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Sample records for volta lake ghana

  1. Lake Volta, Ghana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Lake Volta in Ghana was acquired March 31, 2002 by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Lake Volta is one of the world's largest artificially created lakes. Lake Volta is actually a reservoir formed from the damming of the Volta River, and extends 250 miles north of the Akosombo Dam. The lake covers an area of 8,482 square km. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  2. Importance of the aquatic weed Ceratophyllum to transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake, Ghana*

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, R. K.; Chu, K. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results of 5 years of sampling for Bulinus rohlfsi in human-water contact sites of villages along the Volta Lake, Ghana, have confirmed that the aquatic macrophyte, Ceratophyllum, is the most important ecological factor for sustaining high levels of cercarial transmission of Schistosoma haematobium. Data available so far indicate that growth of this weed largely determines the size of the snail populations. Increasing density of Ceratophyllum correlates with increasing levels of cercarial transmission potential in the water contact sites and of S. haematobium infection in the village populations. PMID:6975187

  3. Techniques for estimating densities of Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi and its horizontal distribution in Volta Lake, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K. Y.; Vanderburg, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi is the intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis, which is highly endemic in the man-made Volta Lake. In 1971, a WHO/UNDP schistosomiasis project was established in the Pawmpawm branch and part of the Afram branch of Volta Lake. Malacological findings of the preliminary phase indicated that the snails were distributed in the littoral zone of the lake, and that this distribution was correlated with the presence of vegetation, especially Ceratophyllum. Transmission nearly always occurred in “water contact sites”, i.e., places where people come into contact with water. A snail-sampling technique with palm-leaf mats was developed and standardized after it had been shown in sensitivity trials to compare favourably with a modified version of the “man—time” sampling method, in which the number of snails collected per man-hour is recorded. It is recommended that both these methods should be used to conduct ecological studies of B. rohlfsi in water contact sites. PMID:1088354

  4. Comparison of Three Analytical Methods for the Quantitation of Mercury in Environmental Samples from the Volta Lake, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwaansa-Ansah, Edward Ebow; Adimado, Anthony Apeke; Nriagu, Jerome Okon; Basu, Niladri

    2016-11-01

    Three analytical methods using automatic mercury analyzer (AMA), direct mercury analyzer (DMA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied to determine mercury in fish and sediment samples from the Volta Lake in Ghana with the aim of comparing their accuracy, precision, and limit of quantifications. There was statistically no significant difference (p < 0.05) between the concentrations recorded by the methods. This indicates their suitability for the accurate determination of mercury. Limit of quantification was found to be in the order; ICP-MS (0.053 ng/g) < DMA (0.527 ng/g) < AMA (2.193 ng/g). Though each of the three methods has a suitable ability in determining accurately the concentrations of mercury in fish and sediment, for the determination of very low concentrations of mercury ICP-MS should be preferred considering the order of the detection limit which follows the trend ICP-MS (0.016 ng/g) < DMA (0.158 ng/g) < AMA (0.509 ng/g).

  5. Effect of pH, sulphate concentration and total organic carbon on mercury accumulation in sediments in the Volta Lake at Yeji, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Voegborlo, R B; Adimado, A A; Ephraim, J H; Nriagu, J O

    2012-03-01

    In this study, pH, total organic carbon, sulphate concentration and mercury concentrations of sediment samples from the Volta Lake at Yeji in the northern part of Ghana were determined. The results indicate that pH ranged from 6.32 to 8.21, total organic carbon ranged from 0.17 to 3.02 g/kg and sulphate concentration from 10.00 to 57.51 mg/kg. Total mercury concentrations ranged from 32.61 to 700 ng/g which is below the International Atomic Energy Agency recommended value of 810 ng/g. Humic substance-bound mercury ranged from 81.15 to 481.31 mg/kg in sediments and its two fractions existed as humic acid-bound mercury > fulvic acid-bound mercury with the ratio of humic substance-bound mercury to fulvic acid-bound mercury as 1.62 on the average. Humic substance-bound mercury and the two fractions fulvic acid-bound mercury and humic substance-bound mercury in sediments were favorably determined and found to correlate significantly positive with total organic carbon (r = 0.538) and total mercury (r = 0.574). However, there were poor correlations between SO(4) (2-) concentrations and humic substance-bound mercury (r = -0.391) as well as the two fractions; fulvic acid (r = -0.406) and humic acid (r = -0.381). By assuming that methyl mercury is mostly formed in sediments, these significant relations suggest that the efficiency of mercury being methylated from a given inorganic form depends on the amount, and most likely biochemical composition of total organic carbon in the lake sediment but not the SO(4) (2-) concentration.

  6. Preliminary schistosomiasis survey in the lower Volta River below Akosombo Dam, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Wen, S T; Chu, K Y

    1984-04-01

    Snail surveys were carried out in Kpong Lake, in southern Ghana, and along the lower Volta River below the lake. Bulinus globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi were abundant in the Kpong Lake and B. truncatus and Biom . pfeifferi, especially the latter, were widespread below the lake. Urine surveys among primary school children at eight localities along the lower Volta showed Schistosoma haematobium prevalence rates of 38.8-96.2%. At Bator and Mepe , where records for an earlier survey were available for comparison, the present survey showed more than a doubling in prevalence rate in ten years: at Bator , from 27.1% in 1971-72 to 74.6% in 1981; at Mepe the corresponding figures were 36.4 and 88.0%. In Ghana infection with S. mansoni is less common than with S. haematobium and the known foci of S. mansoni transmission are few and widely scattered. In the present survey the disease is first reported along the lower Volta at Bator , Mepe , Adidome and Tefle , with prevalence rates ranging from 6.7% at Bator to 52.4% at Tefle . This survey has added an important focus of S. mansoni infection to those already known.

  7. 154. Credit JE. Sections of Lake Nora penstock at Volta ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    154. Credit JE. Sections of Lake Nora penstock at Volta ready to go into the trench. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 237). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  8. Commodification of Ghana's Volta River: An Example of Ellul's Autonomy of Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Byrne, John

    2005-01-01

    Jacques Ellul argued that modernity's nearly exclusive reliance on science and technology to design society would threaten human freedom. Of particular concern for Ellul was the prospect of the technical milieu overwhelming culture. The commodification of the Volta River in order to modernize Ghana illustrates the Ellulian dilemma of the autonomy…

  9. Prediction of the distribution of Glossina tachinoides (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Volta basin of northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mahama, C I; Koné, A; de la Rocque, S; De Deken, R; Geerts, S

    2005-02-01

    The classification of a Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite image helped demonstrate prevailing habitat types and land use intensity in the Volta basin of the Northern Region of Ghana. A geo-referenced data layer comprising the capture results of a cross-sectional survey of Glossina tachinoides Westwood was over-laid on a data layer of habitat types within 500 m of either bank of the Volta river and its tributaries. An evaluation of the relationship between habitat types and the capture results of G. tachinoides suggested a strong preference of G. tachinoides for woodland, followed by shrubland, grassland and flood plains. The findings were used to classify the suitability of habitat types for G. tachinoides as 'high', 'medium' and 'low' and a prediction map for the distribution of G. tachinoides in the entire river network was produced. The usefulness of this method in estimating the potential distribution of G. tachinoides in an area of increasing agricultural expansion is discussed.

  10. Droughts, Irrigation Development, and Hydropower: Different Development Priorities in Ghana and Burkina Faso and Their Effect on Management of the Volta River, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; van Edig, A.

    2001-05-01

    The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West-African savanna zone. Ghana lies downstream and contains 42% of the basin. Most of the upstream part of the basin lies in Burkina Faso (43% of total), and the remaining 15% lies in Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, and Benin. Average rainfall is 1000 mm per year of which around 9% or 36 km3 becomes available as runoff in the Volta River. Small variations in rainfall cause relatively large variations in runoff. The Volta Basin is undergoing rapid changes in land use and water resource development, mainly driven by the high population growth of 3% per year. However, different countries pursue economic development in different ways. At independence in 1957, Ghana's leaders saw industrialization as essential to development and electric power from the Volta Dam as central to that industrialization. In 1964, the Volta Dam was built and Ghana's economic growth in the mining, industrial, and service sectors has depended on the dam's hydropower ever since. In contrast, land-locked Burkina Faso has less industrial potential and seeks to develop through its agriculture, both for subsistence and export crops. Given the extremely unreliable rainfall, irrigation development is seen as the only way to increase agricultural production. In general, irrigation in Burkina Faso takes the form of many small scale, village-based schemes of which the downstream impact is difficult to gauge. A minor drought in 1997 and 1998 caused the level of Lake Volta to drop, resulting in widespread power outages. In the ensuing public discussion, hydraulic development in Burkina Faso was seen as one of the potential causes of the lack of water. No firm data were available to substantiate this claim. In fact, over-withdrawals in previous years combined with climate variability were more likely culprits. A recently initiated multi-disciplinary research project will be presented that seeks to provide a scientific basis on which future discussions between the two

  11. Mercury accumulation in the clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) at the Volta estuary, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obirikorang, K A; Amisah, S; Adjei-Boateng, D; Madkour, H A; Otchere, F A

    2010-11-01

    The concentration of mercury in the tissues of the clam, Galatea paradoxa at in the Volta estuary, Ghana, were analysed over an 18-month period, from March 2008 to August 2009. The concentrations were well below the International Human Consumption Advisory Limit of THg (0.5 μg/g wet weight). The concentrations in the tissues of the different clam size classes were between 6 and 18 times lower than the WHO Safety Reference Standard. Variation in the mean mercury concentration in the different clam size classes was not significant (p > 0.05) for clams from Aveglo but were highly significant (p < 0.0001) for clams from Ada, indicating a possible effect of size on accumulation. G. paradoxa is therefore suitable for human consumption based on the WHO Safety Reference Standards.

  12. Guinea worm disease--a chance for successful eradication in the Volta Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Diamenu, S K; Nyaku, A A

    1998-08-01

    A guinea worm eradication program in two farming communities in the Akatsi District in the Volta region of Ghana was initially threatened by failure to apply simple preventive practices. Persistent monitoring and education on the use of locally supplied, inexpensive materials for water filtration has turned the program around. In March 1996, the Volta rural water supply and sanitation (VRWSS) project commissioned a guinea worm prevalence and knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study to collect baseline prevalence data. This study revealed some of the factors that contributed to the persistent high prevalence of guinea worm in the two communities. The community's only source of potable drinking water was irrigation dams which also served as the source of guinea worm infection. The Last quarterly report stated that guinea worm cases had been reduced from 62 to 5 in the two communities. Lessons learnt from Avega and Avevi will be extended to other guinea worm endemic communities that have registered with the project in the region. The prospect of total eradication of guinea worm in the region now exists.

  13. Wetland river flow interaction in a sedimentary formation of the white Volta basin, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyarko, B. K.; Diekkruger, B.; Van De Giesen, N.; Barry, B.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater resources in the floodplain wetlands of the White Volta River basin of Ghana is a major source of water for irrigation activities of communities living around and baseflow to sustain the flow of the river. Hydrology of the floodplain wetlands in the basin are complex, characterized by temporally variable storage volumes with erratic contribution to streamflow. For the continual usage of groundwater resources in the floodplains there is a need to study the form of interaction between the main river and floodplain wetlands. The study, adopted the PM-WIN (MODFLOW) model for simulating the interaction between the wetland and stream. Additionally, the lower boundary discharge output from the HYDRUS-1D model is the estimated recharge. This input quantifies the temporal and spatial variations in sub-surfaces discharges in the floodplain wetland. The simulation of the sub-surface hydraulic head of the wetland indicates a systematic variation relative to the White Volta River response to changes in the rainfall pattern. The interaction conditions vary from season to season with March, April, and May showing the least leakage (estimated values of 0.03mm/day, 0.06mm/day, and 0.15 mm/day, respectively) from the river into the floodplain wetland. Notably, the interaction between the wetland and the river as simulated is bidirectional. With most of the flow coming out from the river into the floodplain wetland, this condition persists in the months of August and September.

  14. Groundwater level monitoring and recharge estimation in the White Volta River basin of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuobie, Emmanuel; Diekkrueger, Bernd; Agyekum, William; Agodzo, Sampson

    2012-08-01

    Recharge quantification is an important pre-requisite for effectively managing groundwater resources as recharge estimates are needed to determine sustainable yields of groundwater aquifers for rational and sustainable exploitation of the resource. In this study, the water table fluctuation method has been applied in the White Volta River basin of Ghana (approx. 46,000 km2) to estimate seasonal fluctuations in groundwater levels in the basin and subsequently to estimate recharge to the groundwater for the 2006 and 2007 water years. Results show high seasonal and spatial variability in the water level, with a range of 1240-5000 mm in 2006, and 1600-6800 mm in 2007. Seasonal rainfall was found to be the main source of recharge to the aquifers in the basin as water level rise occurred only in the rainfall season. Recharge to groundwater in the White Volta basin was estimated to vary between 2.5% and 16.5% of the mean annual rainfall, with a mean recharge of 7-8%.

  15. Gametogenic development and spawning of the freshwater clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta River Estuary, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjei-Boateng, D; Wilson, J G

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on the reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778), a major species for artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana. Condition indices and histological observation of the gonads revealed that G. paradoxa has a single spawning event between July and October. Gametogenesis started in December progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning began until November when individuals were spent. Condition and gonadal indices showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stages.

  16. Modeling the impact of a hydropower reservoir on the habitat of a megaherbivore in the Black Volta Basin in Ghana, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manful, Desmond

    2010-05-01

    The Black Volta watershed is approximately 134 000 km2 in size at the gauge at Bamboi. It is part of the main 414 000 km2 Volta system. The Volta river was dammed at Akosombo in 1965 resulting in the largest man-made lake in the world, the Volta Lake. The Bui dam is a new 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the "hippo friendliness" of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the operating rules of the reservoir in the post-construction phase of the dam. A great deal of work has been done on the effects of stream flow changes on fish especially salmonids. Very little work however has

  17. Coupled surface water and groundwater modeling over the White Volta Basin, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittinger, S. T.; Alo, C. A.; Bitew, M. M.; Yidana, S. M.; Alfa, B.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainable livelihood in the semiarid White Volta Basin in Northern Ghana is dependent on the availability and sustainable development and management of water resources for agricultural activities. Currently, almost all agricultural activities are rain-fed and thus depend on the frequency, spatial, and temporal distribution of rainfall. Recent erratic patterns in the temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall in the basin—largely consistent with the effects of a warming climate—have led to dwindling fortunes in the rain-fed agricultural enterprise. On the other hand, surface water bodies in the forms of rivers and streams are ephemeral and therefore do not serve the immediate irrigation needs of the populations especially in the dry seasons. The conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources to support local irrigation schemes in the basin has been suggested as a possible buffer against the effects of dwindling rainfall on agriculture in the basin and has the potential of raising the standard of living of the communities dwelling there. Conjunctive surface water/groundwater use involves the balanced application of both groundwater and surface water resources for maximal socio-economic benefit whilst ensuring ecological integrity. However, a detailed assessment of the potentials of the aquifers for commercial development has been constrained by the limited or no understanding of the surface water-groundwater interactions in the basin within the context of climate change/evolving patterns of climate variability and human activities. Here, we present preliminary results from simulations of coupled surface water and groundwater availability and flow over the Volta Basin using an integrated hydrological model.

  18. Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.

  19. Trials of ecological and chemical measures for the control of Schistosoma haematobium transmission in a Volta Lake village

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K. Y.

    1978-01-01

    Urinary schistosomiasis is highly prevalent along the shores of the Volta Lake in Ghana, where transmission occurs focally in man—water contact sites. The intermediate host, Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi, prefers to harbour in Ceratophyllum, a common aquatic weed in the lake. Removal of this weed reduced the density of both infected and uninfected snails, but not sufficiently to interrupt transmission. Niclosamide was applied at 1, 0.7, and 0.5 mg/l in combination with weed removal at five water contact sites in December, January, and February, respectively. Plastic sheets were used to isolate treated sites from the main body of the lake. Snail surveys were carried out at short intervals to assess the effectiveness of these intervention measures. Niclosamide at 0.5 mg/l applied after weed removal was effective in killing the snails. The overall results indicate that snail control along the entire lake shore is impossible but that focal control of cercarial transmission at water contact sites is attainable and shows promise. PMID:307458

  20. Hydrochemical analysis of groundwater using multivariate statistical methods - The Volta region, Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Yidana, S.M.; Nti, E.

    2009-01-01

    Q and R-mode multivariate statistical analyses were applied to groundwater chemical data from boreholes and wells in the northern section of the Volta region Ghana. The objective was to determine the processes that affect the hydrochemistry and the variation of these processes in space among the three main geological terrains: the Buem formation, Voltaian System and the Togo series that underlie the area. The analyses revealed three zones in the groundwater flow system: recharge, intermediate and discharge regions. All three zones are clearly different with respect to all the major chemical parameters, with concentrations increasing from the perceived recharge areas through the intermediate regions to the discharge areas. R-mode HCA and factor analysis (using varimax rotation and Kaiser Criterion) were then applied to determine the significant sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. This study finds that groundwater hydrochemistry in the area is controlled by the weathering of silicate and carbonate minerals, as well as the chemistry of infiltrating precipitation. This study finds that the ??D and ??18O data from the area fall along the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). An equation of regression derived for the relationship between ??D and ??18O bears very close semblance to the equation which describes the GMWL. On the basis of this, groundwater in the study area is probably meteoric and fresh. The apparently low salinities and sodicities of the groundwater seem to support this interpretation. The suitability of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is related to its source, which determines its constitution. A plot of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity (EC) data on a semilog axis, suggests that groundwater serves good irrigation quality in the area. Sixty percent (60%), 20% and 20% of the 67 data points used in this study fall within the medium salinity - low sodicity (C2-S1), low salinity -low sodicity (C1-S1) and high salinity - low

  1. Levels of total mercury in different fish species and sediments from the Upper Volta Basin at Yeji in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Agorku, S E; Nriagu, J O

    2011-04-01

    In this study, total mercury concentrations were determined in sediments and seven different fish species from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji in Ghana. Mercury concentrations found ranged from 44.17 to 85.88 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis gambiesis, from 11.25 to 79.73 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis membranaceus, from 13.11 to 38.64 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis ocellifer, from 16.39 to 25.82 ng/g wet weight for Distishodus rotratus, from 40.80 to 90.30 ng/g wet weight for Bagrus docmac, from 10.48 to 61.90 ng/g wet weight for Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and from 12.33 to 24.18 ng/g wet weight for Gnathoneus senegalensis. These values are below the 500 ng/g guideline recommended by the WHO/FAO, implying that fish from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji are safe for human consumption. Good correlation was observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight (R(2) = 0.6067) and total length (R(2) = 0.8754) for Gnathonemus senegalensis. However, poor correlations were observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight and total length for the other six species. Mercury in sediments ranged from 11.87 to 70.25 ng/g dry weights with a mean of 41.60 ng/g dry weight being below the IAEA threshold of 810 ng/g.. These values show that sections of the Upper Volta River remain relatively clean in spite of substantial loadings of mercury into the river's basin from gold mining activities.

  2. Geophysical evidence for a major palaeochannel within the Obosum Group of the Volta Basin, Northern Region, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessell, Mark; Boamah, Kwame; Duodu, John Agyei; Ley-Cooper, Yusen

    2015-12-01

    We have identified a 230 km long palaeochannel cutting through the sediments of the Obosum Group within the Volta Basin, Ghana. The channel is visible in regional airborne magnetic data as a pair of parallel magnetic anomalies which we interpret to be lateral terrace placer deposits of magnetite or maghemite and show both meandering and braided geometries. The palaeochannel is also visible in the airborne radiometric data for part of its length, as well as in airborne electromagnetic data, where it is marked by a zone of low conductivity. The meanders have a wavelength of around 20 km and together with the 2 km spacing between magnetic anomalies, suggest a major palaeo-river system, of as yet unknown age, although based on published detrital zircon ages for the host sediments and geomorphological arguments it is probably between 509 ± 68 and 45 Ma, and is comparable in size to the modern-day Niger River. Given the known occurrences of alluvial gold and diamonds in Ghana, and the general prospectivity of meandering and braided rivers systems, we believe the region has exploration potential for a range of economically valuable minerals, and could also potentially host a shallow aquifer.

  3. Relationship between gonad maturation and heavy metal accumulation in the clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta estuary, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjei-Boateng, D; Obirikorang, K A; Amisah, S; Madkour, H A; Otchere, F A

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between gonadal development and the concentrations of four heavy metals Mn, Zn, Fe and Hg in the tissues of the clam Galatea paradoxa was evaluated at the Volta estuary, Ghana, over an 18-month period. Metal concentrations in the clam tissues were highly variable over the sampling period and seemed to be influenced by the reproductive cycle of the clam. Mn concentrations varied over a wide range from 49 to 867 μg/g and exhibited a significant positive correlation with gonadal development (p = 0.0146, r(2) = 0.3190). Zn and Fe concentrations ranged from 13 to 59 μg/g and 79 to 484 μg/g, respectively and both revealed negative relationships between gonad development and metal accumulation (Zn (p = 0.0554, r(2) = 0.0554) and Fe (p = 0.1040, r(2) = 0.1567)). Hg concentrations ranged from 0.026 to 0.059 μg/g over the sampling period and exhibited a slight positive relationship between gonadal development and metal accumulation (p = 0.0861, r(2) = 0.1730).

  4. Qualitative Inquiry into Challenges Experienced by Registered General Nurses in the Emergency Department: A Study of Selected Hospitals in the Volta Region of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adatara, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Registered General Nurses (RGNs) play crucial roles in emergency departments (EDs). EDs in Ghana are primarily staffed by RGNs who have had no additional formal education in emergency care. Additionally, basic, master's, or doctoral level nursing education programs provide limited content on the complexities of emergency nursing. Nurses in EDs are affected by many challenges such as growing patient population, financial pressures, physical violence, verbal abuse, operational inefficiencies, overcrowding, and work overload. There is a paucity of research on challenges experienced by RGNs in EDs in the Volta Region of Ghana. In this qualitative study, twenty RGNs in EDs from three selected hospitals in the Volta Region of Ghana were interviewed. All recorded interviews were transcribed, reviewed several times by researchers and supervisors, and analyzed using content analysis. Five thematic categories were identified. These thematic categories of challenges were lack of preparation for ED role, verbal abuse from patients relatives, lack of resources in ED, stressful and time consuming nature of ED, and overcrowding in ED. Formal education of RGNs in the advanced role of emergency care, adequate supply of resources, increased hospital management support, and motivations for RGNs working in ED are necessary to improve the practice of emergency care. PMID:27885343

  5. Factors in the Effective Utilization of a LANDSAT Related Inventory in West Africa. [resource management in onchocerciasis-free Benin, Upper Volta, and Ghana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive LANDSAT related resource inventory was performed in parts of Ghana, Benin, and Upper Volta to determine resource development potential in areas freed of the disease onchocerciasis. The ultimate success of the project lies in the effective use of the data by host country personnel in resource development projects. This requires project follow-through, adequate training of regional counterparts, and integration of the data into an easily used framework. Present levels of support systems and technical expertise in West Africa indicate that an automated system for natural resource data is not currently appropriate. Suggestions for the greater implementation of such inventories are explored.

  6. Length-weight relationship of the freshwater clam, Galatea paradoxa (born 1778) from the Volta Estuary, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obirikorang, K A; Adjei-Boateng, D; Madkour, H A; Amisah, S; Otchere, F A

    2013-02-15

    The length-weight relationship of the threatened freshwater clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta Estuary, Ghana was studied over a two-year period, from March 2008 to February 2010, to aid in the development of stock assessment models for the sustainable management of the remaining clam stock. Data reported in this study were collected at monthly intervals and covered varying depths of the Estuary ranging from 0.5 to about 10 m. Overall, a total of 5276 clams with shell lengths ranging from 3.40 to 89.24 mm and total weight from 0.10 to 154.00 g were sampled during the study period. The length-weight relationships were highly significant (p < 0.0001) for all the months and the b-values ranged from 2.023 (January 2010) to 3.874 (June 2009). The calculated b-values indicated that clams exhibited different growth patterns at different periods but overall, the pooled samples of 5276 individuals exhibited an isometric growth pattern (b = 3.003). The observed monthly growth patterns exhibited by G. paradoxa appeared to be largely influenced by the reproductive cycle of the organism. During the periods leading to spawning, the clams generally exhibited positive allometric growth patterns (weight increasing faster than length) which appeared to be strongly linked to the build-up of proteins and carbohydrates in their tissues. Successive negative allometric growth patterns (length increasing faster relative to weight) were, however, observed from March to June 2008 and from December 2009 to February 2010, which are possibly indicative of the loss in tissue weight that occurs as a direct result of the spawning process. It will thus be suitable to institute a close season to coincide with the spawning period of the clams to avoid the harvesting of clams during the spawning period which will enhance future recruitment of the clam stock.

  7. Changes in the fish community of the Kpong Headpond, lower Volta River, Ghana after 25 years of impoundment.

    PubMed

    Quarcoopome, Theodore; Amevenku, Francis; Ofori-Danson, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    The Kpong Headpond was the second created on the Volta River after Akosombo Dam, primarily as a source of hydroelectric power generation and potable water supply, and additionally, it has supported some fish production in Ghana since impoundment. The changes in fish community of the Kpong Headpond were studied to provide baseline information for strategies formulation to support the socio-economic development of the reservoir. The study identified changes in the fish community of the reservoir by comparing occurrence, composition, relative abundance and relative importance estimates of fish species, families and trophic groups, from available previous studies in the reservoir. From the collated information all fishes identified in the reservoir were categorised based on occurrence and importance as disappeared, appeared, permanent, declined or important, to show current status. The results indicated that the fish community has experienced a shift in the composition and relative abundance of important species, families and trophic groups in terms of number and weight, while remaining ecologically balanced. Representatives of the families Osteoglossidae, Centropomidae and Characidae have declined while representatives of the families Claroteidae, Cyprinidae and Cichlidae have increased. The aufwuch-detritus and herbivores declined while semi-pelagic omnivores increased resulting in a shift in dominance to benthic and semi pelagic omnivores. The appearance of five species and the disappearance of 25 others indicated a dynamic restructuring of the fish community in the reservoir, as expected. Enforcement of fishing regulations including the use of appropriate gear and fishing methods, fishery access control, promotion of culture-based fisheries and improvement in fisher education are recommended topics for sustainable fisheries in the reservoir.

  8. Hydrochemical study of water collected at a section of the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.

    2014-06-01

    The present hydrochemical study at the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana was conducted by determining the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, total dissolved solute, electrical conductivity, total hardness, phosphate (PO4 3-), nitrate (NO3 -), sulfate (SO4 2-), dissolve oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand, calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), total iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) nickel (Ni), and total chromium (Cr) at 38 sampling sites during the wet and the dry seasons. The physical and ionic parameters were mostly found within the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. The trace metals except Cu at some sites recorded values above the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. This shows that the river water is not entirely fit for drinking. Mean values of physico-chemical parameters were mostly found to be high in the dry season as compared to the wet season. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the water quality and the interrelationship between variables. CA grouped the physico-chemical parameters into three groups (physical/minor ions, major ions and trace elements). Correlation analysis showed that physico-chemical parameters do not vary much in terms of the sampling sites. Thus, based on obtained information, it is possible to design a future, desirable sampling strategy, which could reduce the number of sampling stations and associated costs for effective river water quality management. Results showed that four principal components (industrial effect, domestic factor, natural source and agricultural effect) accounted for 65.59 % of the total variance among the water quality parameters. PCA also identified sampling sites 69R, 63R, 51M, 87L, 35L, 74L and 84L as polluted with metals. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of industrial

  9. A longitudinal epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in the White Volta river basin of Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mahama, C I; Desquesnes, M; Dia, M L; Losson, B; De Deken, R; Speybroeck, N; Geerts, S

    2005-03-31

    A longitudinal epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors was carried out in the Volta river basin of Northern Ghana to determine the relationship between cattle management and the incidence of bovine trypanosomosis. Two groups of sentinel cattle under different systems of management, classified as "fully-sedentary" and "partially-sedentary" (depending on the type of management) were followed over a 1-year period starting from March 2003 onwards. Cattle were screened at intervals of 3 months using the buffy coat technique (BCT). Buffy coat specimen from animals that were positive for the BCT and those that were negative, but with a packed cell volume (PCV) of less than 21% were further tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasma from all animals were tested for antibody using the indirect antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Trypanosomosis challenge was determined in tandem with the epidemiological survey with watering sites of sentinel cattle being the foci of interest. The parasitological prevalence at the start of the survey was higher in the fully-sedentary group (9%) than in the partially-sedentary group (3%). In subsequent visits, however, the parasitological incidence was consistently higher in the partially-sedentary group than in the fully-sedentary group. The mean seroprevalence (ELISA) of both groups increased from 3% in March to 54% in December. Statistical analysis of the serological results using a random effect logistic regression, showed a significant difference in incidence of bovine trypanosomosis between the two groups. There was also a significant effect of time. The influence of cattle herding on host-vector-parasite interface and its consequence on the incidence of trypanosomosis are discussed.

  10. Maternal nutritional knowledge and child nutritional status in the Volta region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Appoh, Lily Yaa; Krekling, Sturla

    2005-04-01

    The relationship between mother's nutritional knowledge, maternal education, and child nutritional status (weight-for-age) was the subject of investigation in this study. The data were collected in Ghana on 55 well nourished and 55 malnourished mother-child pairs. A questionnaire designed to collect data on mother's knowledge and practices related to child care and nutrition was administered to the mothers. Data on mother's demographic and socio-economic characteristics as well as child anthropometric data were also collected. A nutrition knowledge score was calculated based on mother's responses to the nutrition related items. Bivariate analysis gave significant associations between child nutritional status and the following variables: time of initiating of breastfeeding, mother's knowledge of importance of colostrum and whether colostrum was given to child, age of introduction of supplementary food, and mother's knowledge about causes of kwashiorkor. The two groups also showed significant differences in their nutrition knowledge scores. Maternal formal education, and marital status were also found to be associated with child nutritional status in bivariate analyses. Further analysis with logistic regression revealed that maternal nutrition knowledge was independently associated with nutritional status after the effects of other significant variables were controlled for. Maternal education on the other hand was not found to be independently associated with nutritional status. These results imply that mother's practical knowledge about nutrition may be more important than formal maternal education for child nutrition outcome.

  11. Integrated water research in the GLOWA Volta Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Berger, T.; Iskandarani, M.; Kunstmann, H.; Park, S.; Vlek, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West African savanna. The river feeds Lake Volta, that provides over 95% of the electricity in Ghana and has the largest surface of any man-made lake in the world. The rural population (per capita income US600/year) increasingly turns to small scale irrigation development to improve the returns on their agricultural activities and reduce dependence on the highly variable rainfall. The irrigation development stands in direct competition with the hydropower generation that drives development in the more urbanized South. The GLOWA Volta Projects seeks to develop a Decision Support System (DSS) for the management of water resources in the basin under changing global and regional conditions. The DSS is built upon a scientific analysis of all factors that affect water supply and demand. To understand all aspects of the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin one needs to take physical (atmosphere, land, water) as well as social aspects (population, economic development, institutions) into account. The major scientific challenge of the GLOWA Volta Project is the integrated analysis of the bio- physical and socio-economic factors that affect the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin. The presentation introduces the GLOWA Volta Project, focusing on activities that integrate different disciplines. Specifically, we present three sets of activities: (1) the coupling between meteorology and hydrology, (2) development of a Common Sampling Frame for the collection of socio-economic and bio-physical data, and (3) a water use optimization model that incorporates economy, hydrology, and institutional analysis. Finally, we look at recent initiatives in the basin that link science, stakeholders, and policy makers.

  12. CYP1A andother biomarker responses to effluents from a textile mill in the Volta River (Ghana) using caged tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) andsediment-exposed mudfish (Clarias anguillaris).

    PubMed

    Gadagbui, B K; Goksrøyr, A

    1996-01-01

    Abstract The ecotoxicological effects of a textile mill effluent were investigated by caging tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Volta River, Ghana, andby exposing mudfish (Clarias anguillaris) to sediment collected from the same river. Tilapia were caged for 3 weeks at three locations (0.6, 4, and8 km) downstream from the effluent outlet. Mudfish were exposed in the laboratory for 2 weeks to sediment collected from the vicinity of the effluent outlet and8 km downstream. Upstream reference locations 2 km (tilapia) and10.2 km (mudfish) were included. Liver cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monooxygenase activity (measured as activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, EROD, andCYP1A protein level) andtwo conjugation enzymes, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UDP-GT) andglutathione Stransferase (GST), were analysed. A distance-related decrease in EROD activity andCYP1A protein level was observed. EROD activity was 21-fold higher in tilapia caged at the site nearest the effluent outlet and25-fold higher in mudfish exposed to sediment collected from the vicinity of the outlet, compared with the respective reference values. UDP-GT andGST levels increased significantly by 70 and27%, respectively, in tilapia while the respective levels in mudfish were 73 and28%, compared with reference values. The results clearly indicate that the textile mill effluent contains some highly potent inducers of biotransformation enzymes. This first assessment of the biological effects of organic pollutants in the Volta River demonstrates the utility of the CYP1A system as a valuable early warning biomarker of industrial effluents andalso as a biomarker to detect exposure of aquatic resources to environmental chemical contamination in tropical waters.

  13. Physical and isotopic characteristics in peri-urban landscapes: a case study at the lower Volta River Basin, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.; Sarfo, M. A.; Salifu, M.; Aidoo, F.; Fuseini, A. R.

    2015-05-01

    The study presents the application of selected multivariate techniques: display methods (principal component analysis) and unsupervised pattern recognition (cluster analysis) in an attempt to discriminate sources of variation of water quality. PCA has allowed the identification of a reduced number of latent factors with a hydrochemical meaning: natural and anthropogenic (domestic and agricultural activities) factors, which also agrees with the R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Q-mode HCA also corroborates the results of the correlation analysis in relation to sampling sites established on hydrochemical parameters, indicating that there are no spatial and temporal characteristics among the sampling sites in the study area. The suitability of river water for irrigation use was assessed in the study area. A plot of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity data on a semilog axis suggests that river water provides good irrigation quality in the area. According to the SAR values plotted in the USSL Staff diagram, 100 % of the river water samples fall in C1-S1 (low salinity-low sodium type) group, which provides good irrigation quality to river water from this area. Also, all the data points showed permeability index values in Class II category which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Recorded magnesium ratio and Kelly's ratio showed that <50 % of the river water samples were suitable for irrigation purposes. Stable isotope data of water (δ18O and δ2H) obtained revealed that stream waters joining the Volta River were depleted and possibly recharged by rain and waters from the Akwapim Mountains (located at the western part of the Volta River) than the isotopically heavy evaporated waters found within the Lower Volta River. These results would therefore be useful for water balance studies in the study area.

  14. Use of isotopes to study floodplain wetland and river flow interaction in the White Volta River basin, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Nyarko, Benjamin Kofi; Kofi Essumang, David; Eghan, Moses J; Reichert, Barbara; van de Giesen, Nick; Vlek, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Floodplain wetlands influence the timing and magnitude of stream responses to rainfall. In managing and sustaining the level of water resource usage in any river catchment as well as when modelling hydrological processes, it is essential that the role of floodplain wetlands in stream flows is recognised and understood. Existing studies on hydrology within the Volta River basin have not adequately represented the variability of wetland hydrological processes and their contribution to the sustenance of river flow. In order to quantify the extent of floodwater storage within riparian wetlands and their contribution to subsequent river discharges, a series of complementary studies were conducted by utilising stable isotopes, physical monitoring of groundwater levels and numerical modelling. The water samples were collected near Pwalugu on the White Volta River and at three wetland sites adjacent to the river using the grab sampling technique. These were analysed for (18)O and (2)H. The analysis provided an estimate of the contribution of pre-event water to overall stream flow. In addition, the variation in the isotopic composition in the river and wetland water samples, respectively, revealed the pattern of flow and exchange of water between the wetlands and the main river system.

  15. The Lake Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, William B.; Bacon, Michael; Hastings, David A.

    1981-01-01

    Analogy with better-known craters suggests that Bosumtwi has a central uplift rising to 200 m beneath the lake floor. An aeromagnetic anomaly of amplitude 50 nanotesla (nT) over the northern half of the lake is interpreted as due to a layer of magnetized fallback breccia beneath the lake sediments. The normal polarity of the breccia shows that the crater was formed during the normal Jaramillo event of 0.97 to 0.85 m.y. ago, which agrees with the magnetic stratigraphy of the related Ivory Coast microtektites. A regional gravity survey indicates a negative Bouguer anomaly over the crater. There is some geochemical evidence that the meteorite was an iron, and its mass and energy are suggested as about 108 tons and 3 × 1019 joules or 7.3 × 103 megatons.

  16. Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Amongst Pregnant Women Attending an Antenatal Clinic, Volta Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Dassah, Sylvester; Lokpo, Sylvester; Ameke, Louise; Noagbe, Mark; Adatara, Peter; Hagan, Oheneba; Binka, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global challenge, although there is currently a safe and effective vaccine available. HBV prevalence in Ghana is not well documented, but vary regionally from 4.8% to 12.3% in the general population, 10.8% to 12.7% in blood donors and about 10.6% in pregnant women. This puts Ghana among the high endemic countries in Africa. The study objective was to determine the sero-prevalence of HBs antigen (Ag) and HBeAg among pregnant women in the Ho municipality. Two hundred and eigh participants (pregnant women), attending Ho Municipal antenatal clinic were enrolled into the study. This study recorded a HBsAg sero-prevalence rate of 2.4% among the pregnant women, with primigravida pregnant women recording (0.98%) and multigravida (1.42%). The prevalence of HBsAg among the pregnant women can be classified as Low Intermediate; therefore there is still the need for routine screening of pregnant women during antenatal visits. Amongst HBsAg positives, HBeAg positivity was significantly high (40% of all HBsAg positive women), which suggests high chances of carrier and vertical transmission (mother to child) state. PMID:28299162

  17. The Effect of Improved Water Supply on Diarrhea Prevalence of Children under Five in the Volta Region of Ghana: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Seungman; Kang, Douk; Tuffuor, Benedict; Lee, Gyuhong; Cho, Jungmyung; Chung, Jihye; Kim, Myongjin; Lee, Hoonsang; Lee, Jaeeun; Oh, Chunghyeon

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of studies have been conducted to explore the effect of water quality improvement, the majority of them have focused mainly on point-of-use water treatment, and the studies investigating the effect of improved water supply have been based on observational or inadequately randomized trials. We report the results of a matched cluster randomized trial investigating the effect of improved water supply on diarrheal prevalence of children under five living in rural areas of the Volta Region in Ghana. We compared the diarrheal prevalence of 305 children in 10 communities of intervention with 302 children in 10 matched communities with no intervention (October 2012 to February 2014). A modified Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio. An intention-to-treat analysis was undertaken. The crude prevalence ratio of diarrhea in the intervention compared with the control communities was 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.97) for Krachi West, 0.96 (0.87–1.05) for Krachi East, and 0.91 (0.83–0.98) for both districts. Sanitation was adjusted for in the model to remove the bias due to residual imbalance since it was not balanced even after randomization. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 0.82 (95% CI 0.71–0.96) for Krachi West, 0.95 (0.86–1.04) for Krachi East, and 0.89 (0.82–0.97) for both districts. This study provides a basis for a better approach to water quality interventions. PMID:26404337

  18. A system dynamics simulation model for sustainable water resources management and agricultural development in the Volta River Basin, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kotir, Julius H; Smith, Carl; Brown, Greg; Marshall, Nadine; Johnstone, Ron

    2016-12-15

    In a rapidly changing water resources system, dynamic models based on the notion of systems thinking can serve as useful analytical tools for scientists and policy-makers to study changes in key system variables over time. In this paper, an integrated system dynamics simulation model was developed using a system dynamics modelling approach to examine the feedback processes and interaction between the population, the water resource, and the agricultural production sub-sectors of the Volta River Basin in West Africa. The objective of the model is to provide a learning tool for policy-makers to improve their understanding of the long-term dynamic behaviour of the basin, and as a decision support tool for exploring plausible policy scenarios necessary for sustainable water resource management and agricultural development. Structural and behavioural pattern tests, and statistical test were used to evaluate and validate the performance of the model. The results showed that the simulated outputs agreed well with the observed reality of the system. A sensitivity analysis also indicated that the model is reliable and robust to uncertainties in the major parameters. Results of the business as usual scenario showed that total population, agricultural, domestic, and industrial water demands will continue to increase over the simulated period. Besides business as usual, three additional policy scenarios were simulated to assess their impact on water demands, crop yield, and net-farm income. These were the development of the water infrastructure (scenario 1), cropland expansion (scenario 2) and dry conditions (scenario 3). The results showed that scenario 1 would provide the maximum benefit to people living in the basin. Overall, the model results could help inform planning and investment decisions within the basin to enhance food security, livelihoods development, socio-economic growth, and sustainable management of natural resources.

  19. Growth and mortality of Cichla spp. (Perciformes, Cichlidae) introduced in Volta Grande Reservoir (Grande River) and in a small artificial lake in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Carmassi, A L; Rondineli, G R; Villares Junior, G A; Braga, F M S

    2010-11-01

    The growth and mortality parameters were estimated through the analysis of length frequency distribution for species of Cichla spp. introduced into a lake in Leme (SP), and in Volta Grande reservoir (SP-MG). In Leme, Cichla kelberi presented larger frequency in the inferior classes of lengths, larger instantaneous rate of natural mortality, and smaller number of cohorts than C. kelberi and C. piquiti in Volta Grande. The values of growth performance obtained for the species were similar, corroborating the validity of the estimated growth and mortality parameters. The increase of the growth rate in small and less diverse environments occurs due to predation. The genus Cichla adapts well in locations in which it is introduced, however this adaptation shows itself to be strongly adjusted to each particular location, determining great plasticity and establishment capacity.

  20. Ghana: Disability and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botts, Betsy H.; Evans, William H.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study explores the educational system and attitudes toward disability in the Volta Region of Ghana. Traditional, Christian, and Islamic beliefs toward disability are explored. Educators from Accra and three families from the Volta Region with children with special needs are interviewed in an effort to explore the connection…

  1. Adolescents and parents’ perceptions of best time for sex and sexual communications from two communities in the Eastern and Volta Regions of Ghana: implications for HIV and AIDS education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescents and parents’ differ in their perceptions regarding engaging in sexual activity and protecting themselves from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The views of adolescents and parents from two south-eastern communities in Ghana regarding best time for sex and sexual communications were examined. Methods Focus Group interviews were conducted with parents and adolescents (both In-school and Out-of school) from two communities (Somanya and Adidome) in the Eastern and Volta regions of Ghana with epidemiological differentials in HIV infection. Results Findings showed parents and adolescents agree that the best timing for sexual activity amongst adolescents is determined by socioeconomic viability. In practice however, there were tensions between adolescents and parents crystallized by spoilt generation and physiological drive ideologies. Whilst one community relied on a more communal approach in controlling their children; the other relied on a confrontational approach. Sex-talk is examined as a measure to reduce these tensions, and children in both communities were ambivalent over sexual communication between their parents and themselves. Parents from the two communities however differed in their perceptions. Whilst parents in one community attributed reduced teenage pregnancies to sex education, those in the other community indicated a generalized adolescents’ sexual activeness manifested in the perceived widespread delinquency in the community. Conclusion Parents in both communities reported significant barriers to parents-adolescents sexual communication. Parents in both communities should be educated to discuss the broader issues on sexuality that affects adolescents and their reproductive health needs. PMID:24070548

  2. Basic Design, a Needed Foundation for Designing a Successful Garment: A Case Study of Dressmakers in the Ho Municipality, Volta Region, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbetodeme, Selom; Amankwa, Joana; Dzegblor, Noble Komla

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the design process in every art form, there are certain guidelines that all professional designers should use. These are known as elements and principles of design. This study is a survey carried out to assess the knowledge of dressmakers about basic design in the Ho Municipality of Ghana. Sixty dressmakers were randomly sampled for…

  3. The Lake Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana: A brief environmental assessment and discussion of ecotourism potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boamah, Daniel; Koeberl, Christian

    Lake Bosumtwi is a natural inland freshwater lake that originated from a meteorite impact. The lake is becoming a popular tourist attraction in Ghana and has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism site in the future. However, there have been some unregulated human activities and unplanned infrastructure development, and there are increased levels of pollutants in the lake water. In order to make ecotourism at Lake Bosumtwi successful in the long term, the Lake Bosumtwi Development Committee has been formed to ensure that local people are empowered to mobilize their own capacities. It has been realized that an important criterion required to develop ecotourism in a socially responsible, economically efficient, and environmentally viable way is to foster a constructive dialogue between the local people and tourists about the needs of the indigenous people.

  4. Reservoir impact assessment in sub-Saharan Africa: The Volta Basin Water Allocation System (VB-WAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leemhuis, C.; Jung, G.; Kasei, R.; Liebe, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the Volta River Basin, infrastructure watershed development with respect to the impact of climate conditions is hotly debated due to the lack of adequate tools to model the consequences of such development. The Volta basin drains an area of approx. 400 000 km² of the subhumid to semiarid West-African savannah zone and is shared by six riparian countries. The region is characterized by erratic rainfall patterns, and domestic and agricultural water users in the upper regions of the Basin complete with hydropower generation in the south for increasingly scarce water resources. There is an ongoing debate on the impact of further development of small, medium and large reservoirs on the water level of Lake Volta. The GLOWA Volta Project (GVP) has developed a Volta Basin Water Allocation System (VB-WAS), a decision support tool that allows assessing the impact of infrastructure development in the basin on the availability of current and future water resources, given the current or future climate conditions. The simulated historic and future discharge time series of the coupled climate-hydrological model (MM5/WaSiM) serve as input data for a river basin management model (MIKE BASIN). MIKE BASIN uses a network approach, and allows fast simulations of water allocation and of the consequences of different development scenarios on the available water resources. Furthermore it is possible to up set up climate scenario time series scenarios for an assessment of the consequences of extreme climate conditions. Within a case study analysis the impact of small and medium scale reservoir development on the water resources of the Volta basin has been evaluated under different climatic conditions. For the evaluation of the impact of large reservoir development in particular the impact of Bui dam, which is under construction on the Black Volta River in Ghana, on the water level of Lake Volta has been simulated with the VB-WAS model. The VB-WAS model allows a quantified impact

  5. Seasonal variations in phytoplankton diversity in the Bui dam area of the Black Volta in Ghana during the pre- and post-impoundment periods.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Elliot Haruna

    2015-03-01

    Phytoplankton constitutes the primary producers of aquatic ecosystems and represents the food chain base that supports the commercial fisheries of most water bodies. Nowadays, there is lack of information on phytoplankton assemblages of most reservoirs in Africa. To contribute with this knowledge, this study was carried out to determine the density and diversity of seasonal variations of phytoplankton species in the Bui dam area of the Black Volta, during the pre- (2011) and post-impoundment (2012) periods. For this, a three-level stratified random sampling approach was adopted for 22 months. Phytoplankton samples were obtained by towing a 0.5m diameter phytoplankton net (35 microm mesh size and 0.25m2 mouth surface area) from a non-motorized canoe through a distance of about 100 m against the current from downstream to upstream of the river. In 2011, 35 species of phytoplankton belonging to four classes, Bacillariophyceae (7.6%), Chlorophyceae (43%), Cyanophyceae (48.6%) and Euglenophyceae (0.8%) were identified. In the 2012 sampling, 18 species belonging to three classes, Bacillariophyceae (2.2%), Chlorophyceae (26.1%) and Cyanophyceae (71.7%) were observed. A total of 17 species of phytoplankton, including Gyrosigma sp., Surirella sp., Carteria sp., Chlosterium sp., Chlorogonium sp., Coelastrum sp., Cosmarium sp., Volvox sp., Chroococcus sp., Coelosphaerium sp., Rivularia sp. and Spirulina sp., were absent during the late post-impoundment period. Mean monthly total phytoplankton abundance decreased from June (7 384 cells/M3) to August (106 cells/m3) in 2011. In 2012 however, mean total phytoplankton decreased from February (1237 cels/m3) to August (4 cells/m3). The results also showed that variations occurred between seasons among some phytoplankton groups. The dry and pre-wet seasons had significantly (p<0.05) higher mean phytoplankton abundance than the wet season during the 22 months of sampling period. The biotic indices of Shannon-Wiener (HI) were

  6. Coastal and Continental Shelf Processes in Ghana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    the ECS are experiencing more erosion than accretion (see Figure 3). Following the construction of the Akosombo Dam, upstream of the Volta River , the...C. K., (1980). The role of the Akosombo Dam on the Volta River in Causing Erosion in Central and Eastern Ghana (West Africa), Marine Geology, 37

  7. Coastal and Continental Shelf Processes in Ghana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    features of the Volta River . Although using the geomorphology as a basis for zoning the coast has enabled a comprehensive description of the coastal...Coastal Research, 23 (1): 87–105. Ly, C. K., (1980). The role of the Akosombo Dam on the Volta River in Causing Erosion in Central and Eastern Ghana

  8. Estimation of Streamflow and Fluvial Sediment Loads in the White Volta Basin under Future Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumor, M.; Amisigo, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The White Volta Basin is one of the major sub-catchments of the Volta Basin of West Africa, covers an estimated 106,000 km2 and is shared between Burkina Faso and Ghana. The basin currently faces many challenges such as flooding, drought, high temporal and spatial variation of rainfall, deforestation, land degradation, climate change and high population growth rate. These challenges put pressure on the quantity and quality of the water resources in the basin. Current infrastructure developments in the basin have already impacted on the hydrological cycle, and future development plans potentially pose a threat to the sustainability of the resources if not appropriately managed. Information on runoff and sediment loads is a very important requirement for sustainable management of the water resources in the basin. This study therefore seeks to assess runoff and sediment loads in the White Volta Basin using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and provide understanding of how climate change impacts on future runoff and sediment loads in the basin.The model was calibrated for the period 1991 to 2003 and validated for the period 2004 to 2013.The model was also validated at one gauging station on the main river and another on a tributary. Analysis of the water balance of the basin shows that 4.90% of the simulated mean annual precipitation is converted to surface runoff while 84.37% evapotranspires. The results also show that the White Volta Basin contributes approximately 5.68x106tonnes/yr of sediment load into the Volta Lake. The calibrated model was used to simulate the water balance for the present time slice (1975-2005) as the basis for comparing with the future (2025-2055) water balance in the WhiteVolta Basin. The results show that annual surface runoff and sediment loads could increase by 56% and 70% respectively. A projected reduction by 0.54% in actual evapotranspiration is however estimated for the selected time period in the basin.

  9. On the potentials of multiple climate variables in assessing the spatio-temporal characteristics of hydrological droughts over the Volta Basin.

    PubMed

    Ndehedehe, Christopher E; Awange, Joseph L; Corner, Robert J; Kuhn, Michael; Okwuashi, Onuwa

    2016-07-01

    Multiple drought episodes over the Volta basin in recent reports may lead to food insecurity and loss of revenue. However, drought studies over the Volta basin are rather generalised and largely undocumented due to sparse ground observations and unsuitable framework to determine their space-time occurrence. In this study, we examined the utility of standardised indicators (standardised precipitation index (SPI), standardised runoff index (SRI), standardised soil moisture index (SSI), and multivariate standardised drought index (MSDI)) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage to assess hydrological drought characteristics over the basin. In order to determine the space-time patterns of hydrological drought in the basin, Independent Component Analysis (ICA), a higher order statistical technique was employed. The results show that SPI and SRI exhibit inconsistent behaviour in observed wet years presupposing a non-linear relationship that reflects the slow response of river discharge to precipitation especially after a previous extreme dry period. While the SPI and SSI show a linear relationship with a correlation of 0.63, the correlation between the MSDIs derived from combining precipitation/river discharge and precipitation/soil moisture indicates a significant value of 0.70 and shows an improved skill in hydrological drought monitoring over the Volta basin during the study period. The ICA-derived spatio-temporal hydrological drought patterns show Burkina Faso and the Lake Volta areas as predominantly drought zones. Further, the statistically significant negative correlations of pacific decadal oscillations (0.39 and 0.25) with temporal evolutions of drought in Burkina Faso and Ghana suggest the possible influence of low frequency large scale oscillations in the observed wet and dry regimes over the basin. Finally, our approach in drought assessment over the Volta basin contributes to a broad framework for hydrological

  10. The Volta Basin Water Allocation System: assessing the impact of small-scale reservoir development on the water resources of the Volta basin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leemhuis, C.; Jung, G.; Kasei, R.; Liebe, J.

    2009-08-01

    In the Volta Basin, infrastructure watershed development with respect to the impact of climate conditions is hotly debated due to the lack of adequate tools to model the consequences of such development. There is an ongoing debate on the impact of further development of small and medium scale reservoirs on the water level of Lake Volta, which is essential for hydropower generation at the Akosombo power plant. The GLOWA Volta Project (GVP) has developed a Volta Basin Water Allocation System (VB-WAS), a decision support tool that allows assessing the impact of infrastructure development in the basin on the availability of current and future water resources, given the current or future climate conditions. The simulated historic and future discharge time series of the joint climate-hydrological modeling approach (MM5/WaSiM-ETH) serve as input data for a river basin management model (MIKE BASIN). MIKE BASIN uses a network approach, and allows fast simulations of water allocation and of the consequences of different development scenarios on the available water resources. The impact of the expansion of small and medium scale reservoirs on the stored volume of Lake Volta has been quantified and assessed in comparison with the impact of climate variability on the water resources of the basin.

  11. Productivity of irrigation technologies in the White Volta basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofosu, E. A.; van der Zaag, P.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Odai, S. N.

    Parts of the White Volta basin in northern Ghana and southern Burkina Faso have witnessed a spectacular rise of irrigated agriculture since about 2000, largely without government support, and seems to have been triggered by a strong and growing demand for vegetables, notably tomatoes in the urban centres of southern Ghana. It is interesting to note the variety of different irrigation technologies that individual and groups of smallholder farmers adopted, adapted and implemented. Some technologies are well-known, such as those associated with conventional sources of water like small and large reservoirs; others have been rarely described in literature, such as temporal shallow wells and alluvial dugouts. This paper describes and characterises these different irrigation technologies and conducts a comparative analysis of their productivities, in terms of crop yield, water use and financial returns. The study was conducted in three neighbouring and transboundary watersheds (Anayari, Atankwidi and Yarigatanga) located in the Upper East Region of Ghana and southern Burkina Faso. For the study, 90 tomato farmers with different irrigation technologies were surveyed during one crop season (2007/2008). The results show that adequate fertilizer application is the major contributor to irrigation productivity. Technologies characterised by relatively small farm sizes are better managed by the surveyed farmers because they are able to provide adequate water and crop nutrients thus resulting in higher productivity, and high profit margins. Apart from technologies that depend on reservoirs, all other technologies surveyed in the paper are farmer driven and required no government support. This ongoing type of endogenous irrigation development provides a strong backing that the way forward in sub-Saharan Africa is for governments to create policies that facilitate poor farmers becoming irrigation entrepreneurs. Such policies should aim to enhance the reliability of markets (both

  12. Predicting the downstream impact of ensembles of small reservoirs with special reference to the Volta Basin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Liebe, J.; Steenhuis, T.; Huber-Lee, A.

    2005-12-01

    After a strong reduction in investments in water infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa, we now see a revival and increased interest to start water-related projects. The global political willingness to work towards the UN millennium goals are an important driver behind this recent development. Large scale irrigation projects, such as were constructed at tremendous costs in the 1970's and early 1980's, are no longer seen as the way forward. Instead, the construction of a large number of small, village-level irrigation schemes is thought to be a more effective way to improve food production. Such small schemes would fit better in existing and functioning governance structures. An important question now becomes what the cumulative (downstream) impact is of a large number of small irrigation projects, especially when they threaten to deplete transboundary water resources. The Volta Basin in West Africa is a transboundary river catchment, divided over six countries. Of these six countries, upstream Burkina Faso and downstream Ghana are the most important and cover 43% and 42% of the basin, respectively. In Burkina Faso (and also North Ghana), small reservoirs and associated irrigation schemes are already an important means to improve the livelihoods of the rural population. In fact, over two thousand such schemes have already been constructed in Burkina Faso and further construction is to be expected in the light of the UN millennium goals. The cumulative impact of these schemes would affect the Akosombo Reservoir, one of the largest manmade lakes in the world and an important motor behind the economic development in (South) Ghana. This presentation will put forward an analytical framework that allows for the impact assessment of (large) ensembles of small reservoirs. It will be shown that despite their relatively low water use efficiencies, the overall impact remains low compared to the impact of large dams. The tools developed can be used in similar settings elsewhere

  13. Alessandro Volta and the politics of pictures.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    An astute diplomat, Alessandro Volta secured the patronage of Napoleon Bonaparte to promote his rise to fame as an electrical expert. Reciprocally, politicians helped their own causes by presenting him as a national as well as a scientific figurehead.

  14. Water and carbon fluxes from savanna ecosystems of the Volta River watershed, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Heiko; Ferguson, Paul R.; Dubois, Kristal; Hayford, Ebenezer Kofi; von Vordzogbe, Vincent; Veizer, Ján

    2008-03-01

    The fluxes of water and carbon from terrestrial ecosystems are coupled via the process of photosynthesis. Constraining the annual water cycle therefore allows first order estimates of annual photosynthetic carbon flux, providing that the components of evapotranspiration can be separated. In this study, an isotope mass-balance equation is utilized to constrain annual evaporation flux, which in turn, is used to determine the amount of water transferred to the atmosphere by plant transpiration. The Volta River watershed in West Africa is dominated by woodland and savanna ecosystems with a significant proportion of C 4 vegetation. Annually, the Volta watershed receives ˜ 380 km 3 of rainfall, ˜ 50% of which is returned to the atmosphere via transpiration. An annual photosynthetic carbon flux of ˜ 170 × 10 12 g C yr - 1 or ˜ 428 g C m - 2 was estimated to be associated with this water vapor flux. Independent estimates of heterotrophic soil respiration slightly exceeded the NPP estimate from this study, implying that the exchange of carbon between the Volta River watershed and the atmosphere was close to being in balance or that terrestrial ecosystems were a small annual source of CO 2 to the atmosphere. In addition to terrestrial carbon flux, the balance of photosynthesis and respiration in Volta Lake was also examined. The lake was found to evade carbon dioxide to the atmosphere although the magnitude of the flux was much smaller than that of the terrestrial ecosystems.

  15. Impact of future climate change on streamflow in the White Volta river basin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuobie, E.; Diekkrüger, B.; Liebe, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied in the White Volta river basin, West Africa, to simulate the streamflow and to estimate the impact of future climate change on the streamflow. The White Volta river basin is one of the three major sub-basins of the Volta river basin, and drains an area of about 106,000 km2 mainly shared by the riparian countries, Burkina Faso and Ghana. The model was calibrated and validated using daily measured streamflow data from the stream gage at Nawuni, for the period 1980-2000. Impact of future climate change on streamflow was estimated by simulating streamflow of two time slices, the present (1990-2000) and future (2030-2039), using the calibrated SWAT model and stochastically generated daily climate series and comparing their mean annual values. The generated future climate series reflected monthly changes in precipitation and temperature forecasted by the meso-scale climate model MM5, which was downscaled from ECHAM4 scenario IS92a. The results show that SWAT is able to accurately reproduce the streamflow in the White Volta Basin. The coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency were found to be, respectively, higher than 0.8 and 0.7, for both the calibration and validation periods. Compared to the present, the future mean annual streamflow and the annual coefficient of variation of the streamflow in the basin are expected to increase by 33% and 52%, respectively, as a result of future climate change.

  16. Integration of altimetric lake levels and GRACE gravimetry over Africa: Inferences for terrestrial water storage change 2003-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P.; Williams, S. D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) change for 2003-2011 is estimated over Africa from GRACE gravimetric data. The signatures from change in water of the major lakes are removed by utilizing kernel functions with lake heights recovered from retracked ENVISAT satellite altimetry. In addition, the contribution of gravimetric change due to soil moisture and biomass is removed from the total GRACE signal by utilizing the GLDAS land surface model. The residual TWS time series, namely groundwater and the surface waters in rivers, wetlands, and small lakes, are investigated for trends and the seasonal cycle using linear regression. Typically, such analyses assume that the data are temporally uncorrelated but this has been shown to lead to erroneous inferences in related studies concerning the linear rate and acceleration. In this study, we utilize autocorrelation and investigate the appropriate stochastic model. The results show the proper distribution of TWS change and identify the spatial distribution of significant rates and accelerations. The effect of surface water in the major lakes is shown to contribute significantly to the trend and seasonal variation in TWS in the lake basin. Lake Volta, a managed reservoir in Ghana, is seen to have a contribution to the linear trend that is a factor of three greater than that of Lake Victoria despite having a surface area one-eighth of that of Lake Victoria. Analysis also shows the confidence levels of the deterministic trend and acceleration identifying areas where the signatures are most likely due to a physical deterministic cause and not simply stochastic variations.

  17. Precipitation in the Black Volta Basin of Western Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppong Kwakye, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Precipitation is a climate variable that influences the hydrology and water resources of an area. The Black Volta basin in West Africa is a "fast developing" catchment which recently has the Bui Dam in Ghana with an installed capacity of about 400MW of power. The basin covers an area of about 150,000 km2 and spans from 7°N to 15°N and 5° 24`W to 1°W. For any hydrological or climate model, one has to know the spatial and or temporal trend of this important variable (i.e Precipitation). Again, with the impact of climate changes on hydrology, a deeper understanding of the Precipitation in an area is extremely justified. In this study, the annual rainfall cycles, annual sums of rainfall as well as what influences precipitation in the Black Volta Basin are investigated. Precipitation time series for about 20 stations ranging from 1961 to 2005 was used. At the end, the spatial interpolation method called Kriging is used to regionalize rainfall in the catchment and maps of long-term monthly and annual rainfall mean was produced. The results depict the different climates in the catchment which ranges from a sub-humid climate in the south to a semi-arid climate in the north of the basin. There is also a bi-modal annual rainfall cycle at the south of the catchment and a uni-modal cycle towards the north of the basin. The precipitation has a decreasing gradient towards the north of the basin which is all in consonant with previous studies and results by other researchers. A correlation analysis was performed on what influences precipitation in the catchment and at the end, it was revealed that the distances of the rain gauges from the coast influences precipitation and not the elevations. This knowledge was used as the external drift during the Kriging. These revelations would be very helpful during the set-up, calibration and validation of both hydrological and climate models.

  18. A 12,000-Year-Long, Annually-Resolved Varve Record Spanning the Last Interglacial from Lake Bosumtwi, Southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, N.; Overpeck, J. T.; Shanahan, T. M.; Peck, J. A.; Heil, C. W.; King, J. W.; Scholz, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of continued global warming on the likelihood of severe drought in sub-Saharan West Africa remains uncertain, as climate models generally do not simulate realistic climate dynamics in the region and have inconsistent projections for the future. The Last Interglacial period (LIG), occurring between 128 and 116 thousand years ago, is a partial analog for future warming because at its peak, global temperatures were slightly higher, and this warming was accentuated in Northern Hemisphere terrestrial summer temperatures. Here we present a new, annually-resolved, 12,100-year-long varve record for the LIG from Lake Bosumtwi in southern Ghana (6.5°N, 1.4°W). The abundance of terrigenous elements in the sediment, varve thickness, and the isotope geochemistry and mineralogy of authigenic carbonates in the sediment were used to infer changes in lake level. The varve chronology, varve thickness and elemental abundance records were developed with a new ensemble approach that allows for a more robust determination of uncertainty in the record. The new records reveal a dynamic history of hydrologic variability during the LIG. The LIG lake highstand was lower and shorter-lived than the the prolonged highstand in the early Holocene, and unlike the Holocene, the lake never overflowed during LIG. The overall drier conditions during the LIG are most likely driven by amplified precessional forcing during the interval, resulting in a northward shift in the rainbelt. The LIG, like the Holocene, had two distinct millennial-scale moist intervals, from 125 - 123 and 121 - 120 ka. In both the LIG and the Holocene, these peaks occurred during times of precession-driven insolation maxima in July and October, corresponding to the two rainy seasons in the modern climatology. This suggests that, at least during interglacials, prolonged wet conditions occur at the lake when rainy season insolation is highest. Over the course of the LIG, lake level generally tracked sea surface

  19. Epidemic in Ghana: "a very distinct profile".

    PubMed

    Decosas, J

    1995-06-01

    Sentinel surveillance for HIV among pregnant women in Ghana in 1992 pointed to an HIV prevalence of 3.2% in Koforidua and 4.2% in Kumasi; prevalence of 18%, however, was observed in rural Agomanya in the Eastern Region of the country. This relatively and absolutely high prevalence of HIV infection in the Eastern Region is closely related to the emigration of women to Cote d'Ivoire for work as prostitutes, and their ultimate return to their home villages in Eastern Ghana. It is hypothesized that the construction of the Volta river dam at Akosombe in the 1960s led to the establishment of a prostitution industry in that region. After the work was completed, the female prostitutes from Ghana followed the construction workers to their next site in Koussou, Cote d'Ivoire, and later moved to Abidjan. By 1990, an estimated 60% of the prostitutes in Abidjan were Ghanaian, one third of whom were from the Eastern Region. The national AIDS program of Cote d'Ivoire reported in 1992 that 86% of prostitutes in Abidjan were infected with HIV. Since 1986, these women have been returning to their villages in Ghana's Eastern Region to live out the last few months of their lives. Ghanaians are aware of this phenomenon and generally believe that HIV and AIDS affect only prostitutes from Abidjan. That, however, is not the case. The national AIDS program estimates that 2% of the adult population in the country is infected with HIV, mainly through sex with a Ghanaian in Ghana who is not a prostitute. All sexually active individuals in Ghana may therefore be at risk of contracting and transmitting HIV. This message must be communicated to the general public.

  20. Antibiotic producing microorganisms from River Wiwi, Lake Bosomtwe and the Gulf of Guinea at Doakor Sea Beach, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Microorganisms have provided a wealth of metabolites with interesting activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral and anticancer. In this study, a total of 119 aquatic microbial isolates from 30 samples (taken from water bodies in Ghana) were screened by the agar-well diffusion method for ability to produce antibacterial-metabolites. Results Antibacterial activity was exhibited by 27 of the isolates (14 bacteria, 9 actinomycetes and 4 fungi) against at least one of the indicator microorganisms: Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Bacillus thuringiensis (ATCC 13838), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Proteus vulgaris (NCTC 4635) and Bacillus Subtilis (NCTC 10073). A sea isolate MAI2 (identified as a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa) exhibited the highest antibacterial activity (lowest zone of inhibition = 22 mm). The metabolites of MAI2 extracted with chloroform were stable to heat and gave minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 250 and 2000 μg/ml. Bioautography of the extract revealed seven active components. Conclusion This study has therefore uncovered the potential of water bodies in the West African sub-region as reservoirs of potent bioactive metabolite producing microorganisms. PMID:23072432

  1. Volta and Galvani: New Electricity from Old. Experiment No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devons, Samuel

    Presented is a descriptive account of Alessandro Volta's first notable success in 1775, the invention of a unique method of generating electricity. Luigi Galvani's announcement of his theory of "animal electricity" in 1972 is integrated into this interpretation of Volta's discoveries with electricity. Five experiments are described: (1)…

  2. Late Quaternary sedimentological and climate changes at Lake Bosumtwi Ghana: new constraints from laminae analysis and radiocarbon age modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanahan, Timothy M.; Beck, J. Warren; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Peck, John A.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Heil, Clifford W.; King, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lake Bosumtwi sediment record represents one of the longest and highest-resolution terrestrial records of paleoclimate change available from sub-Saharan Africa. Here we report a new sediment age model framework for the last ~ 45 cal kyr of sedimentation using a combination of high-resolution radiocarbon dating, Bayesian age-depth modeling and lamination counting. Our results highlight the practical limits of these methods for reducing age model uncertainties and suggest that even with very high sampling densities, radiocarbon uncertainties of at least a few hundred years are unavoidable. Age model uncertainties are smallest during the Holocene (205 yr) and the glacial (360 yr) but are large at the base of the record (1660 yr), due to a combination of decreasing sample density, larger calibration uncertainties and increases in radiocarbon age scatter. For portions of the chronology older than ~ 35 cal kyr, additional considerations, such as the use of a low-blank graphitization system and more rigorous sample pretreatment were necessary to generate a reliable age depth model because of the incorporation of small amounts of younger carbon. A comparison of radiocarbon age model results and lamination counts over the time interval ~ 15–30 cal kyr agree with an overall discrepancy of ~ 10% and display similar changes in sedimentation rate, supporting the annual nature of sediment laminations in the early part of the record. Changes in sedimentation rates reconstructed from the age-depth model indicate that intervals of enhanced sediment delivery occurred at 16–19, 24 and 29–31 cal kyr, broadly synchronous with reconstructed drought episodes elsewhere in northern West Africa and potentially, with changes in Atlantic meridional heat transport during North Atlantic Heinrich events. These data suggest that millennial-scale drought events in the West African monsoon region were latitudinally extensive, reaching within several hundred kilometers of the Guinea coast

  3. Trends and Projections of Climatic Extremes in the Black Volta Basin, West Africa: Towards Climate Change Adaptation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, F.

    2015-12-01

    The water resources of the Black Volta Basin in West Africa constitute a major resource for the four countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali) that share it. For Burkina Faso and Ghana, the river is the main natural resource around which the development of the diverse sectors of the two economies is built. Whereas Ghana relies heavily on the river for energy, land-locked Burkina Faso continuously develops the water for agricultural purposes. Such important role of the river makes it an element around which there are potential conflicts: either among riparian countries or within the individual countries themselves. This study documents the changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in the Black Volta Basin region for the past (1981-2010) and makes projections for the mid-late 21st century (2051-2080) under two emission scenarios; RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5. The Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) temperature- and precipitation-based indices are computed with the RClimdex software. Observed daily records and downscaled CORDEX data of precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures are used for historical and future trend analysis respectively. In general low emission scenarios show increases in the cold extremes. The region shows a consistent pattern of trends in hot extremes for the 1990's. An increasing trend in hot extremes is expected in the future under RCP 8.5 while RCP 2.5 shows reductions in hot extremes. Regardless of the emission scenario, projections show more frequent hot nights in the 21st century. Generally, the region shows variability in trends for future extreme precipitation indices with only a few of the trends being statistically significant (5% level). Results obtained provide a basic and first step to understanding how climatic extremes have been changing in the Volta Basin region and gives an idea of what to expect in the future. Such studies will also help in making informed decisions on water management

  4. 124. Credit JTL. 'Saxophone', a pipe carrying water from Volta ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. Credit JTL. 'Saxophone', a pipe carrying water from Volta crossing North Battle Creek and emptying into the Ripley Creek flume. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  5. Comparing and contrasting observed adaptations in three deltas: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra, Mahanadi and Volta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Suckall, N.; Mensah, A.; Mondal, S.; Dey, S.; Hazra, S.

    2015-12-01

    In low and middle-income countries, many deltaic communities directly depend on the natural environment for income and well-being. Current environmental concerns that threaten deltaic communities, such as increasing salinity, sedimentation, erosion and subsidence are likely to be exacerbated by climate change and variability, for example sea-level rise, increased storminess and rising temperatures. Such changes, along with other social and environmental stressors, mean that communities must adapt. This paper outlines findings of a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature that examines observed adaptations in three deltas of differing sizes in various geographical contexts: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra in India and Bangladesh, the Mahanadi in India, and the Volta in Ghana. It compares and contrasts various elements of observed adaptations, including who is driving the adaptation, the beneficiaries, barriers to participation and evidence for maladaptation. The predominant drivers of adaptation vary from government (at state level in India and national level in Bangladesh) and NGOs (in Ghana). Autonomous adaptations are not widely reported in the literature from any of the deltas. In all three deltas there is a focus on supporting adaptation in farming rather than fishing; despite the fact that fisheries contribute to local food security as well as national economies. Lack of access to financial, natural, physical and human capital are common barriers to adaptation in all three deltas. Additionally the Indian literature in particular highlights the lack of coordination between different government departments, coupled with an excessively top-down (state-driven) approach to adaptation. Maladaptation is most commonly reported in the literature from Bangladesh, for example, loss of employment of inland fishermen in embanked areas. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the implications of these findings for adaptation policy in deltas.

  6. Impact of climate on groundwater recharge in the crystalline basement rocks aquifer of Northern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Water is the cornerstone of human life and for all economic developments. West Africa and specifically Ghana are no exception to this reality.Northern Ghana is characterized by a semi-arid climate, with prolonged dry season (7 months of very few rainfall) leading to the drying up of many rivers and streams. In addition, rainfall is highly variable in space and time. Therefore, surface water is unreliable and insufficient to meet the water demands for socio-economic development in this area. As a result, the area is heavily dependent on groundwater for domestic water supply as well as for dry season irrigation of vegetables (cash crops).However, aquifers in northern Ghana are dominantly the hard rock type (Crystalline basement rock). This aquifer has no primary porosity and may not be able to sustain the increasing demand on the resource. Further, climate change may worsen the situation as recharge is dependent on rainfall in northern Ghana. Therefore, it is important to understand exactly how climate change will impact on recharge to the groundwater for sustainable development and management of the resource.Previous groundwater studies in Northern Ghana barely analyzed the combined impacts of Climate change on the recharge to the groundwater. This research is aimed at determining the current relationship between groundwater recharge and rainfall and to use the relationships to determine the impacts of changes in climate on the groundwater recharge. The results will inform plans and strategies for sustainably managing groundwater resources in Ghana and the Volta basin.

  7. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  8. Strengthening Health Systems to Accelerate Achievement of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5: A Case Study of Ketu South and Keta Municipalities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Iddrisu, Farouk Adam; Dhakal, Sarita; Nam, Eun Woo

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to determine means of strengthening the health system to accelerate achievement of MDGs 4 and 5 in the Volta Region of Ghana, with a particular emphasis in the Ketu South and Keta municipalities. Secondary data have been used in this study. High maternal and infant mortality is a crucial issue in Ghana. Maternal and infant mortality is high in rural area compared to urban area due to unavailability of the service facilities. A community based health planning and services programs have been established to improve access and quality of health care in Ghana. Our study suggests that health system strengthening with community health care programs improved access to quality health care and resulted in a decrease of maternal and child mortality in Ketu South and Keta Municipalities in Ghana.

  9. Transduction-Like Gene Transfer in the Methanogen Methanococcus voltae

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, Giuseppe

    1999-01-01

    Strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (a methanogenic, anaerobic archaebacterium) was shown to generate spontaneously 4.4-kbp chromosomal DNA fragments that are fully protected from DNase and that, upon contact with a cell, transform it genetically. This activity, here called VTA (voltae transfer agent), affects all markers tested: three different auxotrophies (histidine, purine, and cobalamin) and resistance to BES (2-bromoethanesulfonate, an inhibitor of methanogenesis). VTA was most effectively prepared by culture filtration. This process disrupted a fraction of the M. voltae cells (which have only an S-layer covering their cytoplasmic membrane). VTA was rapidly inactivated upon storage. VTA particles were present in cultures at concentrations of approximately two per cell. Gene transfer activity varied from a minimum of 2 × 10−5 (BES resistance) to a maximum of 10−3 (histidine independence) per donor cell. Very little VTA was found free in culture supernatants. The phenomenon is functionally similar to generalized transduction, but there is no evidence, for the time being, of intrinsically viral (i.e., containing a complete viral genome) particles. Consideration of VTA DNA size makes the existence of such viral particles unlikely. If they exist, they must be relatively few in number;perhaps they differ from VTA particles in size and other properties and thus escaped detection. Digestion of VTA DNA with the AluI restriction enzyme suggests that it is a random sample of the bacterial DNA, except for a 0.9-kbp sequence which is amplified relative to the rest of the bacterial chromosome. A VTA-sized DNA fraction was demonstrated in a few other isolates of M. voltae. PMID:10321998

  10. Transduction-like gene transfer in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertani, G.

    1999-01-01

    Strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (a methanogenic, anaerobic archaebacterium) was shown to generate spontaneously 4.4-kbp chromosomal DNA fragments that are fully protected from DNase and that, upon contact with a cell, transform it genetically. This activity, here called VTA (voltae transfer agent), affects all markers tested: three different auxotrophies (histidine, purine, and cobalamin) and resistance to BES (2-bromoethanesulfonate, an inhibitor of methanogenesis). VTA was most effectively prepared by culture filtration. This process disrupted a fraction of the M. voltae cells (which have only an S-layer covering their cytoplasmic membrane). VTA was rapidly inactivated upon storage. VTA particles were present in cultures at concentrations of approximately two per cell. Gene transfer activity varied from a minimum of 2 x 10(-5) (BES resistance) to a maximum of 10(-3) (histidine independence) per donor cell. Very little VTA was found free in culture supernatants. The phenomenon is functionally similar to generalized transduction, but there is no evidence, for the time being, of intrinsically viral (i.e., containing a complete viral genome) particles. Consideration of VTA DNA size makes the existence of such viral particles unlikely. If they exist, they must be relatively few in number;perhaps they differ from VTA particles in size and other properties and thus escaped detection. Digestion of VTA DNA with the AluI restriction enzyme suggests that it is a random sample of the bacterial DNA, except for a 0.9-kbp sequence which is amplified relative to the rest of the bacterial chromosome. A VTA-sized DNA fraction was demonstrated in a few other isolates of M. voltae.

  11. Groundwater resource sustainability in the Nabogo Basin of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Alexandra; Thomas, James M.; Pohll, Greg; McKay, W. Alan

    2007-10-01

    In order to address groundwater resource sustainability, a conceptual groundwater flow model is developed for a hydrographic basin of northern Ghana. A three-dimensional steady-state model is applied to the Nabogo Basin, a sub-catchment of the White Volta River Basin. Mean annual data are used for input parameters. Parameters include rates of precipitation, recharge, surface water discharge, and groundwater extraction (pumpage). The model indicates that current well pumpage rates are significantly less than annual groundwater recharge to the basin. Model results for several scenarios tested (i.e., increased population, access to potable water for all citizens, and/or decreased rainfall) indicate that extraction rates will still be less than groundwater input to the basin.

  12. Onchocerciasis and optic atrophy in the Savannah area of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Berghout, E

    1987-10-01

    The ocular findings in the male population of 3 villages from a hyperendemic area of onchocerciasis in North Ghana have been recorded. Vector control in the Volta River Basin has led to reduced microfilarial loads and improved tolerance of treatment with diethylcarbamazine-citrate (DEC-C). Prevalence of posterior eye lesions increased sharply above the age of 30 years in the survey population. In patients with palpable onchocercomas (nodules) serious pathology of the posterior segment of the eye was found twice as frequently as in onchocerciasis patients without nodules. In the village visited by the Mobile Eye Team since 1978 the prevalence of serious eye lesions was slightly lower than in the two villages never visited by the eye team. Desirability to give treatment to the younger population with low incidence of serious eye lesions is expressed. Attention is drawn to the increased danger of adverse reactions to treatment in the presence of posterior eye lesions.

  13. Ghana Watershed Prototype Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction/Background A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.

  14. Ghana watershed prototype products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.

  15. Genetic transformation in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae PS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertani, G.; Baresi, L.

    1987-01-01

    Mutations causing requirements for histidine, purine, and vitamin B12 were obtained in strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (archaebacteria) upon irradiation with UV or gamma rays. The first two mutations were shown to revert at low frequencies and were used to demonstrate the occurrence of transformation with homologous, wild-type DNA. The transformation rates obtained for these presumably chromosomal markers were in the range of 2 to 100 transformants per microgram of DNA. Mutants resistant to 2-bromoethanesulfonate and to 5-methyl-DL-tryptophan were also isolated.

  16. Development of the VOLT-A shuttle experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Bozek, J. M.; Ferguson, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is investigating potential problems associated with the operation of high voltage solar cell arrays in the space plasma environment. At high voltages, interactions between the solar array and the space plasma could result in unacceptable levels of electrical discharge (arcing) and/or parasitic losses (current drains from the array to the plasma). The objective of the Voltage Operating Limit Tests (VOLT-A) Shuttle bay experiment is to characterize space plasma/solar cell panel interactions in low earth orbit. VOLT-A consists of an experiment plate subassembly which contains four solar panels, an electronics subassembly and a Langmuir probe subassembly mounted on an MPESS carrier. During a given 8.25 hour data taking period (5-1/2 continuous orbits), the solar panels, which represent state-of-the-art solar cell technologies, will be sequentially subjected to bias voltages in steps ranging from minus 626 V to plus 313 V. Appropriate measurements will be made at each voltage to characterize arcing and parasitic losses. Corresponding measurements of the plasma environment (plasma density, electron temperature and neutral density) will also be made. Data will be recorded on an on-board tape recorder for subsequent data reduction and analysis.

  17. SCANNING VOLTA POTENTIALS MEASUREMENTS OF METALS IN IRRADIATED AIR.

    SciTech Connect

    ISAACS, H.S.; ADZIC, G.; AND ENERGY SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT; JEFFCOATE, C.S.

    2000-10-22

    A method for direct dc measurement of the Volta potential is presented. High intensity synchrotron x-ray beams were used to locally irradiate the atmosphere adjacent to the metal surface and produce a conducting path between a sample and a reference probe. The direct measurements of potential in the ionized air could be made at probe heights of around 1 mm compared to less than 0.1 mm for the Kelvin probe. The measurements were similar to traditional Kelvin probe measurements, but had a poorer spatial resolution. In contrast to the Kelvin probe methods, the approach described allows observation of the current as a function of impressed voltage. Methods to improve the special resolution of the technique and applications to corrosion under coating will be presented.

  18. Remote Sensing Approaches and Tools for Water Management in the Volta Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annor, F. O.; van de Giesen, N. C.; van der Zaag, P.; Liebe, J.; Odai, S. N.

    2010-05-01

    This research is proposed to develop remote sensing approaches and tools for the sustainable management of water resources in the Volta basin. In most semi-arid areas getting information on water and Food for decision and policy makers is vital for effective planning and sound resources management to alleviate poverty. In the Volta Basin however, getting observed data is difficult to come by. Remote sensing therefore provides a good avenue to acquire additional data to compliment data collected through traditional means. This paper looks at one of the four objectives of the approaches and tools for the management of water resources in the Volta basin. Specifically, the Regional Water Storage in the basin using ASTER, SPOT, LANDSAT and POLDER optical imagery and Envisat ASAR and ALOS Radar imagery. Key words: Water Management, Remote Sensing, Volta basin, Semi-arid

  19. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta river basins using remotely sensed surface areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Cecchi, Philippe; Liebe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the available natural flow in the streams is sometimes less than the flow required for water supply or irrigation, however water can be stored in times of surplus, for example, from a wet season to a dry season. Efficient water management and sound reservoir planning are hindered by the lack of information about the functioning of these reservoirs. Reservoirs in these regions were constructed in a series of projects funded by different agencies, at different times, with little or no coordination among the implementing partners. Poor record keeping and the lack of appropriate institutional support result in deficiencies of information on the capacity, operation, and maintenance of these structures. Estimating the storage capacity of dams is essential to the responsible management of water diversion. Most of SR in these basins have never been evaluated, possibly because the tools currently used for such measurement are labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. The objective of this research was to develop methodology to estimate small reservoir capacities as a function of their remotely sensed surface areas in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta basins, as a way to contribute to improve the water resource management in those catchments. Remote sensing was used to identify, localize and characterize small reservoirs. The surface area of each was calculated from satellite images. A sub-set of reservoirs was selected. For each reservoir in the sub-set, the surface area was estimated from field surveys, and storage capacity was estimated using information on reservoir surface

  20. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  1. The medical system in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Drislane, Frank W; Akpalu, Albert; Wegdam, Harry H J

    2014-09-01

    Ghana is a developing country in West Africa with a population of about 25 million. Medical illnesses in Ghana overlap with those in developed countries, but infection, trauma, and women's health problems are much more prominent. Medical practice in rural Africa faces extremely limited resources, a multiplicity of languages (hundreds in Ghana), and presentation of severe illnesses at later stages than seen elsewhere. Despite these limitations, Ghana has established a relatively successful national medical insurance system, and the quality of medical practice is high, at least where it is available. Ghana also has a well-established and sophisticated administrative structure for the supervision of medical education and accreditation, but it has proven very difficult to extend medical training to rural areas, where health care facilities are particularly short of personnel. Physicians are sorely needed in rural areas, but there are few because of the working conditions and financial limitations. Hospital wards and clinics are crowded; time per patient is limited. This article details some of the differences between medical practice in Ghana and that in wealthier countries and how it functions with very limited resources. It also introduces the medical education and training system in Ghana. The following article describes an attempt to establish and maintain a residency training program in General Medicine in a rural area of Ghana.

  2. Coastal and Continental Shelf Processes in Ghana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    delta evolution processes and changes in the sediment supply from the dammed Volta River . Recommendations for short-term future research emphasized...consist of weak and friable material. The significant changes along the Volta Delta to the east are complex, yet could be attributable to both natural

  3. Volta potential phase plate for in-focus phase contrast transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Danev, Radostin; Buijsse, Bart; Khoshouei, Maryam; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    We describe a phase plate for transmission electron microscopy taking advantage of a hitherto-unknown phenomenon, namely a beam-induced Volta potential on the surface of a continuous thin film. The Volta potential is negative, indicating that it is not caused by beam-induced electrostatic charging. The film must be heated to ∼200 °C to prevent contamination and enable the Volta potential effect. The phase shift is created “on the fly” by the central diffraction beam eliminating the need for precise phase plate alignment. Images acquired with the Volta phase plate (VPP) show higher contrast and unlike Zernike phase plate images no fringing artifacts. Following installation into the microscope, the VPP has an initial settling time of about a week after which the phase shift behavior becomes stable. The VPP has a long service life and has been used for more than 6 mo without noticeable degradation in performance. The mechanism underlying the VPP is the same as the one responsible for the degradation over time of the performance of thin-film Zernike phase plates, but in the VPP it is used in a constructive way. The exact physics and/or chemistry behind the process causing the Volta potential are not fully understood, but experimental evidence suggests that radiation-induced surface modification combined with a chemical equilibrium between the surface and residual gases in the vacuum play an important role. PMID:25331897

  4. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination.

  5. Coastal and Continental Shelf Processes in Ghana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    George Wiafe Department of Oceanography and Fisheries University of Ghana P.O. Box LG 99, Legon, Ghana phone: (+233) 24-4657475 fax: (+233) 21...of Oceanography and Fisheries University of Ghana P.O. Box LG 99, Legon, Ghana 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING...Estuary, Lagoon Deltas, Sand beaches, Mangroves Coastal Geology Pegmatite, biotite tonalite Amphibolite, gneiss, quartzite Limestone

  6. The cost of large-scale school health programmes which deliver anthelmintics to children in Ghana and Tanzania. The Partnership for Child Development.

    PubMed

    1999-07-30

    It has been argued that the delivery of anthelmintics to school-children through existing education infrastructure can be one of the most cost-effective approaches to controlling parasitic worm infection. This paper examines the actual costs of a combination of mass and selective treatment for schistosomiasis using praziquantel and mass treatment for intestinal nematodes using albendazole, as an integral part of school health programmes reaching 80442 pupils in 577 schools in Volta Region, Ghana, and reaching 109099 pupils in 350 schools in Tanga Region, Tanzania. The analysis shows that financial delivery costs per child treated using praziquantel, which involved a dose related to body mass and a prior screening at the school level, were US$ 0.67 in Ghana and US$ 0.21 in Tanzania, while the delivery costs for albendazole, which was given as a fixed dose to all children, were US$ 0.04 in Ghana and US$ 0.03 in Tanzania. The higher unit costs in Ghana reflect the epidemiology of infection; overall, fixed costs were similar in both countries, but fewer children required treatment in Ghana. Analysis of economic costs-which includes the cost of unpaid days of labour--indicates that the financial costs are increased in Ghana by 78% and in Tanzania by 44%. It is these additional costs which are avoided by integration into an existing infrastructure. It is concluded that: the base cost of delivering a universal, standard, school-based health intervention can be as low as US$ 0.03 per child treated; that even a slight increase in the complexity of delivery can have a significant impact on the cost of intervention; and that the use of the education infrastructure does indeed offer significant savings in delivery costs.

  7. Logistics cost analysis of rice residues for second generation bioenergy production in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthi, Pooja Vijay; Fernandes, Maria Cristina; Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Nunes, Clemente Pedro

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana's energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70-90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5 MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89 USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25 MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10 km) was 2.64 USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66-72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46-48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic costs. Transport distance of husks has considerable impact on logistic costs.

  8. Determination of trace elements and their concentrations in clay balls: problem of geophagia practice in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Arhin, Emmanuel; Zango, Musah S

    2017-02-01

    Ten samples of 100 g weight were subsampled from 1400 g of the clay balls from which the contained trace element levels were determined by X-ray fluorescence technique. The results of trace elements in the clay balls were calibrated using certified reference materials "MAJMON" and "BH-1." The results showed elevated concentrations but with different concentration levels in the regions, particularly with arsenic, chromium, cobalt, Cs, Zr and La. These trace elements contained in the clay balls are known to be hazardous to human health. Thence the relatively high concentrations of these listed trace elements in clay balls in the three regions, namely Ashanti, Upper East and Volta, which are widely sold in markets in Ghana, could present negative health impact on consumers if consumed at 70 g per day or more and on regular basis. On the basis of these, the study concludes an investigation to establish breakeven range for trace element concentrations in the clay balls as it has been able to demonstrate the uneven and elevated values in them. The standardized safe ranges of trace elements will make the practice safer for the people that ingest clay balls in Ghana.

  9. Water footprint of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.

    2009-04-01

    Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a

  10. Deforestation and sustainability in Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.R. ); Cobbinah, J.R. )

    1993-06-01

    The global importance of tropical forests is well recognized, and while much has been written about the Amazon forests, West African tropical forests are also being affected by logging and commercial timber harvesting. While the forests in Ghana are no longer vast, untouched wilderness, they are far from being ecologically bankrupt. This article describes the forest of Ghana, discusses the integrity of the remaining forest in terms of sustainable timber resources, and examines the prospects for tropical forests. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Ghana social mobilization analysis.

    PubMed

    Tweneboa-Kodua, A; Obeng-Quaidoo, I; Abu, K

    1991-01-01

    In order to increase communication channels for child survival and development, the government and UNICEF Ghana undertook a "social mobilization analysis." This analysis included three studies that aimed to identify individuals and existing organizations with the potential to serve as health communicators and to determine the type of assistance that they needed to maximize their effectiveness in this role. The first study surveyed governmental institutions, trade unions, revolutionary organizations, traditional leaders, and others and found a largely untapped reservoir of capacities to promote child health, with varying levels of current involvement. The primary need identified was for information and training materials. The second study focused on the mass media and revealed a low coverage of maternal and child health topics and the need for better cooperation between journalists and health professionals. The third study assessed sources of health information for parents and found several sources, such as religious organizations, women's groups, and school teachers that could be mobilized to promote child health. Recommendations are made for the use of the findings.

  12. Sustainable Development of Research Capacity in West Africa based on the GLOWA Volta Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebe, Jens R.; Rogmann, Antonio; Falk, Ulrike; Amisigo, Barnabas; Nyarko, Kofi; Harmsen, Karl; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    2010-05-01

    The Sustainable Development of Research Capacity (SDRC) in West Africa is an 18 month project, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, to strengthen the research capacity, give access to data and models, and to support the establishment of the newly formed Volta Basin Authority. The SDRC project largely builds on the results and models developed in the framework of the GLOWA Volta Project (GVP), a nine-year, interdisciplinary research project (May 2000 - May 2009). The GVP's central objectives were to analyze the physical and socio-economic determinants of the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin in the face of global change, and to develop scientifically sound decision support resources. Another major achievement of GVP was the extensive capacity building. Of the 81 participating students (57 Ph.D.'s), 44 originated from West Africa, and 85% of the West African graduates returned to their home countries. The SDRC makes use of the wide range of research results and decision support tools developed in the course of the GVP. It is based on three columns: I. knowledge transfer and strengthening of human capacity, which focus on a training on the modeling of the onset of the rainy season, hydrological, economic, and hydro-economic modeling, and training of geospatial database managers; II. strengthening of infrastructural research capacity through the support of a research instrumentation network through the operation and transfer of a weather station network, a network of tele-transmitted stream gauges; and III. the transfer of a publicly accessible online Geoportal for the dissemination of various geospatial data and research results. At the center of the SDRC effort is the strengthening of the Volta Basin Authority, a river basin authority with a transnational mandate, especially through the transfer of the Geoportal, and the associated training and promotion efforts. The Geoportal is an effort to overcome the data scarcity previously observed in

  13. Ghana: Country Status Report (Revision).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Ghana begins with an overview of the distribution and usage of English, as the sole official language, and of the local languages Akan, Ewe, Adangme, Dagbani, Nzema, Ga, Dagaari, and Hausa. A matrix follows that rates these languages on: (1) their usage rating using State Department classifications; (2)…

  14. Promoting Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djietror, Beauty B. K.; Okai, Edward; Kwapong, Olivia A. T. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive education is critical for nation building. The government of Ghana has put in measures for promoting inclusion from basic through to tertiary level of education. Some of these measures include expansion of school facilities, implementation of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE); the change of policy on girls who drop…

  15. Cardiothoracic surgical experience in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Tamatey, Martin; Edwin, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Ghana is one of the few low-to-middle-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa able to consistently sustain a cardiothoracic program with locally trained staff for more than two decades. Cardiothoracic surgery practice in Ghana started in 1964 but faltered from a combination of political and the economic problems. In 1989, Dr. Kwabena Frimpong-Boateng, a Ghanaian cardiothoracic surgeon trained in Hannover, rekindled interest in cardiothoracic surgery and in establishing a National Cardiothoracic Centre. His vision and leadership has brought cardiothoracic surgery practice in Ghana to its current high level. As a result, the medical landscape of what is achievable locally in both pediatric and adult patients has changed substantially: outbound medical travel that used to be common among Ghanaian cardiovascular patients has been reduced drastically. Ghana’s National Cardiothoracic Center (NCTC), the only tertiary center in the country for cardiothoracic surgical pathology manages all such patients that were previously referred abroad. The NCTC has become a medical/surgical hub in the West African sub-region providing service, training, and research opportunities to neighboring countries. The Centre is accredited by the West African College of Surgeons as a center of excellence for training specialists in cardiothoracic surgery. Expectedly, practicing cardiothoracic surgery in such a resource-poor setting has peculiar challenges. This review focuses on the history, practice, successes, and challenges of cardiovascular and thoracic surgery in Ghana. PMID:27904844

  16. Time and Change in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Peter

    1969-01-01

    The disastrous state of Ghanaian finances immediately before and after the coup against Nkrumah has had the effect of virtually eliminating community development and health services, particularly in non-urban areas of Ghana. It is hoped that new regional and district structure and improved staff morale can now bring about more effective programs.…

  17. Characterization of a P-type ATPase of the archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae.

    PubMed

    Dharmavaram, R M; Konisky, J

    1989-08-25

    The vanadate-sensitive ATPase of Methanococcus voltae has been purified by a procedure which includes, purification of the cytoplasmic membrane by sucrose gradient centrifugation, solubilization with Triton X-100, and DEAE-Sephadex and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. While the DEAE-Sephadex step provided a preparation consisting of two polypeptides (74 and 52 kDa), the Sephacryl S-300 step yields a product with a subunit of 74 kDa. Incubation of either membranes or purified ATPase with [gamma-32P]ATP followed by acidic (pH 2.4) lithium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated the vanadate-sensitive labeling of a 74-kDa acyl phosphate intermediate. These results indicate that the M. voltae ATPase is of the P-type.

  18. High levels of mercury in wetland resources from three river basins in Ghana: a concern for public health.

    PubMed

    Gbogbo, Francis; Otoo, Samuel D; Huago, Robert Quaye; Asomaning, Obed

    2016-12-29

    Crustaceans, mollusks, and fish are wetland resources that constitute an important source of protein and foreign exchange for the Ghanaian population, and many species of these are sold in the open market and restaurants, yet studies on their heavy metal contents are generally scarce. This paper evaluates the levels of mercury in five species of crustaceans, two species of mollusks, and ten species of fish inhabiting three river basins with different catchment activities in Ghana. These include the Ankobra Basin, characterized with mining and agriculture, Densu Basin, associated with urban waste discharges and agriculture, and Lower Volta River Basin, associated with agricultural activities. Mercury concentration was highest in Ankobra (2.5 ± 2.59 μg g(-1)) followed by Densu (1.75 ± 1.35 μg g(-1)) and Volta (0.74 ± 1.46 μg g(-1)). The mercury load of the organisms range from <0.1 to 4 μg g(-1) with the highest load in Cynoglossus senegalensis at Ankobra. Except for Panaeus notialis from Densu and Ankobra, and three other species from Ankobra (Tympanotonus fuscatus, Cardisoma armatum, Callinectes amnicola) in which mercury was not detected, mercury loads of all the organisms were above the permissible limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1) established by Commission Regulation-EC (2006) for fishery products and muscle meat of fish. Weekly quantities of crustaceans and mollusks considered safe for consumption by adults ranged from 88 and 1000 g while that of the fishes were between 70 and 700 g (on a dry weight basis) depending on the species. It was clear that some caution needs to be exercised in the consumption of Ghana's fresh and brackish water fisheries.

  19. A photovoltaic power system in the remote African village of Tangaye, Upper Volta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Martz, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and a water pump was installed in the remote West African village of Tangaye, Upper Volta. Village characteristics as well as system design, hardware, installation and operation to date are described. The PV system cost is discussed. A baseline socio-economic study performed and a follow-up study is planned to determine the impact of the system on the villagers.

  20. A ground-water reconnaissance of the Republic of Ghana, with a description of geohydrologic provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    This report gives a general summary of the availability and use of ground water and describes the occurrence of ground water in five major geohydrologic provinces lying in the eight administrative regions of Ghana. The identification and delineation of the geohydrologic provinces are based on their distinctive characteristics with respect to the occurrence and availability of ground water. The Precambrian province occupies the southern, western, and northern parts of Ghana and is underlain largely by intrusive crystalline and metasedimentary rocks. The Voltaian province includes that part of the Voltaian sedimentary basin in central Ghana and is underlain chiefly by consolidated sandstone, mudstone, and shale. Narrow discontinuous bands of consolidated Devonian and Jurassic sedimentary rocks near the coast constitute the Coastal Block Fault province. The Coastal Plain province includes semiconsolidated to unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous to Holocene age that underlie coastal plain areas in southwestern and southeastern Ghana. The Alluvial province includes the Quaternary alluvial deposits in the principal river valleys and on the delta of the Volta River. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks of low permeability in the Precambrian, Voltaian, and Coastal Block Fault provinces, it is difficult to develop large or event adequate groundwater supplies in much of Ghana. On the other hand, small (1 to 50 gallons per minute) supplies of water of usable quality are available from carefully sited boreholes in most parts of the country. Also, moderate (50 to 200 gpm) supplies of water are currently (1964) obtained from small-diameter screened boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province in southwestern and southeastern Ghana, but larger supplies could be obtained through properly constructed boreholes. In the Alluvial province, unconsolidated deposits in the larger stream valleys that are

  1. Isolation and characterization of an archaebacterial viruslike particle from Methanococcus voltae A3

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.G.; Konisky, J. ); Whitman, W.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Small amounts of 23-kilobase covalently closed circular DNA molecule were isolated from unwashed cells of Methanococcus voltae A3. Further investigation indicated the presence of greater quantities of the circular DNA in the culture supernatant, complexed with protein in a manner rendering the DNA resistant to DNase. Electron-microscopic examination of supernatant material revealed the presence of particles which morphologically resemble virus. Phenol extraction of viruslike particle preparations resulted in the recovery of DNase-sensitive open-circular DNA molecules. As many as 30 viruslike particles per cell were recovered from some cultures. Hybridization data clearly indicated the presence of a chromosomally integrated copy of the viruslike particle DNA. Although M. voltae PS was not observed to produce viruslike particles, DNA homologous to the viruslike particle DNA was detected in its chromosome. A mutant of M. voltae A3 was isolated which produced no particles; its DNA was deleted for 80% of the integrated viruslike particle DNA. Despite any similarities to lysogenic bacteriophages of eubacteria, neither infectivity nor inducibility of the viruslike particles could by demonstrated.

  2. Health Data Publications No. 18. Ghana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PUBLIC HEALTH, *GHANA, SUBSAHARAN AFRICA, ECONOMICS, NATURAL RESOURCES, DEMOGRAPHY, DISEASES, MAPS , ANIMALS, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, MEDICAL SERVICES, NUTRITION, GEOGRAPHY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, SANITARY ENGINEERING, DISEASE VECTORS.

  3. Investigating Coastal Processes and Hazards Along the Coastline of Ghana, West Africa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, C. J.; Ashton, A. D.; Wiafe, G.; Addo, K. A.; Ababio, S.; Agyekum, K. A.; Lippmann, T. C.; Roelvink, J.

    2010-12-01

    coast and responding to erosion issues. Funding for program development and equipment has been provided via the Coastal Geosciences Program of the U.S. Office of Naval Research through the Navy’s Africa Partnership Station. Data collection and analysis to date include the first regional shoreline change assessment of the Ghana coast, utilizing aerial photography spanning 31 years and RTK-GPS field surveys and reconnaissance mapping. Initial results from the shoreline change analysis indicate highly variable alongshore rates of change, although the trend is predominantly erosional. The highest erosion rates are found in the east, on the downdrift flank of the low-lying, sandy Volta Delta complex. The rapid erosion rates are likely due to the disruption of sediment supplied to the coast by the damming of the Volta River in the 1960s, as well as alongshore transport gradients generated by the progradation and morphologic evolution of the delta. Continuing investigations of coastal processes in Ghana will allow for a better understanding of erosion hazards and will aid in the development of appropriate, systematic, and sustainable responses to future increased hazards associated with rising sea-levels.

  4. Ghana: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the exploration by Petro-Canada International Assistance Corp. and Phillips offshore in Tano North and Tano South basins which indicate oil and gas potential. Nigerian National Petroleum Corp. has identified areas where the two West African states can cooperate and is ready to assist in exploration. Ghana National Petroleum Corp. plans a 10-well program in Tano basin. Exploration efforts are concentrated around Accra-Keta basin, saltpond oil fields and Tan basins.

  5. Educational Access in Ghana. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, K.; Djangmah, J.; Oduro, A.; Seidu, A.; Hunt, F.

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in Ghana. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. It is based on findings from the Country Analytic Report on Access to Basic Education in Ghana (Akyeampong et al, 2007) [ED508809] which can be…

  6. Estimating the fluvial sediment input to the coastal sediment budget: A case study of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, Isaac; Bray, Malcolm; Hooke, Janet

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge of fluvial sediment supply to the coastal sediment budget is important for the assessment of the impacts on coastal stability. Such knowledge is valuable for designing coastal engineering schemes and the development of shoreline management planning policies. It also facilitates understanding of the connection between rivers in the hinterland and adjoining coastal systems. Ghana's coast has many fluvial sediment sources and this paper provides the first quantitative assessments of their contributions to the coastal sediment budget. The methods use largely existing data and attempt to cover all of Ghana's significant coastal rivers. Initially work was hindered by insufficient direct measured data. However, the problem was overcome by the application of a regression approach, which provides an estimated sediment yield for non-gauged rivers based on data from gauged rivers with similar characteristics. The regression approach was effective because a regional coherence in behaviour was determined between those rivers, where direct measured data were available. The results of the assessment revealed that Ghana's coast is dissected by many south-draining rivers, stream and lagoons. These rivers, streams and lagoons supply significant amounts of sediment to coastal lowlands and therefore contribute importantly to beaches. Anthropogenic impoundment of fluvial sediment, especially the Akosombo dam on the Volta River, has reduced the total fluvial sediment input to the coast from about 71 × 10 6 m 3/a before 1964 (pre-Akosombo dam) to about 7 × 10 6 m 3/a at present (post-Akosombo dam). This sharp reduction threatened the stability of the east coast and prompted an expensive ($83 million) defence scheme to be implemented to protect 8.4 km-long coastline at Keta. Sections of Ghana's coast are closely connected to the hinterland through the fluvial sediment input from local rivers. Therefore, development in the hinterland that alters the fluvial sediment input from

  7. Using the Volta phase plate with defocus for cryo-EM single particle analysis

    PubMed Central

    Danev, Radostin; Tegunov, Dimitry; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we reported an in-focus data acquisition method for cryo-EM single-particle analysis with the Volta phase plate (Danev and Baumeister, 2016). Here, we extend the technique to include a small amount of defocus which enables contrast transfer function measurement and correction. This hybrid approach simplifies the experiment and increases the data acquisition speed. It also removes the resolution limit inherent to the in-focus method thus allowing 3D reconstructions with resolutions better than 3 Å. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23006.001 PMID:28109158

  8. The Volta Grande do Xingu: reconstruction of past environments and forecasting of future scenarios of a unique Amazonian fluvial landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, A. O.; Hartmann, G. A.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Pupim, F. N.; Bertassoli, D. J.; Parra, M.; Antinao, J. L.; Sousa, L. M.; Sabaj Pérez, M. H.; Oliveira, P. E.; Santos, R. A.; Savian, J. F.; Grohmann, C. H.; Medeiros, V. B.; McGlue, M. M.; Bicudo, D. C.; Faustino, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Xingu River is a large clearwater river in eastern Amazonia and its downstream sector, known as the Volta Grande do Xingu ("Xingu Great Bend"), is a unique fluvial landscape that plays an important role in the biodiversity, biogeochemistry and prehistoric and historic peopling of Amazonia. The sedimentary dynamics of the Xingu River in the Volta Grande and its downstream sector will be shifted in the next few years due to the construction of dams associated with the Belo Monte hydropower project. Impacts on river biodiversity and carbon cycling are anticipated, especially due to likely changes in sedimentation and riverbed characteristics. This research project aims to define the geological and climate factors responsible for the development of the Volta Grande landscape and to track its environmental changes during the Holocene, using the modern system as a reference. In this context, sediment cores, riverbed rock and sediment samples and greenhouse gas (GHG) samples were collected in the Volta Grande do Xingu and adjacent upstream and downstream sectors. The reconstruction of past conditions in the Volta Grande is necessary for forecasting future scenarios and defining biodiversity conservation strategies under the operation of Belo Monte dams. This paper describes the scientific questions of the project and the sampling surveys performed by an international team of Earth scientists and biologists during the dry seasons of 2013 and 2014. Preliminary results are presented and a future workshop is planned to integrate results, present data to the scientific community and discuss possibilities for deeper drilling in the Xingu ria to extend the sedimentary record of the Volta Grande do Xingu.

  9. Development of the VOLT-A Shuttle experiment. [Volt Operating Limit Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, William J.; Bozek, John M.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is investigating potential problems associated with the operation of high voltage solar cell arrays in the space plasma environment. At high voltages, interactions between the solar array and the space plasma could result in unacceptable levels of electrical discharge (arcing) and/or parasitic losses (current drains from the array to the plasma). The objective of the Voltage Operating Limit Tests (VOLT-A) Shuttle bay experiment is to characterize space plasma/solar cell panel interactions in low earth orbit. VOLT-A consists of an experiment plate subassembly which contains four solar panels, an electronics subassembly and a Langmuir probe subassembly mounted on an MPESS carrier. During a given 8.25 hour data taking period (5-1/2 continuous orbits), the solar panels, which represent state-of-the-art solar cell technologies, will be sequentially subjected to bias voltages in steps ranging from minus 626 V to plus 313 V. Appropriate measurements will be made at each voltage to characterize arcing and parasitic losses. Corresponding measurements of the plasma environment (plasma density, electron temperature and neutral density) will also be made. Data will be recorded on an on-board tape recorder for subsequent data reduction and analysis.

  10. Looking within the household: gender roles and responses to malaria in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tolhurst, Rachel; Nyonator, Frank K

    2006-04-01

    Studies of factors affecting treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria have rarely considered the influence of gender roles and relations within the household. This study supported district-level government workers in the Volta Region of Ghana in conducting a situational analysis of gender inequities in relation to the malaria burden and access to healthcare services for malaria in one community in their district. Qualitative and participatory methods, such as focus group discussions, in-depth individual interviews and ranking exercises, were used. The study found that women who lacked either short- or long-term economic support from male relatives, or disagreed with their husbands or family elders about appropriate treatment-seeking, faced difficulties in accessing health care for children with malaria. This illustrates the significant influence of women's access to resources and decision-making power on treatment-seeking behaviour for children with febrile illnesses, and the importance of approaching malaria management in the community or household from a gender perspective.

  11. Analysis of drug resistance in the archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae with respect to potential use in genetic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Possot, O.; Gernhardt, P.; Klein, A.; Sibold, L.

    1988-03-01

    The sensitivity of the methanogenic archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae to 12 inhibitors was tested in liquid medium. Four compounds appeared to be inhibitors of growth. Their MICs were as follows: pseudomonic acid, 0.1 ..mu..g/ml (0.19 ..mu..M); puromycin, 2 ..mu..g/ml (3.6 ..mu..M); methionine sulfoximine, 30 ..mu..g/ml (170 ..mu..M); and fusidic acid, 100 ..mu..g/ml (170 ..mu..M). On solid medium, the MICs were similar and the frequency of spontaneous resistance was found to be 5 x 10/sup -5/ (methionine sulfoximine), 10/sup -7/ (pseudomonic acid), and <10/sup -7/ (puromycin and fusidic acid). Pseudomonic acid was found to inhibit isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase activity as measured by the in vitro aminoacylation of M. voltae tRAN with L-(U-/sup 14/C) isoleucine. Fusidic acid and puromycin were shown to inhibit poly(U)-dependent polyphenylalanine synthesis in S30 extracts. Acetylpuromycin was inhibitory at much higher concentrations both in vivo and in vitro for M. voltae. Thus, the pac gene of Streptomyces alboniger, which is responsible for acetylation of puromycin and which conferred resistance to puromycin when introduced in eubacterian and eucaryotes, is a potential selective marker in gene transfer experiments with M. voltae. The latter was recently shown to be transformable. The same would be true for the cat gene of Tn9, which enodes resistance to fusidic acid in eubacteria in addition to resistance to chloramphenicol.

  12. Medical physics practice and training in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Amuasi, John H; Kyere, Augustine K; Schandorf, Cyril; Fletcher, John J; Boadu, Mary; Addison, Eric K; Hasford, Francis; Sosu, Edem K; Sackey, Theophilus A; Tagoe, Samuel N A; Inkoom, Stephen; Serfor-Armah, Yaw

    2016-06-01

    Medical physics has been an indispensable and strategic stakeholder in the delivery of radiological services to the healthcare system of Ghana. The practice has immensely supported radiation oncology and medical imaging facilities over the years, while the locally established training programme continues to produce human resource to feed these facilities. The training programme has grown to receive students from other African countries in addition to local students. Ghana has been recognised by the International Atomic Energy Agency as Regional Designated Centre for Academic Training of Medical Physicists in Africa. The Ghana Society for Medical Physics collaborates with the School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences of the University of Ghana to ensure that training offered to medical physicists meet international standards, making them clinically qualified. The Society has also worked together with other bodies for the passage of the Health Profession's Regulatory Bodies Act, giving legal backing to the practice of medical physics and other allied health professions in Ghana. The country has participated in a number of International Atomic Energy Agency's projects on medical physics and has benefited from its training courses, fellowships and workshops, as well as those of other agencies such as International Organization for Medical Physics. This has placed Ghana's medical physicists in good position to practice competently and improve healthcare.

  13. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Upper Volta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Delombard, R.

    1982-01-01

    The first two years of operation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta in West Africa are described. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that PV systems could provide reliable electrical power for multiple use applications in remote areas where local technical expertise is limited. The 1.8 kW (peak) power system supplies 120-V (d.c.) electrical power to operate a grain mill, a water pump, and mill building lights for the village. The system was initially sized to pump a part of the village water requirements from an existing improved well, and to meet a portion of the village grain grinding requirements. The data, observations, experiences, and conclusions developed during the first two years of operation are discussed. Reports of tests of the mills used in the project are included.

  14. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Silva, W; Oliveira, R M; Gonzaga, A F N; Pinto, K C; Poli, F C; Bilce, T M; Penhacek, M; Wronski, L; Martins, J X; Junqueira, T G; Cesca, L C C; Guimarães, V Y; Pinheiro, R D

    2015-08-01

    The region of Volta Grande do Xingu River, in the state of Pará, presents several kinds of land use ranging from extensive cattle farming to agroforestry, and deforestation. Currently, the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant affects the region. We present a checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the region and discuss information regarding the spatial distribution of the assemblies based on results of Environmental Programmes conducted in the area. We listed 109 amphibian (Anura, Caudata, and Gymnophiona) and 150 reptile (Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodylia) species. The regional species richness is still considered underestimated, considering the taxonomic uncertainty, complexity and cryptic diversity of various species, as observed in other regions of the Amazon biome. Efforts for scientific collection and studies related to integrative taxonomy are needed to elucidate uncertainties and increase levels of knowledge of the local diversity.

  15. Monthly streamflow prediction in the Volta Basin of West Africa: A SISO NARMAX polynomial modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amisigo, B. A.; van de Giesen, N.; Rogers, C.; Andah, W. E. I.; Friesen, J.

    Single-input-single-output (SISO) non-linear system identification techniques were employed to model monthly catchment runoff at selected gauging sites in the Volta Basin of West Africa. NARMAX (Non-linear Autoregressive Moving Average with eXogenous Input) polynomial models were fitted to basin monthly rainfall and gauging station runoff data for each of the selected sites and used to predict monthly runoff at the sites. An error reduction ratio (ERR) algorithm was used to order regressors for various combinations of input, output and noise lags (various model structures) and the significant regressors for each model selected by applying an Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to independent rainfall-runoff validation series. Model parameters were estimated from the Matlab REGRESS function (an orthogonal least squares method). In each case, the sub-model without noise terms was fitted first followed by a fitting of the noise model. The coefficient of determination ( R-squared), the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency criterion (NSE) and the F statistic for the estimation (training) series were used to evaluate the significance of fit of each model to this series while model selection from the range of models fitted for each gauging site was done by examining the NSEs and the AICs of the validation series. Monthly runoff predictions from the selected models were very good, and the polynomial models appeared to have captured a good part of the rainfall-runoff non-linearity. The results indicate that the NARMAX modelling framework is suitable for monthly river runoff prediction in the Volta Basin. The several good models made available by the NARMAX modelling framework could be useful in the selection of model structures that also provide insights into the physical behaviour of the catchment rainfall-runoff system.

  16. Pedestrians Injury Patterns in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Damsere-Derry, James; Ebel, Beth E.; Mock, Charles N.; Afukaar, Francis; Donkor, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish the associations between pedestrian injury and explanatory variables such as vehicular characteristics, temporal trends, and road environment. Methods A retrospective analysis of de-identified pedestrian crash data between 2002 and 2006 was conducted using the Building & Road Research Institute’s crash data bank. We estimated the odds ratios associated with casualty fatalities using a multinomial logistic regression. Results There were 812 pedestrian casualties reported, out of which 33% were fatal, 45% sustained serious injuries requiring hospitalization, and 22% were slightly injured but were not hospitalized. Crossing the roadway accounted for over 70% of all pedestrians deaths. Whereas fatalities in 2002 and 2003 were statistically indistinguishable from those of 2004(p>0.05), in comparison with 2004, there were significantly fewer fatalities in 2005 and 2006 (78% and 65% reduction respectively). According to police report, the probability that a pedestrian fatality occurring in Ghana is attributable to excessive speeding is 65%. The adjusted odds ratio of pedestrian fatality associated with speeding compared with driver inattentiveness was 3.6(95% CI: 2.5 to 5.2). It was also observed that generally, lighter vehicular masses were associated with lower pedestrian fatalities. Compared with buses, pedestrians were less likely to die when struck by private cars (52%), pick-up trucks (57%), and motorcycles (86%). Conclusion Pedestrian death remains the leading cause of fatality among urban road users in Ghana. Risk factors associated with pedestrian fatality include being hit by heavy vehicles, speeding, and roadside activities such as street hawking, jaywalking and nighttime walking. Steps which may contribute to reducing pedestrian fatalities include measures to reduce vehicles speeds in settlements, providing traffic medians and lighting streets in settlements, and discouraging street and roadside activities such as hawking. PMID

  17. Demographic patterns and sustainable development in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tawiah, E O

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that the present demographic patterns in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana, do not augur well for the achievement of sustainable development. Ghana is characterized by a youthful population, rapid population growth, uneven population distribution, high fertility, and rural-urban migration which has brought human numbers into collision with resources to sustain them. It is submitted that the issues discussed are equally applicable to the subregion as well. The estimated population in 1993 was about 16.4 million. The population of Ghana increased from 1970 to 1984 at a rate of growth of 2.6% per annum. The proliferation of small settlements has serious implications for sustainable development. Urban centers comprised about 12.9% of the total population in 1948, 23% in 1960, 28.3% in 1970, and 31.3% in 1984. The average woman in Ghana still has more than six children. The 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) indicated that the median age at first marriage for women was 16.5 years. Contraceptive use is low in sub-Sahara Africa. Currently married women (15-49) currently using any modern method ranged from 1% in Burundi (1987) and Mali (1987) to 36% in Zimbabwe (1988/89). The rapid population growth in Ghana, coupled with the concentration of infrastructural facilities and job opportunities in the urban centers, has resulted in a massive rural-urban migration. Basic social facilities like health, water, housing, and electricity have been stretched to their breakpoints. The Government of Ghana initiated a major effort to put environmental issues on the priority agenda in March 1988. This led to the preparation of an Environmental Action Plan (EAP) in 1991 to address issues relating to the protection of the environment, but the need is still urgent to adopt relevant population policies as a basic strategy in sustainable development.

  18. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1

    PubMed Central

    Biritwum, Richard B.; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Yawson, Alfred E.; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2013-01-01

    drinking water, with the lowest at 29.6% in the Volta region. The overall rate of access to improved sanitation was just 14.9%. The findings show significant regional differences, with the three Northern Regions having worse education, income, and sanitation levels, compared to Southern and Central Regions of the country. Conclusion Household characteristics and intra-household dynamics have been shown to influence health and health-seeking behaviors across a number of contexts and countries, and play a fundamental role in the well-being of older Ghanaians. SAGE Ghana is part of a multi-country study using standardized questionnaires and tested methodologies to provide household level data required to inform policy on the growing population of older adults in Ghana. With the good response rates and measures instituted to assure quality of data, this article demonstrates the high quality data and research methods of SAGE. PMID:23759325

  19. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1.

    PubMed

    Biritwum, Richard B; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Yawson, Alfred E; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2013-01-01

    water, with the lowest at 29.6% in the Volta region. The overall rate of access to improved sanitation was just 14.9%. The findings show significant regional differences, with the three Northern Regions having worse education, income, and sanitation levels, compared to Southern and Central Regions of the country. Conclusion Household characteristics and intra-household dynamics have been shown to influence health and health-seeking behaviors across a number of contexts and countries, and play a fundamental role in the well-being of older Ghanaians. SAGE Ghana is part of a multi-country study using standardized questionnaires and tested methodologies to provide household level data required to inform policy on the growing population of older adults in Ghana. With the good response rates and measures instituted to assure quality of data, this article demonstrates the high quality data and research methods of SAGE.

  20. Bioinformatics in Africa: The Rise of Ghana?

    PubMed Central

    Karikari, Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics. PMID:26378921

  1. Hydroclimatology of the Volta River Basin in West Africa: Trends and variability from 1901 to 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguntunde, Philip G.; Friesen, Jan; van de Giesen, Nick; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    Long-term historical records of rainfall ( P), runoff ( Q) and other climatic factors were used to investigate hydrological variability and trends in the Volta River Basin over the period 1901-2002. Potential ( Ep) and actual evaporation ( E), rainfall variability index ( δ), Budyko’s aridity index ( IA), evaporation ratio ( CE) and runoff ratio ( CQ) were estimated from the available hydroclimatological records. Mann-Kendall trend analysis and non-parametric Sen’s slope estimates were performed on the respective time series variables to detect monotonic trend direction and magnitude of change over time. Rainfall variability index showed that 1968 was the wettest year ( δ = +1.75) while 1983 was the driest ( δ = -3.03), with the last three decades being drier than any other comparable period in the hydrological history of the Volta. An increase of 0.2 mm/yr 2 ( P < 0.05) was observed in Ep for the 1901-1969 sub-series while an increased of 1.8 mm/yr 2 ( P < 0.01) was recorded since 1970. Rainfall increased at the rate of 0.7 mm/yr 2 or 49 mm/yr between 1901 and 1969, whereas a decrease of 0.2 mm/yr 2 (6 mm/yr) was estimated for 1970-2002 sub-series. Runoff increased significantly at the rate of 0.8 mm/yr (23 mm/yr) since 1970. Runoff before dam construction was higher (87.5 mm/yr) and more varied (CV = 41.5%) than the post-dam period with value of 73.5 mm/yr (CV = 23.9%). A 10% relative decrease in P resulted in a 16% decrease in Q between 1936 and 1998. Since 1970, all the months showed increasing runoff trends with significant slopes ( P < 0.05) in 9 out of the 12 months. Possible causes, such as climate change and land cover change, on the detected changes in hydroclimatology are briefly discussed.

  2. Structure of a hexameric form of RadA recombinase from Methanococcus voltae.

    PubMed

    Du, Liqin; Luo, Yu

    2012-05-01

    Archaeal RadA proteins are close homologues of eukaryal Rad51 and DMC1 proteins and are remote homologues of bacterial RecA proteins. For the repair of double-stranded breaks in DNA, these recombinases promote a pivotal strand-exchange reaction between homologous single-stranded and double-stranded DNA substrates. This DNA-repair function also plays a key role in the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and in the resistance of bacterial cells to antibiotics. A hexameric form of a truncated Methanococcus voltae RadA protein devoid of its small N-terminal domain has been crystallized. The RadA hexamers further assemble into two-ringed assemblies. Similar assemblies can be observed in the crystals of Pyrococcus furiosus RadA and Homo sapiens DMC1. In all of these two-ringed assemblies the DNA-interacting L1 region of each protomer points inward towards the centre, creating a highly positively charged locus. The electrostatic characteristics of the central channels can be utilized in the design of novel recombinase inhibitors.

  3. Prospects for the control of onchocerciasis in Africa with special reference to the Volta River basin.

    PubMed

    Waddy, B B

    1969-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is found in association with all the main river systems of northern tropical Africa, and there are endemic foci south of the Equator. Heavy and prolonged infection may cause blindness and intense pruritus. The vectors, Simulium damnosum and S. neavei, are also intolerable pests when they swarm. The disease and its vector together cause serious economic loss and are a main cause of the depopulation of river valleys in the savanna lands.The basin of the River Volta, in which the worst endemic area in the world is situated, is considered to be the most favourable area for a study of the problems involved in the large-scale control of onchocerciasis carried by S. damnosum. Mass treatment or prophylaxis are not practicable at present. The clinical condition progresses for many years in the absence of fresh infection, and drugs capable of mass application are needed. However, the first aim is to attack the larval stages of the vector with insecticides. DDT is ideal for this purpose in large, steadily flowing rivers, but a more suitable insecticide and formulation are needed for small, irregularly flowing streams.Research is needed into many aspects of the adult life of S. damnosum, including feeding and resting habits, dry season survival and flight range. One of the main practical problems is prevention of reinfestation of a treated river system.

  4. The economics of blindness prevention in Upper Volta under the Onchocerciasis Control Program.

    PubMed

    Prescott, N; Prost, A; Le Berre, R

    1984-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to the economics of blindness prevention under the Onchocerciasis Control Program in Upper Volta. It differs from previous economic analyses of onchocerciasis control in three important respects. First, it uses empirical data as the basis of an estimate of the epidemiological effectiveness of the intervention. Second, it focuses on the prevention of permanent disability and premature death due to onchocercal blindness as the major health improvement attributable to onchocerciasis control. Third, it emphasizes cost-effectiveness rather than cost-benefit analysis. This limitation is imposed by the difficulty of undertaking a comprehensive assessment of the benefits of onchocerciasis control. In particular, the extent to which control of partial visual impairment and infection without ocular involvement would increase the effective supply of labor, and also the extent to which control would increase the effective supply of land by inducing new settlement in the river valleys, have not been clearly established. The cost-effectiveness approach is limited because it foregoes the opportunity provided by cost-benefit analysis to compare the relative desirability of investing in onchocerciasis control with alternative investments in other sectors. However, it does permit useful judgments to be made about the relative efficiency of allocating scarce resources to onchocerciasis control compared to other possible investments within the health sector. For this purpose, an illustrative comparison is made with estimates of the cost-effectiveness of measles immunization.

  5. Report on a preliminary survey by the WHO Bilharziasis Advisory Team in Upper Volta

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, Donald B.; Francotte, Jean

    1962-01-01

    The WHO Bilharziasis Advisory Team made a survey in Upper Volta during May and June 1960. Data available indicate that S. haematobium is widely scattered throughout the country and that about 50% of the population, or more than 1.5 million people, are infected at some time during their lives. The examination of faeces is not a common practice, and it is therefore impossible to estimate the prevalence of S. mansoni and the intestinal helminths. The available evidence indicates, however, that S. mansoni is more prevalent in the country than is generally suspected. The distribution of the known snail habitats and the bilharziasis foci indicate that most of the major watersheds are infested, but that transmission sites may be rather sharply defined. It will be necessary to take this and various seasonal factors into consideration in planning a bilharziasis control programme. An analysis of the various public health problems in the country indicated that a programme of bilharziasis control would not be of practical value unless it was combined with a general attack on filth- and vector-borne diseases, and that it was essential to consider such a programme in conneixon with plans for the development of water and soil resources. PMID:20604120

  6. Evaluating Junior Secondary Education in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adu, J. K.

    The Junior Secondary School (JSS) program introduced in 1976 appears to have been the answer to the popular call for educational reform in Ghana. Vocationalization actually starts at the JSS level. JSS students are not trained for any particular occupation but are exposed to prevocational experiences to enable them to discover their aptitudes and…

  7. Rights of the Child in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, Anne Laurence

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Ghana. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes the measures taken by the Ghanian…

  8. Assessing the Implementation of Ghana's Patient Charter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abekah-Nkrumah, Gordon; Manu, Abubakar; Atinga, Roger Ayimbillah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the implementation of Ghana's Patients' Charter by investigating the level of awareness and knowledge of the Charter's content, some socio-demographic factors that may influence awareness and knowledge of the Charter and how providers have discharged their responsibilities under the Charter.…

  9. Abuse of Disabled Children in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Agbota, Tete Kobla

    2012-01-01

    Even though disabled children are targets of various forms of abuse, such issues remain mostly undocumented open secrets in many countries including Ghana. The article is based on a qualitative data provided by three key informants. Six stories emerged from the data and are discussed in terms of four main forms of abuse. Labelling theories are…

  10. Formalising the Informal: Ghana's National Apprenticeship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001 there has been a renewed government focus on skills development and its relationship with combating unemployment in Ghana. Technical and vocational education and training (hereinafter; TVET), delivered through public and private schools, vocational training institutes and informal apprenticeship training, continues to be seen as an…

  11. Early Care and Education in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Johnetta Wade

    2001-01-01

    Examines the present state of early care and education in Ghana. Includes historical background related to mission schools and day nurseries prior to independence from Britain. Describes the current registration and supervision of early childhood programs, the types of preschool facilities, and future plans for early childhood development.…

  12. Environmental Literacy of Business Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Godfred Matthew Yaw; Ossei Kwakye, Teddy; Welbeck, Edem Emerald; Ofori, Charles Gyamfi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the multidimensionality of the environmental literacy concept among university business students in Ghana. The study also investigates the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues and knowledge levels of environment and assesses how these two constructs influence students overall environmental…

  13. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization.

    PubMed

    Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Garcia, Daireen

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana.

  14. Ownership and technical efficiency of hospitals: evidence from Ghana using data envelopment analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to measure and analyse the technical efficiency of district hospitals in Ghana, the specific objectives of this study were to (a) estimate the relative technical and scale efficiency of government, mission, private and quasi-government district hospitals in Ghana in 2005; (b) estimate the magnitudes of output increases and/or input reductions that would have been required to make relatively inefficient hospitals more efficient; and (c) use Tobit regression analysis to estimate the impact of ownership on hospital efficiency. Methods In the first stage, we used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate the efficiency of 128 hospitals comprising of 73 government hospitals, 42 mission hospitals, 7 quasi-government hospitals and 6 private hospitals. In the second stage, the estimated DEA efficiency scores are regressed against hospital ownership variable using a Tobit model. This was a retrospective study. Results In our DEA analysis, using the variable returns to scale model, out of 128 district hospitals, 31 (24.0%) were 100% efficient, 25 (19.5%) were very close to being efficient with efficiency scores ranging from 70% to 99.9% and 71 (56.2%) had efficiency scores below 50%. The lowest-performing hospitals had efficiency scores ranging from 21% to 30%. Quasi-government hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.9%) followed by public hospitals (70.4%), mission hospitals (68.6%) and private hospitals (55.8%). However, public hospitals also got the lowest mean technical efficiency scores (27.4%), implying they have some of the most inefficient hospitals. Regarding regional performance, Northern region hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.0%) and Volta Region hospitals had the lowest mean score (43.0%). From our Tobit regression, we found out that while quasi-government ownership is positively associated with hospital technical efficiency, private ownership negatively affects hospital efficiency. Conclusions It would be

  15. Bovine trypanosomosis in the Upper West Region of Ghana: entomological, parasitological and serological cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    Adam, Y; Marcotty, T; Cecchi, G; Mahama, C I; Solano, P; Bengaly, Z; Van den Bossche, P

    2012-06-01

    Baseline surveys were conducted in the Upper West Region of Ghana to assess the distribution and densities of tsetse species, as well as the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. The entomological survey was designed to cover the suitable tsetse habitats along the three main rivers in the study area (i.e. Black Volta, Kulpawn and Sissili). Results indicated the presence of Glossina tachinoides in all three river basins, whilst Glossina palpalis gambiensis was only found close to the southern limit of the study area. A random sampling of 1800 cattle of the West African Short Horn, Sanga and Zebu breeds from 36 randomly selected grid cells covering the study area showed substantial differences between parasitological and serological prevalences. The average parasitological prevalence was estimated at 2.5% (95% CI: 1.06-5.77) with the majority of the infections due to Trypanosoma vivax. Most of the infected cattle were found close to the major river systems. The serological prevalence, measured using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), test was 19% (95% CI: 14.03-25.35). Cattle with anti-trypanosomal antibodies were also found throughout the study area.

  16. Cloning and sequencing of a multigene family encoding the flagellins of Methanococcus voltae.

    PubMed Central

    Kalmokoff, M L; Jarrell, K F

    1991-01-01

    The flagellins of Methanococcus voltae are encoded by a multigene family of four related genes (flaA, flaB1, flaB2, and flaB3). All four genes map within the same region of the genome, with the last three arranged in a direct tandem. Northern (RNA) blot and primer extension analyses of total cellular RNA indicate that all four genes are transcribed. The flaB1, flaB2, and flaB3 flagellins are transcribed as part of a large polycistronic message which encodes at least one more protein which is not a flagellin. An intercistronic stem-loop followed by a poly(T) tract located between the flaB2 and flaB3 genes appears to increase the resistance of the flaB1/flaB2 portion of this polycistronic message to digestion by endogenous RNases. The flaA gene, located approximately 600 bp upstream from the tandem, is transcribed as a separate message at very low levels. The four open reading frames encode proteins of molecular weights 23,900, 22,400, 22,800, and 25,500, much less than the Mr values of 33,000 and 31,000 for the flagellins calculated from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of isolated flagellar filaments. Each flagellin contains multiple eukaryotic glycosylation signals (Arg-X-Ser/Thr), although they do not appear to be glycoproteins, and each has an 11- or 12-amino-acid leader peptide. The N termini of all four flagellins (amino acids 1 through 47 of the mature protein) are very hydrophobic, and this region shows a high degree of homology with the flagellins from Halobacterium halobium. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 PMID:1718944

  17. Long-Term Water Balance of the Volta River Basin in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Taylor, J.; Steenhuis, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Volta River drains approximately 400,000 km2 of the semi-arid to sub-humid savanna of West Africa. Average rainfall is about 1000 mm per year. The interannual variation is relatively low with a coefficient of variation of 0.07. Most rainfall returns to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration and only 9% becomes available as river runoff. The interannual variation of river flow is much higher than that of rainfall and has a coefficient of variation of 0.57. In this presentation, the coupling between interannual variation in rainfall and runoff is examined. To a large extent, the high variability in river flow can be explained with the relatively small differences in rainfall between years; the watershed strongly amplifies the atmospheric input. The amplifying effect is, however, not constant over space and time. Over all, the basin received less rain than before in the past two decades. Some parts of the basin did indeed produce less runoff but other parts actually produced more runoff, most likely due to changes in landuse. No clear increase or decrease in the interannual variability could be found for different parts of the basin. To examine the interannual variability of water resources availability under future climates, the applicability of General Circulation Models (GCMs) was examined for West Africa. Comparison of historical and GCM rainfall data showed large discrepancies. Different approaches exist to adjust GCM rainfall with the aid of historical rainfall data but for West Africa some problems remained. This presentation concludes with a focus on differences in mid-term (2-10 years) persistence in annual river flow as produced by historical and GCM data.

  18. Turning around an ailing district hospital: a realist evaluation of strategic changes at Ho Municipal Hospital (Ghana)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a growing consensus that linear approaches to improving the performance of health workers and health care organisations may only obtain short-term results. An alternative approach premised on the principle of human resource management described as a form of 'High commitment management', builds upon a bundles of balanced practices. This has been shown to contribute to better organisational performance. This paper illustrates an intervention and outcome of high commitment management (HiCom) at an urban hospital in Ghana. Few studies have shown how HiCom management might contribute to better performance of health services and in particular of hospitals in low and middle-income settings. Methods A realist case study design was used to analyse how specific management practices might contribute to improving the performance of an urban district hospital in Ho, Volta Region, in Ghana. Mixed methods were used to collect data, including document review, in-depth interviews, group discussions, observations and a review of routine health information. Results At Ho Municipal Hospital, the management team dealt with the crisis engulfing the ailing urban district hospital by building an alliance between hospital staff to generate a sense of ownership with a focus around participative problem analysis. The creation of an alliance led to improving staff morale and attitude, and contributed also to improvements in the infrastructure and equipment. This in turn had a positive impact on the revenue generating capacity of the hospital. The quick turn around in the state of this hospital showed that change was indeed possible, a factor that greatly motivated the staff. In a second step, the management team initiated the development of a strategic plan for the hospital to maintain the dynamics of change. This was undertaken through participative methods and sustained earlier staff involvement, empowerment and feelings of reciprocity. We found that these factors acted

  19. Children's Health and Nutrition as Educational Issues: A Case Study of the Ghana Partnership for Child Development's Intervention Research in the Volta Region of Ghana. Technical Paper No. 91. SD Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James H.; Leherr, Kay

    As increasing numbers of children in developing nations survive to school age, practitioners, researchers, and policymakers are increasingly focusing on the health and well-being of school-age children and on the possibility of using the infrastructure of the school system to deliver health and nutrition interventions. This research, conducted in…

  20. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4)…

  1. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  2. The first cases of Lassa fever in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dzotsi, E K; Ohene, S-A; Asiedu-Bekoe, F; Amankwa, J; Sarkodie, B; Adjabeng, M; Thouphique, A M; Ofei, A; Oduro, J; Atitogo, D; Bonney, J H K; Paintsil, S C N; Ampofo, W

    2012-09-01

    Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease endemic in West Africa but with no previous case reported in Ghana. We describe the first two laboratory confirmed cases of Lassa fever from the Ashanti Region of Ghana detected in October and December, 2011.

  3. Tertiary Education Policy in Ghana. An Assessment: 1988-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdwood, Alison

    This study was one of several activities conducted at the end of a 5-year World Bank/Government of Ghana project, the Tertiary Education Project (TEP). This project was designed to assist the government of Ghana with the restructuring and quality enhancement of its tertiary education sector. Although the government had prepared an ambitious reform…

  4. Rethinking Christian Religious Education in Ghana: History, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai-Mununkum, Richardson

    2014-01-01

    This scholarly essay employs an African philosophical and symbolic construct--Sank?fa--to examine religious education in Ghana. Sank?fa implores the need to examine the past in order to understand the present and to plan for the future. In line with this frame, I recount the history of religious education in Ghana, examine the present challenges,…

  5. Basic School Leaders in Ghana: How Equipped Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkor, Anthony Kudjo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the leadership preparedness of institutional-level practice with focus on basic schools in Ghana. The analysis of documents on teacher training curriculum and, one-on-one and focus group interviews with teachers and school leaders revealed that in all the 38 teacher training institutions in Ghana where teachers are prepared for…

  6. Student Activism and Democratic Quality in Ghana's Fourth Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gyampo, Ransford Edward

    2013-01-01

    Student activism has been pivotal in Ghana's political and democratic history. Prior to Ghana's Fourth Republic, student activism was highly confrontational and entailed student support or opposition to the various regimes depending on the extent to which the regimes were accepted by all as being rightful or legitimate. After 23 years of…

  7. E-waste interventions in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Pwamang, John A; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw; Ampofo, Joseph Addo

    2016-03-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) has become an emerging environmental and human health problem in the world in the 21st century. Recently, the developing nations of West Africa (e.g. Ghana and Nigeria) have become a major destination for e-waste worldwide. In Ghana, the e-waste recyclers use primitive methods (mechanical shredding and open burning) to remove plastic insulation from copper cables. This technique can release highly toxic chemicals and severely affect the environment and human health if improperly managed. It is as a result of the adverse impact on human health that some interventions are being made in Ghana to reduce exposure. The present mode of recycling/dismantling, which happens at Agbogbloshie must be replaced by official receiving/recycling centers to be established. Currently, equipment to strip both large and small cables are available in the country via the Blacksmith Institute (USA) and it is expected that the e-waste workers will embrace the use of these machines. This technology will go a long way to help prevent the burning of e-waste and will be replicated in other smaller e-waste centers in the country.

  8. Hydrological evaluation of satellite-based rainfall estimates over the Volta and Baro-Akobo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemig, Vera; Rojas, Rodrigo; Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio; De Roo, Ad

    2013-08-01

    How useful are satellite-based rainfall estimates (SRFE) as forcing data for hydrological applications? Which SRFE should be favoured for hydrological modelling? What could researchers do to increase the performance of SRFE-driven hydrological simulations? To address these three research questions, four SRFE (CMORPH, RFE 2.0, TRMM-3B42 and PERSIANN) and one re-analysis product (ERA-Interim) are evaluated within a hydrological application for the time period 2003-2008, over two river basins (Volta and Baro-Akobo) which hold distinct physiographic, climatologic and hydrologic conditions. The focus was on the assessment of: (a) the individual and combined effect of SRFE-specific calibration and bias correction on the hydrological performance, (b) the level of complexity required regarding bias correction and interpolation to achieve a good hydrological performance, and (c) the hydrological performance of SRFE during high- and low-flow conditions. Results show that (1) the hydrological performance is always higher if the model is calibrated to the respective SRFE rather than to interpolated ground observations; (2) for SRFE that are afflicted with bias, a bias-correction step prior to SRFE-specific calibration is essential, while for SRFE with good intrinsic data quality applying only a SRFE-specific model calibration is sufficient; (3) the more sophisticated bias-correction method used in this work (histogram equalization) results generally in a superior hydrological performance, while a more sophisticated spatial interpolation method (Kriging with External Drift) seems to be of added value only over mountainous regions; (4) the bias correction is not over-proportionally important over mountainous catchments, as it solely depends on where the SRFE show high biases (e.g. for PERSIANN and CMORPH over lowland areas); and (5) the hydrological performance during high-flow conditions is superior thus promoting the use of SRFE for applications focusing on the high-end flow

  9. Hydrological Evaluation of Satellite-Based Precipitation Products over the Volta and Baro-Akobo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemig, Vera; Zambrano, Mauricio; Rojas, Rodrigo; De Roo, Ad

    2013-04-01

    How useful are satellite-based rainfall estimates (SRFE) as forcing data for hydrological applications? Which SRFE should be favoured for hydrological modelling? What could researchers do to increase the performance of SRFE-driven hydrological simulations? To address these three research questions, four SRFE (CMORPH, RFE 2.0, TRMM-3B42 and PERSIANN) and one reanalysis product (ERA-Interim) are evaluated within a hydrological application for the time period 2003-2008, over two river basins (Volta and Baro-Akobo) which hold distinct physiographic, climatologic and hydrologic conditions. The focus was on the assessment of: a) the individual and combined effect of SRFE-specific calibration and bias-correction on the hydrological performance, b) the level of complexity required regarding bias-correction and interpolation to achieve a good hydrological performance, and c) the hydrological performance of SRFE during high- and low-flow conditions. Results show that 1) the hydrological performance is always higher if the model is calibrated to the respective SRFE rather than to interpolated ground observations; 2) for SRFE that are afflicted with bias, a bias-correction step prior to SRFE-specific calibration is essential, while for SRFE with good intrinsic data quality applying a SRFE-specific model calibration is sufficient; 3) the more sophisticated bias-correction method used in this work (histogram equalization) results generally in a superior hydrological performance, while a more sophisticated interpolation method (Kriging with External Drift) seems to be of added value only over mountainous regions; 4) the bias-correction is not over-proportionally important over mountainous catchments, as it solely depends on where the SRFE show high biases (e.g. for PERSIANN and CMORPH over lowland areas); and 5) the hydrological performance during high-flow conditions is superior thus promoting the use of SRFE for applications focusing on the high-end flow spectrum. These results

  10. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  11. [Demographic profile of the Xavánte Indian population in Sangradouro-Volta Grande, Mato Grosso].

    PubMed

    Souza, L G; Santos, R V

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic profile of the Xavánte population at the Sangradouro-Volta Grande Indigenous Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, from 1993 to 1997. The survey included annual censuses and vital statistics from 7 Xavánte villages. Permanent contact with Brazilian national society, established in the 1940s and 50s, caused a population drop due to epidemics and clashes. In 1995 there were 825 individuals in the community. The crude birth rate (57.7/1,000) and death rate (9.1/1,000) were higher than the national averages. The majority (56%) of the population is under 15 years of age (median: 13 years) and the infant mortality rate is high (87.1 per thousand live births), probably resulting from precarious sanitary conditions in the villages. Other results included the persistence of polygyny; low levels of migration; a dynamic of splits and formation of new villages; traditional housing patterns maintained in the old villages and abandoned in the new ones. The recent demographic recovery in the data from Sangradouro-Volta Grande is similar to that observed in the Pimentel Barbosa community. The study highlights the importance of systematically collecting and analyzing demographic data from indigenous populations.

  12. Lake Tahoe

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the Lake Tahoe watershed, EPA's protection efforts, water quality issues, effects of climate change, Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), EPA-sponsored projects, list of partner agencies.

  13. AglC and AglK are involved in biosynthesis and attachment of diacetylated glucuronic acid to the N-glycan in Methanococcus voltae.

    PubMed

    Chaban, Bonnie; Logan, Susan M; Kelly, John F; Jarrell, Ken F

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of prokaryotic N-glycosylation have established a foundation for the pathways and proteins involved in this important posttranslational protein modification process. To continue the study of the Methanococcus voltae N-glycosylation pathway, characteristics of known eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal proteins involved in the N-glycosylation process were examined and used to select candidate M. voltae genes for investigation as potential glycosyl transferase and flippase components. The targeted genes were knocked out via linear gene replacement, and the resulting effects on N-glycan assembly were identified through flagellin and surface (S) layer protein glycosylation defects. This study reports the finding that deletion of two putative M. voltae glycosyl transferase genes, designated aglC (for archaeal glycosylation) and aglK, interfered with proper N-glycosylation. This resulted in flagellin and S-layer proteins with significantly reduced apparent molecular masses, loss of flagellar assembly, and absence of glycan attachment. Given previous knowledge of both the N-glycosylation pathway in M. voltae and the general characteristics of N-glycosylation components, it appears that AglC and AglK are involved in the biosynthesis or transfer of diacetylated glucuronic acid within the glycan structure. In addition, a knockout of the putative flippase candidate gene (Mv891) had no effect on N-glycosylation but did result in the production of giant cells with diameters three to four times that of wild-type cells.

  14. Need for accessible infertility care in Ghana: the patients’ voice

    PubMed Central

    Osei, Nana Yaw

    2016-01-01

    Abstract According to the Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) infertility and childlessness are the most important reason for divorce in Ghana. The traditional Ghanaian society is pro-natal and voluntary childlessness is very uncommon. Patient groups are almost non-existent in Sub-Saharan Africa, aggravating the situation of childless couples. Due to the lack of enough and affordable high quality infertility services, many women resort to traditional healing, witchcraft and spiritual mediation. Considering the severe sociocultural and economic consequences of childlessness, especially for women, there is an urgent need for accessible and affordable high quality infertility care in Ghana. PMID:27909570

  15. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Daireen

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana. PMID:26885494

  16. Ghana--medical care amid economic problems.

    PubMed

    Bacon, L

    1980-07-01

    Describing the pattern of disease encountered in primary health care (PHC) in Ghana and the facilities available to treat it, this discussion provides an account of the rapidly deteriorating economic situation and its effects on the inhabitants and on medical practice. During the 1977-79 period Ghana suffered severe economic and political difficulties, affecting work at the University Hospital in Legon, Ghana. The workload differs from that in developed countries in several ways: tropical diseases are common; the diseases of proverty are rife; diseases due to poor public health and an absence of some diseases, e.g., myocardial infarct and multiple sclerosis. There is no equivalent of the British general practioner, but there are 4 main sources of care: 54 government hospitals with 137 health centrs and health posts distributed around the country; 57 private but relatively low cost hospitals and clinics; exclusive, high cost private clinics; and traditional healers and herbalists practicing their art. Between 1976-79 the economy of Ghana went into a steep decline. Exact figures for inflation are difficult to come by; 15% per year was popularly quoted. The cedi (the Ghanaian unit of currency) was officially devalued. Goods became very scarce as well as expensive. Basic food items, spare parts for vehicles and other machinery, petroleum products, soap, and all medical supplies were hard to obtain. There was public unrest during this period. Strikes became frequent. Notable from the health perspective was a strike of all professionals, including doctors, in June 1977, strikes of government employed nurses in April 1978 and May 1979. The main events were 3 changes of government. Although exact data are not easy to obtain, the diseases of poverty appeared to be on the increase. Lack of money tended to keep those not entitled to free treatment away from private hospitals, but the deteriorating situation at the clinics seemed to more than compensate for this. Shortages

  17. Rainfall and Streamflow Variability in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanu, Michael M.

    The objective of this research is to investigate the variability of rainfall and streamflow over Ghana. Analyses of rainfall shows larger daily variability and maxima amounts in the southern coastal belt than in either the middle or northern parts of the country. The high variability in rainfall at the coast is associated with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) changes over the Guinea coast. This is related to the evolution of the cold tongue over the Atlantic during the rainfall season. The results indicate that the extreme rainfall events occur as single events, but there are occasions when they occur sequentially, and some of these events could continue for more than 5 days. We note that the average SSTs over the equatorial Atlantic favor the occurrence of extreme rainfall over the coastal and middle belt, while relatively cold SSTs favor the occurrence of extreme rainfall events in the northern belt. This study also shows the presence of eastward moving convective signals which are associated with Kelvin waves that impact the rainfall in spring over Ghana. Kelvin waves account for ~70% of the extreme rainfall events during boreal spring compared to 25%-35% in summer. The reason for this is that the rainfall in southern Ghana peaks in spring when the frequency of propagation of these waves is the highest. Analysis of streamflow and rainfall suggested that both rainfall and streamflow exhibit a bimodal pattern. Although the peak in rainfall occurs during the major season, the peak in streamflow occurs during the minor season. Extreme rainfall events are more associated with flooding in the rivers than continuous non-extreme rainfall events. Additionally, we note a decreasing trend in rainfall and streamflow over the southern part of Ghana. But, the decrease in streamflow is larger than for the rainfall. It is to be noted, however, that the draw of water from the two rivers by the communities for domestic and irrigation use are very difficult to quantify and could be

  18. Entomological aspects of the first five years of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J F; Davies, J B; Le Berre, R

    1979-09-01

    The history and structure of the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin are described. An outline of the vector control operations is given, and the techniques and organisation of the entomological evaluation network are described in detail. During the course of the evaluation and related studies undertaken between November 1974 and October 1978 almost 1.2 million S. damnosum females have been taken in over 52,000 man days of catching, and 674,000 flies were dissected. An assessment based on this effort using Annual Biting Rates and Annual Transmission Potentials shows that the transmission of O. volvulus has been reduced to below a defined maximum permissible level over most of the central part of the Programme Area. The difficulties encountered in the remainder, and at certain problem sites are outlined and relevant data given. The benefits to be expected from extending the area further southwards and the possibilities of later reductions in control activity are discussed.

  19. Working practices and incomes of health workers: evidence from an evaluation of a delivery fee exemption scheme in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Sophie; Kusi, Anthony; Aikins, Moses

    2007-01-01

    Background This article describes a survey of health workers and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) which was carried out in 2005 in two regions of Ghana. The objective of the survey was to ascertain the impact of the introduction of a delivery fee exemption scheme on both health workers and those providers who were excluded from the scheme (TBAs). This formed part of an overall evaluation of the delivery fee exemption scheme. The results shed light not only on the scheme itself but also on the general productivity of a range of health workers in Ghana. Methods A structured questionnaire was developed, covering individual and household characteristics, working hours and practices, sources of income, and views of the exemptions scheme and general motivation. After field testing, this was administered to 374 respondents in 12 districts of Central and Volta regions. The respondents included doctors, medical assistants (MAs), public and private midwives, nurses, community health nurses (CHNs), and traditional birth attendants, both trained and untrained. Results Health workers were well informed about the delivery fee exemptions scheme and their responses on its impact suggest a realistic view that it was a good scheme, but one that faces serious challenges regarding financial sustainability. Concerning its impact on their morale and working conditions, the responses were broadly neutral. Most public sector workers have seen an increased workload, but counterbalanced by increased pay. TBAs have suffered, in terms of client numbers and income, while the picture for private midwives is mixed. The survey also sheds light on pay and productivity. The respondents report long working hours, with a mean of 54 hours per week for community nurses and up to 129 hours per week for MAs. Weekly reported client loads in the public sector range from a mean of 86 for nurses to 269 for doctors. Over the past two years, reported working hours have been increasing, but so have pay and

  20. Abortion care in Ghana: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

    2014-09-01

    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services.

  1. The changing face of women in physics in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Amponsah, Paulina Ekua; Nsiah-Akoto, Irene; Gyamfi, Kwame; Hood, Christiana Odumah

    2013-03-01

    Ghana is said to be the first independent sub-Saharan African country outside South Africa to promote science education and the application of science in industrial and social development. It has long been recognized that many schools' science curricula extend the extracurricular activities of boys more than those of girls. In order to bridge this gap, efforts have been made to give girls extra assistance in the learning of science by exposing them to science activities through specific camps, road shows, exhibitions, and so on. The best known of such efforts is the Science, Technology, and Mathematics Education (STME) camps and clinics for girls, which started in Ghana 23 years ago. Since our attendance at the Third International Conference on Women in Physics in Seoul, Korea, a lot has been achieved to further improve female science education, and this credit goes to STME. The first female nuclear engineer from Ghana graduated from the University of Ghana in March 2010.

  2. Giardia lamblia infections in children in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Narh, Charles Akugbey; Oddei, Dora; Brown, Charles Addoquaye; Enweronu-Laryea, Christabel; Bandoh, Betty; Sampane-Donkor, Eric; Armah, George; Adjei, Andrew Anthony; Adjei, David Nana; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick Ferdinand; Gyan, Ben Adu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Though giardiasis is an important public health problem in Ghana, several aspects of its epidemiology, particularly the molecular epidemiology has not been investigated adequately. This could be a major hindrance to effective surveillance and control of giardiasis in the country. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence, risk factors and genotypes of Giardia lamblia infecting children at a paediatric hospital in Ghana. Methods A total of 485 patients including 365 diarrhoea and 120 non-diarrhoea children were enrolled into the study. Stool samples were collected and analysed for parasite presence using microscopy, ELISA and PCR. Positive samples were subsequently characterized into assemblages by PCR-RFLP, and further confirmed with sequencing of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. Epidemiological data on demographic, clinical and behavioral features of the study subjects were also collected. Results Prevalence of G. lamblia infections in diarrhoea and non-diarrhoea children were 5.8% and 5% respectively (P>0.5). Sequence data confirmed Giardia lamblia assemblage B as the predominant genotype in both diarrhoea and non-diarrhoea cases. There was no significant association of G. lamblia infection with any of the epidemiological variables investigated. Conclusion Our findings suggest that assemblage B could be the predominant genotype causing giardiasis in children. Increased public health education focusing on good sanitary practices, particularly among mothers and children, could decrease the risk of G. lamblia infection. PMID:27800072

  3. Effective programmes for improving nutrition in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agble, R

    1997-12-01

    This brief article identifies some lessons learned from effective programs for improving nutrition in Ghana. The Ghana nutrition program was initiated in the mid-1980s with the introduction of corn milling machines in over 50 communities. The milling machines were donated by UNICEF. The milling machines were used for the production of an improved cereal and a legume-based weaning food (Weanimix). The program included training and nutrition education. After the program was underway, an income generation component was added. The income from the sale of milled cereal was used to support other community-based activities. The number of mothers using the new weaning food increased. Maternal knowledge of basic nutrition improved in project communities compared to non-project communities. The program contributed to greater household food security and improved nutritional status of children. One important lesson learned was that, in order for community interest to remain high, there must be quality operation and few breakdowns of the milling machines. It is also important for agencies and nongovernmental groups to collaborate and define roles carefully. This program was successful in remote rural communities. Existing women's groups managed the project and maintained a simple record system to monitor progress. An appropriate amount of supervision is necessary to prevent laxness in the community from too little supervision or lack of initiative from too much supervision. The program staff was undecided regarding the use of incentives.

  4. Operation hernia: humanitarian hernia repairs in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sanders, D L; Kingsnorth, A N

    2007-10-01

    Ghana has a high incidence of inguinal hernias and the healthcare system is unable to deliver an adequate repair rate. This results in morbidity and mortality and has a knock-on effect on the local economy. A project has been set up to try and reduce the burden of these hernias by establishing Africa's first Hernia Centre. This is supported by structured visits by European surgeons to the centre. In October 2006, a team of four surgeons, two specialist registrars, one hernia nurse specialist, and three nurses was assembled in order to open the Hernia Centre, which will provide a base for the delivery of hernia services in the West of Ghana. A 2-year teaching programme has been formulated, tailored to the needs of local surgeons and nurses, with the aim of developing an integrated team that will initially deliver up to 50 hernia repairs each month. It is planned that the centre will be supported by structured periodic visits from surgeons and nurses based in Plymouth, the European Hernia Society, and any other volunteers wishing to support the link.

  5. Levels and Seasonal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Rural and Urban Atmosphere of Southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and γ-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the

  6. Prevalence of blindness and low vision of people over 30 years in the Wenchi district, Ghana, in relation to eye care programmes.

    PubMed

    Moll, A C; van der Linden, A J; Hogeweg, M; Schader, W E; Hermans, J; de Keizer, R J

    1994-04-01

    A population based survey on the prevalence of major blinding disorders was conducted in the Wenchi district in central Ghana between March and May 1991. In 10 villages, 1425 people of 30 years and older were screened, using the WHO eye examination record. The prevalence of bilateral blindness above 30 years proved to be 1.7% (best acuity < 3/60): the prevalence of low vision above 30 years was 2.0% (best visual acuity 6/18 to 3/60). The causes of blindness were determined as cataract (62.5%), onchocerciasis (12.5%), corneal opacity (non-trachomatous) (8.2%), refraction anomalies (4.2%), phthisis bulbi (4.2%), optic atrophy (4.2%), and vascular retinopathy (4.2%). In the Wenchi district, 1.0% of the population over the age of 30 years was found to need a cataract extraction because of blindness of both eyes. Another potential 1.0% needs a cataract extraction because of low vision. A minor second study (n = 149) was undertaken in the same district, but in a village in an area near the Black Volta river in which onchocerciasis is endemic. The prevalence of blindness (8.1%) and low vision (3.4%) caused by onchocerciasis and cataract both proved to be higher. The survey provided the basis for a preventive and curative eye care programme.

  7. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in the Savelugu and West Mamprusi districts of northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mahama, C I; Desquesnes, M; Dia, M L; Losson, B; De Deken, R; Geerts, S

    2004-06-10

    The epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis was investigated in two districts (Savelugu and West Mamprusi) of Northern Ghana with different land use and environmental characteristics. The land use intensity and environmental change was suspected to be higher in the Savelugu District. A cross-sectional entomological survey conducted along the White Volta river and its tributaries confirmed the presence of only Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides. The challenge index as measured by the product of tsetse density and tsetse infection rate was much higher in the West Mamprusi (19.6) than in the Savelugu district (4.7). A total of 1013 cattle (508 in Savelugu and 505 in West Mamprusi) were bled from a random selection of 16 villages in the Savelugu District and 13 villages in the West Mamprusi District. Blood samples were examined for trypanosomes by the buffy coat technique (BCT). Blood samples that were positive in the BCT or negative in the BCT but with packed cell volume (PCV) values below 21 were further tested with a polymerase chain reaction for trypanosomal DNA. Plasma samples of all cattle were serologically tested with an indirect ELISA for trypanosomal antibodies. The parasitological and serological prevalence of bovine trypanosomoses was significantly higher in West Mamprusi (16 and 53%, respectively) than in Savelugu District (8 and 24%, respectively). An evaluation of animal health at the village herd level, using PCV as an index of anaemia, provided various epidemiological scenarios prevalent in the entire study area.

  8. Women in science in Ghana: The Ghana science clinics for girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Amponsah, Paulina; Nsiah-Akoto, Irene; Anderson, Christina Oduma; Ababio, Baaba Andam; Asenso, Yaa Akomah; Nyarko, Savanna

    2015-12-01

    The Ghana Science Clinics for Girls, started in 1987, gave rise to a paradigm shift in the inclusion of girls in science education. One generation later, we review the impact. Our study indicates that progress has been made in the effort to mainstream women into science studies and careers, mainly as a result of the changes that took place through this intervention strategy. The retention rate for girls in science from primary to university has risen considerably and performance is higher.

  9. Predictors of mosquito net use in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During the past decade the malaria control community has been successful in dramatically increasing the number of households that own mosquito nets. However, as many as half of nets already in households go unused. This study examines the factors associated with use of nets owned in Ghana. Methods The data come from an August 2008 survey in Ghana of households with a pregnant woman or a guardian of a child under five, conducted during the rainy season. 1796 households were included in this analysis, which generated a sample of 1,852 mosquito nets. Using each net owned as the unit of analysis, multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of net used last night with 23 potentially explanatory variables having to do with characteristics of the household, of the respondent, and of the net. Odds Ratios, p-values, and confidence intervals were calculated for each variable to develop an explanatory model. Results The final multivariate model consisted of 10 variables statistically associated with whether or not the net was used the prior night: rural location, lower SES, not using coils for mosquito control, fewer nets in the household, newer nets and those in better condition, light blue colour, higher level of education of the guardian of the child under five, knowing that mosquitoes transmit malaria, and paying for the net instead of obtaining it free of charge. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that net use would increase in Ghana if coloured nets were made available in mass distributions as well as in the commercial market; if programmes emphasize that malaria is caused only by night-biting mosquitoes, and that nets protect against mosquitoes better than coils and need to be used even if coils are burning; if donated nets are replaced more frequently so that households have nets that are in good condition; and if there were support for the commercial market so that those who can afford to purchase a net and want to

  10. Prostate brachytherapy in Ghana: our initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Yarney, Joel; Vanderpuye, Verna; Akpakli, Evans; Tagoe, Samuel; Sasu, Evans

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study presents the experience of a brachytherapy team in Ghana with a focus on technology transfer and outcome. The team was initially proctored by experienced physicians from Europe and South Africa. Material and methods A total of 90 consecutive patients underwent either brachytherapy alone or brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma between July 2008 and February 2014 at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Patients were classified as low-risk, intermediate, and high-risk according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria. All low-risk and some intermediate risk group patients were treated with seed implantation alone. Some intermediate and all high-risk group patients received brachytherapy combined with external beam radiotherapy. Results The median patient age was 64.0 years (range 46-78 years). The median follow-up was 58 months (range 18-74 months). Twelve patients experienced biochemical failure including one patient who had evidence of metastatic disease and died of prostate cancer. Freedom from biochemical failure rates for low, intermediate, and high-risk cases were 95.4%, 90.9%, and 70.8%, respectively. Clinical parameters predictive of biochemical outcome included: clinical stage, Gleason score, and risk group. Pre-treatment prostate specific antigen (PSA) was not a statistically significant predictor of biochemical failure. Sixty-nine patients (76.6%) experienced grade 1 urinary symptoms in the form of frequency, urgency, and poor stream. These symptoms were mostly self-limiting. Four patients needed catheterization for urinary retention (grade 2). One patient developed a recto urethral fistula (grade 3) following banding for hemorrhoids. Conclusions Our results compare favorably with those reported by other institutions with more extensive experience. We believe therefore that, interstitial permanent brachytherapy can be safely and effectively performed in a

  11. Lake Constance

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... Swiss shores of Lake Constance at the town of Rorschach. Eutrophication, or the process of nutrient enrichment, is rapidly accelerated ... of the value of Lake Constance, efforts to mitigate eutrophication were initiated in the 1970's. MISR was built and is managed ...

  12. Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263

  13. Electronic health in ghana: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Afarikumah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided.

  14. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, J. E.; Roberts, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and water pump was installed in the remote African village of Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in early 1979. The presence reports covers the second two years of operation from April 1981 through June 1983. During this time, the grain mill and water pump were operational 96 and 88 percent of the time respectively, and the PV system generated sufficient electricity to enable the grinding of about 111 metric tons of finely ground flow and the pumping of over 5000 cm sq of water from the 10 m deep well. The report includes a description of the current configuration of the system, a review of system performance, a discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the system on the villagers and a summary of results and conclusions covering the entire four-year period.

  15. Kin Group Affiliation and Marital Violence Against Women in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sedziafa, Alice Pearl; Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2016-01-01

    The socialization of men and women in Ghana often confers either patrilineal or matrilineal rights, privileges, and responsibilities. Yet, previous studies that explored domestic and marital violence in sub-Saharan Africa, and Ghana, paid less attention to kin group affiliation and how the power dynamics within such groups affect marital violence. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying ordinary least squares (OLS) techniques, this study examined what influences physical, sexual, and emotional violence among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups. Results indicate significant differences among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups regarding marital violence. Socioeconomic variables that capture feminist and power theories were significantly related to sexual and emotional violence in matrilineal societies. Also, variables that tap both cultural and life course epistemologies of domestic violence were strongly related to physical, sexual, and emotional violence among married women in patrilineal kin groups. Policymakers must pay attention to kin group affiliation in designing policies aimed at reducing marital violence among Ghanaian women.

  16. Science reporting in Accra, Ghana: sources, barriers and motivational factors.

    PubMed

    Appiah, Bernard; Gastel, Barbara; Burdine, James N; Russell, Leon H

    2015-01-01

    In Ghana, as in many other developing countries, most science reporting is done by general reporters. However, few studies have investigated science reporting in such a situation. To understand better the dynamics of science reporting in such context, we surveyed 151 general reporters in Ghana. Respondents' demographic characteristics resembled those found in studies elsewhere. Respondents perceived health professionals and scientists as very important sources of information for reporting science. There was an inverse correlation between journalism experience and the number of science feature stories reported in the past 12 months (p=.017). Most respondents indicated that science journalism training would motivate them to report science more. Likewise, most reported that easier access to research findings would do so. We identify characteristics of reporters, media, scientific, and training institutions that are important influences of Ghanaian reporters' coverage of science. We provide recommendations for advancing science reporting in Ghana.

  17. Evolutionary History of Rabies in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, David T. S.; Johnson, Nicholas; Horton, Daniel L.; Hedge, Jessica; Wakeley, Philip R.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Zhang, Shoufeng; Alhassan, Andy; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a dominates in northern and eastern Africa, but has been detected in Nigeria and Gabon, and Africa 1b was previously absent from West Africa. We confirmed the presence of RABV in a cohort of 76 brain samples obtained from rabid animals in Ghana collected over an eighteen-month period (2007–2009). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed all viruses to be RABV, belonging to lineages previously detected in sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike earlier reported studies that suggested a single lineage (Africa 2) circulates in West Africa, we identified viruses belonging to the Africa 2 lineage and both Africa 1 (a and b) sub-lineages. Phylogeographic Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of a 405 bp fragment of the RABV nucleoprotein gene from the 76 new sequences derived from Ghanaian animals suggest that within the Africa 2 lineage three clades co-circulate with their origins in other West African countries. Africa 1a is probably a western extension of a clade circulating in central Africa and the Africa 1b virus a probable recent introduction from eastern Africa. We also developed and tested a novel reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of RABV in African laboratories. This RT-LAMP was shown to detect both Africa 1 and 2 viruses, including its adaptation to a lateral flow device format for product visualization. These data suggest that RABV epidemiology is more complex than previously thought in West Africa and that there have been repeated introductions of RABV into Ghana. This analysis highlights the

  18. Career Ladder Policy For Teachers: The Case Of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei, George M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1984 the Ministry of Education in Ghana introduced a career ladder policy for teachers. While reformers believe that this has improved the condition of the teaching profession, the net gains of the policy remain deceptive. There has even been a reduction in some of the benefits that teachers used to enjoy in the single salary scheme in the past. After critically assessing the major aspects of the policy, along with the voices of Ghanaian teachers, this study argues that the career ladder policy for teachers in Ghana is another prototypical case of a failed experiment in terms of both improving the lives of teachers and maintaining their professional rights.

  19. White Lake AOC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    White Lake is in Muskegon County along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. It was named an Area of Concern on the Great Lakes under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1987 and delisted in 2014.

  20. Ticks associated with wild mammals in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y; Carr-Saunders, C; Matthews, B E; Preston, P M; Walker, A R

    2005-06-01

    The host ranges of a collection of 21 tick species found on wild mammals in the savanna, forests and coastal zone of Ghana suggested that most species were adapted to feeding mainly on host species within a single mammalian order, i.e. on artiodactyls (bovids/suids), carnivores, rodents or pholidotes (pangolins). Only a few species were dispersed evenly across a range of orders. Seven out of ten of the most common ticks on forest mammals were significantly associated with a particular host species or a group of closely related host species, which could be viewed as their major host or hosts, but they were also recorded much less frequently on a wide range of host species. Two other species were confined to their major hosts. Only one species appeared to be widely dispersed on forest mammals and to lack a particular major host. The majority of tick species therefore occurred on hosts with very distinctive biological, behavioural and ecological characteristics. The study provided no evidence to support the view that host specificity is an artefact of sampling. Finding that the tick species on Ghanaian wild mammals occurred on particular hosts, as well as in distinct habitats, indicated that tick-host associations are important for tick survival and confirmed the importance of climate and vegetation in tick distribution.

  1. Spectrum of Endocrine Disorders in Central Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Ansah, Eunice Oparebea; Kyei, Ishmael

    2017-01-01

    Background. Although an increasing burden of endocrine disorders is recorded worldwide, the greatest increase is occurring in developing countries. However, the spectrum of these disorders is not well described in most developing countries. Objective. The objective of this study was to profile the frequency of endocrine disorders and their basic demographic characteristics in an endocrine outpatient clinic in Kumasi, central Ghana. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on endocrine disorders seen over a five-year period between January 2011 and December 2015 at the outpatient endocrine clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. All medical records of patients seen at the endocrine clinic were reviewed by endocrinologists and all endocrinological diagnoses were classified according to ICD-10. Results. 3070 adults enrolled for care in the endocrine outpatient service between 2011 and 2015. This comprised 2056 females and 1014 males (female : male ratio of 2.0 : 1.0) with an overall median age of 54 (IQR, 41–64) years. The commonest primary endocrine disorders seen were diabetes, thyroid, and adrenal disorders at frequencies of 79.1%, 13.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Type 2 diabetes and thyroid disorders represent by far the two commonest disorders seen at the endocrine clinic. The increased frequency and wide spectrum of endocrine disorders suggest the need for well-trained endocrinologists to improve the health of the population. PMID:28326101

  2. Biochar/compost project in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.

    2012-04-01

    In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.

  3. Lake Powell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The white ring around Lake Powell tells the story. The surface is down 98 feet. This is critical, because Powell, Lake Mead, and other lakes along the Colorado River provide water for millions of people in five states. We are in the eighth year of a drought on the Colorado River. This year was the driest year ever reported in Southern California, and there is a severe drought in Northern California, down to less than 30-percent of snow pack. This ASTER image of part of Lake Powell was acquired in 2001. The gray area depicts the shrunken, reduced 2007 lake extent compared to the extended, larger black area in 2001.

    The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km, and is centered near 37.1 degrees north latitude, 111.3 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Assessing School Leadership Challenges in Ghana Using Leadership Practices Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Alexander Kyei; Aboagye, Samuel Kwadwo

    2015-01-01

    The Ghana Education Service (GES) is facing challenges in school leadership and hence a lot of criticisms on basic school performances. The issue is whether school leadership relates to school performances and that there is the need for transformation leadership. The purpose of this study was to discuss self-reported leadership practices…

  5. Technical-Vocational Education and Language Policy in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adogpa, James Nsoh

    2015-01-01

    Technical and vocational graduates in Ghana are often ill-equipped to become self-reliant or well-fitted into the demands of the job market. This pattern can be examined in terms of the educational language policy implementation that disregards regional linguistic needs. This seems to arise as a result of the medium of instruction that is…

  6. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansere, Joe K.; Mensah, Eric A.

    This document contains two case studies, one by J. K. Ansere, concerning the modular program of distance education to prepare teachers in Ghana and the other, by E.A. Mensah, reporting on a research experiment that compared teaching methods used to teach the course of study at a Ghanian worker's college. The modular program described by Ansere is…

  7. The Wayside Mechanic: An Analysis of Skill Acquisition in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Stephen Douglas

    This study describes and analyzes the nature of skill acquisition process in one indigenous, informal training system--the apprenticeship of the wayside mechanics workshops in Koforidua, Ghana. Chapter 2 places apprenticeships training in the wider context of artisanship and training. It traces the history of the West African craft shop and its…

  8. ABCs of Diversifying Information Resources among Rice Smallholders of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misiko, M.; Halm, E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated how information resource diversification can enhance smallholder agricultural knowledge in Ghana. Design/Methodology/Approach: Study tools and methods were questionnaire survey (N = 200), focus group discussion (N = 1), in-depth interviews (N = 18) and field direct observation. Findings: This study shows there existed…

  9. Investment in Human Capital. Schooling Supply Constraints in Rural Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Victor

    This paper hypothesizes that the cost differential between primary school and middle or secondary schooling will affect household decisions to invest in any one schooling level in Ghana. Human capital investment is usually modeled in an intertemporal optimization framework in which households or individuals maximize the present value of life-time…

  10. U. S. Teachers Learn about Family Security in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Caryl

    2006-01-01

    This article describes "Ghanaian Area Studies in Diversity-Globalization," a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program that took 18 New Mexico classroom teachers to Ghana, West Africa, in 2003 to bring a global perspective to the classrooms of New Mexico. This Fulbright project was designed for participants to gain a greater…

  11. Ghana Fiasco Shows Risks of Faculty-Led Study Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack…

  12. Two novel arenaviruses detected in pygmy mice, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kronmann, Karl C; Nimo-Paintsil, Shirley; Guirguis, Fady; Kronmann, Lisha C; Bonney, Kofi; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Ampofo, William; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

    2013-11-01

    Two arenaviruses were detected in pygmy mice (Mus spp.) by screening 764 small mammals in Ghana. The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), the known Lassa virus reservoir, was the dominant indoor rodent species in 4 of 10 sites, and accounted for 27% of all captured rodents. No rodent captured indoors tested positive for an arenavirus.

  13. Developing Higher Education Programs in Emergency Management: Ghana's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakubu, Mariama Bisongu

    2013-01-01

    Ghana is highly vulnerable and threatened by several hazards and has sought ways of minimizing impacts of hazards events over time including demonstrating an interest in developing an emergency management training and an higher education degree program. Yet, as of 2013, the country has not developed a disaster management training program or a…

  14. Exploring the Drivers of Teacher Professionalism in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salifu, Inusah

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to explore the working conditions teachers in the Ghana Education Service perceived as motivators in their professional practice. The research used mainly a qualitative approach and three focus groups of five members: each were organised with teacher participants drawn from the Ashanti Region purposively selected. The research…

  15. Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

    2012-01-01

    Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

  16. Comparing Power Spaces: The Shaping of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takyi-Amoako, Emefa

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the power spaces occupied by both donors and the Ministry of Education in the formulation of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan (ESP). It shows that the formulation of the ESP was more donor-led than Ministry-led due to the donor-initiated global policy frameworks also referred to as the non-negotiables. Consequently, donors…

  17. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

  18. Pre-Service Teachers' Views on Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nketsia, William; Saloviita, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Pre-service teacher training has been identified as one of the key factors in the promotion of inclusive education. In this study, 200 final-year pre-service teachers from three colleges of education in Ghana were surveyed about their views and knowledge on inclusive education and special educational needs (SEN). The results showed that almost all…

  19. Measuring Nutritional Intake of Adolescents in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.

    2007-01-01

    With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…

  20. Career Ladder Policy for Teachers: The Case of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, George M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1984 the Ministry of Education in Ghana introduced a career ladder policy for teachers. While reformers believe that this has improved the condition of the teaching profession, the net gains of the policy remain deceptive. There has even been a reduction in some of the benefits that teachers used to enjoy in the single salary scheme in the…

  1. An Exploratory Study of Trust and Material Hardship in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities/consumptive deprivations, each of…

  2. Examining Teachers' Concerns and Attitudes to Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined teachers' concerns and attitude toward inclusive education of students with disabilities in Ghana. A 20 item Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Africa Scale (ATIAS) was completed by 100 teachers from five "Inclusive Project" schools and five Non-Project coeducational basic schools in three different…

  3. Ethnicity and Economic Well-Being: The Case of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…

  4. Types of Bullying in the Senior High Schools in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antiri, Kwasi Otopa

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to examine the types of bullying that were taking place in the senior high schools in Ghana. A multi-stage sampling procedure, comprising purposive, simple random and snowball sampling technique, was used in the selection of the sample. A total of 354 respondents were drawn six schools in Ashanti, Central and…

  5. Homicide-suicide in Ghana: perpetrators, victims, and incidence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2014-03-01

    Homicide-suicide in the industrialized West has been studied for many years. Yet, only limited scholarly research currently exists on the subject in Africa and other non-Western societies. The aim of the present descriptive study was to investigate homicide-suicides in contemporary Ghana. A content analysis of homicide-suicide reports in a major Ghanaian daily newspaper during 1990 to 2009 was conducted. The results overwhelmingly support findings in the literature, suggesting that homicide-suicides are extremely rare events in Ghana. The overwhelming majority of reported homicide-suicides were committed by males, with females substantially more likely to be the homicide victims. The offenders and victims were generally of low socioeconomic status. Most homicide-suicides involved victims and offenders who were intimately acquainted as family members. The majority of cases involved men who killed their wives on suspicion of infidelity; the next largest category involved men who murdered wives who threatened divorce or separation. The principal homicide and suicide methods were shooting with firearms, hacking with machetes, and stabbing with knives. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to Ghana's patriarchal family system and ideology and present socioeconomic issues in the country. This study recommends further research on this subject in Ghana and other African countries. This is necessary to further an understanding of homicide-suicide as a phenomenon, as well as a necessary prelude to the development and implementation of effective preventive programs.

  6. Newspaper Framing of Climate Change in Nigeria and Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Chinenye; Egbra, Stella

    2016-01-01

    This study is a content analysis of two newspapers from Nigeria and Ghana to determine the coverage and framing of climate change issues for a period of 7 months. The main objective of this study is to find out how climate change stories are framed in Nigerian and Ghanaian national dailies. It was found among others, that the overall dominant…

  7. Pattern of Intentional Burns to Children in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forjuoh, Samuel N.

    1995-01-01

    A community-based survey of children aged 0 to 5 years in Ghana found that of 650 childhood burns, 5.4 percent were purposefully inflicted. Perpetrators were mostly friends (43 percent), siblings (37 percent), and traditional healers (6 percent). Healers inflicted burns on children who were comatose after convulsions. (Author/DB)

  8. The Determinants of Household Education Expenditure in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkoh, S. A.; Amikuzuno, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of formal education in the socio-economic development of a country cannot be over-emphasized. It is in this light, that over the years, governments of Ghana and other organizations have supported the education sector in many ways. Despite the efforts, many people think that a lot more can be done, but resources are not unlimited. Against…

  9. Revisiting Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2009-01-01

    When Ghana became independent in 1957 it had one of the most developed education systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Over the next forty years its education system expanded to provide places for most, but not all, of its children. Since the education reforms of the late 1980s enrolments have grown steadily; this contrasts with some SSA countries…

  10. Girl-Child Education Outcomes: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank S.; Angmor, Emmanuel N.; Tetteh, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana's girl-child educational project. According to the findings, the project has helped to…

  11. Using Natural Materials for Educational Toys: Examples from Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William, Musah; Preston, Christine

    1998-01-01

    Describes educational toys that are made from natural and readily available materials in Ghana. Directions and diagrams for the pawpaw-leaf horn, milk-tin helicopter, pen-top propeller, bow and arrow, spinning top, and feather helicopter are included. (DDR)

  12. Deaf Sociality and the Deaf Lutheran Church in Adamorobe, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusters, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an ethnographic analysis of "deaf sociality" in Adamorobe, a village in Ghana, where the relatively high prevalence of hereditary deafness has led to dense social and spatial connections. Deaf people are part of their hearing environment particularly through family networks, and produce deaf sociality through many…

  13. Malaria Imported from Ghana by Returning Gold Miners, China, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongjie; Yang, Yichao; Xiao, Ning; Zhou, Sheng; Lin, Kangming; Wang, Duoquan; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Weikang; Li, Mei; Feng, Xinyu; Yu, Jianxin; Ren, Xiang; Lai, Shengjie; Sun, Junling; Fang, Zhongliao; Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie C.A.; Zhou, Xiaonong

    2015-01-01

    During May-August 2013, a malaria outbreak comprising 874 persons in Shanglin County, China, was detected among 4,052 persons returning from overseas. Ghana was the predominant destination country, and 92.3% of malarial infections occurred in gold miners. Preventive measures should be enhanced for persons in high-risk occupations traveling to malaria-endemic countries. PMID:25897805

  14. Repositioning Ghana Schools as English Language Learner Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Although English has traditionally been the only language of instruction in Ghana, most young children do not speak English at home. This paper argues that students' academic performance might be improved if their native languages were also used in school. Such an approach offers benefits in areas such as classroom participation, engagement in…

  15. Lake acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, J.E.; Peplies, R.W.; Rush, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    This paper examined a National Research Council (NRC) report called Acid Deposition: Long-Term Trends. The report has been the final word on acid deposition as the cause of acidification of lakes. The authors considered it important that the tentative nature of this report be kept in perspective so that the work of the NRC would promote rather than inhibit scientific inquiry on the lake acidification issue. In this spirit, this report proposed that degradation of storm damaged trees could increase the acidity of the forest humus and as a result the ground water which would fed local streams and lakes. They proposed that extensive forest blowdown could be a factor in acidification of surface waters.

  16. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2017-03-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  17. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2016-08-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  18. Clonal distribution of pneumococcal serotype 19F isolates from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sparding, Nadja; Dayie, Nicholas T K D; Mills, Richael O; Newman, Mercy J; Dalsgaard, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pneumococcal strains are classified according to their capsular polysaccharide and more than 90 different serotypes are currently known. In this project, three distinct groups of pneumococcal carriage isolates from Ghana were investigated; isolates from healthy children in Tamale and isolates from both healthy and children attending the outpatient department at a hospital in Accra. The isolates were previously identified and characterized by Gram staining, serotyping and susceptibility to penicillin. In this study, isolates of the common serotype 19F were further investigated by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Overall, 14 different Sequence Types (STs) were identified by MLST, of which nine were novel based on the international MLST database. Two clones within serotype 19F seem to circulate in Ghana, a known ST (ST 4194) and a novel ST (ST 9090). ST 9090 was only found in healthy children in Accra, whereas ST 4194 was found equally in all children studied. In the MLST database, other isolates of ST 4194 were also associated with serotype 19F, and these isolates came from other West African countries. The majority of isolates were penicillin intermediate resistant. In conclusion, two clones within serotype 19F were found to be dominating in pneumococcal carriage in Accra and Tamale in Ghana. Furthermore, it seems as though the clonal distribution of serotype 19F may be different from what is currently known in Ghana in that many new clones were identified. This supports the importance of continued monitoring of pneumococcal carriage in Ghana and elsewhere when vaccines, e.g., PCV-13, have been introduced to monitor the possible future spread of antimicrobial resistant clones.

  19. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  20. Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

    2012-12-01

    Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction

  1. Lake Bonneville

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Grove Karl

    1890-01-01

    This volume is a contribution to the later physical history of the Great Basin. As a geographic province the Great Basin is characterized by a dry climate, changes of drainage, volcanic eruption, and crustal displacement. Lake Bonneville, the special theme of the volume, was a phenomenon of climate and drainage, but its complete history includes an account of contemporaneous eruption and displacement.

  2. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana.

    PubMed

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2017-03-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  3. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: A content analysis of media reports

    PubMed Central

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S.; Peprah, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude), at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school) of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes. PMID:26015405

  4. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: a content analysis of media reports.

    PubMed

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S; Peprah, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude), at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school) of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes.

  5. Implementing the Mental Health Act in Ghana: any challenges ahead?

    PubMed

    Doku, V C K; Wusu-Takyi, A; Awakame, J

    2012-12-01

    Ghana successfully passed a Mental Health Act law in March 2012. The passing of the Act was a culmination of a lot of work by various individuals and institutions spanning several decades. Finally there is a raised prospect of the delivery of a better quality mental healthcare and also the protection of human rights of people with mental disorders in Ghana. This paper identifies and describes clusters of related potential problems referred to as 'challenges' involving different aspects of service delivery, which are anticipated to be encountered during the implementation of the law. Finally, it cautions against the risk of allowing the new mental health law to add a new 'legal' burden to a list of perennial 'burdens' including underfunding, serious levels of understaffing and plummeting staff morale, which bisected earlier attempts at implementing a similar law that laid fallow for forty years.

  6. The economic cost of fuel price subsidies in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori, Roland Oduro

    I adapt the Harberger formula for deadweight loss to develop approximations for the deadweight loss created by multiple fuel price subsidies. I also estimate the own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel in Africa. I use data on fuel prices and sales in combination with my formulas and elasticity estimates to calculate the deadweight loss of fuel price subsidies in Ghana from 2009 to 2014. I show that the average efficiency cost of the gasoline and diesel price subsidies in Ghana is 0.8% of fuel price subsidy transfers. This result stresses the futility of basing subsidy reforms on economic efficiency losses, which are relatively small due to very inelastic energy demand, and the need for such reforms to be motivated by the poor-targeting of subsidies to low-income households and the impact of subsidies on government debt-financing.

  7. Scientific equity: experiments in laboratory education in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Osseo-Asare, Abena Dove

    2013-12-01

    During the 1960s the Ministry of Education in Ghana created a network of school laboratories to increase scientific literacy among young citizens. The ministry stocked these "Science Centres" with imported beakers, Bunsen burners, and books. Education officials and university scientists worked with teachers to create lesson plans on water, air, plants, and other topics. The government hoped that scientifically minded schoolchildren would be better prepared to staff the industries of the future. The adoption of laboratory norms represented a desire for scientific equity, rather than a condition of cultural mimicry. Interviews with ministry officials and science educators, alongside letters and reports, indicate how students and teachers appropriated the laboratories in the small West African nation. Their experiences in mobilizing resources from across Ghana and around the world provide a metaphor for ongoing efforts to establish access to scientific goods in Africa.

  8. Physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality) in Ghana. Method The 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data were used. For the domestic violence module, 2563 women were approached of whom 2442 women completed the module. After excluding missing values and applying the weight factor, 1745 women remained. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between physical violence in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes with adjustments for potential confounders. Results About five percent of the women experienced violence during their pregnancy. Physical violence in pregnancy was positively associated with perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality, but not with early pregnancy loss. The differences remained largely unchanged after adjustment for age, parity, education level, wealth status, marital status and place of residence: adjusted odds ratios were 2.32; 95% CI: 1.34-4.01 for perinatal mortality, 1.86; 95% CI: 1.05-3.30 for neonatal mortality and 1.16; 95% CI: 0.60-2.24 for early pregnancy loss. Conclusion Our findings suggest that violence during pregnancy is related to adverse pregnancy outcomes in Ghana. Major efforts are needed to tackle violence during pregnancy. This can be achieved through measures that are directed towards the right target groups. Measures should include education, empowerment and improving socio-economic status of women. PMID:24528555

  9. Jobs, Skills and Incomes in Ghana: How Was Poverty Halved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsowah-Nuamah, Nicholas; Teal, Francis; Awoonor-Williams, Moses

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of official statistics, poverty has halved in Ghana over the period from 1991 to 2005. Our objective in this paper is to assess how far this fall was linked to the creation of better paying jobs and the increase in education. We find that earnings rose rapidly in the period from 1998 to 2005, by 64% for men and by 55% for women. While…

  10. Ghana. Part One-Class Materials. Development Studies No. 1, Third Impression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paula; Bourne, Fay

    Background readings and classroom materials dealing with Ghana for use with secondary and college students are provided in this publication. The major historical, social, geographical, and political aspects which have contributed to the present day development of Ghana are examined. The background readings for teachers which comprise section one…

  11. What Is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Christopher

    This paper reports on a study that analyzed the links between child labor and poor school performance. Using data gathered in Ghana in recent years through the administration of tests, the study measured reading achievement and mathematics achievement to about half of the individuals surveyed as part of the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The paper…

  12. Expectations and Integration of Early Career Academics into the Teaching Career: Empirical Evidence from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabi, Goski; Abdulai, Munkaila

    2016-01-01

    The preparation and induction of Early Career Academics (ECAs) in Ghana has been investigated using a qualitative study that employed an enumerative-ethnographic approach. The study combined reviews of policy documents, interviews of 50 Deans and Heads of Departments and surveys of ECAs in five purposively selected universities in Ghana to capture…

  13. Achieving Quality Education in Ghana: The Spotlight on Primary Education within the Kumasi Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye-Amponsah, Abraham; Enninful, Ebenezer Kofi; Anin, Emmanuel Kwabena; Vanderpuye, Patience

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ghana being a member of the United Nations, committed to the Universal Primary Education initiative in 2000 and has since implemented series of educational reforms to meet the target for the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2. Despite the numerous government interventions to achieve the MDG 2, many children in Ghana have been denied…

  14. Teachers' Support Strategies for Lower Achievers in Basic School in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayford, Samuel; Avoke, Selete

    2011-01-01

    Students in Basic schools in Ghana manifest diverse learning needs, which require innovative approaches to enable them to succeed in learning activities. The paper is part of a larger study conducted in Ghana, which used a range of data collecting methods including questionnaires, interviews with teachers and focus groups of below average…

  15. The Determination of Exclusion: Evidence from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys 1991-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolleston, Caine

    2009-01-01

    This article examines access to and exclusion from basic education in Ghana over the period 1991-2006, using data derived from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys. It uses the CREATE "zones of exclusion" model to explore schooling access outcomes within the framework of the household production function. Empirical findings indicate that…

  16. Education Reform for the Expansion of Mother-Tongue Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts,…

  17. The Northeast Ghana Savannah Project--A Case Study in Project Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlock, W. Gerald; Johnson, Jack D.

    This report examines a project design for land degradation problems in the northern and upper regions of Ghana. The project was jointly sponsored by the Ghana Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and the Agency for International Development. The council is responsible for coordinating the activities of 10 independent research institutes.…

  18. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  19. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  20. Religious Differences in Modernization of the Family: Family Demographics Trends in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua

    2011-01-01

    This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…

  1. School Feeding and Educational Access in Rural Ghana: Is Poor Targeting and Delivery Limiting Impact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essuman, Ato; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to address social imbalances and equity in Ghana's education delivery and to achieve her Education for All (EFA) agenda, some pro-poor programmes have been introduced. Among these is the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) that aims among others, at providing safety nets for the poor, increasing school enrolment in addition to…

  2. The Internationalisation Agenda: A Critical Examination of Internationalisation Strategies in Public Universities in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyamera, Gifty Oforiwaa

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various strategies have been adopted and adapted by universities in Ghana to re/position themselves in the international arena. Utilising postcolonial and neoliberal theories, this paper critically examines the internationalisation strategies of three public universities in Ghana. Although all the universities have adopted strategies to…

  3. Access to English Language Acquisition in Ghana Schools for the Deaf: Are the Deaf Students Handicapped?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obosu, Gideon Kwesi; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia; Deku, Prosper

    2016-01-01

    This paper primarily discusses the challenges deaf students in Ghana are likely to grapple with as they access education provided for them in English language. The arguments discussed in this paper are supported by findings from a multiple site case study of five Schools for the Deaf purposively sampled from four regions of Ghana. Observations…

  4. Health implications of partner violence against women in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Issahaku, Paul Alhassan

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the health implications of partner violence against women in Ghana using data from northern Ghana. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 443 women contacted at health facilities in the northern region. Results indicate that 7 out of 10 women have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) within the past 12 months; 62% had experienced psychological violence, 29% had experienced physical violence, and 34% had experienced sexual violence. Participants reported health problems associated with violence, including injury, thoughts of suicide, sleep disruption, and fear of partner (FP). Logistic regression analyses showed that women who reported physical, psychological, and sexual violence, respectively, had 3.94 times, 10.50 times, and 2.21 times the odds of reporting thoughts of suicide, whereas the odds that women who reported physical, psychological, and sexual violence would report sleep disruption were 4.82 times higher, 4.44 times higher, and 2.50 times higher, respectively. However, only physical and psychological violence predicted the odds of FP. This study shows that IPV is a health risk factor among women in Ghana. Measures that should be designed to improve the health of women experiencing marital violence are suggested.

  5. Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables in Ghana: a review.

    PubMed

    Donkor, Augustine; Osei-Fosu, Paul; Dubey, Brajesh; Kingsford-Adaboh, Robert; Ziwu, Cephas; Asante, Isaac

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are known to improve agriculture yield considerably leading to an increase in its application over the years. The use of pesticides has shown varying detrimental effects in humans as well as the environment. Presently, enough evidence is available to suggest their misuse and overuse in the last few decades in most developing nations primarily due to lack of education, endangering the lives of farmers as well as the entire population and environment. However, there is paucity of data especially over long durations in Ghana resulting in the absence of effective monitoring programs regarding pesticide application and subsequent contamination in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, this review discusses comprehensively pesticide type and use, importation, presence in fruits and vegetables, human exposure, and poisoning in Ghana. This is to alert the scientific community in Ghana of the need to further research into the potential implications of pesticide residues in food commodities in order to generate a comprehensive and reliable database which is key in drafting policies simultaneous with food regulation, suitable monitoring initiatives, assessment, and education to minimize their effects thereon.

  6. Transcriptional regulation of genes encoding the selenium-free [NiFe]-hydrogenases in the archaeon Methanococcus voltae involves positive and negative control elements.

    PubMed Central

    Noll, I; Müller, S; Klein, A

    1999-01-01

    Methanococcus voltae harbors genetic information for two pairs of homologous [NiFe]-hydrogenases. Two of the enzymes contain selenocysteine, while the other two gene groups encode apparent isoenzymes that carry cysteinyl residues in the homologous positions. The genes coding for the selenium-free enzymes, frc and vhc, are expressed only under selenium limitation. They are transcribed out of a common intergenic region. A series of deletions made in the intergenic region localized a common negative regulatory element for the vhc and frc promoters as well as two activator elements that are specific for each of the two transcription units. Repeated sequences, partially overlapping the frc promoter, were also detected. Mutations in these repeated heptanucleotide sequences led to a weak induction of a reporter gene under the control of the frc promoters in the presence of selenium. This result suggests that the heptamer repeats contribute to the negative regulation of the frc transcription unit. PMID:10430564

  7. [Human activities, hydro-agricultural management and urinary schistosomiasis. Methodological approach and results (a preliminary study in Upper-Volta)].

    PubMed

    Le Bras, M; Faucher, P; Giap, G; Meric, D; Commenges, D; Villenave, D; Camara, S; Gatheron, C; Appriou, M

    1982-01-01

    In the schistosomiasis endemic sub-sahelian region, a study of the prevalence of the disease was carried out on three different areas: the highest was around a small river, the lowest in the hydro-agricultural management region, mean prevalence was noted around a natural lake. Human activities have been classified with regards to the areas of transmission. Activity is closely linked to prevalence. For the populations, symptoms of urinary schistosomiasis (Rudzenga) constitute a real disease, traditional healers are the masters of earth (Tengsoba), water has hardly any importance in transmission.

  8. Psychological distress in Ghana: associations with employment and lost productivity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Mental health disorders account for 13% of the global burden of disease, a burden that low-income countries are generally ill-equipped to handle. Research evaluating the association between mental health and employment in low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is limited. We address this gap by examining the association between employment and psychological distress. Methods We analyzed data from the Ghana Socioeconomic Panel Survey using logistic regression (N = 5,391 adults). In multivariable analysis, we estimated the association between employment status and psychological distress, adjusted for covariates. We calculated lost productivity from unemployment and from excess absence from work that respondents reported was because of their feelings of psychological distress. Findings Approximately 21% of adults surveyed had moderate or severe psychological distress. Increased psychological distress was associated with increased odds of being unemployed. Men and women with moderate versus mild or no psychological distress had more than twice the odds of being unemployed. The association of severe versus mild or no distress with unemployment differed significantly by sex (P-value for interaction 0.004). Among men, the adjusted OR was 12.4 (95% CI: 7.2, 21.3), whereas the association was much smaller for women (adjusted OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 6.0). Extrapolating these figures to the country, the lost productivity associated with moderate or severe distress translates to approximately 7% of the gross domestic product of Ghana. Conclusions Psychological distress is strongly associated with unemployment in Ghana. The findings underscore the importance of addressing mental health issues, particularly in low-income countries. PMID:23497536

  9. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    PubMed

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures.

  10. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adokiya, Martin N.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers) in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation) was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015) were collated from each district. Results In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons), inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47) of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains a neglected public

  11. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    PubMed

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods.

  12. Report on the feasibility study for improving electric motor service centers in Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Jallouk, P.A.; Staunton, R.H.

    1999-12-10

    On March 3 and 4, 1998, a visit was made to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by two officials from Ghana: Mr. I.K. Mintah, Acting Executive Director, Technical Wing, Ministry of Mines and Energy (MOME) and Dr. A.K. Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Coordinator, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program, MOME. As a result of this visit, Dr. John S. Hsu of ORNL was invited by MOME to visit the Republic of Ghana in order to study the feasibility of improving electric motor service centers in Ghana.

  13. The state of information and communication technology and health informatics in ghana.

    PubMed

    Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions.

  14. The State of Information and Communication Technology and Health Informatics in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions. PMID:23569633

  15. Groundwater Exploration for Rural Communities in Ghana, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    Exploration for potable water in developing countries continues to be a major activity, as there are more than one billion people without access to safe drinking water. Exploration for groundwater becomes more critical in regions where groundwater movement and occurrence is controlled by secondary features such as fractures and faults. Drilling success rates in such geological settings are generally very low, but can be improved by integrating geological, hydrogeological, aerial photo interpretation with land-based geophysical technology in the selection of drilling sites. To help alleviate water supply problems in West Africa, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and other donors, since 1990, have funded the World Vision Ghana Rural Water Project (GRWP) to drill wells for potable water supplies in the Greater Afram Plains (GAP) of Ghana. During the first two years of the program, drilling success rates using traditional methods ranged from 35 to 80 percent, depending on the area. The average drilling success rate for the program was approximately 50 percent. In an effort to increase the efficiency of drilling operations, the Desert Research Institute evaluated and developed techniques for application to well-siting strategies in the GAP area of Ghana. A critical project element was developing technical capabilities of in-country staff to independently implement the new strategies. Simple cost-benefit relationships were then used to evaluate the economic advantages of developing water resources using advanced siting methods. The application of advanced methods in the GAP area reveal an increase of 10 to 15 percent in the success rate over traditional methods. Aerial photography has been found to be the most useful of the imagery products covering the GAP area. An effective approach to geophysical exploration for groundwater has been the combined use of EM and resistivity methods. Economic analyses showed that the use of advanced methods is cost-effective when success

  16. Quality of antenatal and childbirth care in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Duysburgh, E; Williams, A; Williams, J; Loukanova, S; Temmerman, M

    2014-09-01

    The QUALMAT research project aims to improve maternal and newborn health by improving the quality of antenatal and childbirth care provided in primary healthcare facilities. Within the frame of this project, a comprehensive quality assessment took place in selected health centres in northern Ghana. The results of this assessment showed that overall quality of routine antenatal and childbirth care was satisfactory, although some critical gaps were identified. Counselling and health education practices need to be improved; laboratory investigations are often not performed; examination and monitoring of mother and newborn during childbirth are inadequate; partographs are often not used and poorly completed; and equipment to provide assisted vaginal deliveries was absent.

  17. Intimate partner violence among mothers of sick newborns in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Spangenberg, Kathryn; Wobil, Priscilla; Betts, Cassandra L.; Wiesner, Theodore F.; Gold, Katherine J.

    2016-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health problem estimated to affect 15–71% of women worldwide. We sought to elicit IPV risks among mothers of sick newborns in Ghana. As part of a broader study on postpartum depression, we conducted semi-structured surveys of 153 women in a mother-baby unit, assessing demographics, depression, social support, and IPV with the present partner. 46% of mothers reported some form of violence, mostly emotional (34%), followed by physical (17%) and sexual (15%). The study highlights the frequency of perinatal IPV and the associated risk factors of depression and poor social support. PMID:25864483

  18. Neural tube defects at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Anyebuno, M; Amofa, G; Peprah, S; Affram, A

    1993-09-01

    This study involved a retrospective analysis of 19094 delivery records of all infants born at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana, between January 1991 to December 1992. During this two year period, the prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) was 1.15/1000 births. Anterior neural tube defects (anencephaly) accounted for 73% and posterior neural tube defects (spina bifida) accounted for 27% of all cases of NTDs. We conclude that NTDs occurs commonly in our subregion. Current available data strongly indicate that periconception folic acid supplementation significantly reduces the prevalence of NTDs. Some of this data is discussed. We strongly recommend preconception folate supplementation in our sub-region.

  19. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  20. Analysis of nursing education in Ghana: Priorities for scaling-up the nursing workforce.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sue Anne; Rominski, Sarah; Bam, Victoria; Donkor, Ernestina; Lori, Jody

    2013-06-01

    In this cross-sectional study, the strengths, challenges and current status of baccalaureate nursing education in Ghana were described using a descriptive design. The World Health Organization Global Standards for the Initial Education of Nurses and Midwives were used as the organizing framework, with baseline data on the status of nursing education from two state-funded universities in Ghana presented. A serious shortage of qualified faculty was identified, along with the need for significant upgrading to the existing infrastructure. Additionally, the number of qualified applicants far exceeds the available training slots. Faculty and infrastructure shortages are common issues in nursing education and workforce expansion; however, in low-resource countries, such as Ghana, these issues are compounded by high rates of preventable disease and injury. An understanding of the strengths and challenges of nursing education in Ghana can inform the development of strategies for nursing workforce expansion for other low-resource countries.

  1. Speaking the Unspeakable: Discursive Strategies To Express Language Attitudes in Legon (Ghana) Graffiti.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Samuel Gyasi

    2000-01-01

    Examines how language attitudes are expressed in Legon, Ghana, a multilingual society. Focuses on the graffiti in male lavatories, which offers an interesting glimpse of some of the intergroup tensions existing within Ghanian society. (Author/VWL)

  2. Public university entry in Ghana: Is it equitable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

    2013-06-01

    Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the authors of this paper carried out a binary logistic regression analysis. Individual data were collected from 1,129 (614 male and 515 female) final year senior high school (SHS) students for the 2009 cohort. The authors measured student, father and mother characteristics likely to influence admission to a public university. The results show that the major predictors of public university entry are students' academic ability, quality of SHS attended and number of siblings. This seems to suggest that there is a significant bias in the selection of students from different socio-economic groups for admission to highly subsidised public universities. The implication is that public financing of university education in Ghana may not be equitable.

  3. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. PMID:26516882

  4. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-10-27

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  5. Under-reporting of road traffic crash data in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Salifu, Mohammed; Ackaah, Williams

    2012-01-01

    Having reliable estimates of the shortfalls in road traffic crash data is an important prerequisite for setting more realistic targets for crash/casualty reduction programmes and for a better appreciation of the socio-economic significance of road traffic crashes. This study was carried out to establish realistic estimates of the overall shortfall (under-reporting) in the official crash statistics in Ghana over an eight-year period (1997-2004). Surveys were conducted at hospitals and among drivers to generate relevant alternative data which were then matched against records in police crash data files and the official database. Overall shortfalls came from two sources, namely, 'non-reporting' and 'under-recording'. The results show that the level of non-reporting varied significantly with the severity of the crash from about 57% for property damage crashes through 8% for serious injury crashes to 0% for fatal crashes. Crashes involving cyclists and motorcyclists were also substantially non-reported. Under-recording on the other hand declined significantly over the period from an average of 37% in 1997-1998 to 27% in 2003-2004. Thus, the official statistics of road traffic crashes in Ghana are subject to significant shortfalls that need to be accounted for. Correction factors have therefore been suggested for adjusting the official data.

  6. Perceived impact of Ghana's conditional cash transfer on child health.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer

    2016-03-01

    A plethora of studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that orphaned and vulnerable children are exposed to adverse health, education and other social outcomes. Across diverse settings, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes have been successful in improving health outcomes amongst vulnerable children. This study explored the pathways of CCTs' impact on the health of orphans and vulnerable children in rural Ghana. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of CCTs, the programme impact theory was used to conceptualize CCTs' pathways of impact on child health. A qualitative descriptive exploratory approach was used for this study. This study drew on the perspectives of 18 caregivers, 4 community leaders and 3 programme implementers from two rural districts in Ghana. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with the participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts to pull together core themes running through the entire data set. Five organizing themes emerged from the interview transcripts: improved child nutrition, health service utilization, poverty reduction and social transformation, improved education and improved emotional health and well-being demonstrating the pathways through which CCTs work to improve child health. The results indicated that CCTs offer a valuable social protection instrument for improving the health of orphans and vulnerable children by addressing the social determinants of child health such as nutrition, access to health care, child poverty and education.

  7. Modelling of fire count data: fire disaster risk in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boadi, Caleb; Harvey, Simon K; Gyeke-Dako, Agyapomaa

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic dynamics involved in ecological count data require distribution fitting procedures to model and make informed judgments. The study provides empirical research, focused on the provision of an early warning system and a spatial graph that can detect societal fire risks. It offers an opportunity for communities, organizations, risk managers, actuaries and governments to be aware of, and understand fire risks, so that they will increase the direct tackling of the threats posed by fire. Statistical distribution fitting method that best helps identify the stochastic dynamics of fire count data is used. The aim is to provide a fire-prediction model and fire spatial graph for observed fire count data. An empirical probability distribution model is fitted to the fire count data and compared to the theoretical probability distribution of the stochastic process of fire count data. The distribution fitted to the fire frequency count data helps identify the class of models that are exhibited by the fire and provides time leading decisions. The research suggests that fire frequency and loss (fire fatalities) count data in Ghana are best modelled with a Negative Binomial Distribution. The spatial map of observed fire frequency and fatality measured over 5 years (2007-2011) offers in this study a first regional assessment of fire frequency and fire fatality in Ghana.

  8. Lakes Ecosystem Services Online

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...

  9. National Lakes Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Lakes Assessment is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's lakes. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  10. Lake Huron LAMPs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The approach in Lake Huron differs from the Lakewide Management Plans of the other Great Lakes: no formal binational designation of lakewide beneficial use impairments, nor extensive lakewide modeling of chemical loadings

  11. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  12. The Great Lakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. The U.S. and Canada work together to restore and protect the environment in the Great Lakes Basin. Top issues include contaminated sediments, water quality and invasive species.

  13. About Lake Tahoe

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the Lake Tahoe watershed, EPA's protection efforts, water quality issues, effects of climate, change, Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load TMDL), EPA-sponsored projects, list of partner agencies.

  14. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  15. Progressivity of health care financing and incidence of service benefits in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Akazili, James; Garshong, Bertha; Aikins, Moses; Gyapong, John; McIntyre, Di

    2012-03-01

    The National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme was introduced in Ghana in 2004 as a pro-poor financing strategy aimed at removing financial barriers to health care and protecting all citizens from catastrophic health expenditures, which currently arise due to user fees and other direct payments. A comprehensive assessment of the financing and benefit incidence of health services in Ghana was undertaken. These analyses drew on secondary data from the Ghana Living Standards Survey (2005/2006) and from an additional household survey which collected data in 2008 in six districts covering the three main ecological zones of Ghana. Findings show that Ghana's health care financing system is progressive, driven largely by the progressivity of taxes. The national health insurance levy (which is part of VAT) is mildly progressive while NHI contributions by the informal sector are regressive. The distribution of total benefits from both public and private health services is pro-rich. However, public sector district-level hospital inpatient care is pro-poor and benefits of primary-level health care services are relatively evenly distributed. For Ghana to attain an equitable health system and fully achieve universal coverage, it must ensure that the poor, most of whom are not currently covered by the NHI, are financially protected, and it must address the many access barriers to health care.

  16. A comparative study of Shankhapushpyadi Ghana Vati and Sarpagandhadi Ghana Vati in the management of “Essential Hypertension”

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jyoti; Joshi, Nayan P.; Pandya, Dilip M.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem of this era. Hypertension related morbidity and mortality rates have dramatically increased over the last 25 years. Stressful life style is one of the leading causes of Hypertension. The treatment of hypertension remains a primary goal in the effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, stroke and kidney disease. In this study, 20 patients were randomly divided in two groups and treated along with restricted diet pattern for 8 weeks. Patients of Group A received poly-herbal compound formulation Shankhapushpyadi Ghana Vati (2gm/day). It was found that, relief in overall symptoms (63.93%) elevated blood pressure (8.91% in Systolic blood pressure and 8.44% in diastolic blood pressure). In group-B, with Sarpagandhadi Ghana Vati (2gm/day) the percent relief was better on elevated blood pressure (12.00% in Systolic blood pressure and 11.02% in diastolic blood pressure). When data is subjected in between both the groups, it is found that, both drugs are equally effective. PMID:23049185

  17. A Killer Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.…

  18. Lake Layers: Stratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Chris; And Others

    This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on lake stratification and water quality. In the activities students model the seasonal temperature changes that occur in temperate lakes and observe the resulting stratification of lake waters. Students…

  19. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  20. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  1. Lake Effects: The Lake Superior Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Tom; And Others

    This curriculum guide was launched in response to a need for Lake Superior-specific educational materials and contains lessons and activities that can be used to teach about Lake Superior. The lessons in this book are divided into four sections. Each of the first three sections has a background section that provides basic information about Lake…

  2. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta). Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, J.E.; Roberts, A.F.

    1985-03-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and water pump was installed in the remote African village of Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in early 1979. The presence reports covers the second two years of operation from April 1981 through June 1983. During this time, the grain mill and water pump were operational 96 and 88 percent of the time respectively, and the PV system generated sufficient electricity to enable the grinding of about 111 metric tons of finely ground flow and the pumping of over 5000 cm sq of water from the 10 m deep well. The report includes a description of the current configuration of the system, a review of system performance, a discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the system on the villagers and a summary of results and conclusions covering the entire four-year period.

  3. Infection levels of proteocephalidean cestodes in Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) of the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil, relative to host body weight and gender.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Pereira, J; de Chambrier, A; Mouriño, J L P

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between infection by proteocephalid cestodes and the sex and weight classes of tucunaré (Cichla piquiti) captured between August 1999 and June 2001 in the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 96 fish, 75.9 ± 9.3% males and 88.9 ± 6.4% females, were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, with total mean intensities of 76.6 ± 23.9 and 145.2 ± 36.7, respectively, during this period. In the majority of the months analysed, males showed 71.4-100% prevalence of parasitism and females 80-100%. Although there was no significant difference, females showed a higher mean intensity of infection (145.2 ± 36.7) than males (76.6 ± 23.9). Fish weighing 300-800 g showed a higher mean abundance of parasites (P < 0.05) compared with the biggest specimens weighing 801-2750 g. Analysing both males and females together, the greatest mean intensities of infection were found in October and December (P < 0.05) independent of the year, which coincides with the months of highest rainfall. These results show that fish living in reservoirs may be more susceptible to intermediate hosts than those that live in rivers.

  4. Optical and thermoluminescence dating of Middle Stone Age and Kintampo bearing sediments at Birimi, a multi-component archaeological site in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quickert, Nicole A.; Godfrey-Smith, Dorothy I.; Casey, Joanna L.

    2003-05-01

    We report the first luminescence ages for the archeological and geological sediments forming the substrate of the Birimi archaeological site in the Northern Region of Ghana. The site's significance rests on the fact that it contains a rich collection of artifact assemblages representative of three distinct cultures, and that, on the basis of artifact typology, the earliest assemblage is diagnostic of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) . In situ occurrences of MSA artifacts are found at over 1 m below today's surface. They are overlain by a ceramic-rich complex of a sedentary or semi-sendentary Later Stone Age culture known as the Kintampo. The western half of the site is dominated by the industrial remains of Iron Age smelting activity. Elemental, mineralogical, and sedimentological analysis of the cultural and sub-cultural sedimentary horizons at the site revealed at least three distinct lithostratigraphic units. The quartz sediments are derived from the sandstone of the Gambaga escarpment, mass wasted and accreted fluvially at a rate of 3.2 cm/ka, forming a wide terrace at Birimi. Silts and finer fractions derive from windblown dust, likely from White Volta River and granitic sources to the north. Soil forming processes and wide fluctuations in moisture have progressively reduced the sediments at depth to the resistant quartz and kaolinite, with rich iron oxide coatings, and created two ironstone horizons composed of goethite-cemented quartz nodules. Multiple aliquot green-light stimulated optical ages for 125-150 μm quartz grains yielded ages of 23.6±2.9 and 40.8±11.8 ka for the MSA-bearing sediments, and 58.4±15.3 ka for the base of the terrace. Radiocarbon ages on charcoal from Kintampo-bearing units are 3.36-3.83 ka cal BP, and are supported by thermoluminescence (TL) ages on pottery sherds and burnt house daub fragments of this cultural complex. A 0.4 ka age on sediment from the site's surface confirms that the quartz zeroes well when exposed to natural light

  5. Poor mental health in Ghana: who is at risk?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor mental health is a leading cause of disability worldwide with considerable negative impacts, particularly in low-income countries. Nevertheless, empirical evidence on its national prevalence in low-income countries, particularly in Africa, is limited. Additionally, researchers and policy makers are now calling for empirical investigations of the association between empowerment and poor mental health among women. We therefore sought to estimate the national prevalence of poor mental health in Ghana, explore its correlates on a national level, and examine associations between empowerment and poor mental health among women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in Ghana in 2009–2010. Interviews were conducted face-to-face with participants (N = 9,524 for overall sample; n = 3,007 for women in relationships). We used the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) to measure psychological distress and assessed women’s attitudes about their roles in decision-making, attitudes towards intimate partner violence, partner control, and partner abuse. We used weighted multivariable multinomial regression models to determine the factors independently associated with experiencing psychological distress for our overall sample and for women in relationships. Results Overall, 18.7% of the sample reported either moderate (11.7%) or severe (7.0%) psychological distress. The prevalence of psychological distress was higher among women than men. Overall, the prevalence of psychological distress differed by gender, marital status, education, wealth, region, health and religion, but not by age or urban/rural location. Women who reported having experienced physical abuse, increased partner control, and who were more accepting of women’s disempowerment had greater likelihoods of psychological distress (P-values < 0.05). Conclusions Psychological distress is substantial among both men and

  6. Hazardous crater lakes studied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusakabe, Minoru

    Crater lakes usually sit on top of volcanic conduits and act as condensers of magmatic vapor. Studies of crater lakes can therefore provide information on both deep magmatic activity and variations in the degassing state of a shallow magmatic body. The Lake Nyos gas disaster of August 1986 and a similar event in August 1984 at Lake Monoun, both in Cameroon, resulted from the accumulation of magmatic CO2 in the bottom layers of the lakes. Geochemical monitoring of crater lakes is a promising tool for forecasting not only limnic but also volcanic eruptions. Acid-mineralized waters formed by condensation of hot magmatic volatiles in crater lakes are thought to bear some resemblance to hydrothermal fluids acting in the genesis of acid-sulfate alteration and Au-Cu-Ag mineralization of volcanic-hosted precious metal deposits.

  7. Integrated perspectives on geological and biological dynamics in ancient Lake Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, B.; Wilke, T.; Francke, A.; Leicher, N.; Krastel, S.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Sadori, L.; Just, J.; Levkov, Z.; Wonik, T.; Vogel, H.; Wagner-Cremer, F.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Ohrid on the Balkan Peninsula is, along with lakes Baikal and Elgygytgyn in Russia and Lake Bosumtwi in Ghana, one of the very few lakes in the world that provides a continuous and high resolution record of environmental change of >1 Ma. With >300 endemic taxa, Lake Ohrid has the fourth highest degree of endemism in the world, being exceeded only by lakes Baikal, Tanganyika and Malawi. The combination of its long existence and high endemism makes Lake Ohrid a unique target to study the drivers of speciation and endemism. For this purpose, a 569 m long sediment sequence was recovered from the central part of the lake in spring 2013 within the scope of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project. Here, we present the results to date of analysis of the upper 248 m of this sequence, which covers the last ca. 640 ka according to an age model based on tephrostratigraphy as well as tuning of in situ physical and biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters and to the global benthic isotope stack. The sedimentological, physical, and geochemical data from the sediment sequence indicate changes in primary productivity, water column stratification, and water depth of the lake, and in weathering and erosion processes in the catchment. These changes can be clearly correlated with the intensity of glacial and interglacial periods as well as stadials and interstadials. However, paleontological and molecular clock analyses indicate that these changes and also the tephra deposition from eruptions of Italian volcanoes apparently did not lead to significant extinction events in the endemic species community. The lack of such catastrophic extinction events is probably due to the buffering capacity of the deep lake, possibly enhanced by the continuous existence of subaquatic karst springs with relatively stable habitats in the surroundings. This would enable the

  8. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Payne, N. Robert; Johnson, James E.; Bowen, Charles; Ebener, Mark P.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round of lampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from Michigan waters in 1929-1932. Sixty-eight percent of this catch occurred in northern waters (MH-1) and most of the rest (15%) was from remote reefs in the middle of the main basin. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) increased in the early 1980s in the main basin and depressed spawning populations of lake trout. This increase was especially severe in northern waters and appeared to be associated with untreated populations in the St. Marys River. Excessive commercial fishing stemming from unresolved treaty rights also contributed to loss of spawning fish in northern Michigan waters. Seneca-strain lake trout did not appear to be attacked by sea lampreys until they reached a size > 532 mm. At sizes > 632 mm, Seneca trout were 40-fold more abundant than the Marquette strain in matched-planting experiments. Natural reproduction past the fry stage has occurred in Thunder Bay and South Bay, but prospects for self-sustaining populations of lake trout in the main basin are poor because sea lampreys are too abundant, only one side of the basin is stocked, and stocking is deferred to allow commercial gillnetting in areas where most of the spawning occurred historically. Backcross lake trout, a lake trout x splake (s. Fontinalis x s. Namaycush) hybrid, did not reproduce in Georgian Bay, but this genotype is being replaced with pure-strain lake trout, whose early performance appears promising.

  9. Tropheryma whipplei in children with diarrhoea in rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Vinnemeier, C D; Klupp, E M; Krumkamp, R; Rolling, T; Fischer, N; Owusu-Dabo, E; Addo, M M; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Käsmaier, J; Aepfelbacher, M; Cramer, J P; May, J; Tannich, E

    2016-01-01

    Tropheryma whipplei has been hypothesized to be able to cause diarrhoea, but data from young children are scarce. In this hospital-based case-control study 534 stool samples of children aged between 2 months and 15 years from rural Ghana were analysed for the presence of T. whipplei. Overall stool prevalence of T. whipplei was high (27.5%). Although there was no difference in T. whipplei carriage overall between cases and controls, cases aged between 0 and 12 months carried T. whipplei in their stool twice as often as controls without diarrhoea. The results from this study may support the hypothesis that T. whipplei can cause diarrhoea in first-time infection.

  10. Utilization of obstetric services in Ghana between 1999 and 2003.

    PubMed

    Adanu, Richard M K

    2010-09-01

    Analysis of the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey shows that even though over 90% of pregnant women attend antenatal care in health institutions, only 43% deliver in the health institutions. The quality of antenatal care received is also lower than is expected for standard obstetric care. The national caesarean section rate of 3.7% reflects inadequate obstetric coverage. There is a need for continued education of health workers to improve the quality of antenatal care. The Ghanaian health system needs to consider how to improve obstetric coverage by skilled attendants and to study the reasons for inadequate use of delivery services in order to be able to achieve the target for maternal health set in the Millennium Development Goals.

  11. Groundwater resources of the Birim basin in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asomaning, G.

    1992-11-01

    An attempt to assess ground water resources of a medium size (4775 km 2) drainage basin located on the Crystalline Complex in southern Ghana is presented. Mean annual rainfall 1578 mm, total river discharge 1,886,588 064 m 3 a -1, surface runoff 1,320,611,645 m 3 a -1, base flow 565,976,419 m 3 a -1, were determined from 13 meteorological and 1 river gauging stations located within the basin. From these data, the total runoff coefficient was 36%, surface runoff coefficient was 25% and the base flow coefficient was 11%. Then, Permanent Water Reserve, Qt = 5,333.20 × 106 m 3 and Recoverable Water Reserve, 2,133.28 × 10 6 m 3 a -1 for the aquifer of the basement complex aquifer of the basin were calculated from 42 boreholes.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMERGENCY NURSING TRAINING CURRICULUM IN GHANA

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Sue Anne; Oteng, Rockefeller; Redman, Richard; Lapham, Jeremy; Bam, Victoria; Dzomecku, Veronica; Yakubu, Jamila; Tagoe, Nadia; Donkor, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The formal provision of emergency health care is a developing specialty in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana. While emergency medicine training programs for physicians are on the rise, there are few established training programs for emergency nurses. The results of a unique collaboration are described between a university in the United States, a Ghanaian university and a Ghanaian teaching hospital that has developed an emergency nursing diploma program. The expected outcomes of this training program include: a) an innovative, interdisciplinary, team-based clinical training model b) a unique and low-resource emergency nursing curriculum and c) a comprehensive and sustainable training program to increase in-country retention of nurses. PMID:24631161

  13. The development of community water supplies in Ghana*

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, W. R. W.

    1962-01-01

    Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives. PMID:13892347

  14. Development of an emergency nursing training curriculum in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sue Anne; Oteng, Rockefeller; Redman, Richard; Lapham, Jeremy; Bam, Victoria; Dzomecku, Veronica; Yakubu, Jamila; Tagoe, Nadia; Donkor, Peter

    2014-10-01

    The formal provision of emergency health care is a developing specialty in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana. While emergency medicine training programs for physicians are on the rise, there are few established training programs for emergency nurses. The results of a unique collaboration are described between a university in the United States, a Ghanaian university and a Ghanaian teaching hospital that has developed an emergency nursing diploma program. The expected outcomes of this training program include: (a) an innovative, interdisciplinary, team-based clinical training model, (b) a unique and low-resource emergency nursing curriculum and (c) a comprehensive and sustainable training program to increase in-country retention of nurses.

  15. International rotations during residency: spine deformity surgery in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H

    2013-05-01

    International elective rotations are becoming increasingly common in residency training programs. These experiences offer a tremendous opportunity to help patients in medically underserved nations, and can enhance training by exposing participants to pathology not often encountered in developed countries. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that international training exposure develops a broader appreciation of cultural diversity in patient care, offers personal and professional development, and teaches residents to use limited resources more efficiently, giving them a unique perspective on the ordering of tests and delivery of care when they return. This paper highlights the author's experience on a volunteer trip to Ghana that was focused on treating pediatric spinal deformity, and reviews notable international medical volunteers, and highlights the evidence supporting the benefits of international residency rotations.

  16. Diarrhoea morbidity patterns in Central Region of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Asamoah, Alexander; Ameme, Donne Kofi; Sackey, Samuel Oko; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Afari, Edwin Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diarrhoea diseases remain a major public health threat with nearly 1.7 billion cases annually worldwide occurring in all age groups. In Ghana diarrhoea kills about 14,000 children under five years annually. We therefore analysed data to determine the morbidity pattern of diarrhoea diseases in the Central Region of Ghana. Methods Health facility morbidity data was reviewed from 2008-2012. Monthly data on diarrhoeal diseases were extracted from District Health Information Management System database by sex, age group and districts. Data for bloody diarrhoea were extracted from monthly surveillance report forms. Data was analysed descriptively and expressed as frequencies and proportionate morbidity rates (pmr). Aberrations were determined using C2 threshold. Results The total cases of all morbidity from 2008 to 2012 were 7,642,431. Diarrhoea diseases formed 4% (306854/7642431) of total morbidity. Children under one year (pmr= 8.4%) and males (pmr= 4.4%) were the most affected. Bloody diarrhea formed 2.2% (6835/306854) of diarrhoea cases with 0.7 %(45/6835) laboratory confirmed. Diarrhoea cases peaked from January to March throughout the study period with highest frequency 9.3% (28511/306854) in June. The mean monthly distribution of diarrhoea cases was 25571.17±1389.91. Poorest districts had significantly lower odds of getting bloody diarrhoea than non-poorest districts OR = 0.73 (95%CI = 0.70-0.77). Conclusion Diarrhoea characterized 4% of total morbidity presenting at health facilities in the region from 2008 to 2012. The diarrhoea morbidity rate decreased with increased age. Diarrhoea was higher among non poorest districts. The rate was highest in the month of June over the five year period. Bloody diarrhoea cases were mostly untested. We recommended that stool samples should be taken for laboratory testing for bloody diarrhoea cases. PMID:28149442

  17. A survey on depression among infertile women in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The desire of many young women to become parents may be influenced by the premium placed on children by society. In Africa, children are highly valued for social, cultural and economic reasons. Infertile and childless women in Africa are therefore confronted with a series of societal discrimination and stigmatization which may lead to psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression. Even though some research has been done on the prevalence of infertility in Ghana, very little is known about the psychological impact of childlessness among infertile women. The present study aimed to examine prevalence and severity of depression in relation to age, type of infertility and duration of infertility in Ghanaian infertile women. Methods A total of 100 infertile women who met the selection criteria and had agreed to participate in the study were interviewed using the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire from December 2012 to April 2013 at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale/Ghana. Data concerning socio-demographic characteristics such as age, monthly income, duration of infertility, marital status, educational level, number of previous conception, number of previous children, religion, as well as occupation of the respondents were recorded. Results The prevalence of depression among the women was 62.0% with the level of depression showing a significant positive correlation with age of the women and the duration of infertility. The level of depression was significantly higher among subjects with low or no formal education and among the unemployed. Women with primary infertility also presented with high depression scores as measured by BDI. Conclusions In conclusion, the prevalence of depression among the infertile women is high, especially among infertile women age 26 and above, those who are less educated, those with primary infertility, as well as those who have been diagnosed as infertile for more than 3 years. Interventions to decrease and prevent

  18. The politics of tuberculosis and HIV service integration in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Fosuah Amo, Hannah; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi

    2014-09-01

    The need to integrate TB/HIV control programmes has become critical due to the comorbidity regarding these diseases and the need to optimise the use of resources. In developing countries such as Ghana, where public health interventions depend on donor funds, the integration of the two programmes has become more urgent. This paper explores stakeholders' views on the integration of TB/HIV control programmes in Ghana within the remits of contingency theory. With 31 purposively selected informants from four regions, semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted between March and May 2012, and the data collected were analysed using the inductive approach. The results showed both support for and opposition to integration, as well as some of the avoidable challenges inherent in combining TB/HIV control. While those who supported integration based their arguments on clinical synergies and the need to promote the efficient use of resources, those who opposed integration cited the potential increase in workload, the clinical complications associated with joint management, the potential for a leadership crisis, and the "smaller the better" propositions to support their stance. Although a policy on TB/HIV integration exists, inadequate 'political will' from the top management of both programmes has trickled down to lower levels, which has stifled progress towards the comprehensive management of TB/HIV and particularly leading to weak data collection and management structures and unsatisfactory administration of co-trimoxazole for co-infected patients. It is our view that the leadership of both programmes show an increased commitment to protocols involving the integration of TB/HIV, followed by a commitment to addressing the 'fears' of frontline service providers to encourage confidence in the process of service integration.

  19. Knowledge and uses of African pangolins as a source of traditional medicine in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana's Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable.

  20. Salting our freshwater lakes.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Hilary A; Bartlett, Sarah L; Burke, Samantha M; Doubek, Jonathan P; Krivak-Tetley, Flora E; Skaff, Nicholas K; Summers, Jamie C; Farrell, Kaitlin J; McCullough, Ian M; Morales-Williams, Ana M; Roberts, Derek C; Ouyang, Zutao; Scordo, Facundo; Hanson, Paul C; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2017-04-10

    The highest densities of lakes on Earth are in north temperate ecosystems, where increasing urbanization and associated chloride runoff can salinize freshwaters and threaten lake water quality and the many ecosystem services lakes provide. However, the extent to which lake salinity may be changing at broad spatial scales remains unknown, leading us to first identify spatial patterns and then investigate the drivers of these patterns. Significant decadal trends in lake salinization were identified using a dataset of long-term chloride concentrations from 371 North American lakes. Landscape and climate metrics calculated for each site demonstrated that impervious land cover was a strong predictor of chloride trends in Northeast and Midwest North American lakes. As little as 1% impervious land cover surrounding a lake increased the likelihood of long-term salinization. Considering that 27% of large lakes in the United States have >1% impervious land cover around their perimeters, the potential for steady and long-term salinization of these aquatic systems is high. This study predicts that many lakes will exceed the aquatic life threshold criterion for chronic chloride exposure (230 mg L(-1)), stipulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the next 50 y if current trends continue.

  1. Public Health and Education Spending in Ghana in 1992-98: Issues of Equity and Efficiency. Working Paper No. 2579.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Ye, Xiao

    This paper analyzes efficiency and equity issues in public expenditures on education and health in Ghana during the 1990s. Data were drawn from reports of the ministries of education and health and from household surveys conducted 1988-98. In the late 1990s, Ghana's public expenditures on education decreased. Basic education enrollment was…

  2. A Ghanaian Response to the Study on "Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effah, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The study on "Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: developing an Equity Scorecard" is a contribution to making higher education more socially inclusive in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings reinforce some of the policy initiatives taken in Ghana and Tanzania, and underscore the importance of widening…

  3. African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training In Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation. (Achimota, Ghana, 14 July--15 August 1975). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

    This report summarizes the African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training in Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation that was held at Achimota, Ghana, July 14-August 15 1975. Attending the seminar were 67 participants from 12 African countries, including Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland,…

  4. 9. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. In-lake Modeling Recommendation Report for Lake Champlain TMDL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes the recommended modeling approach for the in-lake modeling component of the Lake Champlain TMDL project. The report was prepared by Tetra Tech, with input from the Lake Champlain modeling workgroup. (TetraTech, 2012b)

  6. View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ridge showing spillway at photo center, view southwest - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  7. Are the Schools We HAVE the Schools We NEED in Ghana? A Contribution to the Ongoing Debate on Ghana's Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbemabiese, Padmore E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the ongoing discussion on Ghana's education reform initiatives in the light of contemporary socioeconomic constraints, and linguistic and diversity issues. The Ghanaian education system today faces inadequate financial resources (for education programs) combined with the continuous unprecedented demand…

  8. Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education in Ghana: A Symposium To Examine Current Practices and Identify Future Directions (1st, Ajumako, Central Region, Ghana, June 25-26, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    The Girls' Education Unit (GEU) of the Basic Education Division of Ghana Education Service (GES) organized this Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education (AAGE) symposium to address the issues of girls' education, to construct a comprehensive picture of what interventions related to girls' education are currently being implemented, and identify…

  9. Origins of rainbow smelt in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.

    1983-01-01

    The first rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to enter Lake Ontario were probably migrants from an anadromous strain introduced into New York's Finger Lakes. Since the upper Great Lakes were originally stocked with a landlocked strain from Green Lake, Maine, subsequent migration to Lake Ontario from Lake Erie makes Lake Ontario unique among the Great Lakes in probably having received introductions from two distinct populations.

  10. Speciation in ancient lakes.

    PubMed

    Martens, K

    1997-05-01

    About a dozen lakes in the world are up to three orders of magnitude older than most others. Lakes Tanganyika (East Africa) and Baikal (Siberia) have probably existed in some form for 12-20 million years, maybe more. Such lakes can have different origins, sizes, shapes, depths and limnologies, but, in contrast to short-lived (mostly post-glacial) lakes, they have exceptionally high faunal diversity and levels of endemicity. A multitude of and processes accounting for these explosive radiations have recently been documented, most of them based on particular groups in certain lakes, but comparative research can detect repeated patterns. No special speciafion mechanism, exclusive to ancient lakes has been demonstrated, although cases of ultra-rapid speciation have been documented. Extant diversity results not by simple accumulation, but by a complex process of immigration, speciation and extinction.

  11. Hydrology of Indiana lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perrey, Joseph Irving; Corbett, Don Melvin

    1956-01-01

    The stabilization of lake levels often requires the construction of outlet control structures. A detailed study of past lake-level elevations and other hydologic date is necessary to establish a level that can be maintained and to determine the means necessary for maintaining the established level. Detailed lake-level records for 28 lakes are included in the report, and records for over 100 other lakes data are available in the U.S. Geological Survey Office, Indianapolis, Ind. Evaporation data from the four Class A evaporation station of the U. S. Weather Bureau have been compiled in this report. A table showing the established legal lake level and related data is included.

  12. A force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis and its applications in the epidemiological evaluation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area.

    PubMed

    Remme, J; Ba, O; Dadzie, K Y; Karam, M

    1986-01-01

    A simple force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis has been developed for a study of the age-specific epidemiological trends during a period of vector control in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area (OCP). The most important factors included in the model are the longevity of an infection, the aspect of super-infection, age-specific exposure, and the intensity of transmission during the pre-control period. The aim of the study was to determine the most appropriate statistics for the epidemiological evaluation in the OCP. There was generally good agreement between the epidemiological trends, predicted by the model, and the observed trends in the prevalence and mean load of microfilariae in skin snips taken from a cohort population from 23 villages in an area with 8 years of successful vector control in the OCP. It is concluded that the epidemiological trends during the control period are not uniform but depend on the initial age and the initial endemicity level of the population. The epidemiological indices for cohorts of children, born before the start of control, will not show a decrease during the first 8 years of interruption of transmission. The prevalence is too insensitive to be useful for the evaluation in hyperendemic villages during most of the control period. The most sensitive and meaningful statistic for a comparative analysis and for the assessment of epidemiological changes is the geometric mean microfilarial load in a cohort of adults. This index, which is called the Community Microfilarial Load (CMFL), is now routinely used in the OCP. The new analytical methodology has enabled a much better appreciation of the significant epidemiological impact of 8 years of vector control in the OCP. Several related aspects of the pre- and post-control dynamics of onchocerciasis infection are also discussed and priorities are formulated for further work on applied modelling of onchocerciasis.

  13. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P.; Long, Rachel N.

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  14. What Influences Where They Give Birth? Determinants of Place of Delivery among Women in Rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Kwamena Sekyi; Adde, Kenneth Setorwu; Amu, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is a paucity of empirical literature in Ghana on rural areas and their utilisation of health facilities. The study examined the effects of the sociodemographics of rural women on place of delivery in the country. Methods. The paper made use of data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Women from rural areas who had given birth within five years prior to the survey were included in the analysis. Descriptive analyses and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Results. Wealth, maternal education, ecological zone, getting money for treatment, ethnicity, partner's education, parity, and distance to a health facility were found as the determinants of place of delivery among women in rural Ghana. Women in the richest wealth quintile were three times (OR = 3.04, 95% CI = 0.35-26.4) more likely to deliver at a health facility than the poorest women. Conclusions. It behoves the relevant stakeholders including the Ghana Health Service and the Ministry of Health to pay attention to the wealth status, maternal education, ecological zone, ethnicity, partner's education, parity, and distance in their planning regarding delivery care in rural Ghana.

  15. Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance markettransformation program design for Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

    2006-02-28

    A simple replication of developed country applianceefficiency labels and standards is unlikely to be feasible in Ghana andmany other countries in Africa. Yet by creatively modifying the developedcountry appliance efficiency market transformation model, it should bepossible to achieve dramatic energy use reductions. As was true indeveloped countries in the previous two decades, refrigeration efficiencyimprovements provide the greatest energy savings potential in theresidential electricity sector in Ghana. Although Ghana, like manyAfrican countries may impose standards on imports since Ghana does nothave manufacturing facilities for appliances in country. This approachmay hurt some consumers who patronize a very diverse market of usedappliances imported from Europe. We discuss how meeting the challenges ofthe Ghanaian market will require modification of the usual energyefficiency labeling and standards paradigm. But once a refrigeratormarket transformation is accomplished in Ghana, we estimate an averageenergy savings potential of 550 kWh/refrigerator/year, and a monetarysavings of more than $35/refrigerator/year. We discuss how this modifiedrefrigerator efficiency market transformation may occur in the Ghanaiancontext. If successful, this market transformation is likely to be anexample for many other African countries.

  16. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P; Long, Rachel N

    2015-09-17

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally.

  17. What Influences Where They Give Birth? Determinants of Place of Delivery among Women in Rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adde, Kenneth Setorwu

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is a paucity of empirical literature in Ghana on rural areas and their utilisation of health facilities. The study examined the effects of the sociodemographics of rural women on place of delivery in the country. Methods. The paper made use of data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Women from rural areas who had given birth within five years prior to the survey were included in the analysis. Descriptive analyses and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Results. Wealth, maternal education, ecological zone, getting money for treatment, ethnicity, partner's education, parity, and distance to a health facility were found as the determinants of place of delivery among women in rural Ghana. Women in the richest wealth quintile were three times (OR = 3.04, 95% CI = 0.35–26.4) more likely to deliver at a health facility than the poorest women. Conclusions. It behoves the relevant stakeholders including the Ghana Health Service and the Ministry of Health to pay attention to the wealth status, maternal education, ecological zone, ethnicity, partner's education, parity, and distance in their planning regarding delivery care in rural Ghana. PMID:28101522

  18. Geology and geochemistry of shallow drill cores from the Bosumtwi impact struture, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boamah, D.; Koeberl, C.

    2003-08-01

    The 1.07 Ma well-preserved Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana (10.5 km in diameter) formed in 2 Ga-old metamorphosed and crystalline rocks of the Birimian system. The interior of the structure is largely filled by the 8 km diameter Lake Bosumtwi, and the crater rim and region in the environs of the crater is covered by tropical rainforest, making geological studies rather difficult and restricted to road cuts and streams. In early 1999, we undertook a shallow drilling program to the north of the crater rim to determine the extent of the ejecta blanket around the crater and to obtain subsurface core samples for mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies of ejecta of the Bosumtwi impact structure. A variety of impactite lithologies are present, consisting of impact glass- rich suevite and several types of breccia: lithic breccia of single rock type, often grading into unbrecciated rock, with the rocks being shattered more or less in situ without much relative displacement (autochthonous?), and lithic polymict breccia that apparently do not contain any glassy material (allochtonous?). The suevite cores show that melt inclusions are present throughout the whole length of the cores in the form of vesicular glasses with no significant change of abundance with depth. Twenty samples from the 7 drill cores and 4 samples from recent road cuts in the structure were studied for their geochemical characteristics to accumulate a database for impact lithologies and their erosion products present at the Bosumtwi crater. Major and trace element analyses yielded compositions similar to those of the target rocks in the area (graywacke-phyllite, shale, and granite). Graywacke-phyllite and granite dikes seem to be important contributors to the compositions of the suevite and the road cut samples (fragmentary matrix), with a minor contribution of Pepiakese granite. The results also provide information about the thickness of the fallout suevite in the northern part of the

  19. David Morrison on Lake Vostok

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. David Morrison discusses the implications of research possibilities at Lake Vostok, one of the largest subglacial lakes located over two miles beneath the ice in Antarctica. The lake has been c...

  20. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  1. Lakes, Lagerstaetten, and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, E. G.; Park, L. E.

    2001-12-01

    The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method for determining species diversity changes in the terrestrial environment because of their faunal completeness. Important Konservat Lagerstaetten, such as the Green River Formation (US) and Messel (Germany), both Eocene in age, are found in lake sediments and show a remarkable faunal diversity for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date information from nearly 25 lake lagerstaetten derived from different types of lake basins from the Carboniferous to the Miocene have been collected and described. Carboniferous sites derive from the cyclothems of Midcontinent of the US while many Cenozoic sites have been described from North and South America as well as Europe and Australia. Asian sites contain fossils from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. With this data, insight into the evolutionary processes associated with lake systems can be examined. Do lakes act as unique evolutionary crucibles in contrast to marine systems? The speciation of cichlid fishes in present-day African lakes appears to be very high and is attributed to the diversity of environments found in large rift lakes. Is this true of all ancient lakes or just large rift lakes? The longevity of a lake system may be an important factor in allowing speciation and evolutionary processes to occur; marine systems are limited only in the existence of environments as controlled by tectonics and sea level changes, on the order of tens of millions of years. Rift lakes are normally the longest lived in the millions of years. Perhaps there are only certain types of lakes in which speciation of

  2. Can Teleneuropsychology Help Meet the Neuropsychological Needs of Western Africans? The Case of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjorlolo, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    In Ghana, the services of psychologists, particularly clinical psychologists and neuropsychologists, remain largely inaccessible to a large proportion of those in need. Emphasis has been placed on "physical wellness" even among patients with cognitive and behavioral problems needing psychological attention. The small number of clinical psychologists and neuropsychologists, the deplorable nature of road networks and transport systems, geopolitical factors, and a reliance on the face-to-face method in providing neuropsychological services have further complicated the accessibility problem. One way of expanding and making neuropsychological services available and accessible is through the use of information communication technology to provide these services, and this is often termed teleneuropsychology. Drawing on relevant literature, this article discusses how computerized neurocognitive assessment and videoconferencing could help in rendering clinical neuropsychological services to patients, particularly those in rural, underserved, and disadvantaged areas in Ghana. The article further proposes recommendations on how teleneuropsychology could be made achievable and sustainable in Ghana.

  3. Attitudes toward rape and victims of rape: a test of the feminist theory in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Kofi E

    2009-10-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender stereotypes and false beliefs (myths) about rape, rapists, and victims of rape. Thus, the theory suggests a relationship between rape myths and less favorable attitudes toward rape and victims of rape. Results from a survey conducted in Ghana show some support for the feminist theory of rape: There is evidence of rape myth acceptance in Ghana; gender is significant in predicting levels of rape myth acceptance; and finally, education or profession and age, but not religion, are associated with levels of rape myth acceptance in a predictable way.

  4. Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Carolette

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are.

  5. Using a spatio-temporal dynamic state-space model with the EM algorithm to patch gaps in daily riverflow series, with examples from the Volta Basin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amisigo, B. A.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2005-04-01

    A spatio-temporal linear dynamic model has been developed for patching short gaps in daily river runoff series. The model was cast in a state-space form in which the state variable was estimated using the Kalman smoother (RTS smoother). The EM algorithm was used to concurrently estimate both parameter and missing runoff values. Application of the model to daily runoff series in the Volta Basin of West Africa showed that the model was capable of providing good estimates of missing runoff values at a gauging station from the remaining series at the station and at spatially correlated stations in the same sub-basin.

  6. Saharan Dust Particle Size And Concentration Distribution In Central Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunnu, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: albertsunnu@yahoo.com +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: resch@univ-tln.fr Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 μm-25 μm.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 μg/m3 to 1344 μg/m3 with an average of 532 μg/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 μm to 2.43 μm with an average of 1.5 μm ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for

  7. Notions and treatment of guinea worm in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bierlich, B

    1995-08-01

    Dracunculiasis, infection with Dracunculus medinensis or guinea worm, is widespread in the Northern Region of Ghana, where rural people drink from unprotected water sources such as ponds and small-scale dams. This paper discusses the results of an anthropological study of beliefs and practices concerning commonly occurring illnesses, such as infection with guinea worm (nierifu), in two rural Dagomba communities in the Northern Region of Ghana. The importance of knowing about local perceptions and treatment of guinea worm is stressed. Guinea worm is not attributed to water. The general understanding is that guinea worm is an innate part of human anatomy. It is not seen as an alien presence in the body. Guinea worm is rather said to be 'in people's blood', and sooner or later to 'stand up'. Guinea worm is considered an 'inevitable' feature of living. After a description of the background to the study, the methods are characterized. Brief background information on the people, their environment and their water sources are given. The central portion of the paper focuses on local perceptions of illness and notions of guinea worm ('guinea worm is in the human blood'), which are very different from those of biomedicine ('guinea worm is a disease'). Attention is also given to perceptions of water ('bitter' vs 'sweet') and the prevention of guinea worm. The social limitations to the filter technology are addressed. People's choice of therapy and the role of medicines (herbs and Western pharmaceuticals) in treatment of guinea worm are also considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of health education and stresses the importance of showing respect for the local view of guinea worm, which is said to be 'in the blood'. It is suggested that, since people are not adverse to the use of Western pharmaceuticals, the use of Western medicines to treat guinea worm should be further promoted. The social constraints on filtering must also be appreciated. These relate to the

  8. Nutrition sensitivity of the 2014 budget statement of Republic of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Laar, Amos; Aryeetey, Richmond N O; Akparibo, Robert; Zotor, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Ghana's Constitution and several international treaties she has ratified demonstrate support for fundamental human rights to nutrition and freedom from hunger. However, it is unknown how this support is being translated into investment in nutrition. National budgets are important vehicles through which governments communicate intent to address pertinent national challenges. The present paper assesses the nutrition sensitivity of Ghana's budget statement for the year ending 31 December 2014. We perused the budget in its entirety, examining allocations to various sectors with the goal of identifying support for direct nutrition interventions. We examined allocations to various sectors as per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). The review shows that the total revenue and grants for the 2014 fiscal year is Ghana Cedis (GH¢) 26 001·9 million (25 % of GDP). The total expenditure for the same period is estimated at GH¢34 956·8 million (33·1 % of GDP). The health sector is allocated GH¢3 353 707 814 (3·8 % of GDP). As of 28 October 2014, the Bank of Ghana's Official Exchange Rate was US$1 = GH¢3·20. It is one of the key sectors whose interventions directly or indirectly impact on nutrition. However, the proportion of the national budget that goes to direct nutrition interventions is not evident in the budget. Nutrition is embedded in other budget lines. Allocations to relevant nutrition-sensitive sectors are very low (<0·5 % of GDP). We conclude that Ghana's 2014 budget statement pays scant attention to nutrition. By embedding nutrition in other budget lines, Ghana runs the risk of perpetually rolling out national spending actions insensitive to nutrition.

  9. Knowledge and Uses of African Pangolins as a Source of Traditional Medicine in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana’s Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable. PMID

  10. Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2013-12-01

    There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people.

  11. The lakes of Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stofan, E.R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K.L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70?? north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  13. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  14. The lakes of Titan.

    PubMed

    Stofan, E R; Elachi, C; Lunine, J I; Lorenz, R D; Stiles, B; Mitchell, K L; Ostro, S; Soderblom, L; Wood, C; Zebker, H; Wall, S; Janssen, M; Kirk, R; Lopes, R; Paganelli, F; Radebaugh, J; Wye, L; Anderson, Y; Allison, M; Boehmer, R; Callahan, P; Encrenaz, P; Flamini, E; Francescetti, G; Gim, Y; Hamilton, G; Hensley, S; Johnson, W T K; Kelleher, K; Muhleman, D; Paillou, P; Picardi, G; Posa, F; Roth, L; Seu, R; Shaffer, S; Vetrella, S; West, R

    2007-01-04

    The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70 degrees north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table.

  15. Lessons from a Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goethals, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study that included classroom lessons on hydroelectric power, the history and construction of a nearby lake, data recording, the use of field guides, and methods of counting natural populations. The study culminated in a field trip to the lake. (JRH)

  16. Lake Wobegon Dice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraleda, Jorge; Stork, David G.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce Lake Wobegon dice, where each die is "better than the set average." Specifically, these dice have the paradoxical property that on every roll, each die is more likely to roll greater than the set average on the roll, than less than this set average. We also show how to construct minimal optimal Lake Wobegon sets for all "n" [greater…

  17. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6)…

  18. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  19. Evaporation From Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C.; Blanken, P.; Hedstrom, N.; Leshkevich, G.; Fortin, V.; Charpentier, D.; Haywood, H.

    2009-05-01

    Evaporation is a critical component of the water balance of each of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and understanding the magnitude and physical controls of evaporative water losses are important for several reasons. Recently, low water levels in Lakes Superior and Michigan/Huron have had socioeconomic, ecological, and even meteorological impacts (e.g. water quality and quantity, transportation, invasive species, recreation, etc.). The recent low water levels may be due to increased evaporation, but this is not known as operational evaporation estimates are currently calculated as the residual of water or heat budgets. Perhaps surprisingly, almost nothing is known about evaporation dynamics from Lake Superior and few direct measurements of evaporation have been made from any of the Laurentian Great Lakes. This research is the first to attempt to directly measure evaporation from Lake Superior by deploying eddy covariance instrumentation. Results of evaporation rates, their patterns and controlling mechanisms will be presented. The direct measurements of evaporation are used with concurrent satellite and climate model data to extrapolate evaporation measurements across the entire lake. This knowledge could improve predictions of how climate change may impact the lake's water budget and subsequently how the water in the lake is managed.

  20. Assesssing herbal medical practitioners in professional qualifying examination in Ghana, a model.

    PubMed

    Adusi-Poku, Yaw; Okine, Laud K-N; Hlortsi-Akakpo, F K; Fleischer, Theophilus C; Mensah, M L K; Arhin, Peter; Agyemfra, George; Dabra, Togbega; Mensah, E N

    2009-10-15

    About 70% of Ghanaians depend on Alternative health practice for their primary health care needs. Hence, there is the need to streamline and regulate these practices. Graduates from the Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (K.N.U.S.T), Kumasi-Ghana were assessed by the Professional Qualifying Examination Board of the Traditional Medicine Practice Council (TMPC), Ghana, after two years of internship training. A model of assessment took into consideration, the scope of the university training, internship and the primary health care needs of the society.

  1. The meanings of suicidal behaviour to psychology students in Ghana: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity S; Knizek, Birthe Loa

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine psychology students' attitudes toward suicidal behaviour and the meanings they assign to the act. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 final year psychology students at a university in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that the students had a generalized negative attitude toward suicide. Religious beliefs and family harmony are cultural contexts influencing the interpretation of suicidal behaviour as breach of divine and communal moralities. The implications of these meanings of suicidal behaviour for suicide prevention in Ghana are discussed.

  2. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  3. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, Freeman L.; Wells, Frank C.; Shelby, Wanda J.; McPherson, Emma

    1988-01-01

    Water-quality data collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake, following runoff, generally were not adequate to fully determine the effects of runoff on the lakes. Data collection should not to be limited to fixed-station sampling following runoff, and both lakes need to be sampled simultaneously as soon as possible following significant precipitation.

  4. Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

  5. Urbanization, regime type and durability, and environmental degradation in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samuel; Adom, Philip Kofi; Klobodu, Edem Kwame Mensah

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the effect of urbanization, income, trade openness, and institutional quality (i.e., regime type and durability) on environmental degradation in Ghana over the period 1965-2011. Using the bounds test approach to cointegration and the Fully Modified Phillip-Hansen (FMPH) technique, the findings show that urbanization, income, trade openness, and institutional quality have long-run cointegration with environmental degradation. Further, the results show that income, trade openness, and institutional quality are negatively associated with environmental degradation. This suggests that income, trade openness, and institutional quality enhance environmental performance. Urbanization, however, is positively related to environmental degradation. Additionally, long-run estimates conditioned on institutional quality reveal that the extent to which trade openness and urbanization enhance environmental performance is largely due to the presence of quality institutions (or democratic institutions). Finally, controlling for structural breaks, we find that trade openness, urbanization, and regime type (i.e., democracy) improve environmental performance significantly after the 1970s except for income.

  6. Use of health professionals for obstetric care in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mills, Samuel; Bertrand, Jane T

    2005-03-01

    This study explores the role of access versus traditional beliefs in the decision to seek obstetric care from health professionals. Eighteen purposively sampled homogenous groups in Kassena-Nankana District of northern Ghana participated in focus-group discussions about traditional beliefs, barriers to the use of health professionals, and ways to improve obstetric care. All the groups were knowledgeable about the life-threatening signs and symptoms of complications of pregnancy and labor. Decisions about place of delivery generally were made after the onset of labor. Accessibility factors (cost, distance, transport, availability of health facilities, and nurses' attitudes) were major barriers, whereas traditional beliefs were reported as less significant. Informants made pertinent recommendations on how to improve obstetric services in the district. These findings demonstrate that even in this district, where African traditional religion is practiced by a third of the population, compared with a national average of 4 percent, lack of access was perceived as the main barrier to seeking professional obstetric care.

  7. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in the Akyem area, Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Yidana, S.M.; Anku, Y.; Akabzaa, T.; Asiedu, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Akyem area is a small farming community located in southeastern Ghana. Groundwater samples from wells in the area were analyzed for concentrations of the major ions, silica, electrical conductivity and pH. The objective was to determine the main controls on the hydrochemistry of ground-water. Mass balance modeling was used together with multivariate R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis to determine the significant sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. Two water types exist in this area. The first is influenced most by the weathering of silicate minerals from the underlying geology, and is thus rich in silica, sodium, calcium, bicarbonate, and magnesium ions. The second is water that has been influenced by the effects of fertilizers and other anthropogenic activities in the area. Mineral speciation and silicate mineral stability diagrams suggest that montmorillonite, probably derived from the incongruent dissolution of feldspars and micas, is the most stable silicate phase in the groundwaters. The apparent incongruent weathering of silicate minerals in the groundwater system has led to the enrichment of sodium, calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate ions as well as silica, leading to the supersaturation of calcite, aragonite, dolomite and quartz. Stability in the montmorillonite field suggests restricted flow conditions and a long groundwater residence time, leading to greater exposure of the rock to weathering. Cation exchange processes appear to play minor roles in the hydrochemistry of groundwater.

  8. Utilization of maternal health services in Ejisu District, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Martey, J O; Djan, J O; Twum, S; Browne, E N; Opoku, S A

    1995-01-01

    A study on the utilization of maternal health services in Ejisu district of Ghana was carried out in January and February 1990. 1200 women aged between 15 and 49 were interviewed in 80 communities. The findings of the study indicated that over 50% of respondents married under 20 years, 70% of them attended antenatal clinic at least 4 times in their last pregnancy, over 80% had their last delivery in a health facility and over 80% knew about at least one modern method of family planning. Only 5.5% were currently using a modern family planning method. 90% of them were willing to stay in a maternity waiting home if advised to do so. Most would be prepared to stay for a month or 2. 20% of the respondents knew about local herbal preparations used for first aid in bleeding in pregnancy, although they would seek definitive treatment at a health facility. From the study, some women were not using the services. These would have to be reached through improving the quality of care in health facilities and increasing community awareness on maternal health in order to improve accessibility and utilization further.

  9. The composition and origin of Ghana medicine clays

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Bart E.; Fraser, Sharon E.; Insoll, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The mineral, organic and elemental composition of medicine clays from three shrines in the Tong Hills in northern Ghana (Gbankil, Kusanaab, and Yaane) are assessed to ascertain what additives they might contain and the implications for their recognition, for example in archaeological contexts. These are clays that are widely used for healing purposes being perceived efficacious in curing multiple ailments and which are given a divine provenance, but their collection is ascribed human agency. The Yaane clay is also supplied as part of the process of obtaining the right to operate the shrine elsewhere making it widely dispersed. Organic geochemical analyses revealed a predominance of plant-derived material with a substantial contribution of microbial origin. Based on these (supported by elemental and mineral analyses), no unnatural organic material could be detected, making an exogenous contribution to these clays unlikely. The implications are that these are wholly natural medicinal substances with no anthropogenic input into their preparation, as the traditions suggest. The very similar mineralogy of all the clays, including a non-medicine clay sampled, suggests that, unless the geology radically differed, differentiating between them analytically in an archaeological contexts would be doubtful. PMID:21810043

  10. Controlling sickle cell disease in Ghana - ethics and options

    PubMed Central

    Kyerewaa Edwin, Ama; Edwin, Frank; Etwire, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a significant public health burden in Ghana. Recent studies indicate that 2% of Ghanaian newborns are affected by SCD; one in three Ghanaians has the hemoglobin S and/or C gene. As a means of controlling the disease, some authorities have recommended prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion. In the current era, SCD has a good prognosis and fairly reasonable quality of life. Advances in bone marrow transplantation have shown the disease is curable in selected patients. PND and selective abortion therefore raises a myriad of ethical dilemmas which are considered in this review. In the light of the demonstration of improved prognosis in recent times, PND and selective abortion appears to be applying capital punishment to the unborn child for “crimes” only the parents can be responsible for. In this review, we recommend control of SCD on three levels – preconception genetic testing and strategic reproductive choices, PND and education for carrier parents, and holistic management of persons with SCD. We emphasize the critical importance of self-management, especially self-awareness, in assuring a good quality of life for persons with SCD. We believe such an approach is cost-effective, and consistent with sound ethical principles and good conscience. PMID:22187596

  11. Environmental and habitat management: the case of Ethiopia and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kidane-Mariam, Tadesse

    2003-03-01

    This article examines the environment and habitat management experiences of Ethiopia and Ghana in the postindependence period (1960-2000). Based on extensive archival research, semistructured focused interviews of environment and habitat officers of the World Bank, the United Nations System and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and personal professional field experiences, the paper argues that the uncritical adoption of externally generated discourses, narratives, policy guidelines, and strategies of environmental and habitat management has structured thought and action in both countries. The experience of both countries in defining and responding to environmental and human settlement management is explored from a political ecology perspective. The analysis indicates that both countries have essentially adopted a technocratic, state-centered, and unsustainable management strategy framework based on population control, poverty reduction, sustainable development, and capacity-building. It also suggests that international organizations such as the World Bank, INCN, and the United Nations system have been important sources of thought and action in both countries. Conversely, regional international organizations such as the Economic Commission for Africa, the Organization of African Unity and the African Development Bank have largely served as conduits for the diffusion of global discourses, narratives, policies and strategies. The need for adopting management policies and strategies that are based on principles of multiple engagement, decentralization, incentives, public education, and participation is underscored.

  12. Urban Green Space Dynamics and Distributional Equity in Kumasi, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nero, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Urban green spaces (UGS) are crucial for urban sustainability and resilience to environmental vulnerabilities but are often marginalized in cities in the global south. This paper analyzed the spatio-temporal change, extent and distributional inequities associated with UGS in Kumasi, Ghana. Spatial techniques and Gini index were deployed in the assessments.Kumasi UGS cover is currently 33 % but is declining fourfold faster in recent years (2009-2014) than previously (1986-2002). Shannon entropy for built-up sprawl and mean per capita UGS area in 2014 were 0.99 and 25 m2, respectively. Per capita UGS area for 2009 (r2 = 0.50, p=0.049) and 2014 (r2 = 0.53, p=0.0398) were moderately correlated with socioeconomic conditions of submetropolis. The Gini coefficient for both vegetation and tree cover was 0.26.Green space cover in Kumasi is plummeting and somewhat unevenly distributed. Strategic planning for UGS can ensure ample availability, equity in access, and resilience to climate related vulnerabilities.

  13. Community-company relations in gold mining in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Theresa; McGee, Tara K; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E; Aubynn, Emmanuel Ato

    2009-01-01

    As a result of Structural Adjustment Programme from the 1980s, many developing countries have experienced an increase in resource extraction activities by international and transnational corporations. The work reported here examines the perceived impacts of gold mining at the community level in the Wassa West District of Ghana, Africa and discusses those perceived impacts in the context of globalization processes and growing multinational corporate interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Interview data compared community members' perceptions with those of company representatives in three communities. The results indicate that communities held companies responsible for a series of economic, social, and environmental changes. While recognizing some of the benefits brought by the mines, communities felt that the companies did not live up to their responsibility to support local development. Companies responded by denying, dismissing concerns, or shifting blame. Findings from this work show that lack of engagement and action by government agencies at all levels resulted in companies acting in a surrogate governmental capacity. In such situations, managing expectations is key to community-company relations.

  14. Factors associated with induced abortion among women in Hohoe, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mote, Charity V; Otupiri, Easmon; Hindin, Michelle J

    2010-12-01

    In Hohoe, Ghana, induced abortion is the second highest cause of hospital admissions. We aimed to describe factors influencing induced abortion among 408 randomly selected women aged 15-49 years. 21% of the women had had an abortion; of those, 36% said they did not want to disrupt their education or employment; 66% of the abortions were performed by doctors. Bivariate logistic regression showed that compared with women with secondary education, women with basic education (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.18-0.54) and uneducated women (OR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.07-0.70) were significantly less likely to have had an abortion. Women who were married (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.10-3.04), peri-urban residents (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 0.95-3.94), and women with formal employment (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 0.86-5.45) were more likely to have had an abortion. Stakeholders should improve access to effective contraception to lower the chance of needing an abortion and target education programmes at those with unmet need for contraception.

  15. Guinea worm disease outcomes in Ghana: determinants of broken worms.

    PubMed

    Glenshaw, Mary T; Roy, Sharon; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Downs, Philip; Williamson, John; Eberhard, Mark

    2009-08-01

    In 2006, Ghana ranked second in Guinea worm disease (GWD) incidence and reported a previously undocumented 20% prevalence of worm breakage. A prospective study was conducted in 2007 to validate and describe worm breakage and determinants. Among 221 patients with known outcomes, the worm breakage rate observed was 46%. After controlling for demographics, worm and wound presentation, and treatment course and provision, worm breakage was associated with narrow-diameter worms (< 2 mm) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-7.53). Protective factors against worm breakage included antibiotic ointment use (AOR 0.31; 95% CI = 0.14-0.70), bandage protocol compliance (AOR: 0.38; 95% CI = 0.16-0.89), intact bandages (AOR 0.27; 95% CI = 0.09-0.82), and bloody compared with dry wounds (AOR 0.09; 95% CI = 0.01-0.7). The high worm breakage rate observed warrants improvement in case management and patient care. Adherence to established treatment protocols should be facilitated through improved provider training and supervision to reduce the disabling consequences of broken worms.

  16. SANKOFA: a multisite collaboration on paediatric HIV disclosure in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Nancy R.; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Lartey, Margaret; Renner, Lorna; Antwi, Sampson; Enimil, Anthony; Catlin, Ann Christine; Fernando, Sumudinie; Kyriakides, Tassos C.; Paintsil, Elijah

    2016-01-01

    With the scale-up of effective antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings, many HIV-infected children are now able to survive into adulthood. To achieve this potential, children must navigate normative developmental processes and challenges while living with an unusually complex, stigmatizing, potentially fatal chronic illness and meeting the demands of treatment. Yet many of these children, especially preadolescents, do not know they are HIV-infected. Despite compelling evidence supporting the merits of informing children of their HIV status, there has been little emphasis on equipping the child’s caregiver with information and skills to promote disclosure, particularly, when the caregiver faces a variety of sociocultural barriers and is reluctant to do so. In this study, we present the background, process and methods for a first of its kind collaboration that is examining the efficacy of an intervention developed to facilitate the engagement of caregivers in the process of disclosure in a manner suitable to the sociocultural context and developmental age and needs of the child in Ghana. We also report preliminary data that supported the design of the intervention approach and currently available domains of the data system. Finally, we discuss challenges and implications for future research. PMID:26049537

  17. Ivory Coast-Ghana margin: model of a transform margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mascle, J.; Blarez, E.

    1987-05-01

    The authors present a marine study of the eastern Ivory Coast-Ghana continental margins which they consider one of the most spectacular extinct transform margins. This margin has been created during Early-Lower Cretaceous time and has not been submitted to any major geodynamic reactivation since its fabric. Based on this example, they propose to consider during the evolution of the transform margin four main and successive stages. Shearing contact is first active between two probably thick continental crusts and then between progressively thinning continental crusts. This leads to the creation of specific geological structures such as pull-apart graben, elongated fault lineaments, major fault scarps, shear folds, and marginal ridges. After the final continental breakup, a hot center (the mid-oceanic ridge axis) is progressively drifting along the newly created margin. The contact between two lithospheres of different nature should necessarily induce, by thermal exchanges, vertical crustal readjustments. Finally, the transform margin remains directly adjacent to a hot but cooling oceanic lithosphere; its subsidence behavior should then progressively be comparable to the thermal subsidence of classic rifted margins.

  18. Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems.

  19. Lake whitefish and lake herring population structure and niche in ten south-central Ontario lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carl, Leon M.; McGuiness, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    This study compares simple fish communities of ten oligotrophic lakes in south-central Ontario. Species densities and population size structure vary significantly among these lake communities depending on fish species present beyond the littoral zone. Lake whitefish are fewer and larger in the presence of lake herring than in their absence. Diet analysis indicates that lake whitefish shift from feeding on both plankton and benthic prey when lake herring are absent to a primarily benthic feeding niche in the presence of lake herring. When benthic round whitefish are present, lake whitefish size and density decline and they move lower in the lake compared to round whitefish. Burbot are also fewer and larger in lakes with lake herring than in lakes without herring. Burbot, in turn, appear to influence the population structure of benthic coregonine species. Lower densities of benthic lake whitefish and round whitefish are found in lakes containing large benthic burbot than in lakes with either small burbot or where burbot are absent. Predation on the pelagic larvae of burbot and lake whitefish by planktivorous lake herring alters the size and age structure of these populations. As life history theory predicts, those species with poor larval survival appear to adopt a bet-hedging life history strategy of long-lived individuals as a reproductive reserve.

  20. Groundwater recharge processes in the Nasia sub-catchment of the White Volta Basin: Analysis of porewater characteristics in the unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addai, Millicent Obeng; Yidana, Sandow Mark; Chegbeleh, Larry-Pax; Adomako, Dickson; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Vertical infiltration of precipitation has been examined in this study for the purpose of evaluating groundwater recharge processes in parts of the Nasia sub-catchment of the White Volta Basin. As recharge is an essential component in the detailed assessment of groundwater resources potential in a basin, evaluating its processes is vital in determining the spatial and temporal variability of the resource. Stable isotope data of precipitation, groundwater, surface water and porewater in the area suggest that the local precipitation is largely enriched compared to global meteoric water. This is consistent with the prevailing local conditions in the region and ties in with observations in other parts of the sub-region. The groundwater and porewater data indicate that prior to, and in the process of infiltration and final percolation into the saturated zone, rainwater undergoes evaporative enrichment such that the finally recharged water plots along an evaporation line with a much shallower gradient and intercept compared to the global meteoric water line and the local meteoric water line. The isotope data further suggest that through the shallow unsaturated zone, a significant fraction of the initial precipitation would have been evaporated by a depth of 3.0 m. Evaporation rates in the range of 38-49% have been estimated for the depth range of 0-3.0 m based on the porewater stable isotope data. Details of the procedures and implications of high evaporation rates within such shallower depths are presented and discussed. Groundwater recharge rates estimated from the chloride mass balance technique report values in the range of 73.26 mm/yr (390 Mm3/yr)-109.89 mm/yr (585.27 Mm3/yr), with an average of 94 mm/yr (500.6 Mm3/yr). These translate into 6.6-10.9% of annual precipitation. Based on the current population trends and per capita water demand of 50 L per capita per day, this study finds that the estimated recharge rates exceed the demand 59 times. This suggests

  1. Hindcast Wave Information for the Great Lakes. Lake Michigan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    has three major bathymetric regions, a southern, central, and northern basin. Depths over the lake are generally greater than 100 m with the...AD-A243 784 w,,v,,,,l,,,IWAVE INFORMATION STUDIES L OF US COASTLINES US AmWIS REPORT 24 HINDCAST WAVE INFORMATION FOR THE GREAT LAKES : LAKE MICHIGAN...October 1991 Final report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hindcast Wave Information for the Great Lakes : Lake Michigan 6. AUTHOR(S) Jon M

  2. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  3. Ecology under lake ice.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Stephanie E; Galloway, Aaron W E; Powers, Stephen M; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H; Batt, Ryan D; Labou, Stephanie G; O'Reilly, Catherine M; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R; Stanley, Emily H; North, Rebecca L; Stockwell, Jason D; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L; Carey, Cayelan C; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N; Jolley, Jeff C; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W; Mariash, Heather L; McKay, Robert M; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C; Post, David M; Pruett, Matthew J; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S; Roberts, Sarah L; Rücker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A; Smith, Derek E; Sterner, Robert W; Swann, George E A; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R; Vogt, Richard J; Watson, Susan B; Whiteford, Erika J; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

    2017-01-01

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer 'growing seasons'. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors. Plankton were more abundant under ice than expected; mean winter values were 43.2% of summer values for chlorophyll a, 15.8% of summer phytoplankton biovolume and 25.3% of summer zooplankton density. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations were typically higher during winter, and these differences were exaggerated in smaller lakes. Lake size also influenced winter-summer patterns for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher winter DOC in smaller lakes. At coarse levels of taxonomic aggregation, phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition showed few systematic differences between seasons, although literature suggests that seasonal differences are frequently lake-specific, species-specific, or occur at the level of functional group. Within the subset of lakes that had longer time series, winter influenced the subsequent summer for some nutrient variables and zooplankton biomass.

  4. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  5. Yellowstone lake nanoarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  6. Ecology of playa lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  7. The 1 Ma Lake Bosumtwi (West Africa) Paleoclimate Record: Comparisons to Marine and Polar Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, J. A.; Shanahan, T. M.; King, J. W.; Overpeck, J. T.; Scholz, C. A.; Heil, C.; Forman, S. L.; Amoako, P. Y.

    2007-12-01

    Lake Bosumtwi is a hydrologically closed lake occupying a 1.07 Ma impact crater in Ghana, West Africa. The lake lies beneath the path of the seasonal migration of the ITCZ and therefore can provide a sedimentary record of monsoon variability in West Africa. Scientific drilling recovered a 291-m long sediment section that spans the full 1 Ma history of the lake. This long continental record is ideal for comparison to long marine and ice-core records at both glacial-interglacial and abrupt-change timescales. Oxygen-isotope stratigraphy, derived from calcareous fossils, often provides age control and a way to place individual marine sediment cores into a global stratigraphic framework. Lacking a direct tie-in to the marine oxygen-isotope stratigraphy, individual lacustrine basins can present challenges for global correlation. Through radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence and paleomagnetic dating, limited age control has been established for the 1 Ma Lake Bosumtwi sediment sequence. Within a Bosumtwi sediment sequence that is mostly laminated occur intervals of non-laminated sediment having increased density, decreased organic content and a high-coercivity magnetic mineral assemblage. Some of these massive layers contain slump-folding and intraformational clasts. These lithologies are interpreted to represent lake-level lowstands when a diminished West African summer monsoon resulted in decreased moisture balance and lake-level regression. Some Bosumtwi lake-level lowstands match intervals of increased sea surface salinity in the Gulf of Guinea resulting from reduced river discharge (Weldeab et al. 2007, Science, 316, 1303-1307). However, during other intervals (MIS2) there are differences between the two records. Corresponding to glacial stages and stadials, increased amounts of high-coercivity magnetic minerals are present in the Lake Bosumtwi sediment. Elevated aerosol dust export from arid Sahel sources, possibly accompanied by enhanced magnetic

  8. The Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassibe, W.R.; Keck, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The western part of the conterminous United States is often thought of as being a desert without any large bodies of water. In the desert area of western Utah, however, lies Great Salt Lake, which in 1986 covered approximately 2,300 square miles and contained 30 million acre-feet of water (an acre-foot is the amount of water necessary to cover 1 acre of land with water 1 foot in depth or about 326,000 gallons). To emphasize its size, the Great Salt Lake is the largest lake west of the Mississippi River, larger than the states of Rhode Island and Delaware.

  9. National Lakes Assessment Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of lakes and reservoirs throughout the U.S. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) worked with states and tribes to conduct the assessment in 2007. Data for each parameter sampled in the National Lakes Assessment (NLA) are available for downloading in a series of files as comma separated values (*.csv). Each *.csv data file has a companion text file (*.txt) that lists a dataset label and individual descriptions for each variable. Users should view the *.txt files first to help guide their understanding and use of the data.

  10. Assessment of formaldehyde levels in local and imported fresh fish in Ghana: a case study in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Saba, Courage Kosi Setsoafia; Atayure, Seidu Isaac; Adzitey, Frederick

    2015-03-01

    Fish is an important source of protein all over the world, including in Ghana. The fishery sector plays a major role in meeting the domestic need of animal protein and also contributes greatly in foreign exchange earnings. The domestic supply of fish does not meet the demand, so Ghana imports fish and fish products from other countries. Media reports in Ghana have alleged the use of formaldehyde to preserve fish for increased shelf life and to maintain freshness. This research, therefore, sought to establish the levels of formaldehyde in imported and local fresh fish in the Tamale Metropolis by using a ChemSee formaldehyde and formalin detection test kit. Positive and negative controls were performed by using various concentrations of formalin (1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 300 ppm) and sterile distilled water, respectively. Three times over a 6-month period, different fish species were obtained from five wholesale cold stores (where fish are sold in cartons) and some local sales points (where locally caught fish are sold). A total of 32 samples were taken during three different sampling sessions: 23 imported fish (mackerel, herring, horse mackerel, salmon, and redfish) and 9 local tilapia. The fish were cut, and 50 g was weighed and blended with an equal volume (50 ml) of sterile distilled water. Samples were transferred to test tubes and centrifuged. A test strip was dipped into the supernatant and observed for a color change. A change in color from white to pink or purple indicated the presence of formaldehyde in fish. The study showed that no formaldehyde was present in the imported and local fish obtained. The appropriate regulatory agencies should carry out this study regularly to ensure that fish consumed in Ghana is safe for consumption.

  11. Barriers to Teacher Motivation for Professional Practice in the Ghana Education Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salifu, Inusah

    2014-01-01

    In Ghana, several education initiatives for promoting the quality of education have excluded the issue of teacher motivation. Well-motivated teachers are likely to be more committed to their profession and this could lead to desirable learning outcomes. This research attempted to identity and analyse what teachers in public pre-tertiary schools in…

  12. Viewing Teacher Motivation in the Ghana Education Service through a Postcolonial Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salifu, Inusah; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, quality teaching has become the focus of many education systems including that of Ghana, and yet little attention has been given to teacher motivation that could ensure quality teaching and improved learning outcomes. Drawing on contemporary literature on issues associated with teacher motivation, this conceptual paper critically…

  13. Standardization or Localization: A Study of Online Learning Programmes by Tertiary Institutions in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djan, Josephine; George, Babu

    2016-01-01

    Many universities in Ghana have had a desire to ensure equitable access to formal tertiary education for the growing number of the working public who have sought to improve or better their educational status in tertiary institutions. For many of these working public or individuals, it is almost impossible to stay off work to enrol in these…

  14. Access to Basic Education in Ghana: The Evidence and the Issues. Country Analytic Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame; Djangmah, Jerome; Oduro, Abena; Seidu, Alhassan; Hunt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of access to education in Ghana builds on the Ministry of Education Sector Performance Report and the World Bank sector studies. Though access has improved it remains uneven and has not grown as fast enough to reach universal levels of participation in primary school and JSS [Junior Secondary School] by 2015. More needs to be…

  15. Harnessing the Potential of Information Technologies in Education: Finding Innovation and Adaptability in Mali and Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslar, Zoey L.

    This study is based on the premises that information technologies (IT) are essential to African development and that education systems are responsible for developing a countries' human capacity to maximize those technologies. The study examines the ability of education systems in Mali and Ghana to develop the capacity to harness the potential of…

  16. Sex, Grades and Power in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative increases tell a partial story about the quality of women's participation in higher education. Women students' reporting of sexual harassment has been noteworthy in a recent study that I directed on widening participation in higher education in Ghana and Tanzania. The hierarchical and gendered power relations within universities have…

  17. Developing an E-Learning Strategy for Public Universities in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awidi, Isaiah T.

    2008-01-01

    While technology has enabled online education in many countries, the same cannot be said for African public universities. Universities in Ghana have made some progress in building networking infrastructure and acquiring computers, but integrating technology into the teaching and learning process has been a challenge. Instructional delivery remains…

  18. Factors Associated with Waiting Time for Breast Cancer Treatment in a Teaching Hospital in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedey, Florence; Wu, Lily; Ayettey, Hannah; Sanuade, Olutobi A.; Akingbola, Titilola S.; Hewlett, Sandra A.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Cole, Helen V.; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Adanu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in Ghana. Data are limited on the predictors of poor outcomes in breast cancer patients in low-income countries; however, prolonged waiting time has been implicated. Among breast cancer patients who received treatment at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, this study…

  19. Policy Implications for Using ICTs for Empowerment of Rural Women in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwapong, Olivia Adwoa Tiwaah Frimpong

    2008-01-01

    Using rural household survey data collected from 1000 female household heads selected from all the ten administrative regions in Ghana, this paper explored the policy implications for using ICTs for empowerment of rural women. A contingent valuation (CV) method was used to quantitatively estimate the influence of selected socio-economic factors on…

  20. Radio Lectures in Ghana: An Innovation for the Twenty First Century Instructional Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyanju, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    In the developing countries of the world, Nigeria and Ghana especially have consistently been battling with large enrollment of students into the institutions of higher learning. The attendant problem of the traditional instructional delivery system that poses a serious challenge to the 21st century educational development therefore needs…

  1. Testing the cultural group selection hypothesis in Northern Ghana and Oaxaca.

    PubMed

    Acedo-Carmona, Cristina; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    We examine the cultural group selection (CGS) hypothesis in light of our fieldwork in Northern Ghana and Oaxaca, highly multi-ethnic regions. Our evidence fails to corroborate two central predictions of the hypothesis: that the cultural group is the unit of evolution, and that cultural homogenization is to be expected as the outcome of a selective process.

  2. 50 Years of Educational Progress and Challenge in Ghana. Research Monograph No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 Ghana celebrated 50 years of independence from British colonial rule. The golden jubilee offered an opportunity to take stock of how the country had progressed in expanding education and the challenges for the future. This paper offers a critique of the journey, highlighting the challenges and progress. What reforms in education has taught…

  3. A Review of Community Extension Approaches to Innovation for Improved Livelihoods in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellard, Kate; Rafanomezana, Jenny; Nyirenda, Mahara; Okotel, Misaki; Subbey, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Farmer-to-farmer extension offers a potentially low-cost and wide-reach alternative in supporting agricultural innovation. Various approaches are being promoted but information on their impact and sustainability is sparse. This study examines experiences of Self Help Africa and partners in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi. It asks: What is good…

  4. Between Tradition and Modernity: Girls' Talk about Sexual Relationships and Violence in Kenya, Ghana and Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jenny; Heslop, Jo; Januario, Francisco; Oando, Samwel; Sabaa, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This paper interrogates the influence of a tradition-modernity dichotomy on perspectives and practices on sexual violence and sexual relationships involving girls in three districts of Kenya, Ghana and Mozambique. Through deploying an analytical framework of positioning within multiple discursive sites, we argue that although the dichotomy…

  5. Anthropogenic Enrichment and Nutrients in Some Tropical Lagoons of Ghana, West Africa

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger study of demographic change in coastal Ghana, we measured the concentrations of major plant nutrients and phytoplankton chlorophyll in eight coastal lagoons with different land use and human population density. The purpose of our study was to relate human acti...

  6. Critical Factors in Selecting a Course Management System for Higher Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awidi, Isaiah T.

    2008-01-01

    Course management systems (CMSs) currently drive educational delivery in most developed countries. Their absence in higher education in most developing countries creates a digital divide between first- and third-world students. Meeting the needs of higher education in Ghana therefore depends on identifying the factors that should inform the choice…

  7. Curriculum Reform and Teachers' Training Needs: The Case of Higher Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    Professional development is the key to curriculum-based reform, yet there is little empirical evidence upon which to base decisions of design or implementation of training and development programmes. This study examined the training and development needs of Ghana's polytechnic teachers in an existing curriculum reform scenario as they became…

  8. Teacher Professional Development through Sandwich Programmes and Absenteeism in Basic Schools in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamanja, Emmanuel Makabu J.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous professional development of teachers plays a crucial role in improving learning outcomes in schools. This study investigated how teaching time is lost when teachers absent themselves to participate in sandwich programmes to upgrade themselves in the University of Education, Winneba (UEW) in Ghana. Using a survey of 475 teachers pursuing…

  9. Re-Examining the Fluctuations in Language in-Education Policies in Post-Independence Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansah, Gladys Nyarko

    2014-01-01

    Language-in-education policy in Ghana has been in a flux since British colonial rule but particularly so after independence. A close examination of post independence language in education policies shows these fluctuating policies have moved from one form of bilingual education policy to another. Many tensions and paradoxes that arise from…

  10. Development of Early Years Policy and Practice in Ghana: Can Outcomes Be Improved for Marginalised Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Even though several attempts have been made by the government of Ghana towards its goal of eradicating child labour, poverty, and marginalisation in educational outcomes for all children, the condition of disadvantaged children remain terribly devastating compared with those of more advantaged children. This article discusses the extent to which…

  11. Trinidad, Brazil, and Ghana: Three Melting Moments in the History of Cocoa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey; Harding, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines decline in cocoa production at three historical moments: Trinidad in the early 18th century, Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, and Ghana in the recent transition from colonialism to independence. In each, decline followed promising expansion. Conventional explanations have been based on biological, agronomic, and…

  12. Motivation and Productivity in Academic Libraries: A Case Study of Balme Library, University of Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemna, Anaba

    1992-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of junior staff (i.e., clerical and service personnel) at the University of Ghana library that collected data on background, experience, salaries, recreational facilities, job satisfaction, attitudes of colleagues and supervisors, committees, staff meetings, discipline, appraisal methods, and communication. Suggestions…

  13. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

  14. Evaluating Team Project-Work Using Triangulation: Lessons from Communities in Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gordon; Jasaw, Godfred Seidu

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses triangulation to assess key aspects of a team-based, participatory action research programme for undergraduates in rural communities across northern Ghana. The perceptions of the programme and its effects on the students, staff and host communities are compared, showing areas of agreement and disagreement. The successes of the…

  15. Household Living Arrangements and Transition to Sexual Debut among Young People in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Adjei, Jones K.

    2015-01-01

    There is abundant research on the links between family and household structure and young people's sexual risk-taking behaviours, but this scholarship although emerging in sub-Saharan Africa is largely limited to the West. Using data from the 2004 National Adolescent Survey conducted among 12-19 year olds in Ghana, and applying discrete time hazard…

  16. Language Policy and Instructional Practice Dichotomy: The Case of Primary Schools in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ernest; Agbenyega, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    "Clear grounding in a location gives us the confidence to engage with knowledge from other locations as we deconstruct and reconstruct them with our purposes" (Canagarajah, 2005, p. 15). This quote serves the basis of what this paper presents on language policy and pedagogical practices in Ghana. Language plays an important role in…

  17. Solving the Teacher Shortage Problem in Ghana: Critical Perspectives for Understanding the Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobbold, Cosmas

    2015-01-01

    The problem of getting sufficient numbers of qualified teachers to staff classrooms is one of the most significant public policy issues facing many countries. In Ghana, the problem of teacher shortage has been a perennial one, necessitated by educational expansion as well as adverse socio-economic and political circumstances, and exacerbated by…

  18. Critical Factors Underlying Students' Choice of Institution for Graduate Programmes: Empirical Evidence from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbawuni, Joseph; Nimako, Simon Gyasi

    2015-01-01

    The growth in higher education industry has caused a tremendous increase in the number and type of colleges, polytechnics and universities offering similar academic programmes especially in business disciplines in Ghana. The resultant competition in the education industry makes it crucial for education managers to understand the latent factors…

  19. Publishing for Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Ghana: Politics and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opoku-Amankwa, Kwasi; Edu-Buandoh, Dora F.; Brew-Hammond, Aba

    2015-01-01

    One often cited challenge to effective mother tongue-based bilingual education (MTBE) in multilingual countries like Ghana is the difficulty of developing curriculum and instructional materials in many languages. To explain this situation, factors such as shortage of writers and teachers in the local languages, lack of interest on the part of…

  20. Multivariate co-integration analysis of the Kaya factors in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2016-05-01

    The fundamental goal of the Government of Ghana's development agenda as enshrined in the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy to grow the economy to a middle income status of US$1000 per capita by the end of 2015 could be met by increasing the labour force, increasing energy supplies and expanding the energy infrastructure in order to achieve the sustainable development targets. In this study, a multivariate co-integration analysis of the Kaya factors namely carbon dioxide, total primary energy consumption, population and GDP was investigated in Ghana using vector error correction model with data spanning from 1980 to 2012. Our research results show an existence of long-run causality running from population, GDP and total primary energy consumption to carbon dioxide emissions. However, there is evidence of short-run causality running from population to carbon dioxide emissions. There was a bi-directional causality running from carbon dioxide emissions to energy consumption and vice versa. In other words, decreasing the primary energy consumption in Ghana will directly reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, a bi-directional causality running from GDP to energy consumption and vice versa exists in the multivariate model. It is plausible that access to energy has a relationship with increasing economic growth and productivity in Ghana.

  1. Exploring Technical Vocational Education and Training Systems in Emerging Markets. A Case Study on Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur-Mensah, Nana; Alagaraja, Meera

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore trends and changes in technical vocational education and training (TVET) in emerging economies as a national human resource development (NHRD) approach and its practical applications using Ghana as an example. Design/methodology/approach: A case study approach was used to develop an in-depth…

  2. Gender Differences in Participation in Elective Mathematics of Senior Secondary School Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baah-Korang, Kwame; Gyan, Emmanuel; McCarthy, Paul; McCarthy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the body of knowledge that exists in the area of differences in participation in elective mathematics, between boys and girls in Secondary Schools in Ghana. A sample of 738 respondents from five Secondary Schools was purposively selected using purposive sampling technique. All the respondents were final year…

  3. First Report of Soybean Rust Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nigeria is the only country in West Africa where soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi has been officially reported (1). During a disease survey in Ghana in October 2006, soybean (Glycine max) leaves with rust symptoms (tan, angular lesions with erumpent sori exuding urediniospores) were ob...

  4. Determinants of Psychological Help-Seeking Intentions of University Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andoh-Arthur, Johnny; Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Osafo, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Non-utilization of mental health resources is a well-documented problem among adolescents and young adults. However, little is known about the psychological help-seeking intentions of young adults in Ghana. The aim of this study was to examine the predictors of psychological help-seeking intentions among university students in Accra, Ghana…

  5. Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

  6. Language-Learner Strategy Instruction and English Achievement: Voices from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agor, John T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a one-year longitudinal study which sought to investigate the effect that strategy instruction may have on English language achievement. Two classes of junior high school students at Madina in Ghana were involved in an experiment. The experimental class was taught various language-learner strategies both…

  7. Situation Reports--Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and the United States of America. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is…

  8. Educational Access and Poverty Reduction: The Case of Ghana 1991-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolleston, Caine

    2011-01-01

    Ghana has seen notable poverty reduction alongside improvements in school participation since 1991. This paper examines the role of education in determining welfare and poverty and its reciprocal, the role of welfare and other aspects of economic privilege in the determination of school attendance and progression. Two groups of models are…

  9. Prevalence of Dental Fear and Anxiety amongst Patients in Selected Dental Clinics in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed…

  10. Reaching Underserved Populations with Basic Education in Deprived Areas of Ghana: Emerging Good Practices. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Achieving Education for All (EFA) in Ghana and many parts of sub-Saharan Africa remains an elusive goal. Extensive research in diverse countries has revealed that formalized systems that work on fixed timetables, a loaded curriculum, and trained teachers, are often not performing as well in rural environments in providing basic literacy, numeracy,…

  11. Impact of Non-Formal Primary Education Programs: A Case Study of Northern Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mfum-Mensah, Obed

    A study assessed the impact of the Shepherd School program, a nonformal basic education program in rural northern Ghana implemented by a nongovernmental organization. Data were gathered through observation; document analysis; and interviews with 42 children, parents, community members, chiefs, school staff, NGO members, and assemblymen in 2…

  12. Religious Education and the Feminisation of Witchcraft: A Study of Three Secondary Schools in Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted during the summer of 2008 in Kumasi, Ghana analysed the role of religious and moral education (RME) in ameliorating the witchcraft discourse in three Ghanaian junior secondary schools. Although the syllabus acknowledges the pernicious effects of witchcraft allegations, it adopts a "Thou shalt not" approach that…

  13. Orientation Impact on Performance of Undergraduate Students in University of Cape Coast (Ghana)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Georgina Asi; Tawiah, Millan Ahema; Sena-Kpeglo, Cynthia; Onyame, Jeff Teye

    2014-01-01

    Orientation is widely conceived to encompass activities that support the transition into educational institutions. The University of Cape Coast, Ghana places a premium on orientation for freshman year students and yet the impact of such programmes on students' performance remains a difficult thing to determine. This study, therefore, focuses on…

  14. Decolonising Knowledge Production: The Pedagogic Relevance of Gandhian Satyagraha to Schooling and Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adjei, Paul Banahene

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I examine how Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy of non-violent resistance (Satyagraha) can be applied to decolonize schooling and education practices in Ghana. Satyagraha consists of three fundamental elements: appeal to the oppressor, non-cooperation, and civil disobedience. Part of an anti-racist and anti-colonial discourse,…

  15. Teachers' Perception on Sustainability of Distance Education in Ghana: Evidence from Ashanti Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei-Owusu, Benedict; Awunyo-Vitor, Dadson

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the sustainability of distance education in the context of finance, management and availability of support services in Ashanti region of Ghana. Data for the study were obtained from five groups of respondents namely; centre coordinators, educational administrators, facilitators of distance education programme, potential and…

  16. Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes…

  17. Private and Public Schooling in Ghana: A Census and Comparative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Amuah, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    A census and survey of schools in the district of Ga, Ghana, explored the nature and extent of private education, and compared inputs to public and private schooling. Three quarters of all schools found were private, with almost as many unregistered private as government schools. Several important differences between registered and unregistered…

  18. Sexual and Reproductive Health Education: Opinions of Students and Educators in Bolgatanga Municipality, Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Geugten, Jolien; Dijkstra, Marlies; van Meijel, Berno; den Uyl, Marion H. G.; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2015-01-01

    There have been few assessments of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes in sub-Saharan Africa from the students' and educators' perspective. This study examined students' opinions on an SRH programme in northern Ghana and explored the facilitators and barriers for educators regarding the implementation of the programme. The…

  19. The Birth and Growth of the National Ambulance Service in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Zakariah, Ahmed; Stewart, Barclay T; Boateng, Edmund; Achena, Christiana; Tansley, Gavin; Mock, Charles

    2017-02-01

    Introduction This study aimed to document the growth and challenges encountered in the decade since inception of the National Ambulance Service (NAS) in Ghana, West Africa. By doing so, potentially instructive examples for other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) planning a formal prehospital care system or attempting to identify ways to improve existing emergency services could be identified.

  20. The Role of Materiality in Apprenticeships: The Case of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Wals, Arjen

    2011-01-01

    Although the concept of the apprenticeship seems to be universal, its institutional form and status differ around the world. This article discusses informal apprenticeship training as it occurs among car mechanics in the informal industrial complex of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana. Using on-site research and theories of social learning and…

  1. "Once a Miner, Always a Miner": Poverty and Livelihood Diversification in Akwatia, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative viewpoint on why people choose to engage in artisanal mining--the low tech mineral extraction and processing of mainly precious metals and stones--for extended periods in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon experiences from Akwatia, Ghana's epicentre of diamond production since the mid-1920s, the analysis challenges…

  2. Ghana's Education Reform 2007: A Realistic Proposition or a Crisis of Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-01-01

    Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of…

  3. From Pentecostalism to Politics: Mass Literacy and Community Development in Late Colonial Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Kate

    2010-01-01

    This article takes as its starting point a strike among African trainee literacy workers in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) in 1952. While the existing literature tends to concentrate on the tensions and contradictions in British colonial education policy, this article uses the strike to investigate how these agendas were…

  4. Public-Private Partnership in the Provision of Basic Education in Ghana: Challenges and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2009-01-01

    Growing private-sector participation in basic education service delivery in many developing countries has led to calls for greater partnership arrangements with the public sector to improve access for poor and disadvantaged groups. In Ghana there is some interest in forging closer public-private partnerships to improve access for children who have…

  5. Maternal health-seeking behavior: the role of financing and organization of health services in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour

    2013-05-30

    This paper examines how organization and financing of maternal health services influence health-seeking behavior in Bosomtwe district, Ghana. It contributes in furthering the discussions on maternal health-seeking behavior and health outcomes from a health system perspective in sub-Saharan Africa. From a health system standpoint, the paper first presents the resources, organization and financing of maternal health service in Ghana, and later uses case study examples to explain how Ghana's health system has shaped maternal health-seeking behavior of women in the district. The paper employs a qualitative case study technique to build a complex and holistic picture, and report detailed views of the women in their natural setting. A purposeful sampling technique is applied to select 16 women in the district for this study. Through face-to-face interviews and group discussions with the selected women, comprehensive and in-depth information on health- seeking behavior and health outcomes are elicited for the analysis. The study highlights that characteristics embedded in decentralization and provision of free maternal health care influence health-seeking behavior. Particularly, the use of antenatal care has increased after the delivery exemption policy in Ghana. Interestingly, the study also reveals certain social structures, which influence women's attitude towards their decisions and choices of health facilities.

  6. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  7. Teachers' ICT Usage in Second-Cycle Institutions in Ghana: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buabeng-Andoh, Charles; Yidana, Issifu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' use of ICT and the factors that affect their ICT use in secondary schools in Ghana. A focus group interview was used to gather data from participants. Ten groups of six students each from urban, semi-urban and rural schools were chosen for the focus group interviews. The results of this study…

  8. The Association between Bullying and Psychological Health among Senior High School Students in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Hart, Peter; Oliver, Brittney; Kang, Minsoo

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based bullying, a global challenge, negatively impacts the health and development of both victims and perpetrators. This study examined the relationship between bullying victimization and selected psychological variables among senior high school (SHS) students in Ghana, West Africa. Methods: This study utilized data from the…

  9. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  10. Implementing Free Primary Education Policy in Malawi and Ghana: Equity and Efficiency Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Kazuma; Oketch, Moses

    2008-01-01

    Malawi and Ghana are among the numerous Sub-Saharan Africa countries that have in recent years introduced Free Primary Education (FPE) policy as a means to realizing the 2015 Education for All and Millennium Development Goals international targets. The introduction of FPE policy is, however, a huge challenge for any national government that has…

  11. Dilemma of Access and Provision of Quality Basic Education in Central Region, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amakyi, Michael; Ampah-Mensah, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    A survey research was conducted to find out if reported improvements in access to education in Ghana are reflected in comparable improvements in delivery of quality education. The study examined theoretical constructs on adequacy and quality assurance in education to ascertain the state of quality provision in education, and whether there is a…

  12. Exploring Perceptions of Private University Education by Hiring Professionals in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainu, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study explored the perceptions of private university education compared to public university education by hiring professionals in Ghana using four dimensions: quality of degree and diploma programs, credibility of degree and diploma programs, characteristics of graduating student applicants, and skills of graduating student…

  13. The Efficacies of Secretarial Profession by Ghana Education Service and Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Abdul-Kahar

    2015-01-01

    This project is carried out by employing an empirical method through questionnaire design and administration and tapped the perceptions and knowledge of the target elements of this study. The research frame was about Ghana Education Service office workers within the Accra Metropolis including higher education institutions. A qualitative data…

  14. Electronic Waste is a Mess: Awareness and Proenvironmental Behavior among University Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edumadze, John K. E.; Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Armah, Frederick A.; Luginaah, Isaac; Edumadze, Gladys E.

    2013-01-01

    E-waste contains hazardous chemicals and materials that threaten the environment and human health, when improperly disposed. This study examined levels of awareness of e-waste disposal among university students in Ghana, and their proenvironmental decision-making using two outcome variables: "knowledge on environmental impact and policy…

  15. Democratising Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Opportunity Structures and Social Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise; Leach, Fiona; Lugg, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on an ESRC/DFID funded research project on Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard (http://www.sussex.ac.uk/education/wideningparticipation). There are questions about whether widening participation in higher education is a force for democratisation or differentiation.…

  16. Pattern of Breast Cancer Distribution in Ghana: A Survey to Enhance Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Debrah, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nearly 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Ghana are in advanced stages of the disease due especially to low awareness, resulting in limited treatment success and high death rate. With limited epidemiological studies on breast cancer in Ghana, the aim of this study is to assess and understand the pattern of breast cancer distribution for enhancing early detection and treatment. Methods. We randomly selected and screened 3000 women for clinical palpable breast lumps and used univariate and bivariate analysis for description and exploration of variables, respectively, in relation to incidence of breast cancer. Results. We diagnosed 23 (0.76%) breast cancer cases out of 194 (6.46%) participants with clinically palpable breast lumps. Seventeen out of these 23 (0.56%) were premenopausal (<46.6 years) with 7 (0.23%) being below 35 years. With an overall breast cancer incidence of 0.76% in this study, our observation that about 30% of these cancer cases were below 35 years may indicate a relative possible shift of cancer burden to women in their early thirties in Ghana, compared to Western countries. Conclusion. These results suggest an age adjustment for breast cancer screening to early twenties for Ghanaian women and the need for a nationwide breast cancer screening to understand completely the pattern of breast cancer distribution in Ghana. PMID:27635263

  17. Increasing Access to Science Oriented Education Programmes in Tertiary Institutions in Ghana through Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, C. K.; Mensah, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    There is emphasis in the educational policy of Ghana for the promotion of Distance Education programmes to widen access to education at all levels and facilitate human resource development. This study examined the level of access and challenges faced by learners in science oriented programmes offered by distance in the Kwame Nkrumah University of…

  18. Design and Usability Testing of an mHealth Application for Midwives in Rural Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    Midwives in Ghana provide the majority of rural primary and maternal healthcare services, but have limited access to data for decision making and knowledge work. Few mobile health (mHealth) applications have been designed for midwives. The study purpose was to design and test an mHealth application (mClinic) that can improve data access and reduce…

  19. Where do Overweight Women in Ghana Live? Answers from Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Contextual influence on health outcomes is increasingly becoming an important area of research. Analytical techniques such as spatial analysis help explain the variations and dynamics in health inequalities across different context and among different population groups. This paper explores spatial clustering in body mass index among Ghanaian women by analysing data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey using exploratory spatial data analysis techniques. Overweight was a more common occurrence in urban areas than in rural areas. Close to a quarter of the clusters in Ghana, mostly those in the southern sector contained women who were overweight. Women who lived in clusters where the women were overweight were more likely to live around other clusters where the women were also overweight. The results suggest that the urban environment could be a potential contributing factor to the high levels of obesity in urban areas of Ghana. There is the need for researchers to include a spatial dimension to obesity research in Ghana paying particular attention the urban environment.

  20. Universities' Role in Regional Development: A Case Study of University for Development Studies, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abonyi, Usman Kojo

    2016-01-01

    This study, employing an interpretive research paradigm, sought to investigate into how University for Development Studies (UDS) is responding to its regional development mandate with a specific focus on how it is responding to human capital development, innovation capabilities, and social and environmental development in northern Ghana. A study…

  1. Learning To Compete: Education, Training & Enterprise in Ghana, Kenya & South Africa. Education Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afenyadu, Dela; King, Kenneth; McGrath, Simon; Oketch, Henry; Rogerson, Christian; Visser, Kobus

    A multinational, multidisciplinary team examined the impact of globalization on education, training, and small and medium sized enterprise development in Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa. The study focused on the following issues: developing a learner-led competitiveness approach; building learning enterprises; education for microenterprises and…

  2. Returning to Study in Higher Education in Ghana: Experiences of Mature Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adu-Yeboah, Christine; Forde, Linda Dzama

    2011-01-01

    This study was based on the assumption that in Ghana, women who return late to higher education combine domestic and academic work and, in the process, experience tensions and difficulties in the face of cultural and academic prejudice. It employed an interpretive qualitative research approach via narrative interviews with eight mature…

  3. Implementation of Innovations in Higher Education: The Case of Competency-Based Training in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boahin, Peter; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    A notable trend in recent years has been the introduction of competency-based training (CBT) in vocational education and training systems in many countries. Several CBT training programmes in Ghana have been accredited and quality assured. This article explores the perception of both students and lecturers towards CBT and examines factors that…

  4. Influence of Culture on Curriculum Development in Ghana: An Undervalued Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervedink Nijhuis, Chantal J.; Pieters, Jules M.; Voogt, Joke M.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum implementation often falls short because of a lack of cultural understanding by curriculum developers and aid organizations. This paper describes a single-case study of a professional development programme for polytechnic Heads of Department in Ghana, which aimed at identifying how curriculum development activities were sensitive to…

  5. Impact of Lecturers' Gender on Learning: Assessing University of Ghana Students' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appiah, Samson Obed; Agbelevor, Emelia Afi

    2015-01-01

    Studies conducted since the late 1970s have sought to describe students' conceptions of learning especially how gender of lecturers affected the learning of students. However, not many studies have been done in Ghana concerning how gender of lecturers affected learning among students. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of…

  6. Drill core LB-08A, Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Geochemistry of fallback breccia and basement samples from the central uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrière, Ludovic; Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Mader, Dieter

    The 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana (West Africa), which measures 10.5 km in diameter and is largely filled by Lake Bosumtwi, is associated with one of four currently known tektite strewn fields. Two boreholes were drilled to acquire hard-rock samples of the deep crater moat and from the flank of the central uplift (LB-07A and LB-08A, respectively) during a recent ICDP-sponsored drilling project. Here we present results of major and trace element analysis of 112 samples from drill core LB-08A. This core, which was recovered between 235.6 and 451.33 m depth below lake level, contains polymict lithic breccia intercalated with suevite, which overlies fractured/brecciated metasediment. The basement is dominated by meta-graywacke (from fine-grained to gritty), but also includes some phyllite and slate, as well as suevite dikelets and a few units of a distinct light greenish gray, medium-grained meta-graywacke. Most of the variations of the major and trace element abundances in the different lithologies result from the initial compositional variations of the various target rock types, as well as from aqueous alteration processes, which have undeniably affected the different rocks. Suevite from core LB-08A (fallback suevite) and fallout suevite samples (from outside the northern crater rim) display some differences in major (mainly in MgO, CaO, and Na2O contents) and minor (mainly Cr and Ni) element abundances that could be related to the higher degree of alteration of fallback suevites, but also result from differences in the clast populations of the two suevite populations. For example, granite clasts are present in fallout suevite but not in fallback breccia, and calcite clasts are present in fallback breccia and not in fallout suevite. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element abundance patterns for polymict impact breccia and basement samples are very similar to each other. Siderophile element contents in the impact breccias are not significantly

  7. Can lake sensitivity to desiccation be predicted from lake geometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Aminnezhad, Mousa; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-08-01

    Declining lake levels (Aral Sea syndrome) can be caused by changes in climate, increased water use or changed regulation patterns. This paper introduces a novel lake geometry index (LGI) to quantify lake hydrological characteristics. The index was developed using a large representative dataset of lake hypsographic characteristics from 152 lakes and man-made reservoirs. Using the LGI index, lakes can be classified into five groups: groups 1-4 when LGI is 0.5-2.5, 2.5-4.5, 4.5-6.5 and 6.5-8.5, respectively, and group 5 when LGI is >8.5. Naturally shallow and vast lakes and wetlands fall into the first group and deep man-made reservoirs in narrow valleys are in group 5. The response of three different lake systems (LGI 0.75, 2.75 and 6.5) to different water flow scenarios was then simulated using the water balance equation. From this, the index 'potential lake area' (Apot) was developed to show lake responses to changed hydro-climatological conditions. Apot and LGI can be used to classify lakes into open or closed systems. Simulations showed that lakes with low LGI have a shorter response time to flow and climate changes. As a result, the impact of water balance restoration is faster for lakes with low LGI than for lakes with high LGI. The latter are also more vulnerable to climate variation and change.

  8. Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national digital seismic network observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahulu, Sylvanus; Danuor, Sylvester Kojo

    2015-07-01

    The Government of Ghana has established a National Digital Seismic Network Observatory in Ghana with the aim of monitoring events such as earthquakes, blasts from mining and quarrying, nuclear tests, etc. The Digital Observatory was commissioned on 19 December 2012, and was dedicated to Geosciences in Ghana. Previously Ghana did not have any operational, digital seismic network acquisition system with the capability of monitoring and analysing data for planning and research purposes. The Ghana Geological Survey has been monitoring seismic events with an analogue system which was not efficient and does not deliver real-time data. Hence, the importance of setting up the National Digital Seismic Network System which would enable the Geological Survey to constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, to some extent on real-time basis. The Network System is made up of six remote digital stations that transmit data via satellite to the central observatory. Sensors used are 3× Trillium Compact and 3× Trillium 120PA with Trident digitizers. The department has also acquired strong motion equipment: Titan accelerometers with Taurus digitizers from Nanometrics. Three of each of these instruments have been installed at the Akosombo and Kpong hydrodams, and also at the Weija water supply dam. These instruments are used to monitor dams. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values established from the analysed data from the accelerometers will be used to retrofit or carry out maintenance work of the dam structures to avoid collapse. Apart from these, the observatory also assesses and analyses seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) system operated by the US Geological Survey. The Ghana Geological Survey, through its Seismic Network Observatory makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of

  9. Challenges to the Lake

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past decade we have extensively studied coastal ecosystems in the Great Lakes. Some research efforts have linked coastal receiving systems to conditions in their contributing watersheds; others have focused on developing invasive species detection and monitoring strat...

  10. About Deer Lake AOC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Named an Area of Concern under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1987, due to beneficial use impairments caused by mercury contamination: consumption restrictions, deformities or reproductive problems, eutrophication.

  11. Groundwater Quality Assessment in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apambire, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    In Ghana, West Africa, fluoride occurs as a natural pollutant in some groundwaters, while the presence of isolated high levels of nitrate and arsenic in groundwater is due to human activities such as poor sanitation, garbage disposal and mining practices. The challenge for Ghana is to ensure that groundwater quality and environmental adversities such as water level decline are not compromised by attempts to increase water quantity. Concentrations of groundwater fluoride in the study area range from 0.11 to 4.60 mg/L, with the highest concentrations found in the fluorine-enriched Bongo granitoids. Eighty-five out of 400 wells sampled have fluoride concentrations above the World Health Organization maximum guideline value of 1.5 mg/L and thus causes dental fluorosis in children drinking from the wells. The distribution of fluoride in groundwater is highly related to the distribution of dental fluorosis in the UER. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 211.00 mg/L and the mean value was 16.11 mg/L. Twenty-one samples had concentrations in excess of the guideline value of 45 mg/L. Consumption of water in excess of the guideline value, by infants, may cause an infantile disease known as methaemoglobinaemia. It is inferred that groundwaters with exceptionally high NO3 values have been contaminated principally through human activities such as farming and waste disposal. This is because wells with high nitrate concentrations are all located in and around towns and sizable villages. Also, there is good correlation between Cl and NO3 (r = +0.74), suggesting that both elements come from the same sources of pollution. Only two well waters had concentrations of iron in excess of the guideline value of 0.3 mg/L. These samples come from shallow hand-dug wells. The maximum concentration of iron in groundwaters is 3.5 mg/L. The recommended guideline limit for Al in drinking water is 0.2 mg/L; two wells had Al concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 mg/L, respectively. Other high

  12. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d

  13. Stratification of lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehrer, Bertram; Schultze, Martin

    2008-06-01

    Many lakes show vertical stratification of their water masses, at least for some extended time periods. Density differences in water bodies facilitate an evolution of chemical differences with many consequences for living organisms in lakes. Temperature and dissolved substances contribute to density differences in water. The atmosphere imposes a temperature signal on the lake surface. As a result, thermal stratification can be established during the warm season if a lake is sufficiently deep. On the contrary, during the cold period, surface cooling forces vertical circulation of water masses and removal of gradients of water properties. However, gradients of dissolved substances may be sustained for periods much longer than one annual cycle. Such lakes do not experience full overturns. Gradients may be a consequence of external inflows or groundwater seepage. In addition, photosynthesis at the lake surface and subsequent decomposition of organic material in the deeper layers of a lake can sustain a gradient of dissolved substances. Three more geochemical cycles, namely, calcite precipitation, iron cycle, and manganese cycle, are known for sustaining meromixis. A limited number of lakes do not experience a complete overturn because of pressure dependence of temperature of maximum density. Such lakes must be sufficiently deep and lie in the appropriate climate zone. Although these lakes are permanently stratified, deep waters are well ventilated, and chemical differences are small. Turbulent mixing and convective deep water renewal must be very effective. As a consequence, these lakes usually are not termed meromictic. Permanent stratification may also be created by episodic partial recharging of the deep water layer. This mechanism resembles the cycling of the ocean: horizontal gradients result from gradients at the surface, such as differential cooling or enhanced evaporation in adjacent shallow side bays. Dense water parcels can be formed which intrude the deep

  14. Pesticide and pathogen contamination of vegetables in Ghana's urban markets.

    PubMed

    Amoah, P; Drechsel, P; Abaidoo, R C; Ntow, W J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine and compare the current level of exposure of the Ghanaian urban population to hazardous pesticide and fecal coliform contamination through the consumption of fresh vegetables produced in intensive urban and periurban smallholder agriculture with informal wastewater irrigation. A total of 180 vegetable samples (lettuce, cabbage, and spring onion) were randomly collected under normal purchase conditions from 9 major markets and 12 specialized selling points in 3 major Ghanaian cities: Accra, Kumasi and Tamale. The samples were analyzed for pesticide residue on lettuce leaves, total and fecal coliforms, and helminth egg counts on all three vegetables. Chlopyrifos (Dursban) was detected on 78% of the lettuce, lindane (Gamalin 20) on 31%, endosulfan (Thiodan) on 36%, lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate) on 11%, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane on 33%. Most of the residues recorded exceeded the maximum residue limit for consumption. Vegetables from all 3 cities were fecally contaminated and carried fecal coliform populations with geometric mean values ranging from 4.0 x 10(3) to 9.3 x 10(8) g(-1) wet weight and exceeded recommended standards. Lettuce, cabbage, and spring onion also carried an average of 1.1, 0.4, and 2.7 helminth eggs g(-1), respectively. The eggs were identified as those of Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Schistosoma heamatobium, and Trichuris trichiura. Because many vegetables are consumed fresh or only slightly cooked, the study shows that intensive vegetable production, common in Ghana and its neighboring countries, threatens public health from the microbiologic and pesticide dimensions. Standard recommendations to address this situation (better legislations, law enforcement, or integrated pest management) often do not match the capabilities of farmers and authorities. The most appropriate entry point for risk decrease that also addresses postharvest contamination is washing vegetables before food

  15. Arterial Stiffness in Nonhypertensive Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Antwi, Daniel A.; Gyan, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background. Increased arterial stiffness is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in diabetes patients and general population. However, the contribution of diabetes to arterial stiffness is often masked by coexistent obesity and hypertension. In this study, we assessed arterial stiffness in nonhypertensive, nonobese type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients in Ghana. Methods. In case-control design, 166 nonhypertensive, nonobese participants, comprising 96 T2DM patients and 70 nondiabetes controls, were recruited. Peripheral and central blood pressure (BP) indices were measured, and arterial stiffness was assessed as aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao), augmentation index (AIx), cardioankle vascular index (CAVI), and heart-ankle pulse wave velocity (haPWV). Results. With similar peripheral and central BP indices, T2DM patients had higher PWVao (8.3 ± 1 versus 7.8 ± 1.3, p = 0.044) and CAVI (7.9 ± 1.2 versus 6.9 ± 0.7, p = 0.021) than nondiabetic control. AIx and haPWV were similar between T2DM and nondiabetic controls. Multiple regression models showed that, in the entire study participants, the major determinants of PWVao were diabetes status, age, gender, systolic BP, and previous smoking status (β = 0.22, 0.36, 0.48, 0.21, and 0.25, resp.; all p < 0.05); the determinants of CAVI were diabetes status, age, BMI, heart rate, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and previous smoking status (β = 0.21, 0.38, 0.2, 0.18, 0.24. 0.2, −0.19, and 0.2, resp.; all p < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings suggest that nonhypertensive, nonobese T2DM patients have increased arterial stiffness without appreciable increase in peripheral and central pressure indices. PMID:27774104

  16. Cholera outbreak following a marriage ceremony in Medinya, Western Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Acquah, Helena; Malm, Keziah; Der, Joyce; Kye-Duodu, Gideon; Mensah, Ebenezer Kofi; Sackey, Samuel Oko; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Afari, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cholera is a diarrhoea disease caused by the bacterium e. On 13th June 2011, there was a reported outbreak of acute watery diarrhoea at Medinya among people who eat at a mass traditional wedding ceremony in the Western Region of Ghana. We investigated to characterize the outbreak, and implement control and preventive measures. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study. We interviewed health workers, reviewed medical records, conducted environmental assessment and obtained water and stool samples for laboratory investigation. A suspected cholera-case defined as a person with acute watery diarrhoea, with or without vomiting, who ate food prepared at the mass traditional wedding in Medinya on 10th June 2011. We performed univariate and bivariate analysis. Results Of the 17 case-patients, 9 (52.9%) were males. The overall attack rate was 11.18% and case fatality rate was 5.9%. The most affected age group was 6-10 years (23.53%) with median age of 20 and ranged 6 to 38 years. Time of onset of symptoms was 2.00am and peaked at 10.am on 13th June. Compared to other food served, fufu with groundnut soup was more likely to have been contaminated (RR=7.3, 95%CI: 1.8-29.3). We isolated e serotype ogawa from stool samples. We observed open defaecation and poor personal hygiene. Conclusion e serotype ogawa caused a high case-fatality outbreak in Medinya. Contaminated fufu and groundnut soup were the sources. Hand washing with soap was initiated and a make shift latrine constructed following our health education and recommendations. PMID:28210372

  17. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  18. Environmental flows in the context of small reservoirs in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Kirshen, P.; Vogel, R.; Walker, P.

    2009-04-01

    Modification of rivers by dams reduces the magnitude and frequency of floods, and impacts the entire flow regime. In many cases, these modifications have adversely affected the ecological and hydrological integrity of the watershed as well as impacting food security and livelihood choices of the local community. There is now an increasing consensus that modification to river flows needs to be balanced with maintenance of essential water-dependent ecological services. Many small multi-purpose reservoirs have been built in West Africa, where rainfall is highly variable, and droughts and flash floods are frequent. These small reservoirs are an important source of water for domestic use, livestock watering, small-scale irrigation and other beneficial uses in rural communities. The small reservoirs are hydrologically linked by their associated stream network. The reservoirs alter the hydrology of the streams and the groundwater resources within the region. When an individual reservoir is considered, alteration to the entire watershed is usually not significant. However, when considered as a system, together the small reservoirs store a significant quantity of water and influence downstream flows. The small reservoirs have rarely been considered as a system, thus little consideration has been given to their collective impact on the natural environment and livelihoods of the local population in the long term. Furthermore, the impact is difficult to quantify given the diffuse nature of the small reservoirs. Therefore, a comprehensive environmental flow assessment is needed to investigate the effect of the small reservoirs as a system on the watershed, and appropriate water policy should be formulated to implement the finding from the assessment. Our project is specifically aimed at addressing this topic. We will present a case study conducted in the Upper East Region of Ghana and will discuss the findings on the hydrological, ecological and socio-economic implications of

  19. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The fluctuating water levels of Lake Chad, (13.0N, 15.0E) at the intersection of the borders of Chad, Niger and Cameroon in the Sahara Desert, is an index of the drought in Africa. The lake level continues to decrease as indicated by the growing number and extent of emerging islands as previously submerged ancient sand dunes become visible. The water impounded between the dunes is probably because of local rainfall rather than a reversal of desertification.

  20. Antarctic subglacial lake discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, Frank

    Antarctic subglacial lakes were long time supposed to be relatively closed and stable environments with long residence times and slow circulations. This view has recently been challenged with evidence of active subglacial lake discharge underneath the Antarctic ice sheet. Satellite altimetry observations witnessed rapid changes in surface elevation across subglacial lakes over periods ranging from several months to more than a year, which were interpreted as subglacial lake discharge and subsequent lake filling, and which seem to be a common and widespread feature. Such discharges are comparable to jökulhlaups and can be modeled that way using the Nye-Röthlisberger theory. Considering the ice at the base of the ice sheet at pressure melting point, subglacial conduits are sustainable over periods of more than a year and over distances of several hundreds of kilometers. Coupling of an ice sheet model to a subglacial lake system demonstrated that small changes in surface slope are sufficient to start and sustain episodic subglacial drainage events on decadal time scales. Therefore, lake discharge may well be a common feature of the subglacial hydrological system, influencing the behavior of large ice sheets, especially when subglacial lakes are perched at or near the onset of large outlet glaciers and ice streams. While most of the observed discharge events are relatively small (101-102 m3 s-1), evidence for larger subglacial discharges is found in ice free areas bordering Antarctica, and witnessing subglacial floods of more than 106 m3 s-1 that occurred during the middle Miocene.

  1. Dragon Lake, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  2. The maternal and child health services in Ghana (their origins and future).

    PubMed

    Ofosu-Amaah, S

    1981-12-01

    Before 1920, Ghana did not have any organized modern maternal and child health (MCH) services. Since then, substantial developments have taken place in all aspects of life in Ghana. Hospitals and maternity centers were established, and a campaign against maternal and infant mortality was initiated. The infant mortality rate fell from 360 in 1915 to the current country average of 121. However, the decline is not attributed solely or even mainly to MCH services, which has many weaknesses and problems relating to distribution of services, personnel development, and coordination with related agencies. In the north of Ghana, infant mortality rate is estimated at 234/1000 while in the south, the urban city of Accra has an estimated 85/1000. Trained midwives deliver only about 25% of babies; this is probably a valid measure of the outreach of services. Accra, accounting for only 10% of the population of Ghana, appears to utilize 30% of the health services: 1/3 of all deliveries and of all immunizations take place in Accra, and 28% of all public health nurses but only 15% of the community health nurses are in Accra. Another problem of MCH is the lack of amenities in the rural areas, such as safe water supplies, electricity, or educational facilities for children. It appears that the only hope of servicing these areas is by the use of lesser trained persons. Large numbers of local persons should be given training. Another alternative is to make better use of already exisiting MCH personnel by giving them resources to do their jobs effectively and enabling them to work more closely with their local communities. Ghana's MCH services have done well in urban areas. A major task now is to improve the quality of life in the rural and disadvantaged areas.

  3. Costs of near-miss obstetric complications for women and their families in Benin and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Borghi, J; Hanson, K; Acquah, C Adjei; Ekanmian, G; Filippi, V; Ronsmans, C; Brugha, R; Browne, E; Alihonou, Eusebe

    2003-12-01

    This paper estimates the total cost to women and their families associated with a spontaneous vaginal delivery and five types of 'near-miss' obstetric complication in Benin and Ghana, and assesses affordability in relation to household cash expenditure. A retrospective evaluation of costs was carried out among 121 mothers in three hospitals in Ghana. A prospective evaluation of costs was undertaken among 420 pregnant women in two hospitals in Benin. Information was collected on the cost of travel to the facilities and of direct medical and non-medical costs incurred during their stay in hospital. In Benin, costs ranged from an average of 15 US dollars for a spontaneous delivery to 256 US dollars for a near-miss complication caused by dystocia. In Ghana, average costs ranged from 18 US dollars for a spontaneous vaginal delivery to 115 US dollars for a near-miss complication caused by haemorrhage. Medical costs accounted for the largest share of total costs, mainly drugs and medical supplies in Ghana and costs of the delivery and any surgical intervention in Benin. Payments associated with a spontaneous vaginal delivery amounted to at least 2% of annual household cash expenditure in both countries. In the case of severe obstetric complications, costs incurred reached a high of 34% of annual household cash expenditure in Benin. The economic burden of hospital-based delivery care in Ghana and Benin is likely to deter or delay women's use of health services. Should a woman develop severe obstetric complications while in labour, the relatively high costs of hospital care could have a potentially catastrophic impact on the household budget.

  4. Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals Frequent Opportunities for Exposure to Hepatitis C Virus in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Forbi, Joseph C; Layden, Jennifer E; Phillips, Richard O; Mora, Nallely; Xia, Guo-Liang; Campo, David S; Purdy, Michael A; Dimitrova, Zoya E; Owusu, Dorcas O; Punkova, Lili T; Skums, Pavel; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Vaughan, Gilberto; Roh, Hajung; Opare-Sem, Ohene K; Cooper, Richard S; Khudyakov, Yury E

    2015-01-01

    Globally, hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is responsible for a large proportion of persons with liver disease, including cancer. The infection is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. West Africa was identified as a geographic origin of two HCV genotypes. However, little is known about the genetic composition of HCV populations in many countries of the region. Using conventional and next-generation sequencing (NGS), we identified and genetically characterized 65 HCV strains circulating among HCV-positive blood donors in Kumasi, Ghana. Phylogenetic analysis using consensus sequences derived from 3 genomic regions of the HCV genome, 5'-untranslated region, hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) and NS5B gene, consistently classified the HCV variants (n = 65) into genotypes 1 (HCV-1, 15%) and genotype 2 (HCV-2, 85%). The Ghanaian and West African HCV-2 NS5B sequences were found completely intermixed in the phylogenetic tree, indicating a substantial genetic heterogeneity of HCV-2 in Ghana. Analysis of HVR1 sequences from intra-host HCV variants obtained by NGS showed that three donors were infected with >1 HCV strain, including infections with 2 genotypes. Two other donors share an HCV strain, indicating HCV transmission between them. The HCV-2 strain sampled from one donor was replaced with another HCV-2 strain after only 2 months of observation, indicating rapid strain switching. Bayesian analysis estimated that the HCV-2 strains in Ghana were expanding since the 16th century. The blood donors in Kumasi, Ghana, are infected with a very heterogeneous HCV population of HCV-1 and HCV-2, with HCV-2 being prevalent. The detection of three cases of co- or super-infections and transmission linkage between 2 cases suggests frequent opportunities for HCV exposure among the blood donors and is consistent with the reported high HCV prevalence. The conditions for effective HCV-2 transmission existed for ~ 3-4 centuries, indicating a long epidemic history of HCV-2 in Ghana.

  5. International parental migration and the psychological well-being of children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne

    2015-05-01

    When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well

  6. Ghana's education reform 2007: A realistic proposition or a crisis of vision?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-07-01

    Ghana's recent "Education Reform 2007" envisions a system that strives to achieve both domestic and internationally-oriented goals emanating (1) from the Education for All (EFA) initiative, (2) from the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and (3) from global trends in education. Emboldened by the implementation of foreign-donor-funded programmes such as EFA, the restructuring of the Ghana Education Sector Project (EdSeP) and the Science Resource Centres (SRC) project, both the education reform of 2007 and recent educational policy debates have reiterated the need to emphasise the teaching of science and information and communication technology to make Ghana's students/graduates more competitive in the global labour market. However, the bulk of Ghana's economic activity actually remains domestic or unglobalised. And given a weak economy and declining social spending due to strict adherence to the prescribed structural adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB), there is concern that a focus on international competitiveness may be a crisis of vision. On the basis of the Ghanaian government's failure to meet the stated goals of previous reforms such as that of 1974, and the education system's continuing dependence on foreign donor support, this paper argues that the goals of the new reform may be unachievable on a sustainable basis. It also argues that rather than subjugate national domestic priorities to a mirage of international credibility/competitiveness, Ghana should concentrate on capacitating her students/graduates to make maximum impact at domestic and local community levels.

  7. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Koelmans, A A; Quik, J T K; Velzeboer, I

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hydraulic loadings covered the widest possible range among existing lakes. Sedimentation accounted for natural colloid as well as suspended solid settling regimes. An ENP-specific mixed sedimentation regime is proposed. This regime combines ENP sedimentation through slow settling with natural colloids from the water column, with faster settling with suspended solids from a selected part of the water column. Although sedimentation data and hydrodynamic concepts as such were not new, their first time combination or application to ENPs shows in which cases lake retention is important for these particles. In combination with ENP emission data, lake retention translates directly into potential risks of ENPs for lake benthic communities.

  8. Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi.

    PubMed

    Cetron, M S; Chitsulo, L; Sullivan, J J; Pilcher, J; Wilson, M; Noh, J; Tsang, V C; Hightower, A W; Addiss, D G

    1996-11-09

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection caused by trematodes. Humans are infected through skin contact with free-swimming cercariae which develop in freshwater snails. Schistosomiasis has been endemic to Malawi for several decades, but the open waters and shores of Lake Malawi have long been thought to be risk-free with regard to schistosomiasis transmission. However, in 1992, two US Peace Corps volunteers developed central nervous system schistosomiasis due to infection with Schistosoma haematobium following recreational water exposure at Cape Maclear on Lake Malawi. In light of these infections, a cross-sectional survey of resident expatriates and visitors to Malawi was subsequently conducted during March-April 1993 to determine the transmission potential and risk for acquiring schistosomiasis in the lake. 305 US citizens and 650 non-US foreign nationals participated in the study. Serological evidence of current or past schistosome infection was identified in 303 subjects. Indeed, seroprevalence was 32% among expatriates whose freshwater exposure was limited to Lake Malawi; S. haematobium antibodies were found in 135 of 141 seropositive specimens. The risk of seropositivity increased with the number of freshwater exposures at Lake Malawi resorts. While many resort areas in the southwestern lake region posed a significant risk, Cape Maclear was the location most strongly associated with seropositivity. Schistosome-infected Bulinus globosus, the snail vector of S. haematobium in Malawi, were found at Cape Maclear and other locations along the lakeshore.

  9. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  10. Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers, Red Lake County, Minnesota. Reconnaissance Report for Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    the -stbbasin. These are the result of efforts by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (e.g., Agassiz Lake Project and Goose Lake Project), U.S. Soil...by glacial Lake Agassiz . Upper and Lower Red Lakes are remnants of this glacial lake. The topography of the subbasin ranges from 800 feet above mean...glacial Lake Agassiz and together comprise thelargest lake area wholly contained in Minnesota. The watershed drained by the Red Lake River lies within

  11. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  12. TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999.

  13. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-03-16

    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m(2). As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions.

  14. Barriers to Accessing Emergency Medical Services in Accra, Ghana: Development of a Survey Instrument and Initial Application in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Rominski, Sarah D; Bogus, Joshua; Ginde, Adit A; Zakariah, Ahmed N; Boatemaah, Christiana A; Yancey, Arthur H; Akoriyea, Samuel Kaba; Campbell, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emergency medical services (EMS) systems provide professional prehospital emergency medical care and transportation to help improve outcomes from emergency conditions. Ghana’s national ambulance service has relatively low public utilization in comparison with the large burden of acute disease. Methods: A survey instrument was developed using Pechansky and Thomas’s model of access covering 5 dimensions of availability, accessibility, accommodation, affordability, and acceptability. The instrument was used in a cross-sectional survey in 2013 in Accra, Ghana; eligible participants were those 18 years and older who spoke English, French, or Twi. Although the analysis was mainly descriptive, logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with reported intention to call for an ambulance in the case of a medical emergency. Results: 468 participants completed surveys, with a response rate of 78.4%. Few (4.5%) respondents had ever used an ambulance in prior emergency situations. A substantial proportion (43.8%) knew about the public access medical emergency telephone number, but of those only 37.1% knew it was a toll-free call. Most (54.7%) respondents believed EMTs offered high-quality care, but 78.0% believed taxis were faster than ambulances and 69.2% thought the number of ambulances in Accra insufficient. Many (23.4%) thought using ambulances to transport corpses would be appropriate. In two hypothetical emergency scenarios, respondents most commonly reported taxis as the preferred transportation (63.6% if a family member were burned in a house fire, 64.7% if a pedestrian were struck by a vehicle). About 1 in 5 respondents said they would call an ambulance in either scenario (20.7% if a family member were burned in a house fire, 23.3% if a pedestrian were struck by a vehicle) while 15.5% and 10.2%, respectively, would use any available vehicle. Those aged 18–35 years were more likely than older respondents to prefer an ambulance (odds

  15. Entrapment of Victims of Spousal Abuse in Ghana: A Discursive Analysis of Family Identity and Agency of Battered Women.

    PubMed

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-06-02

    Drawing on discursive psychology and positioning theory, this study explores the influence of cultural and familial value orientations on battered women's identity, agency, and decision to leave or stay in abusive conjugal relationship in Ghana. Two semi-structured focus group discussions and four in-depth personal interviews were conducted with 16 victims of husband-to-wife abuse from rural and urban Ghana. The findings indicate that entrapment of victims of spousal abuse in Ghana reflects their social embeddedness and that battered women's identities and agency are expressed in the context of familial and cultural value orientations. The primacy of family identity and victims' apparent implicit moral obligation to preserve the social image of their extended family influence their entrapment. Participants' discursive accounts further suggest that stay or leave decisions of battered women in Ghana reflect a joint product of negotiated agency between victims and their extended family. It is thus argued that the agency of battered women in Ghana is not constituted by individual psychological states or motives, but instead, viewed as a property of victims who exercise it in a given relational context, and partly constituted by familial relationships and identities. The study suggests that intervention initiatives in Ghana should focus on the phenomenon of conjugal violence beyond immediate victims to include families and the larger communities in which victims are embedded.

  16. Contaminants in American alligator eggs from Lake Apopka, Lake Griffin, and Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Percival, H.F.; Jennings, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 elements were measured in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) eggs collected in 1984 from Lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Okeechobee in central and south Florida. Organochlorine pesticides were highest in eggs from Lake Apopka. None of the elements appeared to be present at harmful concentrations in eggs from any of the lakes. A larger sample of eggs was collected in 1985, but only from Lakes Griffin, a lake where eggs were relatively clean, and Apopka, where eggs were most contaminated. In 1985, hatching success of artificially incubated eggs was lower for Lake Apopka, and several organochlorine pesticides were higher than in eggs from Lake Griffin. However, within Lake Apopka, higher levels of pesticides in chemically analyzed eggs were not associated with reduced hatching success of the remaining eggs in the clutch. Therefore, it did not appear that any of the pesticides we measured were responsible for the reduced hatching of Lake Apopka eggs.

  17. Big lake records preserved in a little lake's sediment: An example from Silver Lake, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, T.G.; Loope, W.L.; Pierce, W.; Jol, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    We reconstruct postglacial lake-level history within the Lake Michigan basin using soil stratigraphy, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), sedimentology and 14C data from the Silver Lake basin, which lies adjacent to Lake Michigan. Stratigraphy in nine vibracores recovered from the floor of Silver Lake appears to reflect fluctuation of water levels in the Lake Michigan basin. Aeolian activity within the study area from 3,000 years (cal yr. B.P.) to the present was inferred from analysis of buried soils, an aerial photograph sequence, and GPR. Sediments in and around Silver Lake appear to contain a paleoenvironmental record that spans the entire post-glacial history of the Lake Michigan basin. We suggest that (1) a pre-Nipissing rather than a Nipissing barrier separated Silver Lake basin from the Lake Michigan basin, (2) that the Nipissing transgression elevated the water table in the Silver Lake basin about 6,500 cal yr. B.P., resulting in reestablishment of a lake within the basin, and (3) that recent dune migration into Silver Lake is associated with levels of Lake Michigan.

  18. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry, and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  19. 10Be content in clasts from fallout suevitic breccia in drill cores from the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana: Clues to preimpact target distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Michlmayr, Leonard; Koeberl, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Rocks from drill cores LB-07A (crater fill) and LB-08A (central uplift) into the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana, were analyzed for the presence of the cosmogenic radionuclide 10Be. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which target rocks of various depths were mixed during the formation of the crater-filling breccia, and also to detect meteoric water infiltration within the impactite layer. 10Be abundances above background were found in two (out of 24) samples from the LB-07A core, and in none of five samples from the LB-08A core. After excluding other possible explanations for an elevated 10Be signal, we conclude that it is most probably due to a preimpact origin of those clasts from target rocks close to the surface. Our results suggest that in-crater breccias were well mixed during the impact cratering process. In addition, the lack of a 10Be signal within the rocks located very close to the lake sediment-impactite boundary suggests that infiltration of meteoric water below the postimpact crater floor was limited. This may suggest that the infiltration of the meteoric water within the crater takes place not through the aerial pore-space, but rather through a localized system of fractures.

  20. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  1. Crater Lake revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, David W.; Dartnell, Peter; Bacon, Charles R.; Robinson, Joel E.; Gardner, James V.

    2003-01-01

    Around 500,000 people each year visit Crater Lake National Park in the Cascade Range of southern Oregon. Volcanic peaks, evergreen forests, and Crater Lake’s incredibly blue water are the park’s main attractions. Crater Lake partially fills the caldera that formed approximately 7,700 years ago by the eruption and subsequent collapse of a 12,000-foot volcano called Mount Mazama. The caldera-forming or climactic eruption of Mount Mazama drastically changed the landscape all around the volcano and spread a blanket of volcanic ash at least as far away as southern Canada. Prior to the climactic event, Mount Mazama had a 400,000 year history of cone building activity like that of other Cascade volcanoes such as Mount Shasta. Since the climactic eruption, there have been several less violent, smaller postcaldera eruptions within the caldera itself. However, relatively little was known about the specifics of these eruptions because their products were obscured beneath Crater Lake’s surface. As the Crater Lake region is still potentially volcanically active, understanding past eruptive events is important to understanding future eruptions, which could threaten facilities and people at Crater Lake National Park and the major transportation corridor east of the Cascades. Recently, the lake bottom was mapped with a high-resolution multibeam echo sounder. The new bathymetric survey provides a 2m/pixel view of the lake floor from its deepest basins virtually to the shoreline. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, the bathymetry data can be visualized and analyzed to shed light on the geology, geomorphology, and geologic history of Crater Lake.

  2. The Wandering Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In the area at the very far eastern corner of China's Taklimakan Desert, Lop Nor Lake was located up until some years ago. Lop Nor, also called the 'the heart of the heart' of Asia, was the place where the waters of the largest inner basin (i.e., not flowing into the sea) of the world-including the Tarim and Kum-daria Rivers-were collected. Depending on the balance between rainfall water yield and evaporation, both position and size of the lake were strongly variable, thus giving rise to the legend of the Wandering Lake. 'Lop City' was the place where Marco Polo took his last rest before facing the one-year long crossing of the Gobi Desert. Starting from the end of the 19th century, several explorers tried to find the legendary place. One such explorer was Sven Hedin, who was commissioned by the Governor of Nanjing to lead an expedition to find the lake. In 1937, the Swedish explorer published his book entitled The Wandering Lake. Comparing this very precise map from Sven Hedin's book with the above Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) false-color image (acquired on October 28, 2001), one can find a faint sign on the soil where the Lop Nor was located. This image, derived using a combination of MODIS' near-infrared and red channels (vegetation in red), shows where the Tarim River waters currently end their flow. The Wandering Lake does not exist anymore. The combination of climate change and human exploitation of water resources for agriculture caused the disappearance of the lake. This image was processed by Telespazio, Earth Observation division, new products development facility in Rome, Italy. The MODIS sensor flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. Caption and image courtesy Luca Pietranera, Telespazio, Rome, Italy, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  3. Lake Sarez, Tajikistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Sarez (top), deep in the Pamir mountains of Tajikistan, was created 90 years ago when a strong earthquake triggered a massive landslide that, in turn, became a huge dam along the Murghob River, now called the Usoi Dam. The resulting lake is perched above surrounding drainages at an elevation greater than 3000m, and is part of the watershed that drains the towering Akademi Nauk Range (see the regional image, lower). The lake is 61 km long and as deep as 500 m, and holds an estimated 17 cubic km of water. The area experiences considerable seismic activity, and scientists fear that part of the right bank may slump into the lake, creating a huge wave that will top over and possibly breach the natural dam. Such a wave would create a catastrophic flood downstream along the Bartang, Panj and Amu Darya Rivers, perhaps reaching all the way to the Aral Sea. Currently, central Asian governments, as well as the World Bank and the UN are monitoring the dam closely, and have proposed gradually lowering the lake level as a preventive measure. More information about the lake is available at the following web sites: Lake Sarez Study group, UN Report, Reliefweb Digital photograph numbers ISS002-E-7771 and ISS002-E-7479 were taken in the spring of 2001 from Space Station Alpha and are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  4. E-waste disposal effects on the aquatic environment: Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip Nti; Anim, Desmond Ofosu; Mensah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The volume of e-waste is growing around the world, and, increasingly, it is being disposed of by export from developed to developing countries. This is the situation in Ghana, and, in this paper we address the potential consequences of such e-waste disposal. Herein, we describe how e-waste is processed in Ghana, and what the fate is of e-waste-chemical contaminants during recycling and storage. Finally, to the extent it is known, we address the prospective adverse effects of e-waste-related contaminants on health and aquatic life downstream from a large e-waste disposal facility in Accra, Ghana.In developing countries, including Ghana, e-waste is routinely disassembled by unprotected workers that utilize rudimentary methods and tools. Once disassembled,e-waste components are often stored in large piles outdoors. These processing and storage methods expose workers and local residents to several heavy metals and organic chemicals that exist in e-waste components. The amount of e-waste dumped in Ghana is increasing annually by about 20,000 t. The local aquatic environment is at a potential high risk, because the piles of e-waste components stored outside are routinely drenched or flooded by rainfall, producing run-off from storage sites to local waterways. Both water and sediment samples show that e-waste-related contaminant shave entered Ghana's water ways.The extent of pollution produced in key water bodies of Ghana (Odaw River and the Korle Lagoon) underscores the need for aquatic risk assessments of the many contaminants released during e-waste processing. Notwithstanding the fact that pollutants from other sources reach the water bodies, it is clear that these water bodies are also heavily impacted by contaminants that are found in e-waste. Our concern is that such exposures have limited and will continue to limit the diversity of aquatic organisms.There have also been changes in the abundance and biomass of surviving species and changes in food chains. Therefore

  5. Examining indirect effects of lake trout recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the recovery of lake trout populations in Lake Superior, there are indications of decreased forage fish abundance and density-dependence in lake trout. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 60 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 60 m...

  6. Hydrogeologic Controls on Lake Level at Mountain Lake, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roningen, J. M.; Burbey, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    Mountain Lake in Giles County, Virginia has a documented history of severe natural lake-level changes involving groundwater seepage that extend over the past 4200 years. Featured in the 1986 movie Dirty Dancing, the natural lake dried up completely in September 2008 and levels have not yet recovered. A hydrogeologic investigation was undertaken in an effort to determine the factors influencing lake level changes. A daily water balance, dipole-dipole electrical resistivity surveying, well logging and chemical sampling have shed light on: 1) the influence of a fault not previously discussed in literature regarding the lake, 2) the seasonal response to precipitation of a forested first-order drainage system in fractured rock, and 3) the possibility of flow pathways related to karst features. Geologic controls on lake level were investigated using several techniques. Geophysical surveys using dipole-dipole resistivity located possible subsurface flowpaths both to and from the lake. Well logs, lineament analysis, and joint sampling were used to assess structural controls on lake hydrology. Major ions were sampled at wells, springs, streams, and the lake to evaluate possible mixing of different sources of water in the lake. Groundwater levels were monitored for correlation to lake levels, rainfall events, and possible seismic effects. The hydrology of the lake was quantified with a water balance on a daily time step. Results from the water balance indicate steady net drainage and significant recharge when vegetation is dormant, particularly during rain-on-snow melt events. The resistivity survey reveals discrete areas that represent flow pathways from the lake, as well as flowpaths to springs upgradient of the lake located in the vicinity of the fault. The survey also suggests that some flowpaths may originate outside of the topographic watershed of the lake. Chemical evidence indicates karst may underlie the lakebed. Historical data suggest that artificial intervention

  7. 42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to peaks of Outter Lodge, completed in 1964. Construction of the lake got underway in 1964. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  8. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  9. View of Lake Sabrina Dam and dry Lake Sabrina Basin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam and dry Lake Sabrina Basin with the upstream side of the outlet structure visible at photo center, view to north-northwest - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  10. National Lakes Assessment: A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Lakes Assessment A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Lakes presents the results of an unprecedented assessment of the nation’s lakes. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the pub...

  11. Chemours Pompton Lakes Works Site, Pompton Lakes, NJ

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    E.I. DuPont De Nemours & Company is located at 2000 Cannonball Road, Pompton Lakes, New Jersey. The DuPont Pompton Lakes Works site (DuPont) occupies approximately 570 acres of land in Pompton Lakes and Wanaque.

  12. National Lakes Assessment 2007 Results

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Lakes Assessment samples over 1,000 lakes, ponds and reservoirs across the country. Key findings from this assessment in 2007 include the biological condition and most widespread stressors of these waterbodies.

  13. Temporal trends in childhood mortality in Ghana: impacts and challenges of health policies and programs

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Gbenga A.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Koduah, Augustina; Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Agyepong, Irene A.; Ansah, Evelyn; van Dijk, Han; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Background Following the adoption of the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) in Ghana to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, efforts were made towards its attainment. However, impacts and challenges of implemented intervention programs have not been examined to inform implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 (SDG 3.2) that seeks to end preventable deaths of newborns and children aged under-five. Thus, this study aimed to compare trends in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality over two decades and to highlight the impacts and challenges of health policies and intervention programs implemented. Design Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data (1988–2008) were analyzed using trend analysis. Poisson regression analysis was applied to quantify the incidence rate ratio of the trends. Implemented health policies and intervention programs to reduce childhood mortality in Ghana were reviewed to identify their impact and challenges. Results Since 1988, the annual average rate of decline in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in Ghana was 0.6, 1.0, and 1.2%, respectively. From 1988 to 1989, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality declined from 48 to 33 per 1,000, 72 to 58 per 1,000, and 108 to 83 per 1,000, respectively, whereas from 1989 to 2008, neonatal mortality increased by 2 per 1,000 while infant and under-five mortality further declined by 6 per 1,000 and 17 per 1,000, respectively. However, the observed declines were not statistically significant except for under-five mortality; thus, the proportion of infant and under-five mortality attributed to neonatal death has increased. Most intervention programs implemented to address childhood mortality seem not to have been implemented comprehensively. Conclusion Progress towards attaining MDG 4 in Ghana was below the targeted rate, particularly for neonatal mortality as most health policies and programs targeted infant and under-five mortality. Implementing neonatal

  14. EXPANSION OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL: REPORT OF THE FIRST AUTOCHTHONOUS CASE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF VOLTA REDONDA AND THE DIFFICULTY OF DIAGNOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Lima, Sebastião Roberto de Almeida; de Mello, Cíntia Xavier; Cardoso, Daniela Trindade; Mello, Jurema Nunes; do Espírito Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Tavares, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis has been showing remarkable epidemiological changes in recent decades, with marked expansion and an emergence of cases in urban areas of the North, Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil. The Kala-azar cases reported here, despite being very characteristic, presented a great difficulty of diagnosis, because the disease is not endemic in Volta Redonda. The child underwent two hospitalizations in different hospitals, but got the correct diagnosis only after 11 months of symptom onset. In this report we discuss the main differential diagnoses and call attention to the suspected symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis in patients with prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia, even in areas not traditionally endemic for the disease. PMID:24879008

  15. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences.

  16. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  17. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes,…

  18. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  19. Lake-level frequency analysis for Devils Lake, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    1996-01-01

    An annual lake-volume model and a statistical water mass-balance model were used to estimate future lake-level probabilities for Devils Lake. Comparison of the models indicates upper exceedance levels of the water mass-balance model increase much more rapidly than those of the annual lake-volume model. For simulation year 5, the 99-percent exceedance is 1,417.6 feet above sea level for the annual lake-volume model and 1,423.2 feet above sea level for the water mass-balance model.

  20. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free