of la Martinique annihilated in few minutes the town and the port of Saint-Pierre, leaving only two survivors, He sejourned there a second time, in august 1902 after the second eruption. A. Lacroix explained, for the first time, phenomena he designated as nuees ardentes. His knowledge in volcanology and mineralogy made him an expert who has been solicitated to observe various volcanos through out the world. Amongst his principal writings are the treaty of mineralogy (5 vol.), the 2 volumes of his conclusions about his observations of the montagne Pelee and one about the Piton de la Fournaise, to which must be added more than 650 notes and communications. Great officer of the Legion d'Honneur, the chemist Alfred Lacroix, professor at the Museum of natural history since the first of april 1893, carried on the function of perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences during 34 years. PMID:11625479

  13. Elaboration du Ge mesoporeux et etude de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue d'applications photovoltaiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutashkonko, Sergii

    Le sujet de cette these porte sur l'elaboration du nouveau nanomateriau par la gravure electrochimique bipolaire (BEE) --- le Ge mesoporeux et sur l'analyse de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue de son utilisation dans des applications photovoltaiques. La formation du Ge mesoporeux par gravure electrochimique a ete precedemment rapportee dans la litterature. Cependant, le verrou technologique important des procedes de fabrication existants consistait a obtenir des couches epaisses (superieure a 500 nm) du Ge mesoporeux a la morphologie parfaitement controlee. En effet, la caracterisation physico-chimique des couches minces est beaucoup plus compliquee et le nombre de leurs applications possibles est fortement limite. Nous avons developpe un modele electrochimique qui decrit les mecanismes principaux de formation des pores ce qui nous a permis de realiser des structures epaisses du Ge mesoporeux (jusqu'au 10 mum) ayant la porosite ajustable dans une large gamme de 15% a 60%. En plus, la formation des nanostructures poreuses aux morphologies variables et bien controlees est desormais devenue possible. Enfin, la maitrise de tous ces parametres a ouvert la voie extremement prometteuse vers la realisation des structures poreuses a multi-couches a base de Ge pour des nombreuses applications innovantes et multidisciplinaires grace a la flexibilite technologique actuelle atteinte. En particulier, dans le cadre de cette these, les couches du Ge mesoporeux ont ete optimisees dans le but de realiser le procede de transfert de couches minces d'une cellule solaire a triple jonctions via une couche sacrificielle en Ge poreux. Mots-cles : Germanium meso-poreux, Gravure electrochimique bipolaire, Electrochimie des semi-conducteurs, Report des couches minces, Cellule photovoltaique

  14. Long-term autonomous spectrophotometry applied to the measurement of CO2 at the sea surface on board a drifting buoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, Alain; Delignieres, R.; Durand, Ch.

    1995-09-01

    It is now well accepted that the increase of atmospheric greenhouse effect gases, particularly carbon dioxide, has an important impact on our climatic system, even if the true effect of the development of human industrial activities is not totally assessed. It is then necessary to have a good overall knowledge of the carbon dioxide cycle, and more particularly the fluxes exchanged the three CO2 tanks: atmosphere, ocean, and continental biosphere. Since the ocean is the biggest carbon tank (60 times the atmosphere tank), it constitutes an important potenetial well for the atmospheric CO2. However, the data available show an uncertainty of ca. 30% on the estimated flux. It is then important to assess the quantity of CO2 at the surface of the ocean, and the corresponding atmosphere/ocean flux. The possible future atmospheric CO2 concentration corresponding to different industrial emission scenarii can then be assessed. The method measurement of the CO2 at the sea surface use spectro- photometry of a sensitive dye, housed in a tank which has walls immersed in the sea water. The spectro-photometer especially designed, patented, and build-up by IFP has been developed with special emphasis on high accuracy, rugged construction, ease of operation without maintenance, and calibration over a period of time of over one year. The leading idea was to have as few internal moving parts as possible by the use of fiber optics, and internal calibration by the use of internal reference channels. Ancillary data are also measured. Data is transmitted to the processing center via ARGOS. The equipment described is part of the EUREKA CARIOCA project (EU 819), supported by the French Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur et de la Recherche (93 W 0011) and UK's DTI. The partners are: LODYC, LGE, INSU, SERPE-IESM, France), and Chelsea Instruments (UK).

  15. Integrating non-animal test information into an adaptive testing strategy - skin sensitization proof of concept case.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Joanna; Harol, Artsiom; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, G Frank

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.

  16. A 13C-NMR study of exopolysaccharide synthesis in Rhizobium meliloti Su47 strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavernier, P.; Portais, J.-C.; Besson, I.; Courtois, J.; Courtois, B.; Barbotin, J.-N.

    1998-02-01

    Metabolic pathways implied in the synthesis of succinoglycan produced by the Su47 strain of R. meliloti were evaluated by 13C-NMR spectroscopy after incubation with [1{-}13C] or [2{-}13C] glucose. The biosynthesis of this polymer by R. meliloti from glucose occurred by a direct polymerisation of the introduced glucose and by the pentose phosphate pathway. Les voies métaboliques impliquées dans la synthèse du succinoglycane produit par la souche Su47 de R. meliloti ont été évaluées par la spectroscopie de RMN du carbone 13 après incubation des cellules avec du [1{-}13C] ou [2{-}13C] glucose. La biosynthèse de ce polymère à partir du glucose se produit par polymérisation directe du glucose et par la voie des pentoses phosphate.

  17. Simulation modeling to derive the value-of-information for risky animal disease-import decisions.

    PubMed

    Disney, W Terry; Peters, Mark A

    2003-11-12

    Simulation modeling can be used in aiding decision-makers in deciding when to invest in additional research and when the risky animal disease-import decision should go forward. Simulation modeling to evaluate value-of-information (VOI) techniques provides a robust, objective and transparent framework for assisting decision-makers in making risky animal and animal product decisions. In this analysis, the hypothetical risk from poultry disease in chicken-meat imports was modeled. Economic criteria were used to quantify alternative confidence-increasing decisions regarding potential import testing and additional research requirements. In our hypothetical example, additional information about poultry disease in the exporting country (either by requiring additional export-flock surveillance that results in no sign of disease, or by conducting additional research into lack of disease transmittal through chicken-meat ingestion) captured >75% of the value-of-information attainable regarding the chicken-meat-import decision.

  18. Corps étranger métallique inhalé: 36 mois d’évolution intrabronchique chez un enfant de 8 ans

    PubMed Central

    Mupepe, Alexis Kumba; Mukuku, Olivier; Bagale, Yves; Ruhindiza, Bienvenu Mukuku

    2014-01-01

    Les corps étrangers dans les voies respiratoires constituent une urgence relativement fréquente chez les enfants. Nous présentons ici le cas d'une fillette de 8 ans qui avait inhalé un clou que la radiographie avait localisé dans la bronche droite. L’évolution est marquée par une symptomatologie muette et une migration vers le bas de ce clou. Ne disposant pas d’équipement pour une chirurgie adaptée, le malade vit encore avec ce corps étranger en lui. La nature et l’évolution clinique et paraclinique rapportées ici en constituent l'intérêt. PMID:25422700

  19. Computed Tomography Image Compressibility and Limitations of Compression Ratio-Based Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pambrun, Jean-François; Noumeir, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Finding optimal compression levels for diagnostic imaging is not an easy task. Significant compressibility variations exist between modalities, but little is known about compressibility variations within modalities. Moreover, compressibility is affected by acquisition parameters. In this study, we evaluate the compressibility of thousands of computed tomography (CT) slices acquired with different slice thicknesses, exposures, reconstruction filters, slice collimations, and pitches. We demonstrate that exposure, slice thickness, and reconstruction filters have a significant impact on image compressibility due to an increased high frequency content and a lower acquisition signal-to-noise ratio. We also show that compression ratio is not a good fidelity measure. Therefore, guidelines based on compression ratio should ideally be replaced with other compression measures better correlated with image fidelity. Value-of-interest (VOI) transformations also affect the perception of quality. We have studied the effect of value-of-interest transformation and found significant masking of artifacts when window is widened. PMID:25804842

  20. Axonal and glial microstructural information obtained with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T

    PubMed Central

    Ronen, Itamar; Ercan, Ece; Webb, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DWS) offers unique access to compartment-specific microstructural information on tissue, and potentially sensitive detection of compartment-specific changes in disease. The specificity of DWS is, however, offset by its relative low sensitivity, intrinsic to all MRS-based methods, and further exacerbated by the signal loss due to the diffusion weighting and long echo times. In this work we first provide an experimental example for the type of compartment-specific information that can be obtained with DWS from a small volume of interest (VOI) in brain white matter. We then propose and discuss a strategy for the analysis of DWS data, which includes the use of models of diffusion in compartments with simple geometries. We conclude with a broader discussion of the potential role of DWS in the characterization of tissue microstructure and the complementarity of DWS with less-specific but more sensitive microstructural tools such as diffusion tensor imaging. PMID:23493316

  1. In vivo FID-based 3D Multivoxel Longitudinal Hadamard Spectroscopic Imaging In the Human Brain at 3 T

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Assaf; Goelman, Gadi; Gonen, Oded

    2012-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a full 3D longitudinal Hadamard Spectroscopic Imaging (L-HSI) scheme for obtaining chemical shift maps, by employing adiabatic inversion pulses to encode the spins’ positions. The approach offers several advantages over conventional Fourier-based encoding methods, including a localized point spread function; no aliasing, allowing for VOIs smaller than the object being imaged; an option for acquiring non-contiguous voxels; and inherent outer volume rejection. The latter allows for doing away with conventional outer volume suppression schemes, such as PRESS or STEAM, and acquiring non spin-echo spectra with short acquisition delay times, limited only by the excitation pulse’s duration. This, in turn, minimizes T2 decay, maximizes the signal to noise ratio, and reduces J-coupling induced signal decay. Results are presented for both a phantom and an in-vivo healthy volunteer at 3T. PMID:22576419

  2. Noninvasive image derived heart input function for CMRglc measurements in small animal slow infusion FDG PET studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Guoming; Cumming, Paul; Todica, Andrei; Hacker, Marcus; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

    2012-12-01

    Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [18F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc. We therefore developed a novel, non-invasive method for correcting the IDIF without scaling to a blood sample. To this end, we first obtained serial arterial samples and dynamic FDG-PET data of the head and heart in a group of eight anaesthetized rats. We fitted a bi-exponential function to the serial measurements of the IDIF, and then used the linear graphical Gjedde-Patlak method to describe the accumulation in myocardium. We next estimated the magnitude of myocardial spill-in reaching the left ventricle VOI by assuming a Gaussian point-spread function, and corrected the measured IDIF for this estimated spill-in. Finally, we calculated parametric maps of CMRglc using the corrected IDIF, and for the sake of comparison, relative to serial blood sampling from the femoral artery. The uncorrected IDIF resulted in 20% underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc relative to the gold standard arterial input method. However, there was no bias with the corrected IDIF, which was robust to the variable extent of myocardial tracer uptake, such that there was a very high correlation between individual CMRglc measurements using the corrected IDIF with gold-standard arterial input results. Based on simulation, we furthermore find that electrocardiogram-gating, i.e. ECG-gating is not necessary for IDIF quantitation using our approach.

  3. Predicting the biomechanical strength of proximal femur specimens with bone mineral density features and support vector regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Markus B.; Yang, Chien-Chun; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Bauer, Jan S.; Baum, Thomas; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Eckstein, Felix; Lochmüller, Eva; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.; Wismüller, Axel

    2012-03-01

    To improve the clinical assessment of osteoporotic hip fracture risk, recent computer-aided diagnosis systems explore new approaches to estimate the local trabecular bone quality beyond bone density alone to predict femoral bone strength. In this context, statistical bone mineral density (BMD) features extracted from multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images of proximal femur specimens and different function approximations methods were compared in their ability to predict the biomechanical strength. MDCT scans were acquired in 146 proximal femur specimens harvested from human cadavers. The femurs' failure load (FL) was determined through biomechanical testing. An automated volume of interest (VOI)-fitting algorithm was used to define a consistent volume in the femoral head of each specimen. In these VOIs, the trabecular bone was represented by statistical moments of the BMD distribution and by pairwise spatial occurrence of BMD values using the gray-level co-occurrence (GLCM) approach. A linear multi-regression analysis (MultiReg) and a support vector regression algorithm with a linear kernel (SVRlin) were used to predict the FL from the image feature sets. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each image feature on independent test sets; in addition the coefficient of determination R2 was calculated. The best prediction result was obtained with a GLCM feature set using SVRlin, which had the lowest prediction error (RSME = 1.040+/-0.143, R2 = 0.544) and which was significantly lower that the standard approach of using BMD.mean and MultiReg (RSME = 1.093+/-0.133, R2 = 0.490, p<0.0001). The combined sets including BMD.mean and GLCM features had a similar or slightly lower performance than using only GLCM features. The results indicate that the performance of high-dimensional BMD features extracted from MDCT images in predicting the biomechanical strength of proximal femur specimens can be significantly improved by

  4. AKATSUKI returns to Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masato; Imamura, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuaki; Abe, Takumi; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Chikako; Satoh, Takehiko; Suzuki, Makoto; Ueno, Munetaka; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Iwagami, Naomoto; Watanabe, Shigeto; Taguchi, Makoto; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Yamada, Manabu; Imai, Masataka; Ohtsuki, Shoko; Uemizu, Kazunori; Hashimoto, George L.; Takagi, Masahiro; Matsuda, Yoshihisa; Ogohara, Kazunori; Sato, Naoki; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kouyama, Toru; Hirata, Naru; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Yukio; Horinouchi, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Masaru; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Kashimura, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Ando, Hiroki; Murakami, Shin-ya; Sato, Takao M.; Takagi, Seiko; Nakajima, Kensuke; Peralta, Javier; Lee, Yeon Joo; Nakatsuka, Junichi; Ichikawa, Tsutomu; Inoue, Kozaburo; Toda, Tomoaki; Toyota, Hiroyuki; Tachikawa, Sumitaka; Narita, Shinichiro; Hayashiyama, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Akiko; Kamata, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    AKATSUKI is the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter that was designed to investigate the climate system of Venus. The orbiter was launched on May 21, 2010, and it reached Venus on December 7, 2010. Thrust was applied by the orbital maneuver engine in an attempt to put AKATSUKI into a westward equatorial orbit around Venus with a 30-h orbital period. However, this operation failed because of a malfunction in the propulsion system. After this failure, the spacecraft orbited the Sun for 5 years. On December 7, 2015, AKATSUKI once again approached Venus and the Venus orbit insertion was successful, whereby a westward equatorial orbit with apoapsis of ~440,000 km and orbital period of 14 days was initiated. Now that AKATSUKI's long journey to Venus has ended, it will provide scientific data on the Venusian climate system for two or more years. For the purpose of both decreasing the apoapsis altitude and avoiding a long eclipse during the orbit, a trim maneuver was performed at the first periapsis. The apoapsis altitude is now ~360,000 km with a periapsis altitude of 1000-8000 km, and the period is 10 days and 12 h. In this paper, we describe the details of the Venus orbit insertion-revenge 1 (VOI-R1) and the new orbit, the expected scientific information to be obtained at this orbit, and the Venus images captured by the onboard 1-µm infrared camera, ultraviolet imager, and long-wave infrared camera 2 h after the successful initiation of the VOI-R1.

  5. Return to Venus of Japanese Venus Orbiter AKATSUKI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.; Ishii, N.; Abe, T.; Imamura, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Satoh, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ueno, M.; Ohtsuki, S.; Yamada, M.; Ogohara, K.; Uemizu, K.; Hirose, C.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Iwagami, N.; Taguchi, M.

    2012-12-01

    Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter 'AKATSUKI' (PLANET-C) was successfully launched at 06:58:22JST on May 21, by H-IIA F17. The malfunction, which happened during the Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI) on 7 Dec, 2010 is as follows. Orbital maneuver engine (OME) was fired 08:49 JST on Dec. 7. 1min. after firing the spacecraft went into the occultation region and we had no telemetry, but we expected to continuous firing for 12min. Recording on the spacecraft told us later that, unfortunately the firing continued just 152sec. and stopped. The reason of the malfunction of the OME was the blocking of check valve on the gas pressure line to push the fuel to the engine. We failed to make the spacecraft the Venus orbiter, and it is rotating the sun with the orbital period of 203 days. Most of the fuel still remains, but the OME was found to be broken. We decided to use only RCS for orbit maneuver and 3 minor maneuvers in November 2012 were successfully done so that AKATSUKI will meet Venus in late 2015. We are considering several scenarios only using RCS for VOI. In the presentation we will show the possible orbits and how we put the spacecraft into those orbits. They have higher apoapsis than we expected in the initial design, but they are still westward and equatorial that is ideal to reveal the mechanism of the super-rotation of the atmosphere, and we think we will be able to achieve the scientific goals which we have been proposing.

  6. [18F]MK-9470 PET measurement of cannabinoid CB1 receptor availability in chronic cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Ceccarini, Jenny; Kuepper, Rebecca; Kemels, Dieter; van Os, Jim; Henquet, Cécile; Van Laere, Koen

    2015-03-01

    Δ(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive component of cannabis, exerts its central effects through activation of the cerebral type 1 cannabinoid (CB1 ) receptor. Pre-clinical studies have provided evidence that chronic cannabis exposure is linked to decreased CB1 receptor expression and this is thought to be a component underlying drug tolerance and dependence. In this study, we make first use of the selective high-affinity positron emission tomography (PET) ligand [(18) F]MK-9470 to obtain in vivo measurements of cerebral CB1 receptor availability in 10 chronic cannabis users (age = 26.0 ± 4.1 years). Each patient underwent [(18) F]MK-9470 PET within the first week following the last cannabis consumption. A population of 10 age-matched healthy subjects (age = 23.0 ± 2.9 years) was used as control group. Parametric modified standardized uptake value images, reflecting CB1 receptor availability, were calculated. Statistical parametric mapping and volume-of-interest (VOI) analyses of CB1 receptor availability were performed. Compared with controls, cannabis users showed a global decrease in CB1 receptor availability (-11.7 percent). VOI-based analysis demonstrated that the CB1 receptor decrease was significant in the temporal lobe (-12.7 percent), anterior (-12.6 percent) and posterior cingulate cortex (-13.5 percent) and nucleus accumbens (-11.2 percent). Voxel-based analysis confirmed this decrease and regional pattern in CB1 receptor availability in cannabis users. These findings revealed that chronic cannabis use may alter specific regional CB1 receptor expression through neuroadaptive changes in CB1 receptor availability, opening the way for the examination of specific CB1 -cannabis addiction interactions which may predict future cannabis-related treatment outcome.

  7. Automatic intrinsic cardiac and respiratory gating from cone-beam CT scans of the thorax region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Andreas; Sauppe, Sebastian; Lell, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2016-03-01

    We present a new algorithm that allows for raw data-based automated cardiac and respiratory intrinsic gating in cone-beam CT scans. It can be summarized in three steps: First, a median filter is applied to an initially reconstructed volume. The forward projection of this volume contains less motion information and is subtracted from the original projections. This results in new raw data that contain only moving and not static anatomy like bones, that would otherwise impede the cardiac or respiratory signal acquisition. All further steps are applied to these modified raw data. Second, the raw data are cropped to a region of interest (ROI). The ROI in the raw data is determined by the forward projection of a binary volume of interest (VOI) that includes the diaphragm for respiratory gating and most of the edge of the heart for cardiac gating. Third, the mean gray value in this ROI is calculated for every projection and the respiratory/cardiac signal is acquired using a bandpass filter. Steps two and three are carried out simultaneously for 64 or 1440 overlapping VOI inside the body for the respiratory or cardiac signal respectively. The signals acquired from each ROI are compared and the most consistent one is chosen as the desired cardiac or respiratory motion signal. Consistency is assessed by the standard deviation of the time between two maxima. The robustness and efficiency of the method is evaluated using simulated and measured patient data by computing the standard deviation of the mean signal difference between the ground truth and the intrinsic signal.

  8. Automatic anatomy partitioning of the torso region on CT images by using multiple organ localizations with a group-wise calibration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Morita, Syoichi; Zhou, Xinxin; Chen, Huayue; Hara, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an automatic approach for anatomy partitioning on three-dimensional (3D) computedtomography (CT) images that divide the human torso into several volume-of-interesting (VOI) images based on anatomical definition. The proposed approach combines several individual detections of organ-location with a groupwise organ-location calibration and correction to achieve an automatic and robust multiple-organ localization task. The essence of the proposed method is to jointly detect the 3D minimum bounding box for each type of organ shown on CT images based on intra-organ-image-textures and inter-organ-spatial-relationship in the anatomy. Machine-learning-based template matching and generalized Hough transform-based point-distribution estimation are used in the detection and calibration processes. We apply this approach to the automatic partitioning of a torso region on CT images, which are divided into 35 VOIs presenting major organ regions and tissues required by routine diagnosis in clinical medicine. A database containing 4,300 patient cases of high-resolution 3D torso CT images is used for training and performance evaluations. We confirmed that the proposed method was successful in target organ localization on more than 95% of CT cases. Only two organs (gallbladder and pancreas) showed a lower success rate: 71 and 78% respectively. In addition, we applied this approach to another database that included 287 patient cases of whole-body CT images scanned for positron emission tomography (PET) studies and used for additional performance evaluation. The experimental results showed that no significant difference between the anatomy partitioning results from those two databases except regarding the spleen. All experimental results showed that the proposed approach was efficient and useful in accomplishing localization tasks for major organs and tissues on CT images scanned using different protocols.

  9. Poster — Thur Eve — 29: Characterization of Patient Immobilization for Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Courneyea, L; Mullins, J; Howard, M; Beltran, C; Brinkmann, D; Pafundi, D

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Evaluate an immobilization system to determine its adequacy for the reduced margins required for proton therapy. Methods: Twelve head-and-neck cancer patients were immobilized for conventional photon radiotherapy and imaged with pre- and post-treatment cone beam CTs (CBCTs) for each treatment fraction. To quantify the patient positioning reproducibility, each CBCT was registered to the simulation CT offline. Registrations were performed using auto-match tools and a matching volume-of-interest (VOI) consisting of a 5mm expansion around the mandible, occipital bone, C1/C2 and C7/T1. For each registration, the bony anatomy in the VOI was evaluated for agreement with the simulation position using 3 and 5mm margins. Registrations were initially restricted to translational corrections. If the bony anatomy did not agree with the simulation position to within 3mm or 5mm, the auto-match was repeated with 3 additional rotational corrections. Intrafraction motion was calculated as the difference between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT matches. Results: Pre-treatment patient positioning agreed with the simulation CT to within 3mm/5mm for 62%/86% of fractions using translational matching and 84%/100% of fractions when rotations were included. Intrafraction motion averaged 1.1±0.8mm, with 12% of fractions having >2mm intrafraction motion. Post-treatment positioning accuracy was 57%/84% and 80%/100% for registrations without/with rotations. For the mandible, positioning accuracy dropped from 93% pre-treatment to 82% post-treatment. Conclusion: If rotational corrections are available, the immobilization system studied created reproducible patient positioning to within 3mm for 84% of fractions. However, intrafraction motion caused additional anatomy to fall outside the 3mm margin by the end of treatment.

  10. Impact of breast structure on lesion detection in breast tomosynthesis, a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Kiarashi, Nooshin; Nolte, Loren W; Lo, Joseph Y; Segars, W Paul; Ghate, Sujata V; Solomon, Justin B; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to characterize the effect of background tissue density and heterogeneity on the detection of irregular masses in breast tomosynthesis, while demonstrating the capability of the sophisticated tools that can be used in the design, implementation, and performance analysis of virtual clinical trials (VCTs). Twenty breast phantoms from the extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) family, generated based on dedicated breast computed tomography of human subjects, were used to extract a total of 2173 volumes of interest (VOIs) from simulated tomosynthesis images. Five different lesions, modeled after human subject tomosynthesis images, were embedded in the breasts and combined with the lesion absent condition yielded a total of [Formula: see text] VOIs. Effects of background tissue density and heterogeneity on the detection of the lesions were studied by implementing a composite hypothesis signal detection paradigm with location known exactly, lesion known exactly or statistically, and background known statistically. Using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, detection performance deteriorated as density was increased, yielding findings consistent with clinical studies. A human observer study was performed on a subset of the simulated tomosynthesis images, confirming the detection performance trends with respect to density and serving as a validation of the implemented detector. Performance of the implemented detector varied substantially across the 20 breasts. Furthermore, background tissue density and heterogeneity affected the log-likelihood ratio test statistic differently under lesion absent and lesion present conditions. Therefore, considering background tissue variability in tissue models can change the outcomes of a VCT and is hence of crucial importance. The XCAT breast phantoms have the potential to address this concern by offering realistic modeling of background tissue variability based on a wide range of human subjects, comprising

  11. Noninvasive image derived heart input function for CMRglc measurements in small animal slow infusion FDG PET studies.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Guoming; Paul, Cumming; Todica, Andrei; Hacker, Marcus; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

    2012-12-01

    Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [(18)F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc. We therefore developed a novel, non-invasive method for correcting the IDIF without scaling to a blood sample. To this end, we first obtained serial arterial samples and dynamic FDG-PET data of the head and heart in a group of eight anaesthetized rats. We fitted a bi-exponential function to the serial measurements of the IDIF, and then used the linear graphical Gjedde-Patlak method to describe the accumulation in myocardium. We next estimated the magnitude of myocardial spill-in reaching the left ventricle VOI by assuming a Gaussian point-spread function, and corrected the measured IDIF for this estimated spill-in. Finally, we calculated parametric maps of CMRglc using the corrected IDIF, and for the sake of comparison, relative to serial blood sampling from the femoral artery. The uncorrected IDIF resulted in 20% underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc relative to the gold standard arterial input method. However, there was no bias with the corrected IDIF, which was robust to the variable extent of myocardial tracer uptake, such that there was a very high correlation between individual CMRglc measurements using the corrected IDIF with gold-standard arterial input results. Based on simulation, we furthermore find that electrocardiogram-gating, i.e. ECG-gating is not necessary for IDIF quantitation using our approach. PMID:23160517

  12. A system for automatic aorta sections measurements on chest CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Yitzchak; Mayer, Arnaldo; Zholkover, Adi; Konen, Eli

    2016-03-01

    A new method is proposed for caliber measurement of the ascending aorta (AA) and descending aorta (DA). A key component of the method is the automatic detection of the carina, as an anatomical landmark around which an axial volume of interest (VOI) can be defined to observe the aortic caliber. For each slice in the VOI, a linear profile line connecting the AA with the DA is found by pattern matching on the underlying intensity profile. Next, the aortic center position is found using Hough transform on the best linear segment candidate. Finally, region growing around the center provides an accurate segmentation and caliber measurement. We evaluated the algorithm on 113 sequential chest CT scans, slice thickness of 0.75 - 3.75mm, 90 with contrast agent injected. The algorithm success rates were computed as the percentage of scans in which the center of the AA was found. Automated measurements of AA caliber were compared with independent measurements of two experienced chest radiologists, comparing the absolute difference between the two radiologists with the absolute difference between the algorithm and each of the radiologists. The measurement stability was demonstrated by computing the STD of the absolute difference between the radiologists, and between the algorithm and the radiologists. Results: Success rates of 93% and 74% were achieved, for contrast injected cases and non-contrast cases, respectively. These results indicate that the algorithm can be robust in large variability of image quality, such as the cases in a realworld clinical setting. The average absolute difference between the algorithm and the radiologists was 1.85mm, lower than the average absolute difference between the radiologists, which was 2.1mm. The STD of the absolute difference between the algorithm and the radiologists was 1.5mm vs 1.6mm between the two radiologists. These results demonstrate the clinical relevance of the algorithm measurements.

  13. Deformable planning CT to cone-beam CT image registration in head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Jidong; Guerrero, Mariana; Chen, Wenjuan; D'Souza, Warren D.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to implement and validate a deformable CT to cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image registration method in head-and-neck cancer to eventually facilitate automatic target delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twelve head-and-neck cancer patients underwent a planning CT and weekly CBCT during the 5-7 week treatment period. The 12 planning CT images (moving images) of these patients were registered to their weekly CBCT images (fixed images) via the symmetric force Demons algorithm and using a multiresolution scheme. Histogram matching was used to compensate for the intensity difference between the two types of images. Using nine known anatomic points as registration targets, the accuracy of the registration was evaluated using the target registration error (TRE). In addition, region-of-interest (ROI) contours drawn on the planning CT were morphed to the CBCT images and the volume overlap index (VOI) between registered contours and manually delineated contours was evaluated. Results: The mean TRE value of the nine target points was less than 3.0 mm, the slice thickness of the planning CT. Of the 369 target points evaluated for registration accuracy, the average TRE value was 2.6{+-}0.6 mm. The mean TRE for bony tissue targets was 2.4{+-}0.2 mm, while the mean TRE for soft tissue targets was 2.8{+-}0.2 mm. The average VOI between the registered and manually delineated ROI contours was 76.2{+-}4.6%, which is consistent with that reported in previous studies. Conclusions: The authors have implemented and validated a deformable image registration method to register planning CT images to weekly CBCT images in head-and-neck cancer cases. The accuracy of the TRE values suggests that they can be used as a promising tool for automatic target delineation on CBCT.

  14. Simulation of realistic abnormal SPECT brain perfusion images: application in semi-quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, T.; Fleming, J. S.; Hoffmann, S. M. A.; Kemp, P. M.

    2005-11-01

    Simulation is useful in the validation of functional image analysis methods, particularly when considering the number of analysis techniques currently available lacking thorough validation. Problems exist with current simulation methods due to long run times or unrealistic results making it problematic to generate complete datasets. A method is presented for simulating known abnormalities within normal brain SPECT images using a measured point spread function (PSF), and incorporating a stereotactic atlas of the brain for anatomical positioning. This allows for the simulation of realistic images through the use of prior information regarding disease progression. SPECT images of cerebral perfusion have been generated consisting of a control database and a group of simulated abnormal subjects that are to be used in a UK audit of analysis methods. The abnormality is defined in the stereotactic space, then transformed to the individual subject space, convolved with a measured PSF and removed from the normal subject image. The dataset was analysed using SPM99 (Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College, London) and the MarsBaR volume of interest (VOI) analysis toolbox. The results were evaluated by comparison with the known ground truth. The analysis showed improvement when using a smoothing kernel equal to system resolution over the slightly larger kernel used routinely. Significant correlation was found between effective volume of a simulated abnormality and the detected size using SPM99. Improvements in VOI analysis sensitivity were found when using the region median over the region mean. The method and dataset provide an efficient methodology for use in the comparison and cross validation of semi-quantitative analysis methods in brain SPECT, and allow the optimization of analysis parameters.

  15. Characterization of the peak at 2.06 ppm in (31) P magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human liver: phosphoenolpyruvate or phosphatidylcholine?

    PubMed

    Bierwagen, Alessandra; Begovatz, Paul; Nowotny, Peter; Markgraf, Daniel; Nowotny, Bettina; Koliaki, Chrysi; Giani, Guido; Klüppelholz, Birgit; Lundbom, Jesper; Roden, Michael

    2015-07-01

    High field MR scanners can resolve a metabolite resonating at 2.06 ppm in the in vivo proton-decoupled liver (31) P MR spectrum. Traditionally this peak has been assigned to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the key metabolite for gluconeogenesis. However, recent evidence supported the assignment to biliary phosphatidylcholine (PtdCh), which is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder. To elucidate the respective contributions of PtdCh and PEP to the in vivo resonance at 2.06 ppm (PEP-PtdCh), we made phantom measurements that confirmed that both biliary PtdCh and PEP resonate approximately at 2 ppm. The absolute quantification of PEP-PtdCh yielded concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 2.0 mmol/l, with mean coefficients of variation of 4.8% for intraday and 7.2% for interday reproducibility in healthy volunteers. The T1 relaxation time of PEP-PtdCh was 0.97 ± 0.30 s in the liver and 0.44 ± 0.11 s in the gallbladder. Ingestion of a mixed meal decreased the concentration of PtdCh-PEP by approximately 12%. In the retrospective analysis, PEP-PtdCh was 68% higher in the liver of subjects with gallbladder infiltration of the volume of interest (VOI) compared with those without gallbladder infiltration. PEP-PtdCh was also significantly higher in the liver of cholecystectomy patients compared with volunteers without gallbladder infiltration, which suggests increased intrahepatic bile fluid as a compensation for gall bladder removal. These results show that liver PtdCh is the major component of the resonance at 2.06 ppm and that careful VOI positioning is mandatory to avoid interference from the gallbladder. PMID:26010913

  16. Breast segmentation in MR images using three-dimensional spiral scanning and dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Luan; Lian, Yanyun; Gu, Yajia; Li, Qiang

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been widely used for risk assessment and diagnosis of breast cancer in clinic. To develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system, breast segmentation is the first important and challenging task. The accuracy of subsequent quantitative measurement of breast density and abnormalities depends on accurate definition of the breast area in the images. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a fully automated method for accurate segmentation of breast in three-dimensional (3-D) MR images. A fast method was developed to identify bounding box, i.e., the volume of interest (VOI), for breasts. A 3-D spiral scanning method was used to transform the VOI of each breast into a single two-dimensional (2-D) generalized polar-coordinate image. Dynamic programming technique was applied to the transformed 2-D image for delineating the "optimal" contour of the breast. The contour of the breast in the transformed 2-D image was utilized to reconstruct the segmentation results in the 3-D MR images using interpolation and lookup table. The preliminary results on 17 cases show that the proposed method can obtain accurate segmentation of the breast based on subjective observation. By comparing with the manually delineated region of 16 breasts in 8 cases, an overlap index of 87.6% +/- 3.8% (mean +/- SD), and a volume agreement of 93.4% +/- 4.5% (mean +/- SD) were achieved, respectively. It took approximately 3 minutes for our method to segment the breast in an MR scan of 256 slices.

  17. Solitary plasmacytoma of the tonsillar site associated with actinomyces infection: the possible role of IL-6.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, R; Rosini, S; Aiello, F B; Rullo, A; Croce, A; Lattanzio, G; Viola, P

    2012-01-01

    ExtraMedullary Plasmacytoma (EMP) is a rare plasma cell tumor. It can occur in the upper aerodigestive tract and presents as a large nodule causing local compressive symptoms. A 79-year old woman presented to Otorhinolaryngology Department with progressive hearing loss and no other symptoms. Following PET/TC examination due to the suspicion of a lymphoproliferative disease, the patient underwent tonsillectomy and the diagnosis of solitary EMP was formulated. In addition to that, the histological examination of the tonsillar tissue revealed large colonies of filamentous bacteria, showing abundant sulphur granules and Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon; these evidences indicating the presence of a chronic Actinomyces infection. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a marked IL-6 immunoreactivity of the neoplastic plasma cells. Interestingly, a marked IL-6 immunoreactivity was also found in the tissue surrounding the Actinomyces colonies. In the present study we report for the first time a solitary EMP associated with Actinomycosis. It is tempting to speculate that the unsuspected and untreated Actinomyces infection, through chronic IL-6 production, could contribute to the neoplastic transformation of plasma cells.

  18. [Necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck].

    PubMed

    Gajda, Mieczysław; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Gudziol, Silke; Hauptmann, Steffen; Bloching, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a potentially lethal soft tissue infection characterized by cutaneous necrosis, suppurative fasciitis, vascular thrombosis and extreme systemic toxicity. It is a rare entity in the head and neck region, but occur most frequently in patients with diabetes and chronic alcoholism. Mostly involved are immunodeficient patients with banal infections of the upper aerodigestive tract, small traumas, but also after surgical procedures. Necrotizing fasciitis is an infection caused by aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms. A strong complication is a streptococcus-associated-toxic shock-syndrome which should be prevented because it is often associated with letal outcome. Septicemia and systemic toxic effects may lead to death within as short a time as 2 to 4 days. Necrotizing fasciitis is often misdiagnosed or the diagnosis is delayed with a mortality rate of approximately 30-70%. Once identified, treatment consists of antimicrobial therapy and surgical debridement followed at a later date with reconstructive surgery. We present a fatal case of craniofacial necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in a 63-year-old diabetic and chronic alcoholic man and discuss it's pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and the best therapeutic choice for this disease. A review of the literature with the clinical presentations, bacteriology diagnosis and treatment was presented.

  19. Assessment of Margins in Transoral Laser and Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hamzany, Yaniv; Brasnu, Daniel; Shpitzer, Thomas; Shvero, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The growing practice of endoscopic surgery has changed the therapeutic management of selected head and neck cancers. Although a negative surgical margin in resection of neoplasm is the most important surgical principle in oncologic surgery, controversies exist regarding assessment and interpretation of the status of margin resection. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature considering the assessment and feasibility of negative margins in transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) and transoral robotic surgery (TORS). Free margin status is being approached differently in vocal cord cancer (1–2 mm) compared with other sites in the upper aerodigestive tract (2–5 mm). Exposure, orientation of the pathological specimen, and co-operation with the pathologist are crucial principles needed to be followed in transoral surgery. Piecemeal resection to better expose deep tumor involvement and biopsies taken from surgical margins surrounding site of resection can improve margin assessment. High rates of negative surgical margins can be achieved with TLM and TORS. Adjuvant treatment decision should take into consideration also the surgeon’s judgment with regard to the completeness of tumor resection. PMID:24808954

  20. Membrane Association and Destabilization by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Leukotoxin Requires Changes in Secondary Structures

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Michael J.; Brown, Angela C.; Edrington, Thomas C.; Baranwal, Somesh; Du, Yurong; Lally, Edward T.; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a common inhabitant of the upper aerodigestive tract of humans and non-human primates and is associated with disseminated infections, including lung and brain abscesses, pediatric infective endocarditis in children, and localized aggressive periodontitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans secretes a repeats-in-toxin protein, leukotoxin, which exclusively kills lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1-bearing cells. The toxin's pathological mechanism is not fully understood; however, experimental evidence indicates that it involves the association with and subsequent destabilization of the target cell's plasma membrane. We have long hypothesized that leukotoxin secondary structure is strongly correlated with membrane association and/or destabilization. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by analyzing lipid-induced changes in leukotoxin conformation. Upon incubation of leukotoxin with lipids that favor leukotoxin-membrane association, we observed an increase in leukotoxin α-helical content that was not observed with lipids that favor membrane destabilization. The change in leukotoxin conformation after incubation with these lipids suggests that membrane binding and membrane destabilization have distinct secondary structural requirements, suggesting that they are independent events. These studies thus provide insight into the mechanism of cell damage that leads to disease progression by A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:23678967

  1. [Incidence of head and neck cancers in Belgium: comparison with world wide and French data ].

    PubMed

    Filleul, O; Preillon, J; Crompot, E; Lechien, J; Saussez, S

    2011-10-01

    The squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tracts are frequent neoplasia,with as much as 466,831 and 168,368 cases diagnosed in 2008 among men and women worldwide,respectively. As such, they make up the sixth most frequent neoplasia among men and the eighth among women. Their frequency shows interesting variations covering the last 20 years, with an ascending tendency among women, which is higher in Europe, and a descending tendency in men, maximal in the USA. The comparison with the Belgian official data reveals a striking elevation of incidence of these cancers between both sexes, with important regional differences in Belgium. Finally, when we compare Belgian and French data, these cancers seem more frequent in France in men, but there is an opposite tendency among women, in which the carcinoma of the larynx is most represented in Belgium. Although the limited quality of the data limits the interpretation of these data, they seem to be partly in line with the evolution of the risk factors of these pathologies. PMID:26649364

  2. The use of the anatomic 'zones' of the neck in the assessment of penetrating neck injury.

    PubMed

    Low, Garren M I; Inaba, Kenji; Chouliaras, Konstantinos; Branco, Bernardino; Lam, Lydia; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Menaker, Jay; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2014-10-01

    The traditional classification of neck injuries uses an anatomic description of Zones I through III. The objective of this article was to characterize the association between external wounds and the corresponding internal injuries after penetrating neck trauma to identify the clinical use of the anatomic zones of the neck. Patients who sustained penetrating neck trauma from December 2008 to March 2011 were analyzed. All patients underwent structured clinical examination documenting the external zone where the wound(s) were located. All internal injuries were then correlated with the external wounds. An internal injury was defined as "unexpected" if it was located outside the borders of the neck zone corresponding to the external wound. In total, 146 patients sustaining a penetrating neck injury were analyzed; 126 (86%) male. The mechanism of injury was stab wounds in 74 (51%) and gunshot wounds in 69 (47%). Mean age was 31 years (range, nine to 62 years). Thirty-seven (25%) patients sustained had a total of 50 internal injuries. There was a high incidence of noncorrelation between the location of the external injury and the internal structures that were damaged in patients with hard signs of vascular or aerodigestive injury. The use of the anatomic zones and their role in the workup of penetrating neck injury are questionable.

  3. Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: a gender pattern that differs across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Menvielle, G; Kunst, A E; Stirbu, I; Strand, B H; Borrell, C; Regidor, E; Leclerc, A; Esnaola, S; Bopp, M; Lundberg, O; Artnik, B; Costa, G; Deboosere, P; Martikainen, P; Mackenbach, J P

    2008-01-01

    We used longitudinal mortality data sets for the 1990s to compare socioeconomic inequalities in total cancer mortality between women and men aged 30–74 in 12 different European populations (Madrid, Basque region, Barcelona, Slovenia, Turin, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland) and to investigate which cancer sites explain the differences found. We measured socioeconomic status using educational level and computed relative indices of inequality (RII). We observed large variations within Europe for educational differences in total cancer mortality among men and women. Three patterns were observed: Denmark, Norway and Sweden (significant RII around 1.3–1.4 among both men and women); France, Switzerland, Belgium and Finland (significant RII around 1.7–1.8 among men and around 1.2 among women); Spanish populations, Slovenia and Turin (significant RII from 1.29 to 1.88 among men; no differences among women except in the Basque region, where RII is significantly lower than 1). Lung, upper aerodigestive tract and breast cancers explained most of the variations between gender and populations in the magnitude of inequalities in total cancer mortality. Given time trends in cancer mortality, the gap in the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality between gender and between European populations will probably decrease in the future. PMID:18283307

  4. Polymeric implant materials for the reconstruction of tracheal and pharyngeal mucosal defects in head and neck surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rickert, Dorothee

    2011-01-01

    The existing therapeutical options for the tracheal and pharyngeal reconstruction by use of implant materials are described. Inspite of a multitude of options and the availability of very different materials none of these methods applied for tracheal reconstruction were successfully introduced into the clinical routine. Essential problems are insufficiencies of anastomoses, stenoses, lack of mucociliary clearance and vascularisation. The advances in Tissue Engineering (TE) offer new therapeutical options also in the field of the reconstructive surgery of the trachea. In pharyngeal reconstruction far reaching developments cannot be recognized at the moment which would allow to give a prognosis of their success in clinical application. A new polymeric implant material consisting of multiblock copolymers was applied in our own work which was regarded as a promising material for the reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract (ADT) due to its physicochemical characteristics. In order to test this material for applications in the ADT under extreme chemical, enzymatical, bacterial and mechanical conditions we applied it for the reconstruction of a complete defect of the gastric wall in an animal model. In none of the animals tested either gastrointestinal complications or negative systemic events occurred, however, there was a multilayered regeneration of the gastric wall implying a regular structured mucosa. In future the advanced stem cell technology will allow further progress in the reconstruction of different kind of tissues also in the field of head and neck surgery following the principles of Tissue Engineering. PMID:22073099

  5. Ethanol versus Phytochemicals in Wine: Oral Cancer Risk in a Light Drinking Perspective.

    PubMed

    Varoni, Elena M; Lodi, Giovanni; Iriti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review aims to summarize the current controversy on the balance between ethanol and phytochemicals in wine, focusing on light drinking and oral cancer. Extensive literature search included PUBMED and EMBASE databases to identify in human studies and systematic reviews (up to March 2015), which contributed to elucidate this issue. Independently from the type of beverage, meta-analyses considering light drinking (≤1 drinks/day or ≤12.5 g/day of ethanol) reported relative risks (RR) for oral, oro-pharyngeal, or upper aero-digestive tract cancers, ranging from 1.0 to 1.3. One meta-analysis measured the overall wine-specific RR, which corresponded to 2.1. Although little evidence exists on light wine intake, phytochemicals seem not to affect oral cancer risk, being probably present below the effective dosages and/or due to their low bioavailability. As expected, the risk of oral cancer, even in light drinking conditions, increases when associated with smoking habit and high-risk genotypes of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. PMID:26225960

  6. Optical coherence tomography and confocal endomicroscopy for rhinologic pathologies: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olzowy, B.; Starke, N.; Schuldt, T.; Hüttmann, G.; Lankenau, E.; Just, T.

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal endomicroscopy (CEM) have a well-established potential for early diagnosis of pre-malignant and early malignant lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract mucosa. Additional applications in ENT-diagnostics might facilitate a more widespread use by making the investment into the devices more economic. Both imaging techniques might also provide valuable information in nasal pathologies. OCT images were generated with a surgical microscope (Möller-Wedel Hi-R 1000) with an integrated high-speed-OCT camera (Optomedical GmbH). For the CEM a Heidelberg Retina tomograph II scanner (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH) was used. Both during sinus surgery in vivo and from removed material ex vivo OCT and CEM images were taken and correlated with histopathological analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Patients with inverted papillomas and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) were evaluated. Inverted papillomas show a variably thick epithelial layer on OCT and densely packed epithelial cells on CEM. They can be clearly distinguished from nasal polyps that show a very thin epithelial layer upon loose subepithelial tissue. In CRS CEM can distinguish areas with intact from areas with destroyed ciliated epithelium by directly visualizing ciliary movement. OCT sometimes showed thin superficial dense structures that might correspond to biofilms. OCT and CEM might provide valuable information in the follow-up care of patients with inverted papillomas and in diagnostics of CRS.

  7. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Anderson, Annie; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Tim; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle factors, including diet, have long been recognised as potentially important determinants of cancer risk. In addition to the significant role diet plays in affecting body fatness, a risk factor for several cancers, experimental studies have indicated that diet may influence the cancer process in several ways. Prospective studies have shown that dietary patterns characterised by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, and lower intakes of red and processed meats and salt, are related to reduced risks of death and cancer, and that a healthy diet can improve overall survival after diagnosis of breast and colorectal cancers. There is evidence that high intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancers of the aerodigestive tract, and the evidence that dietary fibre protects against colorectal cancer is convincing. Red and processed meats increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Diets rich in high-calorie foods, such as fatty and sugary foods, may lead to increased calorie intake, thereby promoting obesity and leading to an increased risk of cancer. There is some evidence that sugary drinks are related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Taking this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people have a healthy diet to reduce their risk of cancer: they should eat plenty of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits; limit high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat); avoid sugary drinks and processed meat; and limit red meat and foods high in salt.

  8. Decannulation and assessment of deglutition in the tracheostomized patient in non-neurocritical intensive care.

    PubMed

    Alvo, Andrés; Olavarría, Christian

    2014-01-01

    With intensive care patients, decannulation and deglutition disorders are frequent reasons for otorhinolaryngological assessment. The objective of a tracheostomy is to maintain a patent airway. It does not necessarily prevent episodes of aspiration and may even favour them. When the cause that led to the tracheostomy resolves, a decannulation may be proposed. Deglutition is a complex act involving the coordinated interaction of several structures of the aerodigestive tract. Fibre-optic endoscopy and videofluoroscopy are 2 useful, complementary tools for the evaluation of patients with swallowing disorders. In managing these patients, a thorough knowledge of laryngeal and swallowing physiology, as well as of the different therapeutic alternatives, is required. Although it is not uncommon for swallowing disorders to coexist in tracheostomy patients, decannulation evaluation is not synonymous with deglutition assessment. A patient could be a candidate for decannulation and have a swallowing disorder, or a tracheostomy patient could swallow adequately. Knowing and understanding these concepts will lead to more efficient management and help to clarify communication between the intensive care physician and the otorhinolaryngologist. Ideally, a multidisciplinary team should be formed to evaluate and manage these patients.

  9. A Case-Control Study of the Role of Human Papillomavirus in Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Liyanage, Surabhi S.; Malik, Aisha; Garland, Suzanne M.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Rahman, Bayzidur; Barbour, Andrew P.; Crowe, Philip J.; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues compared to oesophageal tissue from healthy controls, in an Australian cohort. Methods. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 99 patients with OSCC and 100 healthy controls to examine the presence of HPV DNA. Paraffin tissues were tested using the PapType high-risk HPV detection and genotyping kit and with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra. The biopsy samples were tested for HPV using a PCR-ELISA method based on the L1 consensus primer set PGMY09-PGMY11. Results. HPV DNA of the oncogenic genotype 16 was detected in 1/99 case specimens, a rate of 1010 per 100,000 (95% CI: 30–5500). All control specimens were negative for HPV. Significantly higher rates of smoking, other aerodigestive cancers, and mortality were seen among cases than controls. A pooled analysis of this study and the only other Australian case-control study found that 9/321 cases and 0/155 controls were positive for HPV. The pooled odds ratio for HPV being a risk factor for OSCC was 9.35 (95% CI: 0.47–190.33). Conclusion. Our results suggest that in this multifactorial cancer HPV may be an additional risk factor; although a larger, better powered study is needed. PMID:24872815

  10. Incidence, risk factors and outcome of de novo tumors in liver transplant recipients focusing on alcoholic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Justo-Alonso, Iago; Cambra-Molero, Félix; Calvo-Pulido, Jorge; García-Sesma, Álvaro; Abradelo-Usera, Manuel; Caso-Maestro, Oscar; Manrique-Municio, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is an established life-saving procedure for alcoholic cirrhotic (AC) patients, but the incidence of de novo tumors ranges between 2.6% and 15.7% and is significantly increased in comparison with patients who undergo OLT for other etiologies. Tobacco, a known carcinogen, has been reported to be between 52% and 83.3% in AC patients before OLT. Other risk factors that contribute to the development of malignancies are dose-dependent immunosuppression, advanced age, viral infections, sun exposure, and premalignant lesions (inflammatory bowel disease, Barrett's esophagus). A significantly more frequent incidence of upper aerodigestive (UAD) tract, lung, skin, and kidney-bladder tumors has been found in OLT recipients for AC in comparison with other etiologies. Liver transplant recipients who develop de novo non-skin tumors have a decreased long-term survival rate compared with controls. This significantly lower survival rate is more evident in AC recipients who develop UAD tract or lung tumors after OLT mainly because the diagnosis is usually performed at an advanced stage. All transplant candidates, especially AC patients, should be encouraged to cease smoking and alcohol consumption in the pre- and post-OLT periods, use skin protection, avoid sun exposure and over-immunosuppression, and have a yearly otopharyngolaryngeal exploration and chest computed tomography scan in order to prevent or reduce the incidence of de novo malignancies. Although still under investigation, substitution of calcineurin inhibitors for sirolimus or everolimus may reduce the incidence of de novo tumors after OLT.

  11. Trace elements in head and neck cancer patients: zinc status and immunologic functions.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A S; Kaplan, J; Beck, F W; Penny, H S; Shamsa, F H; Salwen, W A; Marks, S C; Mathog, R H

    1997-06-01

    In this study we have assessed zinc status and zinc-dependent cell-mediated immune functions (interleukin-2 production by mononuclear cells, natural killer cell lytic activity, and interleukin-1 beta production by mononuclear cells) in adult patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract at diagnosis and before any therapy was instituted. Inasmuch as significant interactions between zinc, copper, and iron exist, we also assayed the plasma copper level, serum iron level, and total iron-binding capacity in our patients. We recruited 30 cancer subjects and 21 control subjects. On the basis of cellular zinc criteria, we diagnosed a mild deficiency of zinc in 53% of cancer subjects. The plasma zinc level was not decreased in our subjects. A univariate analysis was applied by use of one-way analysis of variance comparing study variables among the three study groups (controls and zinc-deficient and zinc-sufficient cancer patients) and Tukey's multiple comparison test, and we showed that interleukin-2 production and natural killer lytic activity were decreased in zinc-deficient cancer patients. Interleukin-1 beta production (ELISA assay) was increased in both zinc-deficient and zinc-sufficient groups. Plasma copper level was not different, but the iron utilization was decreased in both groups of cancer subjects. We conclude that zinc deficiency and zinc-dependent immunologic dysfunctions are present in more than half of the patients with head and neck cancer in the Detroit area.

  12. [Solitary fibrous tumor of the nasopharynx. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Ferrario, F; Piantanida, R; Spriano, G; Cerati, M; Maffioli, M; Roselli, R

    1997-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare neoplasm, arising in the adult and more commonly in the pleura. For many years it has been referred to the serous surfaces of the body, namely pleura, peritoneum and pericardium; recently cases arising in mesenchymal organs such as lung, mediastinum, liver and paranasal sinuses were reported. We present a SFT of the nasopharynx, observed in a 41 year-old patient complaining a 6 months history of aural fullness at the right ear. Clinical examination revealed the presence of secretory otitis media and swelling of the lateral wall of the nasopharynx. CT scan and MR showed the presence of a solid mass, with scarce vascularization, extending from the right side of the nasopharynx to the infratemporal and pterigoid fossae. The surgical approach consisted in a facial translocation by the rotation of a maxillary-check flap through different osteotomies; a firm whitish mass not invading the surrounding tissues was identified and enucleated. A definitive diagnosis cannot be made at frozen sections, requiring more accurate processing and immunohistochemical staining. Literature reports fourteen cases of SFT of the upper aero-digestive tracts (nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, larynx) and some 8 more cases in the head and neck area (thyroid, salivary glands and parapharyngeal spaces). This case report adds a further contribution to support the mesenchymal origin of the SFT.

  13. De Novo Malignancy Post Liver Transplantation: A Single Center, Population Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chatrath, Hemant; Berman, Kenneth; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Slaven, James; Kwo, Paul; Tector, A Joseph; Chalasani, Naga; Ghabril, Marwan

    2013-01-01

    Background With the growing numbers of liver transplant recipients, it is increasingly important to understand the risks of de novo malignancy after liver transplantation. Aim To characterize the incidence of de novo malignancy after liver transplantation compared to a control non-transplant population. Methods We studied 534 Indiana state residents undergoing liver transplantation at our center between 1997 and 2004, followed through August 2010 The incidence and predictors of malignancy were determined. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of cancer in our cohort was compared to age, gender and period matched state population using the Indiana State Cancer Registry. Results After a mean follow up of 5.7 ± 3.2 years, 73 patients (13.7%) developed 80 cancers, with 5 and 10 year incidence rates of 11.7%, and 24.8%, respectively. These included 24 (30%) skin, 16 (20%) hematologic and 40 (50%) solid tumors. The most common solid cancers were aerodigestive. Compared to matched state population, liver transplant recipients had significantly higher incidence of all cancers (SIR:3.1, 95%CI:2.9–3.2), skin (melanoma) (SIR:5.8, 95%CI:4.7–7.0), hematologic (SIR:7.1, 95%CI:6.3–8.0), and solid (SIR:2.7, 95%CI:2.5–2.8) tumors. Conclusion There is a significantly increased risk of de novo malignancies after liver transplantation, highlighting the need for surveillance strategies in this population. PMID:23808800

  14. Uveitis and Myositis as Immune Complications in Chemorefractory NK/T-Cell Nasal-Type Lymphoma Successfully Treated with Allogeneic Stem-Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Crespo, Maria José; López-Lorenzo, Jose Luis; Villaescusa, Teresa; Rodríguez-Pinilla, María; Fortes, José; Serrano, Cristina; Machan, Salma; Llamas, Pilar; Córdoba, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    NK/T-cell lymphomas are a group of clonal proliferations of NK- or, rarely, T-cell types and have peculiar clinicopathologic features. Most common site of involvement is the upper aerodigestive tract (nasal cavity, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and palate). Association of autoimmune paraneoplastic disorders with NK/T-cell lymphomas is not well studied. Our patient was diagnosed with NK/T-cell lymphoma stage IV with skin involvement and treated frontline with CHOEP regimen. While he was under treatment, two immune complications presented: anterior uveitis of autoimmune origin refractory to steroids and myositis in lower limbs muscles. Autologous transplantation was rejected due to confirmed early relapse after first-line treatment, and the patient received second-line treatment according to the SMILE scheme, reaching complete response after four cycles. The patient underwent allogeneic transplantation and at the time of manuscript preparation is alive despite multiple complications. The disease should be suspected in patients with rhinitis or recurrent sinusitis, and early biopsy is recommended for all patients to avoid a delay in diagnosis. Our patient also presented symptoms of disease progression after first-line treatment, representing a paraneoplastic process, a very rare phenomenon in T-type lymphomas. This case is novel for the appearance of an inflammatory myositis, a histologically verified paraneoplastic phenomenon that responded to treatment for lymphoma. PMID:27807488

  15. New Insights into the Enigma of Immunoglobulin D

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kang; Cerutti, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Summary Immunoglobulin D (IgD) has remained a mysterious antibody class for almost half a century. IgD was initially thought to be a recently evolved Ig isotype expressed only by some mammalian species, but recent discoveries in fishes and amphibians demonstrate that IgD was present in the ancestor of all jawed vertebrates and has important immunological functions. The structure of IgD has been very dynamic throughout evolution. Mammals can express IgD through alternative splicing and class switch recombination (CSR). Active cell-dependent and T-cell-independent IgM-to-IgD class switching takes place in a unique subset of human B cells from the upper aerodigestive mucosa, which provides a layer of mucosal protection by interacting with many pathogens and their virulence factors. Circulating IgD can bind to myeloid cells such as basophils and induce antimicrobial, inflammatory, and B-cell-stimulating factors upon cross-linking, which contributes to immune surveillance but also inflammation and tissue damage when this pathway is overactivated under pathological conditions. Recent research shows that IgD is an important immunomodulator that orchestrates an ancestral surveillance system at the interface between immunity and inflammation. PMID:20727035

  16. Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: regulatory safety and epidemiological issues.

    PubMed

    Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L; Bosetti, Cristina; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2013-10-01

    Aspartame is a synthetic sweetener that has been used safely in food for more than 30 years. Its safety has been evaluated by various regulatory agencies in accordance with procedures internationally recognized, and decisions have been revised and updated regularly. The present review summarizes the most relevant conclusions of epidemiological studies concerning the use of low-calorie sweeteners (mainly aspartame), published between January 1990 and November 2012. In the Nurses' Health study and the Health Professionals Followup study some excess risk of Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma was found in men but not in women; no association was found with leukemia. In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, there was no association between aspartame and haematopoietic neoplasms. US case-control studies of brain and haematopoietic neoplasms also showed no association. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and case-control studies from California showed no association with pancreatic cancer, and a case-control study from Denmark found no relation with breast cancer risk. Italian case-control studies conducted in 1991-2008 reported no consistent association for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, digestive tract, breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, and kidney. Low calorie sweeteners were not consistently related to vascular events and preterm deliveries.

  17. Iron supplement tablet embedded in the oral cavity mimicking neoplasm: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The detection of foreign bodies in the upper-aerodigestive tract is a fairly frequent event and can occur in various areas and for various reasons. In rare cases, foreign bodies can simulate a neoplasia. We evaluated similar cases during emergency regimen with an oral cavity mucosal lesion, causing lockjaw, sore throat, dysphagia, and swelling of the submandibular and laterocervical region. Physical examination revealed an extensive mucosal ulceration in the floor of the mouth and the lateral surface of the tongue, comparable to oral cancer. During a second, more accurate assessment, a partially deteriorated iron supplement tablet was found embedded in a mucosal pocket. After removing the tablet, gradual normalization of the tissue was observed without any sequelae. This is one of the many reasons why it is advisable and useful in cases of oral lesions to collect a detailed medical history and to perform an accurate clinical evaluation, including inspection and palpation of the lesion, before proceeding to further diagnostic assessments, especially in elderly patients taking many medications. However unlikely, it is possible that difficulty in swallowing pills or tablets could generate tumorlike lesions. PMID:27162752

  18. Inhibition and regression of tumors in hamster DMBA model following laser microvascular targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen; Wang, Zhi; Shapshay, Stanley M.

    1998-07-01

    Vascular targeting is a recent approach to cancer therapy that aims at damaging tumor vasculature to induce tumor cell hypoxia and subsequent cell death. Squamous cell cancer arises in the superficial mucosal and cutaneous epithelial layers, and tumor microvasculature therefore may be particularly well suited for targeting by selective photothermolysis. An initial evaluation of the effect of selective eradication of microvasculature on tumor development was undertaken here using the chemically-induced hamster cheek pouch model and a 585 nm pulsed dye laser. In a first group of 6 hamsters, progression of premalignant mucosal lesions was compared between control and laser treatment groups, and laser-induced regression of established tumors was evaluated. In a second group of 12 hamsters, the number of laser treatments required to produce complete regression of tumors of the buccal mucosa was determined. The effect of the laser on tumors appearing on the skin in these animals was also investigated. These experiments showed that laser treatment inhibited tumor development and caused complete regression of established tumors 10 mm3 or smaller. Photothermal microvascular targeting may be useful in treating dyplasia and early tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract and skin, with fewer adverse sequelae than existing modalities.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of meso-(tetrahydroxyphenyl)chlorin (m-THPC) studied by fluorescence spectroscopy on early cancer of the cheek pouch mucosa of Golden Syrian hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Braichotte, Daniel; Forrer, Martin; Wagnieres, Georges A.; van den Bergh, Hubert; Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe

    1995-01-01

    Golden Syrian hamsters are evaluated as an animal model for phototherapy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus and the tracheobronchial tree. Carcinomas of this type are induced on the hamster cheek pouch mucosa by the application of the carcinogen 7,12 DMBA. For phototherapeutic experiments on the animals we utilized meso- (tetrahydoxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC). The same drug is currently in phase I, II clinical trials for ENT patients with superficial squamous cell carcinomas. By means of light induced fluorescence (LIF) we measured in vivo the kinetics of the uptake and removal of mTHPC in the normal and tumoral cheek mucosa and in the skin. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) reaction of the tissue after excitation of the photosensitizer by laser light at 652 nm was studied. Both pharmacokinetics and PDT efficacy are compared between animal model and clinical results with special emphasis on selectivity between normal and tumoral mucosa. These first experiments show that this tumor model in the hamster cheek pouch seems to be suitable for tests of a number of PDT variables of new photosensitizers preceding their clinical application as well as for optimization of the multiple parameters of clinical phototherapy.

  20. Hereditary and environmental risk factors; clinical and laboratory risk matters for head and neck, especially oral, cancer and precancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N W; Warnakulasuriy, S; Tavassoli, M

    1996-02-01

    The continuing high incidence and mortality of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract in South Asia, parts of France and central Europe, together with a rising incidence and mortality from a lower base elsewhere in the Western world, stimulates continuing research on risk factors and risk markers. Tobaccos (smoked and smokeless), heavy alcohol consumption, and areca nut remain the dominant risk factors, with confirmation of the protective effects of diets rich in antioxidants. There is emerging evidence of a small, but real, risk associated with occupational and other air pollution, and with family, part of which may be hereditary. Markers in peripheral blood and saliva are underexploited. Clinical staging and histological grading methods continue to be refined, with improved prognostic value, much aided by newer and simpler methods for estimating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Data on the significance of viral genes are still inadequate, but there is good progress describing the epidemiology of chromosomal abnormalities and abberations of a growing list of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Unfortunately, as yet, these have only limited longitudinal or prognostic data.

  1. Lipoma of Piriform Sinus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Acquaviva, Gilberto; Badia, Stefano; Casorati, Francesco; Bellocchi, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    The lipomas of oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx are so rare that up to now approximately there have been 100 cases reported. The lipomas are slow-growing lesions that are capable of reaching considerable dimensions and are often detected at a late stage. The symptoms can vary both in dimension and in location, semiobstructing the aerodigestive tract or exerting compression on adjacent structure. In this case, the lesion, which originated from the piriform sinus, was removed endoscopically urgently due to obvious signs of tissue suffering caused by stretching of the pedicle as a result of displacement of the mass. The two aims of this case report are to expose an interesting and rare case study mainly for an Emergency Room Specialist and an ENT (Ear, Nose, and Throat) Specialist involved in solving the problem and to demonstrate that the choice of an endoscopic approach is useful in order to have an optimal visualization of the lesion and to perform a total eradication. The use of endoscopic devices also allows a rapid postoperative recovery, compared to external access and optimum locoregional control in the follow-up procedures to prevent possible relapses. PMID:27795863

  2. Microarchitecture of irradiated bone: comparison with healthy bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bléry, Pauline; Amouriq, Yves; Guédon, Jeanpierre; Pilet, Paul; Normand, Nicolas; Durand, Nicolas; Espitalier, Florent; Arlicot, Aurore; Malard, Olivier; Weiss, Pierre

    2012-03-01

    The squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract represent about ten percent of cancers. External radiation therapy leads to esthetic and functional consequences, and to a decrease of the bone mechanical abilities. For these patients, the oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including possibilities of dental implant placement, is difficult. The effects of radiotherapy on bone microarchitecture parameters are not well known. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the effects of external radiation on bone micro architecture in an experimental model of 25 rats using micro CT. 15 rats were irradiated on the hind limbs by a single dose of 20 Grays, and 10 rats were non irradiated. Images of irradiated and healthy bone were compared. Bone microarchitecture parameters (including trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation, connectivity density and tissue and bone volume) between irradiated and non-irradiated bones were calculated and compared using a Mann and Whitney test. After 7 and 12 weeks, images of irradiated and healthy bone are different. Differences on the irradiated and the healthy bone populations exhibit a statistical significance. Trabecular number, connectivity density and closed porosity are less important on irradiated bone. Trabecular thickness and separation increase for irradiated bone. These parameters indicate a decrease of irradiated bone properties. Finally, the external irradiation induces changes on the bone micro architecture. This knowledge is of prime importance for better oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including implant placement.

  3. Reconstruction after robotic head and neck surgery: when and why.

    PubMed

    Longfield, Evan A; Holsinger, F Christopher; Selber, Jesse C

    2012-09-01

    The advancement of robotically assisted surgery during the last decade has seen a revolution in the approach to surgical oncologic resection, moving toward reducing patient morbidity without compromising oncologic outcomes. In no field has this been more dramatic than in the application of transoral robotic surgery (TORS), using the da Vinci surgical system for resecting tumors of the head and neck. This organ-preserving technique allows the surgeon to remove tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract without external incisions and potentially spare the patient adjuvant treatment. The introduction of TORS improves upon current transoral techniques to the oropharynx and supraglottis. The traditional conception of TORS is that it would be used for smaller tumors and defects would be permitted to heal by secondary intention; however, as head and neck surgeons pursue larger tumors robotically, robotic-assisted reconstruction has entered the paradigm. Given the relative infancy of these procedures, clear guidelines for when reconstruction is warranted do not exist. The current literature, thus far, has focused on feasibility, safety, and implement of the robot in reconstruction. We reviewed the current literature pertinent to TORS reconstruction focusing on patient selection, tumor size, and location. Furthermore, we briefly review our own experience of 20 TORS procedures involving robotic-assisted reconstructions. Finally, we provide an algorithmic approach to determining the need for reconstruction in a given patient. This focuses on four key criteria: tumor location, tumor extent, prior treatment, and patient-specific factors.

  4. Changing Trends in Oesophageal Endoscopy: A Systematic Review of Transnasal Oesophagoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sabirin, Junainah; Abd Rahman, Maharita; Rajan, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The safety, efficacy, and economic implications of using transnasal oesophagoscopy (TNE) are compared with conventional rigid or flexible oesophagoscopy for oesophageal disorders in otorhinolaryngology (ORL) clinics in this systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were searched for articles on transnasal oesophagoscopy. A total of 67 relevant titles were identified and 39 abstracts were screened of which 17 full- text articles were included in this report. There was fair level of evidence to suggest that TNE was effective for screening examination in patients with dysphagia, globus pharyngeus, and reflux symptoms and for detection of metachronous oesophageal carcinoma. TNE can also be used to biopsy suspicious lesions in the upper aerodigestive tract, placement of wireless pH capsule, transnasal balloon dilation of the oesophagus, secondary tracheoesophageal puncture, and management of foreign bodies. TNE was well tolerated and can be safely performed in an office setting with topical anaesthesia. Complications associated with TNE were mild and uncommon. There was evidence to suggest potential cost savings by performing TNE in the office setting compared with conventional investigation and examination for dysphagia. TNE may lead to a change in practice from investigation and treatment in the operating theatre or day care center to an office-based practice. PMID:23984101

  5. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n = 11), lung cancer (n = 6), testicular cancer (n = 3), childhood cancers (n = 6), all cancers (n = 1), anal cancer (n = 1), penile cancer (n = 1), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2), malignant primary gliomas (n = 1), bladder cancer (n = 1), and Kaposi sarcoma (n = 1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by human papillomavirus status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared with tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use [summary ORs, 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-2.23 for higher frequency and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years]. For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109

  6. Mechanisms of cough provocation and cough resolution in neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.; Hasenstab, Kathryn A.; Shaker, Reza; Castile, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cough and deglutition are protective mechanisms that defend against aspiration. We identified mechanisms associated with cough provocation as well as those associated with cough resolution in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Methods Manometry signatures of cough were recognized in 16 premature infants with BPD undergoing concurrent esophageal manometry, respiratory inductance plethysmography, and nasal air flow measurements. Pretussive and posttussive pharyngo-esophageal motility changes were analyzed. Mechanisms associated with cough and mechanisms that restored respiratory and esophageal normalcy were analyzed. Results We analyzed 312 cough events during 88 cough clusters; 97% were associated with recognizable manometric patterns. Initial mechanisms related with coughing included nonpropagating swallow (59%), upper esophageal sphincter (UES) reflex contraction (18%), and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (14%). UES and LES dysfunction was present in 69% of nonpropagating swallow-associated cough clusters. Mechanisms restoring post-tussive normalcy included primary peristalsis (84%), secondary peristalsis (8%), and none recognized (8%). UES contraction reflex was associated with cough clusters more frequently in infants on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) (OR = 9.13, 95% CI = 1.88–44.24). Conclusion Cough clusters in infants with BPD had identifiable etiologies associated with esophageal events; common initial mechanisms were of upper aerodigestive origin, while common clearing mechanisms were peristaltic reflexes. PMID:26151491

  7. Significance of symptom clustering in palliative care of advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Wu, Chih-Hsun; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Ching-Yu

    2010-04-01

    Patients with advanced cancer often experience multiple concurrent symptoms. To explore this symptom clustering and its associated parameters, we prospectively surveyed 427 consecutive patients on admission to the Palliative Care Unit. There were 222 males (52.0%) and 205 females (48.0%), with a median age of 66 years (range: 27-93 years). The main tumor sites were lung (19.9%), liver (18.0%), and colorectum (11.0%). The median survival was 13 days (1-418 days). Symptoms were assessed using a face-valid Symptom Reporting Form. We identified five symptom clusters by exploratory factor analysis. Clusters were named "loss of energy," "poor intake," "autonomic dysfunction," "aerodigestive impairment," and "pain complex." We used nonhierarchical cluster analysis to divide the 394 patients with complete data into six groups. Each group was characterized by a particular pattern that was composed of different symptom clusters. Survival, functional performance, bone metastasis, and fluid accumulation were significantly associated with symptom clustering in six groups of patients. The severity of psychological distress also related to their physical deterioration. These data suggest that different underlying mechanisms associate with symptom clustering. Further elucidation of these processes may assist in symptom management. PMID:20226623

  8. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin cytotoxicity occurs through bilayer destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Angela C.; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen; Du, Yurong; Stefano, Frank P.; Kieba, Irene R.; Epand, Raquel F.; Kakalis, Lazaros; Yeagle, Philip L.; Epand, Richard M.; Lally, Edward T.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The Gram-negative bacterium, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, is a common inhabitant of the human upper aerodigestive tract. The organism produces an RTX (Repeats in ToXin) toxin (LtxA) that kills human white blood cells. LtxA is believed to be a membrane-damaging toxin, but details of the cell surface interaction for this and several other RTX toxins have yet to be elucidated. Initial morphological studies suggested that LtxA was bending the target cell membrane. Because the ability of a membrane to bend is a function of its lipid composition, we assessed the proficiency of LtxA to release of a fluorescent dye from a panel of liposomes composed of various lipids. Liposomes composed of lipids that form nonlamellar phases were susceptible to LtxA-induced damage while liposomes composed of lipids that do not form non-bilayer structures were not. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the toxin decreased the temperature at which the lipid transitions from a bilayer to a nonlamellar phase, while 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that the LtxA-induced transition from a bilayer to an inverted hexagonal phase occurs through the formation of an isotropic intermediate phase. These results indicate that LtxA cytotoxicity occurs through a process of membrane destabilization. PMID:22309134

  9. Genetic Determinants for Promoter Hypermethylation in the Lungs of Smokers: A Candidate Gene-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Shuguang; Stidley, Christine A.; Liu, Yushi; Edlund, Christopher K.; Willink, Randall P.; Han, Younghun; Landi, Maria Teresa; Thun, Michael; Picchi, Maria A.; Bruse, Shannon E.; Crowell, Richard E.; Van Den Berg, David; Caporaso, Neil E.; Amos, Christopher I.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Gilliland, Frank D.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    The detection of tumor suppressor gene promoter methylation in sputum-derived exfoliated cells predicts early lung cancer. Here we identified genetic determinants for this epigenetic process and examined their biological effects on gene regulation. A two-stage approach involving discovery and replication was employed to assess the association between promoter hypermethylation of a 12-gene panel and common variation in 40 genes involved in carcinogen metabolism, regulation of methylation, and DNA damage response in members of the Lovelace Smokers Cohort (n=1434). Molecular validation of three identified variants was conducted using primary bronchial epithelial cells. Association of study-wide significance (P<8.2×10−5) was identified for rs1641511, rs3730859, and rs1883264 in TP53, LIG1, and BIK, respectively. These SNPs were significantly associated with altered expression of the corresponding genes in primary bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, rs3730859 in LIG1 was also moderately associated with increased risk for lung cancer among Caucasian smokers. Together, our findings suggest that genetic variation in DNA replication and apoptosis pathways impacts the propensity for gene promoter hypermethylation in the aerodigestive tract of smokers. The incorporation of genetic biomarkers for gene promoter hypermethylation with clinical and somatic markers may improve risk assessment models for lung cancer. PMID:22139380

  10. Nicotine induces DNA damage in human salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ginzkey, Christian; Kampfinger, Katja; Friehs, Gudrun; Köhler, Christian; Hagen, Rudolf; Richter, Elmar; Kleinsasser, Norbert H

    2009-01-10

    The tobacco alkaloid nicotine is responsible for addiction to tobacco and supposed to contribute to tobacco carcinogensis, too. Recently, genotoxic effects of nicotine have been reported in human cells from blood and upper aerodigestive tract. Because of nicotine accumulation in saliva, the study of possible in vitro genotoxic effects of nicotine have been extended to human salivary gland cells. Specimens of parotid glands of 10 tumor patients were obtained from tumor-free tissue. Single cells were prepared by enzymatic digestion immediately after surgery and exposed for 1h to 0.125-4.0mM of nicotine. Possible genotoxic effects were determined by the Comet assay using the % DNA in tail (DT) as a reliable indicator of DNA damage. Nicotine induced a significant dose-dependent increase of DNA migration in parotid gland single-cells. The mean DT was 1.12-fold (0.125mM) to 2.24-fold (4.0mM) higher compared to control. The lowest concentration eliciting significant DNA damage within 1h, 0.25mM nicotine, is only 10-fold higher than maximal concentrations of nicotine reported in saliva after unrestricted smoking. Although conclusive evidence for a carcinogenic potential of nicotine is still lacking, the safety of long-term nicotine replacement therapy should be carefully monitored. PMID:18852035

  11. Implications of acetaldehyde-derived DNA adducts for understanding alcohol-related carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Balbo, Silvia; Brooks, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Among various potential mechanisms that could explain alcohol carcinogenicity, the metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde represents an obvious possible mechanism, at least in some tissues. The fundamental principle of genotoxic carcinogenesis is the formation of mutagenic DNA adducts in proliferating cells. If not repaired, these adducts can result in mutations during DNA replication, which are passed on to cells during mitosis. Consistent with a genotoxic mechanism, acetaldehyde does react with DNA to form a variety of different types of DNA adducts. In this chapter we will focus more specifically on N2-ethylidene-deoxyguanosine (N2-ethylidene-dG), the major DNA adduct formed from the reaction of acetaldehyde with DNA and specifically highlight recent data on the measurement of this DNA adduct in the human body after alcohol exposure. Because results are of particular biological relevance for alcohol-related cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), we will also discuss the histology and cytology of the UADT, with the goal of placing the adduct data in the relevant cellular context for mechanistic interpretation. Furthermore, we will discuss the sources and concentrations of acetaldehyde and ethanol in different cell types during alcohol consumption in humans. Finally, in the last part of the chapter, we will critically evaluate the concept of carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde, which has been raised in the literature, and discuss how data from acetaldehyde genotoxicity are and can be utilized in physiologically based models to evaluate exposure risk. PMID:25427902

  12. Radiotherapy Alone With Curative Intent in Patients With Stage I Extranodal Nasal-Type NK/T-Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yexiong; Wang Hua; Jin Jing; Wang Weihu; Liu Qingfeng; Song Yongwen; Wang Zhaoyang; Qi Shunan; Wang Shulian; Liu Yueping; Liu Xinfan; Yu Zihao

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the outcome and pattern of failure in a large cohort of patients with Stage I NK/T-cell lymphoma of the upper aerodigestive tract treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: The pathological diagnosis was confirmed using standard criteria. All patients were treated with high-dose extended-field radiotherapy alone. The median dose was 50 Gy. The primary tumor was located in the nasal cavity (n = 80), Waldeyer ring (n = 5), or oral cavity (n = 2). Results: The overall response to radiotherapy was achieved in 85 of 87 (97.7%) patients, with a complete response rate of 95.4% and a partial response rate of 2.3%. The 5-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control rates for all patients were 80%, 69%, and 93%, respectively. Twenty patients (23%) had disease progression or relapse. Of these, 15 patients (17%) developed systemic extranodal disseminations, whereas only 4 (5%) patients had local relapse and 4 (5%) patients had lymph node relapse. Conclusions: Our study suggests that high-dose extended-field radiotherapy alone is a curative therapy and shows favorable clinical outcome in patients with Stage I disease. With the high possibility of local control and primary failure of systemic dissemination, the integration of optimal radiotherapy with more effective systematic therapy is warranted to bring additional improvement to the outcome for these patients.

  13. Traditional and Modern Uses of Natural Honey in Human Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Najafi, Moslem

    2013-01-01

    Honey is a by-product of flower nectar and the upper aero-digestive tract of the honey bee, which is concentrated through a dehydration process inside the bee hive. Honey has a very complex chemical composition that varies depending on the botanical source. It has been used both as food and medicine since ancient times. Human use of honey is traced to some 8000 years ago as depicted by Stone Age paintings. In addition to important role of natural honey in the traditional medicine, during the past few decades, it was subjected to laboratory and clinical investigations by several research groups and it has found a place in modern medicine. Honey has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on around 60 species of bacteria, some species of fungi and viruses. Antioxidant capacity of honey is important in many disease conditions and is due to a wide range of compounds including phenolics, peptides, organic acids, enzymes, and Maillard reaction products. Honey has also been used in some gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neoplastic states. This review covers the composition, physico-chemical properties and the most important uses of natural honey in human diseases. PMID:23997898

  14. Pharmacological recruitment of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) to assist ALDH2 in acetaldehyde and ethanol metabolism in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Che-Hong; Cruz, Leslie A.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Correcting a genetic mutation that leads to a loss of function has been a challenge. One such mutation is in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), denoted ALDH2*2. This mutation is present in ∼0.6 billion East Asians and results in accumulation of toxic acetaldehyde after consumption of ethanol. To temporarily increase metabolism of acetaldehyde in vivo, we describe an approach in which a pharmacologic agent recruited another ALDH to metabolize acetaldehyde. We focused on ALDH3A1, which is enriched in the upper aerodigestive track, and identified Alda-89 as a small molecule that enables ALDH3A1 to metabolize acetaldehyde. When given together with the ALDH2-specific activator, Alda-1, Alda-89 reduced acetaldehyde-induced behavioral impairment by causing a rapid reduction in blood ethanol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol intoxication in both wild-type and ALDH2-deficient, ALDH2*1/*2, heterozygotic knock-in mice. The use of a pharmacologic agent to recruit an enzyme to metabolize a substrate that it usually does not metabolize may represent a novel means to temporarily increase elimination of toxic agents in vivo. PMID:25713355

  15. [Limited function of the large salivary glands of the head. A new aspect for the etiopathogenesis of cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx and hypopharynx].

    PubMed

    Maier, H; Born, I A; Adler, D

    1986-04-01

    Function and morphology of the major salivary glands were investigated in patients suffering from carcinomas of the oral cavity, the oropharynx and the hypopharynx. In comparison to the results obtained from healthy control subjects, the tumour patients showed significantly decreased flow-rates of parotid and submandibular saliva. Furthermore the excretion of IgA, lysozyme and total protein and the pH-value in both, the parotid and the submandibular saliva of the patients was significantly lowered. The histological feature of the salivary glands of the patients was characterized by interstitial deposition of fat. In several cases a swelling and a degranulation of the acinar cells was observed additionally. Other patients showed an atrophy of the acinar cells. Sometimes an inflammatory reaction could also be noted in the submandibular and/or the parotid glands of patients suffering from head and neck cancer. The decreased salivary gland function reflects a reduction of the protective mechanisms of the oral cavity and the pharynx. Additionally it enables an increased penetration of environmental carcinogens through the mucous surface, and therefore has to be discussed as a factor for the etiology of carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. PMID:3713396

  16. Aspects of nitrogen dioxide toxicity in environmental urban concentrations in human nasal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, C.; Ginzkey, C.; Friehs, G.; Hackenberg, S.; Froelich, K.; Scherzed, A.; Burghartz, M.; Kessler, M.; Kleinsasser, N.

    2010-06-01

    Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) as part of urban exhaust pollution are widely discussed as potential hazards to human health. This study focuses on toxic effects of NO{sub 2} in realistic environmental concentrations with respect to the current limit values in a human target tissue of volatile xenobiotics, the epithelium of the upper aerodigestive tract. Nasal epithelial cells of 10 patients were cultured as an air-liquid interface and exposed to 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2}, 0.1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 10 ppm NO{sub 2} and synthetic air for half an hour. After exposure, genotoxicity was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell microgel electophoresis (Comet) assay and by induction of micronuclei in the micronucleus test. Depression of proliferation and cytotoxic effects were determined using the micronucleus assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. The experiments revealed genotoxic effects by DNA fragmentation starting at 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2} in the Comet assay, but no micronucleus inductions, no changes in proliferation, no signs of necrosis or apoptosis in the micronucleus assay, nor did the trypan blue exclusion assay show any changes in viability. The present data reveal a possible genotoxicity of NO{sub 2} in urban concentrations in a screening test. However, permanent DNA damage as indicated by the induction of micronuclei was not observed. Further research should elucidate the effects of prolonged exposure.

  17. Preliminary oncological results of endosopic laser surgery in advanced head and neck tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker-Schreyer, Antonio; Sadick, Haneen; Juncker, Cathrine; Bergler, Wolfgang; Hoermann, Karl

    1998-01-01

    Lasersurgery has established itself in the treatment of minor tumors (T1 - T2) of the upper aerodigestive tract. However, advanced carcinomas of the head and neck (T3 - T4) are generally treated with conventional surgical procedures which include pharyngolaryngectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oncological outcome of endoscopic lasersurgery in advanced head and neck tumors and to compare the results with conventional surgical procedures. Between January 1994 to December 1996, 86 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx underwent endoscopic lasersurgery instead of pharyngolaryngectomy as a curative measure. Besides the recurrence and survival rate, the necessity of tracheostomy, postoperative complications and the mean duration of hospitalization were documented. The results showed that the recurrence and survival rate were similar or even better after conventional pharyngolaryngectomy, whereas the patients' postoperative rehabilitation was better after lasersurgery. In this contribution the indication for lasersurgical intervention or pharyngolaryngectomy in advanced carcinomas of the head and neck is discussed.

  18. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P.; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n=11), lung cancer (n=6), testicular cancer (n=3), childhood cancers (n=6), all cancers (n=1), anal cancer (n=1), penile cancer (n=1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=2), malignant primary gliomas(n=1), bladder cancer (n=1), and Kaposi's sarcoma (n=1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by HPV status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared to tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use (summary odds ratios 1.56 (95%CI=1.09-2.23) for higher frequency; 1.50 (95%=1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years). For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109

  19. [Necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck].

    PubMed

    Gajda, Mieczysław; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Gudziol, Silke; Hauptmann, Steffen; Bloching, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a potentially lethal soft tissue infection characterized by cutaneous necrosis, suppurative fasciitis, vascular thrombosis and extreme systemic toxicity. It is a rare entity in the head and neck region, but occur most frequently in patients with diabetes and chronic alcoholism. Mostly involved are immunodeficient patients with banal infections of the upper aerodigestive tract, small traumas, but also after surgical procedures. Necrotizing fasciitis is an infection caused by aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms. A strong complication is a streptococcus-associated-toxic shock-syndrome which should be prevented because it is often associated with letal outcome. Septicemia and systemic toxic effects may lead to death within as short a time as 2 to 4 days. Necrotizing fasciitis is often misdiagnosed or the diagnosis is delayed with a mortality rate of approximately 30-70%. Once identified, treatment consists of antimicrobial therapy and surgical debridement followed at a later date with reconstructive surgery. We present a fatal case of craniofacial necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in a 63-year-old diabetic and chronic alcoholic man and discuss it's pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and the best therapeutic choice for this disease. A review of the literature with the clinical presentations, bacteriology diagnosis and treatment was presented. PMID:16521446

  20. The mucosal immune system: From dentistry to vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    KIYONO, Hiroshi; AZEGAMI, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity is the beginning of the aero-digestive tract, which is covered by mucosal epithelium continuously under the threat of invasion of pathogens, it is thus protected by the mucosal immune system. In the early phase of our scientific efforts for the demonstration of mucosal immune system, dental science was one of major driving forces due to their foreseeability to use oral immunity for the control of oral diseases. The mucosal immune system is divided functionally into, but interconnected inductive and effector sites. Intestinal Peyer’s patches (PPs) are an inductive site containing antigen-sampling M cells and immunocompetent cells required to initiate antigen-specific immune responses. At effector sites, PP-originated antigen-specific IgA B cells become plasma cells to produce polymeric IgA and form secretory IgA by binding to poly-Ig receptor expressed on epithelial cells for protective immunity. The development of new-generation mucosal vaccines, including the rice-based oral vaccine MucoRice, on the basis of the coordinated mucosal immune system is a promising strategy for the control of mucosal infectious diseases. PMID:26460320

  1. Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in Cystic Fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-momani, H.; Perry, A.; Stewart, C. J.; Jones, R.; Krishnan, A.; Robertson, A. G.; Bourke, S.; Doe, S.; Cummings, S. P.; Anderson, A.; Forrest, T.; Griffin, S. M.; Brodlie, M.; Pearson, J.; Ward, C.

    2016-01-01

    Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. Cultures grew bacteria and/or fungi in all CF gastric juice and sputa and in 9/14 non-CF gastric juices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Pa) was present in CF sputum in 11 patients, 4 had identical Pa strains in the stomach. NGS data from non-CF gastric juice samples were significantly more diverse compared to CF samples. NGS showed CF gastric juice had markedly lower abundance of normal gut bacteria; Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, but increased Pseudomonas compared with non-CF. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated similar bacterial profiles of CF sputum and gastric juice samples, which were distinct from non-CF gastric juice. We provide novel evidence suggesting the existence of an aerodigestive microbiome in CF, which may have clinical relevance. PMID:27245316

  2. Ethanol versus Phytochemicals in Wine: Oral Cancer Risk in a Light Drinking Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Varoni, Elena M.; Lodi, Giovanni; Iriti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review aims to summarize the current controversy on the balance between ethanol and phytochemicals in wine, focusing on light drinking and oral cancer. Extensive literature search included PUBMED and EMBASE databases to identify in human studies and systematic reviews (up to March 2015), which contributed to elucidate this issue. Independently from the type of beverage, meta-analyses considering light drinking (≤1 drinks/day or ≤12.5 g/day of ethanol) reported relative risks (RR) for oral, oro-pharyngeal, or upper aero-digestive tract cancers, ranging from 1.0 to 1.3. One meta-analysis measured the overall wine-specific RR, which corresponded to 2.1. Although little evidence exists on light wine intake, phytochemicals seem not to affect oral cancer risk, being probably present below the effective dosages and/or due to their low bioavailability. As expected, the risk of oral cancer, even in light drinking conditions, increases when associated with smoking habit and high-risk genotypes of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. PMID:26225960

  3. [Cervical nodules: diagnosis and management].

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Pierre; Monnier, Philippe

    2004-06-01

    Family physicians frequently encounter patients with neck lumps. The causes are numerous but in the adult the origin is most often a lymph node, the majority of which are malignant. Inappropriate management may often lead to a very poor outcome. Relevant investigations must therefore be correctly chosen. The risk for a neck lump to be malignant depends mainly on age, male sex, and alcohol and tobacco consumption and to a lesser extent on a family history for head and neck malignancy. Careful medical history looks for symptoms such as dysphagia, pain, dysphonia, otalgia, or weight loss. On physical examination, the location, size, consistency and mobility of the mass is described. A careful inspection of the scalp, skin of the face and mucosal surface of the upper aerodigestive tract is performed followed by palpation. If no inflammatory or tumoral lesion is identified, the next step is to perform a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the neck mass which will most often lead to a definite diagnosis. When this is not the case, an otolaryngology consultation and excisional biopsy should be obtained. PMID:15293445

  4. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Anderson, Annie; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Tim; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle factors, including diet, have long been recognised as potentially important determinants of cancer risk. In addition to the significant role diet plays in affecting body fatness, a risk factor for several cancers, experimental studies have indicated that diet may influence the cancer process in several ways. Prospective studies have shown that dietary patterns characterised by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, and lower intakes of red and processed meats and salt, are related to reduced risks of death and cancer, and that a healthy diet can improve overall survival after diagnosis of breast and colorectal cancers. There is evidence that high intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancers of the aerodigestive tract, and the evidence that dietary fibre protects against colorectal cancer is convincing. Red and processed meats increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Diets rich in high-calorie foods, such as fatty and sugary foods, may lead to increased calorie intake, thereby promoting obesity and leading to an increased risk of cancer. There is some evidence that sugary drinks are related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Taking this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people have a healthy diet to reduce their risk of cancer: they should eat plenty of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits; limit high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat); avoid sugary drinks and processed meat; and limit red meat and foods high in salt. PMID:26164653

  5. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, and tracheobronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, Merrill A.

    1994-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has the potential to treat and cure early carcinomas of the head and neck while preserving normal tissue. Fifty-three patients with neoplasia of the head and neck have been treated with PDT with follow-up to 40 months. Eight patients with T2-T4 carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract had a partial response. Eighteen patients with CIS and T1 carcinomas of the larynx obtained a complete response and are disease free. Eleven patients with T1 carcinomas of the tongue, floor of mouth, and nasal cavity obtained a complete response. Three patients with mucosal melanomas of the nasopharynx obtained a complete response and remain disease free. Two patients with Kaposi's sarcoma or the oral cavity were treated, one obtained a complete response. Five patients with juvenile laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis obtained a complete response, but all recurred within six months of treatment. PDT is a promising therapy for treatment of early neoplasia of the head and neck. There are, however limitations to this treatment based on tumor size and site. Methodology, clinical response, limitations and complications are discussed.

  6. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, and tracheobronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, Merrill A.

    1993-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy has the potential to treat and cure early carcinomas of the head and neck while preserving normal tissue. Thirty patients with neoplasia of the head and neck have been treated with PDT with follow-up to twenty nine months. Four patients with T3 and T4 carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract had a partial response. Eleven patients with T1 and T2 carcinomas of the larynx obtained a complete response and are disease free. Seven patients with T1 carcinomas of the tongue, floor of mouth, and nasal cavity obtained a complete response. Three patients with mucosal melanomas of the nasopharynx obtained a complete response and have remained disease free. Two patients with Kaposi's sarcoma of the oral cavity were treated. One obtained a complete response. Three patients with recurrent juvenile laryngotracheal papillomatosis obtained a complete response, but one recurred four months post-PDT. PDT is a promising therapy for treatment of early neoplasia of the head and neck. There are, however, limitations to this treatment based on tumor size and site. Methodology, clinical response, limitations, and complications will be discussed.

  7. Implications of acetaldehyde-derived DNA adducts for understanding alcohol-related carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Balbo, Silvia; Brooks, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Among various potential mechanisms that could explain alcohol carcinogenicity, the metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde represents an obvious possible mechanism, at least in some tissues. The fundamental principle of genotoxic carcinogenesis is the formation of mutagenic DNA adducts in proliferating cells. If not repaired, these adducts can result in mutations during DNA replication, which are passed on to cells during mitosis. Consistent with a genotoxic mechanism, acetaldehyde does react with DNA to form a variety of different types of DNA adducts. In this chapter we will focus more specifically on N2-ethylidene-deoxyguanosine (N2-ethylidene-dG), the major DNA adduct formed from the reaction of acetaldehyde with DNA and specifically highlight recent data on the measurement of this DNA adduct in the human body after alcohol exposure. Because results are of particular biological relevance for alcohol-related cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), we will also discuss the histology and cytology of the UADT, with the goal of placing the adduct data in the relevant cellular context for mechanistic interpretation. Furthermore, we will discuss the sources and concentrations of acetaldehyde and ethanol in different cell types during alcohol consumption in humans. Finally, in the last part of the chapter, we will critically evaluate the concept of carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde, which has been raised in the literature, and discuss how data from acetaldehyde genotoxicity are and can be utilized in physiologically based models to evaluate exposure risk.

  8. Hypokalemia during the early phase of refeeding in patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Simona; Ferro, Yvelise; Migliaccio, Valeria; Mazza, Elisa; Rotundo, Stefania; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Refeeding syndrome occurs in patients with severe malnutrition when refeeding begins after a long period of starvation. This syndrome increases the risk of clinical complications and mortality. Hypophosphatemia is considered the primary characteristic of the syndrome. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of other electrolyte alterations in patients with cancer during the early stage of refeeding. METHODS: In this observational study, we enrolled 34 patients with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract receiving upfront radiotherapy who were also enrolled in a nutrition program. A caloric intake assessment, anthropometric measurements and biochemical laboratory tests were performed. RESULTS: Significant weight loss (∼20%) was found in these patients. In the patients receiving artificial nutrition, we found lower levels of potassium and total protein compared with those who were fed orally (p = 0.03 for potassium and 0.02 for protein, respectively). Patients on enteral tube feeding had a higher caloric intake compared with those who were fed orally (25±5 kcal/kg/day vs. 10±2 kcal/kg/day). CONCLUSION: Hypokalemia, like hypophosphatemia, could be a complication associated with refeeding in patients with cancer. Hypokalemia was present in the early stages of high-calorie refeeding. PMID:24270952

  9. Button Battery Foreign Bodies in Children: Hazards, Management, and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Thabet, Mohammed Hossam; Basha, Waleed Mohamed; Askar, Sherif

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The demand and usage of button batteries have risen. They are frequently inadvertently placed by children in their ears or noses and occasionally are swallowed and lodged along the upper aerodigestive tract. The purpose of this work is to study the different presentations of button battery foreign bodies and present our experience in the diagnosis and management of this hazardous problem in children. Patients and Methods. This study included 13 patients. The diagnostic protocol was comprised of a thorough history, head and neck physical examination, and appropriate radiographic evaluation. The button batteries were emergently extracted under general anesthesia. Results. The average follow-up period was 4.3 months. Five patients had a nasal button battery. Four patients had an esophageal button battery. Three patients had a button battery in the stomach. One patient had a button battery impacted in the left external ear canal. Apart from a nasal septal perforation and a tympanic membrane perforation, no major complications were detected. Conclusion. Early detection is the key in the management of button battery foreign bodies. They have a distinctive appearance on radiography, and its prompt removal is mandatory, especially for batteries lodged in the esophagus. Physicians must recognize the hazardous potential and serious implications of such an accident. There is a need for more public education about this serious problem. PMID:23936851

  10. Imaging of penetrating injuries of the head and neck:current practice at a level I trauma center in the United States.

    PubMed

    Saito, Naoko; Hito, Rania; Burke, Peter A; Sakai, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating neck injuries are commonly related to stab wounds and gunshot wounds in the United States. The injuries are classified by penetration site in terms of the three anatomical zones of the neck. Based on this zonal classification system, penetrating injuries to the head and neck have traditionally been evaluated by conventional angiography and/or surgical exploration. In recent years, multidetector-row computed tomography (CT) angiography has significantly improved detectability of vascular injuries and extravascular injuries in the setting of penetrating injuries. CT angiography is a fast and minimally invasive imaging modality to evaluate penetrating injuries of the head and neck for stable patients. The spectrum of penetrating neck injuries includes vascular injury (extravasation, pseudoaneurysm, dissection, occlusion, and arteriovenous fistula), aerodigestive injury (esophageal and tracheal injuries), salivary gland injury, neurologic injury (spinal canal and cerebral injuries), and osseous injury, all of which can be evaluated using CT angiography. Familiarity with the complications and imaging characteristics of penetrating injuries of the head and neck is essential for accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment.

  11. Mutagen sensitivity as measured by induced chromatid breakage as a marker of cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xifeng; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Hsu, T C

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment is now recognized as a multidisciplinary process, extending beyond the scope of traditional epidemiologic methodology to include biological evaluation of interindividual differences in carcinogenic susceptibility. Modulation of environmental exposures by host genetic factors may explain much of the observed interindividual variation in susceptibility to carcinogenesis. These genetic factors include, but are not limited to, carcinogen metabolism and DNA repair capacity. This chapter describes a standardized method for the functional assessment of mutagen sensitivity. This in vitro assay measures the frequency of mutagen-induced breaks in the chromosomes of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mutagen sensitivity assessed by this method has been shown to be a significant risk factor for tobacco-related maladies, especially those of the upper aerodigestive tract. Mutagen sensitivity may therefore be a useful member of a panel of susceptibility markers for defining high-risk subgroups for chemoprevention trials. This chapter describes methods for and discusses results from studies of mutagen sensitivity as measured by quantifying chromatid breaks induced by clastogenic agents, such as the γ-radiation mimetic DNA cross-linking agent bleomycin and chemicals that form so-called bulky DNA adducts, such as 4-nitroquinoline and the tobacco smoke constituent benzo[a]pyrene, in short-term cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  12. Effects of radiation therapy in microvascular anastomoses

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, M.P.

    1985-07-01

    The otolaryngologist, as a head and neck surgeon, commonly cares for patients with upper aerodigestive tract malignancies. Therapy of these neoplasms often requires wide excision. One standard reconstructive procedure utilizes pedicled regional flaps, both dermal and myodermal which have some disadvantages. The shortcomings of these pedicled regional flaps have led to the use of the vascularized free flap in certain cases. The occasional case may lead to catastrophe if microanastomoses fail when combined with radiation. Notwithstanding, many surgical series have reported success when radiation has been given. The present investigation was undertaken to assess the effects of radiation therapy on microvascular anastomoses when radiation is administered pre- or postoperatively or when nonradiated tissue is transferred to an irradiated recipient site. These effects were observed serially in an experimental rat model using a tubed superficial epigastric flap that adequately reflected tissue viability and vascular patency. The histologic changes were then noted over a three month period after completion of both radiation and surgery. This study adds credence to the observation of the lack of deleterious effects of radiation on experimental microvascular anastomotic patency whether the radiation is given before or after surgery or if radiated tissue is approximated to nonradiated vessels.

  13. The management of salivary neoplasms: an overview.

    PubMed

    Spiro, R H

    1985-01-01

    From 1939 through 1973, 2,807 patients with salivary gland tumors received definitive treatment at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. This included 1,965 patients (70%) with parotid gland lesions, 244 patients (8%) with neoplasms in the submandibular gland, and 607 patients (22%) with tumors which arose in the predominantly mucus secreting glands (minor salivary) which line the upper aerodigestive tract. The proportion with malignant tumors was 25, 43, and 82% in the parotid, submandibular and minor salivary glands, respectively; benign tumors occurred more often in women. Mucoepidermoid, acinic cell and most adenocarcinomas were subdivided according to histologic grade and all patients were retrospectively staged according to criteria established by the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging. Treatment was almost exclusively surgical and the extent of the operation performed depended on the extent of the tumor rather than its histology. In patients with malignant parotid tumors, the facial nerve was sacrificed only if it was adherent to or directly involved by the tumor. Lymphadenectomy was usually reserved for those patients who had palpable metastases. Prolonged follow-up (10 years minimum in this study) is necessary in order to appreciate the slow growth of some salivary neoplasms. Results depended upon the complex interplay between the site of origin, the clinical stage, and the histologic appearance of the tumors. This study antedates our current interest in postoperative radiation therapy, but other reports suggest that combination therapy enhances local control.

  14. Correlation of Glottal Closure Using Concurrent Ultrasonography and Nasolaryngoscopy in Children: A Novel Approach to Evaluate Glottal Status

    PubMed Central

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.; Gupta, Alankar; Stoner, Erin; Coley, Brian D.; Wiet, Gregory J.; Shaker, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Endoscopic procedures to assess aerodigestive symptoms by evaluating glottal motion are not practical in neonates because of small nares, respiratory difficulties, or additional stress. Our objective was to determine the temporal correlation between concurrent nasolaryngoscopy (NLS) and ultrasonography (USG) evaluation of glottal motion. Methods Simultaneous USG of the glottis was performed in 10 subjects (5 males, 5 females, age = 4.5 months to 7.1 years) that underwent diagnostic flexible outpatient NLS. The USG transducer was placed on the anterior neck at the level of the vocal cords. The video signals from NLS and USG were integrated and synchronized into real-time cine loops of 1-min duration. Results Frame-by-frame evaluation of 10,800 frames identifying glottal opening and closure time was compared between the two modalities by three observers and the timing of glottal closure was marked. Two investigators, blinded to NLS images, identified ultrasonographically determined glottal closure with 99% and 100% accuracy, and the mean probability of missing a closure frame was 0.007 (95% CI = 0.0008–0.024). Conclusions Temporal characteristics of glottal motion can be quantified by USG with perfect reliability and safety. This method can be useful in measuring the presence and the duration of laryngeal adduction. PMID:16786412

  15. Mechanical behavior of low porosity carbonate rock: from brittle creep to ductile creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, A.; Fortin, J.; Gueguen, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Mechanical compaction and associated porosity reduction play an important role in the diagenesis of porous rocks. They may also affect reservoir rocks during hydrocarbon production, as the pore pressure field is modified. This inelastic compaction can lead to subsidence, cause casing failure, trigger earthquake, or change the fluid transport properties. In addition, inelastic deformation can be time - dependent. In particular, brittle creep phenomena have been deeply investigated since the 90s, especially in sandstones. However knowledge of carbonates behavior is still insufficient. In this experimental study, we focus on the mechanical behavior of a low porosity (9%) white Tavel (France) carbonate rock (>98% calcite) at P-Q conditions beyond the elastic domain. It has been shown that in sandstones composed of quartz, cracks are developing under these conditions. However, in carbonates, calcite minerals can meanwhile also exhibit microplasticity. The samples were deformed in the triaxial cell of the Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris at effective confining pressures ranging from 35 MPa to 85 MPa and room temperature. Experiments were carried on dry and water saturated samples to explore the role played by the pore fluids. Time dependency was investigated by a creep steps methodology: at each step, differential stress was increased rapidly and kept constant for at least 24h. During these steps elastic wave velocities (P and S) and permeability were measured continuously. Our results show two different creep behaviors: (1) brittle creep is observed at low confining pressures, whereas (2) ductile creep is observed at higher confining pressures. These two creep behaviors have a different signature in term of elastic wave velocities and permeability changes. Indeed, in the brittle domain, the primary creep is associated with a decrease of elastic wave velocities and an increase of permeability, and no secondary creep is observed. In the ductile domain, the primary creep

  16. Study of the occlusion effect induced by an earplug: Numerical modelling and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brummund, Martin

    (IRSST) and the Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) has been launched. The present study represents a part of this collaboration and aims at studying the occlusion effect of the system earplug - ear canal through the development of novel numerical models and experimental methods. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  17. Processus mis en jeu dans l'evolution morpho-dynamique de Roberts Bank (Delta du Fraser): Observation et modelisation hydrodynamiques et sedimentaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meule, Samuel

    'un panache de surface et par les chenaux deltaiques. Une forte turbulence favorisera un processus dit de "sedimentation convective induite par un melange turbulent" ("mixing-induced convective sedimentation "). Le comportement des vagues de tempete qui se propagent sur la partie superieure de la pente du Delta du Fraser depend du marnage, de l'incidence de propagation et de la morphologie sous-marine. Ces facteurs controlent une divergence dans le transport sedimentaire au niveau de la rupture de pente deltaique. A maree haute, le transport sedimentaire sera essentiellement "onshore".

  18. Conception, fabrication et validation d'un capteur de direction instantanee d'ecoulement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaab, Quentin

    A Flow Direction Probe was designed and built at the Thermo-Fluids for Transport (TFT) laboratory of Ecole de technologie superieure to enable the study of instantaneous flow reversals in a turbulent separation bubble. The probe's general form is based on the thermal-tuft probe introduced by Eaton et al. (1979). It consists of three parallel wires (one central wire and two sensing wires placed on each side) mounted close to the test surface, perpendicular to the main flow direction. The middle wire is heated by an electric current which generates a heated wake. The heated wake increases the electrical resistance of the sensing wire that is placed downstream of the central wire. Therefore, the flow direction near the wall can be determined by comparing the resistances of the two sensing wires. For that purpose, the two sensing wires are mounted in a Wheatstone bridge and a signal conditioning circuitry, which is a simplification of the one proposed by Eaton et al. (1979), delivers an output voltage that is readable by a digital data acquisition system (1 if the flow moves downstream and 0 otherwise). Therefore, the fraction of time the flow moves downstream (gamma) and the intermittent frequency (fc) can easily be computed. The probe measurement's principle has been evaluated in an acoustic resonator by generating an oscillating flow at about 200Hz. The probe was shown to be in good agreement with the acoustic reference velocity. Then, the signal conditioner performances have been tested by simulating an oscillating flow at 20Hz thanks to a mechanical shaker. A small delay has been highlighted between the sign change of the voltage across the bridge and the actual commutation of the output signal. However, this delay didn't infer the value of gamma. Finally, the probe has been implemented in the TFT's wind tunnel facility where a pressure-driven turbulent separation bubble had been created. The distributions of gamma and fc have been measured below the test surface

  19. Utilisation de la Fibre a Deux Coeurs Non-Lineaire dans les Lasers EN Fibre et Lignes de Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essiambre, Rene-Jean

    L'utilisation des proprietes non-lineaires de la fibre optique a deux coeurs identiques constitue l'objet de cette etude numerique. Les effets non-lineaires dans les fibres optiques ainsi que la theorie des modes couples sont abordes pour decrire le comportement de la fibre a deux coeurs non-lineaire. On a d'abord analyse les proprietes de transmission d'une telle fibre autour de la puissance critique lorsqu'elle est recouplee a elle-meme dans une configuration Sagnac pour differentes valeurs de dispersion. Nous avons observe des effets simultanes de compression et de filtrage non-lineaire des impulsions injectees. On a ensuite considere configuration de laser en fibre incluant une fibre a deux coeurs comme element passif de synchronisation modale adjoint a un mileu amplificateur externe ayant une largeur de gain finie. On a demontre qu'il etait possible de generer ainsi des solitons fondamentaux de puissance variable et ce, avec tres peu d'ondes dispersives. Ces solitons possedent un spectre qui est de l'ordre de grandeur de la largeur du milieu de gain du laser et ils ne sont amplifies que faiblement a chaque passage. La combinaison d'une fibre a deux coeurs et d'un milieu de gain de largeur de bande finie peut egalement etre utilisee pour controler certains effets non-lineaires d'ordre superieur comme l'auto -glissement en frequence du soliton (diffusion Raman intra -impulsion) qui deplace le spectre d'un soliton vers les basses frequences. Pour une certaine plage de parametres on obtient une stabilisation periodique du deplacement en frequence du soliton. La zone de stabilite correspondant a une longueur de fibre de l'ordre de quelques kilometres et a une duree de soliton d'environ deux a cinq picosecondes. Un tel dispositif semble bien adapte pour la transmission d'information par solitons sur de longues distances dans un nouveau regime d'operation. Enfin, tout au long de l'ouvrage, on retrouve des analyses reliees a des systemes deja existants et on situe les

  20. Contribution au developpement d'une methode de controle des procedes dans une usine de bouletage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Claude

    This thesis, a collaborative effort between Ecole de technologie superieure and ArcelorMittal Company, presents the development of a methodology for monitoring and quality control of multivariable industrial production processes. This innovation research mandate was developed at ArcelorMittal Exploitation Miniere (AMEM) pellet plant in Port-Cartier (Quebec, Canada). With this undertaking, ArcelorMittal is striving to maintain its world class level of excellence and continues to pursue initiatives that can augment its competitive advantage worldwide. The plant's gravimetric classification process was retained as a prototype and development laboratory due to its effect on the company's competitiveness and its impact on subsequent steps leading to final production of iron oxide pellets. Concretely, the development of this expertise in process control and in situ monitoring will establish a firm basic knowledge in the fields of complex system physical modeling, data reconciliation, statistical observers, multivariate command and quality control using real-time monitoring of the desirability function. The hydraulic classifier is mathematically modeled. Using planned disturbances on the production line, an identification procedure was established to provide empirical estimations of the model's structural parameters. A new sampling campaign and a previously unpublished data collection and consolidation policy were implemented plant-wide. Access to these invaluable data sources has enabled the establishment of new thresholds that govern the production process and its control. Finally, as a substitute for the traditional quality control process, we have implemented a new strategy based on the use of the desirability function. Our innovation is not in using this Finally, as a substitute for the traditional quality control process, we have implemented a new strategy based on the use of the desirability function. Our innovation is not in using this function as an indicator of

  1. Etude des defauts microscopiques et des proprietes optiques, electroniques et magnetiques du compose neodyme cerium oxyde de cuivre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Pierre

    experimentalement est compare, en fonction de l'intensite et de l'orientation du champ magnetique externe, a des calculs d'effet Zeeman. Alors, que les calculs d'effet Zeeman ne coincident pas avec les donnees experimentales pour un champ applique perpendiculairement aux plans CuO 2, ceux-ci sont en accord avec les resultats de transmission infrarouge pour des champs superieurs a 4 T appliques parallelement a ces plans, indiquant une suppression apparente de l'interaction d'echange anisotrope Nd3+-Cu 2+ dans de telles conditions. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  2. Economic Value of an Advanced Climate Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific missions increasingly need to show the monetary value of knowledge advances in budget-constrained environments. For example, suppose a climate science mission promises to yield decisive information on the rate of human caused global warming within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) creates a standard yardstick for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, setting uncertainty in climate sensitivity to a truncated Roe and Baker (2007) distribution, setting discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate mitigation response DICE Optimal, and a strong response scenario (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we are on the BAU emissions scenario, and that we would switch to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on the uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain that it happens depends, in addition, on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can shorten the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems, exceeds the NPV of the system costs. Our results (Cooke et al. 2013

  3. Place de la bili-IRM dans le diagnostic etiologique des icteres cholestatiques à Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Badji, Nfally; Akpo, Geraud; Deme, Hamidou; Toure, Mouhamadou Hamine; Ly, Mamadou; Ndong, Boucar; Niang, El Hadji

    2016-01-01

    La Bili-IRM est une méthode diagnostique d’introduction relativement récente dans l’arsenal d’exploration de la pathologie bilio-pancréatique. Il s’agit d’une technique fiable reproductible et non invasive, permettant la visualisation directe des voies biliaires et pancréatiques. Le but de ce travail était d’étudier les aspects morphologiques des principales anomalies et d’évaluer la place de la bili-IRM dans le diagnostic étiologique des ictères cholestatiques. Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective réalisée sur 4 ans et six mois (Janvier 2008 à Juillet 2012) portant sur 17 patients colligés dans les services d’imagerie médicale du CHUN de Fann et de l’hôpital Principal de Dakar. Tous les patients ont bénéficié d’une IRM (1,5T) avec des protocoles adaptés en fonction de la pathologie explorée. Les dossiers retenus sont ceux dont le diagnostic a été établi à partir du bilan biologique et ayant bénéficié à la fois d’une bili-IRM et d’une exploration chirurgicale. Il s’agissait de 05 femmes et de 12 hommes soit un sexe ratio de 2.4. L’âge moyen des patients était de 58 ans avec des extrêmes de 35 et 81 ans. Les tumeurs de Klatskin étaient observées chez 07 patients avec une forme infiltrante dans 71% des cas et une forme exophytique dans 28% des cas. Les cancers de la vésicule biliaire étaient notés dans 28% des cas. Les cancers de la tête du pancréas représentaient 28% des cas. La lithiase de la voie biliaire principale était présente chez 05 patients avec un empierrement cholédocien dans 60% des cas et une lithiase unique dans 40% des cas. Toutes ces lésions étaient responsables d’une dilatation des VBIH. Un cas de dilatation des voies biliaires intra et extra hépatiques était retrouvé sans cause bilio-pancréatique. La bili-IRM est l’examen de choix dans l’exploration des ictères cholestatiques. Elle doit être demandée en première intention lorsqu’on suspecte une lithiase r

  4. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khader, A.; Rosenberg, D.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrate pollution poses a health risk for infants whose freshwater drinking source is groundwater. This risk creates a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include: (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, pollution transport processes, and climate (Khader and McKee, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine where methemoglobinemia is the main health problem associated with the principal pollutant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not-use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs include healthcare for methemoglobinemia, purchase of bottled water, and installation and maintenance of the groundwater monitoring system. At current

  5. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khader, A. I.; Rosenberg, D. E.; McKee, M.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater contaminated with nitrate poses a serious health risk to infants when this contaminated water is used for culinary purposes. To avoid this health risk, people need to know whether their culinary water is contaminated or not. Therefore, there is a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management options. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision-maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate-contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, contaminant transport processes, and climate (Khader, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine, where methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) is the main health problem associated with the principal contaminant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs

  6. Prediagnostic serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers are correlated with future development of lung and esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Brieze R; Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Pak, Jamie S; Brennan, Paul; Khademi, Hooman; Genden, Eric M; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Sikora, Andrew G

    2014-09-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that prediagnostic serum levels of 20 cancer-associated inflammatory biomarkers correlate directly with future development of head and neck, esophageal, and lung cancers in a high-risk prospective cohort. This is a nested case-control pilot study of subjects enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study, an ongoing epidemiologic project assessing cancer trends in Golestan, Iran. We measured a panel of 20 21 cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory molecules using Luminex technology in serum samples collected 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis in 78 aerodigestive cancer cases and 81 controls. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon rank sum test, odds ratios, receiver operating characteristic areas of discrimination, and multivariate analysis. Biomarkers were profoundly and globally elevated in future esophageal and lung cancer patients compared to controls. Odds ratios were significant for association between several biomarkers and future development of esophageal cancer, including interleukin-1Rα (IL-1Ra; 35.9), interferon α2 (IFN-a2; 34.0), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2; 17.4), and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF; 17.4). The same pattern was observed among future lung cancer cases for G-CSF (27.7), GM-CSF (13.3), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-a; 8.6). By contrast, the majority of biomarkers studied showed no significant correlation with future head and neck cancer development. This study provides the first direct evidence that multiple inflammatory biomarkers are coordinately elevated in future lung and esophageal cancer patients 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis. PMID:25040886

  7. Prediagnostic serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers are correlated with future development of lung and esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Keeley, Brieze R; Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Pak, Jamie S; Brennan, Paul; Khademi, Hooman; Genden, Eric M; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Sikora, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that prediagnostic serum levels of 20 cancer-associated inflammatory biomarkers correlate directly with future development of head and neck, esophageal, and lung cancers in a high-risk prospective cohort. This is a nested case–control pilot study of subjects enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study, an ongoing epidemiologic project assessing cancer trends in Golestan, Iran. We measured a panel of 20 21cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory molecules using Luminex technology in serum samples collected 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis in 78 aerodigestive cancer cases and 81 controls. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon rank sum test, odds ratios, receiver operating characteristic areas of discrimination, and multivariate analysis. Biomarkers were profoundly and globally elevated in future esophageal and lung cancer patients compared to controls. Odds ratios were significant for association between several biomarkers and future development of esophageal cancer, including interleukin-1Rα (IL-1Ra; 35.9), interferon α2 (IFN-a2; 34.0), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2; 17.4), and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF; 17.4). The same pattern was observed among future lung cancer cases for G-CSF (27.7), GM-CSF (13.3), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-a; 8.6). By contrast, the majority of biomarkers studied showed no significant correlation with future head and neck cancer development. This study provides the first direct evidence that multiple inflammatory biomarkers are coordinately elevated in future lung and esophageal cancer patients 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis. PMID:25040886

  8. IgG4-Related Sclerosing Disease, an Emerging Entity: A Review of a Multi-System Disease

    PubMed Central

    Divatia, Mukul; Kim, Sun A

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) is a recently defined emerging entity characterized by a diffuse or mass forming inflammatory reaction rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with fibrosclerosis and obliterative phlebitis. IgG4-RSD usually affects middle aged and elderly patients, with a male predominance. It is associated with an elevated serum titer of IgG4, which acts as a marker for this recently characterized entity. The prototype is IgG4-related sclerosing pancreatitis or autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Other common sites of involvement are the hepatobiliary tract, salivary gland, orbit, and lymph node, however practically any organ can be involved, including upper aerodigestive tract, lung, aorta, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, soft tissue, skin, central nervous system, breast, kidney, and prostate. Fever or constitutional symptoms usually do not comprise part of the clinical picture. Laboratory findings detected include raised serum globulin, IgG and IgG4. An association with autoantibody detection (such as antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor) is seen in some cases. Steroid therapy comprises the mainstay of treatment. Disease progression with involvement of multiple organ-sites may be encountered in a subset of cases and may follow a relapsing-remitting course. The principal histopathologic findings in several extranodal sites include lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, lymphoid follicle formation, sclerosis and obliterative phlebitis, along with atrophy and destruction of tissues. Immunohistochemical staining shows increased IgG4+ cells in the involved tissues (>50 per high-power field, with IgG4/IgG ratio >40%). IgG4-RSD may potentially be rarely associated with the development of lymphoma and carcinoma. However, the nature and pathogenesis of IgG4-RSD are yet to be fully elucidated and provide immense scope for further studies. PMID:22187229

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol related cancer mortality among men: to what extent do they differ between Western European populations?

    PubMed Central

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; Stirbu, Irina; Borrell, Carme; Bopp, Matthias; Regidor, Enrique; Heine Strand, Bjørn; Deboosere, Patrick; Lundberg, Olle; Leclerc, Annette; Costa, Giuseppe; Chastang, Jean-Francois; Esnaola, Santiago; Martikainen, Pekka; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2007-01-01

    We aim to study socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol related cancers mortality (upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus) and liver) in men and to investigate whether the contribution of these cancers to socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality differs within Western Europe. We used longitudinal mortality datasets including causes of death. Data were collected during the 1990s among men aged 30–74 years in 13 European populations (Madrid, the Basque region, Barcelona, Turin, Switzerland (German and Latin part), France, Belgium (Walloon and Flemish part, Brussels), Norway, Sweden, Finland). Socioeconomic status was measured using the educational level declared at the census at the beginning of the follow-up period. We conducted Poisson regression analyses and used both relative (Relative index of inequality (RII)) and absolute (mortality rates difference) measures of inequality. For UADT cancers, the RII’s were above 3.5 in France, Switzerland (both parts) and Turin whereas for liver cancer they were the highest (around 2.5) in Madrid, France and Turin. The contribution of alcohol related cancer to socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality was 29–36% in France and the Spanish populations, 17–23% in Switzerland and Turin, and 5–15% in Belgium and the Nordic countries. We did not observe any correlation between mortality rates differences for lung and UADT cancers, confirming that the pattern found for UADT cancers is not only due to smoking. This study suggests that alcohol use substantially influences socioeconomic inequalities in male cancer mortality in France, Spain and Switzerland but not in the Nordic countries and nor in Belgium. PMID:17415714

  10. Endoscopic surveillance of head and neck cancer in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Minoru; Ishihara, Ryu; Hamada, Kenta; Tonai, Yusuke; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Matsuura, Noriko; Kanesaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Multiple squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) frequently arise in the upper aerodigestive tract, referred to as the field cancerization phenomenon. The aim of this study was to elucidate the detailed clinical features of second primary head and neck (H&N) SCCs arising in patients with esophageal SCC. Patients and methods: A total of 818 patients underwent endoscopic resection for superficial esophageal cancer between January 2006 and December 2013. Of these, 439 patients met our inclusion criteria, and we retrospectively investigated the incidence, primary sites, and stages of second primary H&N SCCs in these patients. Results: A total of 53 metachronous H&N SCCs developed in 40 patients after a median follow-up period of 46 months (range 9 – 109). The cumulative incidence rates of metachronous H&N SCCs at 3, 5, and 7 years were 5.3 %, 9.7 %, and 17.2 %, respectively. These lesions were frequently located at pyriform sinus or in the posterior wall of the pharynx (70 %, 37/53 lesions). Most of the lesions were detected at an early stage, though 4 lesions were associated with lymph node metastasis when their primary sites were detected (1 postcricoid area, 2 posterior wall of hypopharynx, and 1 lateral wall of oropharynx). Conclusions: Patients with esophageal SCC should undergo careful inspection of the pyriform sinus and posterior wall of the pharynx for detection of H&N SCCs. Methods to open the hypopharyngeal space, such as the Valsalva maneuver, should be included in the surveillance program. PMID:27556090

  11. Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

  12. Incidence, risk factors and outcomes of de novo malignancies post liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mukthinuthalapati, Pavan Kedar; Gotur, Raghavender; Ghabril, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is associated with a 2 to 7 fold higher, age and gender adjusted, risk of de novo malignancy. The overall incidence of de novo malignancy post LT ranges from 2.2% to 26%, and 5 and 10 years incidence rates are estimated at 10% to 14.6% and 20% to 32%, respectively. The main risk factors for de novo malignancy include immunosuppression with impaired immunosurveillance, and a number of patient factors which include; age, latent oncogenic viral infections, tobacco and alcohol use history, and underlying liver disease. The most common cancers after LT are non-melanoma skin cancers, accounting for approximately 37% of de novo malignancies, with a noted increase in the ratio of squamous to basal cell cancers. While these types of skin cancer do not impact patient survival, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and solid organ cancer, accounting for 25% and 48% of malignancies, are associated with increased mortality. Patients developing these types of cancer are diagnosed at more advanced stages, and their cancers behave more aggressively compared with the general population. Patients undergoing LT for primary sclerosing cholangitis (particularly with inflammatory bowel disease) and alcoholic liver disease have high rates of malignancies compared with patients undergoing LT for other indications. These populations are at particular risk for gastrointestinal and aerodigestive cancers respectively. Counseling smoking cessation, skin protection from sun exposure and routine clinical follow-up are the current approach in practice. There are no standardized surveillance protocol, but available data suggests that regimented surveillance strategies are needed and capable of yielding cancer diagnosis at earlier stages with better resulting survival. Evidence-based strategies are needed to guide optimal surveillance and safe minimization of immunosuppression. PMID:27134701

  13. Suppression of Proinflammatory and Prosurvival Biomarkers in Oral Cancer Patients Consuming a Black Raspberry Phytochemical-Rich Troche.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Thomas J; Uhrig, Lana K; Pearl, Dennis K; Casto, Bruce C; Warner, Blake M; Clinton, Steven K; Sardo-Molmenti, Christine L; Ferguson, Jeanette M; Daly, Brett T; Riedl, Kenneth; Schwartz, Steven J; Vodovotz, Yael; Buchta, Anthony J; Schuller, David E; Ozer, Enver; Agrawal, Amit; Weghorst, Christopher M

    2016-02-01

    Black raspberries (BRB) demonstrate potent inhibition of aerodigestive tract carcinogenesis in animal models. However, translational clinical trials evaluating the ability of BRB phytochemicals to impact molecular biomarkers in the oral mucosa remain limited. The present phase 0 study addresses a fundamental question for oral cancer food-based prevention: Do BRB phytochemicals successfully reach the targeted oral tissues and reduce proinflammatory and antiapoptotic gene expression profiles? Patients with biopsy-confirmed oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) administered oral troches containing freeze-dried BRB powder from the time of enrollment to the date of curative intent surgery (13.9 ± 1.27 days). Transcriptional biomarkers were evaluated in patient-matched OSCCs and noninvolved high at-risk mucosa (HARM) for BRB-associated changes. Significant expression differences between baseline OSCC and HARM tissues were confirmed using a panel of genes commonly deregulated during oral carcinogenesis. Following BRB troche administration, the expression of prosurvival genes (AURKA, BIRC5, EGFR) and proinflammatory genes (NFKB1, PTGS2) were significantly reduced. There were no BRB-associated grade 3-4 toxicities or adverse events, and 79.2% (N = 30) of patients successfully completed the study with high levels of compliance (97.2%). The BRB phytochemicals cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-xylosylrutinoside were detected in all OSCC tissues analyzed, demonstrating that bioactive components were successfully reaching targeted OSCC tissues. We confirmed that hallmark antiapoptotic and proinflammatory molecular biomarkers were overexpressed in OSCCs and that their gene expression was significantly reduced following BRB troche administration. As these molecular biomarkers are fundamental to oral carcinogenesis and are modifiable, they may represent emerging biomarkers of molecular efficacy for BRB-mediated oral cancer chemoprevention.

  14. Cancer incidence among alcoholic liver disease patients in Finland: A retrospective registry study during years 1996-2013.

    PubMed

    Sahlman, Perttu; Nissinen, Markku; Pukkala, Eero; Färkkilä, Martti

    2016-06-01

    Both alcohol abuse and liver cirrhosis are known risk factors for various cancers. This article was aimed to assess the long-term risk of malignancies among patients with severe alcoholic liver disease (ALD), i.e., alcoholic liver cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis. A cohort of 8,796 male and 3,077 female ALD patients from 1996 to 2012 was identified from the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register. This nationwide cohort was combined with the data from the Finnish Cancer Registry for incidence of malignancies during the years 1996-2013. The cancer cases diagnosed were compared with the number of cancers in the general population. The number of malignancies in our cohort was 1,052 vs. 368 expected. There was statistically significant excess of cancers of the liver, (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 59.20; 95% CI 53.11-65.61), pancreas (SIR 3.71; 95% CI 2.72-4.94), pharynx (SIR 9.25; 95% CI 6.05-13.56), mouth (SIR 8.31; 95% CI 4.84-13,29), oesophagus (SIR 7.92; 95% CI 5.49-11.07), tongue (SIR 7,21; 95% CI 3.60-12.89), larynx (SIR 5.20; 95% CI 2.77-8.89), lung (SIR 2.77; 95% CI 2.27-3.32), stomach (SIR 2.76; 95% CI 1.79-4.07), kidney (SIR 2.69; 95% CI 1.84-3.79) and colon (SIR 2.33; 95% CI 1.70-3.11). There was no decreased risk of any cancer among ALD patients. Severe ALD is associated with markedly increased risk of malignancies. The risk is especially high for hepatocellular carcinoma, but also significantly increased for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, pancreas and kidneys, and warrants cancer surveillance in selected cases. PMID:26756434

  15. Intra-cheek immunization as a novel vaccination route for therapeutic vaccines of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using plasmo virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Rodney; Rochefort, Juliette; Guillot-Delost, Maude; Tanaka, Kae; Le Moignic, Aline; Noizat, Clara; Baillou, Claude; Mateo, Véronique; Carpentier, Antoine F; Tartour, Eric; Bertolus, Chloé; Bellier, Bertrand; Lescaille, Géraldine; Lemoine, François M

    2016-07-01

    Despite current therapy, head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) arising from various mucosal sites of the upper aero-digestive tract frequently relapse in a loco-regional manner and have a poor prognosis. Our objective was to validate an innovative mucosal route of vaccination using plasmo virus-like particles (pVLPs) in a pre-clinical orthotopic model of HNSCCs. For this purpose, we used pVLP-E7, that are plasmid DNA encoding retroviral virus-like particles carrying a truncated E7 oncoprotein from HPV-16 as antigen model, to vaccinate mice bearing pre-established TC-1 tumors implanted into the buccal mucosa. pVLP-E7 were combined with clinical grade TLR agonists (Imiquimod and CpG-ODN). In this pre-clinical orthotopic model, whose tumor microenvironment resembles to those of human HNSCCs, different mucosal vaccination routes were tested for their ability to elicit efficient immune and antitumoral responses. Results showed that mucosal intra-cheek (IC) vaccinations using pVLP-E7, comparatively to intradermic vaccinations (ID), gave rise to higher mobilization of mucosal (CD49a(+)) CD8(+) specific effector T cells in both tumor draining lymph nodes (TdLNs) and tumor microenvironment resulting in better antitumor effects and in a long-term protection against tumor rechallenge. In vivo CD8(+) depletion demonstrated that antitumoral effects were fully dependent upon the presence of CD8(+) T cells. Validation of IC mucosal vaccinations with pVLPs combined with adjuvants using a pre-clinical orthotopic model of HNSCC provides valuable pre-clinical data to rapidly envision the use of such therapeutic vaccines in patients with HNSCCs, inasmuch as vaccinal components and adjuvants can be easily obtained as clinical grade reagents. PMID:27622018

  16. Lifestyle and cancer: effect of parental divorce.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Chen, Bowang

    2006-12-01

    According to previous studies, divorced individuals have increased risks of cancers related to alcohol and tobacco consumption and sexual habits, but the increases are balanced with decreased risks of many common cancers. In the present study, cancer risks were analyzed for 0-70-year-old offspring of divorced parents, on the basis the Swedish Family-Cancer Database with cancer data from the years 1958 to 2002. We calculated standardized incidence ratios for cancer among offspring of divorced parents (19,000 cancer patients) and compared them with offspring of stably married parents (121,000 cancer patients). Standardized incidence ratios were adjusted for many factors, including socio-economic status. Offspring of divorced parents were divided into groups depending on whether their mothers, fathers or both had had children with different partners. Offspring of divorced parents had an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract, esophageal, anal, pancreatic, lung and cervical cancers. Decreased risks were noted for Hodgkin's disease and bone cancer. For Hodgkin's disease, the data suggest protective effects through early exposure to childhood pathogens but for bone cancer mechanisms remain to be established. The overall cancer risk for offspring of divorced parents was at or above unity. The results show that offspring of divorced parents have increased cancer risks at tobacco-related, alcohol-related and sex-related sites, in analogy to their parent, but they lack decreased risks at common sites, experienced by their parents. Divorce is becoming increasingly common in many countries and any deviant cancer patterns among offspring of divorced parents will have an impact on the population risk.

  17. Effects of ALDH2 Genotype, PPI Treatment and L-Cysteine on Carcinogenic Acetaldehyde in Gastric Juice and Saliva after Intragastric Alcohol Administration

    PubMed Central

    Maejima, Ryuhei; Iijima, Katsunori; Kaihovaara, Pertti; Hatta, Waku; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Salaspuro, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACH) associated with alcoholic beverages is Group 1 carcinogen to humans (IARC/WHO). Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), a major ACH eliminating enzyme, is genetically deficient in 30–50% of Eastern Asians. In alcohol drinkers, ALDH2-deficiency is a well-known risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers, i.e., head and neck cancer and esophageal cancer. However, there is only a limited evidence for stomach cancer. In this study we demonstrated for the first time that ALDH2 deficiency results in markedly increased exposure of the gastric mucosa to acetaldehyde after intragastric administration of alcohol. Our finding provides concrete evidence for a causal relationship between acetaldehyde and gastric carcinogenesis. A plausible explanation is the gastric first pass metabolism of ethanol. The gastric mucosa expresses alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, especially at the high ethanol concentrations prevailing in the stomach after the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The gastric mucosa also possesses the acetaldehyde-eliminating ALDH2 enzyme. Due to decreased mucosal ALDH2 activity, the elimination of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde is decreased, which results in its accumulation in the gastric juice. We also demonstrate that ALDH2 deficiency, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment, and L-cysteine cause independent changes in gastric juice and salivary acetaldehyde levels, indicating that intragastric acetaldehyde is locally regulated by gastric mucosal ADH and ALDH2 enzymes, and by oral microbes colonizing an achlorhydric stomach. Markedly elevated acetaldehyde levels were also found at low intragastric ethanol concentrations corresponding to the ethanol levels of many foodstuffs, beverages, and dairy products produced by fermentation. A capsule that slowly releases L-cysteine effectively eliminated acetaldehyde from the gastric juice of PPI-treated ALDH2-active and ALDH2-deficient subjects. These

  18. Effects of the holmium:YAG and erbium:YAG lasers on endotracheal tubes.

    PubMed

    Kautzky, M; Fitzgerald, R; Dechtyar, I; Schenk, P

    1993-01-01

    Endotracheal tube (ET) fire is the most frequent complication arising with laser surgery in the upper aerodigestive tract. No data are available about the safety of commonly used ETs when used with recently developed high-energy pulsed lasers, working with only a minimal thermal component but mainly photoablative. A comparative in vitro study was performed with three types of endotracheal tubes to assess their resistance to wall and cuff damage by the laser beams of two pulsed infrared solid-state lasers. ET perforation was attempted with the erbium:YAG (lambda = 2,930 nm) and holmium:YAG (lambda = 2,120 nm) lasers. For all experiments, a repetition rate of 5 Hz was used. The 2.5-microseconds holmium:YAG pulses were coupled into a nylon fibre of 400 microns diameter. The 2.0-microseconds erbium:YAG laser pulses were applied to ETs through a lens system providing a spot size diameter of 200 microns. Polyvinyl chloride and silicon ET segments were exposed to laser pulse energies from 97 to 500 mJ in the presence of different anaesthetic gas mixtures. The time from the onset of exposure to tube perforation was recorded. Thermal gradients following laser application were measured. Laser exposure was continued for up to 90 s, unless tube ignition occurred. At all energy levels tested, the photo-ablative mechanism of laser-tube interaction, with few thermal components, led to laser-induced tube ignition if an FiO2 > 21% for the holmium:YAG and 34% for the erbium:YAG laser was established. With increasing pulse energies, ET segments ignited sooner. MLT tubes performed best in the present safety test. PMID:8446385

  19. Laser resistant stainless steel endotracheal tube: experimental and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fried, M P; Mallampati, S R; Liu, F C; Kaplan, S; Caminear, D S; Samonte, B R

    1991-01-01

    A fire due to endotracheal tube (ET) ignition is a catastrophic event that may occur during laser surgery of the upper airway, regardless of the wavelength utilized. Although methods exist that permit laser surgery without an ET, this is frequently not feasible. The current investigation was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a double-cuffed stainless steel ET, first in the laboratory and subsequently in a clinical setting. Bench testing was performed using CO2 (both standard and milliwatt) and KTP/532 lasers. Only the distal polyvinyl chloride cuffed end of the tube was potentially ignitable, however, the appropriate use of saline to fill the cuffs allowed only for cuff perforation without ignition. Canine testing was performed in 10 animals: 4 dogs were intubated from 3 to 4.5 hours with the laser resistant stainless steel endotracheal tube (LRSS-ET) (Laser-Flex Tracheal Tube; Mallinckrodt Anesthesia Products, St. Louis, MO) and 2 with an aluminum tape wrapped red rubber ET. Visual and histological examination were performed in both groups at 3 and 7 days. Four dogs underwent CO2 laser laryngeal surgery with visual and histological examination performed at 7 days postoperatively. No untoward effects could be demonstrated due to the LRSS-ET. A clinical study was then performed in 24 patients who underwent laser surgery of the upper aerodigestive tract with either a CO2 or KTP/532 laser. In all cases ventilation was adequate, the shaft of the LRSS-ET proved impervious to the laser, and the distal end of the tube protected the tracheobronchial tree safely.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1861569

  20. Comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the Practice of Otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Heloisa Sobreira; Pinto, José Antonio; Zavanela, Adma Roberta; Cavallini, André Freitas; Freitas, Gabriel Santos; Garcia, Fabiola Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  The Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease has a prevalence of ∼12% of the urban population in Brazil. Koufman proposed the term to designate Laryngeal Pharyngeal Reflux (LPR) symptoms, signs or tissue damage resulting from aggression of the gastrointestinal contents in the upper aerodigestive tract. Belafsky et al proposed a score that points to inflammatory laryngeal signs through videolaryngoscopic findings, the Reflux Finding Score (RFS). Moreover, in 2002, they published the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). Objective  The objective of this study is to provide a comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the practice of Otorhinolaryngology. Methods  Our study involved a total of 135 patients who visited the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) clinic Núcleo de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço de São Paulo between April 2014 and May 2015 with suspected LPR. We excluded nine patients and the study group was 126 patients. All patients were ranked by their RSI and RFS scores. Results  The study group consisted of 126 patients (88 women and 38 men). Their main complaints were cough (40.4%), globus (21.4%), dysphonia (19.8%), throat clearing (15.8%), postnasal drip (3.17%), snoring (1.5%), dysphagia (1.5%), cacosmia (0.7%), and regurgitation (1.5%). The RSI ranges from 13 to 42 with a mean of 20.7 (SD = 6.67). The RFS ranged from 3 to 19 with a mean of 9.53 (SD = 2.64). Conclusion  The RSI and RFS can easily be included in ENT routines as objective parameters, with low cost and high practicality. Based on the clinical index, the specialist can evaluate the need for further tests. PMID:27413402

  1. Mitochondrial DNA content increase in response to cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Masayesva, Brett G; Mambo, Elizabeth; Taylor, Rodney J; Goloubeva, Olga G; Zhou, Shaoyu; Cohen, Yoram; Minhas, Khalid; Koch, Wayne; Sciubba, James; Alberg, Anthony J; Sidransky, David; Califano, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    An increase in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and decline in mitochondrial function occurs with aging and in response to DNA-damaging agents, including tobacco smoke. We did a cross-sectional study and quantified changes in mtDNA content in a population of individuals with varied smoking and alcohol exposure. Age, smoking history, ethanol intake, and other demographic data were characterized for 604 individuals participating in a screening study for smoking-related upper aerodigestive malignancy. Total DNA was extracted from exfoliated cells in saliva. DNA from a nuclear gene, beta-actin, and two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase I and II (Cox I and Cox II), were quantified by real-time PCR. mtDNA content was correlated with age, exposure history, and other variables using multivariate regression analyses. A significant increase (P<0.001) in mtDNA content was noted in smokers (31% and 29% increase for Cox I and Cox II, respectively) and former smokers (31% and 34%) when compared with never smokers. This association persisted after adjustment for other significant factors including age, alcohol drinking, and income (P<0.001). Increased mtDNA content was positively associated with pack-years of smoking (P=0.02). Despite an average smoking cessation interval of 21 years in former smokers, tobacco cessation interval was not statistically significantly associated with mtDNA content. Smoking is associated with increased mtDNA content in a dose-dependent fashion. Mitochondrial DNA alterations in response to smoking persist for several decades after smoking cessation, consistent with long-term, smoking-related damage.

  2. Intranasal delivery of Norwalk virus-like particles formulated in an in situ gelling, dry powder vaccine.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Lissette S; Shira, Samantha; Berta, Alice N; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Medi, Babu M; Tizard, Ian; Ni, Yawei; Arntzen, Charles J; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2011-07-18

    The development of a vaccine to prevent norovirus infections has been focused on immunization at a mucosal surface, but has been limited by the low immunogenicity of self-assembling Norwalk virus-like particles (NV VLPs) delivered enterically or at nasal surfaces. Nasal immunization, which offers the advantage of ease of immunization, faces obstacles imposed by the normal process of mucociliary clearance, which limits residence time of applied antigens. Herein, we describe the use of a dry powder formulation (GelVac) of an inert in situ gelling polysaccharide (GelSite) extracted from Aloe vera for nasal delivery of NV VLP antigen. Powder formulations, with or without NV VLP antigen, were similar in structure in dry form or when rehydrated in simulated nasal fluids. Immunogenicity of the dry powder VLP formulation was compared to equivalent antigen/adjuvant liquid formulations in animals. For the GelVac powder, we observed superior NV-specific serum and mucosal (aerodigestive and reproductive tracts) antibody responses relative to liquid formulations. Incorporation of the TLR7 agonist gardiquimod in dry powder formulations did not enhance antibody responses, although its inclusion in liquid formulations did enhance VLP immunogenicity irrespective of the presence or absence of GelSite. We interpret these data as showing that GelSite-based dry powder formulations (1) stabilize the immunogenic structural properties of VLPs and (2) induce systemic and mucosal antibody titers which are equal or greater than those achieved by VLPs plus adjuvant in a liquid formulation. We conclude that in situ gelation of the GelVac dry powder formulation at nasal mucosal surfaces delays mucociliary clearance and thereby prolongs VLP antigen exposure to immune effector sites.

  3. Comparing histone deacetylase inhibitor responses in genetically engineered mouse lung cancer models and a window of opportunity trial in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian; Galimberti, Fabrizio; Erkmen, Cherie P; Memoli, Vincent; Chinyengetere, Fadzai; Sempere, Lorenzo; Beumer, Jan H; Anyang, Bean N; Nugent, William; Johnstone, David; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Kurie, Jonathan M; Li, Hua; Direnzo, James; Guo, Yongli; Freemantle, Sarah J; Dragnev, Konstantin H; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2013-08-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi; vorinostat) responses were studied in murine and human lung cancer cell lines and genetically engineered mouse lung cancer models. Findings were compared with a window of opportunity trial in aerodigestive tract cancers. In human (HOP62, H522, and H23) and murine transgenic (ED-1, ED-2, LKR-13, and 393P, driven, respectively, by cyclin E, degradation-resistant cyclin E, KRAS, or KRAS/p53) lung cancer cell lines, vorinostat reduced growth, cyclin D1, and cyclin E levels, but induced p27, histone acetylation, and apoptosis. Other biomarkers also changed. Findings from transgenic murine lung cancer models were integrated with those from a window of opportunity trial that measured vorinostat pharmacodynamic responses in pre- versus posttreatment tumor biopsies. Vorinostat repressed cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression in murine transgenic lung cancers and significantly reduced lung cancers in syngeneic mice. Vorinostat also reduced cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression, but increased p27 levels in post- versus pretreatment human lung cancer biopsies. Notably, necrotic and inflammatory responses appeared in posttreatment biopsies. These depended on intratumoral HDACi levels. Therefore, HDACi treatments of murine genetically engineered lung cancer models exert similar responses (growth inhibition and changes in gene expression) as observed in lung cancer cell lines. Moreover, enhanced pharmacodynamic responses occurred in the window of opportunity trial, providing additional markers of response that can be evaluated in subsequent HDACi trials. Thus, combining murine and human HDACi trials is a strategy to translate preclinical HDACi treatment outcomes into the clinic. This study uncovered clinically tractable mechanisms to engage in future HDACi trials.

  4. The Case for Requiring Graphic Warning Labels on Smokeless Tobacco Product Packages.

    PubMed

    Pakhale, Smita; Samet, Jonathan; Folan, Patricia; Leone, Frank; White, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    On November 10, 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved, for the first time, the sale of smokeless tobacco products authorized under the new premarket tobacco application pathway. This Food and Drug Administration regulatory decision draws attention to the growing worldwide use of smokeless tobacco products in general. Use of these tobacco products is particularly popular in low- and middle-income countries of Asia. Due to aggressive and strategic marketing to children, young adults, and current smokers, rates of smokeless tobacco use in men of all ages are on the rise in United States and elsewhere. The tobacco industry also continues to market these products to current cigarette smokers for use in the growing number of "smoke-free environments." Smokeless tobacco products are associated with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, particularly the oral cavity, esophagus, and pancreas; cardiovascular diseases; small-for-gestational-age infants; premature births; increased risk of apnea; and stillbirth. There is no convincing evidence regarding the efficacy of smokeless tobacco, including snus, to promote smoking cessation. Rather, studies from Europe and the United States demonstrate that smokeless tobacco use may facilitate regular cigarette smoking by acting as a gateway drug, especially for children. Caution is warranted before proposing smokeless tobacco as a harm-reduction strategy, in part because of the potential for further promoting smokeless tobacco in low- and middle-income countries where use is already widespread. Continued vigilance through comprehensive surveillance is warranted. We strongly recommend the use of graphic warning labels as a "no regrets" strategy for all smokeless tobacco products marketed globally. PMID:26784741

  5. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ye Jin; Jung, Myeong Hee; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy. Methods and finding We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group. Conclusions The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin. PMID:27058240

  6. Survey of otorhinolaryngologists on their clinical examinations performed in patients with suspected sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Plößl, Sebastian; Herzog, Beatrice; Glien, Alexander; Plontke, Stefan; Herzog, Michael

    2016-04-01

    There is currently no standardized ear, nose, and throat (ENT) clinical examination for patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). As a result, there are large inter-individual differences in the examinations due to an inadequate estimation of the relevance of certain anatomic sites. We aimed to identify which examinations/dynamic tests are considered most relevant by German ENT physicians. A questionnaire was designed, evaluating 23 anatomic sites/dynamic tests of the upper aero-digestive tract. The questionnaire was sent to all German ENT departments (n = 153), including universities and other tertiary or secondary referral centers, by postal mail. In addition, almost all private ENT specialists registered with the German professional association (n = 2496) were contacted via e-mail. Participants assessed how often they examined the sites/dynamic tests, subjective importance, and the impact on the therapeutic procedure. A mean score of relevance (mSOR) was generated (minimum score 1; maximum score 75) from these three items. The response rate for hospitals was 58.8 %; while, it was 4.1 % for ENT specialists in private practice. Therefore, the total response rate was 7.3 %. Of the 23 assessed items, some showed a high overall relevance, such as the tonsils (mSOR 64.75), webbing (mSOR 58.14), uvula (mSOR 55.12), or tongue base (mSOR 53.99). Other examinations, such as simulated snoring (mSOR 19.34) or the Mueller maneuver (mSOR 18.98), were estimated as less relevant. Our data reflect the assessment of German otorhinolaryngologists on the clinical examination of SDB patients. The results should be considered as a basis for compiling a standardized procedure.

  7. Argyrophilic nuclear organizer region and p73 expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas: Teammates or adversaries?

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswaran, Sunil Pazhayanur; Nathan, Leviana Ercylina; Mutalik, Vimi Sunil; Shamsuddin, Noor Hasni

    2016-01-01

    Context: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) consists of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) arising in the upper aerodigestive tract and accounts for 5% of cancers worldwide. In Malaysia, cancers of the nasopharynx, larynx, tongue and oral cavity are among the top twenty most common cancers in men. Argyrophilic nuclear organizer regions (AgNORs) are increased from normal mucosa to premalignant lesions to malignant lesions and have been associated with tumor grade and prognosis of patients. Although p73 is not mutated in human cancers, high levels of p73 expression have been associated with tumor differentiation status and patient prognosis. Aims: To investigate the correlation between AgNORs and p73 immunoexpression. Settings and Design: Fifty-two formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded HNSCC cases and ten controls were collected from the Hospital. Subjects and Methods: Tissue blocks were sectioned, dewaxed and rehydrated before silver nitrate staining to determine the AgNOR count and immunohistochemical staining to determine the p73 expression. Adopting the scoring system used by Chen et al. for p73 staining, the proportion of positively stained cells in the whole epithelial layer was determined. Staining was considered positive if >10% of epithelial cells were stained. Statistical Analysis Used: Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated using SPSS 18 software to determine the relationship between the p73 score against tumor differentiation, mean AgNOR counts and tumor grade and between the mean AgNOR count and p73 score. Results: Positive results were found in the immunoexpression of p73. Positive results were seen with the staining of AgNOR; however, in comparison with the entire sample size, a significant correlation between mean AgNOR count and p73 immunohistochemical expression was not obtained. Conclusions: AgNOR count showed a linear and decreasing trend as the p73 score increases. This correlation was statistically insignificant. PMID:27721608

  8. Combination of Anti-IGF-1R Antibody A12 and Ionizing Radiation in Upper Respiratory Tract Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Riesterer, Oliver; Yang Qiuan; Raju, Uma; Torres, Mylin; Molkentine, David; Patel, Nalini; Valdecanas, David; Milas, Luka; Ang, K. Kian

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The IGF1/IGF-1R signaling pathway has emerged as a potential determinant of radiation resistance in human cancer cell lines. Therefore we investigated the potency of monoclonal anti-IGF-1R antibody, A12, to enhance radiation response in upper respiratory tract cancers. Methods and Materials: Cell lines were assessed for IGF-1R expression and IGF1-dependent response to A12 or radiation using viability and clonogenic cancer cell survival assays. In vivo response of tumor xenografts to 10 or 20 Gy and A12 (0.25-2 mg x 3) was assessed using growth delay assays. Combined treatment effects were also analyzed by immunohistochemical assays for tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, and vascular endothelial growth factor expression at Days 1 and 6 after start of treatment. Results: A12 enhanced the radiosensitivity of HN5 and FaDu head-and-neck carcinomas in vitro (p < 0.05) and amplified the radioresponse of FaDu xenografts in a dose-dependent manner, with enhancement factors ranging from 1.2 to 1.8 (p < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis of FaDu xenografts demonstrated that A12 inhibited tumor cell proliferation (p < 0.05) and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. When A12 was combined with radiation, this resulted in apoptosis induction that persisted until 6 days from the start of treatment and in increased necrosis at Day 1 (p < 0.01, respectively). Combined treatment with A12 and radiation resulted in additive or subadditive growth delay in H460 or A549 xenografts, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study strengthen the evidence for investigating how anti-IGF-1R strategies can be integrated into radiation and radiation-cetuximab regimen in the treatment of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract cancers.

  9. Association between Socioeconomic Factors and Cancer Risk: A Population Cohort Study in Scotland (1991-2006)

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Katharine H.; McMahon, Alex D.; Raab, Gillian M.; Brewster, David H.; Conway, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung and upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer risk are associated with low socioeconomic circumstances and routinely measured using area socioeconomic indices. We investigated effect of country of birth, marital status, one area deprivation measure and individual socioeconomic variables (economic activity, education, occupational social class, car ownership, household tenure) on risk associated with lung, UADT and all cancer combined (excluding non melanoma skin cancer). Methods We linked Scottish Longitudinal Study and Scottish Cancer Registry to follow 203,658 cohort members aged 15+ years from 1991–2006. Relative risks (RR) were calculated using Poisson regression models by sex offset for person-years of follow-up. Results 21,832 first primary tumours (including 3,505 lung, 1,206 UADT) were diagnosed. Regardless of cancer, economically inactivity (versus activity) was associated with increased risk (male: RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.10–1.18; female: RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.11). For lung cancer, area deprivation remained significant after full adjustment suggesting the area deprivation cannot be fully explained by individual variables. No or non degree qualification (versus degree) was associated with increased lung risk; likewise for UADT risk (females only). Occupational social class associations were most pronounced and elevated for UADT risk. No car access (versus ownership) was associated with increased risk (excluding all cancer risk, males). Renting (versus home ownership) was associated with increased lung cancer risk, UADT cancer risk (males only) and all cancer risk (females only). Regardless of cancer group, elevated risk was associated with no education and living in deprived areas. Conclusions Different and independent socioeconomic variables are inversely associated with different cancer risks in both sexes; no one socioeconomic variable captures all aspects of socioeconomic circumstances or life course. Association of multiple

  10. Penetrating neck injuries: analysis of experience from a Canadian trauma centre

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Richard W.; Assuras, George N.; Gray, Perry R.; Lipschitz, Jeremy; Burns, Charles M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the demographics and treatment outcome of penetrating neck injuries presenting to a major trauma centre in order to develop a treatment protocol. Design A case review. Setting A trauma centre at a tertiary care institution. Patients One hundred and thirty consecutive patients who had 134 neck wounds penetrating the platysma and presented to the trauma service between 1979 and 1997. Intervention Surgical exploration or observation alone. Main outcome measures The location of injury, patient management, number of significant injuries, duration of hospital stay and outcome. Results Injuries were caused by stab wounds in 124 patients (95%) and gunshot wounds in 6 (5%). The location of injury was zone I (lower neck) in 20 cases (15%), zone II (midportion of the neck) in 108 (81%) and zone III (upper neck) in 5 (4%). The location was not recorded in 1 case. Fifty patients were managed by observation alone and 80 were managed surgically. Neck exploration in 48 asymptomatic patients was negative in 32 (67%). Significant injuries, including major vascular (12), nerve (13) and aerodigestive tract (19) injuries, were identified in 34 patients. Two of the 130 patients (1.5%) died of major vascular injuries. Seventy-six percent of significant injuries, including all zone II major vascular injuries, were symptomatic on presentation. The mean (and standard deviation) hospital stay for asymptomatic patients treated with observation alone and surgical exploration was similar (3.5 [6.02] versus 4.3 [5.46] days respectively, p = 0.575). Long-term disability, all neurologic in nature, was documented in 3 patients managed by observation alone and 6 patients managed by surgical exploration. Conclusions Penetrating neck trauma, in particular stab wounds to zone II in asymptomatic patients, is associated with low morbidity and mortality. A selective management protocol with investigations directed by symptoms is the most appropriate approach for the patient population

  11. Testimony by otolaryngologists in defense of tobacco companies 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To examine expert testimony offered by otolaryngologists in defense of the tobacco industry and to assess whether opinions rendered were congruent with evidence in the scientific literature. Methods Data sources include publically available expert witness depositions and trial testimony of board‐certified otolaryngologists employed by the tobacco industry in defense of lawsuits brought by smokers suffering from head and neck cancer. The cases, adjudicated in Florida between 2009 and 2014, focused on whether smoking caused the plaintiff's cancer. Results The study includes nine legal cases of upper aerodigestive tract cancer involving six otolaryngologists serving as expert witnesses for the tobacco industry. Cancer sites included larynx (5), esophagus (2), mouth (1), and lung (1). Five of the six otolaryngologists consistently, over multiple cases, offered opinions that smoking did not cause the plaintiff's cancer. By highlighting an exhaustive list of potential risk factors, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), alcohol, asbestos, diesel fumes, salted fish, mouthwash, and even urban living, they created doubt in the minds of the jurors as to the role of smoking in the plaintiff's cancer. Evidence shows that this testimony, which was remarkably similar across cases, was part of a defense strategy shaped by tobacco's law firms. Conclusions A small group of otolaryngologists regularly serve as experts on behalf of the tobacco industry. Examination of their opinions in relation to the scientific literature reveals a systematic bias in interpreting the data relating to the role played by smoking in head and neck cancer causation. Level of Evidence N/A. Laryngoscope, 125:2722–2729, 2015 PMID:26186270

  12. Analysis of the Upper Respiratory Tract Microbiotas as the Source of the Lung and Gastric Microbiotas in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bassis, Christine M.; Erb-Downward, John R.; Dickson, Robert P.; Freeman, Christine M.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Young, Vincent B.; Beck, James M.; Curtis, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT No studies have examined the relationships between bacterial communities along sites of the upper aerodigestive tract of an individual subject. Our objective was to perform an intrasubject and intersite analysis to determine the contributions of two upper mucosal sites (mouth and nose) as source communities for the bacterial microbiome of lower sites (lungs and stomach). Oral wash, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, nasal swab, and gastric aspirate samples were collected from 28 healthy subjects. Extensive analysis of controls and serial intrasubject BAL fluid samples demonstrated that sampling of the lungs by bronchoscopy was not confounded by oral microbiome contamination. By quantitative PCR, the oral cavity and stomach contained the highest bacterial signal levels and the nasal cavity and lungs contained much lower levels. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries generated from these samples showed that the oral and gastric compartments had the greatest species richness, which was significantly greater in both than the richness measured in the lungs and nasal cavity. The bacterial communities of the lungs were significantly different from those of the mouth, nose, and stomach, while the greatest similarity was between the oral and gastric communities. However, the bacterial communities of healthy lungs shared significant membership with the mouth, but not the nose, and marked subject-subject variation was noted. In summary, microbial immigration from the oral cavity appears to be the significant source of the lung microbiome during health, but unlike the stomach, the lungs exhibit evidence of selective elimination of Prevotella bacteria derived from the upper airways. PMID:25736890

  13. Sexual behaviours and head and neck cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Farsi, N J; El-Zein, M; Gaied, H; Lee, Y C A; Hashibe, M; Nicolau, B; Rousseau, M-C

    2015-12-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with head and neck cancers (H&NC). Transmission of HPV to the upper aerodigestive tract occurs plausibly through sexual contact, although epidemiologic evidence on the role of sexual behaviours in H&NC aetiology is inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies examining the association between four indicators of sexual behaviours (number of sexual partners and oral sex partners, oral sex practice, and age at first intercourse) and H&NC. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using fixed and random effects models for each indicator, contrasting 'highest' to 'lowest', 'ever' to 'never', or 'youngest' to 'oldest' categories. Twenty case-control studies were included out of 3838 identified publications. Using random effects models, summary ORs suggested an increased risk of H&NC for number of sexual partners [OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.02-1.63] (19 studies) and number of oral sex partners [OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.00-2.84] (5 studies), whereas no effect was observed with oral sex practice [OR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.88-1.35] (17 studies) and age at first intercourse [OR=1.40, 95% CI: 0.71-2.79] (6 studies). For number of sexual partners and oral sex practice, which were assessed in more studies, we further excluded studies contributing to heterogeneity and those not adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The summary ORs were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.75-1.20) for number of sexual partners and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.84-1.26) for oral sex practice. Our findings highlight that observed associations might be partly attributed to confounding effects of sociodemographic and behavioural factors. PMID:26372414

  14. Prevalence and characteristics of gastroesophageal reflux in children with otitis media in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Seyed Hamidreza; Kazerooni, Azadeh; Brejis, Nezamodin; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Saneian, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Otitis media (OM) is the most common cause of childhood hearing loss and reason to visit the pediatrician. Furthermore, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been associated with a variety of upper aerodigestive tract symptoms or diseases, such as sinusitis, laryngitis, and otits. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of GER in children, aged 3 months to 7 years, with OM. Materials and Methods: This retrospective case-control study was conducted on 50 children with OM and 50 healthy children. Presence of GER as the main variables was diagnosed by clinical examination in all studied children using the questionnaires with 2 age-stratified versions of the pediatric GER disease symptoms for children 2 years old and younger, and children 3–7 years old. Results: The prevalence of GER in children with OM and controls was 58% and 22% respectively (P = 0.0005). The frequency of irritability, congestion, and feeding complex in children with OM were significantly more than in control groups. Among children with recurrent acute OM (AOM), and chronic serous OM (CSOM) the prevalence of GER was significantly more than controls (61.1%, vs. 22% for AOM, P = 0.004, and 72.7% vs. 22%, P= 0.003). In children with AOM, regurgitation, vomiting, irritability and congestion were significantly higher than controls included. In children with CSOM, regurgitation, vomiting, and congestion were significantly higher than controls. Conclusion: Results show a significant association between GER and OM, AOM and CSOM in children with OM compares to healthy children. This shows that looking for GER in children with OM may help improving treatments outcomes. PMID:27274496

  15. Identification of Mutations in the PYRIN-Containing NLR Genes (NLRP) in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yu; Lui, Vivian W. Y.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Egloff, Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) encompasses malignancies that arise in the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Recent high throughput DNA sequencing revealed HNSCC genes mutations that contribute to several cancer cell characteristics, including dysregulation of cell proliferation and death, intracellular proinflammatory signaling, and autophagy. The PYRIN-domain containing NLR (Nucleotide-binding domain, Leucine rich Repeats – containing) proteins have recently emerged as pivotal modulators of cell death, autophagy, inflammation, and metabolism. Their close physiologic association with cancer development prompted us to determine whether mutations within the NLRP (PYRIN-containing NLR) gene family were associated with HNSCC genome instability and their clinicopathologic correlations. Catastrophic mutational events underlie cancer cell genome instability and mark a point-of-no-return in cancer cell development and generation of heterogeneity. The mutation profiles of 62 patients with primary conventional type HNSCC excluding other histologic variants were analyzed. Associations were tested using Fisher's Exact test or Mann-Whitney U test. Mutations in NLRP were associated with elevated genome instability as characterized by higher mutation rates. Clinically, NLRP mutations were more frequently found in HNSCC arising in the floor of mouth (50.0%) in comparison with HNSCC at other head and neck locations (14.8%). These mutations were clustered at the leucine rich repeats region of NLRP proteins, and affected NLRP genes were mostly localized at chromosomes 11p15.4 and 19q13.42-19q13.43. Twenty novel NLRP mutations were identified in HNSCC, and mutations in this group of genes were correlated with increased cancer cell genome mutation rates, and such features could be a potential molecular biomarker of HNSCC genome instability. PMID:24465623

  16. Early diagnosis of asymptomatic oral and oropharyngeal squamous cancers.

    PubMed

    Mashberg, A; Samit, A

    1995-01-01

    An examination of the oral cavity and oropharynx in asymptomatic patients at high risk requires an orderly visual inspection of the entire oral and oropharyngeal mucosa with particular attention to the tongue, floor of mouth, soft palate, uvula, tonsillar pillars, and the lingual aspects of the retromolar trigones. Completion and clear documentation of the entire examination should be recorded. Detected lesions that do not resolve in a reasonable length of time--two to three weeks--require intense and assiduous investigation. The following specifics should be considered. 1. Alcohol drinkers and cigarette smokers, especially those 40 years of age and older, are at very high risk for the development of upper aerodigestive tract and lung squamous carcinomas. 2. The floor of the mouth, the ventrolateral tongue, and the soft palate complex are the high-risk sites within the oral cavity and oropharynx. 3. Persistent mucosal erythroplasia rather than leukoplakia is the earliest visual sign of oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma. These lesions should not be regarded merely as precancerous changes. The evidence indicates that these lesions in high-risk sites should be considered to be invasive carcinoma or carcinoma in situ unless proven otherwise by biopsy. 4. Toluidine blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct, particularly as a method of ruling out false-negative clinical impressions. It may also be used as a rinse in high-risk patients to encompass the entire oral mucosa after a negative clinical examination and as a guide to improve biopsy yields. 5. If oral or oropharyngeal cancer is identified, evaluations of the larynx, hypopharynx, esophagus, and lungs should be performed to rule out multiple primary cancers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7583906

  17. The buccal mucosa as a route for TiO2 nanoparticle uptake.

    PubMed

    Teubl, Birgit Johanna; Leitinger, Gerd; Schneider, Marc; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Zimmer, Andreas; Roblegg, Eva

    2015-03-01

    The oral cavity, although part of the aero-digestive tract, is still neglected in terms of risk assessment with respect to nanoparticle uptake. If nanoparticles enter the oral cavity, either via oral products or inhaled materials, it is not clear whether they rapidly interact with the mucosae or are swallowed. In this study, interactions of three distinct titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles (i.e. NM 100, NM 101 and NM 105) with oral tissues are presented. Physicochemical properties were addressed in relevant media, and particle penetration was investigated with an ex vivo model using porcine mucosa. To avoid modification of the particle surfaces via labeling, multiphoton microscopy was introduced as an accurate method to detect TiO2 particles within the tissue. The spatiotemporal aspects of nanoparticle uptake, as well as the intracellular localization in human epithelial cells, were studied and potential toxic effects were evaluated. Although TiO2 particles formed large aggregates once dispersed in media, 10-50% remained in the nanoscale range, rapidly interacting with the mucus layer and infecting the epithelium. However, differences in the penetration depth were observed depending on the particle characteristics. NM 100 and NM 105 were found in both the upper part and the lower part of the buccal mucosa, while NM 101 (smallest particle sizes) only penetrated the upper parts. Transport studies revealed that TiO2 nanoparticles were found in vesicles, as well as freely distributed in the cytoplasm. Cell viability/integrity was not affected negatively; however, NM 105 triggered the production of reactive oxygen species. These data clearly suggest that the oral cavity should be considered in further risk assessment studies.

  18. Proton Pump Inhibitors Versus Solitary Lifestyle Modification in Management of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux and Evaluating Who is at Risk: Scenario in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Chappity, Preetam; Kumar, Rakesh; Deka, Ramesh C.; Chokkalingam, Venkatakarthikeyan; Saraya, Anoop; Sikka, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Laryngopharyngeal reflux disease can present with a varied symptomatology because of the involvement of multiple sub-sites of the upper aero-digestive tract. It is a very common disease to be encountered in routine practice by both medical and ENT personnel. Its association with multiple pathologies including malignancy warrants an early diagnosis and management. The lack of cost effective and non-invasive tests constitutes a major hurdle in its early management. OBJECTIVES 1. To define the “at risk” population, prone to developing laryngopharyngeal reflux. 2. To formulate major and minor risk factors for the clinical diagnosis of patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux. 3. To evaluate the efficacy of lifestyle management alone as a treatment option. 4. To formulate a treatment protocol for the management of patients and to prevent recurrence. STUDY DESIGN We performed a prospective analysis of 234 patients diagnosed with laryngopharyngeal reflux. Patients were randomized into study and control groups based on the treatment protocol, using a computer generated randomization table and were single blinded to the type of therapy received. A complete analysis of the possible risk factors, symptoms, and signs was performed with statistical analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION The data has helped us define the “at risk” population and formulate the criteria to diagnose cases of laryngopharyngeal reflux, clinically. The results emphasize the non-requirement of invasive or costly investigations for all patients and indicate the probable protocol to be followed prior to considering further investigation. The role of long term proton pump inhibitor treatment along with lifestyle modification in the initial phase of treatment, as mentioned in the literature, was re-confirmed by our study. However, in addition to the initial treatment, the study establishes the need for continuing lifestyle modification further for at least six months after the cessation of

  19. Direct and indirect costs of smoking in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hoang Anh, Pham Thi; Thu, Le Thi; Ross, Hana; Quynh Anh, Nguyen; Linh, Bui Ngoc; Minh, Nguyen Thac

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the direct and indirect costs of active smoking in Vietnam. Method A prevalence-based disease-specific cost of illness approach was utilised to calculate the costs related to five smoking-related diseases: lung cancer, cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Data on healthcare came from an original survey, hospital records and official government statistics. Morbidity and mortality due to smoking combined with the average per capita income were used to calculate the indirect costs of smoking by applying the human capital approach. The smoking-attributable fraction was calculated using the adjusted relative risk values from phase II of the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study (CPS-II). Costs were classified as personal, governmental and health insurance costs. Results The total economic cost of smoking in 2011 was estimated at 24 679.9 billion Vietnamese dong (VND), equivalent to US$1173.2 million or approximately 0.97% of the 2011 gross domestic product. The direct costs of inpatient and outpatient care reached 9896.2 billion VND (US$470.4 million) and 2567.2 billion VND (US$122.0 million), respectively. The government’s contribution to these costs was 4534.3 billion VND (US$215.5 million), which was equivalent to 5.76% of its 2011 healthcare budget. The indirect costs (productivity loss) due to morbidity and mortality were 2652.9 billion VND (US$126.1 million) and 9563.5 billion VND (US$454.6 million), respectively. These indirect costs represent about 49.5% of the total costs of smoking. Conclusions Tobacco consumption has large negative consequences on the Vietnamese economy. PMID:25512430

  20. Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy with chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux: clinical features in two families linked to chromosome 3p22-p24.

    PubMed

    Spring, Penelope J; Kok, Cindy; Nicholson, Garth A; Ing, Alvin J; Spies, Judith M; Bassett, Mark L; Cameron, John; Kerlin, Paul; Bowler, Simon; Tuck, Roger; Pollard, John D

    2005-12-01

    Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN I) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, and in some families it is due to mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPTLC1) gene. We have characterized two families with HSN I associated with cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). From a large Australian family, 27 individuals and from a smaller family, 11 individuals provided clinical information and blood for genetic analysis. Affected individuals had an adult onset of paroxysmal cough, GOR and distal sensory loss. Cough could be triggered by noxious odours or by pressure in the external auditory canal (Arnold's ear-cough reflex). Other features included throat clearing, hoarse voice, cough syncope and sensorineural hearing loss. Neurophysiological and pathological studies demonstrated a sensory axonal neuropathy. Gastric emptying studies were normal, and autonomic function and sweat tests were either normal or showed distal hypohidrosis. Cough was likely to be due to a combination of denervation hypersensitivity of the upper airways and oesophagus, and prominent GOR. Most affected individuals were shown on 24 h ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring to have multiple episodes of GOR, closely temporally associated with coughing. Hoarse voice was probably attributable to acid-induced laryngeal damage, and there was no evidence of vocal cord palsy. No other cause for cough was found on most respiratory or otorhinological studies. Linkage to chromosome 3p22-p24 has been found in both families, with no evidence of linkage to loci for known HSN I, autosomal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, hereditary GOR or triple A syndrome. These families represent a genetically novel variant of HSN I, with a distinctive cough owing to involvement of the upper aerodigestive tract. PMID:16311270

  1. The Case for Requiring Graphic Warning Labels on Smokeless Tobacco Product Packages.

    PubMed

    Pakhale, Smita; Samet, Jonathan; Folan, Patricia; Leone, Frank; White, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    On November 10, 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved, for the first time, the sale of smokeless tobacco products authorized under the new premarket tobacco application pathway. This Food and Drug Administration regulatory decision draws attention to the growing worldwide use of smokeless tobacco products in general. Use of these tobacco products is particularly popular in low- and middle-income countries of Asia. Due to aggressive and strategic marketing to children, young adults, and current smokers, rates of smokeless tobacco use in men of all ages are on the rise in United States and elsewhere. The tobacco industry also continues to market these products to current cigarette smokers for use in the growing number of "smoke-free environments." Smokeless tobacco products are associated with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, particularly the oral cavity, esophagus, and pancreas; cardiovascular diseases; small-for-gestational-age infants; premature births; increased risk of apnea; and stillbirth. There is no convincing evidence regarding the efficacy of smokeless tobacco, including snus, to promote smoking cessation. Rather, studies from Europe and the United States demonstrate that smokeless tobacco use may facilitate regular cigarette smoking by acting as a gateway drug, especially for children. Caution is warranted before proposing smokeless tobacco as a harm-reduction strategy, in part because of the potential for further promoting smokeless tobacco in low- and middle-income countries where use is already widespread. Continued vigilance through comprehensive surveillance is warranted. We strongly recommend the use of graphic warning labels as a "no regrets" strategy for all smokeless tobacco products marketed globally.

  2. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 activates NF-kappaB, induces cIAP-2 expression, and protects against apoptosis in a PDZ binding motif-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    James, Michael A; Lee, John H; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J

    2006-06-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of most cervical cancers and some aerodigestive cancers. The HPV E6 oncoprotein from high-risk HPV types contributes to the immortalization and transformation of cells by multiple mechanisms, including degradation of p53, transcriptional activation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and degradation of several proteins containing PDZ domains. The ability of E6 to bind PDZ domain-containing proteins is independent of p53 degradation or hTERT activation but does correlate with oncogenic potential (R. A. Watson, M. Thomas, L. Banks, and S. Roberts, J. Cell Sci. 116:4925-4934, 2003) and is essential for induction of epithelial hyperplasia in vivo (M. L. Nguyen, M. M. Nguyen, D. Lee, A. E. Griep, and P. F. Lambert, J. Virol. 77:6957-6964, 2003). In this study, we found that HPV type 16 E6 was able to activate NF-kappaB in airway epithelial cells through the induction of nuclear binding activity of p52-containing NF-kappaB complexes in a PDZ binding motif-dependent manner. Transcript accumulation for the NF-kappaB-responsive antiapoptotic gene encoding cIAP-2 and binding of nuclear factors to the proximal NF-kappaB binding site of the cIAP-2 gene promoter are induced by E6 expression. Furthermore, E6 is able to protect cells from TNF-induced apoptosis. All of these E6-dependent phenotypes are dependent on the presence of the PDZ binding motif of E6. Our results imply a role for targeting of PDZ proteins by E6 in NF-kappaB activation and protection from apoptosis in airway epithelial cells. PMID:16699010

  3. Effects of the holmium:YAG and erbium:YAG lasers on endotracheal tubes.

    PubMed

    Kautzky, M; Fitzgerald, R; Dechtyar, I; Schenk, P

    1993-01-01

    Endotracheal tube (ET) fire is the most frequent complication arising with laser surgery in the upper aerodigestive tract. No data are available about the safety of commonly used ETs when used with recently developed high-energy pulsed lasers, working with only a minimal thermal component but mainly photoablative. A comparative in vitro study was performed with three types of endotracheal tubes to assess their resistance to wall and cuff damage by the laser beams of two pulsed infrared solid-state lasers. ET perforation was attempted with the erbium:YAG (lambda = 2,930 nm) and holmium:YAG (lambda = 2,120 nm) lasers. For all experiments, a repetition rate of 5 Hz was used. The 2.5-microseconds holmium:YAG pulses were coupled into a nylon fibre of 400 microns diameter. The 2.0-microseconds erbium:YAG laser pulses were applied to ETs through a lens system providing a spot size diameter of 200 microns. Polyvinyl chloride and silicon ET segments were exposed to laser pulse energies from 97 to 500 mJ in the presence of different anaesthetic gas mixtures. The time from the onset of exposure to tube perforation was recorded. Thermal gradients following laser application were measured. Laser exposure was continued for up to 90 s, unless tube ignition occurred. At all energy levels tested, the photo-ablative mechanism of laser-tube interaction, with few thermal components, led to laser-induced tube ignition if an FiO2 > 21% for the holmium:YAG and 34% for the erbium:YAG laser was established. With increasing pulse energies, ET segments ignited sooner. MLT tubes performed best in the present safety test.

  4. Volatile nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the smoke of Thai cigarettes: a risk factor for lung cancer and a suspected risk factor for liver cancer in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mitacek, E J; Brunnemann, K D; Hoffmann, D; Limsila, T; Suttajit, M; Martin, N; Caplan, L S

    1999-01-01

    In Thailand, smoking of commercial cigarettes and of handmade cigarettes has drastically increased in recent decades. Cancer of the lung and of the upper aero-digestive tract have also increased in Thailand as they have in many other countries. It is our working hypothesis that the increase of primary cancer of the liver, especially of cholangiocarcinoma in the north-eastern provinces of Thailand is associated with the use of tobacco in men infested with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (OV). Bioassays have shown that volatile nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines induce cholangiocarcinoma in laboratory animals and that the hepatocarcinogenic action of nitrosodimethylamine in hamsters is significantly increased by infestation with the liver fluke OV. The endogenous formation of nitrosamines is significantly increased by OV infestation. This report presents analytical data on the concentration of volatile nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream smoke of nine leading brands of commercially produced Thai cigarettes which represent approximately 85% of the market share in Thailand. Observed ranges (ng/cigarette) were 8.5-31.9 for nitrosodimethylamine, 8.8-49.6 for nitrosopyrrolidine and 4.2-18.9 for nitrosodi-n-butylamine. These values are exceptionally high compared with the smoke of light and blended cigarettes from North America and Western Europe. Among the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, the range was 28-730 for nitrosonornicotine and 16-370 for 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. There was a correlation between volatile and tobacco-specific nitrosamines, and tar and nicotine deliveries in the mainstream smoke. The analytical data are in line with the rate for lung cancer and support our working hypothesis that nitrosamines, and especially the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, are associated with the increased risk for primary liver cancer among those Thai people who smoke cigarettes and also carry OV infestation.

  5. FOREIGN BODY IN THE NASOPHARYNX; MASQUERADING AS PHARYNGOTONSILLITIS.

    PubMed

    Enyuma, C O A; Offiong, M; Adekanye, A; Akpan, U; Ezeanyagu, N; Uffiah, O

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) in the aerodigestive tracts has been commonly reported but findings of impacted foreign bodies in the nasopharynx following inhalation/ingestion are very rare. Most of the FB gets lodged as a result of forceful vomiting, coughing,and digital manoeuvres for removal of FB in the oropharynx. Several objects have been identified lodged in the nasopharynx. No age group is spared although most victims are children under 10 years of age. Foreign bodies in the nasopharynx can be uneventful or potentially dangerous depending on type, size and location as it may cause sudden airway obstruction, or local pressure necrosis of alimentary or respiratory tract or both. Presentation in children is usually with a history of swallowed FB which may not be witnessed in children, choking, cough, bluish discolouration, breathlessness, drooling of saliva, halitosis, rhinorrhoea, snoring, stridor, dysphagia, vomiting and dysphonia. A foreign body in the nasopharynx is a challenge to patient, parents, the physician and the ENT surgeon, as it may be miss-diagnosed, in the index case, as Pharyngotonsilitis. The index patient, a 14 month child,was presented with a two days history of fever, drooling of saliva, mouth breathing, and digital manipulation. Lateral imaging of the post nasal space following initial treatment with antibiotics, aided the diagnosis of a periwinkle shell in the nasopharyngx that was removed during a nasopharyngoscopy under general anaesthesia without complication and subsequently discharged home. This emphasizes a high index of suspicion for FB in the nasopharynx in children with history of missing foreign body, digital manipulation, drooling of saliva and mouth breathing. Lateral X-ray of the postnasal space, neck, chest and abdomen should be the minimum investigation required. PMID:27487618

  6. Predictors of Pain among Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Andrew G.; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Light, Emily; Wolf, Gregory T.; Bradford, Carol R.; Chepeha, Douglas; Jiang, Yunyun; McLean, Scott; Ghanem, Tamer A.; Duffy, Sonia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pain is a strong contributor to cancer patients’ quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of pain 1 year after the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. Design Prospective, multi-site cohort study. Setting Three academically-affiliated medical centers. Patients Previously untreated patients with carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (n=374). Main Outcome Measures Participants were surveyed pre-treatment and 1 year thereafter. Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine predictors of the SF-36 bodily pain score 1 year after diagnosis. Results The mean SF-36 bodily pain score at 1 year was 65, compared to 61 at diagnosis (p=.004), compared to 75 among population norms (lower scores indicate worse pain). Variables independently associated with pain included pre-treatment pain score (p<0.001), less education (p=0.02), neck dissection (p=0.001), feeding tube (p=0.05), xerostomia (p<0.001), depressive symptoms (p<0.001), taking more pain medication (p<0.001), less physical activity (p=.02), and poor sleep quality (p=0.006). Current smoking and problem drinking were marginally significant (p=0.07 and 0.08, respectively). Conclusions Aggressive pain management may be indicated for head and neck cancer patients who undergo neck dissections, complain of xerostomia, require feeding tubes, and have medical comorbidities. Treatment of modifiable risk factors such as depression, poor sleep quality, tobacco and alcohol abuse may also reduce pain and improve quality of life among head and neck cancer patients. PMID:23165353

  7. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 activates NF-kappaB, induces cIAP-2 expression, and protects against apoptosis in a PDZ binding motif-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    James, Michael A; Lee, John H; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J

    2006-06-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of most cervical cancers and some aerodigestive cancers. The HPV E6 oncoprotein from high-risk HPV types contributes to the immortalization and transformation of cells by multiple mechanisms, including degradation of p53, transcriptional activation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and degradation of several proteins containing PDZ domains. The ability of E6 to bind PDZ domain-containing proteins is independent of p53 degradation or hTERT activation but does correlate with oncogenic potential (R. A. Watson, M. Thomas, L. Banks, and S. Roberts, J. Cell Sci. 116:4925-4934, 2003) and is essential for induction of epithelial hyperplasia in vivo (M. L. Nguyen, M. M. Nguyen, D. Lee, A. E. Griep, and P. F. Lambert, J. Virol. 77:6957-6964, 2003). In this study, we found that HPV type 16 E6 was able to activate NF-kappaB in airway epithelial cells through the induction of nuclear binding activity of p52-containing NF-kappaB complexes in a PDZ binding motif-dependent manner. Transcript accumulation for the NF-kappaB-responsive antiapoptotic gene encoding cIAP-2 and binding of nuclear factors to the proximal NF-kappaB binding site of the cIAP-2 gene promoter are induced by E6 expression. Furthermore, E6 is able to protect cells from TNF-induced apoptosis. All of these E6-dependent phenotypes are dependent on the presence of the PDZ binding motif of E6. Our results imply a role for targeting of PDZ proteins by E6 in NF-kappaB activation and protection from apoptosis in airway epithelial cells.

  8. [Deglutition disorders in the elderly. Epidemiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Finiels, H; Strubel, D; Jacquot, J M

    2001-11-10

    THE PREVALENCE: The exact prevalence of deglutition disorders in the elderly is not known. It appears frequent in very old patients and in those suffering from polypathological symptoms, affecting 50% of the populations in long-term care units. THE EFFECTS OF AGING: Physiological aging alters various parameters of swallowing, however it seems that these modifications related to age have little effect on healthy subjects. However, they may increase vulnerability in those presenting with intercurrent pathologies. CONCOMITANT DISORDERS: Other than the decrease in efficient mastication and the existence of xerostomia, frequently observed contributing factors, many diseases may be responsible for dysphagia in the elderly. Neurological disorders, particularly cerebral vascular diseases, central nervous system degenerative disorders and neuro-motor diseases predominate. In the aging, muscular disorders and after effects of various diseases can set-in. Modifications in oropharyngeal anatomy generally results from cancerous lesions of the aero-digestive junction, but also, occasionally from extrinsic compression that does not necessarily reflect a neoplastic etiology. Zenker's diverticulitis represents a cause of dysphagia specific to the elderly. Problems in swallowing of iatrogenic origin are also frequent, following cervical radiotherapy or after oropharyngeal surgery, during tracheal intubation or when using feeding tubes and also during various medical treatments. UNDERRATED CONSEQUENCES: Dysphagia leads to multiple morbid after effects, primarily alteration in quality of life, dehydration, undernutrition, asphyxia and congestion and recurrent infections of the respiratory tract. The responsibility of deglutition disorders in the occurrence of these complications is difficult to assess in weak elderly subjects because of the frequent concomitance with multiple deficiencies and incapacities. PMID:11759342

  9. Incidence, risk factors and outcome of de novo tumors in liver transplant recipients focusing on alcoholic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Justo-Alonso, Iago; Cambra-Molero, Félix; Calvo-Pulido, Jorge; García-Sesma, Álvaro; Abradelo-Usera, Manuel; Caso-Maestro, Oscar; Manrique-Municio, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is an established life-saving procedure for alcoholic cirrhotic (AC) patients, but the incidence of de novo tumors ranges between 2.6% and 15.7% and is significantly increased in comparison with patients who undergo OLT for other etiologies. Tobacco, a known carcinogen, has been reported to be between 52% and 83.3% in AC patients before OLT. Other risk factors that contribute to the development of malignancies are dose-dependent immunosuppression, advanced age, viral infections, sun exposure, and premalignant lesions (inflammatory bowel disease, Barrett’s esophagus). A significantly more frequent incidence of upper aerodigestive (UAD) tract, lung, skin, and kidney-bladder tumors has been found in OLT recipients for AC in comparison with other etiologies. Liver transplant recipients who develop de novo non-skin tumors have a decreased long-term survival rate compared with controls. This significantly lower survival rate is more evident in AC recipients who develop UAD tract or lung tumors after OLT mainly because the diagnosis is usually performed at an advanced stage. All transplant candidates, especially AC patients, should be encouraged to cease smoking and alcohol consumption in the pre- and post-OLT periods, use skin protection, avoid sun exposure and over-immunosuppression, and have a yearly otopharyngolaryngeal exploration and chest computed tomography scan in order to prevent or reduce the incidence of de novo malignancies. Although still under investigation, substitution of calcineurin inhibitors for sirolimus or everolimus may reduce the incidence of de novo tumors after OLT. PMID:25954477

  10. A retrospective study of correlation of morphologic patterns, MIB1 proliferation index, and survival analysis in 134 cases of plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Ghodke, Kiran; Shet, Tanuja; Epari, Sridhar; Sengar, Manju; Menon, Hari; Gujral, Sumeet

    2015-06-01

    Plasmacytoma classified into solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) and extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is characterized by infiltrate of plasma cells of diverse maturity and by their monoclonal immunoglobulin products. Both SPB and EMP represent different groups of neoplasm in terms of location, tumor progression, and overall survival rate. There is a need for features that indicate likelihood of myeloma in patients with plasmacytoma without other manifestations. This study was an attempt to study the morphologic patterns of plasmacytoma (SPB and EMP), MIB1 proliferation index, and correlation of these with clinicopathologic features and survival of the patients. The study group comprised of 134 cases of plasmacytoma (88 SPB and 46 EMP) over duration of 8 years and were graded as per Bartl's histologic grading system. Commonest site was vertebral body in SPB (36%) and upper aerodigestive tract in EMP (48%). On serum electrophoresis, overall M band was detected in 41% cases. Both SPB and EMP on histology revealed similar morphologic features. MIB1 proliferation index ranged from less than 1% to 80%. It was slightly higher in EMP in comparison with SPB (P value = .002). Seventy percent of cases, which progressed to multiple myeloma (MM) showed MIB1 labeling index more than 10%; however, it was not statistically significant in predicting the disease progression. With the median follow-up of 19 months (range, 1-99 months), 10 SPB had disease progression of which 7 converted to MM, and 3 developed EMP, with a median interval of 21 months (range, 8-75 months) for the development of MM and 3 months (range, 3-9 months) for the progression to EMP. Five-year survival for EMP varied by site, with poorest survival in brain/central nervous system EMP as compared with EMP at other sites. To conclude, grade and MIB1 proliferation index help in predicting aggressive course in plasmacytoma.

  11. Suppression of Proinflammatory and Prosurvival Biomarkers in Oral Cancer Patients Consuming a Black Raspberry Phytochemical-Rich Troche.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Thomas J; Uhrig, Lana K; Pearl, Dennis K; Casto, Bruce C; Warner, Blake M; Clinton, Steven K; Sardo-Molmenti, Christine L; Ferguson, Jeanette M; Daly, Brett T; Riedl, Kenneth; Schwartz, Steven J; Vodovotz, Yael; Buchta, Anthony J; Schuller, David E; Ozer, Enver; Agrawal, Amit; Weghorst, Christopher M

    2016-02-01

    Black raspberries (BRB) demonstrate potent inhibition of aerodigestive tract carcinogenesis in animal models. However, translational clinical trials evaluating the ability of BRB phytochemicals to impact molecular biomarkers in the oral mucosa remain limited. The present phase 0 study addresses a fundamental question for oral cancer food-based prevention: Do BRB phytochemicals successfully reach the targeted oral tissues and reduce proinflammatory and antiapoptotic gene expression profiles? Patients with biopsy-confirmed oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) administered oral troches containing freeze-dried BRB powder from the time of enrollment to the date of curative intent surgery (13.9 ± 1.27 days). Transcriptional biomarkers were evaluated in patient-matched OSCCs and noninvolved high at-risk mucosa (HARM) for BRB-associated changes. Significant expression differences between baseline OSCC and HARM tissues were confirmed using a panel of genes commonly deregulated during oral carcinogenesis. Following BRB troche administration, the expression of prosurvival genes (AURKA, BIRC5, EGFR) and proinflammatory genes (NFKB1, PTGS2) were significantly reduced. There were no BRB-associated grade 3-4 toxicities or adverse events, and 79.2% (N = 30) of patients successfully completed the study with high levels of compliance (97.2%). The BRB phytochemicals cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-xylosylrutinoside were detected in all OSCC tissues analyzed, demonstrating that bioactive components were successfully reaching targeted OSCC tissues. We confirmed that hallmark antiapoptotic and proinflammatory molecular biomarkers were overexpressed in OSCCs and that their gene expression was significantly reduced following BRB troche administration. As these molecular biomarkers are fundamental to oral carcinogenesis and are modifiable, they may represent emerging biomarkers of molecular efficacy for BRB-mediated oral cancer chemoprevention. PMID:26701664

  12. Impact of multiple Alcohol Dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms on risk of laryngeal, esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    An, Jiaze; Zhao, Junsheng; Zhang, Xiyang; Ding, Rui; Geng, Tingting; Feng, Tian; Jin, Tianbo

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol intake is positively associated with the risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers; but its effect on gastric or colorectal cancer is controversial. Previous study had identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH) genes associated with UADT cancers in European and Japanese populations. We sought to determine if these SNPs associated with laryngeal, esophageal, gastric or colorectal cancer in Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study among 1577 cases and 1013 healthy controls from northwest China. Five SNPs associated with UADT cancers risk were selected from previous genome-wide association studies and genotyped using Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age and gender. We identified that the minor alleles of rs1789924 and rs971074 were associated with decreased risk of laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.311; 95% CI = 0.161-0.602; P < 0.001) and esophagus cancer (OR = 0.711; 95% CI = 0.526-0.962; P = 0.027) in allelic model analysis, respectively. In the genetic model analysis, we found the “C/T” genotype of rs1789924 was associated with decreased laryngeal cancer risk in codominant model (P = 0.046) and overdominant model (P = 0.013); the “C/T-T/T” genotype of rs1789924 was associated with reduced risk of laryngeal cancer under dominant model (P = 0.013). Additionally, none of the SNPs was associated with gastric or colorectal cancer in our study. Our data shed new light on the association between ADH SNPs and respiratory and digestive tract cancers susceptibility in the Han Chinese population. PMID:26396927

  13. Specializations of the human upper respiratory and upper digestive systems as seen through comparative and developmental anatomy.

    PubMed

    Laitman, J T; Reidenberg, J S

    1993-01-01

    The human upper respiratory, or aerodigestive, tract serves as the crossroads of our breathing, swallowing and vocalizing pathways. Accordingly, developmental or evolutionary change in any of these functions will, of necessity, affect the others. Our studies have shown that the position in the neck of the mammalian larynx is a major factor in determining function in this region. Most mammals, such as our closest relatives the nonhuman primates, exhibit a larynx positioned high in the neck. This permits an intranarial larynx to be present and creates largely separate respiratory and digestive routes. While infant humans retain this basic mammalian pattern, developmental descent of the larynx considerably alters this configuration. Adult humans have, accordingly, lost separation of the respiratory and digestive routes, but have gained an increased supralaryngeal region of the pharynx which allows for the production of the varied sounds of human speech. How this region has changed during human evolution has been difficult to assess due to the absence of preserved soft-tissue structures. Our studies have shown that the relationship between basicranial shape and laryngeal position in living mammals can be a valuable guide to reconstruct the region in ancestral humans. Based on these findings we have examined the basicrania of fossil ancestors--from over two million years ago to near recent times--and have reconstructed the position of the larynx and pharyngeal region in these early forms. This has allowed us insight into how our ancestors may have breathed and swallowed, and when the anatomy necessary for human speech evolved. PMID:8269722

  14. SU-E-J-263: Repeatability of SUV and Texture Parameters in Serial PET Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J; Humm, J; Nehmeh, S; Schoder, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Standardized uptake values (SUV) are standard quantitative PET measures of FDG tumor uptake used,and are used as a tool to monitor response to therapy. Textural analysis is emerging as a new tool for assessing intratumoral heterogeneity which may allow better tissue characterization and improved prediction of response and survival rate.Understanding what variations may be expected in these parameters is key in order to make decisions based on how the change throughout the course of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess repeatability in SUV measures and texture parameters,and establish criteria that differentiate changes associated with treatment rather than statistical variability. Methods: Eighty patients,167 random lesions total,were scanned in a GE Discovery STE PET/CT Scanner. One field-of-view was chosen centered on the largest lesion observed in a clinical whole-body FDG PET.Immediately following,a gated 9 min scan was acquired in list mode,without changing the patient’s position between any scans. Data was replayed into 3 time bins,3 min each,in order to insure equivalent noise characteristics in each replicate.Data was reconstructed into 128×128×47 square matrices.One VOI was drawn over each lesion for each patient and used to segment all 3 replicates. The mean.max and peak SUV were calculated for each VOI and replicate. First-order textural features were also calculated (skewness and kurtosis). Repeatability was calculated as the average standard deviation over the mean for the 3 repeated measurements for each lesion. Results: The average percent error in the SUV max,peak and mean were 3.4%(0– 12.9%),1.9% (0–7.5%),2.8% (0–12.2%),respectively.For skewness and kurtosis they were 10.9% and 17.8%. Conclusion: We have shown that there is a large variation in %error in SUV measures across patients. SUVpeak is the least variable and kurtosis and skewness parameters are less reliable thatn SUVs.Higher order textures are be.

  15. Radiation dosimetry of N-([11C]methyl)benperidol as determined by whole-body PET imaging of primates

    PubMed Central

    Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann V.; Laforest, Richard; Moerlein, Stephen M.; Videen, Tom O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose N-([11C]methyl)benperidol ([11C]NMB) can be used for positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of D2-like dopamine receptor binding in vivo. We report the absorbed radiation dosimetry of i.v.-administered 11C-NMB, a critical step before applying this radioligand to imaging studies in humans. Materials and methods Whole-body PET imaging with a CTI/Siemens ECAT 953B scanner was done in a male and a female baboon. After i.v. injection of 444–1221 MBq of 11C-NMB, sequential images taken from the head to the pelvis were collected for 3 h. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were identified that entirely encompassed small organs (whole brain, striatum, eyes, and myocardium). Large organs (liver, lungs, kidneys, lower large intestine, and urinary bladder) were sampled by drawing representative regions within the organ volume. Time–activity curves for each VOI were extracted from the PET, and organ residence times were calculated by analytical integration of a multi-exponential fit of the time–activity curves. Human radiation doses were estimated using OLINDA/EXM 1.0 and the standard human model. Results Highest retention was observed in the blood and liver, each with total residence times of 1.5 min. The highest absorbed radiation doses were to the heart (10.5 mGy/kBq) and kidney (9.19 mGy/kBq), making these the critical organs for [11C]NMB. A heart absorption of 50 mGy would result from an injected dose of 4,762 MBq [11C]NMB. Conclusions Thus, this study suggests that up to 4,762 MBq of [11C]NMB can be safely administered to human subjects for PET studies. Total body dose and effective dose for [11C] NMB are 2.82 mGy/kBq and 3.7 mSv/kBq, respectively. PMID:18071701

  16. Monitoring of Tumor Growth with [18F]-FET PET in a Mouse Model of Glioblastoma: SUV Measurements and Volumetric Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Holzgreve, Adrien; Brendel, Matthias; Gu, Song; Carlsen, Janette; Mille, Erik; Böning, Guido; Mastrella, Giorgia; Unterrainer, Marcus; Gildehaus, Franz J.; Rominger, Axel; Bartenstein, Peter; Kälin, Roland E.; Glass, Rainer; Albert, Nathalie L.

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive tumor growth monitoring is of particular interest for the evaluation of experimental glioma therapies. This study investigates the potential of positron emission tomography (PET) using O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([18F]-FET) to determine tumor growth in a murine glioblastoma (GBM) model—including estimation of the biological tumor volume (BTV), which has hitherto not been investigated in the pre-clinical context. Fifteen GBM-bearing mice (GL261) and six control mice (shams) were investigated during 5 weeks by PET followed by autoradiographic and histological assessments. [18F]-FET PET was quantitated by calculation of maximum and mean standardized uptake values within a universal volume-of-interest (VOI) corrected for healthy background (SUVmax/BG, SUVmean/BG). A partial volume effect correction (PVEC) was applied in comparison to ex vivo autoradiography. BTVs obtained by predefined thresholds for VOI definition (SUV/BG: ≥1.4; ≥1.6; ≥1.8; ≥2.0) were compared to the histologically assessed tumor volume (n = 8). Finally, individual “optimal” thresholds for BTV definition best reflecting the histology were determined. In GBM mice SUVmax/BG and SUVmean/BG clearly increased with time, however at high inter-animal variability. No relevant [18F]-FET uptake was observed in shams. PVEC recovered signal loss of SUVmean/BG assessment in relation to autoradiography. BTV as estimated by predefined thresholds strongly differed from the histology volume. Strikingly, the individual “optimal” thresholds for BTV assessment correlated highly with SUVmax/BG (ρ = 0.97, p < 0.001), allowing SUVmax/BG-based calculation of individual thresholds. The method was verified by a subsequent validation study (n = 15, ρ = 0.88, p < 0.01) leading to extensively higher agreement of BTV estimations when compared to histology in contrast to predefined thresholds. [18F]-FET PET with standard SUV measurements is feasible for glioma imaging in the GBM mouse model

  17. Optimization of Acquisition time of 68Ga-PSMA-Ligand PET/MRI in Patients with Local and Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lütje, Susanne; Blex, Sebastian; Gomez, Benedikt; Schaarschmidt, Benedikt M.; Umutlu, Lale; Forsting, Michael; Jentzen, Walter; Bockisch, Andreas; Poeppel, Thorsten D.; Wetter, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this optimization study was to minimize the acquisition time of 68Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) in patients with local and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) to obtain a sufficient image quality and quantification accuracy without any appreciable loss. Methods Twenty patients with PCa were administered intravenously with the 68Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA ligand (mean activity 99 MBq/patient, range 76–148 MBq) and subsequently underwent PET/MRI at, on average, 168 min (range 77–320 min) after injection. PET and MR imaging data were acquired simultaneously. PET acquisition was performed in list mode and PET images were reconstructed at different time intervals (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min). Data were analyzed regarding radiotracer uptake in tumors and muscle tissue and PET image quality. Tumor uptake was quantified in terms of the maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUVmax, SUVmean) within a spherical volume of interest (VOI). Reference VOIs were drawn in the gluteus maximus muscle on the right side. PET image quality was evaluated by experienced nuclear physicians/radiologists using a five-point ordinal scale from 5–1 (excellent—insufficient). Results Lesion detectability linearly increased with increasing acquisition times, reaching its maximum at PET acquisition times of 4 min. At this image acquisition time, tumor lesions in 19/20 (95%) patients were detected. PET image quality showed a positive correlation with increasing acquisition time, reaching a plateau at 4–6 min image acquisition. Both SUVmax and SUVmean correlated inversely with acquisition time and reached a plateau at acquisition times after 4 min. Conclusion In the applied image acquisition settings, the optimal acquisition time of 68Ga-PSMA-ligand PET/MRI in patients with local and metastatic PCa was identified to be 4 min per bed position. At this acquisition time, PET image quality and lesion detectability reach a maximum

  18. The latest views of Venus as observed by the Japanese Orbiter "Akatsuki"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Takehiko; Akatsuki Project Team

    2016-10-01

    Akatsuki, also known as the Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO) of Japan, was launched on 21 May 2010 from Tanegashima Space Center, Kagoshima, Japan. After 6 months of cruising to Venus, an attempt was made to insert Akatsuki in Venus orbit (VOI) on 7 December 2010. However, due to the clogged check valve in a pressurizing system of fuel line, the thrust to decelerate the spacecraft was not enough to allow it captured by the gravitational pull of Venus. After this failure, Akatsuki became an artificial planet around the sun with an orbital period of ~200 days. We waited for 5 earth years (or 9 Akatsuki years), and the second attempt (VOI-R1) was made on the same day, 7 December 2015. It was a great surprise to the world that a "once failed" spacecraft made a successful orbital insertion after many years of time. The orbital period around Venus is slightly shorter than 11 days, with the apoapsis altitude of ~0.37 million km.After Venus Express (VEX), which was in Venus orbit for 8 years, Akatsuki still keeps a unique position and is expected to make a great contribution to the Venus science due primarily to its orbit. In contrast to the polar orbits of Pioneer Venus or VEX, Akatsuki is in a near-equatorial plane and revolves westward, the same direction as the super rotating atmosphere. This orbit allows the spacecraft in a "partial" synchronization with the atmospheric motion when Akatsuki is near the planet. When at greater distances, the atmosphere moves faster than Akatsuki's orbital motion so the spacecraft maps the full longitude range of Venus in several days. This meteorological-satellite-like concept makes Akatsuki the most unique planetary orbiter in the history. To sense the various levels of the atmosphere, to draw 3-dimentional picture of dynamics, Akatsuki is equipped with 5 on-board cameras, UVI (283 and 365 nm wavelength), IR1 (0.90, 0.97, and 1.01 μm), IR2 (1.65, 1.735, 2.02, 2.26, and 2.32 μm), LIR (8-12 μm), and LAC (a special high-speed sensor at

  19. In vivo MRS and MRSI: Performance analysis, measurement considerations and evaluation of metabolite concentration images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhoff-Baaz, Barbro

    2000-10-01

    The doctoral thesis concerns development, evaluation and performance of quality assessment methods for volume- selection methods in 31P and 1H MR spectroscopy (MRS). It also contains different aspects of the measurement procedure for 1H MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) with application on the human brain, image reconstruction of the MRSI images and evaluation methods for lateralization of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Two complementary two-compartment phantoms and evaluation methods for quality assessment of 31P MRS in small-bore MR systems were presented. The first phantom consisted of an inner cube inside a sphere phantom where measurements with and without volume selection where compared for various VOI sizes. The multi-centre showed that the evaluated parameters provide useful information of the performance of volume-selective MRS at the MR system. The second phantom consisted of two compartments divided by a very thin wall and was found useful for measurements of the appearance and position of the VOI profile in specific gradient directions. The second part concerned 1H MRS and MRSI of whole-body MR systems. Different factors that may degrade or complicate the measurement procedure like for MRSI were evaluated, e.g. the volume selection performance, contamination, susceptibility and motion. Two interpolation methods for reconstruction of MRSI images were compared. Measurements and computer simulations showed that Fourier interpolation correctly visualizes the information inherent in the data set, while the results were dependent on the position of the object relative the original matrix using Cubic spline interpolation. Application of spatial filtering may improve the image representation of the data. Finally, 1H MRSI was performed on healthy volunteers and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Metabolite concentration images were used for lateralization of TLE, where the signal intensity in the two hemispheres were compared. Visual analysis of the

  20. Monitoring of Tumor Growth with [(18)F]-FET PET in a Mouse Model of Glioblastoma: SUV Measurements and Volumetric Approaches.

    PubMed

    Holzgreve, Adrien; Brendel, Matthias; Gu, Song; Carlsen, Janette; Mille, Erik; Böning, Guido; Mastrella, Giorgia; Unterrainer, Marcus; Gildehaus, Franz J; Rominger, Axel; Bartenstein, Peter; Kälin, Roland E; Glass, Rainer; Albert, Nathalie L

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive tumor growth monitoring is of particular interest for the evaluation of experimental glioma therapies. This study investigates the potential of positron emission tomography (PET) using O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([(18)F]-FET) to determine tumor growth in a murine glioblastoma (GBM) model-including estimation of the biological tumor volume (BTV), which has hitherto not been investigated in the pre-clinical context. Fifteen GBM-bearing mice (GL261) and six control mice (shams) were investigated during 5 weeks by PET followed by autoradiographic and histological assessments. [(18)F]-FET PET was quantitated by calculation of maximum and mean standardized uptake values within a universal volume-of-interest (VOI) corrected for healthy background (SUVmax/BG, SUVmean/BG). A partial volume effect correction (PVEC) was applied in comparison to ex vivo autoradiography. BTVs obtained by predefined thresholds for VOI definition (SUV/BG: ≥1.4; ≥1.6; ≥1.8; ≥2.0) were compared to the histologically assessed tumor volume (n = 8). Finally, individual "optimal" thresholds for BTV definition best reflecting the histology were determined. In GBM mice SUVmax/BG and SUVmean/BG clearly increased with time, however at high inter-animal variability. No relevant [(18)F]-FET uptake was observed in shams. PVEC recovered signal loss of SUVmean/BG assessment in relation to autoradiography. BTV as estimated by predefined thresholds strongly differed from the histology volume. Strikingly, the individual "optimal" thresholds for BTV assessment correlated highly with SUVmax/BG (ρ = 0.97, p < 0.001), allowing SUVmax/BG-based calculation of individual thresholds. The method was verified by a subsequent validation study (n = 15, ρ = 0.88, p < 0.01) leading to extensively higher agreement of BTV estimations when compared to histology in contrast to predefined thresholds. [(18)F]-FET PET with standard SUV measurements is feasible for glioma imaging in the GBM mouse model

  1. Identify the Atrophy of Alzheimer’s Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Normal Aging Using Morphometric MRI Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiangyu; Li, Zhaoxia; Jing, Bin; Liu, Han; Li, Dan; Li, Haiyun

    2016-01-01

    Quantitatively assessing the medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures atrophy is vital for early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and accurately tracking of the disease progression. Morphometry characteristics such as gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness have been proved to be valuable measurements of brain atrophy. In this study, we proposed a morphometric MRI analysis based method to explore the cross-sectional differences and longitudinal changes of GMV and cortical thickness in patients with AD, MCI (mild cognitive impairment) and the normal elderly. High resolution 3D MRI data was obtained from ADNI database. SPM8 plus DARTEL was carried out for data preprocessing. Two kinds of z-score map were calculated to, respectively, reflect the GMV and cortical thickness decline compared with age-matched normal control database. A volume of interest (VOI) covering MTL structures was defined by group comparison. Within this VOI, GMV, and cortical thickness decline indicators were, respectively, defined as the mean of the negative z-scores and the sum of the normalized negative z-scores of the corresponding z-score map. Kruskal–Wallis test was applied to statistically identify group wise differences of the indicators. Support vector machines (SVM) based prediction was performed with a leave-one-out cross-validation design to evaluate the predictive accuracies of the indicators. Linear least squares estimation was utilized to assess the changing rate of the indicators for the three groups. Cross-sectional comparison of the baseline decline indicators revealed that the GMV and cortical thickness decline were more serious from NC, MCI to AD, with statistic significance. Using a multi-region based SVM model with the two indicators, the discrimination accuracy between AD and NC, MCI and NC, AD and MCI was 92.7, 91.7, and 78.4%, respectively. For three-way prediction, the accuracy was 74.6%. Furthermore, the proposed two indicators could also identify the

  2. Impact of uncertainty in longitudinal T1 measurements on quantification of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Madhava P; Chenevert, Thomas L; Cao, Yue

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the uncertainty in T1 measurement, by estimating the repeatability coefficient (RC) from two repeated scans, in normal appearing brain tissues employing two different T1 mapping methods. All brain MRI scans were performed on a 3 T MR scanner in 10 patients who had low grade/benign tumors and partial brain radiation therapy (RT) without chemotherapy, at pre-RT, 3 weeks into RT, end RT (6 weeks) and 11, 33, and 85 weeks after RT. T1-weighted images were acquired using (1) a spoiled gradient echo sequence with two flip angles (2FA: 5° and 15°) and (2) a progressive saturation recovery sequence (pSR) with five different TR values (100-2000 ms). Manually drawn volumes of interest (VOIs) included left and right normal putamen and thalamus in gray matter, and frontal and parietal white matter, which were distant from tumors and received a total of accumulated radiation doses less than 5 Gy at 3 weeks. No significant changes or even trends in mean T1 from pre-RT to 3 weeks into RT in these VOIs (p ≥ 0.11, Wilcoxon sign test) allowed us to calculate the repeatability statistics of between-subject means of squares, within-subject means of squares, F-score, and RC. The 2FA method produced RCs in the range of (9.7-11.7)% in gray matter and (12.2-14.5)% in white matter; while the pSR method led to RCs ranging from 10.9 to 17.9% in gray matter and 7.5 to 10.3% in white matter. The overall mean (±SD) RCs produced by the two methods, 12.0 (±1.6)% for 2FA and 12.0 (±3.8)% for pSR, were not significantly different (p = 0.97). A similar repeatability in T1 measurement produced by the time efficient 2FA method compared with the time consuming pSR method demonstrates that the 2FA method is desirable to integrate into dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for rapid acquisition. PMID:27358934

  3. The economic value of remote sensing information: a case study of agricultural production and groundwater vulnerability using applied environmental science and hydrogeospatial methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Mishra, S.; Raunikar, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    William M. Forney1*, Richard L. Bernknopf1, Shruti K. Mishra2, Ronald P. Raunikar1. 1=Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. 2=Contractor, Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California *=Contact author, wforney@usgs.gov, 650-329-4237. Does remote sensing information provide economic benefits to society and can those benefits be valued? Can resource management and policy be better informed by coupling past and present earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the USGS's research applies an established conceptual framework to answer these questions as well as estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate resolution land imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the US Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, we model the relationship between a population of the CDL's land uses and the evolution of nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Using source data from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and the USGS's National Water Quality Assessment Program, the approach uses multi-scaled, environmental science models to address dynamic, biophysical process models of nitrogen fate and transport at specific sites (wells) and at landscape scale (35 counties) in order to assess groundwater vulnerability. In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on particular agricultural goods and land uses: corn, soybeans and livestock manure management. Results of this four-year study will be presented, including: 1) the integrated models of the assessment approach, 2) mapping the range of vulnerabilities

  4. Pulmonary vessel segmentation utilizing curved planar reformation and optimal path finding (CROP) in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for CAD applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Guo, Yanhui; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2012-03-01

    Vessel segmentation is a fundamental step in an automated pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system. The purpose of this study is to improve the segmentation scheme for pulmonary vessels affected by PE and other lung diseases. We have developed a multiscale hierarchical vessel enhancement and segmentation (MHES) method for pulmonary vessel tree extraction based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. However, it is difficult to segment the pulmonary vessels accurately under suboptimal conditions, such as vessels occluded by PEs, surrounded by lymphoid tissues or lung diseases, and crossing with other vessels. In this study, we developed a new vessel refinement method utilizing curved planar reformation (CPR) technique combined with optimal path finding method (MHES-CROP). The MHES segmented vessels straightened in the CPR volume was refined using adaptive gray level thresholding where the local threshold was obtained from least-square estimation of a spline curve fitted to the gray levels of the vessel along the straightened volume. An optimal path finding method based on Dijkstra's algorithm was finally used to trace the correct path for the vessel of interest. Two and eight CTPA scans were randomly selected as training and test data sets, respectively. Forty volumes of interest (VOIs) containing "representative" vessels were manually segmented by a radiologist experienced in CTPA interpretation and used as reference standard. The results show that, for the 32 test VOIs, the average percentage volume error relative to the reference standard was improved from 32.9+/-10.2% using the MHES method to 9.9+/-7.9% using the MHES-CROP method. The accuracy of vessel segmentation was improved significantly (p<0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the segmented vessel volume between the automated segmentation and the reference standard was improved from 0.919 to 0.988. Quantitative comparison of the MHES method and the MHES-CROP method with the

  5. PET/CT imaging evidence of FUS-mediated (18)F-FDG uptake changes in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyungmin; Park, Mi-Ae; Wang, Shuyan; Chiu, Alan; Fischer, Krisztina; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) delivers highly focused acoustic energy to a small region of the brain in a noninvasive manner. Recent studies have revealed that FUS, which is administered either in pulsed or continuous waves, can elicit or suppress neural tissue excitability. This neuromodulatory property of FUS has been demonstrated via direct motion detection, electrophysiological recordings, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), confocal imaging, and microdialysis sampling of neurotransmitters. This study presents new evidence of local increase in glucose metabolism induced by FUS to the rat brain using FDG (18-fludeoxyglucose) positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats underwent sonication to a unilateral hemispheric area of the brain prior to PET scan. The pulsed sonication (350 kHz, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, and duration of 300 ms) was applied in 2 s intervals for 40 min immediately after the FDG injection via tail vein. Subsequently, the PET was acquired in dynamic list-mode to image FDG activity for an hour, and reconstructed into a single volume representing standardized uptake value (SUV). The raw SUV as well as its asymmetry index (AI) were measured from five different volume-of-interests (VOIs) of the brain for both hemispheres, and compared between sonicated and unsonicated groups. Results: Statistically significant hemispheric changes in SUV were observed only at the center of sonication focus within the FUS group [paired t-test; t(7) = 3.57, p < 0.05]. There were no significant hemispheric differences in SUV within the control group in any of the VOIs. A statistically significant elevation in AI (t-test; t(7) = 3.40, p < 0.05) was observed at the center of sonication focus (7.9 ± 2.5%, the deviations are in standard error) among the FUS group when compared to the control group (−0.8 ± 1.2%). Conclusions: Spatially distinct increases in the glucose metabolic

  6. Voxel-based evidence of perfusion normalization in glioblastoma patients included in a phase I-II trial of radiotherapy/tipifarnib combination.

    PubMed

    Ken, Soléakhéna; Deviers, Alexandra; Filleron, Thomas; Catalaa, Isabelle; Lotterie, Jean-Albert; Khalifa, Jonathan; Lubrano, Vincent; Berry, Isabelle; Péran, Patrice; Celsis, Pierre; Moyal, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan; Laprie, Anne

    2015-09-01

    We previously showed that the farnesyl transferase inihibitor, Tipifarnib induced vascularization normalization, oxygenation and radiosensitization in a pre-clinical glioblastoma (GBM) model. The aim of this study was to assess by dynamic-susceptibility-contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) the effect of radiotherapy (RT) and Tipifarnib combination on tumor perfusion in GBM patients. Eighteen patients with newly diagnosed GBM, enrolled in a phase I-II clinical trial associating RT with Tipifarnib, underwent anatomical MR imaging and DSC-MRI before (M0) and two months after treatment (M2). Anatomic volumes of interest (VOIs) were delineated according to contrast-enhanced and hyper-intense signal areas on T1-Gd and T2 images, respectively. Perfusion variations between M0 and M2 were assessed with median relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) inside these VOIs. Another voxel by voxel analysis of CBV values classified 405,117 tumor voxels into High_, Normal_ and Low_CBVTUMOR according to the distribution of CBV in the contralateral normal tissue. These three categories of CBVTUMOR voxels were color-coded over anatomical MRI. Variations of median rCBV were significantly different for two groups of patients (P < 0.013): rCBV decreased when initial rCBV was ≥ 1.0 (Group_rCBV_M0 > 1) and rCBV increased when initial rCBV was < 1.0 (Group_rCBV_M0 < 1). Mapping of color-coded voxels provided additional spatial and quantitative information about tumor perfusion: Group_rCBV_M0 > 1 presented a significant decrease of High_CBVTUMOR volume (P = 0.015) simultaneously with a significant increase of Normal_CBVTUMOR volume (P = 0.009) after treatment. Group_rCBV_M0 < 1 presented a decrease of Low_CBVTUMOR volume with an increase of Normal_ and High_CBV TUMOR volume after treatment. Pre and post-treatment CBV measurements with DSC-MRI characterized tumor perfusion evolution in GBM patients treated with RT combined to Tipifarnib; showing variations in favour of tumor perfusion

  7. Cerebellar neurochemical alterations in spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 appear to include glutathione deficiency.

    PubMed

    Doss, Sarah; Rinnenthal, Jan Leo; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Brandt, Alexander U; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Lux, Silke; Maul, Stephan; Würfel, Jens; Endres, Matthias; Klockgether, Thomas; Minnerop, Martina; Paul, Friedemann

    2015-08-01

    Autosomal dominant ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is a rare usually adult-onset progressive disorder with cerebellar neurodegeneration caused by mutations in protein kinase C gamma. We set out to examine cerebellar and extracerebellar neurochemical changes in SCA14 by MR spectroscopy. In 13 SCA14 patients and 13 healthy sex- and age-matched controls, 3-T single-voxel brain proton MR spectroscopy was performed in a cerebellar voxel of interest (VOI) at TE = 30 ms to obtain a neurochemical profile of metabolites with short relaxation times. In the cerebellum and in additional VOIs in the prefrontal cortex, motor cortex, and somatosensory cortex, a second measurement was performed at TE = 144 ms to mainly extract the total N-acetyl-aspartate (tNAA) signal besides the signals for total creatine (tCr) and total choline (tCho). The cerebellar neurochemical profile revealed a decrease in glutathione (6.12E-06 ± 2.50E-06 versus 8.91E-06 ± 3.03E-06; p = 0028) and tNAA (3.78E-05 ± 5.67E-06 versus 4.25E-05 ± 5.15E-06; p = 0023) and a trend for reduced glutamate (2.63E-05 ± 6.48E-06 versus 3.15E-05 ± 7.61E-06; p = 0062) in SCA14 compared to controls. In the tNAA-focused measurement, cerebellar tNAA (296.6 ± 42.6 versus 351.7 ± 16.5; p = 0004) and tCr (272.1 ± 25.2 versus 303.2 ± 31.4; p = 0004) were reduced, while the prefrontal, somatosensory and motor cortex remained unaffected compared to controls. Neuronal pathology in SCA14 detected by MR spectroscopy was restricted to the cerebellum and did not comprise cortical regions. In the cerebellum, we found in addition to signs of neurodegeneration a glutathione reduction, which has been associated with cellular damage by oxidative stress in other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Friedreich's ataxia.

  8. [Neurological diseases and SPECT--analysis using easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS)].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    We developed a method for automated diagnosis of brain perfusion SPECT and designated this method as an easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS). In this software program, voxel-by-voxel Z-score analysis after voxel normalization to global mean or cerebellar values; Z-score = ( [control mean] - [individual value] )/ (control SD) is performed. These Z-score maps are displayed by overlay on tomographic sections and by projection with averaged Z-score of 14mm thickness to surface rendering of the anatomically standardized MRI template. Anatomical standardization of SPECT images into a stereotactic space is performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 2. This program has an advantage of capability of incorporation of SPM results into automated analysis of Z-score values as a volume of interest (VOI). A specific VOI can be determined by group comparison of SPECT images for patients with a neuropsychiatric disease with those for healthy volunteers using SPM. Even if a center can construct a normal database with good quality comprising a large number of healthy volunteers, other centers have not been able to use this normal database because of differences between the used gamma cameras, collimators and physical correction algorithms. Since SPECT exhibits greater variations in image quality among different centers than PET, conversion of SPECT images may be necessary for sharing a normal database. In this eZIS software, we incorporated a newly developed program for making it possible to share a normal database in SPECT studies. A Hoffman 3-dimensional brain phantom experiment was conducted to determine systematic differences between SPECT scanners. SPECT images for the brain phantom were obtained using two different scanners. Dividing these two phantom images after anatomical standardization by SPM created a 3-dimensional conversion map. The use of a conversion map obtained from SPECT images of the same phantom provided very similar SPECT data despite extreme differences

  9. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna

  10. PIRATE: pediatric imaging response assessment and targeting environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Russell; Zhang, Yong; Krasin, Matthew; Hua, Chiaho

    2010-02-01

    By combining the strengths of various imaging modalities, the multimodality imaging approach has potential to improve tumor staging, delineation of tumor boundaries, chemo-radiotherapy regime design, and treatment response assessment in cancer management. To address the urgent needs for efficient tools to analyze large-scale clinical trial data, we have developed an integrated multimodality, functional and anatomical imaging analysis software package for target definition and therapy response assessment in pediatric radiotherapy (RT) patients. Our software provides quantitative tools for automated image segmentation, region-of-interest (ROI) histogram analysis, spatial volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis, and voxel-wise correlation across modalities. To demonstrate the clinical applicability of this software, histogram analyses were performed on baseline and follow-up 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET images of nine patients with rhabdomyosarcoma enrolled in an institutional clinical trial at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. In addition, we combined 18F-FDG PET, dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR, and anatomical MR data to visualize the heterogeneity in tumor pathophysiology with the ultimate goal of adaptive targeting of regions with high tumor burden. Our software is able to simultaneously analyze multimodality images across multiple time points, which could greatly speed up the analysis of large-scale clinical trial data and validation of potential imaging biomarkers.

  11. Volumetric characterization of human patellar cartilage matrix on phase contrast x-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Anas Z.; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Checefsky, Walter A.; Coan, Paola; Diemoz, Paul C.; Hobbs, Susan K.; Huber, Markus B.; Wismüller, Axel

    2015-03-01

    Phase contrast X-ray computed tomography (PCI-CT) has recently emerged as a novel imaging technique that allows visualization of cartilage soft tissue, subsequent examination of chondrocyte patterns, and their correlation to osteoarthritis. Previous studies have shown that 2D texture features are effective at distinguishing between healthy and osteoarthritic regions of interest annotated in the radial zone of cartilage matrix on PCI-CT images. In this study, we further extend the texture analysis to 3D and investigate the ability of volumetric texture features at characterizing chondrocyte patterns in the cartilage matrix for purposes of classification. Here, we extracted volumetric texture features derived from Minkowski Functionals and gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) from 496 volumes of interest (VOI) annotated on PCI-CT images of human patellar cartilage specimens. The extracted features were then used in a machine-learning task involving support vector regression to classify ROIs as healthy or osteoarthritic. Classification performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). The best classification performance was observed with GLCM features correlation (AUC = 0.83 +/- 0.06) and homogeneity (AUC = 0.82 +/- 0.07), which significantly outperformed all Minkowski Functionals (p < 0.05). These results suggest that such quantitative analysis of chondrocyte patterns in human patellar cartilage matrix involving GLCM-derived statistical features can distinguish between healthy and osteoarthritic tissue with high accuracy.

  12. Hybrid RGSA and Support Vector Machine Framework for Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Brain Tumor Classification

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh Sharma, R.; Marikkannu, P.

    2015-01-01

    A novel hybrid approach for the identification of brain regions using magnetic resonance images accountable for brain tumor is presented in this paper. Classification of medical images is substantial in both clinical and research areas. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality outperforms towards diagnosing brain abnormalities like brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, hemorrhage, and many more. The primary objective of this work is to propose a three-dimensional (3D) novel brain tumor classification model using MRI images with both micro- and macroscale textures designed to differentiate the MRI of brain under two classes of lesion, benign and malignant. The design approach was initially preprocessed using 3D Gaussian filter. Based on VOI (volume of interest) of the image, features were extracted using 3D volumetric Square Centroid Lines Gray Level Distribution Method (SCLGM) along with 3D run length and cooccurrence matrix. The optimal features are selected using the proposed refined gravitational search algorithm (RGSA). Support vector machines, over backpropagation network, and k-nearest neighbor are used to evaluate the goodness of classifier approach. The preliminary evaluation of the system is performed using 320 real-time brain MRI images. The system is trained and tested by using a leave-one-case-out method. The performance of the classifier is tested using the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.986 (±002). The experimental results demonstrate the systematic and efficient feature extraction and feature selection algorithm to the performance of state-of-the-art feature classification methods. PMID:26509188

  13. 3DVIEWNIX-AVS: a software package for the separate visualization of arteries and veins in CE-MRA images.

    PubMed

    Lei, Tianhu; Udupa, Jayaram K; Odhner, Dewey; Nyúl, László G; Saha, Punam K

    2003-01-01

    Our earlier study developed a computerized method, based on fuzzy connected object delineation principles and algorithms, for artery and vein separation in contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography (CE-MRA) images. This paper reports its current development-a software package-for routine clinical use. The software package, termed 3DVIEWNIX-AVS, consists of the following major operational parts: (1) converting data from DICOM3 to 3DVIEWNIX format, (2) previewing slices and creating VOI and MIP Shell, (3) segmenting vessel, (4) separating artery and vein, (5) shell rendering vascular structures and creating animations. This package has been applied to EPIX Medical Inc's CE-MRA data (AngioMark MS-325). One hundred and thirty-five original CE-MRA data sets (of 52 patients) from 6 hospitals have been processed. In all case studies, unified parameter settings produce correct artery-vein separation. The current package is running on a Pentium PC under Linux and the total computation time per study is about 3 min. The strengths of this software package are (1) minimal user interaction, (2) minimal anatomic knowledge requirements on human vascular system, (3) clinically required speed, (4) free entry to any operational stages, (5) reproducible, reliable, high quality of results, and (6) cost effective computer implementation. To date, it seems to be the only software package (using an image processing approach) available for artery and vein separation of the human vascular system for routine use in a clinical setting. PMID:12821028

  14. On the Effect of Sex on Prefrontal and Cerebellar Neurometabolites in Healthy Adults: An MRS Study.

    PubMed

    Endres, Dominique; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Feige, Bernd; Backenecker, Stephan; Nickel, Kathrin; Bubl, Anna; Lange, Thomas; Mader, Irina; Maier, Simon; Perlov, Evgeniy

    2016-01-01

    In neuropsychiatric research, the aspects of sex have received increasing attention over the past decade. With regard to the neurometabolic differences in the prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum of both men and women, we performed a magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS) study of a large group of healthy subjects. For neurometabolic measurements, we used single-voxel proton MRS. The voxels of interest (VOI) were placed in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Absolute quantification of creatine (Cre), total choline (t-Cho), glutamate and glutamine (Glx), N-acetylaspartate, and myo-inositol (mI) was performed. Thirty-three automatically matched ACCs and 31 cerebellar male-female pairs were statistically analyzed. We found no significant neurometabolic differences in the pACC region (Wilks' lambda: p = 0.657). In the left cerebellar region, we detected significant variations between the male and female groups (p = 0.001). Specifically, we detected significantly higher Cre (p = 0.005) and t-Cho (p = 0.000) levels in men. Additionally, males tended to have higher Glx and mI concentrations. This is the first study to report neurometabolic sex differences in the cerebellum. The effects of sexual hormones might have influenced our findings. Our data indicates the importance of adjusting for the confounding effects of sex in MRS studies. PMID:27531975

  15. On the Effect of Sex on Prefrontal and Cerebellar Neurometabolites in Healthy Adults: An MRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Dominique; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Feige, Bernd; Backenecker, Stephan; Nickel, Kathrin; Bubl, Anna; Lange, Thomas; Mader, Irina; Maier, Simon; Perlov, Evgeniy

    2016-01-01

    In neuropsychiatric research, the aspects of sex have received increasing attention over the past decade. With regard to the neurometabolic differences in the prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum of both men and women, we performed a magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS) study of a large group of healthy subjects. For neurometabolic measurements, we used single-voxel proton MRS. The voxels of interest (VOI) were placed in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Absolute quantification of creatine (Cre), total choline (t-Cho), glutamate and glutamine (Glx), N-acetylaspartate, and myo-inositol (mI) was performed. Thirty-three automatically matched ACCs and 31 cerebellar male–female pairs were statistically analyzed. We found no significant neurometabolic differences in the pACC region (Wilks' lambda: p = 0.657). In the left cerebellar region, we detected significant variations between the male and female groups (p = 0.001). Specifically, we detected significantly higher Cre (p = 0.005) and t-Cho (p = 0.000) levels in men. Additionally, males tended to have higher Glx and mI concentrations. This is the first study to report neurometabolic sex differences in the cerebellum. The effects of sexual hormones might have influenced our findings. Our data indicates the importance of adjusting for the confounding effects of sex in MRS studies. PMID:27531975

  16. L’acyclovir pour la gingivostomatite herpétique chez l’enfant

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Je vois chaque année des enfants d’âge préscolaire souffrant de gingivostomatite. Ce problème semble causer une charge de morbidité assez considérable. Parce que la maladie est attribuable au virus herpès simplex de type 1, faudrait-il prescrire une thérapie antiherpétique à l’acyclovir par voie orale? Réponse Bien que la plupart des enfants souffrant de gingivostomatite soient asymptomatiques, certains auront des douleurs et un inconfort importants, et sont à risque de déshydratation. Il n’existe pas d’études d’envergure bien conçues permettant de déterminer clairement la thérapie appropriée chez tous les enfants. Selon la seule étude randomisée, le traitement ne doit être administré que dans les 72 premières heures suivant l’apparition des symptômes si des douleurs substantielles ou une déshydratation sont documentées.

  17. PH Measurements of the Brain Using Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31PMRS) in Healthy Men – Comparison of Two Analysis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cichocka, Monika; Kozub, Justyna; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Intracellular pH provides information on homeostatic mechanisms in neurons and glial cells. The aim of this study was to define pH of the brain of male volunteers using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31PMRS) and to compare two methods of calculating this value. Material/Methods In this study, 35 healthy, young, male volunteers (mean age: 25 years) were examined by 31PMRS in 1.5 T MR system (Signa Excite, GE). The FID CSI (Free Induction Decay Chemical Shift Imaging) sequence was used with the following parameters: TR=4000 ms, FA=90°, NEX=2. Volume of interest (VOI) was selected depending on the size of the volunteers’ brain (11–14 cm3, mean 11.53 cm3). Raw data were analyzed using SAGE (GE) software. Results Based on the chemical shift of peaks in the 31PMRS spectrum, intracellular pH was calculated using two equations. In both methods the mean pH was slightly alkaline (7.07 and 7.08). Results were compared with a t-test. Significant difference (p<0.05) was found between these two methods. Conclusions The 31PMRS method enables non-invasive in vivo measurements of pH. The choice of the calculation method is crucial for computing this value. Comparing the results obtained by different teams can be done in a fully credible way only if the calculations were performed using the same formula. PMID:26692912

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-D texture analysis of lung parenchyma is better than 2-D for discrimination of lung pathology in stage 0 COPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; Sonka, Milan; McLennan, Geoffrey; Guo, Junfeng; Hoffman, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Lung parenchyma evaluation via multidetector-row CT (MDCT), has significantly altered clinical practice in the early detection of lung disease. Our goal is to enhance our texture-based tissue classification ability to differentiate early pathologic processes by extending our 2-D Adaptive Multiple Feature Method (AMFM) to 3-D AMFM. We performed MDCT on 34 human volunteers in five categories: emphysema in severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as EC, emphysema in mild COPD (MC), normal appearing lung in COPD (NC), non-smokers with normal lung function (NN), smokers with normal function (NS). We volumetrically excluded the airway and vessel regions, calculated 24 volumetric texture features for each Volume of Interest (VOI); and used Bayesian rules for discrimination. Leave-one-out and half-half methods were used for testing. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the four-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: EC: 84.9%/70.7%, MC: 89.8%/82.7%; NC: 87.5.0%/49.6%; NN: 100.0%/60.0%. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the two-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: NN: 99.3%/71.6%; NS: 99.7%/74.5%. We conclude that 3-D AMFM analysis of the lung parenchyma improves discrimination compared to 2-D analysis of the same images.

  19. Estimation of the breast skin-line in mammograms using multidirectional Gabor filters.

    PubMed

    Casti, P; Mencattini, A; Salmeri, M; Ancona, A; Mangeri, F; Pepe, M L; Rangayyan, R M

    2013-11-01

    Segmentation of the breast region is a fundamental step in any system for computerized analysis of mammograms. In this work, we propose a novel procedure for the estimation of the breast skin-line based upon multidirectional Gabor filtering. The method includes an adaptive values-of-interest (VOI) transformation, extraction of the skin-air ribbon by Otsu's thresholding method and the Euclidean distance transform, Gabor filtering with 18 real kernels, and a step for suppression of false edge points using the magnitude and phase responses of the filters. On a test set of 361 images from different acquisition modalities (screen-film and full-field digital mammograms), the average Hausdorff and polyline distances obtained were 2.85 mm and 0.84 mm, respectively, with reference to the ground-truth boundaries provided by an expert radiologist. When compared with the results obtained by other state-of-the-art methods on the same set of images and with respect to the same ground-truth boundaries, our method mostly outperformed the other approaches. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Echo Planar Correlated Spectroscopic Imaging (EP-COSI): Implementation and Pilot Evaluation in Human Calf in Vivo#

    PubMed Central

    Lipnick, Scott; Verma, Gaurav; Ramadan, Saadallah; Furuyama, Jon; Thomas, M. Albert

    2010-01-01

    Exploiting the speed benefits of echo-planar imaging (EPI), the echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) sequence facilitates recording of one spectral and two to three spatial dimensions faster than the conventional MR Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI). A novel four dimensional (4D) echo-planar correlated spectroscopic imaging (EP-COSI) was implemented on a whole body 3T MRI scanner combining two spectral with two spatial encodings. Similar to EPSI, the EP-COSI sequence used a bipolar spatial read-out train facilitating simultaneous spatial and spectral encoding, and the conventional phase and spectral encodings for the other spatial and indirect spectral dimensions, respectively. Multiple 2D correlated spectroscopy (COSY) spectra were recorded over the spatially resolved volume of interest (VOI) localized by a train of three slice-selective radio-frequency (RF) pulses (90°-180°-90°). After the initial optimization using phantom solutions, the EP-COSI data were recorded in the lower leg of eight healthy volunteers including one endurance trained volunteer. Pilot results showed acceptable spatial and spectral quality achievable using the EP-COSI sequence. There was a detectable separation of cross peaks arising from the skeletal muscle intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipids (EMCL) saturated and unsaturated pools. Residual dipolar interaction between the N-methylene and N-methyl protons of creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr/PCr) was also observed in the tibialis anterior region. PMID:20574964