Science.gov

Sample records for voltage stability evaluation

  1. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  2. Voltage stability analysis in the new deregulated environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tong

    Nowadays, a significant portion of the power industry is under deregulation. Under this new circumstance, network security analysis is more critical and more difficult. One of the most important issues in network security analysis is voltage stability analysis. Due to the expected higher utilization of equipment induced by competition in a power market that covers bigger power systems, this issue is increasingly acute after deregulation. In this dissertation, some selected topics of voltage stability analysis are covered. In the first part, after a brief review of general concepts of continuation power flow (CPF), investigations on various matrix analysis techniques to improve the speed of CPF calculation for large systems are reported. Based on these improvements, a new CPF algorithm is proposed. This new method is then tested by an inter-area transaction in a large inter-connected power system. In the second part, the Arnoldi algorithm, the best method to find a few minimum singular values for a large sparse matrix, is introduced into the modal analysis for the first time. This new modal analysis is applied to the estimation of the point of voltage collapse and contingency evaluation in voltage security assessment. Simulations show that the new method is very efficient. In the third part, after transient voltage stability component models are investigated systematically, a novel system model for transient voltage stability analysis, which is a logical-algebraic-differential-difference equation (LADDE), is offered. As an example, TCSC (Thyristor controlled series capacitors) is addressed as a transient voltage stabilizing controller. After a TCSC transient voltage stability model is outlined, a new TCSC controller is proposed to enhance both fault related and load increasing related transient voltage stability. Its ability is proven by the simulation.

  3. Optimization of power system voltage stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamp, Jason Edwin

    Contemporary power systems exist under heavy stress, caused by higher asset utilization in electric power transmission. As networks are operated nearer to their limits, new stability issues have arisen. One of the more destructive problems is voltage instability, where large areas of an electrical network may experience reduced voltages or collapse because of high reactive power demand. Voltage stability margins may be improved through the adjustment of the system operating position, which alters the power flow profile of the transmission network. Furthermore, the margins may be optimized through the application of nonlinear programming, if they are quantified using an index of voltage collapse proximity. This dissertation details the maximization of the eigenvalues of the reduced reactive power-voltage matrix, in an effort to increase voltage security. The nonlinear optimization was solved using four different techniques. First, a conventional optimal power flow was applied to the problem, which solved linear approximations of the original problem and maintained feasibility for the intermediate points. This method was augmented to include a quadratic model of the objective function. In addition, the feasibility requirement was relaxed to produce a third solution technique. Finally, the stability optimization problem was solved using a quadratic model without the feasibility requirement. Tests of all four methods were performed on three sample power systems. The systems included six, 14, and 118 bus examples. In all three cases, each of the four methods effected improvement in the stability margin, as measured by a variety of indicators. The infeasible linear solution provided the best results, based on runtime and the relative stability improvement. Also, the results showed that the additional quadratic approximation did not provide any measurable benefit to the procedure. Moreover, the methods that specified feasibility at each step were inferior compared to the

  4. Using a Programmable JVS for evaluation of Zener voltage standards stability and secondary uncertainty under controlled temperature variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade, Marcelo R.; Landim, Regis P.

    2016-07-01

    A study was carried out with two 732B model Zener-diode based electronic voltage standards, in order to analyze the influence of external temperature variation in their outputs. The temperature was controlled and the external variations were monitored. Inmetro Programmable Josephson Voltage Standard (PJVS) and Secondary systems were used for this purpose. Studies have shown that, despite the internal temperature control, there is a strong correlation between the external temperature and the internal thermistor value, for both Zeners. Inmetro Zener calibration uncertainty budget was revisited and the achieved uncertainties are ±0.09 μV (at 1.018 V) and ±0.4 μV (at 10 V), k=2.

  5. Memristor-integrated voltage-stabilizing supercapacitor system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Boyang; Wang, Xianfu; Wu, Xinghui; Zhao, Wenning; Xu, Zhimou; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-08-01

    Voltage-stabilized supercapacitors: A single supercapacitor formed with PCBM/Pt/IPS nanorod-array electrodes is designed and delivers enhanced areal capacitance, capacitance retention, and excellent electrical stability under bending, while a significant voltage-decrease is observed during the discharging process. Once integrated with the memristor, the memristor-integrated supercapacitor systems deliver an extremely low voltage-drop, indicating greatly enhanced voltage-stabilizing features.

  6. New online voltage stability margins and risk assessment for multi-bus smart power grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldeen, M.; Saha, S.; Alpcan, T.; Evans, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a quantitative framework for assessment of voltage stability in smart power networks. First, new stability indices similar to gain and phase margins in linear time invariant control systems are introduced. These indices can be computed online in conjunction with load-flow calculations. Then, a novel risk assessment framework incorporating the new stability indices is developed to methodologically quantify the voltage stability risks a power system faces at any given operating condition. In contrast to existing local stability indices and qualitative risk approaches, the indices and framework introduced provide analytical and quantitative evaluation of voltage stability and associated risks. The results are illustrated with a numerical example.

  7. Optimal placement of unified power flow controllers to improve dynamic voltage stability using power system variable based voltage stability indices.

    PubMed

    Albatsh, Fadi M; Ahmad, Shameem; Mekhilef, Saad; Mokhlis, Hazlie; Hassan, M A

    2015-01-01

    This study examines a new approach to selecting the locations of unified power flow controllers (UPFCs) in power system networks based on a dynamic analysis of voltage stability. Power system voltage stability indices (VSIs) including the line stability index (LQP), the voltage collapse proximity indicator (VCPI), and the line stability index (Lmn) are employed to identify the most suitable locations in the system for UPFCs. In this study, the locations of the UPFCs are identified by dynamically varying the loads across all of the load buses to represent actual power system conditions. Simulations were conducted in a power system computer-aided design (PSCAD) software using the IEEE 14-bus and 39- bus benchmark power system models. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. When the UPFCs are placed in the locations obtained with the new approach, the voltage stability improves. A comparison of the steady-state VSIs resulting from the UPFCs placed in the locations obtained with the new approach and with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution (DE), which are static methods, is presented. In all cases, the UPFC locations given by the proposed approach result in better voltage stability than those obtained with the other approaches.

  8. Optimal placement of unified power flow controllers to improve dynamic voltage stability using power system variable based voltage stability indices.

    PubMed

    Albatsh, Fadi M; Ahmad, Shameem; Mekhilef, Saad; Mokhlis, Hazlie; Hassan, M A

    2015-01-01

    This study examines a new approach to selecting the locations of unified power flow controllers (UPFCs) in power system networks based on a dynamic analysis of voltage stability. Power system voltage stability indices (VSIs) including the line stability index (LQP), the voltage collapse proximity indicator (VCPI), and the line stability index (Lmn) are employed to identify the most suitable locations in the system for UPFCs. In this study, the locations of the UPFCs are identified by dynamically varying the loads across all of the load buses to represent actual power system conditions. Simulations were conducted in a power system computer-aided design (PSCAD) software using the IEEE 14-bus and 39- bus benchmark power system models. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. When the UPFCs are placed in the locations obtained with the new approach, the voltage stability improves. A comparison of the steady-state VSIs resulting from the UPFCs placed in the locations obtained with the new approach and with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution (DE), which are static methods, is presented. In all cases, the UPFC locations given by the proposed approach result in better voltage stability than those obtained with the other approaches. PMID:25874560

  9. Optimal Placement of Unified Power Flow Controllers to Improve Dynamic Voltage Stability Using Power System Variable Based Voltage Stability Indices

    PubMed Central

    Albatsh, Fadi M.; Ahmad, Shameem; Mekhilef, Saad; Mokhlis, Hazlie; Hassan, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines a new approach to selecting the locations of unified power flow controllers (UPFCs) in power system networks based on a dynamic analysis of voltage stability. Power system voltage stability indices (VSIs) including the line stability index (LQP), the voltage collapse proximity indicator (VCPI), and the line stability index (Lmn) are employed to identify the most suitable locations in the system for UPFCs. In this study, the locations of the UPFCs are identified by dynamically varying the loads across all of the load buses to represent actual power system conditions. Simulations were conducted in a power system computer-aided design (PSCAD) software using the IEEE 14-bus and 39- bus benchmark power system models. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. When the UPFCs are placed in the locations obtained with the new approach, the voltage stability improves. A comparison of the steady-state VSIs resulting from the UPFCs placed in the locations obtained with the new approach and with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution (DE), which are static methods, is presented. In all cases, the UPFC locations given by the proposed approach result in better voltage stability than those obtained with the other approaches. PMID:25874560

  10. High voltage stability performance of a gamma ray detection device

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Lombigit, Lojius; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd

    2014-02-12

    An industrial grade digital radiation survey meter device is currently being developed at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This device used a cylindrical type Geiger Mueller (GM) which acts as a detector. GM detector operates at relatively high direct current voltages depend on the type of GM tube. This thin/thick walled cylindrical type of GM tube operates at 450-650 volts range. Proper value and stability performance of high voltage are important parameters to ensure that this device give a reliable radiation dose measurement. This paper will present an assessment of the stability and performance of the high voltage supply for radiation detector. The assessment is performed using System Identification tools box in MATLAB and mathematical statistics.

  11. High voltage stability performance of a gamma ray detection device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Lombigit, Lojius; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd

    2014-02-01

    An industrial grade digital radiation survey meter device is currently being developed at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This device used a cylindrical type Geiger Mueller (GM) which acts as a detector. GM detector operates at relatively high direct current voltages depend on the type of GM tube. This thin/thick walled cylindrical type of GM tube operates at 450-650 volts range. Proper value and stability performance of high voltage are important parameters to ensure that this device give a reliable radiation dose measurement. This paper will present an assessment of the stability and performance of the high voltage supply for radiation detector. The assessment is performed using System Identification tools box in MATLAB and mathematical statistics.

  12. Application of SMES in wind farm to improve voltage stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, J.; Tang, Y. J.; Ren, L.; Li, J. D.; Chen, S. J.

    2008-09-01

    For the wind farms introducing doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs), voltage stability is an essential issue which influences their widely integration into the power grid. This paper proposes the application of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in the power system integrated with wind farms. SMES can control the active and reactive power flow, realizing the operation in four quadrants independently. The introducing of SMES can smooth the output power flow of the wind farms, and supply dynamic voltage support. Using MATLAB/SIMULINK, the models of the DFIG, the power grid connected and the SMES are created. Simulation results show that the voltage stability of the power system integrated with wind farms can be improved considerably.

  13. STABILITY OF HIGH VOLTAGE MODULATORS FOR NONLINEAR LOADS

    SciTech Connect

    PAWLEY,J.C; TOOKER,J; PEAVY,J; CARY,W.P; NEREM,A; HOYT,D; LOHR,J

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 Gyrotrons have a nonlinear voltage--current characteristic such that the small signal or ac impedance changes as operational voltage and currents are reached. The ac impedance determines the stability of a voltage or current control system. this can become particularly challenging when several gyrotron are connected in parallel to a single modulator. With all gyrotrons hooked to a common ground, large current loops can be generated as well as non-canceling currents in individual coaxial lines. These inequalities can provide the required feedback impulse to start an oscillation condition in the power system for the tubes. Recent operation of two CPI 110 GHz gyrotrons in the MN class from a single modulator on DIII-D has shown instability in the power system. An oscillation in the drive current occurs at various points in the ramp up and flat top portions of the 80 kV voltage pulse with each tube drawing 40 A at full voltage. Efforts to stabilize these instabilities are presented along with some modeling and examination of the issues for gyrotron modulators.

  14. Fast voltage stability assessment and reinforcement in an interconnected power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Wen-Ta

    1998-12-01

    It is believed that voltage stability analysis will be more difficult due to the full utilization of transmission systems and the growth of inter-utility power transfer. An online voltage stability analyzing system which can be incorporated into the EMS to deal with the threats of suddenly arising voltage collapses is presented. Operating margin prediction, voltage stability assessment and reinforcement are three major functions. Two predicting methods are proposed to calculate the operating margin according to current operating condition and the anticipative system state. A fast risk indicator based on the saddle-node bifurcation theory is designed to predict the proximity of a system to voltage collapse. A novel CPF method which can trace the power flow solution path through the nose point without notorious numerical difficulties is presented. Speed is the advantage of former method, while accuracy is the important feature of latter one. Voltage stability assessment is required to predict steady-state conditions of a system following a large number of anticipated transmission branch or generator outages. An efficient and simple method based on voltage sensitivity changing rates is proposed for quickly identify the weak buses in a large-scale system. An effective contingency selection function relying on search algorithms built into power flow solutions is designed to filter out most of harmless contingencies for system operators who are working with rapidly changing load/generation patterns and a wide variety of operating conditions. A contingency evaluation function having the ability to deal with real-time numerous contingencies in a very short period of time is utilized to find high-severity contingencies. Var compensation and load shedding are two remedial measures of reinforcement function. Suitable var compensation scheme has three contributions: extending operating margin to avoid voltage collapses, fully utilizing the transmission infrastructure to earn

  15. Strategies for Voltage Control and Transient Stability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    2013-09-25

    As wind generation grows, its influence on power system performance will becoming increasingly noticeable. Wind generation di ffers from traditional forms of generation in numerous ways though, motivating the need to reconsider the usual approaches to power system assessment and performance enhancement. The project has investigated the impact of wind generation on transient stability and voltage control, identifying and addressing issues at three distinct levels of the power system: 1) at the device level, the physical characteristics of wind turbine generators (WTGs) are quite unlike those of synchronous machines, 2) at the wind-farm level, the provision of reactive support is achieved through coordination of numerous dissimilar devices, rather than straightforward generator control, and 3) from a systems perspective, the location of wind-farms on the sub-transmission network, coupled with the variability inherent in their power output, can cause complex voltage control issues. The project has sought to develop a thorough understanding of the dynamic behaviour of type-3 WTGs, and in particular the WECC generic model. The behaviour of such models is governed by interactions between the continuous dynamics of state variables and discrete events associated with limits. It was shown that these interactions can be quite complex, and may lead to switching deadlock that prevents continuation of the trajectory. Switching hysteresis was proposed for eliminating deadlock situations. Various type-3 WTG models include control blocks that duplicate integrators. It was shown that this leads to non-uniqueness in the conditions governing steady-state, and may result in pre- and post-disturbance equilibria not coinciding. It also gives rise to a zero eigenvalue in the linearized WTG model. In order to eliminate the anomalous behaviour revealed through this investigation, WECC has now released a new generic model for type-3 WTGs. Wind-farms typically incorporate a variety of

  16. On the Configuration of the US Western Interconnection Voltage Stability Boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Wu, Di; Hou, Zhangshuan; Elbert, Stephen T.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2014-04-01

    Abstract—Stability limits are considered in power system planning and operations to estimate the available stability margins and, if possible, to maximize the utilization of transmission facilities. These important tasks are influenced by configuration of the stability boundary. The paper introduces a new fast approach to explore the voltage stability boundary of a large system and reveal its detailed multidimensional structure. The 17939-bus U.S. Western Interconnection planning model was used to illustrate the method. Significant peculiarities of the boundary’s configuration were identified, including its nonconvexity, discontinuity, branching and internal singularities (“holes”) that were not known before and could not been found by traditional methods. Experiments using WECC system are performed to evaluate the computation time using different methods. Our results show that the proposed methods are very promising in reducing calculation time and complexity

  17. Ultrasonic evaluation of high voltage circuit boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Riley, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary observations indicate that an ultrasonic scanning technique may be useful as a quick, low cost, nondestructive method for judging the quality of circuit board materials for high voltage applications. Corona inception voltage tests were conducted on fiberglass-epoxy and fiberglass-polyimide high pressure laminates from 20 to 140 C. The same materials were scanned ultrasonically by utilizing the single transducer, through-transmission technique with reflector plate, and recording variations in ultrasonic energy transmitted through the board thickness. A direct relationship was observed between ultrasonic transmission level and corona inception voltage. The ultrasonic technique was subsequently used to aid selection of high quality circuit boards for the Communications Technology Satellite.

  18. A new application area for fullerenes: voltage stabilizers for power cable insulation.

    PubMed

    Jarvid, Markus; Johansson, Anette; Kroon, Renee; Bjuggren, Jonas M; Wutzel, Harald; Englund, Villgot; Gubanski, Stanislaw; Andersson, Mats R; Müller, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Fullerenes are shown to be efficient voltage-stabilizers for polyethylene, i.e., additives that increase the dielectric strength of the insulation material. Such compounds are highly sought-after because their use in power-cable insulation may considerably enhance the transmission efficiency of tomorrow's power grids. On a molal basis, fullerenes are the most efficient voltage stabilizers reported to date.

  19. Cycle versus voltage hold - Which is the better stability test for electrochemical double layer capacitors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarth, D.; Foelske-Schmitz, A.; Kötz, R.

    2013-03-01

    The stability of electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) utilizing an ionic liquid and tetraethylammoninium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4) in acetonitrile electrolyte was tested by cycling and by constant voltage hold tests. It turned out that possible degradation of the EDLC is visible in the voltage hold test after a time period which is typically much shorter if compared to the cycle tests. A constant capacitance during several thousands of cycles does not necessarily indicate stability. For capacitor cells using a carbon black as active material and an ionic liquid as electrolyte constant capacitance could be demonstrated over 12,000 cycles between 0 V and 3.75 V. Clear ageing was observed, however, during the voltage hold test at 3.75 V after 300 h. For a maximum voltage of 3.5 V both the cycle and the voltage hold test indicated stable performance over 12,000 cycles or 500 h, respectively. For capacitors using an activated carbon as active material and standard electrolyte TEABF4 in acetonitrile both tests clearly demonstrated degradation for a maximum cell voltage of 3.5 V. The evolution of capacitance loss observed for the voltage hold test at 3.25 V is in good agreement with the degradation observed at 3.5 V for the voltage hold test.

  20. Performance Comparison of Voltage Stability Indices for Weak Bus Identification in Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verayiah, R.; Mohamed, A.; Shareef, H.; Zainal Abidin, I. Hj

    2013-06-01

    Voltage collapse event is identified as complex and localized in nature but its effect is extensive once occurred. The vital effect of voltage collapse would be the total system collapse or blackouts which would cost a large loss to utility companies. Eventually, on- line monitoring of power system stability has become an important factor for electric power utilities. The last utmost option to avert voltage collapse incident from occurring is by the implementation of under voltage load shedding scheme. The identification of location for load shedding is the main motivation of the study. The weakest bus in a power system is identified as the location for load shedding. This location is obtained using voltage stability index Ld. The performance and effectiveness of Ld index is compared with Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI) and Le Index. The results obtained indicate that Ld Index can be used to identify the weak bus in a power system and consequently for the placement of UVLS relays in a power system network.

  1. Voltage Stability Impact of Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Systems Utilizing Dynamic Reactive Power Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omole, Adedamola

    Photovoltaic (PV) DGs can be optimized to provide reactive power support to the grid, although this feature is currently rarely utilized as most DG systems are designed to operate with unity power factor and supply real power only to the grid. In this work, the voltage stability of a power system embedded with PV DG is examined in the context of the high reactive power requirement after a voltage sag or fault. A real-time dynamic multi-function power controller that enables renewable source PV DGs to provide the reactive power support necessary to maintain the voltage stability of the microgrid, and consequently, the wider power system is proposed. The loadability limit necessary to maintain the voltage stability of an interconnected microgrid is determined by using bifurcation analysis to test for the singularity of the network Jacobian and load differential equations with and without the contribution of the DG. The maximum and minimum real and reactive power support permissible from the DG is obtained from the loadability limit and used as the limiting factors in controlling the real and reactive power contribution from the PV source. The designed controller regulates the voltage output based on instantaneous power theory at the point-of-common coupling (PCC) while the reactive power supply is controlled by means of the power factor and reactive current droop method. The control method is implemented in a modified IEEE 13-bus test feeder system using PSCADRTM power system analysis software and is applied to the model of a Tampa ElectricRTM PV installation at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL. This dissertation accomplishes the systematic analysis of the voltage impact of a PV DG-embedded power distribution system. The method employed in this work bases the contribution of the PV resource on the voltage stability margins of the microgrid rather than the commonly used loss-of-load probability (LOLP) and effective load-carrying capability (ELCC) measures. The results of

  2. Biological sludge stabilization reactor evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Corbitt, R.A.; Bowen, P.T.; Smith, P.E.

    1998-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion was chosen as the means to stabilize primary and thickened waste activated sludge for a 0.88 m{sup 3}/s (20 mgd) advanced wastewater reclamation facility. Two stage digestion was proposed to produce Class B sludge. Reactor shape was an important variable in design of the first stage digestion. Evaluation of conventional and egg shaped anaerobic digesters was performed. Based on the economic and non-economic criteria analysis, egg shaped reactors were selected.

  3. Enhancement of Voltage Stability of DC Smart Grid During Islanded Mode by Load Shedding Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassor, Thabit Salim; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the voltage stability of a DC smart grid based on renewable energy resources during grid connected and isolated modes. During the islanded mode the load shedding, based on the state of charge of the battery and distribution line voltage, was proposed for voltage stability and reservation of critical load power. The analyzed power system comprises a wind turbine, a photovoltaic generator, storage battery as controllable load, DC loads, and power converters. A fuzzy logic control strategy was applied for power consumption control of controllable loads and the grid-connected dual active bridge series resonant converters. The proposed DC Smart Grid operation has been verified by simulation using MATLAB® and PLECS® Blockset. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Organic thin film devices with stabilized threshold voltage and mobility, and method for preparing the devices

    DOEpatents

    Nastasi, Michael Anthony; Wang, Yongqiang; Fraboni, Beatrice; Cosseddu, Piero; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2013-06-11

    Organic thin film devices that included an organic thin film subjected to a selected dose of a selected energy of ions exhibited a stabilized mobility (.mu.) and threshold voltage (VT), a decrease in contact resistance R.sub.C, and an extended operational lifetime that did not degrade after 2000 hours of operation in the air.

  5. Low voltage polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal reflective display by doping ferroelectric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, X W; Zhang, X W; Luo, D; Dai, H T

    2015-12-14

    Low driving voltage is achieved in full color reflective display based on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal (PS-PBLC), by doping a small amount of ferroelectric nanoparticles. Both reflectance spectra of PS-PBLC with and without BaTiO₃ ferroelectric nanoparticles are studied under different applied external voltages. Superior to PS-PBLC without ferroelectric nanoparticles, the vertical driving electric fields of PS-PBLC with 0.4 wt.% BaTiO₃ ferroelectric nanoparticles are dramatically reduced by more than 70% for red, green and blue cells. The proposed approach would accelerate the practical application of full color PS-BPLC reflective display.

  6. Gyrotron Output Power Stabilization by PID Feedback Control of Heater Current and Anode Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khutoryan, E. M.; Idehara, T.; Kuleshov, A. N.; Ueda, K.

    2014-12-01

    To provide stable output power of a gyrotron during long operation time the power stabilization was achieved by two schemes with PID feedback control of heater current and anode voltage. It was based on the dependence of the output power on both the anode voltage and the beam current and also on the dependence of the beam current on the gun heater current. Both schemes provided decrease of the power standard deviation to 0.3-0.5%. The comparison between parameters of both schemes is discussed in the paper.

  7. Improvement of stability of sinusoidally driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet using auxiliary bias voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dong Ha; Lee, Duck-Sik; Park, Choon-Sang; Park, Hyung Dal; Shin, Bhum Jae; Tae, Heung-Sik

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we have proposed the auxiliary bias pulse scheme to improve the stability of atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by an AC sinusoidal waveform excitation source. The stability of discharges can be significantly improved by the compensation of irregular variation in memory voltage due to the effect of auxiliary bias pulse. From the parametric study, such as the width, voltage, and onset time of auxiliary bias pulse, it has been demonstrated that the auxiliary bias pulse plays a significant role in suppressing the irregular discharges caused by the irregular variation in memory voltage and stable discharge can be initiated with the termination of the auxiliary bias pulse. As a result of further investigating the effects of the auxiliary pulse scheme on the jet stability under various process conditions such as the distance between the jet head and the counter electrode, and carrier gas flow, the jet stability can be improved by adjusting the amplitude and number of the bias pulse depending on the variations in the process conditions.

  8. Development of real-time voltage stability monitoring tool for power system transmission network using Synchrophasor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulok, Md Kamrul Hasan

    Intelligent and effective monitoring of power system stability in control centers is one of the key issues in smart grid technology to prevent unwanted power system blackouts. Voltage stability analysis is one of the most important requirements for control center operation in smart grid era. With the advent of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) or Synchrophasor technology, real time monitoring of voltage stability of power system is now a reality. This work utilizes real-time PMU data to derive a voltage stability index to monitor the voltage stability related contingency situation in power systems. The developed tool uses PMU data to calculate voltage stability index that indicates relative closeness of the instability by producing numerical indices. The IEEE 39 bus, New England power system was modeled and run on a Real-time Digital Simulator that stream PMU data over the Internet using IEEE C37.118 protocol. A Phasor data concentrator (PDC) is setup that receives streaming PMU data and stores them in Microsoft SQL database server. Then the developed voltage stability monitoring (VSM) tool retrieves phasor measurement data from SQL server, performs real-time state estimation of the whole network, calculate voltage stability index, perform real-time ranking of most vulnerable transmission lines, and finally shows all the results in a graphical user interface. All these actions are done in near real-time. Control centers can easily monitor the systems condition by using this tool and can take precautionary actions if needed.

  9. Chemical detection and laser wavelength stabilization employing spectroscopic absorption via laser compliance voltage sensing

    DOEpatents

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-01-12

    Systems and methods are disclosed that provide a direct indication of the presence and concentration of an analyte within the external cavity of a laser device that employ the compliance voltage across the laser device. The systems can provide stabilization of the laser wavelength. The systems and methods can obviate the need for an external optical detector, an external gas cell, or other sensing region and reduce the complexity and size of the sensing configuration.

  10. Chemical detection and laser wavelength stabilization employing spectroscopic absorption via laser compliance voltage sensing

    DOEpatents

    Taubman, Matthew S; Phillips, Mark C

    2014-03-18

    Systems and methods are disclosed that provide a direct indication of the presence and concentration of an analyte within the external cavity of a laser device that employ the compliance voltage across the laser device. The systems can provide stabilization of the laser wavelength. The systems and methods can obviate the need for an external optical detector, an external gas cell, or other sensing region and reduce the complexity and size of the sensing configuration.

  11. Upper stability island of the quadrupole mass filter with amplitude modulation of the applied voltages.

    PubMed

    Konenkov, N V; Korolkov, A N; Machmudov, Marat

    2005-03-01

    Modulation of the voltages applied to a quadrupole mass filter (QMF), either RF or RF and DC, leads to splitting of the stability region into islands of stability. The ion optical properties, such as transmission, resolving power and peak tails of the first upper stability islands have been investigated by numerical simulation of ion trajectories. The dependence of the location of this island on the amplitude of the modulation and the parameter nu = omega/Omega = Q/P where omega is modulation frequency, Omega is main angular radio frequency, and Q and P are integers, is calculated in detail. Different methods of adjusting the QMF resolution are examined. It is found that operation at the upper and lower tips of the stability islands created by amplitude modulation of the RF voltage is preferred, because of the technical simplicity of this method and a reduction of the required separation time. Amplitude modulation improves the performance of a QMF constructed with round rods, in comparison to perfect quadrupole fields. For example, with amplitude modulation of the RF, to reach a resolution of R(0.1) = 1200 requires only about 75 RF cycles of ion motion in a quadrupole field created by round rods. PMID:15734331

  12. Assessing Short-Term Voltage Stability of Electric Power Systems by a Hierarchical Intelligent System.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Junhua; Dong, Zhao Yang; Wang, Dianhui; Yang, Hongming; Wong, Kit Po

    2016-08-01

    In the smart grid paradigm, growing integration of large-scale intermittent renewable energies has introduced significant uncertainties to the operations of an electric power system. This makes real-time dynamic security assessment (DSA) a necessity to enable enhanced situational-awareness against the risk of blackouts. Conventional DSA methods are mainly based on the time-domain simulation, which are insufficiently fast and knowledge-poor. In recent years, the intelligent system (IS) strategy has been identified as a promising approach to facilitate real-time DSA. While previous works mainly concentrate on the rotor angle stability, this paper focuses on another yet increasingly important dynamic insecurity phenomenon-the short-term voltage instability, which involves fast and complex load dynamics. The problem is modeled as a classification subproblem for transient voltage collapse and a prediction subproblem for unacceptable dynamic voltage deviation. A hierarchical IS is developed to address the two subproblems sequentially. The IS is based on ensemble learning of random-weights neural networks and is implemented in an offline training, a real-time application, and an online updating pattern. The simulation results on the New England 39-bus system verify its superiority in both learning speed and accuracy over some state-of-the-art learning algorithms.

  13. Assessing Short-Term Voltage Stability of Electric Power Systems by a Hierarchical Intelligent System.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Junhua; Dong, Zhao Yang; Wang, Dianhui; Yang, Hongming; Wong, Kit Po

    2016-08-01

    In the smart grid paradigm, growing integration of large-scale intermittent renewable energies has introduced significant uncertainties to the operations of an electric power system. This makes real-time dynamic security assessment (DSA) a necessity to enable enhanced situational-awareness against the risk of blackouts. Conventional DSA methods are mainly based on the time-domain simulation, which are insufficiently fast and knowledge-poor. In recent years, the intelligent system (IS) strategy has been identified as a promising approach to facilitate real-time DSA. While previous works mainly concentrate on the rotor angle stability, this paper focuses on another yet increasingly important dynamic insecurity phenomenon-the short-term voltage instability, which involves fast and complex load dynamics. The problem is modeled as a classification subproblem for transient voltage collapse and a prediction subproblem for unacceptable dynamic voltage deviation. A hierarchical IS is developed to address the two subproblems sequentially. The IS is based on ensemble learning of random-weights neural networks and is implemented in an offline training, a real-time application, and an online updating pattern. The simulation results on the New England 39-bus system verify its superiority in both learning speed and accuracy over some state-of-the-art learning algorithms. PMID:26441430

  14. Stabilization of the conductive conformation of a voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel: the lid mechanism.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jose S; Syeda, Ruhma; Montal, Mauricio

    2013-06-01

    Voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels are molecular switches that sense membrane potential and in response open to allow K(+) ions to diffuse out of the cell. In these proteins, sensor and pore belong to two distinct structural modules. We previously showed that the pore module alone is a robust yet dynamic structural unit in lipid membranes and that it senses potential and gates open to conduct K(+) with unchanged fidelity. The implication is that the voltage sensitivity of K(+) channels is not solely encoded in the sensor. Given that the coupling between sensor and pore remains elusive, we asked whether it is then possible to convert a pore module characterized by brief openings into a conductor with a prolonged lifetime in the open state. The strategy involves selected probes targeted to the filter gate of the channel aiming to modulate the probability of the channel being open assayed by single channel recordings from the sensorless pore module reconstituted in lipid bilayers. Here we show that the premature closing of the pore is bypassed by association of the filter gate with two novel open conformation stabilizers: an antidepressant and a peptide toxin known to act selectively on Kv channels. Such stabilization of the conductive conformation of the channel is faithfully mimicked by the covalent attachment of fluorescein at a cysteine residue selectively introduced near the filter gate. This modulation prolongs the occupancy of permeant ions at the gate. It is this longer embrace between ion and gate that we conjecture underlies the observed stabilization of the conductive conformation. This study provides a new way of thinking about gating.

  15. Power system voltage stability and agent based distribution automation in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Cuong Phuc

    2011-12-01

    Our interconnected electric power system is presently facing many challenges that it was not originally designed and engineered to handle. The increased inter-area power transfers, aging infrastructure, and old technologies, have caused many problems including voltage instability, widespread blackouts, slow control response, among others. These problems have created an urgent need to transform the present electric power system to a highly stable, reliable, efficient, and self-healing electric power system of the future, which has been termed "smart grid". This dissertation begins with an investigation of voltage stability in bulk transmission networks. A new continuation power flow tool for studying the impacts of generator merit order based dispatch on inter-area transfer capability and static voltage stability is presented. The load demands are represented by lumped load models on the transmission system. While this representation is acceptable in traditional power system analysis, it may not be valid in the future smart grid where the distribution system will be integrated with intelligent and quick control capabilities to mitigate voltage problems before they propagate into the entire system. Therefore, before analyzing the operation of the whole smart grid, it is important to understand the distribution system first. The second part of this dissertation presents a new platform for studying and testing emerging technologies in advanced Distribution Automation (DA) within smart grids. Due to the key benefits over the traditional centralized approach, namely flexible deployment, scalability, and avoidance of single-point-of-failure, a new distributed approach is employed to design and develop all elements of the platform. A multi-agent system (MAS), which has the three key characteristics of autonomy, local view, and decentralization, is selected to implement the advanced DA functions. The intelligent agents utilize a communication network for cooperation and

  16. Evaluation of Epoxy Nanocomposites for High Voltage Insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Ganpathy

    Polymeric materials containing nanometer (nm) size particles are being introduced to provide compact shapes for low and medium voltage insulation equipment. The nanocomposites may provide superior electrical performance when compared with those available currently, such as lower dielectric losses and increased dielectric strength, tracking and erosion resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. All of the above mentioned benefits can be achieved at a lower filler concentration (< 10%) than conventional microfillers (40-60%). Also, the uniform shapes of nanofillers provide a better electrical stress distribution as compared to irregular shaped microcomposites which can have high internal electric stress, which could be a problem for devices with active electrical parts. Improvement in electrical performance due to addition of nanofillers in an epoxy matrix has been evaluated in this work. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was done on the epoxy samples to confirm uniform dispersion of nano-sized fillers as good filler dispersion is essential to realize the above stated benefits. Dielectric spectroscopy experiments were conducted over a wide range of frequencies as a function of temperature to understand the role of space charge and interfaces in these materials. The experiment results demonstrate significant reduction in dielectric losses in samples containing nanofillers. High voltage experiments such as corona resistance tests were conducted over 500 hours to monitor degradation in the samples due to corona. These tests revealed improvements in partial discharge endurance of nanocomposite samples. These improvements could not be adequately explained using a macroscopic quantity such as thermal conductivity. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed higher weight loss initiation temperatures for nanofilled samples which is in agreement with the corona resistance experimental results. Theoretical models have also been developed in this work to complement the results of

  17. Stability evaluation of vaccines: WHO approach.

    PubMed

    Knezevic, Ivana

    2009-11-01

    The stability of vaccines has a major impact on the success of immunization programmes worldwide. In line with this, clear definition of the stability characteristics of a vaccine is of critical importance. One of the concerns at country level is whether vaccines will remain potent on its way from the manufacturer, through the distribution channels, to the final users and vaccine recipients. In response to the requests for assistance in defining stability profile of vaccines, the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in October 2006 agreed that new WHO guidelines be established on stability evaluation of vaccines (http://www.who.int/biologicals/publications/trs/areas/vaccines/stability/en/index.html). This document applies to all vaccines against infectious diseases. The aim of this guideline is to provide the scientific basis and guiding principles for evaluation of vaccine stability for the purpose of clinical trial approval, licensing, and post-licensure monitoring. As part of its initiative to promote use of vaccines of assured quality, WHO emphasizes the role of National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) and National Control Laboratories (NCLs) in overall vaccine evaluation, including stability assessment. While recognizing that manufacturers are responsible for the quality of the vaccines they produce, compliance with vaccine quality specifications is part of regulatory oversight. This article provides basic information about WHO international standards as well as key definitions and principles for stability evaluation of vaccines that are elaborated in detail in the above mentioned guidance document.

  18. Real Power and Reactive Power Control of a Three-Phase Single-Stage-PV System and PV voltage Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Adhikari, Sarina; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Irminger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with power electronic interfaces can provide both real and reactive power to meet power system needs with appropriate control algorithms. This paper presents the control algorithm design for a three-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverter to achieve either maximum power point tracking (MPPT) or a certain amount of real power injection, as well as the voltage/var control. The switching between MPPT control mode and a certain amount of real power control mode is automatic and seamless. Without the DC-to-DC booster stage, PV DC voltage stability is an important issue in the control design especially when the PV inverter is operating at maximum power point (MPP) with voltage/var control. The PV DC voltage collapse phenomenon and its reason are discussed. The method based on dynamic correction of the PV inverter output is proposed to ensure PV DC voltage stability. Simulation results of the single-stage PV system during system disturbances and fast solar irradiation changes confirm that the proposed control algorithm for single-stage PV inverters can provide appropriate real and reactive power services and ensure PV DC voltage stability during dynamic system operation and atmospheric conditions.

  19. Evaluation of Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) on a National Level

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2010-09-29

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is a reduction of energy consumption resulting from a reduction of feeder voltage. While there have been numerous CVR systems deployed in North America there has been little substantive analytic analysis of the effect; the majority of the published results are based on empirical field measurements. Since these results are based on empirical measurements it is difficult to extrapolate how this technology will behave on the various types of distribution feeders found throughout the nation. This report has utilized the Taxonomy of Prototypical feeder developed under the Modern Grid Initiative (MGI), now the Modern Grid Strategy (MGS), in order to estimate the benefits of CVR on multiple distribution feeder types. This information will then be used to determine an estimate of the national benefits of a wide scale deployment of CVR.

  20. Random telegraphic voltage noise due to thermal bi-stability in a superconducting weak link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Sourav; Kumar, Nikhil; Winkelmann, C. B.; Courtois, Herve; Gupta, Anjan K.

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the random telegraphic voltage noise signal in the hysteretic bi-stable state of a superconducting weak link device. Fluctuation induced random switching between zero voltage state and non-zero-voltage state gives rise to a random telegraphic voltage signal in time domain. This telegraphic noise is used to find the mean lifetime of each of the two states. The mean life time in the zero voltage state is found to decrease with increasing bias current while that of resistive state increases and thus the two cross at certain bias current. We qualitatively discuss this observed switching behavior as arising from the bi-stable nature.

  1. HIGH VOLTAGE ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS, INC.ELECTRON BEAM TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates a high-voltage electron beam (E-beam) technology's ability to destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other contaminants present in liquid wastes. Specifically, this report discusses performance and economic data from a Superfund Innovative Technology...

  2. Membrane bending is critical for the stability of voltage sensor segments in the membrane.

    PubMed

    Callenberg, Keith M; Latorraca, Naomi R; Grabe, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The interaction between membrane proteins and the surrounding membrane is becoming increasingly appreciated for its role in regulating protein function, protein localization, and membrane morphology. In particular, recent studies have suggested that membrane deformation is needed to stably accommodate proteins harboring charged amino acids in their transmembrane (TM) region, as it is energetically prohibitive to bury charge in the hydrophobic core of the bilayer. Unfortunately, current computational methods are poorly equipped for describing such deformations, as atomistic simulations are often too short to observe large-scale membrane reorganization and most continuum approaches assume a flat membrane. Previously, we developed a method that overcomes these shortcomings by using elasticity theory to characterize equilibrium membrane distortions in the presence of a TM protein, while using traditional continuum electrostatic and nonpolar energy models to determine the energy of the protein in the membrane. Here, we linked the elastostatics, electrostatics, and nonpolar numeric solvers to permit the calculation of energies for nontrivial membrane deformations. We then coupled this procedure to a robust search algorithm that identifies optimal membrane shapes for a TM protein of arbitrary chemical composition. This advance now permits us to explore a host of biological phenomena that were beyond the scope of our original method. We show that the energy required to embed charged residues in the membrane can be highly nonadditive, and our model provides a simple mechanical explanation for this nonadditivity. Our results also predict that isolated voltage sensor segments do not insert into rigid membranes, but membrane bending dramatically stabilizes these proteins in the bilayer despite their high charge content. Additionally, we use the model to explore hydrophobic mismatch with regard to nonpolar peptides and mechanosensitive channels. Our method is in quantitative

  3. Membrane bending is critical for the stability of voltage sensor segments in the membrane

    PubMed Central

    Callenberg, Keith M.; Latorraca, Naomi R.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between membrane proteins and the surrounding membrane is becoming increasingly appreciated for its role in regulating protein function, protein localization, and membrane morphology. In particular, recent studies have suggested that membrane deformation is needed to stably accommodate proteins harboring charged amino acids in their transmembrane (TM) region, as it is energetically prohibitive to bury charge in the hydrophobic core of the bilayer. Unfortunately, current computational methods are poorly equipped for describing such deformations, as atomistic simulations are often too short to observe large-scale membrane reorganization and most continuum approaches assume a flat membrane. Previously, we developed a method that overcomes these shortcomings by using elasticity theory to characterize equilibrium membrane distortions in the presence of a TM protein, while using traditional continuum electrostatic and nonpolar energy models to determine the energy of the protein in the membrane. Here, we linked the elastostatics, electrostatics, and nonpolar numeric solvers to permit the calculation of energies for nontrivial membrane deformations. We then coupled this procedure to a robust search algorithm that identifies optimal membrane shapes for a TM protein of arbitrary chemical composition. This advance now permits us to explore a host of biological phenomena that were beyond the scope of our original method. We show that the energy required to embed charged residues in the membrane can be highly nonadditive, and our model provides a simple mechanical explanation for this nonadditivity. Our results also predict that isolated voltage sensor segments do not insert into rigid membranes, but membrane bending dramatically stabilizes these proteins in the bilayer despite their high charge content. Additionally, we use the model to explore hydrophobic mismatch with regard to nonpolar peptides and mechanosensitive channels. Our method is in quantitative

  4. A Low-Voltage Chopper-Stabilized Amplifier for Fetal ECG Monitoring With a 1.41 Power Efficiency Factor.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Rooijakkers, Michael; Harpe, Pieter; Rabotti, Chiara; Mischi, Massimo; van Roermund, Arthur H M; Cantatore, Eugenio

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a low-voltage current-reuse chopper-stabilized frontend amplifier for fetal ECG monitoring. The proposed amplifier allows for individual tuning of the noise in each measurement channel, minimizing the total power consumption while satisfying all application requirements. The low-voltage current reuse topology exploits power optimization in both the current and the voltage domain, exploiting multiple supply voltages (0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 V). The power management circuitry providing the different supplies is optimized for high efficiency (peak charge-pump efficiency = 90%).The low-voltage amplifier together with its power management circuitry is implemented in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS process and characterized experimentally. The amplifier core achieves both good noise efficiency factor (NEF=1.74) and power efficiency factor (PEF=1.05). Experiments show that the amplifier core can provide a noise level of 0.34 μVrms in a 0.7 to 182 Hz band, consuming 1.17 μW power. The amplifier together with its power management circuitry consumes 1.56 μW, achieving a PEF of 1.41. The amplifier is also validated with adult ECG and pre-recorded fetal ECG measurements. PMID:25879971

  5. Evaluation of developing inertial stabilization unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruna, Masaki; Kodeki, Kazuhide; Shimizu, Seiichi; Fukushima, Kazuhiko; Takahara, Osamu; Ando, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Jiro; Haraguchi, Eisuke

    2015-03-01

    Micro vibrations generated from some internal disturbance sources such as a reaction wheel degrades the pointing stability of an observation satellite. To suppress the pointing error, we have been developing an inertial stabilization unit. A prototype mechanism is designed based on concepts that it has non-contact actuators and sensors, and rotational leaf springs are applied to support a stabilized platform in order to meet two requirements which are precise drive and tolerance for launch load. Two kind of inertial sensors are installed on the platform to measure the attitude directly. Each of these two inertial sensors covers low or high bandwidth signal respectively. These signals will be able to be combined as one wideband signal to stabilize the platform in inertial space. In this paper, the developing prototype mechanism and control equipment are described and the basic evaluation results are reported. Less than 0.3urad as a drive precision and more than 100Hz as a local sensor control bandwidth are verified. The development of the system has not completely finished yet, but the basic performance is certified to meet the design specification. From now on, we continue to develop the unit. These future results can be applied to inter-satellite laser communication system.

  6. Evaluation of the energy barrier for failure of Au atomic contact based on temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics.

    PubMed

    Aiba, Akira; Kaneko, Satoshi; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the mechanical stability of single gold atomic contacts at an applied bias voltage of 0-1 V using a nano-fabricated mechanically controllable break junction technique at 300-400 K under ambient conditions. The single atomic contact shows the quantized conductance (G0 = 2e(2)/h) and can carry considerably large current, which results in the current-induced failure of the contact. The contact failure behaviour under the applied bias conditions was studied by statistical analysis of the current-voltage (I-V) curves of the single Au contacts. We demonstrated that, at the elevated temperature of 300-400 K, the current-induced local heating effect is negligibly small and current-induced forces in the contact are responsible for the observed failure of the single gold contacts under the high bias voltage conditions (>0.4 V). Furthermore, based on the temperature dependence of the contact failure behaviour in the I-V curves, the energy barrier of the contact-failure was evaluated to be ca. 0.1 V. PMID:27427285

  7. Evaluation of a back stability CPD course.

    PubMed

    Norris, C M

    2008-10-01

    A two-day CPD (continuous professional development) course teaching integrated back stability (IBS) to post-graduate physiotherapists, sports therapists, and massage therapists was evaluated using a descriptive (mixed methods) design. An eight-question, 5-point Likert scale questionnaire and six person focus group were used. The course was evaluated over a five-year period and questionnaires were returned from 80 therapists, representing 65% of course attendees. Scores ranged from mean values of 2.81-3.81, and all questions scored above the mid-point of the 5-point Likert scale (2.5) and were therefore positive. The focus group addressed the three themes covered by the Likert scale and group consensus was that (i) the course had changed professional practice and had been incorporated into treatment protocols currently in use; (ii) the course did provide some novel techniques, but most effectively incorporated techniques from several sources and made them easier to apply; and (iii) the educational standard of the course was high. The course format may act as a model for other CPD programmes. PMID:19083688

  8. Color stability evaluation of aesthetic restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Samra, Adriana Postiglione Bührer; Pereira, Stella Kossatz; Delgado, Leyla Cotrina; Borges, Christiane Phillipini

    2008-01-01

    Color match is one of the most important characteristics of aesthetic restorative materials. Maintenance of color throughout the functional lifetime of restorations is important for the durability of treatment. This characteristic is not constant among dental materials. The purpose of this research was to assess the color stability of five aesthetic restorative materials when immersed in a coffee solution. Seventy-one 17 mm x 1 mm specimens, divided into five groups, were made using one direct composite resin (Tetric Ceram, Ivoclar/Vivadent - G1), three indirect composite resins (Targis, Ivoclar/Vivadent - G2; Resilab Master, Wilcos - G3; belleGlass HP, Kerr - G4) and one porcelain (IPS Empress 2, Ivoclar/Vivadent - G5). The specimens were immersed in a coffee staining media for 15 days and stored under a controlled temperature of 37 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C in the dark. The evaluations were made after 1, 7 and 15 days by means of reflectance spectrophotometry. The data was submitted to two-way ANOVA (p < 0.005) and post hoc tests. Statistical difference was observed between G1 / G3 and the other groups; G2 / G4 and the other groups; and G5 and all the other groups. It was concluded that G1 and G3 showed significantly higher discoloration than the other groups. G2 and G4 showed intermediary pigmentation, while G5 showed the smallest changes.

  9. Evaluation of Niobium as Candidate Electrode Material for DC High Voltage Photoelectron Guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    BastaniNejad, M.; Mohamed, Abdullah; Elmustafa, A. A.; Adderley, P.; Clark, J.; Covert, S.; Hansknecht, J.; Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M.; Mammei, R.; Surles-Law, K.; Williams, P.

    2012-01-01

    The field emission characteristics of niobium electrodes were compared to those of stainless steel electrodes using a DC high voltage field emission test apparatus. A total of eight electrodes were evaluated: two 304 stainless steel electrodes polished to mirror-like finish with diamond grit and six niobium electrodes (two single-crystal, two large-grain, and two fine-grain) that were chemically polished using a buffered-chemical acid solution. Upon the first application of high voltage, the best large-grain and single-crystal niobium electrodes performed better than the best stainless steel electrodes, exhibiting less field emission at comparable voltage and field strength. In all cases, field emission from electrodes (stainless steel and/or niobium) could be significantly reduced and sometimes completely eliminated, by introducing krypton gas into the vacuum chamber while the electrode was biased at high voltage. Of all the electrodes tested, a large-grain niobium electrode performed the best, exhibiting no measurable field emission (< 10 pA) at 225 kV with 20 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a field strength of 18:7 MV/m.

  10. Evaluation of the piezoelectric properties and voltage generation of flexible zinc oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Laurenti, M; Stassi, S; Lorenzoni, M; Fontana, M; Canavese, G; Cauda, V; Pirri, C F

    2015-05-29

    Local piezoresponse and piezoelectric output voltage were evaluated on ZnO thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on hard Si/Ti/Au and flexible Cu-coated polyimide substrates. Three different thicknesses of ZnO films were studied (285 nm, 710 nm, and 1380 nm), focusing on characteristics like crystallinity, grain size, surface roughness, and morphology. Independent of the nature of the metal layer and the substrate, our results show that thicker films presented a higher level of crystallinity and a preferential orientation along the c-axis direction, as well as a lower density of grain boundaries and larger crystal sizes. The improvement of the crystalline structure of the material directly enhances its piezoelectric properties, as confirmed by the local characterizations performed by piezoresponse force microscopy and by the evaluation of the output voltage generation under the application of a periodical mechanical deformation on the whole film. In particular, the highest value of the d33 coefficient obtained (8 pm V(-1)) and the highest generated output voltage (0.746 V) belong to the thickest films on hard and flexible substrates, respectively. These results envision the use of ZnO thin films--particularly on flexible substrates--as conformable, reliable, and efficient active materials for use in nanosensing, actuation, and piezoelectric nanogenerators.

  11. Evaluating the Field Emission Characteristics of Aluminum for DC High Voltage Photo-Electron Guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taus, Rhys; Poelker, Matthew; Forman, Eric; Mamun, Abdullah

    2014-03-01

    High current photoguns require high power laser light, but only a small portion of the laser light illuminating the photocathode produces electron beam. Most of the laser light (~ 65%) simply serves to heat the photocathode, which leads to evaporation of the chemicals required to create the negative electron affinity condition necessary for photoemission. Photocathode cooling techniques have been employed to address this problem, but active cooling of the photocathode is complicated because the cooling apparatus must float at high voltage. This work evaluates the field emission characteristics of cathode electrodes manufactured from materials with high thermal conductivity: aluminum and copper. These electrodes could serve as effective heat sinks, to passively cool the photocathode that resides within such a structure. However, literature suggests ``soft'' materials like aluminum and copper are ill suited for photogun applications, due to excessive field emission when biased at high voltage. This work provides an evaluation of aluminum and copper electrodes inside a high voltage field emission test stand, before and after coating with titanium nitride (TiN), a coating that enhances surface hardness. National Science Foundation Award Number: 1062320 and the Department of Defence ASSURE program.

  12. Annual stability evaluation of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    A stability evaluation of the underground workings of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was completed by the US Bureau of Mines` WIPP evaluation committee. This work included a critical evaluation of the processes employed at WIPP to ensure stability, an extensive review of available deformation measurements, a 3-day site visit, and interviews with the Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse staff. General ground control processes are in place at WIPP to minimize the likelihood that major stability problems will go undetected. To increase confidence in both short- and long-term stability throughout the site (underground openings and shafts), ground stability monitoring systems, mine layout design, support systems and data analyses must be continuously improved. Such processes appear to be in place at WIPP and are discussed in this paper.

  13. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    DOE PAGESBeta

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (~nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>μA) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolishedmore » by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100 pA of field emission. The speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.« less

  14. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    SciTech Connect

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-15

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (∼nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>μA) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolished by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100 pA of field emission. The authors speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.

  15. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    SciTech Connect

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (~nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>μA) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolished by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100 pA of field emission. The speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.

  16. Evaluation of higher distribution and/or utilization voltages. First interim report (December 1978): literature search and problem definition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    A literature search has been conducted on the economics and technical problems associated with the use of higher voltages in both the primary distribution and secondary utilization systems. After a literature review and evaluation, an assessment of the state-of-the-art with regard to high voltage has been made and is presented for the primary and secondary distribution systems, end use elements, and economics and system analysis or optimization. An annotated bibliography is provided for each of the three categories. A comprehensive list of potential advantages and disadvantages of higher primary distribution and utilization voltages has also been prepared and is presented.

  17. In-plane magnetic field effect on switching voltage and thermal stability in electric-field-controlled perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grezes, C.; Rojas Rozas, A.; Ebrahimi, F.; Alzate, J. G.; Cai, X.; Katine, J. A.; Langer, J.; Ocker, B.; Khalili Amiri, P.; Wang, K. L.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of in-plane magnetic field on switching voltage (Vsw) and thermal stability factor (Δ) are investigated in electric-field-controlled perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs). Dwell time measurements are used to determine the voltage dependence of the energy barrier height for various in-plane magnetic fields (Hin), and gain insight into the Hin dependent energy landscape. We find that both Vsw and Δ decrease with increasing Hin, with a dominant linear dependence. The results are reproduced by calculations based on a macrospin model while accounting for the modified magnetization configuration in the presence of an external magnetic field.

  18. Methods for determining optical power, for power-normalizing laser measurements, and for stabilizing power of lasers via compliance voltage sensing

    DOEpatents

    Taubman, Matthew S; Phillips, Mark C

    2015-04-07

    A method is disclosed for power normalization of spectroscopic signatures obtained from laser based chemical sensors that employs the compliance voltage across a quantum cascade laser device within an external cavity laser. The method obviates the need for a dedicated optical detector used specifically for power normalization purposes. A method is also disclosed that employs the compliance voltage developed across the laser device within an external cavity semiconductor laser to power-stabilize the laser mode of the semiconductor laser by adjusting drive current to the laser such that the output optical power from the external cavity semiconductor laser remains constant.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION FOR UTILIZATION OF ASH IN SOIL STABILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Hassett; Loreal V. Heebink

    2001-08-01

    The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) approved the use of coal ash in soil stabilization, indicating that environmental data needed to be generated. The overall project goal is to evaluate the potential for release of constituents into the environment from ash used in soil stabilization projects. Supporting objectives are: (1) To ensure sample integrity through implementation of a sample collection, preservation, and storage protocol to avoid analyte concentration or loss. (2) To evaluate the potential of each component (ash, soil, water) of the stabilized soil to contribute to environmental release of analytes of interest. (3) To use laboratory leaching methods to evaluate the potential for release of constituents to the environment. (4) To facilitate collection of and to evaluate samples from a field runoff demonstration effort. The results of this study indicated limited mobility of the coal combustion fly ash constituents in laboratory tests and the field runoff samples. The results presented support previous work showing little to negligible impact on water quality. This and past work indicates that soil stabilization is an environmentally beneficial CCB utilization application as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This project addressed the regulatory-driven environmental aspect of fly ash use for soil stabilization, but the demonstrated engineering performance and economic advantages also indicate that the use of CCBs in soil stabilization can and should become an accepted engineering option.

  20. Experimental evaluation of a positive-voltage-driven unimorph deformable mirror for astronomical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junjie; Ma, Jianqiang; Mao, Yuxin; Liu, Ying; Li, Baoqing; Chu, Jiaru

    2015-11-01

    A modified low-cost unimorph deformable mirror (DM) driven only by positive voltages for atmospheric turbulence compensation is presented. The 214 patterned inner actuators generate convex deformations for aberration correction, while one outer ring actuator generates an overall concave bias. To evaluate the aberration correction capability of the proposed DM, the iterative reconstruction of Zernike aberrations and correction were performed in an adaptive optics test system. The experimental results indicate that the fabricated DM has an excellent aberration correction capability, particularly matching the first 20 term Zernike aberrations with the normalized residual root-mean-square (RMS) error <5%. Furthermore, the random atmospheric turbulence aberrations were simulated based on Karhunen-Loève coefficients and reconstructed using the fabricated DM. The simulative and experimental results show that the atmospheric turbulence aberrations can be steadily compensated with λ/40 (λ=2.2 μm) RMS residual error, indicating the prospect for atmospheric applications.

  1. Photo stability of solution-processed low-voltage high mobility zinc-tin-oxide/ZrO2 thin-film transistors for transparent display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Tae-Jun; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2013-03-01

    We report solution-processed low-voltage zinc-tin-oxide (ZTO)/zirconium-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) possessing a field-effect mobility of ˜10 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 0.1 V, and an on-off current ratio of ˜1 × 109. These TFTs exhibit very small hysteresis windows in both dark and illuminated conditions. We also investigate the photo stability combined with prolong negative bias in these devices. Large threshold voltage shifts and sub-threshold swing degradation typically observed in ZTO TFTs are not present in our devices. We believe that these device characteristics, which stem from the electronically clean semiconductor-dielectric interface, satisfy the requirement for high quality and low power-consuming transparent displays.

  2. Evaluation of stability of live attenuated camelpox vaccine stabilized with different stabilizers and reconstituted with various diluents.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, M; Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Yogisharadhya, R; Bora, D P; Balamurugan, V

    2014-05-01

    In this study, thermostability of a Vero cell attenuated live camelpox vaccine under conventional lyophilization conditions has been evaluated. Three stabilizers were used separately for freeze-drying the vaccine and the stability of the vaccine, both in freeze-dried and reconstituted forms at different temperatures was assessed. The study revealed that the camelpox vaccine lyophilized with TAA stabilizer found superior with a shelf life of 44 months, 227 days, 22 days and 20 days at 4, 25, 37 and 45 °C, respectively followed by LS stabilizer. In terms of half-life, TAA stabilizer proved better followed by LS and BUGS stabilizers at all temperatures except at 25 °C in which LS found relatively superior. Among the four diluents viz. 1x PBS (phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4), 0.85% NaCl, distilled water and 1 M MgSO4, PBS was a better diluent followed by 0.85% NaCl. Both the diluents maintained the infectivity titer more than the minimum effective dose (3 log10TCID50 with a maximum titre of 6.53 log10TCID50 in both the diluents) for 60 h at 37 and 45 °C. However, 1 M MgSO4 found less suitable for camelpox vaccine dilution. The study indicates that the TAA and 1× PBS are the choice of stabilizer and diluent, respectively for camelpox vaccine.

  3. Evaluation of stability of live attenuated camelpox vaccine stabilized with different stabilizers and reconstituted with various diluents.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, M; Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Yogisharadhya, R; Bora, D P; Balamurugan, V

    2014-05-01

    In this study, thermostability of a Vero cell attenuated live camelpox vaccine under conventional lyophilization conditions has been evaluated. Three stabilizers were used separately for freeze-drying the vaccine and the stability of the vaccine, both in freeze-dried and reconstituted forms at different temperatures was assessed. The study revealed that the camelpox vaccine lyophilized with TAA stabilizer found superior with a shelf life of 44 months, 227 days, 22 days and 20 days at 4, 25, 37 and 45 °C, respectively followed by LS stabilizer. In terms of half-life, TAA stabilizer proved better followed by LS and BUGS stabilizers at all temperatures except at 25 °C in which LS found relatively superior. Among the four diluents viz. 1x PBS (phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4), 0.85% NaCl, distilled water and 1 M MgSO4, PBS was a better diluent followed by 0.85% NaCl. Both the diluents maintained the infectivity titer more than the minimum effective dose (3 log10TCID50 with a maximum titre of 6.53 log10TCID50 in both the diluents) for 60 h at 37 and 45 °C. However, 1 M MgSO4 found less suitable for camelpox vaccine dilution. The study indicates that the TAA and 1× PBS are the choice of stabilizer and diluent, respectively for camelpox vaccine. PMID:24657207

  4. Intrinsic Surface Stability in LiMn2-xNix04-s (x = 0.45, 0.5) High Voltage Spinel Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Kyler J.; Yang, Ming-Che; Veith, G. M.; Dudney, N. J.; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2012-01-01

    This work reports the surface stability of the high voltage Li ion cathode LiMn{sub 2–x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 4–δ} (x = 0.5, 0.45) by comparing thin film and powder composite electrodes after cycling using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The thin film electrodes offer the ability to probe the surface of the material without the need of a conductive agent and polymer binder typically used in composite electrodes. The results suggest that neither oxidation of PF{sub 6} to POF{sub 3} nor the decomposition of ethylene carbonate or dimethylene carbonate occurs on the surface of the spinel material. These results confirm the enhanced cycling stability and rate capability associated with the high voltage spinel material and suggests that the SEI layer forms due to the reaction of electrochemically inactive components in composite electrodes with the electrolyte.

  5. Stability evaluation and improvement of adaptive optics systems by using the Lyapunov stability approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Chen, Tao; Liu, Xin-yue; Lin, Xu-dong; Yang, Xiao-xia; Li, Hong-zhuang

    2016-02-01

    In this research, investigations on the closed-loop control stability of adaptive optics systems are conducted by using the Lyapunov approach. As an direct metric of the control stability, the error propagator includes the effects of both the integral gain and the influence matrix and is effective for control-stability evaluation. An experimental 97-element AO system is developed for the control-stability investigation, and the Southwell sensor-actuator configuration rather than the Fried geometry is adopted so as to suppress the potential waffle mode. Because filtering out small singular values of the influence matrix can be used to improve the control stability, the effect of the influence matrix and the effect of the integral gain are considered as a whole by using the error propagator. Then, the control stability of the AO system is evaluated for varying the integral gains and the number of filtered-out singular values. Afterwards, an analysis of the evaluations of the error propagator is made, and a conclusion can be drawn that the control stability can be improved by filtering out more singular values of the influence matrix when the integral gain is high. In other words, the error propagator is useful for trading off the bandwidth error and the fitting error of AO systems in a control-stability approach. Finally, a performance measurement of the experimental AO system is conducted when 13 smaller singular values of the influence matrix are filtered out, and the results show that filtering out a small fraction of the singular values has a minor influence on the performance of this AO system.

  6. Age-Related Differences in Evaluating Developmental Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustafic, Maida; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the hypothesis that the evaluation of developmental stability changes across adulthood. Results of Study 1 ("N" = 119) supported the expectation that older adults ("M"[subscript age] = 65.29 years)--compared to younger ("M"[subscript age] = 23.38 years) and middle-aged adults…

  7. Stability evaluation of the Markel Mine at Weeks Island, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.L.

    1994-06-01

    A three dimensional (3D) finite element analysis of the Markel Mine located on Weeks Island was performed to: (1) evaluate the stability of the mine and (2) determine the effect of mine failure on the nearby Morton Salt mine and SPR facilities. The first part of the stability evaluation investigates the effect of pillar failure on mine stability. These simulations revealed that tensile stresses and dilatant damage develop in the overlying salt as a result of pillar loss. These tensile stresses extend to the salt/overburden interface only for the case where all 45 of the pillars are assumed to fail. Tensile stresses would likely cause microfracturing of the salt, resulting in a flow path for groundwater from the overlying aquifer to enter the mine. The dilatant damage bridges between the mine and the overburden in the case where 15 or more pillars are removed from the model. Dilatant damage is attributed to microfracturing or changes in the pore structure of the salt and could also result in a flow path for groundwater to enter the mine. The second part of the Markel Mine evaluation investigates the stability of the pillars with respect to three failure mechanisms: tensile failure, compressive failure, and creep rupture. A 3D slabbing pillar model of the Markel mine was developed to investigate progressive failure of the pillars and the effect of slabbing on mine stability. Based on a strain-limiting creep rupture criterion, pillar failure is predicted to be extensive at present. The associated loss of pillar strength should be equivalent to removing all pillars from the model as was done in the first part of this stability analysis, resulting in the possibility of ground water intrusion. Since creep rupture is not a well understood phenomenon, further development and validation of this criterion is recommended.

  8. Quantitative Evaluation of the Stability of Engineered Water Soluble Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulvihill, M. J.; Habas, S.; Mokari, T.; Wan, J.

    2009-12-01

    Stability of nanoparticle solutions is a key factor dictating the bioavailability and transport characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment. The synthesis of materials with dimensions less than 100 nm relies on the ability to stabilize surfaces. If the stabilization of the material is disrupted by aggregation, precipitation, or dissolution, the chemical and physical properties often revert to the properties of the bulk material or molecular constituents. We synthesized CdSe and gold NPs, and studied their aggregation rate and the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The chemical and physical properties of our NPs have been characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), UV-VIS spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, Zeta potential measurements, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements. This comprehensive approach to synthesis and characterization enables the isolation of design parameters with greater precision that can be obtained using commercially available NPs. This research evaluates NP design parameters including composition, size, and surface coating, as a function of concentration, pH, and ionic strength, to determine which factors most affect NP stability. The aggregation characteristics of both gold NPs and cadmium selinide NPs, which are between 2-12 nm in diameter, and have been capped with various ligands, have been studied. While previous work demonstrates that these variables influence stability, it does not systematically compare their relative significance. Our results indicate that changing the ligand shell radically affects the stability of NP as a function of both pH and ionic strength, while changing the material from CdSe to gold has only a moderate influence on the stability and aggregation characteristics of our particles. Additionally, the ligand charge, length, and binding affinity all significantly effect NP stability. Funding was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy

  9. Evaluating the Stability of mRNAs and Noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Ayupe, Ana Carolina; Reis, Eduardo M

    2017-01-01

    Changes in RNA stability have an important impact in the gene expression regulation. Different methods based on the transcription blockage with RNA polymerase inhibitors or metabolic labeling of newly synthesized RNAs have been developed to evaluate RNA decay rates in cultured cell. Combined with techniques to measure transcript abundance genome-wide, these methods have been used to reveal novel features of the eukaryotic transcriptome. The stability of protein-coding mRNAs is in general closely associated to the physiological function of their encoded proteins, with short-lived mRNAs being significantly enriched among regulatory genes whereas genes associated with housekeeping functions are predominantly stable. Likewise, the stability of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) seems to reflect their functional role in the cell. Thus, investigating RNA stability can provide insights regarding the function of yet uncharacterized regulatory ncRNAs. In this chapter, we discuss the methodologies currently used to estimate RNA decay and outline an experimental protocol for genome-wide estimation of RNA stability of protein-coding and lncRNAs. This protocol details the transcriptional blockage of cultured cells with actinomycin D, followed by RNA isolation at different time points, the determination of transcript abundance by qPCR/DNA oligoarray hybridization, and the calculation of individual transcript half-lives.

  10. Evaluating the Stability of mRNAs and Noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Ayupe, Ana Carolina; Reis, Eduardo M

    2017-01-01

    Changes in RNA stability have an important impact in the gene expression regulation. Different methods based on the transcription blockage with RNA polymerase inhibitors or metabolic labeling of newly synthesized RNAs have been developed to evaluate RNA decay rates in cultured cell. Combined with techniques to measure transcript abundance genome-wide, these methods have been used to reveal novel features of the eukaryotic transcriptome. The stability of protein-coding mRNAs is in general closely associated to the physiological function of their encoded proteins, with short-lived mRNAs being significantly enriched among regulatory genes whereas genes associated with housekeeping functions are predominantly stable. Likewise, the stability of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) seems to reflect their functional role in the cell. Thus, investigating RNA stability can provide insights regarding the function of yet uncharacterized regulatory ncRNAs. In this chapter, we discuss the methodologies currently used to estimate RNA decay and outline an experimental protocol for genome-wide estimation of RNA stability of protein-coding and lncRNAs. This protocol details the transcriptional blockage of cultured cells with actinomycin D, followed by RNA isolation at different time points, the determination of transcript abundance by qPCR/DNA oligoarray hybridization, and the calculation of individual transcript half-lives. PMID:27662875

  11. Stability evaluation of Styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) incorporated products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahtiar, Adibah Ahamad; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) from Goniothalamus umbrosus has been shown to have antiviral properties against Herpes Simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). This study aimed to evaluate the purity of isolated SPD and stability of SPD-incorporated formulations. Pure SPD was isolated from dried roots of G. umbrosus as confirmed by GC-MS. Two types of SPD-incorporated products (ointment and gel) were produced. Both products showed stable physical properties after two months and retained the SPD content for one month.

  12. Role of additives in formation of solid-electrolyte interfaces on carbon electrodes and their effect on high-voltage stability.

    PubMed

    Qu, Weiguo; Dorjpalam, Enkhtuvshin; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Randall, Clive A

    2014-04-01

    The in situ modification of a lithium hexafluorophosphate-based electrolyte using a molybdenum oxide catalyst and small amount of water (1 vol %) yields hydrolysis products such as mono-, di-, and alkylfluorophosphates. The electrochemical stability of ultrahigh-purity, high-surface-area carbon electrodes derived from polyfurfuryl alcohol was tested using the modified electrolyte. Favorable modification of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the activated carbon electrode increased the cyclable electrochemical voltage window (4.8-1.2 V vs. Li/Li(+)). The chemical modification of the SEI layer induced by electrolyte additives was characterized by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  13. A comprehensive study to evaluate the effect of constant low voltage iontophoresis on transungual delivery.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anroop B; Singh, Kishan; Shinu, Pottathil; Harsha, Sree; Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E

    2013-05-01

    Treatment of nail diseases by topical drug delivery continues to draw much attention in the recent days. This study aims to systematically investigate the effect of constant voltage iontophoresis in the transungual drug delivery, using ciclopirox as a model drug. Preliminary permeation studies were carried out by applying constant voltage (6 V for 24 h) using a gel formulation across the human nail plate in a Franz diffusion cell. Different protocols have been studied to authenticate the potential of the proposed technique. Antifungal studies were carried out to assess the pharmacodynamic effect of drug depot formed in the nail plate. Initial studies revealed that application of constant voltage iontophoresis enhanced the permeation by an order of magnitude (p = 0.019) and delivered significant amount of drug into the deeper nail layers. Noticeably higher permeation was observed during the active phase in on-off studies. Excellent correlation was observed in permeation (r(2) = 0.98) and drug load (r(2) = 0.97) with the increase in applied voltage (3-12 V), indicating that the current technique is predictable. The data observed suggest that any further increase in voltage could eventually lead to increase in the permeation and drug load, as the saturation level is very distant. Furthermore, the enhancement in permeation with the applied voltage (3-12 V) was found to be 6-20 folds, compared to the passive process. Results of step up and step down studies substantiated the viability of the current technique. Zone of inhibition measured during the antifungal studies demonstrated that the drug molecules loaded into the nail plate by low voltage iontophoresis is active and releases over an extended period of time (~32 days). Given the excellent results, the current technique could be used as an effective approach for the delivery of antimycotics, which would localize the drug at the infection site and potentially offer higher patient compliance. PMID:23057692

  14. A comprehensive study to evaluate the effect of constant low voltage iontophoresis on transungual delivery.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anroop B; Singh, Kishan; Shinu, Pottathil; Harsha, Sree; Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E

    2013-05-01

    Treatment of nail diseases by topical drug delivery continues to draw much attention in the recent days. This study aims to systematically investigate the effect of constant voltage iontophoresis in the transungual drug delivery, using ciclopirox as a model drug. Preliminary permeation studies were carried out by applying constant voltage (6 V for 24 h) using a gel formulation across the human nail plate in a Franz diffusion cell. Different protocols have been studied to authenticate the potential of the proposed technique. Antifungal studies were carried out to assess the pharmacodynamic effect of drug depot formed in the nail plate. Initial studies revealed that application of constant voltage iontophoresis enhanced the permeation by an order of magnitude (p = 0.019) and delivered significant amount of drug into the deeper nail layers. Noticeably higher permeation was observed during the active phase in on-off studies. Excellent correlation was observed in permeation (r(2) = 0.98) and drug load (r(2) = 0.97) with the increase in applied voltage (3-12 V), indicating that the current technique is predictable. The data observed suggest that any further increase in voltage could eventually lead to increase in the permeation and drug load, as the saturation level is very distant. Furthermore, the enhancement in permeation with the applied voltage (3-12 V) was found to be 6-20 folds, compared to the passive process. Results of step up and step down studies substantiated the viability of the current technique. Zone of inhibition measured during the antifungal studies demonstrated that the drug molecules loaded into the nail plate by low voltage iontophoresis is active and releases over an extended period of time (~32 days). Given the excellent results, the current technique could be used as an effective approach for the delivery of antimycotics, which would localize the drug at the infection site and potentially offer higher patient compliance.

  15. APPARATUS FOR REGULATING HIGH VOLTAGE

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, K.G.

    1951-03-20

    This patent describes a high-voltage regulator of the r-f type wherein the modulation of the r-f voltage is accomplished at a high level, resulting in good stabilization over a large range of load conditions.

  16. Improving rate capability and decelerating voltage decay of Li-rich layered oxide cathodes via selenium doping to stabilize oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Quanxin; Li, Ruhong; Zheng, Rujuan; Liu, Yuanlong; Huo, Hua; Dai, Changsong

    2016-11-01

    To improve the rate performance and decelerate the voltage decay of Li-rich layered oxide cathode materials, a series of cathode materials Li1.2[Mn0.7Ni0.2Co0.1]0.8-xSexO2 (x = 0, 0.07, 0.14 and 0.21) was synthesized via co-precipitation. Based on the characterization results, it can be concluded that uniform Se6+ doping can improve the degree of crystallinity of Li2MnO3, resulting in a better ordering of atoms in the transition metal layer of this type of cathode materials. In the electrochemical experiments, compared to un-doped samples, one of the Se doped samples (LLMO-Se0.14) exhibited a longer sloping region and shorter potential plateau in the initial charge curves, a larger first coulombic efficiency (ca. 77%), better rate capability (178 mAhm g-1 at 10 C) and higher mid-point voltage (MPV) retention (ca. 95%) after 100 cycles. These results prove that Se doping can effectively improve the rate capability and decelerate the voltage decay process of these cathode materials during cycling via suppressing the oxidation process of O2- to O2 and curbing a layered-to-spinel phase transformation. The above-mentioned functions of Se doping are probably due to the higher bonding energy of Sesbnd O than that of Mnsbnd O.

  17. Evaluation of postural stability in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kenis-Coskun, Ozge; Giray, Esra; Eren, Beyhan; Ozkok, Ozlem; Karadag-Saygi, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Postural stability is the ability of to maintain the position of the body within the support area. This function is affected in cerebral palsy. The aim of the present study was to compare static and dynamic postural stability between children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy and healthy controls. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven children between the ages of 5 and 14 diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (19 right, 18 left) and 23 healthy gender- and age-matched controls were included in the study. Postural stability was evaluated in both of the groups using a Neurocom Balance. Sway velocity was measured both with the eyes open and closed. Sit to stand and turning abilities were also assessed. [Results] The sway velocities with the eyes open and closed were significantly different between the groups. The weight transfer time in the Sit to Stand test was also significantly slower in children with cerebral palsy. Children with cerebral palsy also showed slower turning times and greater sway velocities during the Step and Quick Turn test on a force plate compared with their healthy counterparts. [Conclusion] Both static and dynamic postural stability parameters are affected in hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Further research is needed to define rehabilitation interventions to improve these parameters in patients. PMID:27313338

  18. Evaluation of postural stability in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kenis-Coskun, Ozge; Giray, Esra; Eren, Beyhan; Ozkok, Ozlem; Karadag-Saygi, Evrim

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Postural stability is the ability of to maintain the position of the body within the support area. This function is affected in cerebral palsy. The aim of the present study was to compare static and dynamic postural stability between children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy and healthy controls. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven children between the ages of 5 and 14 diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (19 right, 18 left) and 23 healthy gender- and age-matched controls were included in the study. Postural stability was evaluated in both of the groups using a Neurocom Balance. Sway velocity was measured both with the eyes open and closed. Sit to stand and turning abilities were also assessed. [Results] The sway velocities with the eyes open and closed were significantly different between the groups. The weight transfer time in the Sit to Stand test was also significantly slower in children with cerebral palsy. Children with cerebral palsy also showed slower turning times and greater sway velocities during the Step and Quick Turn test on a force plate compared with their healthy counterparts. [Conclusion] Both static and dynamic postural stability parameters are affected in hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Further research is needed to define rehabilitation interventions to improve these parameters in patients.

  19. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Load Rejection Over-Voltage from Grid-Tied Solar Inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Austin; Hoke, Anderson; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Ropp, Michael; Chebahtah, Justin; Wang, Trudie; Zimmerly, Brian

    2015-06-14

    This paper investigates the impact of load rejection over-voltage (LRO) from commercially available grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) inverters. LRO can occur when a breaker opens and the power output from a distributed energy resource (DER) exceeds the load. Simplified models of current-controlled inverters can over-predict LRO magnitudes, thus it is useful to quantify the effect through laboratory testing. The load rejection event was replicated using a hardware testbed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and a set of commercially available PV inverters was tested to quantify the impact of LRO for a range of generation-to-load ratios. The magnitude and duration of the over-voltage events are reported in this paper along with a discussion of characteristic inverter output behavior. The results for the inverters under test showed that maximum over-voltage magnitudes were less than 200% of nominal voltage, and much lower in many test cases. These research results are important because utilities that interconnect inverter-based DER need to understand their characteristics under abnormal grid conditions.

  1. Asymmetric synthesis and evaluation of a hydroxyphenylamide voltage-gated sodium channel blocker in human prostate cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Gary C.; Kong, Yali; Paige, Mikell; Li, Zhang; Merrick, Ellen C.; Hansen, Todd; Suy, Simeng; Wang, Kan; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan; Cordova, Antoinette; McManus, Owen B.; Williams, Brande S.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Minor, Wladek; Patel, Manoj K.; Brown, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are known to be expressed in neurons and other excitable cells. Recently, voltage-gated sodium channels have been found to be expressed in human prostate cancer cells. α-Hydroxy-α-phenylamides are a new class of small molecules that have demonstrated potent inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels. The hydroxyamide motif, an isostere of a hydantoin ring, provides an active scaffold from which several potent racemic sodium channel blockers have been derived. With little known about chiral preferences, the development of chiral syntheses to obtain each pure enantiomer for evaluation as sodium channel blockers is important. Using Seebach and Frater's chiral template, cyclocondensation of (R)-3-chloromandelic acid with pivaldehyde furnished both the cis- and trans-2,5-disubsituted dioxolanones. Using this chiral template, we synthesized both enantiomers of 2-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxynonanamide, and evaluated their ability to functionally inhibit hNav isoforms, human prostate cancer cells and xenograft. Enantiomers of lead demonstrated significant ability to reduce prostate cancer in vivo. PMID:22364743

  2. Evaluation of Interconnect-Complexity-Aware Low-Power VLSI Design Using Multiple Supply and Threshold Voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waidyasooriya, Hasitha Muthumala; Hariyama, Masanori; Kameyama, Michitaka

    This paper presents a high-level synthesis approach to minimize the total power consumption in behavioral synthesis under time and area constraints. The proposed method has two stages, functional unit (FU) energy optimization and interconnect energy optimization. In the first stage, active and inactive energies of the FUs are optimized using a multiple supply and threshold voltage scheme. Genetic algorithm (GA) based simultaneous assignment of supply and threshold voltages and module selection is proposed. The proposed GA based searching method can be used in large size problems to find a near-optimal solution in a reasonable time. In the second stage, interconnects are simplified by increasing their sharing. This is done by exploiting similar data transfer patterns among FUs. The proposed method is evaluated for several benchmarks under 90nm CMOS technology. The experimental results show that more than 40% of energy savings can be achieved by our proposed method.

  3. CT x-ray tube voltage optimisation and image reconstruction evaluation using visual grading analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaoming; Kim, Ted M.; Davidson, Rob; Lee, Seongju; Shin, Cheongil; Yang, Sook

    2014-03-01

    The purposes of this work were to find an optimal x-ray voltage for CT imaging and to determine the diagnostic effectiveness of image reconstruction techniques by using the visual grading analysis (VGA). Images of the PH-5 CT abdomen phantom (Kagaku Co, Kyoto) were acquired by the Toshiba Aquillion One 320 slices CT system with various exposures (from 10 to 580 mAs) under different tube peak voltages (80, 100 and 120 kVp). The images were reconstructed by employing the FBP and the AIDR 3D iterative reconstructions with Mild, Standard and Strong FBP blending. Image quality was assessed by measuring noise, contrast to noise ratio and human observer's VGA scores. The CT dose index CTDIv was obtained from the values displayed on the images. The best fit for the curves of the image quality VGA vs dose CTDIv is a logistic function from the SPSS estimation. A threshold dose Dt is defined as the CTDIv at the just acceptable for diagnostic image quality and a figure of merit (FOM) is defined as the slope of the standardised logistic function. The Dt and FOM were found to be 5.4, 8.1 and 9.1 mGy and 0.47, 0.51 and 0.38 under the tube voltages of 80, 100 and 120 kVp, respectively, from images reconstructed by the FBP technique. The Dt and FOM values were lower from the images reconstructed by the AIDR 3D in comparison with the FBP technique. The optimal xray peak voltage for the imaging of the PH-5 abdomen phantom by the Aquillion One CT system was found to be at 100 kVp. The images reconstructed by the FBP are more diagnostically effective than that by the AIDR 3D but with a higher dose Dt to the patients.

  4. A high-stability scanning tunneling microscope achieved by an isolated tiny scanner with low voltage imaging capability

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Junting; Lu, Qingyou; Hou, Yubin

    2013-11-15

    We present a novel homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high quality atomic resolution. It is equipped with a small but powerful GeckoDrive piezoelectric motor which drives a miniature and detachable scanning part to implement coarse approach. The scanning part is a tiny piezoelectric tube scanner (industry type: PZT-8, whose d{sub 31} coefficient is one of the lowest) housed in a slightly bigger polished sapphire tube, which is riding on and spring clamped against the knife edges of a tungsten slot. The STM so constructed shows low back-lashing and drifting and high repeatability and immunity to external vibrations. These are confirmed by its low imaging voltages, low distortions in the spiral scanned images, and high atomic resolution quality even when the STM is placed on the ground of the fifth floor without any external or internal vibration isolation devices.

  5. A high-stability scanning tunneling microscope achieved by an isolated tiny scanner with low voltage imaging capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Hou, Yubin; Wang, Junting; Lu, Qingyou

    2013-11-01

    We present a novel homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high quality atomic resolution. It is equipped with a small but powerful GeckoDrive piezoelectric motor which drives a miniature and detachable scanning part to implement coarse approach. The scanning part is a tiny piezoelectric tube scanner (industry type: PZT-8, whose d31 coefficient is one of the lowest) housed in a slightly bigger polished sapphire tube, which is riding on and spring clamped against the knife edges of a tungsten slot. The STM so constructed shows low back-lashing and drifting and high repeatability and immunity to external vibrations. These are confirmed by its low imaging voltages, low distortions in the spiral scanned images, and high atomic resolution quality even when the STM is placed on the ground of the fifth floor without any external or internal vibration isolation devices.

  6. Formulation and stability evaluation of immediate release antioxidant tablet.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Abida; Hassan, Fouzia; Israr, Fozia; Hasan, S M Farid; Haque, Naheed

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important part in the development of human diseases. Pharmaceutical strategies are required to be work out in order to fight against such oxidative damages. Designing of new formulations that can protect human beings from the undesirable effects, consequence of oxidative stress, the crucial cellular and molecular processes, along with recurring oxidative damage and diseases is to be expedited. The main objective of present work was to design a rapidly releasing synthetic antioxidant tablet dosage form comprising of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in combination with lecithin (a phospho-lipid) that can fulfill human health and nutritional requirement and to perform stability studies. Beside active ingredients, the excipients used in present formulation were; Avicel pH 102, starch pregelatinized, silicon dioxide colloidal and polyethylene glycol 8000 milled magnesium stearate, acid stearic fine powder and aq.opa dry coating material. The immediate release formulation of antioxidant was prepared by wet granulation method. Three different trials were developed. Vitamin C was selected as tracer for detection and evaluation of tablet dosage form. When the resulting formulation was evaluated by USP 24 / NF 19, 2000 guidelines and later by stability studies, it was found that their quality can be maintained over a storage period of 24 months. PMID:25176233

  7. Formulation and stability evaluation of immediate release antioxidant tablet.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Abida; Hassan, Fouzia; Israr, Fozia; Hasan, S M Farid; Haque, Naheed

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important part in the development of human diseases. Pharmaceutical strategies are required to be work out in order to fight against such oxidative damages. Designing of new formulations that can protect human beings from the undesirable effects, consequence of oxidative stress, the crucial cellular and molecular processes, along with recurring oxidative damage and diseases is to be expedited. The main objective of present work was to design a rapidly releasing synthetic antioxidant tablet dosage form comprising of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in combination with lecithin (a phospho-lipid) that can fulfill human health and nutritional requirement and to perform stability studies. Beside active ingredients, the excipients used in present formulation were; Avicel pH 102, starch pregelatinized, silicon dioxide colloidal and polyethylene glycol 8000 milled magnesium stearate, acid stearic fine powder and aq.opa dry coating material. The immediate release formulation of antioxidant was prepared by wet granulation method. Three different trials were developed. Vitamin C was selected as tracer for detection and evaluation of tablet dosage form. When the resulting formulation was evaluated by USP 24 / NF 19, 2000 guidelines and later by stability studies, it was found that their quality can be maintained over a storage period of 24 months.

  8. Benchmarking the stability of human detergent-solubilised voltage-gated sodium channels for structural studies using eel as a reference.

    PubMed

    Slowik, Daria; Henderson, Richard

    2015-07-01

    With the ultimate goal of detailed structural analysis of mammalian and particularly human voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), we have investigated the relative stability of human and rat VGSCs and compared them with electric eel VGSC. We found that NaV1.3 from rat was the most stable after detergent solubilisation. The order of stability was rNaV1.3>hNaV1.2>hNaV1.1>hNaV1.6>hNaV1.3>hNaV1.4. However, a comparison with the VGSC from Electrophorus electricus, which is most similar to NaV1.4, shows that the eel VGSC is considerably more stable in detergent than the human VGSCs examined. We conclude that current methods of structural analysis, such as single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM), may be most usefully targeted to eel VGSC or rNaV1.3, but that structural analysis on the full spectrum of VGSCs, by methods that require greater stability such as crystallisation and X-ray crystallography, will require further stabilisation of the channel.

  9. Seismic hazard evaluation for design and/or verification of a high voltage system

    SciTech Connect

    Grases, J.; Malaver, A.; Lopez, S.; Rivero, P.

    1995-12-31

    The Venezuelan capital, Caracas, with a population of about 5 million, is within the area of contact of the Caribbean and South American tectonic plates. Since 1567, the valley where it lies and surroundings have been shaken by at leas six destructive events from different seismogenic sources. Electric energy is served to the city by a high voltage system consisting of 4 power stations, 20 substations (230 KV downwards) and 80 km of high voltage lines, covering an area of about 135 x 60 km{sup 2}. Given the variety of soil conditions, topographical irregularities and proximity to potentially active faults, it was decided to perform a seismic hazard study. This paper gives the results of that study synthesized by two hazard-parameter maps, which allow a conservative characterization of the acceleration on firm soils. Specific site coefficients allow for changes in soil conditions and topographical effects. Sites whose proximity to fault lines is less than about 2 km, require additional field studies in order to rule out the possibility of permanent ground displacements.

  10. Evaluation of higher distribution and/or utilization voltages. Fourth interim report (August 1980): assessment of optimum distribution configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    This interim report provides documentation on the fourth task, Assessment of Optimum Distribution Configuration, of DOE Contract No. ET-78-C-01-2866, Evaluation of Higher Distribution and/or Utilization Voltages. The work performed under this task includes the development of a computer model for assessment of life cycle costs for the distribution and utilization systems, the development of an optimization algorithm to enable distribution system configuration optimization and a net energy analysis to determine potential net energy savings. Input data for this task derive from Task 3. The major output of this task is a documented computer code.

  11. Electrodynamic stabilization conditions for high-temperature superconducting composites with different types of current-voltage characteristic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkharov, A. M.; Lavrov, N. A.; Romanovskii, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    The current instability is studied in high-temperature superconducting current-carrying elements with I- V characteristics described by power or exponential equations. Stability analysis of the macroscopic states is carried out in terms of a stationary zero-dimensional model. In linear temperature approximation criteria are derived that allow one to find the maximum allowable values of the induced current, induced electric field intensity, and overheating of the superconductor. A condition is formulated for the complete thermal stabilization of the superconducting composite with regard to the nonlinearity of its I- V characteristic. It is shown that both subcritical and supercritical stable states may arise. In the latter case, the current and electric field intensity are higher than the preset critical parameters of the superconductor. Conditions for these states depending on the properties of the matrix, superconductor's critical current, fill factor, and nonlinearity of the I- V characteristic are discussed. The obtained results considerably augment the class of allowable states for high-temperature superconductors: it is demonstrated that there exist stable resistive conditions from which superconductors cannot pass to the normal state even if the parameters of these conditions are supercritical.

  12. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

  13. Feedback module for evaluating optical-power stabilization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downing, John

    2016-03-01

    A feedback module for evaluating the efficacy of optical-power stabilization without thermoelectric coolers (TECs) is described. The module comprises a pickoff optic for sampling a light beam, a photodiode for converting the sample power to electrical current, and a temperature sensor. The components are mounted on an optical bench that makes accurate (0.05°) beam alignment practical as well as providing high thermal-conductivity among the components. The module can be mounted on existing light sources or the components can be incorporated in new designs. Evaluations of optical and electronic stabilization methods are also reported. The optical method combines a novel, weakly reflective, weakly polarizing coating on the pickoff optic with a photodiode and an automatic-power-control (APC) circuit in a closed loop. The shift of emitter wavelength with temperature, coupled with the wavelength-dependent reflectance of the pickoff optic, enable the APC circuit to compensate for temperature errors. In the electronic method, a mixed-signal processor in a quasiclosed loop generates a control signal from temperature and photocurrent inputs and feeds it back to an APC circuit to compensate for temperature errors. These methods result in temperature coefficients less than 20 ppm/°C and relative rms power equal to 05% for the optical method and 0.02% for the electronic method. The later value represents an order of magnitude improvement over rms specifications for cooled, laser-diode modules and a five-fold improvement in wall-plug efficiency is achieved by eliminating TECs.

  14. Imaging Quality Evaluation of Low Tube Voltage Coronary CT Angiography Using Low Concentration Contrast Medium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zaixian; Wang, Qingguo; Zheng, Linfeng; Feng, Yan; Zhou, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guixiang; Li, Kangan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the image quality of prospectively ECG-gated low voltage coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) with an administration of low concentration contrast medium. Method and Materials A total of 101 patients, each with a heart rate below 65 beats per minute (BPM), underwent a prospectively ECG-gated axial scan in CT coronary angiography on a 64-slice CT scanner. All patients were allocated in three groups (group A: n=31, 80kVp, 300 mgI/ml; group B: n=34, 100kVp, 300 mgI/ml; group C: n=36, 120kVp, 370 mgI/ml). The CT attenuation values of aortic root (AR), left main coronary artery (LMA), right main coronary artery (RMA) and chest subcutaneous fat tissue were measured. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of AR, LMA and RMA were calculated according to the formulas below. The values of computed tomography dose index (CTDI) and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded. Image quality was assessed on a 5-point scale. The results were compared using the one-way ANOVA and rank sum tests. Results The values of CNR and SNR for vessels in group A and group B were not significantly different from group C (each p > 0.05). The effective radiation dose in group A (1.51±0.70 mSv) and group B (2.59±1.24 mSv) were both lower than group C (4.92±2.82 mSv) (each p < 0.05). There was no significant difference among the image quality scores of group A (4.10±0.41), group B (3.90±0.48) and group C (4.04±0.36) (each P > 0.05). Conclusion Low tube voltage coronary CT angiography using low concentration contrast medium does not affect the imaging quality for assessing the coronary arteries compared with high voltage coronary CT angiography using high concentration contrast medium. Meanwhile low concentration contrast medium allowed 47-69% of radiation dose reduction. PMID:25811785

  15. Passive protection devices for high-voltage equipment: Design procedures and performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Serino, G.; Bonacina, G.; Bettinali, F.

    1995-12-31

    A 420 kV High-Voltage Alternating Current Circuit-Breaker, a typical element of an open-air electrical substation, is considered. Experimental tests carried out on such a piece of equipment by ISMES, under ENEL support, clearly pointed out its inability to withstand the seismic qualification level of highest severity indicated by the standards. The design of a seismic isolation system for the switch-gear composed of spring units and dampers is developed in this paper, and the dynamic earthquake response of the isolated circuit-breaker is compared numerically to the one obtained without the seismic protection system. The remarkable reduction of stresses in the porcelain insulators are shown, evidencing that this occurs to the detriment of a certain increment of displacements at the top of the apparatus.

  16. Numerical evaluation of voltage gradient constraints on electrokinetic injection of amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming Zhi; Reynolds, David A.; Prommer, Henning; Fourie, Andy; Thomas, David G.

    2012-03-01

    A new numerical model is presented that simulates groundwater flow and multi-species reactive transport under hydraulic and electrical gradients. Coupled into the existing, reactive transport model PHT3D, the model was verified against published analytical and experimental studies, and has applications in remediation cases where the geochemistry plays an important role. A promising method for remediation of low-permeability aquifers is the electrokinetic transport of amendments for in situ chemical oxidation. Numerical modelling showed that amendment injection resulted in the voltage gradient adjacent to the cathode decreasing below a linear gradient, producing a lower achievable concentration of the amendment in the medium. An analytical method is derived to estimate the achievable amendment concentration based on the inlet concentration. Even with low achievable concentrations, analysis showed that electrokinetic remediation is feasible due to its ability to deliver a significantly higher mass flux in low-permeability media than under a hydraulic gradient.

  17. Evaluating Sediment Stability at Offshore Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. A.; Magalen, J.; Roberts, J.; Chang, G.

    2014-12-01

    Development of offshore alternative energy production methods through the deployment of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) devices (e.g. wave, tidal, and wind generators) in the United States continues at a rapid pace, with significant public and private investment in recent years. The installation of offshore MHK systems includes cabling to the shoreline and some combination of bottom foundation (e.g., piles, gravity bases, suction buckets) or anchored floating structure. Installation of any of this infrastructure at the seabed may affect coastal sediment dynamics. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate the interrelationships between hydrodynamics and seabed dynamics and the effects of MHK foundations and cables on sediment transport. If sufficient information is known about the physical processes and sediment characteristics of a region, hydrodynamic and sediment transport models may be developed to evaluate near and far-field sediment transport. The ultimate goal of these models and methods is to quantitatively evaluate changes to the baseline seabed stability due to the installation of MHK farms in the water. The objective of the present study is to evaluate and validate wave, current, and sediment transport models (i.e., a site analysis) that may be used to estimate risk of sediment mobilization and transport. While the methodology and examples have been presented in a draft guidance document (Roberts et al., 2013), the current report presents an overall strategy for model validation, specifically for a case study in the Santa Cruz Bight, Monterey Bay, CA. Innovative techniques to quantify the risk of sediment mobility has been developed to support these investigations. Public domain numerical models are utilized to estimate the near-shore wave climate (SWAN: Simulating Waves Near-shore) and circulation and sediment transport (EFDC: Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code) regimes. The models were validated with field hydrodynamic data. Sediment size information was

  18. Demonstration and Field Evaluation of Streambank Stabilization with Submerged Vanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, H.; Hoopes, J.; Poggi, D.; Fitzpatrick, F.; Walz, K.; ,

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness of submerged vanes for reducing bank erosion and improving aquatic habitat is being evaluated at a site on North Fish Creek, a Lake Superior tributary. Increased runoff from agricultural areas with clayey soils has increased flood magnitudes and the erosion potential/transport capacity of the stream. Most of the creek's sediment load originates from the erosion of 17 large bluffs. This creek contains important recreational fisheries that are potentially limited by the loss of aquatic habitat from deposition of sediment on spawning beds. Submerged vanes are a cost effective and environmentally less intrusive alternative to traditional structural stabilization measures. Submerged vanes protrude from a channel bed, are oriented at an angle to the local velocity, and are distributed along a portion of channel. They induce a transverse force and torque on the flow along with longitudinal vortexes that alter the cross sectional shape and alignment of the channel. Submerged vanes were installed at a bluff/bend site in summer and fall 2000. The number, size, and layout of the vanes were based upon the channel morphology under estimated bankfull conditions. The effectiveness of the vanes will be evaluated by comparing surveys of the bluff face, streamflow, and channel conditions for several years after installation of the submerged vanes with surveys before and immediately after their installation.

  19. HEMC: A sensitive aggregate stability method for soil quality evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil aggregate stability is an important soil quality index, representing mainly soil structural stability and affecting, among others, hydraulic conductivity, seal formation, runoff, water and wind erosion. The most common method of assessing aggregate stability is wet sieving where aggregate stabi...

  20. The triangular voltage sweep method as a performance metric for diffusion barrier evaluation in copper metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kaushik Arun

    Increasing demands on computer chip technology require exploration of novel materials, deposition techniques and characterization methods. Copper-based interconnects have been implemented in advanced microprocessor designs owing to copper's low resistivity (1.7 muO-cm). Copper interconnects require a barrier layer to prevent diffusion into the dielectric layer. Traditionally, a technique known as bias-thermal-stress-capacitance-voltage (BTS) has been used to quantify barrier reliability against Cu diffusion. Triangular voltage sweep (TVS) is a new method for quantifying barrier reliability against Cu diffusion, whose advantage lies in its ability to discriminate between various mobile charges based on their mobilities in an insulator. In the first phase of this work, physical vapor deposited (PVD) tantalum nitride (TaN) was first used as a baseline barrier to establish and understand the performance metrics of TVS. The development and optimization of PVD TaN employed a design of experiment (DOE) approach. The optimization resulted in stoichiometric TaN films with a resistivity of 250 muO-cm for 50 nm thick films. The films were polycrystalline and exhibited a zone "T" type microstructure. TVS was used to characterize these films. Pertinent results, including possible failure mechanisms, are presented in the document. As the device sizes shrink to 100 nm and below, diffusion barrier thickness is expected to fall to less than 10 nm. One potential material for the barrier layer in the sub-100 nm technology is tungsten nitride (WNx) deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Tungsten nitride is expected to perform well as a barrier because of its refractory nature and excellent thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties. In addition, it can be deposited in amorphous form. Amorphous materials have no grain boundaries, thereby avoiding grain boundary diffusion, which is a fast path diffusion mechanism. Additionally, a low-dielectric constant material, such as Si

  1. Modelling of illuminated current–voltage characteristics to evaluate leakage currents in long wavelength infrared mercury cadmium telluride photovoltaic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal, Vishnu E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Qiu, WeiCheng; Hu, Weida E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn

    2014-11-14

    The current–voltage characteristics of long wavelength mercury cadmium telluride infrared detectors have been studied using a recently suggested method for modelling of illuminated photovoltaic detectors. Diodes fabricated on in-house grown arsenic and vacancy doped epitaxial layers were evaluated for their leakage currents. The thermal diffusion, generation–recombination (g-r), and ohmic currents were found as principal components of diode current besides a component of photocurrent due to illumination. In addition, both types of diodes exhibited an excess current component whose growth with the applied bias voltage did not match the expected growth of trap-assisted-tunnelling current. Instead, it was found to be the best described by an exponential function of the type, I{sub excess} = I{sub r0} + K{sub 1} exp (K{sub 2} V), where I{sub r0}, K{sub 1}, and K{sub 2} are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. A study of the temperature dependence of the diode current components and the excess current provided the useful clues about the source of origin of excess current. It was found that the excess current in diodes fabricated on arsenic doped epitaxial layers has its origin in the source of ohmic shunt currents. Whereas, the source of excess current in diodes fabricated on vacancy doped epitaxial layers appeared to be the avalanche multiplication of photocurrent. The difference in the behaviour of two types of diodes has been attributed to the difference in the quality of epitaxial layers.

  2. Novel Approach to Evaluation of Charging on Semiconductor Surface by Noncontact, Electrode-Free Capacitance/Voltage Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirae, Sadao; Kohno, Motohiro; Okada, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Hideaki; Nakatani, Ikuyoshi; Kusuda, Tatsufumi; Sakai, Takamasa

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to the quantitative characterization of semiconductor surface charging caused by plasma exposures and ion implantations. The problems in conventional evaluation of charging are also discussed. Following the discussions above, the necessity of unified criteria is suggested for efficient development of systems or processes without charging damage. Hence, the charging saturation voltage between a top oxide surface and substrate, V s, and the charging density per unit area per second, ρ0, should be taken as criteria of charging behavior, which effectively represent the charging characteristics of both processes. The unified criteria can be obtained from the exposure time dependence of a net charging density on the thick field oxide. In order to determine V s and ρ0, the analysis using the C-V curve measured in a noncontact method with the metal-air-insulator-semiconductor (MAIS) technique is employed. The total space-charge density in oxide and its centroid can be determined at the same time by analyzing the flat-band voltage (V fb) of the MAIS capacitor as a function of the air gap. The net charge density can be obtained by analyzing the difference between the total space-charge density in oxide before and after charging. Finally, it is shown that charge damage of the large area metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor can be estimated from both V s and ρ0 which are obtained from results for a thick field oxide implanted with As+ and exposed to oxygen plasma.

  3. Evaluation of solidification/stabilization for treating explosives contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Cullinane, M.J. Jr.; Channell, M.

    1996-12-31

    The success of solidification/stabilization (S/S) for treating explosives contaminated soils was evaluated using a variety of physical, chemical, and contaminant release testing methods. The analytes of concern included explosives and their degradation products (TNT, RDX, HMX, 2, 4-Dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene, 2-Amino-4,6-Dinitrotoluene, 4-Amino-2,6-Dinitrobenzene, 2,4-Dinitrotoluene) and PAH`s (Benzo(a)anthracene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Chrysene, Dibenz(a,h) anthracene, and Ideno (1,2,3-cd)pyrene). All Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) leachate analytes, except 2-Am-4,6-TNT was reduced approximately 97%. The release of 2,4-DNT was also significantly reduced. The results of the Sequential Batch Leach Test (SBLT) were mixed. The PAH compounds were not identified above detectable limits in the leachates from either the untreated soil or the treated soils. Release of 2,4,6-TNT was reduced to undetectable. However, other explosives related compounds (2-Am-4, 6-DNT) were identified in the leachates from the treated soils that were not identified in the untreated soil. Organic transformations in the highly alkaline environment associated with S/S or sample heterogeneity are suspected to cause this phenomena.

  4. Biomechanical Evaluation of Ligamentous Stabilizers of the Scaphoid and Lunate

    PubMed Central

    Short, Walter H.; Werner, Frederick W.; Green, Jason K.; Masaoka, Shunji

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of sectioning the scapholunate interosseous ligament, radioscaphocapitate ligament, and scaphotrapezial ligament on the kinematics of the scaphoid and lunate. Eight cadaver upper extremities were placed in a wrist joint simulator and moved in continuous cycles of flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation. Positional data of the scaphoid and lunate were obtained in the intact state, after the scapholunate ligament was cut; after the scapholunate and scaphotrapezial ligaments were cut; after the scapholunate, scaphotrapezial, and radioscaphocapitate ligaments were cut; and after all 3 ligaments were cut and the specimen was placed through an additional 1,000 cycles of flexion-extension. Cutting the scapholunate ligament caused changes in scaphoid and lunate motion during flexion-extension, but not radial-ulnar deviation. Additional sectioning of the scaphotrapezial ligament followed by the radioscaphocapitate ligament caused further kinematic changes in these carpal bones. One thousand cycles of motion after all 3 ligaments were sectioned caused additional kinematic changes in the scaphoid and lunate. The scapholunate ligament appears to be the primary stabilizer between the scaphoid and lunate. The radioscaphocapitate and scaphotrapezial ligaments are secondary restraints. Repetitive cyclic motion after ligament sectioning appears to have additional deleterious effects on carpal kinematics. PMID:12457349

  5. Stability evaluation of lutein nanodispersions prepared via solvent displacement method: The effect of emulsifiers with different stabilizing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tai Boon; Yussof, Nor Shariffa; Abas, Faridah; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Tan, Chin Ping

    2016-08-15

    The stability of lutein nanodispersions was evaluated during storage and when exposed to different environmental conditions. Lutein nanodispersions were prepared using Tween 80, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium caseinate (SC) and SDS-Tween 80 as the emulsifiers. During eight weeks of storage, all samples showed remarkable physical stability. However, only the SC-stabilized nanodispersion showed excellent chemical stability. Under different environmental conditions, the nanodispersions exhibited a varied degree of stability. All nanodispersions showed constant particle sizes at temperatures between 30 and 60°C. However, at pH 2-8, only the SC-stabilized nanodispersion was physically unstable. The addition of NaCl (300-400 mM) only caused flocculation in nanodispersion stabilized by SDS-Tween 80. All nanodispersions were physically stable when subjected to different centrifugation speeds. Only Tween 80-stabilized nanodispersion was stable against the effect of freeze-thaw cycles (no phase separation observed). In this study, there was no particular emulsifier that was effective against all of the environmental conditions tested. PMID:27006226

  6. Effect of PEGylated chitosan as multifunctional stabilizer for deacetyl mycoepoxydience nanosuspension design and stability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Zhou, Yuqi; Wang, Lulu; Wang, Yancai

    2016-11-20

    Here a series of multifunctional stabilizers was designed and used in a nanosuspension stability enhancement study. Methoxypolyethylene glycol (M PEG)-grafted chitosan, accompanied by space steric hindrance, an electrostatic repulsion function, and a solvation effect, is a multifunctional stabilizer. Deacetyl mycoepoxydience (DM) nanosuspension was prepared using the anti-solvent precipitation approach. The effects of the DM and the multifunctional stabilizer concentration, solvent to anti-solvent ratio, crystallization and storage temperature, and ultrasonic time on drug particle formation during the anti-solvent processing were investigated and the nanosuspension stability was studied. The nanosuspension showed dendritic-like nanostructures and a crystalline state in a morphology and crystalline state study. The optimized drug and multifunctional stabilizer concentration range were selected through the response surface optimization method. The most appropriate and stable nanosuspension could be obtained through the optimal parameters. This study demonstrated that M PEG-grafted chitosan (M PEGC) could be used as a multifunctional stabilizer to control particle size and improve nanosuspension stability. PMID:27561519

  7. Evaluation of a Programmable Voltage-Controlled MEMS Oscillator, Type SiT3701, Over a Wide Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Semiconductor chips based on MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology, such as sensors, transducers, and actuators, are becoming widely used in today s electronics due to their high performance, low power consumption, tolerance to shock and vibration, and immunity to electro-static discharge. In addition, the MEMS fabrication process allows for the miniaturization of individual chips as well as the integration of various electronic circuits into one module, such as system-on-a-chip. These measures would simplify overall system design, reduce parts count and interface, improve reliability, and reduce cost; and they would meet requirements of systems destined for use in space exploration missions. In this work, the performance of a recently-developed MEMS voltage-controlled oscillator was evaluated under a wide temperature range. Operation of this new commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) device was also assessed under thermal cycling to address some operational conditions of the space environment

  8. Evaluation of modulating field of photoreflectance of surface-intrinsic-n+ type doped GaAs by using photoinduced voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. Y.; Chien, J. Y.; Wang, D. P.; Huang, K. F.; Huang, T. C.

    2002-04-01

    Photoreflectance (PR) of surface-intrinsic-n+ type doped GaAs has been measured for various power densities of pump laser. The spectra exhibited many Franz-Keldysh oscillations, whereby the strength of electric field F in the undoped layer can be determined. The thus obtained Fs are subject to photovoltaic effect and are less than built-in field Fbi. In the previous work we have obtained the relation F≈Fbi-δF/2 when δF≪Fbi by using electroreflectance to simulate PR, where δF is the modulating field of the pump beam. In this work a method was devised to evaluate δF by using photoinduced voltages Vs and, hence, the relation can be verified by PR itself. The δFs obtained by Vs are also consistent with those of using imaginary part of fast Fourier transform of PR spectra.

  9. Tris(trimethylsilyl)borate as an electrolyte additive for improving interfacial stability of high voltage layered lithium-rich oxide cathode/carbonate-based electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhui; Xing, Lidan; Zhang, Ruiqin; Chen, Min; Wang, Zaisheng; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Weishan

    2015-07-01

    Tris(trimethylsilyl)borate (TMSB) is used as an electrolyte additive for high voltage lithium-rich oxide cathode of lithium ion battery. The interfacial natures of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2/carbonate-based electrolyte are investigated with a combination of electrochemical measurements and physical characterizations. Charge/discharge tests show that the cyclic performance of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 in a mixed carbonate electrolyte is significantly improved by using TMSB. After 200 cycles between 2 V and 4.8 V (vs. Li/Li+) at 0.5 C rate, the capacity retention of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 is only 19% in the blank electrolyte, while it is improved to 74% when 0.5% TMSB is applied. The results from physical characterizations demonstrate that this excellent cyclic performance is attributed to the improved interfacial stability of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2/electrolyte due to the thin and protective film generated by TMSB.

  10. Triphenylamine-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as Cathode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries with Coexistence of Redox Active Sites, High Working Voltage, and High Rate Stability.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhe; Yi, Xiaohui; Liu, Zixuan; Shang, Jie; Wang, Deyu

    2016-06-15

    Through rational organization of two redox active building block, a triphenylamine-based metal-organic framework (MOF) material, Cu-TCA (H3TCA = tricarboxytriphenyl amine), was synthesized and applied as a cathode active material for the first time in lithium batteries. Cu-TCA exhibited redox activity both in the metal clusters (Cu(+)/Cu(2+)) and organic ligand radicals (N/N(+)) with separated voltage plateaus and a high working potential vs Li/Li(+) up to 4.3 V, comparing with the current commercial LiCoO2 cathode materials. The electrochemical behaviors of this MOF electrode material at different states of charge were carefully studied by cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence techniques. Long cycling stability of this MOF was achieved with an average Coulombic efficiency of 96.5% for 200 cycles at a 2 C rate. Discussing the electrochemical performances on the basis of capacity contributions from the metal clusters (Cu(+)/Cu(2+)) and organic ligands (N/N(+)) proposes an alternative mechanism of capacity loss for the MOF materials used in lithium batteries. This improved understanding will shed light on the designing principle of MOF-based cathode materials for their practical application in battery sciences. PMID:27225327

  11. An implementation of particle swarm optimization to evaluate optimal under-voltage load shedding in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Bioki, M. M.; Rashidinejad, M.; Abdollahi, A.

    2013-11-01

    Load shedding is a crucial issue in power systems especially under restructured electricity environment. Market-driven load shedding in reregulated power systems associated with security as well as reliability is investigated in this paper. A technoeconomic multi-objective function is introduced to reveal an optimal load shedding scheme considering maximum social welfare. The proposed optimization problem includes maximum GENCOs and loads' profits as well as maximum loadability limit under normal and contingency conditions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a heuristic optimization technique, is utilized to find an optimal load shedding scheme. In a market-driven structure, generators offer their bidding blocks while the dispatchable loads will bid their price-responsive demands. An independent system operator (ISO) derives a market clearing price (MCP) while rescheduling the amount of generating power in both pre-contingency and post-contingency conditions. The proposed methodology is developed on a 3-bus system and then is applied to a modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in implementing the optimal load shedding satisfying social welfare by maintaining voltage stability margin (VSM) through technoeconomic analyses.

  12. Safety evaluation of interim stabilization of non-stabilized single-shell watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, S.M.

    1994-12-30

    The report provides a summation of the status of safety issues associated with interim stabilization of Watch List SSTs (organic, ferrocyanide, and flammable gas), as extracted from recent safety analyses, including the Tank Farms Accelerated Safety Analysis efforts.

  13. VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Von Eschen, R.L.; Scheele, P.F.

    1962-04-24

    A transistorized voltage regulator which provides very close voitage regulation up to about 180 deg F is described. A diode in the positive line provides a constant voltage drop from the input to a regulating transistor emitter. An amplifier is coupled to the positive line through a resistor and is connected between a difference circuit and the regulating transistor base which is negative due to the difference in voltage drop across thc diode and the resistor so that a change in the regulator output causes the amplifier to increase or decrease the base voltage and current and incrcase or decrease the transistor impedance to return the regulator output to normal. (AEC)

  14. Evaluation on oxidative stability of walnut beverage emulsions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Liu, Fuguo; Xue, Yanhui; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-07-15

    Walnut beverage emulsions were prepared with walnut kernels, mixed nonionic emulsifiers and xanthan gum. The effects of food antioxidants on the physical stability and lipid oxidation of walnut beverage emulsions were investigated. The results showed that tea polyphenols could not only increase the droplet size of the emulsions, but also enhance physical stability during the thermal storage at 62 ± 1 °C. However, water-dispersed oil-soluble vitamin E and enzymatically modified isoquercitrin obviously decreased the physical stability of the emulsion system during the thermal storage. BHT and natural antioxidant extract had scarcely influenced on the physical stability of walnut beverage emulsions. Tea polyphenols and BHT could significantly retard lipid oxidation in walnut beverage emulsions against thermal and UV light exposure during the storage. Vitamin E exhibited the prooxidant effect during the thermal storage and the antioxidant attribute during UV light exposure. Other food antioxidants had no significant effect on retarding lipid oxidation during thermal or light storage.

  15. Evaluation of muscular stabilization ability during a static workout.

    PubMed

    Staniszewski, Michał; Urbanik, Czesław; Staniszewski, Tadeusz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the moving and stabilizing functions of selected groups of muscles during the process of static workout. 15 students of the Academy of Physical Education were tested in non-competitive training. Muscular torques achieved during flexing and extending big limb joints were used as the determinant of force. Comparative analysis of torque values achieved in passive stabilization (with support) and muscular stabilization (without support) in elbow and knee joints was carried out. The value of the force applied to the passively stabilizing element in a given measurement during the flexion of elbow and the extension of knee joint was tested. The results of these tests allowed us to learn the value of muscular torques and - after statistical analysis - the relationship between them in particular functions.

  16. Non-iterative Voltage Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Hou, Zhangshuan; Wu, Di; Meng, Da; Wang, Shaobu; Elbert, Stephen T.; Miller, Laurie E.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2014-09-30

    This report demonstrates promising capabilities and performance characteristics of the proposed method using several power systems models. The new method will help to develop a new generation of highly efficient tools suitable for real-time parallel implementation. The ultimate benefit obtained will be early detection of system instability and prevention of system blackouts in real time.

  17. AN EVALUATION OF CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES FOR LOW-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC CABLES

    SciTech Connect

    LOFARO,R.J.; GROVE,E.; SOO,P.

    2000-07-23

    Aging of systems and components in nuclear power plants is a well known occurrence that must be managed to ensure the continued safe operation of these plants. Much of the degradation due to aging is controlled through periodic maintenance and/or component replacement. However, there are components that do not receive periodic maintenance or monitoring once they are installed; electric cables are such a component. To provide a means of monitoring the condition of electric cables, research is ongoing to evaluate promising condition monitoring (CM) techniques that can be used in situ to monitor cable condition and predict remaining life. While several techniques are promising, each has limitations that must be considered in its application. This paper discusses the theory behind several of the promising cable CM techniques being studied, along with their effectiveness for monitoring aging degradation in typical cable insulation materials, such as cross-linked polyethylene and ethylene propylene rubber. Successes and limitations of each technique are also presented.

  18. Evaluation of write error rate for voltage-driven dynamic magnetization switching in magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiota, Yoichi; Nozaki, Takayuki; Tamaru, Shingo; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Suzuki, Yoshishige

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the write error rate (WER) for voltage-driven dynamic switching in magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetization. We observed a clear oscillatory behavior of the switching probability with respect to the duration of pulse voltage, which reveals the precessional motion of magnetization during voltage application. We experimentally demonstrated WER as low as 4 × 10-3 at the pulse duration corresponding to a half precession period (˜1 ns). The comparison between the results of the experiment and simulation based on a macrospin model shows a possibility of ultralow WER (<10-15) under optimum conditions. This study provides a guideline for developing practical voltage-driven spintronic devices.

  19. Experimental evaluation of actual delivered dose using mega-voltage cone-beam CT and direct point dose measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, Kana; Kohno, Ryosuke; Nishioka, Shie; Shibuya, Toshiyuki; Ariji, Takaki; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2013-07-01

    Radiation therapy in patients is planned by using computed tomography (CT) images acquired before start of the treatment course. Here, tumor shrinkage or weight loss or both, which are common during the treatment course for patients with head-and-neck (H and N) cancer, causes unexpected differences from the plan, as well as dose uncertainty with the daily positional error of patients. For accurate clinical evaluation, it is essential to identify these anatomical changes and daily positional errors, as well as consequent dosimetric changes. To evaluate the actual delivered dose, the authors proposed direct dose measurement and dose calculation with mega-voltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT). The purpose of the present study was to experimentally evaluate dose calculation by MVCBCT. Furthermore, actual delivered dose was evaluated directly with accurate phantom setup. Because MVCBCT has CT-number variation, even when the analyzed object has a uniform density, a specific and simple CT-number correction method was developed and applied for the H and N site of a RANDO phantom. Dose distributions were calculated with the corrected MVCBCT images of a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Treatment processes from planning to beam delivery were performed for the H and N site of the RANDO phantom. The image-guided radiation therapy procedure was utilized for the phantom setup to improve measurement reliability. The calculated dose in the RANDO phantom was compared to the measured dose obtained by metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor detectors. In the polymethyl methacrylate phantom, the calculated and measured doses agreed within about +3%. In the RANDO phantom, the dose difference was less than +5%. The calculated dose based on simulation-CT agreed with the measured dose within±3%, even in the region with a high dose gradient. The actual delivered dose was successfully determined by dose calculation with MVCBCT, and the point dose measurement with the image

  20. The physical mechanism on the threshold voltage temperature stability improvement for GaN HEMTs with pre-fluorination argon treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Hsiang; Liang, Yung C.; Samudra, Ganesh S.; Huang, Chih-Fang; Kuo, Wei-Hung; Lo, Guo-Qiang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a normally-off AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT with improved threshold voltage (VTH) thermal stability is reported with investigations on its physical mechanism. The normally-off operation of the device is achieved from novel short argon plasma treatment (APT) prior to the fluorine plasma treatment (FPT) on Al2O3 gate dielectrics. For the MIS-HEMT with FPT only, its VTH drops from 4.2 V at room temperature to 0.5 V at 200 °C. Alternatively, for the device with APT-then-FPT process, its VTH can retain at 2.5 V at 200 °C due to the increased amount of deep-level traps that do not emit electrons at 200 °C. This thermally stable VTH makes this device suitable for high power applications. The depth profile of the F atoms in Al2O3, measured by the secondary ion mass spectroscopy, reveals a significant increase in the F concentration when APT is conducted prior to FPT. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis on the plasma-treated Al2O3 surfaces observes higher composition of Al-F bonds if APT was applied before FPT. The enhanced breaking of Al-O bonds due to Ar bombardment assisted in the increased incorporation of F radicals at the surface during the subsequent FPT process. The Schrödinger equation of Al2OxFy cells, with the same Al-F compositions as obtained from XPS, was solved by Gaussian 09 molecular simulations to extract electron state distribution as a function of energy. The simulation results show creation of the deeper trap states in the Al2O3 bandgap when APT is used before FPT. Finally, the trap distribution extracted from the simulations is verified by the gate-stress experimental characterization to confirm the physical mechanism described.

  1. Rapid Evaluation of Water-in-Oil (w/o) Emulsion Stability by Turbidity Ratio Measurements.

    PubMed

    Song; Jho; Kim; Kim

    2000-10-01

    In this Note, we investigated the turbidity ratio method for the evaluation of water-in-oil emulsion stability. The slope of turbidity ratio of water-in-oil emulsions with time was taken as an index of stability; the higher the slope, the less stable the system. Various factors affecting the stability of emulsion such as HLB of emulsifier, amount of emulsifiers, and water were tested using this technique. The results of the turbidity ratio technique for the evaluation of emulsion stability were well consistent with those obtained by the measurement of phase separation when incubated for 30 days at room temperature. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Evaluation of HAN-TEAN Stabilizers using Microcalorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornung, Steven D.; Davis, Dennis D.; Chang, Craig H.; Baker, David L.

    1997-01-01

    HAN-TEAN (hydroxylammonium nitrate - triethanolammonium nitrate - in water) is being considered for various propellant applications. This propellant has advantages in terms of insensitivity to impact and fire, low vapor pressure and environmentally benign reaction products. One office concerns with HAN-TEAN is its stability and shelf-life, especially when contaminated with trace metals. Stabilizer systems, consisting of anti-oxidants and/or chealating agents were investigated for their ability to control the decomposition of HAN-TEAN. Isothermal microcalorimetry, an ultrasensitive heat measurement technique, was used to monitor the decomposition of HANTEAN at near ambient temperatures. Isothermal microcalorimetry measures the heat flow from a reaction vessel into a surrounding heat sink. Microcalorimetry is approximately 1,000 times more sensitive than accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for measuring heat flow. Samples of HAN-TEAN containing the stabilizers were spiked with 50 ppm iron and the heat evolution monitored for a period of at least 30 days. Ten stabilizer combinations were tested and the rates of HAN-TEAN decomposition were lowered by 74 to 95 percent in the presence of iron.

  3. Evaluation of the stability of gas hydrates in Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kamath, A.; Godbole, S.P.; Ostermann, R.D.; Collett, T.S.

    1987-01-01

    The factors which control the distribution of in situ gas hydrate deposits in colder regions such as Northern Alaska include; mean annual surface temperatures (MAST), geothermal gradients above and below the base of permafrost, subsurface pressures, gas composition, pore-fluid salinity and the soil condition. Currently existing data on the above parameters for the forty-six wells located in Northern Alaska were critically examined and used in calculations of depths and thicknesses of gas hydrate stability zones. To illustrate the effect of gas hydrate stability zones, calculations were done for a variable gas composition using the thermodynamic model of Holder and John (1982). The hydrostatic pressure gradient of 9.84 kPa/m (0.435 lbf/in2ft), the salinity of 10 parts per thousand (ppt) and the coarse-grained soil conditions were assumed. An error analysis was performed for the above parameters and the effect of these parameters on hydrate stability zone calculations were determined. After projecting the hydrate stability zones for the forty-six wells, well logs were used to identify and to obtain values for the depth and thickness of hydrate zones. Of the forty-six wells, only ten wells showed definite evidence of the presence of gas hydrates. ?? 1987.

  4. Evaluation on oxidative stability of walnut beverage emulsions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Liu, Fuguo; Xue, Yanhui; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-07-15

    Walnut beverage emulsions were prepared with walnut kernels, mixed nonionic emulsifiers and xanthan gum. The effects of food antioxidants on the physical stability and lipid oxidation of walnut beverage emulsions were investigated. The results showed that tea polyphenols could not only increase the droplet size of the emulsions, but also enhance physical stability during the thermal storage at 62 ± 1 °C. However, water-dispersed oil-soluble vitamin E and enzymatically modified isoquercitrin obviously decreased the physical stability of the emulsion system during the thermal storage. BHT and natural antioxidant extract had scarcely influenced on the physical stability of walnut beverage emulsions. Tea polyphenols and BHT could significantly retard lipid oxidation in walnut beverage emulsions against thermal and UV light exposure during the storage. Vitamin E exhibited the prooxidant effect during the thermal storage and the antioxidant attribute during UV light exposure. Other food antioxidants had no significant effect on retarding lipid oxidation during thermal or light storage. PMID:26948632

  5. Note: Effective measurement of retained I(c) in evaluating electromechanical properties of high temperature superconductor tapes by the voltage tap clipping technique.

    PubMed

    Dedicatoria, Marlon J; Bautista, Zhierwinjay; Shin, Hyung-Seop; Sim, Kideok

    2015-08-01

    In this note, the effectiveness of voltage tap clipping technique was assessed in evaluating the electromechanical properties of high temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes in the aspect of practical device applications. In the four-probe transport I(c) measurement, instead of directly soldering the voltage lead wires onto the HTS samples, they were tapped to the sample by either just clipping or soldering them to the clips. This technique facilitated the simultaneous and repeated retained I(c) measurement test for multiple samples. Finally, the critical double bending diameter of HTS tapes and the electrical properties of jointed and striated coated conductor tapes could be easily determined.

  6. Evaluation of the Radiation Stability of SuperLig 639

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    2001-07-26

    A method for treatment and disposal of the Hanford High Level Waste has been proposed for BNFL, Inc. In this process, a portion of the Hanford High Level Waste will be pretreated to concentrate radionuclides prior to vitrification. This task examines the stability of one of the ion exchange resins, SuperLig (TM) 639, toward irradiation. These tests were conducted using simulated Hanford High Level Waste containing pertechnetate ion as a stand-in for pertechnetate.

  7. Development and flight evaluation of an augmented stability active controls concept with a small tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Parasite drag reduction evaluation is composed of wind tunnel tests with a standard L-1011 tail and two reduced area tail configurations. Trim drag reduction is evaluated by rebalancing the airplane for relaxed static stability. This is accomplished by pumping water to tanks in the forward and aft of the airplane to acheive desired center of gravity location. Also, the L-1011 is modified to incorporate term and advanced augmented systems. By using advanced wings and aircraft relaxed static stability significant fuel savings can be realized. An airplane's dynamic stability becomes more sensitive for decreased tail size, relaxed static stability, and advanced wing configurations. Active control pitch augmentation will be used to acheive the required handling qualities. Flight tests will be performed to evaluate the pitch augmentation systems. The effect of elevator downrig on stabilizer/elevator hinge moments will be measured. For control system analysis, the normal acceleration feedback and pitch rate feedback are analyzed.

  8. Seismic stability evaluation of Ririe Dam and reservoir project. Report 2. Stability calculations, analysis and evaluation. Volume 2, Appendixes A through E

    SciTech Connect

    Sykora, D.W.; Koester, J.P.; Hynes, M.E.

    1991-09-01

    A study aimed at the evaluation of the stability of the Ririe Dam in Idaho was undertaken. The work is to be performed in two phases, the first of which is devoted to two-dimensional (2D) analyses, while the second is concerned with the investigation of the influence of the three-dimensional effects on the overall stability of the dam. This report presents results of Phase I of the program. An extensive number of effective stress stability analyses involving both circular and non-circular failure surfaces were performed using three different methods of stability analyses, namely the modified Bishop, Spencer and MIT methods. Both gravity and earthquake loadings were considered. Circular arc analyses for gravity loading were performed using the computer program STAB3D, whereas the program TSLOPE was utilized for all other analyses.

  9. Stability evaluation and correction of a pulsed neutron generator prompt gamma activation analysis system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Source output stability is important for accurate measurement in prompt gamma neutron activation. This is especially true when measuring low-concentration elements such as in vivo nitrogen (~2.5% of body weight). We evaluated the stability of the compact DT neutron generator within an in vivo nitrog...

  10. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION - SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF PCP AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS - SELMA, CA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Technolgy Evaluation Report evaluates the solidification/stabilization process of Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) for the on-site treatment of contaminated soil The STC immobilization technology uses a proprietary product (FMS Silicate) to chemically stabilize and ...

  11. Evaluation of the Cell Voltage of Electrolytic HI Concentration for Thermochemical Water-Splitting Iodine-Sulfur Process

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Mitsunori; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Kubo, Shinji; Onuki, Kaoru

    2007-07-01

    Breakdown of the cell voltage in the electro-dialysis process for concentrating HIx solution (HI-H{sub 2}O-I{sub 2} mixture) was preliminarily examined in an effort to clarify the optimal operation condition as well as to optimize the cell design for the application to the thermochemical water-splitting IS process for large-scale hydrogen production. Basic data such as electric resistance of HIx solution, overvoltage of the iodine-iodide ion redox reaction at graphite electrode, and the membrane voltage drop, were measured using HIx solution with composition of interest. Also, a methodology for estimating the cell voltage was discussed. The calculated cell voltage agreed well with the experimental one indicating the validity of the procedure adopted. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of degradation kinetics and physicochemical stability of tenofovir.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, Vivek; Putty, Sandeep; Mathes, Christiane; Murowchick, James B; Youan, Bi-Botti C

    2015-03-01

    Tenofovir (TFV) has been proven to prevent the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) through the vagina. But, there is little information available about its stability under various storage and stress conditions. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the degradation behavior and physicochemical stability of TFV using liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and solid state X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The LC-MS analysis was performed on a QTrap mass spectrometer with an enhanced mass spectrum (EMS) scan in positive mode. A reversed phase C18 column was used as the stationary phase. TFV exhibited degradation under acidic and alkaline hydrolytic conditions. The degradation products with m/z 289.2 and 170 amu have been proposed as 6-Hydroxy adenine derivative of TFV, and (2-hydroxypropan-2-yloxy) methylphosphonic acid, respectively. A pseudo-first-order degradation kinetic allowed for estimating the shelf-life, half-life, and time required for 90% degradation of 3.84, 25.34, and 84.22 h in acidic conditions, and 58.26, 384.49, and 1277.75 h in alkaline conditions, respectively. No significant degradation was observed at pH 4.5 (normal cervicovaginal pH) and oxidative stress conditions of 3% and 30% v/v hydrogen peroxide solutions. The shelf life of TFV powder at room temperature was 23 months as calculated by using an Arrhenius plot. The XRD pattern showed that the drug was stable and maintained its original crystallinity under the accelerated and thermal stress conditions applied. Stability analyses revealed that the TFV was stable in various stress conditions; however, formulation strategies should be implemented to protect it in strong acidic and alkaline environments. PMID:24817173

  13. Evaluation of degradation kinetics and physicochemical stability of tenofovir

    PubMed Central

    Agrahari, Vivek; Putty, Sandeep; Mathes, Christiane; Murowchick, James B.; Youan, Bi-Botti C.

    2014-01-01

    Tenofovir (TFV) has been proven to prevent the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) through the vagina. But, there is little information available about its stability under various storage and stress conditions. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the degradation behavior and physicochemical stability of TFV using liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and solid state X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The LC-MS analysis was performed on a QTrap mass spectrometer with an enhanced mass spectrum (EMS) scan in positive mode. A reversed phase C18 column was used as the stationary phase. TFV exhibited degradation under acidic and alkaline hydrolytic conditions. The degradation products with m/z 289.2 and 170 amu have been proposed as 6-Hydroxy adenine derivative of TFV, and (2-hydroxypropan-2-yloxy) methylphosphonic acid, respectively. A pseudo-first-order degradation kinetic allowed for estimating the shelf-life, half-life, and time required for 90% degradation values of 3.84,25.34, and 84.22 h in acidic conditions, and 58.26,384.49, and 1277.75 h in alkaline conditions, respectively. No significant degradation was observed at pH 4.5 (normal cervicovaginal pH) and oxidative stress conditions of 3% and 30% v/v hydrogen peroxide solution. The shelf life of TFV powder at room temperature was 23 months as calculated by using an Arrhenius plot. The XRD pattern showed that the drug was stable and maintained its original crystallinity under the accelerated and thermal stress conditions applied. Stability analyses revealed that the TFV was stable in various stress conditions; however, formulation strategies should be implemented to protect it in strong acidic and alkaline environments. PMID:24817173

  14. EVALUATION OF CHEMICALLY BONDED PHOSPHATE CERAMICS FOR MERCURY STABILIZATION OF A MIXED SYNTHETIC WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the stabilization and encapsulation technique developed by Argonne National Laboratory, called the Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics technology for Hg- and HgCl2-contaminated synthetic waste materials. Leachability ...

  15. Evaluation of oxygen utilization as an indicator of municipal solid-waste compost stability

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This research evaluated oxygen utilization parameters as indicators of MSW compost stability. Parameters evaluated were the oxygen utilization rate (OUR), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), five-day biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. In addition, other suggested indicators of stability were investigated including percent volatile solids, volatile solids reduction, nitrogen content, carbon: nitrogen ratio, and reheating potential (RP). OUR is a measure of the rate of oxygen utilization by the microorganisms in the decomposition of organic matter in compost. OUR was observed to be sensitive to the degree of stabilization and decreased with increasing compost age and stability. OUR values near zero indicate that the compost microorganisms are in a state of endogenous respiration, which is characteristic of a stable compost. Therefore, OUR is an excellent indicator of stability. A number of disadvantages are associated with OUR for practical application. Therefore, other parameters were evaluated as indicators of stability based on their statistical correlation to OUR. RP exhibited the strongest correlation to OUR. In combination, RP and SOUR were the two parameters which exhibited the strongest correlation to OUR. OUR, RP, and SOUR are all measures of microbial activity which reflect the degree of organic decomposition, and therefore, stability. Based on the results of this research; OUR, RP, and SOUR are useful parameters in assessing compost stability.

  16. Recommendations for the evaluation of specimen stability for flow cytometric testing during drug development.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lynette; Green, Cherie L; Jones, Nicholas; Stewart, Jennifer J; Fraser, Stephanie; Howell, Kathy; Xu, Yuanxin; Hill, Carla G; Wiwi, Christopher A; White, Wendy I; O'Brien, Peter J; Litwin, Virginia

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to present an approach for evaluating specimen stability for flow cytometric methods used during drug development. While this approach specifically addresses stability assessment for assays to be used in clinical trials with centralized testing facilities, the concepts can be applied to any stability assessment for flow cytometric methods. The proposed approach is implemented during assay development and optimization, and includes suggestions for designing a stability assessment plan, data evaluation and acceptance criteria. Given that no single solution will be applicable in all scenarios, this manuscript offers the reader a roadmap for stability assessment and is intended to guide the investigator during both the method development phase and in the experimental design of the validation plan. PMID:25662815

  17. Evaluating the cement stabilization of arsenic-bearing iron wastes from drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Tara M; Snyder, Kathryn V; Reddy, Raghav; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Amrose, Susan E; Raskin, Lutgarde; Hayes, Kim F

    2015-12-30

    Cement stabilization of arsenic-bearing wastes is recommended to limit arsenic release from wastes following disposal. Such stabilization has been demonstrated to reduce the arsenic concentration in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), which regulates landfill disposal of arsenic waste. However, few studies have evaluated leaching from actual wastes under conditions similar to ultimate disposal environments. In this study, land disposal in areas where flooding is likely was simulated to test arsenic release from cement stabilized arsenic-bearing iron oxide wastes. After 406 days submersed in chemically simulated rainwater, <0.4% of total arsenic was leached, which was comparable to the amount leached during the TCLP (<0.3%). Short-term (18 h) modified TCLP tests (pH 3-12) found that cement stabilization lowered arsenic leaching at high pH, but increased leaching at pH<4.2 compared to non-stabilized wastes. Presenting the first characterization of cement stabilized waste using μXRF, these results revealed the majority of arsenic in cement stabilized waste remained associated with iron. This distribution of arsenic differed from previous observations of calcium-arsenic solid phases when arsenic salts were stabilized with cement, illustrating that the initial waste form influences the stabilized form. Overall, cement stabilization is effective for arsenic-bearing wastes when acidic conditions can be avoided.

  18. Spillover in the Academy: Marriage Stability and Faculty Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Larry H.; Alvarez-Salvat, Rose M.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the spillover between family and work by examining the link between marital status and work performance across marriage, divorce, and remarriage. A polynomial regression model was fit to the data from 78 evaluations of an individual professor, and a cubic curve through the 3 periods was statistically significant. (SLD)

  19. Evaluation of dimensional stability of autoclavable elastomeric impression material.

    PubMed

    Surendra, G P; Anjum, Ayesha; Satish Babu, C L; Shetty, Shilpa

    2011-03-01

    Impressions are important sources of cross contamination between patients and dental laboratories. As a part of infection control impressions contaminated with variety of micro-organisms via blood and oral secretions should be cleaned and disinfected or sterilized before being handled in dental laboratory. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of autoclaving on dimensional stability of elastomeric impression material (polyvinyl siloxane-Affinis). In this in vitro study standardized stainless steel die as per ADA specification number 19 was fabricated. Polyvinyl siloxane (Affinis) light body and putty viscosity elastomeric impression materials were used. A total of 40 impressions of the stainless steel die were made and numeric coding system was used to identify the samples. Measurements were made using a measuring microscope. Distance between the cross lines CD and C'D' reproduced in the impression were measured before autoclaving, immediately after autoclaving and 24 hours after autoclaving and dimensional change was calculated. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. The mean difference in dimensional change between the three groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However the results revealed that there was higher mean dimensional change immediately after autoclaving when compared to the other 2 time intervals. It is desirable to delay the casting of an autoclavable elastomeric impression material by about 24 hours. Though disinfection of impression is routinely followed autoclaving of impression is an effective method of sterilization.

  20. Bifidus milk powder: processing parameter standardization and shelf stability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Selvamuthukumaran, Meenakshisundaram; Muthukumaran, Selva; Shukla, Shiv Shankar

    2016-04-01

    Spray dried bifidus milk powder was prepared by supplementing cow milk with different level of additives to obtain slurry of desired concentration. The slurry was pasteurized, cooled and inoculated with Bifidobacterium bifidum, incubated and dried to produce a bifidus milk powder. Among the various bifidus milk powder prepared, the slurry of mention the level total soluble solids exhibited good organoleptic characteristics and it has been standardized for further analysis. Moisture content, bulk density, insolubility index, hydroxymethyl furfural and thiobarbituric acid value of bifidus milk powder significantly increased, while the reflectance value significantly decreased during storage. The B. bifidum count significantly reduced and the bacterium were not detected at the end of the mention storage duration. As such the sentence is not acceptable in the abstract. The reconstituted bifidus milk powder was considered acceptable with an overall acceptability score of 6.97 on a nine-point Hedonic scale and showed a shelf stability of 120 days at ambient temperature condition (27 ± 2 °C). PMID:27413234

  1. Evaluation of primary stability of innovated orthodontic miniscrew system (STS): An ex-vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Stability is determined as one of the requirements in use of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TAD) in orthodontics. Miniscrew has been a widely used Bone Anchor. Compared with mini-implant that necessitates osseointegration; mechanical retention is a determining factor for primary stability of miniscrew. Studies investigated various ways to increase primary stability. The aim of this study is to introduce a new configuration of miniscrew system which is believed to obtain more primary stability. Material and Methods Freshly ovine mandibles were cut in blocks. Twenty-seven miniscrews (diameter 1.6 × 8 mm; G2, Dual Top Anchor System, Jeil Medical, Seoul, Korea) were inserted in the blocks and divided in 2 experimental groups: single miniscrew and the innovated design “Seifi Twin Screw (STS)”. Primary stability was evaluated by Periotest “M”® device. Results Independent t-test showed a significant difference between 2 experimental groups in periotest evaluation (p< 0.05). STS demonstrated higher primary stability due to its mechanical configuration and design. Conclusions The STS provides higher primary stability and was found to be effective in increased success rate of miniscrew systems from the standpoint of primary stability. Key words:Anchorage procedures, anchorage techniques, orthodontic anchorage procedures, miniscrews, temporary anchorage device. PMID:27398174

  2. Extended performance solar electric propulsion thrust system study. Volume 5. Capacitor-diode voltage multiplier: Technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinelli, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    A 1-kW capacitor-diode voltage multiplier (CDVM) was designed, fabricated and tested to demonstrate the power of feasibility of high power CDVM's and to verify the analytical techniques that had been used to predict the performance characteristics of a 6-kw CDVM. High efficiency (96.2%), a low ratio of component weight to power (0.55 kg/kW), and low output ripple voltage (less than 1%, peak to peak) were obtained during the operation of a 1-kW CDVM various input line, load current, and load fault conditions.

  3. Evaluating Marie Byrd Land stability using an improved basal topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holschuh, N.; Pollard, D.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Prior understanding of the ice-sheet setting in Marie Byrd Land (MBL) was derived primarily from geologic and geochemical studies of the current nunataks, with very few geophysical surveys imaging the ice covered regions. The geologic context suggested that the ice rests on a broad regional high, in contrast to the deep basins and trenches that characterize the majority of West Antarctica. This assumed topography would favor long-term stability for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) in MBL. Airborne geophysical data collected in 2009 reveal a much deeper bed than previously estimated, including a significant trough underlying DeVicq Glacier and evidence for extensive glacial erosion. Using these data, we produce a new map of subglacial topography, with which we model the sensitivity of WAIS to a warming ocean using the ice-sheet model of Pollard and DeConto (2012b). We compare the results to estimates of ice loss during WAIS collapse using the previously defined subglacial topography, to determine the impact of the newly discovered subglacial features. Our results indicate that the topographic changes are not sufficient to destabilize the northern margin of MBL currently feeding the Getz Ice Shelf; the majority of ice loss occurs from flow toward the Siple Coast. However, despite only slight dynamic differences, using the new bed as a boundary condition results in an additional 8 cm of sea-level rise during major glacial retreat, an increase of just over 2%. Precise estimation of past and future ice retreat, as well as a complete understanding of the geologic history of the region, will require a higher resolution picture of the bed topography around the Executive Committee mountains.

  4. Bench-Scale Evaluation Of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Technology To Stabilize Mercury Waste Mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    This bench-scale study was conducted to evaluate the stabilization of mercury (Hg) and mercuric chloride-containing surrogate test materials by the chemically bonded phosphate ceramics technology. This study was performed as part of a U.S. EPA program to evaluate treatment and d...

  5. Myopia Stabilization and Associated Factors Among Participants in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To use the Gompertz function to estimate the age and the amount of myopia at stabilization and to evaluate associated factors in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET) cohort, a large ethnically diverse group of myopic children. Methods. The COMET enrolled 469 ethnically diverse children aged 6 to younger than 12 years with spherical equivalent refraction between −1.25 and −4.50 diopters (D). Noncycloplegic refraction was measured semiannually for 4 years and annually thereafter. Right eye data were fit to individual Gompertz functions in participants with at least 6 years of follow-up and at least seven refraction measurements over 11 years. Function parameters were estimated using a nonlinear least squares procedure. Associated factors were evaluated using linear regression. Results. In total, 426 participants (91%) had valid Gompertz curve fits. The mean (SD) age at myopia stabilization was 15.61 (4.17) years, and the mean (SD) amount of myopia at stabilization was −4.87 (2.01) D. Ethnicity (P < 0.0001) but not sex or the number of myopic parents was associated with the age at stabilization. Ethnicity (P = 0.02) and the number of myopic parents (P = 0.01) but not sex were associated with myopia magnitude at stabilization. At stabilization, African Americans were youngest (mean age, 13.82 years) and had the least myopia (mean, −4.36 D). Participants with two versus no myopic parents had approximately 1.00 D more myopia at stabilization. The age and the amount of myopia at stabilization were correlated (r = −0.60, P < 0.0001). Conclusions. The Gompertz function provides estimates of the age and the amount of myopia at stabilization in an ethnically diverse cohort. These findings should provide guidance on the time course of myopia and on decisions regarding the type and timing of interventions. PMID:24159085

  6. Neuromuscular evaluation of post-orthodontic stability: an experimental protocol.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Marciandi, Paolo V; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Dellavia, Claudia; Sforza, Chiarella

    2002-01-01

    To prevent relapse after orthodontic treatment, retention is often considered indispensable. Soft tissues are thought to have a significant influence on dental movements. To quantify the influence of masticatory muscles on post-treatment relapse, and in an attempt to avoid unnecessary procedures, 2 male orthodontic patients (13 and 30 years old at debonding) were followed up. The patients completed 2 years of fixed orthodontic treatment and received no post-orthodontic retention. After 1 week and again after 6 months, alginate impressions of dental arches and a surface electromyographic (EMG) assessment of the masseter and temporalis muscles during maximum voluntary clenching were performed. The younger patient received surface EMG monitoring once a month for the first 6 months and at the 1-year follow-up appointment. Arch dimensions and the 3-dimensional inclination of the facial axis of the clinical crown (FACC) were measured using a computerized digitizer. Symmetry in muscular contraction was measured by the percentage overlapping coefficient (POC), and potential lateral displacing components were assessed by the torque coefficient (TC). At the 6-month follow-up, no clinical modifications were observed. Quantitative evaluation assessed that arch dimensions had changed slightly (up to 1 mm). While the adolescent patient had no modifications in FACC inclinations, the 30-year-old patient showed significant alterations (up to 18 degrees). In all examinations of the adolescent patient, POC was higher than 86% and TC was lower than 10%. In the adult, POC was inside the normal range, while all TCs were higher than 10.5%. The larger TC measured in the adult may explain the larger modifications in the 3-dimensional position of his dental crowns. In conclusion, a surface EMG assessment may help in the detection of patients who might need post-orthodontic retention.

  7. Evaluation of higher distribution and/or utilization voltages. Third interim report (October 1979): analysis of individual component cost and/or energy efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    This interim report provides documentation on the third task, Analysis of Individual Component Cost and/or Energy Efficiencies, of DOE Contract No. ET-78-C-01-2866, Evaluation of Higher Distribution and/or Utilization Voltages. The work performed under this task includes the development of both cost and energy loss models for the distribution and customer utilization system elements as well as the analysis of critical performance variables for the types of motors in end use elements, as a function of voltage level. The purpose of this task is to provide individual component cost and energy models which will be incorporated in the global system optimization program under Task 4. A major output of this task is a mathematical model for each component's cost and/or energy losses and a graphical representation of each model.

  8. Evaluation technique for plasma-induced SiOC dielectric damage by capacitance-voltage hysteresis monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Kentaro; Okada, Yukimasa; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2016-06-01

    We propose an electrical method, named capacitance-voltage (C-V) monitoring, for quantifying plasma-induced damage (PID) to interlayer dielectrics. By this method, we measure the C-V hysteresis loops to assign carrier trap sites created by PID, and simultaneously obtain the change in the dielectric constant and thickness. We optimized the bias-sweep configuration for measuring the hysteresis curves. It is found that the C-V curve shifted in the negative direction during the optimized voltage sweep from accumulation to inversion in a pseudo-metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure. This implies the appearance of net positively charged sites owing to PID, presumably near the surface of the SiOC film. We estimate the density of defects created near the surface by monitoring the obtained C-V hysteresis curve shift. Since the degradation of interlayer dielectrics affects the circuit performance, the proposed quantitative method should be used for plasma process designs.

  9. Comparison of the anodic behavior of aluminum current collectors in imide-based ionic liquids and consequences on the stability of high voltage supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnel, Ruben-Simon; Balducci, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    In this work, the influence of two common ionic liquid (IL) anions on the anodic stability of Al current collectors was studied. Namely, the Al corrosion/passivation process in N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) is compared to the one in N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR14FSI). It is shown, that Al slowly corrodes in PYR14FSI, while it is much better passivated in PYR14TFSI, although the ionic liquids were prepared in the same way. Float tests were carried out to illustrate the consequences of these different anodic stabilities of Al on the cycling stability of supercapacitors. Interestingly, when the chloride content of PYR14FSI was <1 ppm, Al electrodes were also pretty stable in this IL, and a similar cycling stability during float tests than for PYR14TFSI could be obtained.

  10. High-level waste-form-product performance evaluation. [Leaching; waste loading; mechanical stability

    SciTech Connect

    Bernadzikowski, T A; Allender, J S; Stone, J A; Gordon, D E; Gould, Jr, T H; Westberry, III, C F

    1982-01-01

    Seven candidate waste forms were evaluated for immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The waste forms were compared on the basis of leach resistance, mechanical stability, and waste loading. All forms performed well at leaching temperatures of 40, 90, and 150/sup 0/C. Ceramic forms ranked highest, followed by glasses, a metal matrix form, and concrete. 11 tables.

  11. Stability and Correlates of Student Evaluations of Teaching at a Chinese University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Hai; Watkins, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the stability and validity of a student evaluations of teaching (SET) instrument used by the administration at a university in the PR China. The SET scores for two semesters of courses taught by 435 teachers were collected. Total 388 teachers (170 males and 218 females) were also invited to fill out the 60-item NEO Five-Factor…

  12. Stress wave communication in concrete: II. Evaluation of low voltage concrete stress wave communications utilizing spectrally efficient modulation schemes with PZT transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siu, Sam; Qing, Ji; Wang, Kun; Song, Gangbing; Ding, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Piezoelectric materials, traditionally used for structural health monitoring, have recently been used to implement stress wave communications. Within a protective encasing we fabricate a smart aggregate which enables transmission and reception of modulated stress waves for digital communication within concrete. Our research focuses on building a high efficiency stress wave communication system and comparing the performance of phase shift keying (PSK) with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Our experiments evaluate the performance of QPSK and 16QAM implemented with our stress wave communication system at a transmit voltage ranging from 32 dBV to 37 dBV. We also demonstrate the increase in spectral efficiency of 16QAM compared to QPSK.

  13. Evaluation of phosphate fertilizers for the stabilization of cadmium in highly contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Thawornchaisit, Usarat; Polprasert, Chongrak

    2009-06-15

    The efficiency of three phosphate fertilizers including triple superphosphate (TSP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), and phosphate rock (PR) as stabilizing agents of cadmium-contaminated soils has been assessed in this study. Two types of assessment criteria, (a) the reduction of leachable cadmium concentration; and (b) the changes in Cd association with specific operational soil fraction based on the sequential extraction data, are used in the evaluation of stabilization performance of each fertilizer. Results of the study showed that after the 60-day stabilization, the leachable concentrations of Cd in PR-, DAP- and TSP- treated soils reduced from 306 mg/kg (the control) to 140, 34, and 12 mg/kg with the stabilization efficiency as TSP>DAP>PR. Results from the assessment of Cd speciation via sequential extraction procedure revealed that the soluble-exchangeable fraction and the surface adsorption fraction of Cd in the soils treated with PO(4) fertilizers, especially with TSP, have been reduced considerably. In addition, it is found that the reduction was correspondingly related with the increase of more stable forms of cadmium: the metal bound to manganese oxides and the metal bound to crystalline iron oxides. Treatment efficiency increased as the phosphate dose (based on the molar ratio of PO(4)/Cd) increased. In addition, it was observed that stabilization was most effective when using the molar ratio of PO(4)/Cd at 2:1 and at least 21-day and 28-day stabilization time for TSP and DAP, respectively. PMID:19118949

  14. The evaluation of anthropogenic impact on the ecological stability of landscape.

    PubMed

    Michaeli, Eva; Ivanová, Monika; Koco, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    The model area is the northern surrounding of the water reservoir Zemplinska Irava in the east of Slovakia. Selection of the examined territory and the time horizons was not random. The aim was to capture the intensity level of anthropogenic impact on the values of the coefficient of ecological stability after the construction of water reservoir, Zempifnska Irava. The contribution evaluates ecological stability of landscape in the years 1956 and 2009 by GIS technology, using two methods. The first method determines the rate of ecological stability of landscape on the basis of the significance of land cover classes in the regular network of squares (the real size of the square is 0.5 square km). The second method determines the ecological stability of landscape secondary on the basis of the man influence on the landscape. A comparison of two methods has been made, as well as interpretation of the output data (e.g., monitoring the impact of marginal land cover classes with the minimal surfaces in the grid of square at the fluctuation of the index of ecological stability, respectively, it considers the possibilities to streamline the research results using homogeneous spatial units) and it also allows to track the changes in the ecological stability of the landscape in chronological development. PMID:26591875

  15. Evaluation of phosphate fertilizers for the stabilization of cadmium in highly contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Thawornchaisit, Usarat; Polprasert, Chongrak

    2009-06-15

    The efficiency of three phosphate fertilizers including triple superphosphate (TSP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), and phosphate rock (PR) as stabilizing agents of cadmium-contaminated soils has been assessed in this study. Two types of assessment criteria, (a) the reduction of leachable cadmium concentration; and (b) the changes in Cd association with specific operational soil fraction based on the sequential extraction data, are used in the evaluation of stabilization performance of each fertilizer. Results of the study showed that after the 60-day stabilization, the leachable concentrations of Cd in PR-, DAP- and TSP- treated soils reduced from 306 mg/kg (the control) to 140, 34, and 12 mg/kg with the stabilization efficiency as TSP>DAP>PR. Results from the assessment of Cd speciation via sequential extraction procedure revealed that the soluble-exchangeable fraction and the surface adsorption fraction of Cd in the soils treated with PO(4) fertilizers, especially with TSP, have been reduced considerably. In addition, it is found that the reduction was correspondingly related with the increase of more stable forms of cadmium: the metal bound to manganese oxides and the metal bound to crystalline iron oxides. Treatment efficiency increased as the phosphate dose (based on the molar ratio of PO(4)/Cd) increased. In addition, it was observed that stabilization was most effective when using the molar ratio of PO(4)/Cd at 2:1 and at least 21-day and 28-day stabilization time for TSP and DAP, respectively.

  16. Bipolar Electrochemistry for Concurrently Evaluating the Stability of Anode and Cathode Electrocatalysts and the Overall Cell Performance during Long-Term Water Electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Eßmann, Vera; Barwe, Stefan; Masa, Justus; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical efficiency and stability are among the most important characteristics of electrocatalysts. These parameters are usually evaluated separately for the anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions in a three-electrode system or by measuring the overall cell voltage between the anode and cathode as a function of current or time. Here, we demonstrate how bipolar electrochemistry can be exploited to evaluate the efficiency of electrocatalysts for full electrochemical water splitting while simultaneously and independently monitoring the individual performance and stability of the half-cell electrocatalysts. Using a closed bipolar electrochemistry setup, all important parameters such as overvoltage, half-cell potential, and catalyst stability can be derived from a single galvanostatic experiment. In the proposed experiment, none of the half-reactions is limiting on the other, making it possible to precisely monitor the contribution of the individual half-cell reactions on the durability of the cell performance. The proposed approach was successfully employed to investigate the long-term performance of a bifunctional water splitting catalyst, specifically amorphous cobalt boride (Co2B), and the durability of the electrocatalyst at the anode and cathode during water electrolysis. Additionally, by periodically alternating the polarization applied to the bipolar electrode (BE) modified with a bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst, it was possible to explicitly follow the contributions of the oxygen reduction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution (OER) half-reactions on the overall long-term durability of the bifunctional OER/ORR electrocatalyst. PMID:27469162

  17. Bipolar Electrochemistry for Concurrently Evaluating the Stability of Anode and Cathode Electrocatalysts and the Overall Cell Performance during Long-Term Water Electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Eßmann, Vera; Barwe, Stefan; Masa, Justus; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical efficiency and stability are among the most important characteristics of electrocatalysts. These parameters are usually evaluated separately for the anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions in a three-electrode system or by measuring the overall cell voltage between the anode and cathode as a function of current or time. Here, we demonstrate how bipolar electrochemistry can be exploited to evaluate the efficiency of electrocatalysts for full electrochemical water splitting while simultaneously and independently monitoring the individual performance and stability of the half-cell electrocatalysts. Using a closed bipolar electrochemistry setup, all important parameters such as overvoltage, half-cell potential, and catalyst stability can be derived from a single galvanostatic experiment. In the proposed experiment, none of the half-reactions is limiting on the other, making it possible to precisely monitor the contribution of the individual half-cell reactions on the durability of the cell performance. The proposed approach was successfully employed to investigate the long-term performance of a bifunctional water splitting catalyst, specifically amorphous cobalt boride (Co2B), and the durability of the electrocatalyst at the anode and cathode during water electrolysis. Additionally, by periodically alternating the polarization applied to the bipolar electrode (BE) modified with a bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst, it was possible to explicitly follow the contributions of the oxygen reduction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution (OER) half-reactions on the overall long-term durability of the bifunctional OER/ORR electrocatalyst.

  18. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Matthew

    2015-08-20

    By combining the top performing commercial laser beam stabilization system with the most ideal optical imaging configuration, the beamline for the Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will deliver the highest quality and most stable beam to the cathode. To determine the optimal combination, LCLS-II beamline conditions were replicated and the systems tested with a He-Ne laser. The Guidestar-II and MRC active laser beam stabilization systems were evaluated for their ideal positioning and stability. Both a two and four lens optical imaging configuration was then evaluated for beam imaging quality, magnification properties, and natural stability. In their best performances when tested over fifteen hours, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable over approximately 70-110um while the MRC system kept it stable over approximately 90-100um. During short periods of time, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable between 10-20um, but was more susceptible to drift over time, while the MRC system maintained the beam between 30-50um with less overall drift. The best optical imaging configuration proved to be a four lens system that images to the iris located in the cathode room and from there, imaged to the cathode. The magnification from the iris to the cathode was 2:1, within an acceptable tolerance to the expected 2.1:1 magnification. The two lens configuration was slightly more stable in small periods of time (less than 10 minutes) without the assistance of a stability system, approximately 55um compared to approximately 70um, but the four lens configurations beam image had a significantly flatter intensity distribution compared to the two lens configuration which had a Gaussian distribution. A final test still needs to be run with both stability systems running at the same time through the four lens system. With this data, the optimal laser beam stabilization system can be determined for the beamline of LCLS-II.

  19. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  20. Section IV.D.3 for DOE 2013 Annual Report: Novel Phosphazene-based Compounds to Enhance Safety and Stability of Cell Chemistries for High Voltage Applications (INL)

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Harry W. Rollins; David K. Jamison; Fred F. Stewart; John Burba

    2013-09-01

    Electrolytes play a central role in performance and aging in most electrochemical systems. As automotive and grid applications place a higher reliance on electrochemical stored energy, it becomes more urgent to have electrolyte components that enable optimal battery performance while promoting battery safety and longevity. Safety remains a foremost concern for widespread utilization of Li-ion technology in electric-drive vehicles, especially as the focus turns to higher voltage systems (5V). This work capitalizes on the long established INL expertise regarding phosphazene chemistry, aimed at battery-viable compounds for electrolytes and electrodes that are highly tolerant to abusive conditions. This report showcases our 2013 work for the DOE applied battery research (ABR) program, wherein testing results are summarized for INL electrolytes and alternative anode materials.

  1. Optical testing technique for the evaluation of mechanical mount thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapply, Jon K.

    1999-09-01

    Precise optical stability requirements for a military laser required the establishment of detailed error and tolerance budgets of the mechanical system. In order to verify these budgets and also to fully understand the true dynamic stability of the mechanical mounts, extensive thermal testing was performed. This paper present a test technique established to provide a consistent testing process from which results could be used with confidence. Utilizing a readily available optical measurement device and impose test fixtures, this technique provides the designer with a powerful evaluation tool to verify design performance. Various types of result can be obtained using this technique, such as: optical element distortion at temperature, unrecoverable static shifting to the mount, dynamic movement effects and repeatability. These results can be further extrapolated into qualitative assessments of the thermal stability of specific mount design technique. When compiled into a design database, this will provide invaluable information for future design choices.

  2. Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Chemical Synthesis of Tetracyclic Terpenes and Evaluation of Antagonistic Activity on Endothelin-A Receptors and Voltage-gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianyu; Aguilar, Angelo; Zou, Bende; Bao, Weier; Koldas, Serkan; Aibin, Shi; Desper, John; Wangemann, Philine; Xie, Xinmin Simon; Hua, Duy H.

    2015-01-01

    A class of tetracyclic terpenes was synthesized and evaluated for antagonistic activity of endothelin-1 (ET-1) induced vasoconstriction and inhibitory activity of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. Three repeated Robinson annulation reactions were utilized to construct the tetracyclic molecules. A stereoselective reductive Robinson annulation was discovered for the formation of optically pure tricyclic terpenes. Stereoselective addition of cyanide to the hindered α-face of tetracyclic enone (-)-18 was found and subsequent transformation into the aldehyde function was affected by the formation of bicyclic hemiiminal (-)-4. Six selected synthetic tetracyclic terpenes show inhibitory activities in ET-1 induced vasoconstriction in the gerbil spiral modiolar artery with putative affinity constants ranging between 93 and 319 nM. Moreover, one compound, (-)-3, was evaluated further and found to inhibit voltage-activated Ca2+ currents but not to affect Na+ or K+ currents in dorsal root ganglion cells under similar concentrations. These observations imply a dual mechanism of action. In conclusion, tetracyclic terpenes represent a new class of hit molecules for the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension and vascular related diseases. PMID:26190460

  4. pH stability and comparative evaluation of ranaspumin-2 foam for application in biochemical reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyo-Jick; Ebersbacher, Charles F.; Quan, Fu-Shi; Montemagno, Carlo D.

    2013-02-01

    Aqueous channels of foam represent a simplified, natural bioreactor on the micro-/nano-scale. Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility and potential application of foams in replicating cellular process in vitro, but no research has been performed to establish a basis for designing stable and biocompatible foam formulations. Our research has been directed specifically to the evaluation of ranaspumin-2 (RSN-2), a frog foam nest protein. The strong surfactant activity of RSN-2 enabled us to produce foams using low protein concentration (1 mg ml-1) over a wide pH range (pH ≥ 3). Importantly, the RSN-2 formulation exhibited the best foam stability at a near neutral pH condition, which shows a potential for application to various biosynthesis applications. Model cellular systems such as liposomes and inactivated A/PR/8/34 influenza virus maintained their physicochemical stability and full hemagglutination activity, indicating biocompatibility of RSN-2 with both cellular membranes and proteins both in bulk solution and in foam. Moreover, the addition of RSN-2 did not exert any deteriorative effects on bacterial cell growth kinetics. In contrast, Tween 20, Triton X-100, and BSA did not show satisfactory performance in terms of foamability, foam stability, physicochemcial stability, and biochemical stability. Although our study has been limited to representative formulations composed of only surfactant molecules, a number of unique advantages make RSN-2 a promising candidate for in vitro foam biosynthesis.

  5. Evaluation of the Stability of Concentrated Emulsions for Lemon Beverages Using Sequential Experimental Designs

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Teresa Cristina Abreu; Larentis, Ariane Leites; Ferraz, Helen Conceição

    2015-01-01

    The study of the stability of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is imperative to provide a scientific approach for an important problem in the beverage industry, contributing to abolish the empiricism still present nowadays. The use of these emulsions would directly imply a reduction of transportation costs between production and the sales points, where dilution takes place. The goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of the main components of a lemon emulsion on its stability, aiming to maximize the concentration of oil in the beverage and to correlate its physicochemical characteristics to product stability, allowing an increase of shelf life of the final product. For this purpose, analyses of surface and interface tension, electrokinetic potential, particle size and rheological properties of the emulsions were conducted. A 24-1 fractional factorial design was performed with the following variables: lemon oil/water ratio (30% to 50%), starch and Arabic gum concentrations (0% to 30%) and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (0 mg/L to 100 mg/L), including an evaluation of the responses at the central conditions of each variable. Sequentially, a full design was prepared to evaluate the two most influential variables obtained in the first plan, in which concentration of starch and gum ranged from 0% to 20%, while concentration of lemon oil/water ratio was fixed at 50%, without dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate. Concentrated emulsions with stability superior to 15 days were obtained with either starch or Arabic gum and 50% lemon oil. The most stable formulations presented viscosity over 100 cP and ratio between the surface tension of the emulsion and the mucilage of over 1. These two answers were selected, since they better represent the behavior of emulsions in terms of stability and could be used as tools for an initial selection of the most promising formulations. PMID:25793301

  6. Evaluation of the stability of concentrated emulsions for lemon beverages using sequential experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Teresa Cristina Abreu; Larentis, Ariane Leites; Ferraz, Helen Conceição

    2015-01-01

    The study of the stability of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is imperative to provide a scientific approach for an important problem in the beverage industry, contributing to abolish the empiricism still present nowadays. The use of these emulsions would directly imply a reduction of transportation costs between production and the sales points, where dilution takes place. The goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of the main components of a lemon emulsion on its stability, aiming to maximize the concentration of oil in the beverage and to correlate its physicochemical characteristics to product stability, allowing an increase of shelf life of the final product. For this purpose, analyses of surface and interface tension, electrokinetic potential, particle size and rheological properties of the emulsions were conducted. A 2(4-1) fractional factorial design was performed with the following variables: lemon oil/water ratio (30% to 50%), starch and Arabic gum concentrations (0% to 30%) and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (0 mg/L to 100 mg/L), including an evaluation of the responses at the central conditions of each variable. Sequentially, a full design was prepared to evaluate the two most influential variables obtained in the first plan, in which concentration of starch and gum ranged from 0% to 20%, while concentration of lemon oil/water ratio was fixed at 50%, without dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate. Concentrated emulsions with stability superior to 15 days were obtained with either starch or Arabic gum and 50% lemon oil. The most stable formulations presented viscosity over 100 cP and ratio between the surface tension of the emulsion and the mucilage of over 1. These two answers were selected, since they better represent the behavior of emulsions in terms of stability and could be used as tools for an initial selection of the most promising formulations.

  7. Evaluation of the stability of concentrated emulsions for lemon beverages using sequential experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Teresa Cristina Abreu; Larentis, Ariane Leites; Ferraz, Helen Conceição

    2015-01-01

    The study of the stability of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is imperative to provide a scientific approach for an important problem in the beverage industry, contributing to abolish the empiricism still present nowadays. The use of these emulsions would directly imply a reduction of transportation costs between production and the sales points, where dilution takes place. The goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of the main components of a lemon emulsion on its stability, aiming to maximize the concentration of oil in the beverage and to correlate its physicochemical characteristics to product stability, allowing an increase of shelf life of the final product. For this purpose, analyses of surface and interface tension, electrokinetic potential, particle size and rheological properties of the emulsions were conducted. A 2(4-1) fractional factorial design was performed with the following variables: lemon oil/water ratio (30% to 50%), starch and Arabic gum concentrations (0% to 30%) and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (0 mg/L to 100 mg/L), including an evaluation of the responses at the central conditions of each variable. Sequentially, a full design was prepared to evaluate the two most influential variables obtained in the first plan, in which concentration of starch and gum ranged from 0% to 20%, while concentration of lemon oil/water ratio was fixed at 50%, without dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate. Concentrated emulsions with stability superior to 15 days were obtained with either starch or Arabic gum and 50% lemon oil. The most stable formulations presented viscosity over 100 cP and ratio between the surface tension of the emulsion and the mucilage of over 1. These two answers were selected, since they better represent the behavior of emulsions in terms of stability and could be used as tools for an initial selection of the most promising formulations. PMID:25793301

  8. Improved rate capability and cycle stability of Li[Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3]O2 with Li2MnO3 coating under high cut-off voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Zhao, Shi-Xi; Wang, Ke-Zhen; Gou, Lu-Lu; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2015-11-01

    The structure and electrochemical performance of Li2MnO3-coated Li[Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3]O2 cathode were investigated. The results demonstrated that the Li2MnO3-coated Li[Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3]O2 sample exhibited an improved electrochemical performance at room and elevated temperatures, especially at a high cut-off voltage range. The capacity retention of the 1.0 mol% Li2MnO3-coated sample after 100 cycles was 78% at 3.0-4.3 V, in comparison with that of 57% for the pristine one at room temperature. Interestingly, after 200 cycles, the 4.0 mol% Li2MnO3-coated cathode showed the best cycle stability with capacity retention as high as 37% when the cut-off voltage was increased to 4.8 V, while it was only 2% for the pristine sample. The cyclability of Li[Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3]O2 at high temperature was also slightly improved with Li2MnO3 coating.

  9. Evaluation of Available Transfer Capability Using Transient Stability Constrained Line Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzoechi, Lazarus Okechukwu; Mahajan, Satish M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to evaluate transient stability constrained available transfer capability (ATC). A linear and fast line flow-based (LFB) method was adopted to optimize the ATC values. This enabled the direct determination of the system source-sink locations. This paper formulated different market transactions considering bilateral and multilateral impacts in the stability constrained ATC. The proposed method was demonstrated on the WECC 9-bus and IEEE 39-bus systems. The critical energy performance index (CEPI) enabled the direct identification of candidates for contingency screening based on ranking. This index helped to reduce the list of credible contingencies for ATC evaluation and, therefore, the computation time. The results of the proposed ATC method are consistent with the literature and can be deployed for fast assessment of the impact of transactions in an electric power system.

  10. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  11. On the effect of non-carbon nanostructured supports on the stability of Pt nanoparticles during voltage cycling: A study of TiO2 nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savych, I.; Bernard d'Arbigny, J.; Subianto, S.; Cavaliere, S.; Jones, D. J.; Rozière, J.

    2014-07-01

    Electrospun carbon and Nb-doped TiO2 nanofibres (CNFs, TNFs) have been investigated as electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The optimal Nb doping amount has been identified for TNFs, and thermal treatment of titanium oxide fibres optimised to balance the surface area and electronic conductivity requirements. The most highly conducting material is characterised by a high concentration of surface Ti3+ and Nb4+ (and oxygen vacancies). Pt nanoparticles of average diameter of 2.3 nm were loaded onto 10%at Nb doped-TiO2, retained as the best candidate for further electrochemical analysis, and on CNFs, using a microwave-assisted polyol method. Significantly higher electrochemically active surface area was retained after voltage cycling to 1.2 V for Pt supported on TNF (73%) than on CNFs, where only 8% of the original ECSA was conserved after 1000 voltammetric cycles. The mass activity was also slightly higher for the titanium oxide based electrodes in the oxygen reduction reaction.

  12. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-339-1741, EMCO High Voltage Company, Sutter Creek, California

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, P.L.

    1986-10-01

    Possible exposure to several chemical substances during the fabrication of power-supply modules was investigated at the EMCO High Voltage Company, Sutter Creek, California, at the request of an employee. Environmental air samples were collected during the coating and developing process and during the epoxy potting operation. Samples were analyzed for chlorobenzene and xylenes; no overexposures were registered. No overexposure was observed to butyl-glycidyl-ether and no detectable levels of epichlorohydrin, cyclohexanone, 2-methoxyethanol, or 2-ethoxyethanol were found. During the pot soldering operation there was a potential for exposure to the fluxing agent, 3% hydrochloric-acid, and the operator had complained of throat and nose irritation. The author recommends that the fabrication operator wear protective gloves during coating and developing of copper boards. Gloves and goggles should be worn when weighing out the sodium-persulfate and when removing panels from the bench top etcher. Local exhaust ventilation with a movable duct should be used during the pot soldering operation.

  13. Fabrication and evaluation of an OSO-1 type baseplate. [dimensional stability testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marschall, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    An OSO-1 type baseplate of a low thermal-expansion glass-ceramic material was evaluated for its dimensional stability after exposure to thermal cycling and mechanical vibration. The results indicate that baseplates of relatively simple design can be successfully cast and machined, although the demonstration article produced deviated somewhat from design specifications. It is likely that baseplates of more sophisticated designs and improved structural efficiency also can be prepared from low thermal expansion material.

  14. STABILITY EVALUATION OF METAL CASK ATTACHED TO A TRANSFER PALLET DURING LONG-PERIOD SEISMIC MOTIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Shohei; Shirai, Koji; Kanazawa, Kenji

    Rocking behavior of unfixed body is affected by center of mass, material coefficient of restitution and so on. 2/5 scale metal cask model considering these parameter was used for seismic test to evaluate stability of grounding metal cask attached to a transfer pallet under the influence of long-period earthquake motion. The newest knowledge from seismic test indicates seismic motion with high velocity over 100 kine not always cause the raise of response velocity of metal cask because of energy consumption by cask sliding and impact deformation of concrete. And new estimation method (called "Window energy spectrum method") of earthquake response spectrum gives suitable evaluation of response energy.

  15. A method for evaluating nucleosome stability with a protein-binding fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Horikoshi, Naoki; Arimura, Yasuhiro; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2014-12-01

    Nucleosomes are extremely stable histone-DNA complexes that form the building blocks of chromatin, which accommodates genomic DNA within the nucleus. The dynamic properties of chromatin play essential roles in regulating genomic DNA functions, such as DNA replication, recombination, repair, and transcription. Histones are the protein components of nucleosomes, and their diverse modifications and variants increase the versatility of nucleosome structures and their dynamics in chromatin. Therefore, a technique to evaluate the physical properties of nucleosomes would facilitate functional studies of the various nucleosomes. In this report, we describe a convenient assay for evaluating the thermal stability of nucleosomes in vitro.

  16. Field soil aggregate stability kit for soil quality and rangeland health evaluations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, J.E.; Whitford, W.G.; de Soyza, A. G.; Van Zee, J. W.; Havstad, K.M.; Seybold, C.A.; Walton, M.

    2001-01-01

    Soil aggregate stability is widely recognized as a key indicator of soil quality and rangeland health. However, few standard methods exist for quantifying soil stability in the field. A stability kit is described which can be inexpensively and easily assembled with minimal tools. It permits up to 18 samples to be evaluated in less than 10 min and eliminates the need for transportation, minimizing damage to soil structure. The kit consists of two 21??10.5??3.5 cm plastic boxes divided into eighteen 3.5??3.5 cm sections, eighteen 2.5-cm diameter sieves with 1.5-mm distance openings and a small spatula used for soil sampling. Soil samples are rated on a scale from one to six based on a combination of ocular observations of slaking during the first 5 min following immersion in distilled water, and the percent remaining on a 1.5-mm sieve after five dipping cycles at the end of the 5-min period. A laboratory comparison yielded a correlation between the stability class and percent aggregate stability based on oven dry weight remaining after treatment using a mechanical sieve. We have applied the method in a wide variety of agricultural and natural ecosystems throughout western North America, including northern Mexico, and have found that it is highly sensitive to differences in management and plant community composition. Although the field kit cannot replace the careful laboratory-based measurements of soil aggregate stability, it can clearly provide valuable information when these more intensive procedures are not possible.

  17. Advanced Evaluation of the Long-Term Stability of Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Maljusch, Artjom; Conradi, Oliver; Hoch, Sascha; Blug, Matthias; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Evaluation of the long-term stability of electrocatalysts is typically performed using galvanostatic polarization at a predefined current density. A stable or insignificant increase in the applied potential is usually interpreted as high long-term stability of the tested catalyst. However, effects such as (i) electrochemical degradation of a catalyst due to its oxidation, (ii) blocking of the catalyst surface by evolved gas bubbles, and (iii) detachment of the catalyst from the electrode surface may lead to a decrease of the catalyst's active surface area being exposed to the electrolyte. In order to separate these effects and to evaluate the true electrochemical degradation of electrocatalysts, an advanced evaluation protocol based on subsequently performed electrochemical impedance, double layer capacitance, cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic polarization measurements was developed and used to evaluate the degradation of IrO2 particles drop-coated on glassy carbon rotating disk electrode using Nafion as a binder. A flow-through electrochemical cell was developed enabling circulation of the electrolyte leading to an efficient removal of evolved oxygen bubbles even at high current densities of up to 250 mA/cm(2). The degradation rate of IrO2 was evaluated over 225 test cycles (0.733 ± 0.022 mV/h) with a total duration of galvanostatic polarization measurements of over 55 h. PMID:27398712

  18. The Diminishing Role of Pelvic Stability Evaluation in the Era of Computed Tomographic Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chih-Yuan; Teng, Lan-Hsuan; Liao, Chien-Hung; Hsu, Yu-Pao; Wang, Shang-Yu; Kuo, Ling-Wei; Yuan, Kuo-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pelvic fractures can result in life-threatening hemorrhages or other associated injuries. Therefore, computed tomography (CT) scanning plays a key role in the management of pelvic fracture patients. However, CT scanning is utilized as an adjunct in secondary survey according to traditional Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines, whereas pelvic x-ray is used as a primary tool to evaluate pelvic stability and the necessity of further CT scanning. In the current study, we attempted to evaluate the role of CT scanning in the era of advanced technology. The significance of pelvic stability was also analyzed. From January 2012 to December 2014, the trauma registry and medical records of pelvic fracture patients were retrospectively reviewed. A 64-slice multidetector CT scanner was used in our emergency department as a standard diagnostic tool for evaluating trauma patients. Pelvic x-ray was used as a primary tool for screening pelvic fractures, and pelvic stability was evaluated accordingly. CT scans were performed in patients with unstable pelvic fractures, suspected associated intra-abdominal injuries (IAIs), or other conditions based on the physicians’ clinical judgment. The clinical features of patients with stable and unstable pelvic fractures were compared. The patients with stable pelvic fractures were analyzed to determine the characteristics associated with retroperitoneal hemorrhage (RH) or IAIs. Patients with stable pelvic fractures were also compared based on whether they underwent a CT scan. A total of 716 patients were enrolled in this study. There were 533 (74.4%) patients with stable pelvic fractures. Of these patients, there were 66 (12.4%) and 50 (9.4%) patients with associated RH and IAI, respectively. There were no significant differences between the patients with associated RH based on their primary evaluation (vital signs, volume of blood transfusion, and hemoglobin level). Similarly, the demographics and the primary evaluation

  19. The Diminishing Role of Pelvic Stability Evaluation in the Era of Computed Tomographic Scanning.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chih-Yuan; Teng, Lan-Hsuan; Liao, Chien-Hung; Hsu, Yu-Pao; Wang, Shang-Yu; Kuo, Ling-Wei; Yuan, Kuo-Ching

    2016-04-01

    Pelvic fractures can result in life-threatening hemorrhages or other associated injuries. Therefore, computed tomography (CT) scanning plays a key role in the management of pelvic fracture patients. However, CT scanning is utilized as an adjunct in secondary survey according to traditional Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines, whereas pelvic x-ray is used as a primary tool to evaluate pelvic stability and the necessity of further CT scanning. In the current study, we attempted to evaluate the role of CT scanning in the era of advanced technology. The significance of pelvic stability was also analyzed. From January 2012 to December 2014, the trauma registry and medical records of pelvic fracture patients were retrospectively reviewed. A 64-slice multidetector CT scanner was used in our emergency department as a standard diagnostic tool for evaluating trauma patients. Pelvic x-ray was used as a primary tool for screening pelvic fractures, and pelvic stability was evaluated accordingly. CT scans were performed in patients with unstable pelvic fractures, suspected associated intra-abdominal injuries (IAIs), or other conditions based on the physicians' clinical judgment. The clinical features of patients with stable and unstable pelvic fractures were compared. The patients with stable pelvic fractures were analyzed to determine the characteristics associated with retroperitoneal hemorrhage (RH) or IAIs. Patients with stable pelvic fractures were also compared based on whether they underwent a CT scan. A total of 716 patients were enrolled in this study. There were 533 (74.4%) patients with stable pelvic fractures. Of these patients, there were 66 (12.4%) and 50 (9.4%) patients with associated RH and IAI, respectively. There were no significant differences between the patients with associated RH based on their primary evaluation (vital signs, volume of blood transfusion, and hemoglobin level). Similarly, the demographics and the primary evaluation results

  20. Evaluation of the Effects of Different Surface Configurations on Stability of Miniscrews

    PubMed Central

    Topcuoglu, Tolga; Bicakci, A. Altuğ; Avunduk, M. Cihat; Sahin Inan, Z. Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of screw design and force application on the stability of miniscrews, using RTT, SEM, and histomorphometric analyses. Materials and Methods. Eighty cylindrical, self-drilling, and Ti6Al4V alloy miniscrews (1,6 × 6 mm) were used. Four mini-screws were inserted in fibulas of each rabbit, and 115 G of force was immediately applied. Four miniscrews were inserted in the other fibula, on which no force was applied. Eight weeks after insertion, osseointegration between miniscrew and the surrounding bone was evaluated by the histomorphometric analyses, SEM, and RTT. Kruskal-Wallis and the paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results. Values obtained from Group I were significantly higher than those of the other loaded groups (P < .05). There were no differences in RTT scores among Groups II, III, and IV. Similar findings were also observed for unloaded mini-screws. There was no significant difference between Groups I and IC, while the differences between loaded and unloaded controls for each miniscrew were statistically significant. Conclusions. Immediate loading of miniscrews does not impair screw stability. Also, the diameter of miniscrew and more frequent thread pitches have a positive effect on stability; however, length of miniscrews does not have a significant effect on the stability. PMID:23935417

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of olive cake residue as an expansive soil stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbantoglu, Zalihe; Tawfiq, Salma

    2006-08-01

    The quantity of the by-product olive cake residue generated in most parts of the Mediterranean countries continues to increase and expected to double in amount within 10 15 years. This increase intensifies the problems associated with the disposal of this by-product. Olive cake residue has a potential for use as a soil stabilizer and large volumes can be beneficially used. This study is directed toward determining if olive cake residue can be utilized to increase the strength and stability of expansive soils which constitute a costly natural hazard to lightweight structures on shallow foundations. A series of laboratory tests using engineering properties, such as Atterberg limits, moisture-density relationship (compaction), swell, unconfined compressive strength were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and performance of the olive cake residue as a soil stabilizer. Test results indicate that an addition of only 3% burned olive waste into the soil causes a reduction in plasticity, volume change and an increase in the unconfined compressive strength. However, it was observed that the presence of burned olive waste in the soil greater than 3% caused an increase in the compressibility and a decrease in the unconfined compressive strength. Test results indicate that the use of olive waste in soil stabilization gives greater benefits to the environment than simply disposing of the by-product, olive cake residue.

  2. Development and flight evaluation of an augmented stability active controls concept with a small horizontal tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rising, J. J.; Kairys, A. A.; Maass, C. A.; Siegart, C. D.; Rakness, W. L.; Mijares, R. D.; King, R. W.; Peterson, R. S.; Hurley, S. R.; Wickson, D.

    1982-01-01

    A limited authority pitch active control system (PACS) was developed for a wide body jet transport (L-1011) with a flying horizontal stabilizer. Two dual channel digital computers and the associated software provide command signals to a dual channel series servo which controls the stabilizer power actuators. Input sensor signals to the computer are pitch rate, column-trim position, and dynamic pressure. Control laws are given for the PACS and the system architecture is defined. The piloted flight simulation and vehicle system simulation tests performed to verify control laws and system operation prior to installation on the aircraft are discussed. Modifications to the basic aircraft are described. Flying qualities of the aircraft with the PACS on and off were evaluated. Handling qualities for cruise and high speed flight conditions with the c.g. at 39% mac ( + 1% stability margin) and PACS operating were judged to be as good as the handling qualities with the c.g. at 25% (+15% stability margin) and PACS off.

  3. Key strategies for enhancing the cycling stability and rate capacity of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high-voltage cathode materials for high power lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Ting-Feng; Mei, Jie; Zhu, Yan-Rong

    2016-06-01

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is one of the most promising high voltage cathode materials for future application due to its advantages of large reversible capacity, high thermal stability, low cost, environmental friendliness, and high energy density. LNMO can provide 20% and 30% higher energy density than traditional cathode materials LiCoO2 and LiFePO4, respectively. Unfortunately, LNMO-based batteries with LiPF6-based carbonate electrolytes always suffer from severe capacity deterioration and poor thermostability because of the oxidization of organic carbonate solvents and decomposition of LiPF6, especially at elevated temperatures and water-containing environment. Hence, it is necessary to systematically and comprehensively summarize the progress in understanding and modifying LNMO cathode from various aspects. In this review, the structure, transport properties and different reported possible fading mechanisms of LNMO cathode are first discussed detailedly. And then, the major goal of this review is to highlight new progress in using proposed strategies to improve the cycling stability and rate capacity of LNMO-based batteries, including synthesis, control of special morphologies, element doping and surface coating etc., especially at elevated temperatures. Finally, an insight into the future research and further development of LNMO cathode is discussed.

  4. High voltage power transistor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hower, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Design considerations, fabrication procedures, and methods of evaluation for high-voltage power-transistor development are discussed. Technique improvements such as controlling the electric field at the surface and perserving lifetimes in the collector region which have advanced the state of the art in high-voltage transistors are discussed. These improvements can be applied directly to the development of 1200 volt, 200 ampere transistors.

  5. How to measure ecosystem stability? An evaluation of the reliability of stability metrics based on remote sensing time series across the major global ecosystems.

    PubMed

    De Keersmaecker, Wanda; Lhermitte, Stef; Honnay, Olivier; Farifteh, Jamshid; Somers, Ben; Coppin, Pol

    2014-07-01

    Increasing frequency of extreme climate events is likely to impose increased stress on ecosystems and to jeopardize the services that ecosystems provide. Therefore, it is of major importance to assess the effects of extreme climate events on the temporal stability (i.e., the resistance, the resilience, and the variance) of ecosystem properties. Most time series of ecosystem properties are, however, affected by varying data characteristics, uncertainties, and noise, which complicate the comparison of ecosystem stability metrics (ESMs) between locations. Therefore, there is a strong need for a more comprehensive understanding regarding the reliability of stability metrics and how they can be used to compare ecosystem stability globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of temporal ESMs based on time series of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 15 global land-cover types. We provide a framework (i) to assess the reliability of ESMs in function of data characteristics, uncertainties and noise and (ii) to integrate reliability estimates in future global ecosystem stability studies against climate disturbances. The performance of our framework was tested through (i) a global ecosystem comparison and (ii) an comparison of ecosystem stability in response to the 2003 drought. The results show the influence of data quality on the accuracy of ecosystem stability. White noise, biased noise, and trends have a stronger effect on the accuracy of stability metrics than the length of the time series, temporal resolution, or amount of missing values. Moreover, we demonstrate the importance of integrating reliability estimates to interpret stability metrics within confidence limits. Based on these confidence limits, other studies dealing with specific ecosystem types or locations can be put into context, and a more reliable assessment of ecosystem stability against environmental disturbances

  6. How to measure ecosystem stability? An evaluation of the reliability of stability metrics based on remote sensing time series across the major global ecosystems.

    PubMed

    De Keersmaecker, Wanda; Lhermitte, Stef; Honnay, Olivier; Farifteh, Jamshid; Somers, Ben; Coppin, Pol

    2014-07-01

    Increasing frequency of extreme climate events is likely to impose increased stress on ecosystems and to jeopardize the services that ecosystems provide. Therefore, it is of major importance to assess the effects of extreme climate events on the temporal stability (i.e., the resistance, the resilience, and the variance) of ecosystem properties. Most time series of ecosystem properties are, however, affected by varying data characteristics, uncertainties, and noise, which complicate the comparison of ecosystem stability metrics (ESMs) between locations. Therefore, there is a strong need for a more comprehensive understanding regarding the reliability of stability metrics and how they can be used to compare ecosystem stability globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of temporal ESMs based on time series of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 15 global land-cover types. We provide a framework (i) to assess the reliability of ESMs in function of data characteristics, uncertainties and noise and (ii) to integrate reliability estimates in future global ecosystem stability studies against climate disturbances. The performance of our framework was tested through (i) a global ecosystem comparison and (ii) an comparison of ecosystem stability in response to the 2003 drought. The results show the influence of data quality on the accuracy of ecosystem stability. White noise, biased noise, and trends have a stronger effect on the accuracy of stability metrics than the length of the time series, temporal resolution, or amount of missing values. Moreover, we demonstrate the importance of integrating reliability estimates to interpret stability metrics within confidence limits. Based on these confidence limits, other studies dealing with specific ecosystem types or locations can be put into context, and a more reliable assessment of ecosystem stability against environmental disturbances

  7. Evaluation of an Intramedullary Bone Stabilization System Using a Light-Curable Monomer in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Zani, Brett G.; Baird, Rose; Stanley, James R.L.; Markham, Peter M.; Wilke, Markus; Zeiter, Stephan; Beck, Aswin; Nehrbass, Dirk; Kopia, Gregory A.; Edelman, Elazer R.; Rabiner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous intramedullary fixation may provide an ideal method for stabilization of bone fractures, while avoiding the need for large tissue dissections. Tibiae in 18 sheep were treated with an intramedullary photodynamic bone stabilization system (PBSS) comprised of a polyethylene terephthalate (Dacron) balloon filled with a monomer and cured with visible light in situ then harvested at 30, 90 or 180 days. In an additional 40 sheep, a mid-shaft tibial osteotomy was performed and stabilized with external fixators or external fixators combined with the PBSS and evaluated at 8, 12 and 26 weeks. Healing and biocompatibility were evaluated by radiographic analysis, microCT and/or histopathology. In non-fractured sheep tibiae, PBSS implants conformably filled the medullary canal, while active cortical bone remodeling and apposition of new periosteal and/or endosteal bone was observed with no significant macroscopic or microscopic observations. Fractured sheep tibiae exhibited increased bone formation inside the osteotomy gap with no significant difference when fixation was augmented by PBSS implants. Periosteal callus size gradually decreased over time and was similar in both treatment groups. No inhibition of endosteal bone remodeling or vascularization was observed with PBSS implants. Intramedullary application of a light curable PBSS is a biocompatible, feasible method for fracture fixation. PMID:25772144

  8. [Evaluation of the influence of sterilization method on the stability of carboxymethyl cellulose wound dressing].

    PubMed

    Muselík, Jan; Wojnarová, Lenka; Masteiková, Ruta; Sopuch, Tomáš

    2013-04-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose, especially its sodium salt, is a versatile pharmaceutical excipient. From a therapeutic point of view, sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose is used in the production of modern wound dressings to allow moist wound healing. Wound dressings must be sterile and stable throughout their shelf life and have to be able to withstand different temperature conditions. At the present time, a number of sterilization methods are available. In the case of polymeric materials, the selected sterilization process must not induce any changes in the polymer structure, such as polymer chains cleavage, changes in cross-linking, etc. This paper evaluates the influence of different sterilization methods (γ-radiation, β-radiation, ethylene oxide) on the stability of carboxymethyl cellulose and the results of long-term and accelerated stability testing. Evaluation of samples was performed using size-exclusion chromatography. The obtained results showed that ethylene oxide sterilization was the least aggressive variant of the sterilization methods tested. When the γ-radiation sterilization was used, the changes in the size of the carboxymethyl cellulose molecule occurred. In the course of accelerated and long term stability studies, no further degradation changes were observed, and thus sterilized samples are suitable for long term storage.

  9. [Evaluation of stability of temozolomide in solutions after opening the capsule].

    PubMed

    Kodawara, Takaaki; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Taue, Hiromi; Hashida, Tohru; Yano, Ikuko; Katsura, Toshiya; Inui, Ken-Ichi

    2009-03-01

    We evaluated the stability of temozolomide, an alkylating agent, in solutions after opening the capsule. First, we established an analytical method for determination of temozolomide concentration by HPLC. The calibration curve for temozolomide was linear between 0.5-20 microg/ml (r=0.999). We then evaluated the stability of temozolomide in each buffer solution (pH 2-9) for 30 min. Temozolomide was decomposed pH-dependently between pH 7 and 9, and completely decomposed at pH 9. Temozolomide in several drinking water samples and beverages was decomposed according to their pH values. We also examined the time-dependent degradation of temozolomide in different pH solutions. Temozolomide started to decompose at 5 min in alkaline and neutral solutions, whereas 90% of temozolomide remained intact in acidic solution at 60 min. These results indicate that the stability of temozolomide after opening the capsule is affected by pH of solvents, and temozolomide is almost stable in acidic solutions. PMID:19252393

  10. The idea of PGA stream computations for soil slope stability evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Chi; Srokosz, Piotr

    2010-09-01

    Designing and constructing of road embankments, deep excavations, landslide and snow avalanche predictions or profiling construction sites in slanting terrain need slope stability evaluations. Determination of a safety factor and the position of a potentially critical slip surface is one of the essential issues in classical and modern soil mechanics, which still remains a very important problem in engineering practice. Most of the stability evaluation methods, i.e. based on limit equilibrium assumptions, need optimization, which can be successfully realized with the assistance of a genetic algorithm. The authors propose a variational approach with a four-step technique to determination of the critical height of a slope, which can be treated as an alternative and variant method to the generally applied limit equilibrium and/or finite element methods. Some common obstacles encountered while adapting classical optimization procedures have been solved by application of a parallel genetic algorithm. Substantial acceleration of computations has been achieved by introducing SIMD stream technology, which generally relies on modern graphics processing units. Examples of the results of a slope stability analysis performed using the fast parallel computation technique are also presented.

  11. Combined Use of Automatic Tube Voltage Selection and Current Modulation with Iterative Reconstruction for CT Evaluation of Small Hypervascular Hepatocellular Carcinomas: Effect on Lesion Conspicuity and Image Quality

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Peijie; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Rui; Jia, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the lesion conspicuity and image quality in CT evaluation of small (≤ 3 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) using automatic tube voltage selection (ATVS) and automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) with or without iterative reconstruction. Materials and Methods One hundred and five patients with 123 HCC lesions were included. Fifty-seven patients were scanned using both ATVS and ATCM and images were reconstructed using either filtered back-projection (FBP) (group A1) or sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) (group A2). Forty-eight patients were imaged using only ATCM, with a fixed tube potential of 120 kVp and FBP reconstruction (group B). Quantitative parameters (image noise in Hounsfield unit and contrast-to-noise ratio of the aorta, the liver, and the hepatic tumors) and qualitative visual parameters (image noise, overall image quality, and lesion conspicuity as graded on a 5-point scale) were compared among the groups. Results Group A2 scanned with the automatically chosen 80 kVp and 100 kVp tube voltages ranked the best in lesion conspicuity and subjective and objective image quality (p values ranging from < 0.001 to 0.004) among the three groups, except for overall image quality between group A2 and group B (p = 0.022). Group A1 showed higher image noise (p = 0.005) but similar lesion conspicuity and overall image quality as compared with group B. The radiation dose in group A was 19% lower than that in group B (p = 0.022). Conclusion CT scanning with combined use of ATVS and ATCM and image reconstruction with SAFIRE algorithm provides higher lesion conspicuity and better image quality for evaluating small hepatic HCCs with radiation dose reduction. PMID:25995682

  12. Evaluating the Performance of a Battery Using Temperature and Voltage Profiles and a Battery-Resistor Circuit Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Bryan; Ji, Michelle; Gordon, Michael J.; Suppes, Galen J.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental learning module has been developed to study the mass and energy balance involved with operation of an AA Alkaline battery under a load current. An extension of the module allows evaluation of laboratory-assembled batteries using granular anodic/cathodic materials. The system allows load resistance to be varied and measures voltage…

  13. An evaluation of the stability of synthetic groundwater formulations GR-3 and GR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, J.A.; Jones, T.E.; Marcy, A.D.; Baechler, M.O.; Payne, J.R.

    1984-10-08

    Simple solubility calculations indicate that synthetic groundwater formulations GR-3 and GR-4 may be unstable with respect to the precipitation of certain components. However, the validity of calculations of this type is limited by the complexity of these solutions. In order to properly address the chemical stability of these formulations, an experimental evaluation has been accomplished. The findings were that GR-3 and GR-4 were similar in their chemical stability. Both were found to be quite stable with respect to all constituents except silicate and inorganic carbon over a 30-day period. Some instability of monomeric silicate was observed. However, this did not result in a concentration change of greater than 5%, and no evidence of particulate formation was observed. 6 refs., 30 tabs.

  14. Initial Flight Evaluation of the Army/NASA RASCAL Variable Stability Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moralez, Ernesto, III; Hindson, William S.; Arterburn, David R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) [will] have performed initial flight evaluations of the Research Flight Control System (RFCS) that has been integrated into the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) variable stability helicopter. The RASCAL, a highly modified JUH-60A Black Hawk helicopter, is a variable-stability, in-flight simulator that is designed to support flight research programs that leverage on the flight control and handling qualities design tools developed by the Army and NASA. These tools are used in the flight control design life cycle from initial concept definition, through simulation, and ultimately into flight on-board the RASCAL helicopter. The RASCAL will be used to validate methodologies for reducing design cycle costs for new or modified aircraft, and it will serve as a base for the investigation of new rotorcraft technology.

  15. Synthesis, solubility, plasma stability, and pharmacological evaluation of novel sulfonylhydrazones designed as anti-diabetic agents

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; da Costa Nunes, Isabelle Karine; Araujo, Josenildo Segundo Chaves; da Silva, Jaqueline Soares; Trachez, Margarete Manhães; da Silva, Tiago Fernandes; da Costa, Filipe P; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Lima, Lídia Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathy is a serious complication of diabetes that has a significant socioeconomic impact, since it frequently demands high levels of health care consumption and compromises labor productivity. Recently, LASSBio-1471 (3) was demonstrated to improve oral glucose tolerance, reduce blood glucose levels, and display an anti-neuropathy effect in a murine streptozotocin-induced diabetes model. In the present work, we describe the design, synthesis, solubility, plasma stability, and pharmacological evaluation of novel sulfonylhydrazone derivatives (referred to herein as compounds 4–9), which were designed by molecular modification based on the structure of the prototype LASSBio-1471 (3). Among the compounds tested, better plasma stability was observed with 4, 5, and 9 in comparison to compounds 6, 7, and 8. LASSBio-1773 (7), promoted not only hypoglycemic activity but also the reduction of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in a murine model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic pain. PMID:27672310

  16. The potential of accelerometers in the evaluation of stability of total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Khan, Humera; Walker, Peter S; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Slover, James; Jaffe, Fredrick; Karia, Raj J; Kim, Joo H

    2013-03-01

    An accelerometer attached to the anterior proximal tibia was investigated as an evaluation of knee stability of Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) patients while performing daily activities. Acceleration data of 38 TKA knees with a minimum follow up of 6months were compared with 34 control knees. The activities performed were: walking three steps forward and coming to a sudden stop; turning in the direction of non-tested knee; sit-to-stand; and stepping up and down from a 7 inch step. The acceleration results showed significant differences between TKA and controls while stepping down and while turning in the non-tested knee direction. The higher accelerations with the TKA group may have represented an objective measure of stability, even if this was not directly discernible to the patient. PMID:23122873

  17. Synthesis, solubility, plasma stability, and pharmacological evaluation of novel sulfonylhydrazones designed as anti-diabetic agents

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; da Costa Nunes, Isabelle Karine; Araujo, Josenildo Segundo Chaves; da Silva, Jaqueline Soares; Trachez, Margarete Manhães; da Silva, Tiago Fernandes; da Costa, Filipe P; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Lima, Lídia Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathy is a serious complication of diabetes that has a significant socioeconomic impact, since it frequently demands high levels of health care consumption and compromises labor productivity. Recently, LASSBio-1471 (3) was demonstrated to improve oral glucose tolerance, reduce blood glucose levels, and display an anti-neuropathy effect in a murine streptozotocin-induced diabetes model. In the present work, we describe the design, synthesis, solubility, plasma stability, and pharmacological evaluation of novel sulfonylhydrazone derivatives (referred to herein as compounds 4–9), which were designed by molecular modification based on the structure of the prototype LASSBio-1471 (3). Among the compounds tested, better plasma stability was observed with 4, 5, and 9 in comparison to compounds 6, 7, and 8. LASSBio-1773 (7), promoted not only hypoglycemic activity but also the reduction of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in a murine model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic pain.

  18. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Although there are many publications pertaining to gas hydrates, their formation and stability in various geological conditions are poorly known. Therefore, for the same reasons and because of the very broad scope of our research, limited amount and extremely dispersed information, the study regions are very large. Moreover, almost without exception the geological environments controlling gas hydrates formation and stability of the studied regions are very complex. The regions studied (completed and partially completed - total 17 locations) during the reporting period, particularly the Gulf of Mexico and the Middle America Trench, are the most important in this entire research project. In the past, both of these regions have been extensively studied, the presence of gas hydrates confirmed and samples recovered. In our investigation it was necessary not only to review all previous data and interpretations, but to do a thorough analysis of the basins, and a critical evaluation of an previously reported and publicly available but not published information.

  19. Analysis of static noise margin improvement for low voltage SRAM composed of nano-scale MOSFETs with ideal subthreshold factor and small variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Chika; Saitoh, Masumi; Ota, Kensuke; Numata, Toshinori

    2015-07-01

    An ultra-low voltage performance of nanowire-transistors-based SRAM cell is investigated using the SPICE model parameters extracted from measurement data. The impact of S-factor and threshold voltage variations on the static noise margin and the minimum operating voltage is evaluated in nanowire transistor as well as in planar bulk transistor and quasi-planar bulk transistor. The performance benefits of undoped nanowire-transistor-based SRAM are measured in terms of the read stability for low voltage and low off leakage current operation.

  20. Voltage collapse in complex power grids

    PubMed Central

    Simpson-Porco, John W.; Dörfler, Florian; Bullo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale power grid's ability to transfer energy from producers to consumers is constrained by both the network structure and the nonlinear physics of power flow. Violations of these constraints have been observed to result in voltage collapse blackouts, where nodal voltages slowly decline before precipitously falling. However, methods to test for voltage collapse are dominantly simulation-based, offering little theoretical insight into how grid structure influences stability margins. For a simplified power flow model, here we derive a closed-form condition under which a power network is safe from voltage collapse. The condition combines the complex structure of the network with the reactive power demands of loads to produce a node-by-node measure of grid stress, a prediction of the largest nodal voltage deviation, and an estimate of the distance to collapse. We extensively test our predictions on large-scale systems, highlighting how our condition can be leveraged to increase grid stability margins. PMID:26887284

  1. EVALUATION OF TWO LEAD-BASED PAINT REMOVAL AND WASTE STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGY COMBINATIONS ON TYPICAL EXTERIOR SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of a wet abrasive blasting technology to remove lead-based paint from exterior wood siding and brick substrates as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of two waste stabilization technologies to stabilize the resulting blast...

  2. SLOPE STABILITY EVALUATION AND EQUIPMENT SETBACK DISTANCES FOR BURIAL GROUND EXCAVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    MCSHANE DS

    2010-03-25

    After 1970 Transuranic (TRU) and suspect TRU waste was buried in the ground with the intention that at some later date the waste would be retrieved and processed into a configuration for long term storage. To retrieve this waste the soil must be removed (excavated). Sloping the bank of the excavation is the method used to keep the excavation from collapsing and to provide protection for workers retrieving the waste. The purpose of this paper is to document the minimum distance (setback) that equipment must stay from the edge of the excavation to maintain a stable slope. This evaluation examines the equipment setback distance by dividing the equipment into two categories, (1) equipment used for excavation and (2) equipment used for retrieval. The section on excavation equipment will also discuss techniques used for excavation including the process of benching. Calculations 122633-C-004, 'Slope Stability Analysis' (Attachment A), and 300013-C-001, 'Crane Stability Analysis' (Attachment B), have been prepared to support this evaluation. As shown in the calculations the soil has the following properties: Unit weight 110 pounds per cubic foot; and Friction Angle (natural angle of repose) 38{sup o} or 1.28 horizontal to 1 vertical. Setback distances are measured from the top edge of the slope to the wheels/tracks of the vehicles and heavy equipment being utilized. The computer program utilized in the calculation uses the center of the wheel or track load for the analysis and this difference is accounted for in this evaluation.

  3. Technical evaluation of the adequacy of station electric distribution system voltages for the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Unit No. 1: selected issues program (Docket No. 50-312)

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. L.

    1981-11-10

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the adequacy of the station electric distribution system voltages for the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generation Station, Unit No. 1. The evaluation is to determine if the onsite distribution system, in conjunction with the offsite power sources, has sufficient capacity to automatically start and operate all Class 1E loads within the equipment voltage ratings under certain conditions established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The licensee demonstrates with the analysis that with certain modifications the guidelines and requirements of the NRC will be met.

  4. Evaluation of hardness and color stability in the soft lining materials after thermocycling and chemical polishing.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; Santos, Daniela Micheline dos; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Shore A hardness and color stability of two soft lining materials after thermocycling and when chemical polishing was used or omitted. Two acrylic-based soft lining materials were tested: Coe-Soft and Soft Confort, 14 specimens were made for each material. They were distributed in four groups according to the treatment performed. The specimens were thermocycled (1000 cycles) and half of the group submitted to chemical polishing (methyl methacrylate). Shore A hardness was determined and color stability was calculated by means of Commission International de l'Eclairage Lab uniform color scale using a spectrophotometer, the measurements were made immediately after deflasked, chemical polishing and thermocycling. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's tests were performed at p < 0.01. Color changes (deltaE) were observed after thermocycling in both soft lining materials: Soft Confort (10.60) showed significantly higher values than Coe-Soft (4.57). Coe-Soft (26.42) showed higher Shore A hardness values than Soft Confort (19.42). Chemical polishing did not influence in the color stability of both materials; however, influenced in the hardness values of Coe-Soft.

  5. Soy milk as an emulsifier in mayonnaise: physico-chemical, stability and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Kobra; Mazaheri Tehrani, Mostafa; Daneshvar, Kazem

    2014-11-01

    Mayonnaise is an oil in water emulsion and egg components are its emulsifier. In this research application of soy milk to stabilize mayonnaise was studied. Egg was replaced with full fat soy flour-prepared soy milk at levels of 25, 50, 75, and 100 % and microstructure, stability, color, viscosity and sensory analysis were performed and results were compared with those of control samples containing yolk and whole egg as emulsifier. Results showed that yolk-prepared control (YC) had higher stability and viscosity values and the value of these two attributes decreased as more amounts of soy milk was used. In the case of viscosity there was no statistical difference between soy milk-prepared samples and egg-prepared control (EC) up to 75 % replacement. Color factors changed, which were affected by different proportions of soy milk. Sensory evaluation showed no statistical difference in acceptability of EC and samples with substitution levels up to 50 %. So it can be concluded that egg can be substituted with soy milk in mayonnaise.

  6. Soy milk as an emulsifier in mayonnaise: physico-chemical, stability and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Kobra; Mazaheri Tehrani, Mostafa; Daneshvar, Kazem

    2014-11-01

    Mayonnaise is an oil in water emulsion and egg components are its emulsifier. In this research application of soy milk to stabilize mayonnaise was studied. Egg was replaced with full fat soy flour-prepared soy milk at levels of 25, 50, 75, and 100 % and microstructure, stability, color, viscosity and sensory analysis were performed and results were compared with those of control samples containing yolk and whole egg as emulsifier. Results showed that yolk-prepared control (YC) had higher stability and viscosity values and the value of these two attributes decreased as more amounts of soy milk was used. In the case of viscosity there was no statistical difference between soy milk-prepared samples and egg-prepared control (EC) up to 75 % replacement. Color factors changed, which were affected by different proportions of soy milk. Sensory evaluation showed no statistical difference in acceptability of EC and samples with substitution levels up to 50 %. So it can be concluded that egg can be substituted with soy milk in mayonnaise. PMID:26396329

  7. Development and stability evaluation of olive oil nanoemulsion using sucrose monoester laurate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, Ahmad M. M.; Baie, Saringat Haji; Arafat, Osama

    2012-11-01

    Nanoemulsion is a type of emulsion that consists of fine oil-in-water dispersions, with the droplets covering the size range of 20-200 nm. It can be achieved through emulsification process. One of the processes is through low energy emulsification method. Olive oil was chosen in this study due to its efficiency in treating skin problem. Olive oil nanophase gel (NPG) formulations were performed through various ratios of olive oil, sucrose laurate and glycerin. The particle sizes and stability of the prepared olive oil nanophase gel were evaluated and the optimal formulation was then selected for the development of olive oil nanoemulsion. This study proved that the composition of oil and surfactant play an important roles in influencing the nanophase gel droplet size. Nanophase gels containing olive oil in the concentration of 50 and 60 % show good stability at 4 °C and room temperature while it was less stable at 40 °C. Olive oil nanophase gels in the concentration of 50 % and 60 % with sucrose laurate 25 % in each formulation were good candidates to prepare nanoemulsion because they have the suitable droplets size and Polydispersing Index (PDI) when compared to other formulations. A mixture of NPG 50 % and water in the ratio of 40:60 and NPG 60 % and water in the ratio of 33.3:66.7 were used to produce nanoemulsions containing 20 % of oil with negative values of zeta potential (>60) which indicate the good stability of the nanoemulsions.

  8. Evaluation of hardness and color stability in the soft lining materials after thermocycling and chemical polishing.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; Santos, Daniela Micheline dos; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Shore A hardness and color stability of two soft lining materials after thermocycling and when chemical polishing was used or omitted. Two acrylic-based soft lining materials were tested: Coe-Soft and Soft Confort, 14 specimens were made for each material. They were distributed in four groups according to the treatment performed. The specimens were thermocycled (1000 cycles) and half of the group submitted to chemical polishing (methyl methacrylate). Shore A hardness was determined and color stability was calculated by means of Commission International de l'Eclairage Lab uniform color scale using a spectrophotometer, the measurements were made immediately after deflasked, chemical polishing and thermocycling. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's tests were performed at p < 0.01. Color changes (deltaE) were observed after thermocycling in both soft lining materials: Soft Confort (10.60) showed significantly higher values than Coe-Soft (4.57). Coe-Soft (26.42) showed higher Shore A hardness values than Soft Confort (19.42). Chemical polishing did not influence in the color stability of both materials; however, influenced in the hardness values of Coe-Soft. PMID:19601498

  9. Optimization of Preparation Conditions for Lysozyme Nanoliposomes Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Their Stability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhipan; Guan, Rongfa; Lyu, Fei; Liu, Mingqi; Gao, Jianguo; Cao, Guozou

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to optimize the preparation of lysozyme nanoliposomes using response surface methodology and measure their stability. The stabilities of lysozyme nanoliposomes in simulated gastrointestinal fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), as well as pH, temperature and sonication treatment time were evaluated. Reverse-phase evaporation method is an easy, speedy, and beneficial approach for nanoliposomes' preparation and optimization. The optimal preparative conditions were as follows: phosphatidylcholine-to-cholesterol ratio of 3.86, lysozyme concentration of 1.96 mg/mL, magnetic stirring time of 40.61 min, and ultrasound time of 14.15 min. At the optimal point, encapsulation efficiency and particle size were found to be 75.36% ± 3.20% and 245.6 nm ± 5.2 nm, respectively. The lysozyme nanoliposomes demonstrated certain stability in SGF and SIF at a temperature of 37 °C for 4 h, and short sonication handling times were required to attain nano-scaled liposomes. Under conditions of high temperature, acidity and alkalinity, lysozyme nanoliposomes are unstable. PMID:27338315

  10. Evaluation of the color stability of two techniques for reproducing artificial irides after microwave polymerization

    PubMed Central

    GOIATO, Marcelo Coelho; dos SANTOS, Daniela Micheline; MORENO, Amália; GENNARI-FILHO, Humberto; PELLIZZER, Eduardo Piza

    2011-01-01

    The use of ocular prostheses for ophthalmic patients aims to rebuild facial aesthetics and provide an artificial substitute to the visual organ. Natural intemperate conditions promote discoloration of artificial irides and many studies have attempted to produce irides with greater chromatic paint durability using different paint materials. Objectives The present study evaluated the color stability of artificial irides obtained with two techniques (oil painting and digital image) and submitted to microwave polymerization. Material and Methods Forty samples were fabricated simulating ocular prostheses. Each sample was constituted by one disc of acrylic resin N1 and one disc of colorless acrylic resin with the iris interposed between the discs. The irides in brown and blue color were obtained by oil painting or digital image. The color stability was determined by a reflection spectrophotometer and measurements were taken before and after microwave polymerization. Statistical analysis of the techniques for reproducing artificial irides was performed by applying the normal data distribution test followed by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=.05). Results Chromatic alterations occurred in all specimens and statistically significant differences were observed between the oil-painted samples and those obtained by digital imaging. There was no statistical difference between the brown and blue colors. Independently of technique, all samples suffered color alterations after microwave polymerization. Conclusion The digital imaging technique for reproducing irides presented better color stability after microwave polymerization. PMID:21625733

  11. Development and Evaluation of Stability of a Gel Formulation Containing the Monoterpene Borneol

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Milla Gabriela Belarmino; Reis, Silvio Alan Gonçalves Bomfim; Damasceno, Camila Mahara Dias; Rolim, Larissa Araújo; Rolim-Neto, Pedro José; Carvalho, Ferdinando Oliveira; Quintans-Junior, Lucindo José; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Borneol is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alcohol commonly used in traditional Chinese and Indian medicine. It is extracted from the essential oil of various medicinal plants. It has antibacterial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory action proven in studies that used oral and intraperitoneal applications of this monoterpene in mice. The current study was designed to develop a topical gel formulation containing the monoterpene borneol using carbopol as gel base and to evaluate its stability. The prepared formulation was subjected to physical characterization and physical-chemistry assessment. The gel was prepared from carbopol and 5% of borneol. The prepared gel was subjected to pharmacotechnical tests such as its pH, viscosity, conductivity, spreadability, centrifugation, and accelerated stability with freezing-thaw cycle. The borneol was successfully incorporated into the carbopol formulation. Borneol gel (BG5) showed good stability after eight months of its development and after 12 days in the freeze-thaw cycle, not showing statistical difference in pH value, conductivity, and viscosity before and after test. Furthermore, the formulation showed a good spreadability. Therefore, it was concluded that the formulation could be very promising alternative for the topical or transdermal treatment of skin diseases. PMID:27247965

  12. Evaluation of stability changes in magnesium-incorporated titanium implants in the early healing period.

    PubMed

    Hieu, Pham Duong; Baek, Dong Heon; Park, Dong Soo; Park, Jong-Tae; Hong, Ki Seok

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the bone response to magnesium (Mg) ion-incorporated titanium (Ti) implants during the early healing period. A total of 114 patients (69 men and 45 women aged between 29 and 71 years) participated in the study. Overall, one hundred thirty-three 10-mm-long fixtures were installed, composed of 65 Mg ion-incorporated fixtures in the test group (55 participants; 30 males and 25 females) and 68 resorbable blast media (RBM) surface fixtures in the control group (59 participants; 39 males and 20 females). The bone responses were evaluated by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) at the following time points after implant insertion (ie, the healing period): 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Each time an RFA measurement was taken, the stability changes relating to both bone quality and implant arch location (maxilla or mandible) were recorded for further analysis. The mean stabilities were lowest at week 4 of healing for both the test and control groups. Significant differences in RFA values between the 2 groups were found at week 12 of healing. The mean percentage change in implant stability quotient (ISQ) from the baseline revealed that the implant stability of the Mg ion-incorporated test group had increased (4.55%) more than the RBM surface group (2.23%) by week 12 of healing. With respect to bone quality, the mean ISQ of Mg-incorporated Ti implants only changed significantly during the 12-week period for type 4 bone. Furthermore, at weeks 4 and 12 of healing, significant differences were found between the 2 groups for type 2 and type 4 bone. A comparison of the stability patterns of mandibular and maxillary implants revealed that the overall stability was higher in the mandible; however, no significant difference was found for Mg-incorporated Ti implants. The Mg-incorporated Ti implants exhibited a slightly better bone response with respect to ISQ than did the RBM surface implants, and the percentage change in mean ISQ from the

  13. A Review of Methods for Evaluating Particle Stability in Suspension Based Pressurized Metered Dose Inhalers.

    PubMed

    D'Sa, Dexter; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-01-01

    Advances in particle engineering techniques, such as spray drying, freeze drying and supercritical fluid precipitation, have greatly enhanced the ability to control the structure, morphology, and solid state phase of inhalable sized particles (1 - 5 µm) for formulation in pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI). To optimize the properties of these engineered particles for formulation in hydrofluoroalkane propellants (HFA 134a / 227) it is necessary to measure both bulk and individual particle properties before, after, and during formulation. This review examines established and recently developed methods for evaluating a variety of particle properties including but not limited to size, surface and internal morphology, chemical composition, and solid state phase. Novel methods for evaluating particle physical and chemical stability directly in propellant or similar environments are also discussed.

  14. Evaluation of the stability of enterovirus 71 virus-like particle.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chung, Yao-Chi; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Chi, Wei-Kuang; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for the outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease that caused significant mortality in children, but no vaccine is available yet. EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) is the empty capsid consisting of viral structural proteins but can elicit potent immune responses, rendering VLP a promising EV71 vaccine candidate. To evaluate whether VLP remains stable after long-term storage, which is crucial for advancing the VLP vaccine to the clinical setting, we evaluated the effects of NaCl concentration, buffers and temperatures on the VLP stability. We first validated the use of dynamic light scattering (DLS) for measuring the hydrodynamic diameter (≈30-35 nm) of VLP, which was close to the VLP diameter (≈25-27 nm) as measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using these techniques, we found that EV71 VLP remained stable for 5 months in sodium phosphate (NaPi) buffers with various NaCl concentrations. EV71 VLP also remained morphologically stable in NaPi, citrate and TE(+) buffers for 5 months, yet the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that the VLP stored in citrate and TE(+) buffers partially lost the immunogenicity after 5 months. In contrast, the VLP stored in the NaPi buffer at 4°C remained stable macroscopically and microscopically for 5 months, as judged from the DLS, TEM and ELISA. The VLP stored at 25°C and 37°C also retained stability for 1 month, which would obviate the need of a cold chain during the shipping. These data altogether proved the stability of EV71 VLP and suggested that the VLP is amenable to bioprocessing and storage. PMID:24140131

  15. Long Term Stability Evaluation of Prostacyclin Released from Biomedical Device Through Turbiscan Lab Expert

    PubMed Central

    Celia, Christian; Locatelli, Marcello; Cilurzo, Felisa; Cosco, Donato; Gentile, Emanuela; Scalise, Daniela; Carafa, Maria; Ventura, Cinzia Anna; Fleury, Mathias; Tisserand, Christelle; Barbacane, Renato C.; Fresta, Massimo; Marzio, Luisa Di; Paolino, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic guidelines indicate prostacyclin as the first line of treatment in inflammation and vascular diseases. Prostacyclins prevent formation of the platelet plug involved in primary hemostasis by inhibiting platelet activation and, combined with thromboxane, are effective vasodilators in vascular damage. Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus Document on Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease II guidelines indicates prostacyclins; in particular, Iloprost, as the first therapeutic option for treating peripheral arterial disease. However, therapeutic efficacy of Iloprost has witnessed several drawbacks that have occurred in patients receiving repeated weekly administration of the drug by intravenous infusions. Adverse reactions arose under perfusion with Iloprost for 6 h and patient compliance was drastically decreased. Biomedical devices could provide a suitable alternative to overcome these drawbacks. In particular, elastomeric pumps, filled with Iloprost isotonic solution, could slowly release the drug, thus decreasing its side effects, representing a valid alternative to hospitalization of patients affected by peripheral arterial disease. However, the home therapy treatment of patients requires long-term stability of Iloprost in solution-loaded elastomeric pumps. The aim of this work was to investigate the long-term stability of Iloprost isotonic solution in biomedical devices using Turbiscan technology. Turbiscan Lab Expert (L’Union, France) predicts the long-term stability of suspensions, emulsions and colloidal formulations by measuring backscattering and transmission of particulates dispersed in solution. The formulations were evaluated by measuring the variation of physical-chemical properties of colloids and suspensions as a function of backscattering and transmission modifications. In addition, the release profile of Iloprost isotonic solution from the biomedical device was evaluated. PMID:25381994

  16. A Comprehensive Evaluation of NIPAM Polymer Gel Dosimeters on Three Orthogonal Planes and Temporal Stability Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Shih, Cheng-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters have been proven useful for dose evaluation in radiotherapy treatments. Previous studies have demonstrated that using a polymer gel dosimeter requires a 24 h reaction time to stabilize and further evaluate the measured dose distribution in two-dimensional dosimetry. In this study, the short-term stability within 24 h and feasibility of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel dosimeters for use in three-dimensional dosimetry were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). NIPAM gels were used to measure the dose volume in a clinical case of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). For dose readouts, MR images of irradiated NIPAM gel phantoms were acquired at 2, 5, 12, and 24 h after dose delivery. The mean standard errors of dose conversion from using dose calibration curves (DRC) were calculated. The measured dose volumes at the four time points were compared with those calculated using a treatment planning system (TPS). The mean standard errors of the dose conversion from using the DRCs were lower than 1 Gy. Mean pass rates of 2, 5, 12, and 24 h axial dose maps calculated using gamma evaluation with 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criteria were 83.5% ± 0.9%, 85.9% ± 0.6%, 98.7% ± 0.3%, and 98.5% ± 0.9%, respectively. Compared with the dose volume histogram of the TPS, the absolute mean relative volume differences of the 2, 5, 12, and 24 h measured dose volumes were lower than 1% for the irradiated region with an absorbed dose higher than 2.8 Gy. It was concluded that a 12 h reaction time was sufficient to acquire accurate dose volume using the NIPAM gels with MR readouts. PMID:27192217

  17. A Comprehensive Evaluation of NIPAM Polymer Gel Dosimeters on Three Orthogonal Planes and Temporal Stability Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Cheng-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters have been proven useful for dose evaluation in radiotherapy treatments. Previous studies have demonstrated that using a polymer gel dosimeter requires a 24 h reaction time to stabilize and further evaluate the measured dose distribution in two-dimensional dosimetry. In this study, the short-term stability within 24 h and feasibility of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel dosimeters for use in three-dimensional dosimetry were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). NIPAM gels were used to measure the dose volume in a clinical case of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). For dose readouts, MR images of irradiated NIPAM gel phantoms were acquired at 2, 5, 12, and 24 h after dose delivery. The mean standard errors of dose conversion from using dose calibration curves (DRC) were calculated. The measured dose volumes at the four time points were compared with those calculated using a treatment planning system (TPS). The mean standard errors of the dose conversion from using the DRCs were lower than 1 Gy. Mean pass rates of 2, 5, 12, and 24 h axial dose maps calculated using gamma evaluation with 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criteria were 83.5% ± 0.9%, 85.9% ± 0.6%, 98.7% ± 0.3%, and 98.5% ± 0.9%, respectively. Compared with the dose volume histogram of the TPS, the absolute mean relative volume differences of the 2, 5, 12, and 24 h measured dose volumes were lower than 1% for the irradiated region with an absorbed dose higher than 2.8 Gy. It was concluded that a 12 h reaction time was sufficient to acquire accurate dose volume using the NIPAM gels with MR readouts. PMID:27192217

  18. An evaluation of the stability of synthetic Grande Ronde groundwater formulations GR-3 and GR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, J.A.; Jones, T.E.; Marcy, A.D.; Baechler, M.O.; Payne, J.R.

    1987-03-01

    Simple solubility calculations indicate that synthetic Grande Ronde groundwater formulations GR-3 and GR-4 may be unstable with respect to the precipitation of certain components. The validity of calculations of this type is, however, limited by the complexity of the solutions. To address the chemical stability of these formulations properly, an experimental evaluation was performed. The evaluation revealed that GR-3 and GR-4 were similar in their chemical stability. Both were found to be quite stable with respect to all constituents, except silicate and inorganic carbon, over a 30-d period. Some instability of monomeric silicate was observed. However, this did not result in a concentration change of greater than 5%, and no evidence of particulate formation was observed. Both formulations were found to be relatively unstable with respect to inorganic carbon concentration. A general trend toward increasing carbon concentration was observed. This was attributed to absorption of CO/sub 2/ from the atmosphere. Storing the synthetic groundwater in sealed containers eliminated this problem. 5 refs., 24 tabs.

  19. Evaluation of PFP Furnace Systems for Thermal Stabilization of Washed High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Christopher M.; Elmore, Monte R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2002-12-17

    High chloride content plutonium (HCP) oxides are impure plutonium oxide scrap which contains NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and/or CaCl2 salts at potentially high concentrations and must be stabilized at 950 C per the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000. The chlorides pose challenges to stabilization because volatile chloride salts and decomposition products can corrode furnace heating elements and downstream ventilation components. A high-temperature furnace (same make and model as used at the RMC at Plutonium Finishing Plant) and the associated offgas system were set up at PNNL to identify system vulnerabilities and to investigate alternative materials and operating conditions that would mitigate any corrosion and plugging of furnace and offgas components. The key areas of interest for this testing were the furnace heating elements, the offgas line located inside the furnace, the offgas line between the furnace and the filter/knockout pot, the filter/knockout pot, the sample boat, and corrosion coupons to evaluate alternative materials of construction. The evaluation was conducted by charging the furnace with CeO2 that had been impregnated with a mixture of chloride salts (selected to represent the expected residual chloride salt level in washed high chloride items) and heated in the furnace in accordance with the temperature ramp rates and hold times used at PFP.

  20. Power conditioning using dynamic voltage restorers under different voltage sag types

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Ahmed M.; Abdel Aleem, Shady H.E.; Ibrahim, Ahmed M.; Balci, Murat E.; El-Zahab, Essam E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage sags can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical depending on the causes of the sag. At the present time, one of the most common procedures for mitigating voltage sags is by the use of dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs). By definition, a DVR is a controlled voltage source inserted between the network and a sensitive load through a booster transformer injecting voltage into the network in order to correct any disturbance affecting a sensitive load voltage. In this paper, modelling of DVR for voltage correction using MatLab software is presented. The performance of the device under different voltage sag types is described, where the voltage sag types are introduced using the different types of short-circuit faults included in the environment of the MatLab/Simulink package. The robustness of the proposed device is evaluated using the common voltage sag indices, while taking into account voltage and current unbalance percentages, where maintaining the total harmonic distortion percentage of the load voltage within a specified range is desired. Finally, several simulation results are shown in order to highlight that the DVR is capable of effective correction of the voltage sag while minimizing the grid voltage unbalance and distortion, regardless of the fault type. PMID:26843975

  1. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanfords Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2001-03-23

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000a), defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of waste transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000b), has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications associated with Interim Stabilization. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning, RPP-6028 Section 3.2.7. Performance Incentive Number ORP-05 requires that all the Single Shell Tanks be Interim Stabilized by September 30, 2003. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone M-41-00, enforced by a federal consent decree, requires all the Single Shell Tanks to be Interim stabilized by September 30, 2004. By meeting the Performance Incentive the TPA milestone is met. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment used to transfer waste have a life in excess of the forecasted operational time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer, published literature and calculations. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are the hose material's resistance to the harmful effects of process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, exposure to ionizing radiation and the

  2. Investigations on Substrate Temperature-Induced Growth Modes of Organic Semiconductors at Dielectric/semiconductor Interface and Their Correlation with Threshold Voltage Stability in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Padma, Narayanan; Maheshwari, Priya; Bhattacharya, Debarati; Tokas, Raj B; Sen, Shashwati; Honda, Yoshihide; Basu, Saibal; Pujari, Pradeep Kumar; Rao, T V Chandrasekhar

    2016-02-10

    Influence of substrate temperature on growth modes of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin films at the dielectric/semiconductor interface in organic field effect transistors (OFETs) is investigated. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging at the interface reveals a change from 'layer+island' to "island" growth mode with increasing substrate temperatures, further confirmed by probing the buried interfaces using X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and positron annihilation spectroscopic (PAS) techniques. PAS depth profiling provides insight into the details of molecular ordering while positron lifetime measurements reveal the difference in packing modes of CuPc molecules at the interface. XRR measurements show systematic increase in interface width and electron density correlating well with the change from layer + island to coalesced huge 3D islands at higher substrate temperatures. Study demonstrates the usefulness of XRR and PAS techniques to study growth modes at buried interfaces and reveals the influence of growth modes of semiconductor at the interface on hole and electron trap concentrations individually, thereby affecting hysteresis and threshold voltage stability. Minimum hole trapping is correlated to near layer by layer formation close to the interface at 100 °C and maximum to the island formation with large voids between the grains at 225 °C.

  3. Investigations on Substrate Temperature-Induced Growth Modes of Organic Semiconductors at Dielectric/semiconductor Interface and Their Correlation with Threshold Voltage Stability in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Padma, Narayanan; Maheshwari, Priya; Bhattacharya, Debarati; Tokas, Raj B; Sen, Shashwati; Honda, Yoshihide; Basu, Saibal; Pujari, Pradeep Kumar; Rao, T V Chandrasekhar

    2016-02-10

    Influence of substrate temperature on growth modes of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin films at the dielectric/semiconductor interface in organic field effect transistors (OFETs) is investigated. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging at the interface reveals a change from 'layer+island' to "island" growth mode with increasing substrate temperatures, further confirmed by probing the buried interfaces using X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and positron annihilation spectroscopic (PAS) techniques. PAS depth profiling provides insight into the details of molecular ordering while positron lifetime measurements reveal the difference in packing modes of CuPc molecules at the interface. XRR measurements show systematic increase in interface width and electron density correlating well with the change from layer + island to coalesced huge 3D islands at higher substrate temperatures. Study demonstrates the usefulness of XRR and PAS techniques to study growth modes at buried interfaces and reveals the influence of growth modes of semiconductor at the interface on hole and electron trap concentrations individually, thereby affecting hysteresis and threshold voltage stability. Minimum hole trapping is correlated to near layer by layer formation close to the interface at 100 °C and maximum to the island formation with large voids between the grains at 225 °C. PMID:26761590

  4. Re-evaluating the role of sterics and electronic coupling in determining the open-circuit voltage of organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Graham, Kenneth R; Erwin, Patrick; Nordlund, Dennis; Vandewal, Koen; Li, Ruipeng; Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy O; Hoke, Eric T; Salleo, Alberto; Thompson, Mark E; McGehee, Michael D; Amassian, Aram

    2013-11-13

    The effects of sterics and molecular orientation on the open-circuit voltage and absorbance properties of charge-transfer states are explored in model bilayer organic photovoltaics. It is shown that the open-circuit voltage correlates linearly with the charge-transfer state energy and is not significantly influenced by electronic coupling. PMID:23897581

  5. An integrated methodology to evaluate the effects of plants for slope stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dani, A.; Giadrossich, F.; Guastini, E.; Preti, F.; Togni, M.; Vannocci, P.

    2009-04-01

    The topic of eco-hydrological dynamics is fundamental in slope stability analysis on vegetated soils. The understanding of hydrological processes are based on the knowledge of the geotechnical properties of soils, on the pedological, pluviometrical and vegetational features and they are all related to the soil and roots interaction. To quantify the stability slopes effects that the root systems provide to the soil, it is important to know their spatial distribution and their tensile strength. Because of the difficulty to estimate the action of single roots, in the stability evaluation of vegetated hillslopes, only the additional root cohesion is generally taken into account depending on the spatial variability of the root area ratio RAR (the ratio between the area occupied by roots in a unit area of soil) distribution (especially with depth), even if it is not sure that all the roots in the soil actually mobilise their whole tensile strength (e.g. each root could not break at the same time due to different tortuosity and elasticity). In this paper we test some analysis and methodologies: • to value the stress-strain curve and ultimate tensile strength of the roots, we use two different testing machines normally employed for wood rheological behavior studies. • to value the cohesion contribution to rooted soil samples we use a geotechnical apparatus (the Casagrande direct shear test); • an indirect methodology to obtain the measurement of the fundamental parameters of the root apparatus; • an indirect methodology to estimate the analytical descriptors of the root apparatus based on climatic and pedological features; • a GIS survey to estimate the stability factor and its evolution with some models in different vegetation management. Mediterranean environments, particularly, where soils are shallow and water is scarce over the growing season (water controlled ecosystems), it would be more economical for plants to have the roots closer to the soil surface

  6. Biomechanical evaluation of DTRAX® posterior cervical cage stabilization with and without lateral mass fixation

    PubMed Central

    Voronov, Leonard I; Siemionow, Krzysztof B; Havey, Robert M; Carandang, Gerard; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation with plates or rods is the current standard procedure for posterior cervical fusion. Recently, implants placed between the facet joints have become available as an alternative to LMS or transfacet screws for patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of the DTRAX® cervical cage for single- and two-level fusion and compare this to the stability achieved with LMS fixation with rods in a two-level construct. Methods Six cadaveric cervical spine (C3–C7) specimens were tested in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation to ±1.5 Nm moment without preload (0 N) in the following conditions: 1) intact (C3–C7), 2) LMS and rods at C4–C5 and C5–C6, 3) removal of all rods (LMS retained) and placement of bilateral posterior cages at C5–C6, 4) bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 (without LMS and rods), and 5) C4–C5 and C5–C6 bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 with rods reinserted. Results Bilateral posterior cervical cages significantly reduced range of motion in all tested directions in both single- and multilevel constructs (P<0.05). Similar stability was achieved with bilateral posterior cages and LMS in a two-level construct: 0.6°±0.3° vs 1.2°±0.4° in flexion–extension (P=0.001), (5.0°±2.6° vs 3.1°±1.3°) in lateral bending (P=0.053), (1.3°±1.0° vs 2.2°±0.9°) in axial rotation (P=0.091) for posterior cages and LMS, respectively. Posterior cages, when placed as an adjunct to LMS, further reduced range of motion in a multilevel construct (P<0.05). Conclusion Bilateral posterior cages provide similar cervical segmental stability compared with a LMS and rod construct and may be an alternative surgical option for select patients. Furthermore, supplementation of a lateral mass construct with posterior cages increases cervical spine stability in single- and multilevel conditions.

  7. Biomechanical evaluation of DTRAX® posterior cervical cage stabilization with and without lateral mass fixation

    PubMed Central

    Voronov, Leonard I; Siemionow, Krzysztof B; Havey, Robert M; Carandang, Gerard; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation with plates or rods is the current standard procedure for posterior cervical fusion. Recently, implants placed between the facet joints have become available as an alternative to LMS or transfacet screws for patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of the DTRAX® cervical cage for single- and two-level fusion and compare this to the stability achieved with LMS fixation with rods in a two-level construct. Methods Six cadaveric cervical spine (C3–C7) specimens were tested in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation to ±1.5 Nm moment without preload (0 N) in the following conditions: 1) intact (C3–C7), 2) LMS and rods at C4–C5 and C5–C6, 3) removal of all rods (LMS retained) and placement of bilateral posterior cages at C5–C6, 4) bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 (without LMS and rods), and 5) C4–C5 and C5–C6 bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 with rods reinserted. Results Bilateral posterior cervical cages significantly reduced range of motion in all tested directions in both single- and multilevel constructs (P<0.05). Similar stability was achieved with bilateral posterior cages and LMS in a two-level construct: 0.6°±0.3° vs 1.2°±0.4° in flexion–extension (P=0.001), (5.0°±2.6° vs 3.1°±1.3°) in lateral bending (P=0.053), (1.3°±1.0° vs 2.2°±0.9°) in axial rotation (P=0.091) for posterior cages and LMS, respectively. Posterior cages, when placed as an adjunct to LMS, further reduced range of motion in a multilevel construct (P<0.05). Conclusion Bilateral posterior cages provide similar cervical segmental stability compared with a LMS and rod construct and may be an alternative surgical option for select patients. Furthermore, supplementation of a lateral mass construct with posterior cages increases cervical spine stability in single- and multilevel conditions. PMID

  8. Mine stability evaluation of panel 1 during waste emplacement operations at WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Maleki, H.

    1998-07-01

    The specific objectives of the work were defined by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) as follows: (1) assess the stability of panel 1 during the proposed operation of waste emplacement; (2) estimate the amount of time before room closure would be expected to transfer rock loads to the waste packages. The work consisted of (1) an analysis of geotechnical data and a review of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans for waste emplacement in panel 1, (2) an evaluation of ground conditions based on data analysis and observations of changes in ground conditions since the first evaluation in 1993 (USBM 1993), and (3) preparation of a report and presentation of the results to EEG staff. Excluded from this study are radiological safety issues and policies. The study is based on data provided by DOE and Westinghouse Electric Corporation (operator of the site) and conversations with DOE and Westinghouse personnel. MTI cannot independently verify the accuracy of the data within the scope of this study and recommends independent evaluations of data gathering, quality assurance procedures, and structural designs. The operator has the ultimate responsibility for structural designs and has expressed a strong commitment to ensuring worker safety.

  9. Evaluation of solidification/stabilization technology for Buffalo River sediment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, E.C.; Averett, D.E.; Channell, M.G.; Perry, B.D.

    1991-05-01

    The Buffalo River drains a 446-square-mile (1,155-sq-km) watershed in western New York State and discharges into Lake Erie at the city of Buffalo. The Buffalo River has been classified by the State of New York as a fishing and fish survival stream, but municipal and industrial discharges have degraded the water quality and resulted in a fish advisory for the river. Under the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediment Program, the US Environmental Protection Agency asked the US Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate solidification/stabilization (S/S) for potential treatment of the contaminated sediments in the Buffalo River. An evaluation of S/S technology was conducted on the bench-scale level on Buffalo River sediment to determine whether physical and chemical properties of the sediment would be improved. Based on analyses of the untreated sediment, five metals were selected for evaluation: chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc. Initial screening tests (ISTs) were conducted on the sediments to narrow the range of binder-to-soil ratios (BSRs) to be prepared in the detailed evaluation.

  10. WISC-R stability and re-evaluation of learning-disabled students.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P L; Cronin, M E; Kazmierski, S

    1989-11-01

    This study investigated the temporal stability of WISC-R IQ scores for learning-disabled subjects (N = 113). All study subjects were administered the WISC-R for an initial evaluation (M age = 8 years, 3 months) and a follow-up re-evaluation (M age = 11 years, 7 months). Pearson product-moment correlations yielded coefficients that were considerably lower than those previously reported: r = .55, p less than .001 for the Verbal IQs; r = .63, p less than .001 for the Performance IQs; and r = .58, p less than .001 for the Full Scale IQs. Results of t-test analyses indicated that only the Verbal IQ scores were significantly different when the initial evaluation (M = 89.4) was compared to the re-evaluation (M = 85.3), p less than .001. The results suggest that the WISC-R may be less stable for the learning-disabled population than for other groups and that the average 3-year test-retest time lapse was an influential factor in the reduced reliability of this instrument.

  11. A matter of quantum voltages.

    PubMed

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. The variation of voltages in matter can be measured by experiment, however, modern supercomputers allow the calculation of accurate quantum voltages with spatial resolutions of bulk systems well beyond what can currently be measured provided a sufficient level of theory is employed. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (V(o))--the spatial average of these quantum voltages referenced to the vacuum. Here we establish a protocol to reliably evaluate V(o) from quantum calculations. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of V(o) for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Certain aspects in this regard are highlighted making use of simple model systems/approximations. Furthermore, we predict V(o) as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms. PMID:25399199

  12. A matter of quantum voltages.

    PubMed

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. The variation of voltages in matter can be measured by experiment, however, modern supercomputers allow the calculation of accurate quantum voltages with spatial resolutions of bulk systems well beyond what can currently be measured provided a sufficient level of theory is employed. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (V(o))--the spatial average of these quantum voltages referenced to the vacuum. Here we establish a protocol to reliably evaluate V(o) from quantum calculations. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of V(o) for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Certain aspects in this regard are highlighted making use of simple model systems/approximations. Furthermore, we predict V(o) as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms.

  13. A matter of quantum voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M.

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. The variation of voltages in matter can be measured by experiment, however, modern supercomputers allow the calculation of accurate quantum voltages with spatial resolutions of bulk systems well beyond what can currently be measured provided a sufficient level of theory is employed. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (V{sub o}) – the spatial average of these quantum voltages referenced to the vacuum. Here we establish a protocol to reliably evaluate V{sub o} from quantum calculations. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of V{sub o} for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Certain aspects in this regard are highlighted making use of simple model systems/approximations. Furthermore, we predict V{sub o} as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms.

  14. Investigations on the low voltage cathodoluminescence stability and surface chemical behaviour using Auger and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on LiSrBO{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphor

    SciTech Connect

    Pitale, Shreyas S.; Nagpure, I.M.; Kumar, Vinay; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M.; Terblans, J.J.; Swart, H.C.

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Stable orange-red cathodoluminescence observed from LiSrBO{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphor. {yields} In situ Auger electron spectroscopy, while monitoring the CL output reduction, reveals surface concentration modification of Li, Sr, B and O atoms. {yields} X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the formation of SrO{sub 2} layer due to the electron stimulated surface chemical reactions (ESSCRs). This layer is possibly contributing to the surface chemical stability and prevents further degradation. -- Abstract: Orange-red emissive LiSrBO{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized through the solid-state reaction method. Under UV radiation (221 nm) and low-voltage electron beam (2 keV, 12 mA/cm{sup 2}) excitation, the Sm{sup 3+} doped LiSrBO{sub 3} phosphor shows emission corresponding to the characteristic {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}-{sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transitions of Sm{sup 3+} with the strongest emission at 601 nm. A high stability of cathodoluminescence (CL) emission during prolong electron bombardment with low-energy electrons was observed. Surface sensitive diagnostic tools such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study the surface chemistry. AES results revealed modifications in the surface concentrations of Li, Sr, B, O and C on the surface of the LiSrBO{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphor as indicated by the changes in their Auger peak to peak heights (APPH) as a function of electron dose. Observed changes in the high resolution XPS spectra of the LiSrBO{sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+} surface irradiated with the low energy electron beam provide evidence of compositional and structural changes as a result of the electron beam stimulated surface chemical reactions (ESSCRs). Additional SrO{sub 2} was identified by XPS on the phosphor surface after it received an electron dose of 300 C/cm{sup 2} together with the increase in the concentrations of chemical species containing the B-C-O bonding. The new surface chemical

  15. Evaluation of Antioxidant Stability of Arbutin and Pyrus boissieriana Buhse Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Khalilpour, Asieh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Asgharpour, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    With regard to the importance of antioxidants in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutics, there are several studies on natural resources for finding rich sources of antioxidants and their role in protecting the body against oxidative stress injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant stability of arbutin and the Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract and their effects on lipid oxidation in different conditions of temperature and time. Arbutin and the Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract were stored for 14 days in the different conditions of temperature including room, refrigerator and freezer. Total phenolic compounds were measured by the folin-ciocaltea method. Flavonoid compounds were evaluated by aluminum chloride method. Their total antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) method and their protection effect on lipid oxidation was measured by TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactant substances) method. Also, the amount of sustainability for peroxide activities was measured by TMB (Tetra Methyl Benzedrine) method. Polyphenol formed 1.96 mg/g dry weight of Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract and the amount of flavonoid complex was 0.125 mg/g dry weight of Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract. The amount of FRAP was decreased by increasing temperature and time. The amount of lipid oxidation had increased in all samples with time (0-14). The stability of peroxide activities decreased in the different conditions of temperature and time. The results of this study show the existence of antioxidant activities with higher stability in storage time and the protective effect of arbutin and Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract on lipid oxidation. Therefore, using arbutin and Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract as a natural resource of antioxidant is suggested for substituting synthetic antioxidants. PMID:24551796

  16. Evaluation of Antioxidant Stability of Arbutin and Pyrus boissieriana Buhse Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Khalilpour, Asieh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Asgharpour, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    With regard to the importance of antioxidants in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutics, there are several studies on natural resources for finding rich sources of antioxidants and their role in protecting the body against oxidative stress injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant stability of arbutin and the Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract and their effects on lipid oxidation in different conditions of temperature and time. Arbutin and the Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract were stored for 14 days in the different conditions of temperature including room, refrigerator and freezer. Total phenolic compounds were measured by the folin-ciocaltea method. Flavonoid compounds were evaluated by aluminum chloride method. Their total antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) method and their protection effect on lipid oxidation was measured by TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactant substances) method. Also, the amount of sustainability for peroxide activities was measured by TMB (Tetra Methyl Benzedrine) method. Polyphenol formed 1.96 mg/g dry weight of Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract and the amount of flavonoid complex was 0.125 mg/g dry weight of Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract. The amount of FRAP was decreased by increasing temperature and time. The amount of lipid oxidation had increased in all samples with time (0-14). The stability of peroxide activities decreased in the different conditions of temperature and time. The results of this study show the existence of antioxidant activities with higher stability in storage time and the protective effect of arbutin and Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract on lipid oxidation. Therefore, using arbutin and Pyrus boissieriana buhse Leaf extract as a natural resource of antioxidant is suggested for substituting synthetic antioxidants.

  17. Evaluation of etanercept stability as exposed to various sugars with biophysical assessment.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dae Gon; Kim, Nam Ah; Lim, Jun Yeul; Kim, Ki Hyun; Hada, Shavron; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2014-12-10

    Even though sugars have been used widely as additives for protein formulations, their exact mechanisms of protein stabilization and applicability remain still in need of investigation. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various sugars on the biophysical stability of etanercept (Enbrel(®)). Six well known sugars including glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, trehalose, and raffinose were incorporated into the protein solution with different concentrations. The samples were analyzed with dynamic light scattering (DLS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism (CD), and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The DLS measurement showed that as the number of simple sugars and solution concentration increased, the hydrodynamic size increased with a decreasing absolute zeta potential. The DSC result provided consistent trends with the DLS data. As the concentration of sugar increased, the protein transition temperature (T(m)) was gradually increased in most of samples. In addition, a non-enzymatic browning reaction (NEB) was observed during heating of the sugar solution. To monitor the storage stability, sample solutions were stored at 4 and 40 °C. At 4 °C, the ratio of monomer, aggregate, and fragment were not significantly changed. However, fragmentation of etanercept was observed in accelerated storage. In addition, fructose and maltose showed a peak shift in the SEC result. Those results suggest that the reducing ability of sugar might be a reason for the different etanercept degradation pathways. Therefore, sugars need to be carefully considered to achieve the maximum efficiency of therapeutic proteins for the development of protein formulations.

  18. Evaluation of etanercept stability as exposed to various sugars with biophysical assessment.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dae Gon; Kim, Nam Ah; Lim, Jun Yeul; Kim, Ki Hyun; Hada, Shavron; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2014-12-10

    Even though sugars have been used widely as additives for protein formulations, their exact mechanisms of protein stabilization and applicability remain still in need of investigation. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various sugars on the biophysical stability of etanercept (Enbrel(®)). Six well known sugars including glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, trehalose, and raffinose were incorporated into the protein solution with different concentrations. The samples were analyzed with dynamic light scattering (DLS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism (CD), and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The DLS measurement showed that as the number of simple sugars and solution concentration increased, the hydrodynamic size increased with a decreasing absolute zeta potential. The DSC result provided consistent trends with the DLS data. As the concentration of sugar increased, the protein transition temperature (T(m)) was gradually increased in most of samples. In addition, a non-enzymatic browning reaction (NEB) was observed during heating of the sugar solution. To monitor the storage stability, sample solutions were stored at 4 and 40 °C. At 4 °C, the ratio of monomer, aggregate, and fragment were not significantly changed. However, fragmentation of etanercept was observed in accelerated storage. In addition, fructose and maltose showed a peak shift in the SEC result. Those results suggest that the reducing ability of sugar might be a reason for the different etanercept degradation pathways. Therefore, sugars need to be carefully considered to achieve the maximum efficiency of therapeutic proteins for the development of protein formulations. PMID:25269011

  19. Using in-process measurements of open-gate structures to evaluate threshold voltage of normally-off GaN-based high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Bin; Ma, Xiao-Hua E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn; Chen, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Jie-Jie; Xie, Yong; Zhao, Sheng-Lei; Chen, Yong-He; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Hao, Yue E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn

    2015-10-19

    The parameters of open-gate structures treated with different etching time were monitored during the gate recess process, and their impacts on the threshold voltage (V{sub th}) of final fabricated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on open-gate structures were discussed in this paper. It is found that V{sub th} can exceed 0 V when channel resistance in the recessed region (R{sub on-open}) increases over ∼275 Ω mm, maximum current (I{sub Dmax}) decreases below ∼29 mA/mm, or recessed barrier thickness (t{sub RB}) is below ∼7.5 nm. In addition, t{sub RB} obtained by atomic force microscopy measurements and C-V measurements are also compared. Finally, theoretical common criteria based on the experimental results of this work for t{sub RB} and R{sub on-open} were established to evaluate the V{sub th} of a regular normally-off AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. The results indicate that these parameters of open-gate structure can be utilized to achieve normally-off HEMTs with controllable V{sub th}.

  20. Unique correlation between non-linear distortion of tangential magnetic field and magnetic excitation voltage - Unexplored ferromagnetic phenomena and their application for ferromagnetic materials evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, V.

    2016-01-01

    Unexplored ferromagnetic phenomena of non-linear distortion of tangential magnetic field (HT) and that of excitation voltage (VE) across the electromagnetic (EM) yoke, in the presence of a ferromagnetic material between the poles of the EM yoke, have been uniquely correlated in this study. Both the HT and VE show similar distortion behaviour, but in the opposite direction, with unique shape for each ferromagnetic sample with different microstructural conditions. Interestingly unique correlation between (dVE / dt) and (dHT / dt) profiles and their ability to distinguish different magnetisation behaviour of ferromagnetic material with different microstructures have also been discussed in this study. One to one correlation between the distortion of HT and VE shown in this study is clear evidence that both these parameters are strongly influenced by the same mechanism of magnetisation process, but in different ways. The systematic changes in the height and position of the peak and the trough on the time derivative profiles of VE and HT reflect the subtle differences in the magnetisation process for each microstructural condition of the steel. This study reveals the new scientific insight and good potential of this novel as well as very simple approach of distortion analysis of HT and VE for understanding the influence of material properties on the mechanism of magnetisation process and also their suitability for variety of applications related to materials evaluation of ferromagnetic components and structures.

  1. Evaluation of different amendments to stabilize antimony in mining polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ayuso, E; Otones, V; Murciego, A; García-Sánchez, A

    2013-02-01

    Soil pollution with antimony is of increasing environmental concern worldwide. Measures for its control and to attenuate the risks posed to the ecosystem are required. In this study the application of several iron and aluminium oxides and oxyhydroxides as soil amendments was evaluated in order to assess their feasibility to stabilize Sb in mining polluted soils. Mine soils with different pollution levels were amended with either goethite, ferrihydrite or amorphous Al oxide at various ratios (0-10%). The effectiveness of such treatments was assessed by both batch and column leaching tests. The use of ferrihydrite or amorphous Al oxide proved to be highly effective to stabilize Sb. Immobilization levels of 100% were found when doses of 5% ferrihydrite or 10% amorphous Al oxide were applied, regardless of the soil Sb load. Column leaching studies also showed a high Sb leaching reduction (>75%) when soils were amended with 1% ferrihydrite or 5% amorphous Al oxide. Moreover, such treatments proved to simultaneously immobilize As and Pb in a great extent when soils were also polluted with such toxic elements.

  2. Soft Tissue Stability around Single Implants Inserted to Replace Maxillary Lateral Incisors: A 3D Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, F. G.; Picciocchi, G.; Park, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the soft tissue stability around single implants inserted to replace maxillary lateral incisors, using an innovative 3D method. Methods. We have used reverse-engineering software for the superimposition of 3D surface models of the dentogingival structures, obtained from intraoral scans of the same patients taken at the delivery of the final crown (S1) and 2 years later (S2). The assessment of soft tissues changes was performed via calculation of the Euclidean surface distances between the 3D models, after the superimposition of S2 on S1; colour maps were used for quantification of changes. Results. Twenty patients (8 males, 12 females) were selected, 10 with a failing/nonrestorable lateral incisor (test group: immediate placement in postextraction socket) and 10 with a missing lateral incisor (control group: conventional placement in healed ridge). Each patient received one immediately loaded implant (Anyridge®, Megagen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea). The superimposition of the 3D surface models taken at different times (S2 over S1) revealed a mean (±SD) reduction of 0.057 mm (±0.025) and 0.037 mm (±0.020) for test and control patients, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.069). Conclusions. The superimposition of the 3D surface models revealed an excellent peri-implant soft tissue stability in both groups of patients, with minimal changes registered along time. PMID:27298621

  3. Stability and biological activity evaluations of PEGylated human basic fibroblast growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Hadadian, Shahin; Shamassebi, Dariush Norouzian; Mirzahoseini, Hasan; Shokrgozar, Mohamad Ali; Bouzari, Saeid; Sepahi, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human basic fibroblast growth factor (hBFGF) is a heparin-binding growth factor and stimulates the proliferation of a wide variety of cells and tissues causing survival properties and its stability and biological activity improvements have received much attention. Materials and Methods: In the present work, hBFGF produced by engineered Escherichia coli and purified by cation exchange and heparin affinity chromatography, was PEGylated under appropriate condition employing 10 kD polyethylene glycol. The PEGylated form was separated by size exclusion chromatography. Structural, biological activity, and stability evaluations were performed using Fourier transform infrared (FITR) spectroscopy, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and effect denaturing agent, respectively. Results: FITR spectroscopy revealed that both PEGylated and native forms had the same structures. MTT assay showed that PEGyalated form had a 30% reduced biological activity. Fluorescence spectrophotometry indicated that the PEGylated form denatured at higher concentrations of guanidine HCl (1.2 M) compared with native, which denatured at 0.8 M guanidine HCl. Conclusions: PEGylation of hBFGF makes it more stable against denaturing agent but reduces its bioactivity up to 30%. PMID:26605215

  4. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  5. Evaluation of Mungbean Genotypes Based on Yield Stability and Reaction to Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alam, AKM Mahbubul; Somta, Prakit; Jompuk, Choosak; Chatwachirawong, Prasert; Srinives, Peerasak

    2014-01-01

    This work was conducted to identify mungbean genotypes showing yield stability and resistance to mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) disease. Sixteen genotypes were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with two replications for two years (2011 and 2012) at three locations (Gazipur, Ishurdi and Madaripur) of the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute. An analysis of variance exhibited significant effects of genotype (G), environment (E), and genotype × environment (G×E) on grain yield. Among eight agronomic characters, the principal component 1 (PC1) was always higher than the PC2. Considering G×E interaction, BM6 was the best genotype at all three locations in both years. Based on grain yield and stability performance, BM6 ranked first while the worst performing genotypes were BM1 and G10. Based on discrimination and representation, Gazipur was identified as an ideal environment for these mungbeans. Relationship between soil-plant analysis developments (SPAD) value was positive with yield but negative with MYMV severity. BM6, G1 and G2 were considered as promising sources of resistance for low disease score and stable response across the environments. The environment proved to have an influence on MYMV infection under natural infestation. A positive correlation was observed between disease score and the temperature under natural growing condition. PMID:25289012

  6. Soft Tissue Stability around Single Implants Inserted to Replace Maxillary Lateral Incisors: A 3D Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mangano, F G; Luongo, F; Picciocchi, G; Mortellaro, C; Park, K B; Mangano, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the soft tissue stability around single implants inserted to replace maxillary lateral incisors, using an innovative 3D method. Methods. We have used reverse-engineering software for the superimposition of 3D surface models of the dentogingival structures, obtained from intraoral scans of the same patients taken at the delivery of the final crown (S1) and 2 years later (S2). The assessment of soft tissues changes was performed via calculation of the Euclidean surface distances between the 3D models, after the superimposition of S2 on S1; colour maps were used for quantification of changes. Results. Twenty patients (8 males, 12 females) were selected, 10 with a failing/nonrestorable lateral incisor (test group: immediate placement in postextraction socket) and 10 with a missing lateral incisor (control group: conventional placement in healed ridge). Each patient received one immediately loaded implant (Anyridge®, Megagen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea). The superimposition of the 3D surface models taken at different times (S2 over S1) revealed a mean (±SD) reduction of 0.057 mm (±0.025) and 0.037 mm (±0.020) for test and control patients, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.069). Conclusions. The superimposition of the 3D surface models revealed an excellent peri-implant soft tissue stability in both groups of patients, with minimal changes registered along time. PMID:27298621

  7. Potential of ultrasonic pulse velocity for evaluating the dimensional stability of oak and chestnut wood.

    PubMed

    Dündar, Türker; Wang, Xiping; As, Nusret; Avcı, Erkan

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of ultrasonic velocity as a rapid and nondestructive method to predict the dimensional stability of oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein) and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) that are commonly used in flooring industry. Ultrasonic velocity, specific gravity, and radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkages were measured on seventy-four 20×20×30-mm(3) specimens obtained from freshly cut oak and chestnut stems. The ultrasonic velocities of the specimens decreased with increasing moisture content (MC). We found that specific gravity was not a good predictor of the transverse shrinkages as indicated by relatively weak correlations. Ultrasonic velocity, on the other hand, was found to be a significant predictor of the transverse shrinkages for both oak and chestnut. The best results for prediction of shrinkages of oak and chestnut were obtained when the ultrasonic velocity and specific gravity were used together. The multiple regression models we developed in this study explained 77% of volumetric shrinkages in oak and 72% of volumetric shrinkages in chestnut. It is concluded that ultrasonic velocity coupled with specific gravity can be employed as predicting parameters to evaluate the dimensional stability of oak and chestnut wood during manufacturing process.

  8. Landslides and slope stability evaluation in the historical town of Kruja, Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muceku, Y.; Korini, O.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the landslides and slope stability evaluation in the urban area of Kruja town, Albania. Kruja is a~historical and heritage center, due to the existence of many important cultural monuments including Skanderbeg castle and Bazaar square etc. The urban area of Kruja town has been affected from the Landslides effects, in the past and also present. From this phenomenon many engineering objects such as buildings, roads etc. are damaged and demolished. From the engineering geological mapping at scale 1 : 5000 it is observed that many active landslides have dramatically increased in activity after 1980s. The landslide types found in the studied area are earth slides, debris flow, as well as rock fall and rock rolling. Also, from field works and laboratory analysis, the slope stability of whole urban areas has been determined; for this purpose the studied zone is divided into the stable and unstable areas, which helps to better understand the mass movement's activity as one of the most harmful hazards of the geodynamics' phenomena.

  9. Landslide and slope stability evaluation in the historical town of Kruja, Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muceku, Y.; Korini, O.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes landslides and slope stability evaluation in the urban area of Kruja, Albania. Kruja is a historical and heritage center, due to the existence of many important cultural monuments, including "Skanderbeg" castle and Bazaar square, etc. The urban area of Kruja has been affected by landslide effects, in the past and also the present. From this phenomenon many engineering objects such as buildings, roads, etc., are damaged and demolished. From engineering geological mapping at scale 1:5000 it is observed that many active landslides have dramatically increased in activity since the 1980s. The landslide types found in the studied area are earthslides, debris flow, as well as rockfall and rock rolling. Also, from field works and laboratory analysis, the slope stability of the whole urban area has been determined; for this purpose the studied zone is divided into stable and unstable areas, which helps to better understand mass movement activity as one of the most harmful hazards of geodynamic phenomena.

  10. Seedling development and evaluation of genetic stability of cryopreserved Dendrobium hybrid mature seeds.

    PubMed

    Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; de Faria, Ricardo Tadeu; Vendrame, Wagner Aparecido

    2014-03-01

    Vitrification, a simple, fast, and recommended cryopreservation method for orchid germplasm conservation, was evaluated for Dendrobium hybrid "Dong Yai" mature seeds. The genetic stability of regenerated seedlings was also evaluated using flow cytometry. Mature seeds from this hybrid were submitted to plant vitrification solution (PVS2) for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 h at 0 °C. Subsequently, they were plunged into liquid nitrogen (LN) at -196 °C for 1 h and recovered in half-strength Murashige and Skoog culture medium (1/2 MS), and seed germination was evaluated after 30 days. Seeds directly submitted to LN did not germinate after cryopreservation. Seeds treated with PVS2 between 1 and 3 h presented the best germination (between 51 and 58%), although longer exposure to PVS2 returned moderated germination (39%). Germinated seeds were further subcultured in P-723 culture medium and developed whole seedlings in vitro after 180 days, with no abnormal characteristics, diseases, or nutritional deficiencies. Seedlings were successfully acclimatized under greenhouse conditions with over 80% survival. Flow cytometry analysis revealed no chromosomal changes on vitrified seedlings, as well as seedlings germinated from the control treatment (direct exposure to LN). These findings indicate that vitrification is a feasible and safe germplasm cryopreservation method for commercial Dendrobium orchid hybrid conservation.

  11. Evaluation of the stability and antimicrobial activity of an ethanolic extract of Libidibia ferrea

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Marreiro, Raquel; Bandeira, Maria Fulgência Costa Lima; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; de Almeida, Mailza Costa; Bendaham, Katiana; Venâncio, Gisely Naura; Rodrigues, Isis Costa; Coelho, Cristiane Nagai; Milério, Patrícia Sâmea Lêdo Lima; de Oliveira, Glauber Palma; de Oliveira Conde, Nikeila Chacon

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm is a dense, whitish, noncalcified aggregate of bacteria, with desquamated epithelial cells and food debris creating conditions for an imbalance of resident oral microflora and favoring the destruction of hard and soft tissues by development of caries and gingivitis. The aim of this study was to obtain and characterize an extract of Libidibia ferrea, ex Caesalpinia ferrea L. and to evaluate its feasibility for formulation as a mouthwash, according to current legislation. For this purpose, pH, sedimentation, density, and stability were evaluated, along with microbiological testing of the extract. The microbiological test was used to verify the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, fungi, yeasts, coliforms, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis strains. Characterization, microbiological evaluation, and minimum inhibitory concentration results were tabulated and described using descriptive statistics. The L. ferrea extract showed stable characteristics, product quality, and antibacterial activity against the microorganisms tested irrespective of experimental time intervals. According to these results, it can be concluded that formulation of a mouthwash containing L. ferrea extract to control biofilm is feasible, but further studies are needed. PMID:24501546

  12. Knee stability before and after total and unicondylar knee replacement: in vivo kinematic evaluation utilizing navigation.

    PubMed

    Casino, Daniela; Martelli, Sandra; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Lopomo, Nicola; Iacono, Francesco; Bignozzi, Simone; Visani, Andrea; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2009-02-01

    Surgical navigation systems are currently used to guide the surgeon in the correct alignment of the implant. The aim of this study was to expand the use of navigation systems by proposing a surgical protocol for intraoperative kinematics evaluations during knee arthroplasty. The protocol was evaluated on 20 patients, half undergoing unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) and half undergoing posterior-substituting, rotating-platform total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The protocol includes a simple acquisition procedure and an original elaboration methodology. Kinematic tests were performed before and after surgery and included varus/valgus stress at 0 and 30 degrees and passive range of motion. Both UKA and TKA improved varus/valgus stability in extension and preserved the total magnitude of screw-home motion during flexion. Moreover, compared to preoperative conditions, values assumed by tibial axial rotation during flexion in TKA knees were more similar to the rotating patterns of UKA knees. The analysis of the anteroposterior displacement of the knee compartments confirmed that the two prostheses did not produce medial pivoting, but achieved a postoperative normal behavior. These results demonstrated that proposed intraoperative kinematics evaluations by a navigation system provided new information on the functional outcome of the reconstruction useful to restore knee kinematics during surgery.

  13. Evaluation of the Lifetime and Thermal Conductivity of Dysprosia-Stabilized Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Nicholas; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Östergren, Lars; Li, Xin-Hai; Dorfman, Mitch

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was the further development of dysprosia-stabilized zirconia coatings for gas turbine applications. The target for these coatings was a longer lifetime and higher insulating performance compared to today's industrial standard thermal barrier coating. Two morphologies of ceramic top coat were studied: one using a dual-layer system and the second using a polymer to generate porosity. Evaluations were carried out using a laser flash technique to measure thermal properties. Lifetime testing was conducted using thermo-cyclic fatigue testing. Microstructure was assessed with SEM and Image analysis was used to characterize porosity content. The results show that coatings with an engineered microstructure give performance twice that of the present reference coating.

  14. Evaluating and predicting the oxidative stability of vegetable oils with different fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Fan, Ya-wei; Li, Jing; Tang, Liang; Hu, Jiang-ning; Deng, Ze-yuan

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the oxidative stabilities and qualities of different vegetable oils (almond, blend 1-8, camellia, corn, palm, peanut, rapeseed, sesame, soybean, sunflower, and zanthoxylum oil) based on peroxide value (PV), vitamin E content, free fatty acid, and fatty acid composition. The vegetable oils with different initial fatty acid compositions were studied under accelerated oxidation condition. It showed that PV and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) changed significantly during 21 d accelerated oxidation storage. Based on the changes of PV and fatty acid composition during the oxidation process, mathematical models were hypothesized and the models were simulated by Matlab to generate the proposed equations. These equations were established on the basis of the different PUFA contents as 10% to 28%, 28% to 46%, and 46% to 64%, respectively. The simulated models were proven to be validated and valuable for assessing the degree of oxidation and predicting the shelf life of vegetable oils.

  15. Nondestructive evaluation of orthopaedic implant stability in THA using highly nonlinear solitary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinkyu; Silvestro, Claudio; Sangiorgio, Sophia N.; Borkowski, Sean L.; Ebramzadeh, Edward; De Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new biomedical sensing technique based on highly nonlinear solitary waves to assess orthopaedic implant stability in a nondestructive and efficient manner. We assemble a granular crystal actuator consisting of a one-dimensional tightly packed array of spherical particles, to generate acoustic solitary waves. Via direct contact with the specimen, we inject acoustic solitary waves into a biomedical prosthesis, and we nondestructively evaluate the mechanical integrity of the bone-prosthesis interface, studying the properties of the waves reflected from the contact zone between the granular crystal and the implant. The granular crystal contains a piezoelectric sensor to measure the travelling solitary waves, which allows it to function also as a sensor. We perform a feasibility study using total hip arthroplasty (THA) samples made of metallic stems implanted in artificial composite femurs using polymethylmethacrylate for fixation. We first evaluate the sensitivity of the proposed granular crystal sensor to various levels of prosthesis insertion into the composite femur. Then, we impose a sequence of harsh mechanical loading on the THA samples to degrade the mechanical integrity at the stem-cement interfaces, using a femoral load simulator that simulates aggressive, accelerated physiological loading. We investigate the implant stability via the granular crystal sensor-actuator during testing. Preliminary results suggest that the reflected waves respond sensitively to the degree of implant fixation. In particular, the granular crystal sensor-actuator successfully detects implant loosening at the stem-cement interface following violent cyclic loading. This study suggests that the granular crystal sensor and actuator has the potential to detect metal-cement defects in a nondestructive manner for orthopaedic applications.

  16. Evaluation of the stability of a nanoremediation strategy using barley plants.

    PubMed

    Gil-Díaz, M; González, A; Alonso, J; Lobo, M C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of nZVI in reducing the availability of Cd, Cr or Zn in polluted soils. The influence of this nanoremediation process on the development of barley plants as well as its impact on soil properties and the stability of the metal immobilization afterwards were also evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The application of nZVI reduced the availability of these metals in the soil, but the effectiveness of the immobilization and its stability depended on the metal chemical characteristics. Cadmium distribution in soil fractions showed an important change after the barley crop, favoring the immobilization of Cd in RS fraction for both nZVI-treated and untreated soils. The Cr immobilization was stable over the time studied and the doses of Cr were lethal for the barley plants. In contrast, the decrease of Cr availability reached after the nZVI treatment induced a reduction of soil phytotoxicity and an improvement in the development of the plants, which were able to complete their growing period. The Zn immobilization with nZVI was stable over time, but its effectiveness was moderate, and the growth of barley plants was poorer than that observed in the cases of Cd and Cr. Thus the best results of metal immobilization with nZVI were obtained for Cr-polluted soils. There was no overall increase of Fe in barley plants from nZVI-treated soils. In relation to the soil, no negative effects on its physico-chemical properties were observed after the time exposure with nZVI. Taking into account these results we can conclude that the use of nZVI is a promising remediation strategy, and its effectiveness would be conditioned to the soil properties and the bioavailable metal concentration. PMID:26431642

  17. Spectroscopic evaluation of a freeze-dried vaccine during an accelerated stability study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Laurent; Van Renterghem, Jeroen; Daoussi, Rim; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    This research evaluates a freeze-dried live, attenuated virus vaccine during an accelerated stability study using Near Infrared (NIR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in addition to the traditional quality tests (i.e., potency assay and residual moisture analysis) and Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC). Therefore, freeze-dried live, attenuated virus vaccines were stored during four weeks at 4°C (i.e., recommended storage condition) and at 37°C (i.e., accelerated storage condition) and weekly analyzed using these techniques. The potency assay showed that the virus titer decreased in two phases when the samples were stored at 37°C. The highest titer loss occurred during the first week storage at 37°C after which the degradation rate decreased. Both the residual moisture content and the relaxation enthalpy also increased according to this two-phase pattern during storage at 37°C. In order to evaluate the virus and its interaction with the amorphous stabilizer in the formulation (trehalose), the NIR spectra were analyzed via principal component analysis (PCA) using the amide A/II band (5029-4690cm(-1)). The FTIR spectra were also analyzed via PCA using the amide III spectral range (1350-1200cm(-1)). Analysis of the amide A/II band in the NIR spectra revealed that the titer decrease during storage was probably linked to a change of the hydrogen bonds (i.e., interaction) between the virus proteins and the amorphous trehalose. Analyzing the amide III band (FTIR spectra) showed that the virus destabilization was coupled to a decrease of the coated proteins β turn and an increase of α helix. During storage at 4°C, the titer remained constant, no enthalpic relaxation was observed and neither the Amide A/II band (NIR spectra) nor the Amide III band (FTIR spectra) varied. PMID:27102305

  18. Evaluation of the stability of a nanoremediation strategy using barley plants.

    PubMed

    Gil-Díaz, M; González, A; Alonso, J; Lobo, M C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of nZVI in reducing the availability of Cd, Cr or Zn in polluted soils. The influence of this nanoremediation process on the development of barley plants as well as its impact on soil properties and the stability of the metal immobilization afterwards were also evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The application of nZVI reduced the availability of these metals in the soil, but the effectiveness of the immobilization and its stability depended on the metal chemical characteristics. Cadmium distribution in soil fractions showed an important change after the barley crop, favoring the immobilization of Cd in RS fraction for both nZVI-treated and untreated soils. The Cr immobilization was stable over the time studied and the doses of Cr were lethal for the barley plants. In contrast, the decrease of Cr availability reached after the nZVI treatment induced a reduction of soil phytotoxicity and an improvement in the development of the plants, which were able to complete their growing period. The Zn immobilization with nZVI was stable over time, but its effectiveness was moderate, and the growth of barley plants was poorer than that observed in the cases of Cd and Cr. Thus the best results of metal immobilization with nZVI were obtained for Cr-polluted soils. There was no overall increase of Fe in barley plants from nZVI-treated soils. In relation to the soil, no negative effects on its physico-chemical properties were observed after the time exposure with nZVI. Taking into account these results we can conclude that the use of nZVI is a promising remediation strategy, and its effectiveness would be conditioned to the soil properties and the bioavailable metal concentration.

  19. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  20. Stable voltage source for Penning trap experiments.

    PubMed

    Pinegar, David B; Blaum, Klaus; Biesiadzinski, Tomasz P; Zafonte, Steven L; Van Dyck, Robert S

    2009-06-01

    A voltage reference has been developed to bias ring electrodes of two Penning traps between -90 and 0 V. For output voltages near -90 V, the Allan deviation of the system's voltage instability is less than 1 part in 10(8) over all time scales shorter than 10(4) s. For averaging times longer than several seconds, the system's stability is determined almost completely by the noise, drift, and aging of the zener diodes in the array of voltage reference integrated circuits. For shorter averaging times, active filters built into the new system significantly reduce the intrinsic noise of the zener diodes. The system makes it possible to continuously adjust the ring voltages for frequency locking the axial motion in the two Penning traps. By keeping electrical noise highly correlated between the two traps, measurement uncertainty should be reduced for precision experiments such as Penning trap mass spectrometry.

  1. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    DOEpatents

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  2. Stability evaluation of a rocket engine for gaseous oxygen difluoride (OF2) and gaseous diborane (B2H6) propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    Results of an experimental evaluation of the dynamic stability of a candidate combustor for the space storable propellants gaseous OF2/B2H6 show that the combustor is unstable without supplementary damping. A computer analysis indicated that the uninhibited engine could be unstable. The experiments, conducted with O2/C2H4 substitute propellants and with 70-30 FLOX/B2H6 (OF2 simulated with FLOX), show that the uninhibited combustor has a low stability margin to starting transient perturbations, but that is relatively insensitive to bomb disturbances. Damping cavities are shown to provide stability.

  3. High Voltage SPT Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Jacobson, David; Jankovsky, Robert

    2001-01-01

    A 2.3 kW stationary plasma thruster designed to operate at high voltage was tested at discharge voltages between 300 and 1250 V. Discharge specific impulses between 1600 and 3700 sec were demonstrated with thrust between 40 and 145 mN. Test data indicated that discharge voltage can be optimized for maximum discharge efficiency. The optimum discharge voltage was between 500 and 700 V for the various anode mass flow rates considered. The effect of operating voltage on optimal magnet field strength was investigated. The effect of cathode flow rate on thruster efficiency was considered for an 800 V discharge.

  4. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies.

    PubMed

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax's nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  5. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. PMID:27258290

  6. Experimental designed optimisation and stability evaluation of dry suspensions with artemisinin derivatives for paediatric use.

    PubMed

    Gabriëls, M; Plaizier-Vercammen, J

    2004-09-28

    There is a great need for oral anti-malaria preparations especially for small children, which are easy to administer and keep their stability under tropical conditions. The purpose of this work was therefore to develop a dry suspension, containing one of the artemisinin derivatives, namely artesunate, artemether and dihydroartemisinin using fast wetting suspending agents, i.e. xanthan gum and Avicel CL611. For the optimisation of these two variables, namely the suspending agent's content, a Doehlert design was applied. Via preliminary tests on sedimentation behaviour, the limits of both products were determined, respectively 0.1-0.4% (w/v) and 1.0-2.5% (w/v). As responses, sedimentation as a function of time, viscosity and price of the suspension, were evaluated. The stability tests of the reconstituted suspensions showed bad results for artesunate, even when the pH was adapted. In contrast, dihydroartemisinin showed only 10% degradation within 10 days and artemether was stable at least 21 days. Practically the last one was able to foresee a chemically and physically stable suspension at least during the administration period (5 to 7 days) and was therefore selected for further optimisation concerning taste and appearance. Based on the results of selection tests for the colourant, sweetener and taste masking agent, the following composition was proposed for a suitable dry powder with artemether (AM) as active compound to prepare 100 ml reconstituted suspension: AM 300 mg, Avicel CL611 2 g, xanthan gum 200 mg, crystalline saccharose 35 g, citric acid monohydrate 150 mg, Nipagine 80 mg, Nipasol 20 mg, sodium saccharinate 250 mg, tutti-frutti 250 mg and Sunset yellow 10 mg. PMID:15363498

  7. Bioremediation of contaminated lake sediments and evaluation of maturity indicies as indicators of compost stability.

    PubMed

    Rekha, P; Suman Raj, D S; Aparna, C; Hima Bindu, V; Anjaneyulu, Y

    2005-08-01

    Land contamination is one of the widely addressed problems, which is gaining importance in many developed and developing countries. International efforts are actively envisaged to remediate contaminated sites as a response to adverse health effects. Popular conventional methodologies only transfer the phase of the contaminant involving cost intensive liabilities besides handling risk of the hazardous waste. Physico-chemical methods are effective for specific wastes, but are technically complex and lack public acceptance for land remediation. iBioremediatio nî, is one of the emerging low-cost technologies that offer the possibility to destroy various contaminants using natural biological activities. Resultant non-toxic end products due to the microbial activity and insitu applicability of this technology is gaining huge public acceptance. In the present study, composting is demonstrated as a bioremediation methodology for the stabilization of contaminated lake sediments of Hyderabad, A.P, India. Lake sediment contaminated with organics is collected from two stratums--upper (0.25 m) and lower (0.5m) to set up as Pile I (Upper) and Pile II (Lower) in the laboratory. Lime as a pretreatment to the lake sediments is carried out to ensure metal precipitation. The pretreated sediment is then mixed with organic and inorganic fertilizers like cow dung, poultry manure, urea and super phosphate as initial seeding amendments. Bulking agents like sawdust and other micronutrients are provided. Continuous monitoring of process control parameters like pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity, total volatile solids and various forms of nitrogen were carried out during the entire course of the study. The stability of the compost was evaluated by assessing maturity indices like C/N, Cw (water soluble carbon), CNw (Cw/Nw), nitrification index (NH4/NO-3), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), germination index, humification ratio, compost mineralization index (ash content

  8. Bioremediation of Contaminated Lake Sediments and Evaluation of Maturity Indicies as Indicators of Compost Stability

    PubMed Central

    Rekha, P.; Suman Raj, D. S.; Aparna, C.; Bindu, V. Hima; Anjaneyulu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Land contamination is one of the widely addressed problems, which is gaining importance in many developed and developing countries. International efforts are actively envisaged to remediate contaminated sites as a response to adverse health effects. Popular conventional methodologies only transfer the phase of the contaminant involving cost intensive liabilities besides handling risk of the hazardous waste. Physico-chemical methods are effective for specific wastes, but are technically complex and lack public acceptance for land remediation. “Bioremediation”, is one of the emerging low-cost technologies that offer the possibility to destroy various contaminants using natural biological activities. Resultant non -toxic end products due to the microbial activity and insitu applicability of this technology is gaining huge public acceptance. In the present study, composting is demonstrated as a bioremediation methodology for the stabilization of contaminated lake sediments of Hyderabad, A.P, India. Lake sediment contaminated with organics is collected from two stratums – upper (0.25 m) and lower (0.5m) to set up as Pile I (Upper) and Pile II (Lower) in the laboratory. Lime as a pretreatment to the lake sediments is carried out to ensure metal precipitation. The pretreated sediment is then mixed with organic and inorganic fertilizers like cow dung, poultry manure, urea and super phosphate as initial seeding amendments. Bulking agents like sawdust and other micronutrients are provided. Continuous monitoring of process control parameters like pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity, total volatile solids and various forms of nitrogen were carried out during the entire course of the study. The stability of the compost was evaluated by assessing maturity indices like C/N, Cw (water soluble carbon), CNw (Cw/Nw), nitrification index (NH4/NO−3), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), germination index, humification ratio, compost mineralization index (ash content

  9. Evaluation of dimensional stability and accuracy of autoclavable polyvinyl siloxane impression material.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Subash M; Vijitha, D; Karthikeyan, S; Balasubramanian, R; Satish, A

    2013-12-01

    Dimensionally stable autoclavable impressions will be effective in controlling the cross-infection and contamination caused by patient's saliva and other oral secretions. The accuracy of newly introduced autoclavable polyvinyl siloxane impression material was assessed for its dimensional stability and accuracy. A standard metal model (Dentoform, U-501, Columbia) was customised for impression making. The impressions were made using the newly introduced polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (AFFINIS, Coltene/Whaledent AG, 9450 Alstalten, Switzerland). Fifty impressions were made and were divided into two groups A and B of 25 each. Group A was the control sample (non-autoclaved impressions) and group B was the test sample (autoclaved impressions), which was subjected to the steam autoclave procedure at 134 °C for 18 min, casts were poured in type IV gypsum products. The customised metal model, casts obtained from control and test group were subjected to laboratory evaluation with help of a travelling microscope (×10 magnification), and digital vernier calliper (0.01 mm/10 μm accuracy). Data analysis was done using one-way ANOVA and One-Sample t test to evaluate the overall accuracy (P < 0.005). As a result, there was an average reduction of 0.016 μm in overall dimension between the test and the control group when compared with the master model, which is not statistically or clinically significant. The newly introduced polyvinyl siloxane impression material is accurate and dimensional stable for clinical use when steam autoclaved at 134 °C for 18 min.

  10. Toxicological evaluation of dextran stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Easo, Sheeja Liza; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles present an attractive choice for carcinogenic cell destruction via hyperthermia treatment due to its small size and magnetic susceptibility. Dextran stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs) synthesized and characterized for this purpose were used to evaluate its effect on cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and oxidative stress response in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the absence of efficient internalization and perceptible apoptosis, DIONPs were still capable of inducing significant levels of reactive oxygen species formation shortly after exposure. Although these particles did not cause any genotoxic effect, they enhanced the expression of a few relevant oxidative stress and antioxidant defense related genes, accompanied by an increase in the glutathione peroxidase activity. These results indicate that under the tested conditions, DIONPs induced only minimal levels of oxidative stress in lymphocytes. Understanding the biological interaction of DIONPs, the consequences as well as the associated mechanisms in vitro, together with information obtained from systemic studies, could be expected to advance the use of these particles for further clinical trials. PMID:27629807

  11. Evaluation of thermal stability of indinavir sulphate using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parul; Premkumar, L; Mehrotra, Ranjana; Kandpal, H C; Bakhshi, A K

    2008-06-01

    Indinavir sulphate is a potent and specific protease inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is used for the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). At elevated temperature the drug which otherwise remains crystalline undergoes a phase transition to an amorphous phase to form degradation products. In the present study, thermal stability of indinavir sulphate is evaluated using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Infrared spectra of the drug before and after the exposure to thermal radiation at different temperatures were acquired in the diffuse reflectance mode using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were used as complimentary techniques to adequately implement and assist the interpretation of the infrared spectroscopy results. The DRIFT spectra reveal that the drug remains stable up to 100 degrees C, degrades slightly at 125 degrees C and undergoes complete degradation at about 150 degrees C to produce degradation products. The degradation products can easily be characterized using the infrared spectra.

  12. Stability evaluation of the Panel 1 rooms and the E140 drift at WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Maleki, H.; Chaturvedi, L.

    1996-08-01

    WIPP, intended for underground permanent disposal of defense transuranic waste, is located 40 km east of Carlsbad at a depth of 655 m in the salt beds of the 600-m thick Permian Salado Formation. It will consist of 56 ``rooms`` each 91.5 m long, 10 m wide, and 4 m high, grouped in 8 ``panels`` of 7 rooms each. About 7.5 km of access drifts will also be provided. Excavation began in 1982 and surface/access/test facilities and one panel were completed by 1988, many years before it could be used. Current plans are to start emplacing waste in WIPP in 1998 and continue for 35 years. The north- south drift E140 is the widest (25 ft) of the four main north-south drifts and is the main north-south passage. Plans to conduct experiments with waste in 1993 were abandoned, and the plan now is to use panel 1 for permanent disposal of waste starting in 1998. The stability evaluation resulted in the conclusion that, while it would be possible to safely use portions of panel 1 for waste emplacement, it would be best to abandon panel 1 and mine a new panel after the decision has been made to use WIPP as a repository and the necessary permits obtained.

  13. Evaluation of infectious bursal disease virus stability at different conditions of temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Rani, Surabhi; Kumar, Sachin

    2015-11-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is one of the highly pathogenic viral diseases of poultry. The disease poses a serious threat to the economy of many developing countries where agriculture serves as the primary source of national income. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the family Birnaviridae. The IBDV is well characterized to cause immunosuppression in poultry. The live attenuated vaccine is the only way to protect the chickens from IBDV infection. The ineffectiveness of vaccine is one of the major causes of IBDV outbreaks in field condition. In the present study, we discuss briefly about the biology of IBDV genome and its proteins under different conditions of temperature and pH in order to evaluate its infectivity under adverse physical conditions. Our results indicate that the IBDV is non-infective above 42 °C and unstable above 72 °C. However, the change in pH does not significantly contribute to the IBDV stability. The study will be useful in estimating an optimum storage condition for IBDV vaccines without causing any deterioration in its viability and effectiveness.

  14. Effect of alternative preservatives on the microbial quality, lipid stability and sensory evaluation of boerewors.

    PubMed

    Mathenjwa, S A; Hugo, C J; Bothma, C; Hugo, A

    2012-06-01

    Boerewors is a South African fresh sausage preserved with 450mg/kg sulphur dioxide (SO(2)). The preservative effects of rosemary (Ros; 260mg/kg) and chitosan (Chi; 10g/kg) were compared to SO(2). Eight boerewors models were formulated. Microbial, colour, lipid and sensory characteristics were evaluated. Chi and Chi in combination with other preservatives had a significant effect on reducing total bacterial, coliform and Enterobacteriaceae counts, comparable to SO(2). Chi, however, had a better effect on decreasing yeasts and mould counts than SO(2). Chi showed good colour properties comparable to SO(2). Ros showed comparable lipid stability to SO(2) but better when compared to Chi. Ros had a better effect on the sensory taste when compared to Chi, but SO(2) was still preferred. Reduced levels of 100mg/kg SO(2) showed good antimicrobial and colour effects in combination with Chi and in combination with Ros as antioxidant and improving the sensory properties. Alternative preservatives can be used to reduce the SO(2) content of boerewors.

  15. Pilot-scale evaluation of the thermal-stability POHC incinerability anking

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.; Whitworth, W.E.; Waterland, L.R.

    1992-04-01

    A test series were performed at the U.S. EPA Incineration Research Facility (IRF) to evaluate the thermal-stability-based principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) incinerability ranking. Mixtures of twelve POHCs with predicted incinerabilities spanning the range of most- to least-difficult-to-incinerate classes were combined with a clay-based sorbent matrix and fed to the facility's pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator. Kiln operating conditions were varied to include a baseline operating condition, three modes of attempted incineration failure, and a worst-case combination of the three failure modes. Kiln-exit POHC destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) were in the 99.99% range for the volatile POHCs during the baseline, mixing failure and matrix failure tests. Semivolatile POHCs were not detected at the kiln exit for these tests; corresponding DREs were generally greater than 99.999%. The thermal failure and worst-case tests resulted in substantially decreased kiln-exit POHC DREs, ranging from less than 99% to greater than 99.999%. General agreement between measured and predicted relative kiln-exit POHC DREs was observed for those two tests.

  16. Evaluation of the thermal stability POHC incinerability ranking in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.; Whitworth, W.E.; Carroll, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the thermal stability-based POHC incinerability ranking. In the tests, mixtures of 12 POHCs with predicted incinerability spanning the range of most to least difficult to incinerate class were combined with a clay-based sorbent and batch-fed to the facility's pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator via a fiberpack drum ram feeder. Kiln operating conditions were varied to include a baseline operating condition, three modes of attempted incineration failure, and a worst case combination of the three failure modes. Kiln exit POHC DREs were in the 99.99 percent range for the volatile POHCs for the baseline, mixing failure (increased charge mass), and matrix failure (decreased feed H/C) tests. Semivolatile POHCs were not detected in the kiln exit for these tests; corresponding DREs were generally greater than 99.999 percent. The thermal failure (low kiln temperature) and worst case (combination of thermal, mixing, and matrix failure) tests resulted in substantially decreased kiln exit POHC DREs. These ranged from 99 percent or less for Freon 113 to greater than 99.999 percent for the less stable-ranked semivolatile POHCs. General agreement between relative kiln exit POHC DRE and predicted incinerability class was observed.

  17. Evaluation of sunlight stability of polyurethane elastomers for maxillofacial use. I.

    PubMed

    Chu, C C; Fischer, T E

    1978-05-01

    The evaluation of the efficiency of polymer additives with special emphasis on uv absorbers and antioxidants in polyurethane elastomers has been completed. Aliphatic polyurethanes were chosen for this study because their properties closely relate to the requirements of maxillofacial prosthesis. The polyurethane elastomers were either synthesized by ourselves or formulated according to the manufacturer's recommendation. Eleven different types of uv absorbes, coupled with one antioxidant, were incorporated into the polyurethane systems. The Atlas twin-lamp carbon arc Weatherometer was used as the source of uv. The samples were periodically withdrawn for examination of yellowing and tackiness. It was found that, although the incorporation of uv stabilizers enhanced the uv resistance of polyurethanes, the problem of tackiness resulting from uv aging was not solved satisfactorily. The phenomenon of yellowing, however, was significantly improved, mainly due to the aliphatic structure of polyurethanes. The most promising uv absorbers are Tinuvin 770 and the combination of Tinuvin 328, ZnO, and an antioxidant. Their effectiveness in other polyurethane systems is not known and further research is underway to explore this field. Hopefully, these findings will greatly assist the successful application polyurethane elastomers in maxillofacial prosthesis. PMID:670257

  18. Evaluation of sunlight stability of polyurethane elastomers for maxillofacial use. I.

    PubMed

    Chu, C C; Fischer, T E

    1978-05-01

    The evaluation of the efficiency of polymer additives with special emphasis on uv absorbers and antioxidants in polyurethane elastomers has been completed. Aliphatic polyurethanes were chosen for this study because their properties closely relate to the requirements of maxillofacial prosthesis. The polyurethane elastomers were either synthesized by ourselves or formulated according to the manufacturer's recommendation. Eleven different types of uv absorbes, coupled with one antioxidant, were incorporated into the polyurethane systems. The Atlas twin-lamp carbon arc Weatherometer was used as the source of uv. The samples were periodically withdrawn for examination of yellowing and tackiness. It was found that, although the incorporation of uv stabilizers enhanced the uv resistance of polyurethanes, the problem of tackiness resulting from uv aging was not solved satisfactorily. The phenomenon of yellowing, however, was significantly improved, mainly due to the aliphatic structure of polyurethanes. The most promising uv absorbers are Tinuvin 770 and the combination of Tinuvin 328, ZnO, and an antioxidant. Their effectiveness in other polyurethane systems is not known and further research is underway to explore this field. Hopefully, these findings will greatly assist the successful application polyurethane elastomers in maxillofacial prosthesis.

  19. Hepatotoxicity evaluation of dextran stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Easo, Sheeja Liza; Mohanan, P V

    2016-07-25

    Cellular and organ responses to nanoparticles are relevant in the context of use of nanoparticles for biomedical applications. The purpose of the present study was to determine the potential of dextran stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs) to influence hepatic uptake and consequently induce hepatotoxic response in rats following intravenous administration. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis revealed that DIONPs are rapidly taken up into the liver, progressively broken down to iron constituents and exported into blood, with a part of it being retained in the liver. The potential of DIONPs to induce oxidative stress response was determined by evaluating the time-dependent redox defense status. Maximum alterations in antioxidant activities were observed to occur within a period of 7days. However, this effect was not followed by significant increase in lipid peroxidation or modulation of hepatic enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin levels. Overall, these data imply that the liver retains functional integrity with a dose of 10mg/kg DIONPs, although with brief activation of redox defenses.

  20. Stability of Culex quinquefasciatus resistance to Bacillus sphaericus evaluated by molecular tools.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Liliane Barbosa; de Barros, Rosineide Arruda; Chalegre, Karlos Diogo de Melo; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; Regis, Lêda Narcisa; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus sphaericus binary toxin action on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae relies on the binding to Cqm1alpha-glucosidases, which act as midgut receptors. Resistance of two laboratory-selected colonies is associated with the allele cqm1(REC) that prevents Cqm1 expression as membrane-bound molecules. This study evaluated stability of resistance after the interruption of selection pressure and introduction of susceptible individuals in these colonies. Bioassays showed that frequency of resistant larvae did not decrease throughout 11 generations, under these conditions, and it was associated to a similar frequency of larvae lacking the Cqm1alpha-glucosidase receptor, detected by in gel enzymatic assays. Direct screening of the cqm1(REC) allele, by specific PCR, showed that its frequency remained stable throughout 11 generations. Parental resistant colony did not display biological costs regarding fecundity, fertility and pupal weight and data from susceptibility assays, enzymatic assays and PCR screening showed that cqm1(REC) was not disfavored in competition with the susceptible allele and persisted in the progenies, in the lack of selection pressure. Characterization of molecular basis of resistance is essential for developing diagnostic tools and data have relevant implication for the establishment of strategies for resistance management. PMID:20211258

  1. Exploring the biological stability situation of a full scale water distribution system in south China by three biological stability evaluation methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junpeng; Li, Wei-Ying; Wang, Feng; Qian, Lin; Xu, Chen; Liu, Yao; Qi, Wanqi

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial regrowth especially opportunistic pathogens regrowth and contamination in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) have become an emerging threat to public health in the whole world. To explore bacterial regrowth and biological stability, assimilable organic carbon (AOC), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and bacterial regrowth potential (BRP) were evaluated in a full scale DWDS and bench tests in South China. A significant correlation between BRP and AOC in both water treatment processes (WTP) and DWDS was obtained. For BRP and BDOC, the correlation was more significant in WTP than in DWDS. Both AOC and BRP were significantly correlated with UV254, total organic carbon (TOC), and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) (p < 0.01), whereas BDOC was only significantly associated with UV254, temperature and chlorine residual (p < 0.01). Through a bench test, when chlorine was higher than 0.5 mg/L, the HPC level was low and AOC concentration almost unchanged. On contrary the HPC level increased quickly and declined slightly, with chlorine lower than 0.15 mg/L, which was in accordance with the large amount of biological stability data obtained from DWDS. Through another bench test, the HPC level was positively correlated to AOC concentration and when AOC was below 135 μg/L, the growth rate of HPC was low, which was verified by the analysis of biological stability data from DWDS. PMID:27421100

  2. Role of primary stability for successful osseointegration of dental implants: Factors of influence and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Hameeda Bashir; Crespi, Roberto; Romanos, Georgios E.

    2013-01-01

    A secure implant primary (mechanical) stability is positively associated with a successful implant integration and long-term successful clinical outcome. Therefore, it is essential to assess the initial stability at different time-points to ensure a successful osseointegration. The present study critically reviews the factors that may play a role in achieving a successful initial stability in dental implants. Databases were searched from 1983 up to and including October 2013 using different combinations of various keywords. Bone quality and quantity, implant geometry, and surgical technique adopted may significantly influence primary stability and overall success rate of dental implants. PMID:24381734

  3. Optimization of power systems with voltage security constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosehart, William Daniel

    As open access market principles are applied to power systems, significant changes in their operation and control are occurring. In the new marketplace, power systems are operating under higher loading conditions as market influences demand greater attention to operating cost versus stability margins. Since stability continues to be a basic requirement in the operation of any power system, new tools are being considered to analyze the effect of stability on the operating cost of the system, so that system stability can be incorporated into the costs of operating the system. In this thesis, new optimal power flow (OPF) formulations are proposed based on multi-objective methodologies to optimize active and reactive power dispatch while maximizing voltage security in power systems. The effects of minimizing operating costs, minimizing reactive power generation and/or maximizing voltage stability margins are analyzed. Results obtained using the proposed Voltage Stability Constrained OPF formulations are compared and analyzed to suggest possible ways of costing voltage security in power systems. When considering voltage stability margins the importance of system modeling becomes critical, since it has been demonstrated, based on bifurcation analysis, that modeling can have a significant effect of the behavior of power systems, especially at high loading levels. Therefore, this thesis also examines the effects of detailed generator models and several exponential load models. Furthermore, because of its influence on voltage stability, a Static Var Compensator model is also incorporated into the optimization problems.

  4. Ultrasonic test application for evaluation of improvement of marl soil stabilized by lime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidi, H.; Sheshpari, M.

    2011-12-01

    content from 1 up to 9 percent, and decreases after 9 percents. Also, other geotechnical tests showed that 9 percent lime in the marl soil samples, is the optimum content for the improvement of the marl soils in the site. With comparison of the results from these tests, it can be inferred that the ultrasonic testing can be used as a fast method for the evaluation of improvement of marl soils stabilized by lime.

  5. Evaluation of two lead-based paint removal and waste stabilization technology combinations on typical exterior surfaces.

    PubMed

    Daniels, A E; Kominsky, J R; Clark, P J

    2001-10-12

    A study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of a wet abrasive blasting technology to remove lead-based paint from exterior wood siding and brick substrates as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of two waste stabilization technologies to stabilize the resulting blast media (coal slag and mineral sand) paint debris thereby reducing the leachable lead content. The lead-based paint removal technology effectiveness was determined by the use of an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum analyzer (L- and K-shell). The effectiveness of the technologies to stabilize the debris was evaluated through the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Wet abrasive blasting effectively removed the lead-based paint coating from both the wood and brick substrates to below the US Department of Housing and Urban Development Guideline (1mg/cm(2)) with no minimal or no damage to the underlying substrates (P<0.0001). The mean area air levels of lead-containing particulate generated during paint removal were significantly below the personal exposure limit (PEL) (P<0.0001). However, the mean personal breathing zone lead levels were approximately three times higher than the PEL. Neither of the two stabilization technologies consistently stabilized the resultant paint debris to achieve a leachable lead content below the RCRA regulatory threshold of <5 mg/l.

  6. Hyphenation of a Deoxyribonuclease I immobilized enzyme reactor with liquid chromatography for the online stability evaluation of oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Álvarez Porebski, Piotr Wiktor; Gyssels, Ellen; Madder, Annemieke; Lynen, Frederic

    2015-11-27

    The stability of antisense oligonucleotides (ONs) toward nucleases is a key aspect for their possible implementation as therapeutic agents. Typically, ON stability studies are performed off-line, where the ONs are incubated with nucleases in solution, followed by their analysis. The problematics of off-line processing render the detailed comparison of relative ON stability quite challenging. Therefore, the development of an online platform based on an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) coupled to liquid chromatography (LC) was developed as an alternative for improved ON stability testing. More in detail, Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) was immobilized on epoxy-silica particles of different pore sizes and packed into a column for the construction of an IMER. Subsequently, the hyphenation of the IMER with ion-pair chromatography (IPC) and ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) was evaluated, leading to the successful development of two online methodologies: IMER-IPC and IMER-IEC. More specifically, natural and modified DNA and RNA oligonucleotides were used for testing the performance of the methodologies. Both methodologies proved to be simple, automatable, fast and highly reproducible for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of ON degradation. In addition, the extended IMER life time in combination with a more straightforward control of the reaction kinetics substantiate the applicability of the IMER-LC platform for ON stability tests and its implementation in routine and research laboratories. PMID:26515385

  7. Hyphenation of a Deoxyribonuclease I immobilized enzyme reactor with liquid chromatography for the online stability evaluation of oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Álvarez Porebski, Piotr Wiktor; Gyssels, Ellen; Madder, Annemieke; Lynen, Frederic

    2015-11-27

    The stability of antisense oligonucleotides (ONs) toward nucleases is a key aspect for their possible implementation as therapeutic agents. Typically, ON stability studies are performed off-line, where the ONs are incubated with nucleases in solution, followed by their analysis. The problematics of off-line processing render the detailed comparison of relative ON stability quite challenging. Therefore, the development of an online platform based on an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) coupled to liquid chromatography (LC) was developed as an alternative for improved ON stability testing. More in detail, Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) was immobilized on epoxy-silica particles of different pore sizes and packed into a column for the construction of an IMER. Subsequently, the hyphenation of the IMER with ion-pair chromatography (IPC) and ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) was evaluated, leading to the successful development of two online methodologies: IMER-IPC and IMER-IEC. More specifically, natural and modified DNA and RNA oligonucleotides were used for testing the performance of the methodologies. Both methodologies proved to be simple, automatable, fast and highly reproducible for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of ON degradation. In addition, the extended IMER life time in combination with a more straightforward control of the reaction kinetics substantiate the applicability of the IMER-LC platform for ON stability tests and its implementation in routine and research laboratories.

  8. Biomechanical evaluation of oversized drilling technique on primary implant stability measured by insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría-Arrieta, Gorka; Brizuela-Velasco, Aritza; Fernández-González, Felipe J.; Chávarri-Prado, David; Chento-Valiente, Yelko; Solaberrieta, Eneko; Diéguez-Pereira, Markel; Yurrebaso-Asúa, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the influence of implant site preparation depth on primary stability measured by insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Material and Methods Thirty-two implant sites were prepared in eight veal rib blocks. Sixteen sites were prepared using the conventional drilling sequence recommended by the manufacturer to a working depth of 10mm. The remaining 16 sites were prepared using an oversize drilling technique (overpreparation) to a working depth of 12mm. Bone density was determined using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). The implants were placed and primary stability was measured by two methods: insertion torque (Ncm), and RFA (implant stability quotient [ISQ]). Results The highest torque values were achieved by the conventional drilling technique (10mm). The ANOVA test confirmed that there was a significant correlation between torque and drilling depth (p<0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were obtained between ISQ values at 10 or 12 mm drilling depths (p>0.05) at either measurement direction (cortical and medullar). No statistical relation between torque and ISQ values was identified, or between bone density and primary stability (p >0.05). Conclusions Vertical overpreparation of the implant bed will obtain lower insertion torque values, but does not produce statistically significant differences in ISQ values. Key words:Implant stability quotient, overdrilling, primary stability, resonance frequency analysis, torque. PMID:27398182

  9. The Stability of Teacher Performance and Effectiveness: Implications for Policies Concerning Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Grant B.; Hodge, Kari J.; Trepinski, Tonya M.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    2014-01-01

    The last five to ten years has seen a renewed interest in the stability of teacher behavior and effectiveness. Data on teacher performance and teacher effectiveness are being used increasingly as the basis for decisions about continued employment, tenure and promotion, and financial bonuses. The purpose of this study is to explore the stability of…

  10. Freeze-dried whole plasma: evaluating sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol, mannitol and glycine as stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Bakaltcheva, Irina; O'Sullivan, Anne Marie; Hmel, Peter; Ogbu, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Several groups report stability results for freeze-dried whole plasma intended for use as a transfusion product [Hellstern P, Sachse H, Schwinn H, Oberfrank K. Manufacture and in vitro characterization of a solvent/detergent-treated human plasma. Vox Sang 1992;63:178-185; Trobisch H. Results of a quality-control study of lyophilized pooled plasmas which have been virally inactivated using a solvent detergent method (modified Horowitz procedure). Beitr Infusionsther 1991;28:92-109; Hugler P, Trobish H, Neuman H, Moller, Sirtl C, Derdak M, Laubenthal H. Quality control of three different conventional fresh-frozen plasma preparations and one new virus-inactivated lyophilized pooled plasma preparation. Klin Wochenschr 1991;69:157-161; Krutvacho T, Chuansumrit A, Isarangkura P, Pintadit P, Hathirat P, Chiewsilp P. Response of hemophilia with bleeding to fresh dry plasma. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1993;24:169-173; Chuansumrit A, Krasaesub S, Angchaisuksiri P, Hathirat P, Isarangkura P. Survival analysis of patients with haemophilia at the International Haemophilia Training Centre, Bangkok, Thailand. Haemophilia 2004;10:542-549]. Plasma coagulation properties are substantially impaired in these freeze-dried plasmas, while pH levels are close to alkaline. In this work, plasma supplemented with 60mM sucrose, trehalose, mannitol, sorbitol or glycine was freeze-dried. The samples were subjected to forced degradation at 40 degrees C for 10 days in order to quickly evaluate the effectiveness of the different stabilizers. Initial PT, APTT and TT values were 14.4+/-0. 5s, 31.4+/-1.5s and 18.3+/-0.6s, respectively. At the end of the degradation period, PT, APTT and TT were substantially prolonged, and were 19.1+/-0. 5s, 43.1+/-0.6s and 26.1+/-1.0s, respectively. In the presence of glycine, at the end of the degradation period, PT, APTT and TT values remained close to the initial values and were 15.5+/-0. 4s, 35.7+/-0.9s and 19.4+/-0.2s, respectively. Percent

  11. Interfacial degradation effects of aqueous solution-processed molybdenum trioxides on the stability of organic solar cells evaluated by a differential method

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Yan-Hui; Wang, Zhao-Kui E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Yuan, Da-Xing; Liao, Liang-Sheng E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-15

    The authors investigate the influence of two hole interfacial materials poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and aqueous solution-processed MoO{sub 3} (sMoO{sub 3}) on cell stability. sMoO{sub 3}-based device demonstrated obviously improved stability compared to PEDOT:PSS-based one. Current-voltage characteristics analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of the hole interfacial layers on the cell stability. The formation of additional trap states at the interfaces between the hole interfacial layer and the active layer in degraded devices is verified by a differential method. Improved cell stability is attributed to a relatively stable sMoO{sub 3} interfacial layer compared to PEDOT:PSS by comparing their different trap states distributions.

  12. Montezuma Creek Stability Evaluation at Site of Former Monticello Tailings Pile

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.

    2001-10-04

    This report documents the results of an evaluation of stream stability for Montezuma Creek downstream of the former uranium and vanadium millsite at Monticello, Utah. The work was performed by personnel from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Environmental Technology Section (ETS). ORNL/ETS was the Independent Verification Contractor (IVC) for the Monticello projects, and it established independent verification strategies that provided the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with a third-party assessment of whether remedial action had effectively reduced levels of contamination and whether supporting documentation that described the remediation was adequate. The DOE regulation 10 CFR 1022, which implements Executive Orders 11988 and 11990 for the protection of wetlands and floodplains, provided the regulatory rationale for the activity. This report documents both the impact of millsite remedial activities and postremediation conditions of Montezuma Creek. The scientific rationale for the stream survey was that conventional engineering practices do not adequately account for varying hydrologic regimes nor do they address the entire riparian zone as an interrelated unit. As a result, modifications to streams consistently cause damage to the environment by increasing erosion and sedimentation. Field activities included the establishment of permanent cross sections and periodic measurements and surveys of physical characteristics. The data demonstrated an increase in downstream stream bank erosion when activities at the millsite were greatest. Note, however, that agricultural practices have also contributed to erosion and bank instability. Nevertheless, an increase in fine sediment and bank recession were correlated to the construction. In addition, the project documented the failure of best management practices such as silt fences, to control sediment loss. Furthermore, conventional engineering designs were used to reroute Montezuma Creek, an action that will

  13. Development and evaluation of suspension plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia coatings as thermal barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Every, Kent J.

    The insulating effects from thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbine engines allow for increased operational efficiencies and longer service lifetimes. Consequently, improving TBCs can lead to enhanced gas turbine engine performance. This study was conducted to investigate if yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings, the standard industrial choice for TBCs, produced from nano-sized powder could provide better thermal insulation than current commericial YSZ coatings generated using micron-sized powders. The coatings for this research were made via the recently developed suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process. With SPS, powders are suspended in a solvent containing dispersing agents; the suspension is then injected directly into a plasma flow that evaporates the solvent and melts the powder while transporting it to the substrate. Although related to the industrial TBC production method of air plasma spraying (APS), SPS has two important differences---the ability to spray sub-micron diameter ceramic particles, and the ability to alloy the particles with chemicals dissolved in the solvent. These aspects of SPS were employed to generate a series of coatings from suspensions containing ˜100 nm diameter YSZ powder particles, some of which were alloyed with neodymium and ytterbium ions from the solvent. The SPS coatings contained columnar structures not observed in APS TBCs; thus, a theory was developed to explain the formation of these features. The thermal conductivity of the coatings was tested to evaluate the effects of these unique microstructures and the effects of the alloying process. The results for samples in the as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions were compared to conventional YSZ TBCs. This comparison showed that, relative to APS YSZ coatings, the unalloyed SPS samples typically exhibited higher as-sprayed and lower heat-treated thermal conductivities. All thermal conductivity values for the alloyed samples were lower than conventional YSZ TBCs

  14. Voltage verification unit

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  15. Study of second phase in bioabsorbable magnesium alloys: Phase stability evaluation via Dmol{sup 3} calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Huazhe; Liu, Chen; Wan, Peng; Tan, Lili; Yang, Ke

    2013-11-01

    Thermodynamical stabilities of four conventional second phases as well as magnesium matrix in bioabsorbable magnesium alloys were investigated theoretically via computer calculation method. Model of individual phase and systems including phase and four water molecular (phase-4H{sub 2}O) were established to simulate the in vitro and in vivo environment. Local orbital density functional theory approach was applied to calculate the total energy for the individual phase and phase-4H{sub 2}O system. The results demonstrated that all the second phases possessed higher phase stability compared with magnesium matrix, but the phase stability was quite different for different types of second phases or second phase-4H{sub 2}O systems. Furthermore, a schematic process of inflammation reaction caused by magnesium alloy implants was proposed for the further evaluation on biocompatibility of different second phases.

  16. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Matthew

    2015-08-19

    This presentation covers data collected on two commercial laser stabilization systems, Guidestar-II and MRC, and two optical imaging systems. Additionally, general information about LCLS-II and how to go about continuing-testing is covered.

  17. International Comparative Evaluation of Knee Replacement with Fixed or Mobile Non-Posterior-Stabilized Implants

    PubMed Central

    Namba, Robert; Graves, Stephen; Robertsson, Otto; Furnes, Ove; Stea, Susanna; Puig-Verdié, Lluis; Hoeffel, Daniel; Cafri, Guy; Paxton, Elizabeth; Sedrakyan, Art

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mobile-bearing total knee prostheses were designed to reduce wear and improve implant survivorship following total knee arthroplasty. However, the benefit of mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty remains unproven. Both mobile-bearing and fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty implants are available in posterior-stabilized and non-posterior-stabilized designs. With the latter, the implant does not recreate the function of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) with a posterior-stabilizing cam mechanism. The purpose of the present study was to compare mobile-bearing, non-posterior-stabilized devices with fixed-bearing, non-posterior-stabilized devices used in total knee arthroplasty through a novel multinational study design. Methods: Through the use of a distributed health data network, primary total knee arthroplasties performed for osteoarthritis from 2001 to 2010 were identified from six national and regional total joint arthroplasty registries. Multivariate meta-analysis was performed with use of linear mixed models, with the primary outcome of interest being revision for any reason. Survival probabilities and their standard errors were extracted from each registry for each unique combination of the covariates. Results: A total of 319,616 patients (60% female) underwent non-posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. A fixed-bearing, non-posterior-stabilized design was used in 258,190 (81%) of the knees and a mobile-bearing, non-posterior-stabilized design in 61,426 (19%) of the knees. Sixty-nine percent of the patients who received a fixed-bearing implant were over sixty-five years of age, compared with 63% of those who received a mobile-bearing implant. Mobile-bearing designs had a higher risk of revision, with a hazard ratio of 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.36 to 1.51; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Previous comparisons of mobile-bearing and fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty outcomes have been inconclusive. The current study utilized an advanced

  18. Economic evaluation of flying-qualities design criteria for a transport configured with relaxed static stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    Direct constrained parameter optimization was used to optimally size a medium range transport for minimum direct operating cost. Several stability and control constraints were varied to study the sensitivity of the configuration to specifying the unaugmented flying qualities of transports designed to take maximum advantage of relaxed static stability augmentation systems. Additionally, a number of handling qualities related design constants were studied with respect to their impact on the design.

  19. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1997-01-01

    A voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means.

  20. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOEpatents

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  1. Low voltage to high voltage level shifter and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentze, Erik J. (Inventor); Hess, Herbert L. (Inventor); Buck, Kevin M. (Inventor); Cox, David F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A shifter circuit comprises a high and low voltage buffer stages and an output buffer stage. The high voltage buffer stage comprises multiple transistors arranged in a transistor stack having a plurality of intermediate nodes connecting individual transistors along the stack. The transistor stack is connected between a voltage level being shifted to and an input voltage. An inverter of this stage comprises multiple inputs and an output. Inverter inputs are connected to a respective intermediate node of the transistor stack. The low voltage buffer stage has an input connected to the input voltage and an output, and is operably connected to the high voltage buffer stage. The low voltage buffer stage is connected between a voltage level being shifted away from and a lower voltage. The output buffer stage is driven by the outputs of the high voltage buffer stage inverter and the low voltage buffer stage.

  2. Evaluation of miniature vacuum ultraviolet lamps for stability and operating characteristics, Lyman-Alpha task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications required to change the near ultraviolet source in the Optical Contamination Monitor to a source with output at or near the Lyman-Alpha hydrogen line are discussed. The effort consisted of selecting, acquiring and testing candidate miniature ultraviolet lamps with significant output in or near 121.6 nm. The effort also included selection of a miniature dc high-voltage power supply capable of operating the lamp. The power supply was required to operate from available primary power supplied by the Optical Effect Module (DEM) and it should be flight qualified or have the ability to be qualified by the user.

  3. Evaluation of the physical properties, bulk density and aggregate stability of potential substrates in quarry restoration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    Quarrying activity entails significant environmental impact affecting the soil, water, plants, landscape, etc. One of the most important impacts is the loss of the productive layer of the soil and its vegetation cover. However, mining activities are absolutely necessary for human development; keeping them sustainable implicates looking for viable solutions for the restoration of these areas to prevent degradation during and after the exploitation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate different substrates obtained from different mixes of sewage sludge and different mine spoils, to check how they are effective in quarry restoration, and to establish good practises in mining restoration. Also, the study tried to approach two refuses, one deriving from mining activity, as are the mine spoils that need to be reused for their valorisation, and the other, sewage sludge, obtained in the water depuration process to acquire a cheap substrate for soil rehabilitation. This preliminary work, which is included in a larger study, shows the results obtained from two physical properties studied, bulk density and aggregate stability, as key properties in the substrate structure for use in mining area restoration. Two doses of composted sewage sludge (30 and 90 Tm/Ha), both very rich in calcium carbonate, were applied to two different mine spoils under lab conditions. The first material, of poor quality, originated from the acquisition of arid particles in crushed limestone (Z). It is characterized by stable ''coarse elements'' predominance (up to 75% of its weight), and by the presence of elevated percentages of sand. The other waste material tested comes from limestone extraction (basically formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils (D)). The results show that the high dose of sewage sludge applied to a mix of the two mine spoils significantly increased the percentage of stable aggregates by more than 50% than the control

  4. Stability of smooth and rough mini-implants: clinical and biomechanical evaluation - an in vivostudy

    PubMed Central

    Vilani, Giselle Naback Lemes; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare in vivo orthodontic mini-implants (MI) of smooth (machined) and rough (acid etched) surfaces, assessing primary and secondary stability. Methods: Thirty-six (36) MI were inserted in the mandibles of six (6) dogs. Each animal received six (6) MI. In the right hemiarch, three (3) MI without surface treatment (smooth) were inserted, whereas in the left hemiarch, another three (3) MI with acid etched surfaces (rough) were inserted. The two distal MI in each hemiarch received an immediate load of 1.0 N for 16 weeks, whereas the MI in the mesial extremity was not subject to loading. Stability was measured by insertion and removal torque, initial and final mobility and by inter mini-implant distance. Results: There was no statistical behavioral difference between smooth and rough MI. High insertion torque and reduced initial mobility were observed in all groups, as well as a reduction in removal torques in comparison with insertion torque. Rough MI presented higher removal torque and lower final mobility in comparison to smooth MI. MI did not remain static, with displacement of rough MI being smaller in comparison with smooth MI, but with no statistical difference. Conclusions: MI primary stability was greater than stability measured at removal. There was no difference in stability between smooth and rough MI when assessing mobility, displacement and insertion as well as removal torques. PMID:26560819

  5. Laboratory evaluation of the pointing stability of the ASPS Vernier System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The annular suspension and pointing system (ASPS) is an end-mount experiment pointing system designed for use in the space shuttle. The results of the ASPS Vernier System (AVS) pointing stability tests conducted in a laboratory environment are documented. A simulated zero-G suspension was used to support the test payload in the laboratory. The AVS and the suspension were modelled and incorporated into a simulation of the laboratory test. Error sources were identified and pointing stability sensitivities were determined via simulation. Statistical predictions of laboratory test performance were derived and compared to actual laboratory test results. The predicted mean pointing stability during simulated shuttle disturbances was 1.22 arc seconds; the actual mean laboratory test pointing stability was 1.36 arc seconds. The successful prediction of laboratory test results provides increased confidence in the analytical understanding of the AVS magnetic bearing technology and allows confident prediction of in-flight performance. Computer simulations of ASPS, operating in the shuttle disturbance environment, predict in-flight pointing stability errors less than 0.01 arc seconds.

  6. Analysis of NSTX TF Joint Voltage Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    R, Woolley

    2005-10-07

    This report presents findings of analyses of recorded current and voltage data associated with 72 electrical joints operating at high current and high mechanical stress. The analysis goal was to characterize the mechanical behavior of each joint and thus evaluate its mechanical supports. The joints are part of the toroidal field (TF) magnet system of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) pulsed plasma device operating at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Since there is not sufficient space near the joints for much traditional mechanical instrumentation, small voltage probes were installed on each joint and their voltage monitoring waveforms have been recorded on sampling digitizers during each NSTX ''shot''.

  7. High voltage power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruitberg, A. P.; Young, K. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage power supply is formed by three discrete circuits energized by a battery to provide a plurality of concurrent output signals floating at a high output voltage on the order of several tens of kilovolts. In the first two circuits, the regulator stages are pulse width modulated and include adjustable ressistances for varying the duty cycles of pulse trains provided to corresponding oscillator stages while the third regulator stage includes an adjustable resistance for varying the amplitude of a steady signal provided to a third oscillator stage. In the first circuit, the oscillator, formed by a constant current drive network and a tuned resonant network included a step up transformer, is coupled to a second step up transformer which, in turn, supplies an amplified sinusoidal signal to a parallel pair of complementary poled rectifying, voltage multiplier stages to generate the high output voltage.

  8. Imaging voltage in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Peterka, Darcy S.; Takahashi, Hiroto; Yuste, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, imaging membrane potential has become a fruitful approach to study neural circuits, especially in invertebrate preparations with large, resilient neurons. At the same time, particularly in mammalian preparations, voltage imaging methods suffer from poor signal to noise and secondary side effects, and they fall short of providing single-cell resolution when imaging of the activity of neuronal populations. As an introduction to these techniques, we briefly review different voltage imaging methods (including organic fluorophores, SHG chromophores, genetic indicators, hybrid, nanoparticles and intrinsic approaches), and illustrate some of their applications to neuronal biophysics and mammalian circuit analysis. We discuss their mechanisms of voltage sensitivity, from reorientation, electrochromic or electro-optical phenomena, to interaction among chromophores or membrane scattering, and highlight their advantages and shortcomings, commenting on the outlook for development of novel voltage imaging methods. PMID:21220095

  9. Relationships between analytical methods utilized as tools in the evaluation of landfill waste stability.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan J; Shearer, Bradley D; Kim, Jongmin; Goldsmith, C Douglas; Hater, Gary R; Novak, John T

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the refuse from 12 landfills of various ages ranging from fresh refuse to material 11 years old was collected, and changes in the bio-stability parameters were determined. The parameters measured included cellulose, lignin, biochemical methane potential (BMP) and volatile solids, along with plastics. These parameters, along with the cellulose to lignin ratio were compared to determine which were most indicative of the bio-stability of the refuse. Lignin and volatile solids measurements were affected by plastics in refuse samples. Plastics increased both lignin and volatile solids measurements by approximately 10%. Cellulose and volatile solids measurements correlated well with age, each other, and with BMP measurements and were therefore considered the best parameters to determine stability. Data for the Riverbend landfill, a landfill with a moisture content of 48%, which is similar to that of bioreactor landfills, showed that degradation was nearly complete after 5 years as indicated by low values for cellulose and BMP.

  10. High voltage DC power supply

    DOEpatents

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  11. High voltage DC power supply

    DOEpatents

    Droege, Thomas F.

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  12. Evaluation and validation of reference gene stability during Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection.

    PubMed

    Neerukonda, Sabari Nath; Katneni, Upendra K; Golovan, Sergey; Parcells, Mark S

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is widely used in the study of relative gene expression in general, and has been used in the field of Marek's disease (MD) research to measure transcriptional responses to infection and/or vaccination. Studies in the past have either employed cellular β-actin (BACT) or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as internal reference genes, although the stability of their expression in the context of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection has never been investigated. In the present study, we compared the stability of five reference genes (BACT, 28S RNA, 18S RNA, GAPDH, Peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase B [PPIB], a.k.a. cyclophilin B) as standard internal controls in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEFs) cultures infected with either MD vaccine or oncogenic MDV1 viruses. We further extend these analyses to reference gene stability in spleen lymphomas induced by infection of commercial broiler chickens with a very virulent plus MDV1 (vv+ TK-2a virus). Two excel based algorithms, (Bestkeeper and Normfinder) were employed to compare reference gene stability. Bestkeeper and Normfinder analysis of reference gene stability in virus- and mock-infected cells, showed that 28S RNA and PPIB displayed higher stability in CEF infections with either oncogenic or vaccine viruses. In addition, both Bestkeeper and Normfinder determined 28S RNA and PPIB to be the most stably-expressed reference genes in vivo in vv+ TK-2a-induced spleen lymphomas. Furthermore, Bestkeeper and Normfinder analyses both determined BACT to be the least stable reference gene during MDV infection of CEF with oncogenic viruses, vaccine viruses, as well as in vv+ TK-2a-induced spleen lymphomas. PMID:27448823

  13. Array-level stability enhancement of 50 nm AlxOy ReRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Tomoko Ogura; Ning, Sheyang; Yamazawa, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Ken

    2015-12-01

    ReRAM's low voltage and low current programmability are attractive features to solve the scaling issues of conventional floating gate Flash. However, read instability in ReRAM is a critical issue, due to random telegraph noise (RTN), sensitivity to disturb and retention. In this work, the array-level characteristics of read stability in 50 nm AlxOy ReRAM are investigated and a circuit technique to improve stability is proposed and evaluated. First, in order to quantitatively assess memory cell stability, a method of stability characterization is defined. Next, based on this methodology, a proposal to improve read stability, called "stability check loop" is evaluated. The stability check loop is a stability verification procedure, by which, instability improvement of 7×, and read error rate improvement of 40% are obtained.

  14. Off-set stabilizer for comparator output

    DOEpatents

    Lunsford, James S.

    1991-01-01

    A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

  15. Safety evaluation for the interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103

    SciTech Connect

    Geschke, G.R.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides the basis for interim stabilization of tank 241-C-103. The document covers the removal of the organic liquid layer and the aqueous supernatant from tank 241-C-103. Hazards are identified, consequences are calculated and controls to mitigate or prevent potential accidents are developed.

  16. Development and flight evaluation of an augmented stability active controls concept: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    A pitch active control system (PACS) was developed and flight tested on a wide body jet transport (L-1011) with a flying horizontal stabilizer. Two dual channel digital computers and the associated software provide command signals to a dual channel series servo which controls the stabilizer power actuators. Input sensor signals to the computer are pitch rate, column trim position, and dynamic pressure. Control laws are given for the PACS and the system architecture is defined. Discussions are given regarding piloted flight simulation and vehicle system simulation and vehicle system simulation tests that are performed to verify control laws and system operation prior to installation on the aircraft. Modifications to the basic aircraft included installation of the PACS, addition of a c.g. management system to provide a c.g. range from 25 to 39% mac, and downrigging of the geared elevator to provide the required nose down control authority for aft c.g. flight test conditions. Three pilots used the Cooper-Harper Rating Scale to judge flying qualities of the aircraft with PACS on and off. The handling qualities with the c.g. at 39% mac (41% stability margin) and PACS operating were judged to be as good as the handling qualities with the c.g. at 25% mac (+15% stability margin) and PACS off.

  17. The Evaluation of Strain and Stabilization in Molecules Using Isodesmic Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Isodesmic reactions are hypothetical chemical changes in which the number of bonds of a given type are retained but change in relation to one another. Discusses use of these reactions and reaction energy to measure deviations from additivity of bond energy. Also considers relationship of enthalpies to strain and resonance stability. (JM)

  18. Influence of Input Parameters on Dynamic Orbital Stability of Walking: In-Silico and Experimental Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Federico; Bisi, Maria Cristina; Stagni, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Many measures aiming to assess the stability of human motion have been proposed in the literature, but still there is no commonly accepted way to define or quantify locomotor stability. Among these measures, orbital stability analysis via Floquet multipliers is still under debate. Some of the controversies concerning the use of this technique could lie in the absence of a standard implementation. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of i) experimental measurement noise, ii) variables selected for the construction of the state space, and iii) number of analysed cycles on the outputs of orbital stability applied to walking. The analysis was performed on a 2-dimensional 5-link walking model and on a sample of 10 subjects performing long over-ground walks. Noise resulting from stereophotogrammetric and accelerometric measurement systems was simulated in the in-silico analysis. Maximum Floquet multipliers resulted to be affected by both number of analysed strides and state space composition. The effect of experimental noise was found to be slightly more potentially critical when analysing stereophotogrammetric data then when dealing with acceleration data. Experimental and model results were comparable in terms of overall trend, but a difference was found in the influence of the number of analysed cycles. PMID:24260498

  19. STABILIZATION OF MERCURY IN WASTE MATERIAL FROM THE SULFUR BANK MERCURY MINE, INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three innovative technologies for stabilization of mercury were demonstrated in a treatability study performed on two waste rock materials from the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine, a Superfund site in northern California. The treatability study was jointly sponsored by two EPA programs:...

  20. An Outcome Evaluation of an Inpatient Crisis Stabilization and Assessment Program for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenham, Stephanie L.; Bisnaire, Lise

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe characteristics and outcomes of youth aged 7 to 17 who received inpatient psychiatric and mental health services along different clinical pathways of a new service delivery model. Method: Participants included 211 admissions to an inpatient crisis stabilization and assessment program over a one-year period. Standardized…

  1. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation - Demonstration Bulletin: In-Situ Soil Stabilization

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ stabilization technology immobilizes organics and inorganic compounds in wet or dry soils by using reagents (additives) to polymerize with the soils and sludges producing a cement-like mass. Two basic components of this technology are the Geo-Con/DSM Deep Soil Mixing Sy...

  2. AN EVALUATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF HEAVY METAL SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solidification/stabilization (SIS) of hazardous waste involves mixing the waste with a binder material to enhance the physical properties of the waste and to immobilize contaminants that may be detrimental to the environment. Many hazardous wastes contain materials that are know...

  3. Voltage-Dependent Gating of hERG Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yen May; Claydon, Tom W.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which voltage-gated channels sense changes in membrane voltage and energetically couple this with opening of the ion conducting pore has been the source of significant interest. In voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, much of our knowledge in this area comes from Shaker-type channels, for which voltage-dependent gating is quite rapid. In these channels, activation and deactivation are associated with rapid reconfiguration of the voltage-sensing domain unit that is electromechanically coupled, via the S4–S5 linker helix, to the rate-limiting opening of an intracellular pore gate. However, fast voltage-dependent gating kinetics are not typical of all Kv channels, such as Kv11.1 (human ether-à-go-go related gene, hERG), which activates and deactivates very slowly. Compared to Shaker channels, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying slow hERG gating is much poorer. Here, we present a comparative review of the structure–function relationships underlying activation and deactivation gating in Shaker and hERG channels, with a focus on the roles of the voltage-sensing domain and the S4–S5 linker that couples voltage sensor movements to the pore. Measurements of gating current kinetics and fluorimetric analysis of voltage sensor movement are consistent with models suggesting that the hERG activation pathway contains a voltage independent step, which limits voltage sensor transitions. Constraints upon hERG voltage sensor movement may result from loose packing of the S4 helices and additional intra-voltage sensor counter-charge interactions. More recent data suggest that key amino acid differences in the hERG voltage-sensing unit and S4–S5 linker, relative to fast activating Shaker-type Kv channels, may also contribute to the increased stability of the resting state of the voltage sensor. PMID:22586397

  4. Postural Stability During Single-Leg Stance: A Preliminary Evaluation of Noncontact Lower Extremity Injury Risk.

    PubMed

    Dingenen, Bart; Malfait, Bart; Nijs, Stefaan; Peers, Koen H E; Vereecken, Styn; Verschueren, Sabine M P; Janssens, Luc; Staes, Filip F

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study with a prospective cohort design. Background Postural stability deficits during single-leg stance have been reported in persons with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, ACL reconstruction, and chronic ankle instability. It remains unclear whether impaired postural stability is a consequence or cause of these injuries. Objectives To prospectively investigate whether postural stability deficits during single-leg stance predict noncontact lower extremity injuries. Methods Fifty injury-free female athletes performed a transition task from double-leg stance to single-leg stance with eyes closed. Center-of-pressure displacement, the main outcome variable, was measured during the first 3 seconds after the time to a new stability point was reached during single-leg stance. Noncontact lower extremity injuries were recorded at a 1-year follow-up. Results Six participants sustained a noncontact ACL injury or ankle sprain. Center-of-pressure displacement during the first 3 seconds after the time to a new stability point was significantly increased in the injured (P = .030) and noninjured legs (P = .009) of the injured group compared to the respective matched legs of the noninjured group. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis revealed significant discriminative accuracy between groups for the center-of-pressure displacement during the first 3 seconds after the time to a new stability point of the injured (AUC = 0.814, P = .015) and noninjured legs (AUC = 0.897, P = .004) of the injured group compared to the matched legs of the noninjured group. Conclusion This preliminary study suggests that postural stability measurements during the single-leg stance phase of the double- to single-leg stance transition task may be a useful predictor of increased risk of noncontact lower extremity injury. Further research is indicated. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports PhysTher 2016

  5. High voltage pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  6. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    DOEpatents

    Doepke, Matthias; Eisermann, Henning

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  7. Stability evaluation of parameter estimation of multi-Rayleigh model for ultrasound B-mode image of liver fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shohei; Ohashi, Minori; Hirata, Shinnosuke; Hachiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    A diagnosis of liver fibrosis using an ultrasound B-mode image has the advantages of real-time observation and noninvasive properties. In our previous study, a multi-Rayleigh model was proposed to express a probability density function (PDF) of echo amplitudes from a fibrotic liver. From the multi-Rayleigh model, fibrosis parameters, such as the amount of fibrotic tissue and its progressive ratio, can be extracted. To quantitatively evaluate liver fibrosis using the multi-Rayleigh model, it is important to evaluate the stability of the estimation method of multi-Rayleigh model parameters. In this study, a numerical simulation using random variables following the multi-Rayleigh model was performed and the estimation stability of the parameters of the multi-Rayleigh model with two components was examined. From the simulation results, it was found that estimation becomes unstable under a certain condition owing to statistical variations of moments, which are inputs in the estimation algorithm. The instability of estimated parameters could be evaluated by focusing on changes in moments upon changes in multi-Rayleigh model parameters. It was indicated that we can evaluate the reliability of the estimated parameters of the multi-Rayleigh model only from the estimated values.

  8. Evaluation of Need and Location for a Thermogravimetric Analyzer in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Materials Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS, H.T.

    2000-01-20

    This plan provides an analysis for locating a TGA to support PFP Thermal Stabilization processes. The scope of this document is to evaluate the need for, and location for, installation of a TGA system as a supplement to the SFE equipment for moisture measurement in pure oxides. A location assessment for the SFE equipment was previously performed (HNF 1999). Based on that assessment, co-location of the TGA system with the SFE system is the preferred option. This would enable thermally stabilized material to be analyzed for residual moisture by either the TGA system or SFE system or both This evaluation considers glovebox locations in the PFP 234-52 Building Analytical Laboratory or operating areas for the installation of the TGA system and it's supporting equipment. This evaluation considers using existing gloveboxes along with an alternative of adding a new glovebox to existing process lines. The location evaluation criteria focuses mainly on glovebox size, with qualitative consideration of relative cost and schedule impacts associated with system implementation, radiological control, and interaction with other laboratory operations and processes. In addition, the possible co-location of a TGA furnace system with the SFE system was considered.

  9. In-Well Sediment Incubators to Evaluate Microbial Community Stability and Dynamics following Bioimmobilization of Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Brett R.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Gan, M.; Resch, Charles T.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Smithgall, A. N.; Pfiffner, S.; Freifeld, Barry M.; White, D. C.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-09-23

    An in-situ incubation device (ISI) was developed in order to investigate the stability and dynamics of sediment associated microbial communities to prevailing subsurface oxidizing or reducing conditions. Here we describe the use of these devices at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site. During the 7 month deployment oxidized Rifle aquifer background sediments (RABS) were deployed in previously biostimulated wells under iron reducing conditions, cell densities of known iron reducing bacteria including Geobacteraceae increased significantly showing the microbial community response to local subsurface conditions. PLFA profiles of RABS following in situ deployment were strikingly similar to those of adjacent sediment cores suggesting ISI results could be extrapolated to the native material of the test plots. Results for ISI deployed reduced sediments showed only slight changes in community composition and pointed toward the ability of the ISIs to monitor microbial community stability and response to subsurface conditions.

  10. Preparation of iron bound succinylated milk protein concentrate and evaluation of its stability.

    PubMed

    Shilpashree, B G; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek; Bajaj, Rajesh Kumar; Tomar, S K

    2016-04-01

    Major problems associated with the fortification of soluble iron salts include chemical reactivity and incompatibility with other components. Milk protein concentrate (MPC) are able to bind significant amount of iron due to the presence of both casein and whey protein. MPC in its native state possess very poor solubility, therefore, succinylated derivatives of MPC (succ. MPC) were also used for the preparation of protein-iron complex. Preparation of the complex involved centrifugation (to remove insoluble iron), ultrafiltration (to remove unbound iron) and lyophilisation (to attain in dry form). Iron binding ability of MPC enhanced significantly (P<0.05) upon succinylation. Stability of bound iron from both varieties of complexes was monitored under different conditions encountered during processing. Higher stability (P<0.05) of bound iron was observed in succ. MPC-iron complex than native protein complex. This method could be adopted for the production of stable iron enriched protein, an organic iron source. PMID:26593557

  11. Evaluation of the influence of pedicle-lengthening osteotomy on lumbar stability

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Maofeng; Zou, Jun; Zhang, Zhigang; Luo, Zongping; Yang, Huilin

    2016-01-01

    Pedicle-lengthening osteotomy (PLO) is a minimally invasive and effective surgical procedure for lumbar spinal stenosis syndrome. Compared with traditional surgery, PLO can effectively enlarge the spinal canal while minimizing the disruption of posterior anatomical structures of the lumbar vertebra, leading to reduced postoperative perineural scarring adhesion and good clinical outcomes using minimally invasive procedures. However, PLO is still in its early stages, and only a few relevant experimental and clinical studies have been reported. The present study was performed to investigate the influence of PLO on the stability of lumbar vertebrae. The results indicated that PLO can effectively enlarge the spinal canal, and no lumbar spondylolisthesis or other complications occurred in this study. Moreover, this procedure does not significantly affect the stability of the lumbar spine, suggesting a possible clinical application. PMID:27347315

  12. Correlation and evaluation of inplane stability characteristics for an advanced bearingless main rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    A program of experimental and analytical research was performed to demonstrate the degree of correlation achieved between measured and computed rotor inplane stability characteristics. The experimental data were obtained from hover and wind tunnel tests of a scaled bearingless main rotor model. Both isolated rotor and free-hub conditions were tested. Test parameters included blade built-in cone and sweep angles; rotor inplane structural stiffness and damping; pitch link stiffness and location; and fuselage damping, inertia, and natural frequency. Analytical results for many test conditions were obtained. In addition, the analytical and experimental results were examined to ascertain the effects of the test parameters on rotor ground and air resonance stability. The results from this program are presented herein in tabular and graphical form.

  13. Preparation of iron bound succinylated milk protein concentrate and evaluation of its stability.

    PubMed

    Shilpashree, B G; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek; Bajaj, Rajesh Kumar; Tomar, S K

    2016-04-01

    Major problems associated with the fortification of soluble iron salts include chemical reactivity and incompatibility with other components. Milk protein concentrate (MPC) are able to bind significant amount of iron due to the presence of both casein and whey protein. MPC in its native state possess very poor solubility, therefore, succinylated derivatives of MPC (succ. MPC) were also used for the preparation of protein-iron complex. Preparation of the complex involved centrifugation (to remove insoluble iron), ultrafiltration (to remove unbound iron) and lyophilisation (to attain in dry form). Iron binding ability of MPC enhanced significantly (P<0.05) upon succinylation. Stability of bound iron from both varieties of complexes was monitored under different conditions encountered during processing. Higher stability (P<0.05) of bound iron was observed in succ. MPC-iron complex than native protein complex. This method could be adopted for the production of stable iron enriched protein, an organic iron source.

  14. Novel perchlorate and phosphate salts of vinpocetine: Characterization, relative solid-state stability evaluation and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yu-heng; Ge, Shu-wang; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Qiang; Zuo, Yun-wei; Zhong, Chang-jiang; Sun, Bai-wang

    2016-02-01

    Salt formation is a very common and effective method of improving a drug's physicochemical properties such as hygroscopicity and physical stability at different humidity conditions. Aqueous solubility is another important parameter that can be improved by salt formation; however this strategy has not yet been evaluated for the important alkaloid drug, Vinpocetine. A poorly water-soluble basic drug (water solubility value≈ 5 μg/ml and pKa value of 7.31), vinpocetine was converted into two novel salts in this work, with perchloric acid and phosphoric acid in a 1: 1 M ratio. However, an unexpected phase transformation occurred in one of the salts after the stability test, which is a major concern in studies on dosage form. The conversion of the salt to free base could be related to the temperature-humidity profile of the type II salt (formed by vinpocetine and phosphoric acid). When the temperature was more than 70 °C under high humidity conditions of more than 80%, the phase transformation occurred immediately. To gain further understanding of this phenomenon, single crystals of the two novel salts were prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, Powder-XRD, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Constituents of the crystalline phase were also investigated in terms of Hirshfeld surface. The structures were found to be stabilized by H⋯H, C-H⋯O, O-H⋯N and C-H⋯π intermolecular interactions. Our stability studies showed that both these two novel salts could improve the stability of vinpocetine, however the type I salt (formed by vinpocetine and perchloric acid) offers more advantages. This finding will provide valuable information for vinpocetine dosage form development.

  15. An eco-spatial index for evaluating stabilization state of sand dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Yehonathan; Groner, Elli; Yizhaq, Hezi; Svoray, Tal; Bar (Kutiel), Pua

    2013-06-01

    Geomorphologies tend to categorize dunes into three major states (mobile, semi-stabilized and stabilized) based on their shape and mobility rate. However, the ecologists try to find bio-indicators that can characterize the mobility rate and the ecological features of the various dune states. Unfortunately, there are limited numbers of significant bio-indicators, if any. The aim of our study was to develop a Dune Assemblage Index (DAI) in order to indicate the affinity of annual plants and arthropods assemblages to dune mobility. The DAI values range between 0 for stabilized dunes and 1 for bare and active dunes. The index was calculated for 10 coastal dunes in Nizzanim nature reserve, located at the southern part of the Israeli Mediterranean coast, from data that were collected in the years 2006 and 2007. Generally, the lower the vegetation cover is, the higher are DAI values for both taxon groups. Generalist species tend to mask the differences between active and stabilized dunes whereas psammophiles (sand-dwelling species) tend to increase the DAI values. Additionally, the DAI may differ among dunes with the same perennial coverage due to differences in the spatial plant distribution patterns. Likewise, the DAI depends also on the distance of the dunes from rural areas, which encourage invasion of generalist species, thus decreases the DAI value. This new defined spatial index that relies on plant and animal assemblages, rather than on individual bio-indicators, can be adapted to any taxon and dune ecosystems. The use of several taxons may support better understanding of the ecosystem state of the dune.

  16. Performance evaluation of cement stabilized fly ash-GBFS mixes as a highway construction material.

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Tripathy, D P; Ranjith, P G

    2008-01-01

    Fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) are major by-products of thermal and steel plants, respectively. These materials often cause disposal problems and environmental pollution. Detailed laboratory investigations were carried out on cement stabilized fly ash-(GBFS) mixes in order to find out its suitability for road embankments, and for base and sub-base courses of highway pavements. Proctor compaction test, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test were conducted on cement stabilized fly ash-GBFS mixes as per the Indian Standard Code of Practice. Cement content in the mix was varied from 0% to 8% at 2% intervals, whereas the slag content was varied as 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Test results show that an increase of either cement or GBFS content in the mixture, results in increase of maximum dry density (MDD) and decrease of optimum moisture content (OMC) of the compacted mixture. The MDD of the cement stabilized fly ash-GBFS mixture is comparably lower than that of similarly graded natural inorganic soil of sand to silt size. This is advantageous in constructing lightweight embankments over soft, compressible soils. An increase in percentage of cement in the fly ash-GBFS mix increases enormously the CBR value. Also an increase of the amount of GBFS in the fly ash sample with fixed cement content improves the CBR value of the stabilized mix. In the present study, the maximum CBR value of compacted fly ash-GBFS-cement (52:40:8) mixture obtained was 105%, indicating its suitability for use in base and sub-base courses in highway pavements with proper combinations of raw materials.

  17. Impaction grafted bone chip size effect on initial stability in an acetabular model: Mechanical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Holton, Colin; Bobak, Peter; Wilcox, Ruth; Jin, Zhongmin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Acetabular bone defect reconstruction is an increasing problem for surgeons with patients undergoing complex primary or revision total hip replacement surgery. Impaction bone grafting is one technique that has favourable long-term clinical outcome results for patients who undergo this reconstruction method for acetabular bone defects. Creating initial mechanical stability of the impaction bone graft in this technique is known to be the key factor in achieving a favourable implant survival rate. Different sizes of bone chips were used in this technique to investigate if the size of bone chips used affected initial mechanical stability of a reconstructed acetabulum. Methodology Twenty acetabular models were created in total. Five control models were created with a cemented cup in a normal acetabulum. Then five models in three different groups of bone chip size were constructed. The three groups had an acetabular protrusion defect reconstructed using either; 2–4 mm3, 10 mm3 or 20 mm3 bone chip size for impaction grafting reconstruction. The models underwent compression loading up to 9500 N and displacement within the acetabular model was measured indicating the initial mechanical stability. Results This study reveals that, although not statistically significant, the largest (20 mm3) bone chip size grafted models have an inferior maximum stiffness compared to the medium (10 mm3) bone chip size. Interpretations Our study suggests that 10 mm3 size of bone chips provide better initial mechanical stability compared to smaller or larger bone chips. We dismissed the previously held opinion that the biggest practically possible graft is best for acetabular bone graft impaction. PMID:24396238

  18. Thermal stability evaluation of microstructures and mechanical properties of tungsten vanadium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Kameel; Zhao, Ming-Yue; Yuan, Yue; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Zhang-Jian; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2014-10-01

    The thermal stability is important for tungsten based alloys as plasma facing materials to survive against high heat flux in fusion reactors. In this work, the thermal stability of W-5%V alloy fabricated following a powder metallurgy route by spark plasma sintering technique has been studied. To investigate the impact of temperature on the mechanical properties and microstructures, the alloy was subjected to heat treatment for 2 h over the temperature range 900-1500°C in a pure argon furnace. The micro-hardness values of the heat treated alloys were highly stable as compared to pure tungsten. A slight decrease flexural strength was observed with increasing annealing temperature. The maximum change flexural strength at the highest treated temperature was noted about 14% lower. The morphology analyses of the crack surfaces by scanning electron microscopy did not identify a drastic change in tungsten grain size, after heat treatment. The results indicate that the addition of vanadium in tungsten improves the overall thermal stability of microstructures and mechanical properties.

  19. Utilization of phosphogypsum in tannery sludge stabilization and evaluation of the radiological impact.

    PubMed

    Pantazopoulou, E; Zebiliadou, O; Noli, F; Mitrakas, M; Samaras, P; Zouboulis, A

    2015-03-01

    The current global trend towards increasingly stringent environmental standards and efforts for efficient utilization and re-use of available by-products and/or wastes, favors the use of low-cost sorbent materials for the treatment of heavy metal-contaminated solid wastes. In this study, the stabilization of tannery sludge, produced from the physicochemical and biological treatment of tannery wastewaters, was examined by the addition of phosphogypsum (PG) at a ratio of 1:1. Characterization of the tannery sludge leachates showed high amounts of chromium which exceeded the acceptable level for disposal in non-hazardous waste landfills, while the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations exceeded the limits for disposal in landfills for hazardous wastes, according to the EU Decision 2003/33/EC. Leachates of the waste stabilized with PG presented chromium and DOC concentrations below the regulation limits for disposal in landfills for non-hazardous wastes. Moreover, mixing PG with tannery sludge resulted in a stabilized waste with reduced radioactivity.

  20. Evaluation of methane oxidation activity in waste biocover soil during landfill stabilization.

    PubMed

    He, Ruo; Wang, Jing; Xia, Fang-Fang; Mao, Li-Juan; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Biocover soil has been demonstrated to have high CH(4) oxidation capacity and is considered as a good alternative cover material to mitigate CH(4) emission from landfills, yet the response of CH(4) oxidation activity of biocover soils to the variation of CH(4) loading during landfill stabilization is poorly understood. Compared with a landfill cover soil (LCS) collected from Hangzhou Tianziling landfill cell, the development of CH(4) oxidation activity of waste biocover soil (WBS) was investigated using simulated landfill systems in this study. Although a fluctuation of influent CH(4) flux occurred during landfill stabilization, the WBS covers showed a high CH(4) removal efficiency of 94-96% during the entire experiment. In the LCS covers, the CH(4) removal efficiencies varied with the fluctuation of CH(4) influent flux, even negative ones occurred due to the storage of CH(4) in the soil porosities after the high CH(4) influent flux of ~137 gm(-2) d(-1). The lower concentrations of O(2) and CH(4) as well as the higher concentration of CO(2) were observed in the WBS covers than those in the LCS covers. The highest CH(4) oxidation rates of the two types of soil covers both occurred in the bottom layer (20-30 cm). Compared to the LCS, the WBS showed higher CH(4) oxidation activity and methane monooxygenase activity over the course of the experiment. Overall, this study indicated the WBS worked well for the fluctuation of CH(4) influent flux during landfill stabilization.

  1. Utilization of phosphogypsum in tannery sludge stabilization and evaluation of the radiological impact.

    PubMed

    Pantazopoulou, E; Zebiliadou, O; Noli, F; Mitrakas, M; Samaras, P; Zouboulis, A

    2015-03-01

    The current global trend towards increasingly stringent environmental standards and efforts for efficient utilization and re-use of available by-products and/or wastes, favors the use of low-cost sorbent materials for the treatment of heavy metal-contaminated solid wastes. In this study, the stabilization of tannery sludge, produced from the physicochemical and biological treatment of tannery wastewaters, was examined by the addition of phosphogypsum (PG) at a ratio of 1:1. Characterization of the tannery sludge leachates showed high amounts of chromium which exceeded the acceptable level for disposal in non-hazardous waste landfills, while the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations exceeded the limits for disposal in landfills for hazardous wastes, according to the EU Decision 2003/33/EC. Leachates of the waste stabilized with PG presented chromium and DOC concentrations below the regulation limits for disposal in landfills for non-hazardous wastes. Moreover, mixing PG with tannery sludge resulted in a stabilized waste with reduced radioactivity. PMID:25432294

  2. Iron hydroxy carbonate formation in zerovalent iron permeable reactive barriers: characterization and evaluation of phase stability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tony R; Wilkin, Richard T

    2010-07-30

    Predicting the long-term potential of permeable reactive barriers for treating contaminated groundwater relies on understanding the endpoints of biogeochemical reactions between influent groundwater and the reactive medium. Iron hydroxy carbonate (chukanovite) is frequently observed as a secondary mineral precipitate in granular iron PRBs. Mineralogical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy on materials collected from three field-based PRBs in the US (East Helena, MT; Elizabeth City, NC; Denver Federal Center, CO). These PRBs were installed to treat a range of contaminants, including chlorinated organics, hexavalent chromium, and arsenic. Results obtained indicate that chukanovite is a prevalent secondary precipitate in the PRBs. Laboratory experiments on high-purity chukanovite separates were carried out to constrain the room-temperature solubility for this mineral. An estimated Gibbs energy of formation (Delta(f)G degrees) for chukanovite is -1174.4 +/- 6 kJ/mol. A mineral stability diagram is consistent with observations from the field. Water chemistry from the three reactive barriers falls inside the predicted stability field for chukanovite, at inorganic carbon concentrations intermediate to the stability fields of siderite and ferrous hydroxide. These new data will aid in developing better predictive models of mineral accumulation in zerovalent iron PRBs.

  3. A Gating Charge Transfer Center in Voltage Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, X.; Lee, A; Limapichat, W; Dougherty, D; MacKinnon, R

    2010-01-01

    Voltage sensors regulate the conformations of voltage-dependent ion channels and enzymes. Their nearly switchlike response as a function of membrane voltage comes from the movement of positively charged amino acids, arginine or lysine, across the membrane field. We used mutations with natural and unnatural amino acids, electrophysiological recordings, and x-ray crystallography to identify a charge transfer center in voltage sensors that facilitates this movement. This center consists of a rigid cyclic 'cap' and two negatively charged amino acids to interact with a positive charge. Specific mutations induce a preference for lysine relative to arginine. By placing lysine at specific locations, the voltage sensor can be stabilized in different conformations, which enables a dissection of voltage sensor movements and their relation to ion channel opening.

  4. Voltage controlled current source

    DOEpatents

    Casne, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  5. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.; Savage, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  6. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  7. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanacek, D.L.; Pike, C.D.

    1982-07-13

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly having a tubular insulator extending between the ground plane ring and the high voltage ring. The insulator is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring to the high voltage ring, producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall of the insulator to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly.

  8. Voltage Regulators for Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, R.

    1986-01-01

    Two simple circuits developed to provide voltage regulation for highvoltage (i.e., is greater than 75 volts) and low-voltage (i.e., is less than 36 volts) photovoltaic/battery power systems. Use of these circuits results in voltage regulator small, low-cost, and reliable, with very low power dissipation. Simple oscillator circuit controls photovoltaic-array current to regulate system voltage and control battery charging. Circuit senses battery (and system) voltage and adjusts array current to keep battery voltage from exceeding maximum voltage.

  9. Evaluation on the stability of Hg in ABS disk CRM during measurements by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Masaki; Kidokoro, Toshihiro; Hioki, Akiharu

    2012-01-01

    The stability of Hg in an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene disk certified reference material (ABS disk CRM, NMIJ CRM 8116-a) during measurements by wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis was evaluated in this study. The XRF intensities of Hg (L(α)) and Pb (L(α)) as well as the XRF intensity ratios of Hg (L(α))/Pb (L(α)) observed under different X-ray tube current conditions as well as their irradiation time were examined to evaluate the stability of Hg in the ABS disk CRM. The observed XRF intensities and the XRF intensity ratios for up to 32 h of measurements under 80 mA of X-ray tube current condition were constant, even though the surface of the ABS disk CRM was charred by the X-ray irradiation with high current for a long time. Moreover, the measurements on Hg and Pb in the charred disks by an energy dispersive XRF (ED-XRF) spectrometer showed constant XRF intensity ratios of Hg (L(α))/Pb (L(α)). From these results, Hg in the ABS disk CRM was evaluated to be sufficiently stable for XRF analysis.

  10. Contributions of intracellular ions to kv channel voltage sensor dynamics.

    PubMed

    Goodchild, Samuel J; Fedida, David

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) of Kv channels control ionic conductance through coupling of the movement of charged residues in the S4 segment to conformational changes at the cytoplasmic region of the pore domain, that allow K(+) ions to flow. Conformational transitions within the VSD are induced by changes in the applied voltage across the membrane field. However, several other factors not directly linked to the voltage-dependent movement of charged residues within the voltage sensor impact the dynamics of the voltage sensor, such as inactivation, ionic conductance, intracellular ion identity, and block of the channel by intracellular ligands. The effect of intracellular ions on voltage sensor dynamics is of importance in the interpretation of gating current measurements and the physiology of pore/voltage sensor coupling. There is a significant amount of variability in the reported kinetics of voltage sensor deactivation kinetics of Kv channels attributed to different mechanisms such as open state stabilization, immobilization, and relaxation processes of the voltage sensor. Here we separate these factors and focus on the causal role that intracellular ions can play in allosterically modulating the dynamics of Kv voltage sensor deactivation kinetics. These considerations are of critical importance in understanding the molecular determinants of the complete channel gating cycle from activation to deactivation.

  11. Evaluation of microwave oven heating for prediction of drug-excipient compatibilities and accelerated stability studies.

    PubMed

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Østergaard, Jesper; Cornett, Claus; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2015-05-15

    Microwave ovens have been used extensively in organic synthesis in order to accelerate reaction rates. Here, a set up comprising a microwave oven combined with silicon carbide (SiC) plates for the controlled microwave heating of model formulations has been applied in order to investigate, if a microwave oven is applicable for accelerated drug stability testing. Chemical interactions were investigated in three selected model formulations of drug and excipients regarding the formation of ester and amide reaction products. In the accelerated stability studies, a design of experiments (DoE) approach was applied in order to be able to rank excipients regarding reactivity: Study A: cetirizine with PEG 400, sorbitol, glycerol and propylene glycol. Study B: 6-aminocaproic acid with citrate, acetate, tartrate and gluconate. Study C: atenolol with citric, tartaric, malic, glutaric, and sorbic acid. The model formulations were representative for oral solutions (co-solvents), parenteral solutions (buffer species) and solid dosage forms (organic acids applicable for solubility enhancement). The DoE studies showed overall that the same impurities were generated by microwave oven heating leading to temperatures between 150°C and 180°C as compared to accelerated stability studies performed at 40°C and 80°C using a conventional oven. Ranking of the reactivity of the excipients could be made in the DoE studies performed at 150-180°C, which was representative for the ranking obtained after storage at 40°C and 80°C. It was possible to reduce the time needed for drug-excipient compatibility testing of the three model formulations from weeks to less than an hour in the three case studies. The microwave oven is therefore considered to be an interesting alternative to conventional thermal techniques for the investigation of drug-excipient interactions during preformulation.

  12. Photoacoustic Evaluation of Sunscreen Stability: Wind, Water, and the Influence of the Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, S. B.; Barja, P. R.

    2012-11-01

    Sunscreens are designed to protect the skin against damage caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation—ranging from sunburns and premature aging to skin cancer. The photoacoustic (PA) technique can be employed to analyze topical products like sunscreens. This study aims to characterize the response of commercially available sunscreens subjected to wind and water exposure and applied in two different substrates: pig ear skin and artificial skin (Vitroskin ® ). The light source of the experimental setup was a tungsten lamp (250 W) mechanically modulated at 11 Hz. Measurements employed a double-faced, open PA cell with a sapphire window on one side; the opposite side was closed by the sample itself. Initial measurements were performed: (i) before sunscreen application in the sample, and (ii) immediately after sunscreen application. The sample was then immersed in a saline solution for 3 s and exposed to the wind under ambient temperature for 30 min; after that, a new measurement was performed. This cycle was repeated each 30 min, up to a total time of 2 h. Fitting curves (Boltzmann type) for the time evolution of the PA signal were generated with the software Origin ® . After measurements, Vitroskin ® was found to be a more adequate substrate than pig skin in the analysis of sunscreen stability. Results obtained indicate that the stability is not dependent on the sun protection factor; measurements performed in Vitroskin ® show good stability of the topically applied products for up to 2 h after sunscreen application, with a fall of less than 40 % in the PA signal amplitude even after exposure to external agents (wind and water).

  13. Preparation and Evaluation of Oxaliplatin Thermosensitive Liposomes with Rapid Release and High Stability.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chunying; Yu, Fanglin; Yang, Yang; Cheng, Xiaohui; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Shiqing; Yang, Zhenbo; Li, Mingyuan; Li, Zhiping; Mei, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin (OXP) was reported to show low anti-tumor activity when used alone and to display side effects; this low activity was attributed to high partitioning to erythrocytes and low accumulation in tumors. Thermosensitive liposomes (TSL) were considered able to specifically deliver drugs to heated tumors and to resolve the OXP distribution problem. Regretfully, TSL encapsulating doxorubicin did not demonstrate significant improvement in progression-free survival. Drug release below 41°C and significant leakage were considered major reasons for the failure. The purpose of this study was to acquire OXP TSL with rapid release at the triggered temperature and high stability at body temperature and at storage temperatures. A small quantity of poloxamer 188 was introduced into the TSL formulation to stabilize the encapsulated drug. It was shown that the addition of poloxamer 188 had no influence on the TSL characteristics. More than 90% of OXP was released within 10 min at 42°C, and less than 15% was released within 60 min at temperatures below 39°C. TSL were stable at 37°C for 96 h and at 4°C for 6 months. The anti-tumor activity of TSL at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg was certified to be equal to those of OXP injection and non-thermosensitive liposomes (NTSL) at the dose of 5 mg/kg, and significant improvement of tumor inhibition was observed in TSL compared with injection and NTSL at the same dose. It was also shown from the histological transmutation of tumors that TSL had stronger anti-tumor activity. Therefore, it could be concluded that TSL composed of a proper amount of poloxamer had rapid release and high stability, and OXP TSL would be anticipated to exert prominent anti-tumor activity in the clinic. PMID:27415823

  14. Preparation and Evaluation of Oxaliplatin Thermosensitive Liposomes with Rapid Release and High Stability

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaohui; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Shiqing; Yang, Zhenbo; Li, Mingyuan; Li, Zhiping; Mei, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin (OXP) was reported to show low anti-tumor activity when used alone and to display side effects; this low activity was attributed to high partitioning to erythrocytes and low accumulation in tumors. Thermosensitive liposomes (TSL) were considered able to specifically deliver drugs to heated tumors and to resolve the OXP distribution problem. Regretfully, TSL encapsulating doxorubicin did not demonstrate significant improvement in progression-free survival. Drug release below 41°C and significant leakage were considered major reasons for the failure. The purpose of this study was to acquire OXP TSL with rapid release at the triggered temperature and high stability at body temperature and at storage temperatures. A small quantity of poloxamer 188 was introduced into the TSL formulation to stabilize the encapsulated drug. It was shown that the addition of poloxamer 188 had no influence on the TSL characteristics. More than 90% of OXP was released within 10 min at 42°C, and less than 15% was released within 60 min at temperatures below 39°C. TSL were stable at 37°C for 96 h and at 4°C for 6 months. The anti-tumor activity of TSL at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg was certified to be equal to those of OXP injection and non-thermosensitive liposomes (NTSL) at the dose of 5 mg/kg, and significant improvement of tumor inhibition was observed in TSL compared with injection and NTSL at the same dose. It was also shown from the histological transmutation of tumors that TSL had stronger anti-tumor activity. Therefore, it could be concluded that TSL composed of a proper amount of poloxamer had rapid release and high stability, and OXP TSL would be anticipated to exert prominent anti-tumor activity in the clinic. PMID:27415823

  15. Evaluation of microwave oven heating for prediction of drug-excipient compatibilities and accelerated stability studies.

    PubMed

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Østergaard, Jesper; Cornett, Claus; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2015-05-15

    Microwave ovens have been used extensively in organic synthesis in order to accelerate reaction rates. Here, a set up comprising a microwave oven combined with silicon carbide (SiC) plates for the controlled microwave heating of model formulations has been applied in order to investigate, if a microwave oven is applicable for accelerated drug stability testing. Chemical interactions were investigated in three selected model formulations of drug and excipients regarding the formation of ester and amide reaction products. In the accelerated stability studies, a design of experiments (DoE) approach was applied in order to be able to rank excipients regarding reactivity: Study A: cetirizine with PEG 400, sorbitol, glycerol and propylene glycol. Study B: 6-aminocaproic acid with citrate, acetate, tartrate and gluconate. Study C: atenolol with citric, tartaric, malic, glutaric, and sorbic acid. The model formulations were representative for oral solutions (co-solvents), parenteral solutions (buffer species) and solid dosage forms (organic acids applicable for solubility enhancement). The DoE studies showed overall that the same impurities were generated by microwave oven heating leading to temperatures between 150°C and 180°C as compared to accelerated stability studies performed at 40°C and 80°C using a conventional oven. Ranking of the reactivity of the excipients could be made in the DoE studies performed at 150-180°C, which was representative for the ranking obtained after storage at 40°C and 80°C. It was possible to reduce the time needed for drug-excipient compatibility testing of the three model formulations from weeks to less than an hour in the three case studies. The microwave oven is therefore considered to be an interesting alternative to conventional thermal techniques for the investigation of drug-excipient interactions during preformulation. PMID:25746946

  16. Failure Modes during Low-Voltage Electrowetting.

    PubMed

    Mibus, Marcel; Hu, Xiaoyu; Knospe, Carl; Reed, Michael L; Zangari, Giovanni

    2016-06-22

    Low-voltage electrowetting devices allow significant contact angle changes below a 50 V bias; however, operation under prolonged cycling and failure modes have not yet been sufficiently elucidated. In this work, the failure modes and performance degradation of Cytop (23-210 nm)/aluminum oxide (15-44 nm) bilayers have been investigated. Contact angle and leakage current were measured during stepped voltage measurements up to failure, showing three electrowetting response regimes: ideal Young-Lippmann behavior, contact angle saturation, and dielectric breakdown. The onset of ionic conduction in aluminum oxide and the resulting breakdown control when the layer would ultimately fail, but the thickness of the Cytop layer determined the achievable contact angle versus voltage characteristics. Cyclic electrowetting measurements studied the repeatability of contact angle change using an applied voltage above or below the voltage drop needed for polymer breakdown (VT). Results show repeatable electrowetting below VT and a rapidly diminishing contact angle response above VT. The leakage current and injected charge cannot be used to comprehensively assess the stability of the system during operation. The contact potential difference measured with a Kelvin probe provides an alternative means of assessing the extent of the damage. PMID:27253515

  17. Evaluation of Thermal Stability of Nomex® Brand Paper in Main Transformer of Shinkansen Train Series 100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Kondo, Chihiro; Naruse, Shinji; Ishii, Yoshitada

    Nomex® brand paper has been used as wire wrapping insulation material of main transformers of Shinkansen Train Series 100 with silicone oil. After approximately 12-13 years service, 8 transformers of Series 100 were sampled to evaluate degradation of Nomex® brand paper in terms of tensile strength and intrinsic viscosity. All data were compared with initial data. The result of less degradation shows Nomex® has good thermal stability in silicone oil in the main transformer of Shinkansen Train which were used in very severe condition.

  18. Transient AC voltage related phenomena for HVDC schemes connected to weak AC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pilotto, L.A.S.; Szechtman, M. ); Hammad, A.E. )

    1992-07-01

    In this paper a didactic explanation of voltage stability associated phenomena at HVDC terminals is presented. Conditions leading to ac voltage collapse problems are identified. A mechanism that excites control-induced voltage oscillations is shown. The voltage stability factor is used for obtaining the maximum power limits of ac/dc systems operating with different control strategies. Correlation to Pd {times} Id curves is given. Solutions for eliminating the risks of voltage collapse and for avoiding control-induced oscillations are discussed. The results are supported by detailed digital simulations of a weak ac/dc system using EMTP.

  19. Probabilistic stability evaluation of submerged slopes in Lake Zurich (Switzerland) and seismic triggering scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strupler, Michael; Hilbe, Michael; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Kopf, Achim J.; Fleischmann, Timo; Strasser, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The consequences of subaquatic slope failures both in the marine and the lacustrine realm can be very serious. For hazard assessments, stability analyses of submerged slopes are therefore crucial steps, yet very complex ones, as they require knowledge of several geotechnical and morphological factors. Traces of subaquatic mass movements are often used to extract paleoseismological information. For Lake Zurich, a perialpine lake in Northern Switzerland, coeval subaquatic landslide occurrences along distinct time-correlative horizons have been previously interpreted as earthquake-triggered. The 'Oberrieden' study area (˜2 km2) shows three distinct, dated subaquatic landslides with well-defined headscarps, translation areas and mass-transport deposits. The respective failures have been assigned to different trigger mechanisms ranging from human-induced shore loading to earthquake shaking. However, the local shaking intensities leading to slope failures are unknown. A 3.5 kHz pinger seismic reflection dataset and a 300 kHz multibeam bathymetric dataset (1 m grid) were used for the detection of landslide features and for the layout of a coring campaign and in situ geotechnical testing. A total of 8 Kullenberg-system piston cores (4 cores /km2) and 22 short gravity cores (11 cores /km2) were taken and 39 in situ Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) (˜20 CPT /km2) were performed. The high density of sediment cores and CPT sites in a well-known area allows us to include the spatial variability in the slope model. With a probabilistic back analysis of the earthquake-triggered ˜2210 BP subaquatic landslide and an assessment of the actual stability of the neighbouring, unfailed sediment drape, we analyse different scenarios of slope stability under static conditions and under seismic shaking in order to quantitatively constrain failure mechanisms and triggers. We apply a Monte Carlo two-dimensional limit-equilibrium infinite-slope stability model that includes a sediment

  20. Organic solar cells: evaluation of the stability of P3HT using time-delayed degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, Chung-How; Poh, Chung-Kiak; Bryant, Glenn; Belcher, Warwick; Dastoor, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Despite the fact that the performance of organic solar cells is generally susceptible to degradation by moisture exposure, there has been suggestion that the photoactive layer (P3HT) is surprisingly resilient. This work attempts to confirm the stability of P3HT as an organic solar cell material by deliberately introducing water into the photoactive layer. A dramatic step drop in device performance during cell characterization is observed approximately one day after the device has been fabricated. The time-delayed step drop in output efficiency strongly suggests that moisture has little effect on the P3HT conducting polymer.

  1. Student Evaluations of Physics Teachers: On the Stability and Persistence of Gender Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Geoff; Hazari, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    There is a long history of research which confounds the simple interpretation that evaluations in an educational context are purely measures of competency. One such issue is that of gender bias in student evaluations of their teachers. In our prior work, we found that male students underrated female high school teachers in biology and chemistry…

  2. Teacher-Course Evaluation: A Longitudinal Study of Response Stability and Instrument Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollester, Charles W.; And Others

    The temporal context within which a teacher and course evaluation (TCE) is completed did not appear to be of crucial importance in affecting TCE responses. A sample of students was asked to evaluate, initially as freshmen and retrospectively as seniors, a specific teacher and course. Additional data on the student's academic status characteristics…

  3. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of cottonseed oil and evaluation of its oxidative stability and physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Taghvaei, Mostafa; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Assadpoor, Elham; Nowrouzieh, Shahram; Alishah, Omran

    2014-10-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) is a novel method, which can reduce the extraction time and solvent consumption. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of MAE on oxidative stability and physicochemical properties of cottonseed oil. We found that the optimum extraction conditions were: irradiation time 3.57 min; cottonseed moisture content 14% and cottonseed to solvent ratio 1:4, which resulted in an extraction efficiency of 32.6%, 46 ppm total phenolic content, 0.7% free fatty acids, peroxide value of 0.2 and 11.5 h of Rancimat oxidative stability at 110 °C. GC analysis for MAE cottonseed oil determined palmitic acid (23.6%), stearic acid (2.3%), oleic acid (15.6%) and linoleic acid (55.1%), which were not significant different (P>0.05) than conventionally-extracted (control) cottonseed oil. MAE oil samples from whole cottonseed (without dehulling) had the greatest long-term stability, more than oil samples containing BHT.

  4. Evaluation of flexural strength and color stability of different denture base materials including flexible material after using different denture cleansers

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vrinda R.; Shah, Darshana Nilesh; Chauhan, Chirag J.; Doshi, Paras J.; Kumar, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Present study aimed at evaluating the colour stability and flexural strength of flexible denture base materials (Valplast) and Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base material (Meliodent) processed by two different methods (Injection moulding and compression moulding) after immersing them in three different denture cleansers with acidic, basic and neutral PH. Methods and Materials: Total 120 specimens (65 × 10 × 3 mm3), 40 specimens of each material (Valplast, Meliodent compression moulding and injection moulding) were immersed in denture cleansers having different PH; Valclean (Acidic), Clinsodent (Basic) and Polident (Neutral) as well as Distilled Water. Color changes were measured with a spectrophotometer after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months of immersion cycle. A flexural 3-point bending test was carried out by using an Instron universal testing machine after 6 months of soaking. Data were analyzed using SPSS software Results: Maximum effect on colour stability was noted with Clinsodent followed by Valclean. Least color changes were observed after immersion in Polident. Colour difference was increased significantly as the immersion time increased. For both Meliodent and Nylon resins, statistically significant change in flexural strength occurred with immersion in all denture cleansers. Clinsodent has greater effect as compared to Valclean and Polident. Conclusions: Polident and Valclean can be safely used as denture cleanser for both nylon and acrylic resin denture base materials as far as colour stability and flexural strength both are concerned. PMID:26929541

  5. Application of maltodextrin and gum Arabic in microencapsulation of saffron petal's anthocyanins and evaluating their storage stability and color.

    PubMed

    Mahdavee Khazaei, K; Jafari, S M; Ghorbani, M; Hemmati Kakhki, A

    2014-05-25

    In this work, anthocyanin stability and color of encapsulated freeze-dried saffron petal's extract with various matrices consisting gum Arabic (AG) and maltodextrin (M7 and M20) were studied. Total anthocyanins of powders and color parameters (a*, b*, L*, C, H° and TCD) were measured immediately after production and during storage up to 10 weeks by pH differential method and computer vision, respectively. Different compounds of wall materials did not show any significant differences in terms of stabilizing anthocyanins (P<0.01) and no significant decrease in anthocyanin content of the powders was observed after storage. The efficiency order of wall materials considering total color differences (TCD) was AG>M20>M7. By evaluating 3D surface and Cox trace plots it was revealed that wall formulas which had the lowest amount of AG and highest amounts of M20 and M7 showed the lowest total color differences after storage (P<0.05). To conclude, microencapsulation by freeze drying could be recommended as a suitable method for stabilizing anthocyanins of saffron petal's extract.

  6. Preparation and in vivo evaluation of PCADK/PLGA microspheres for improving stability and efficacy of rhGH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenhui; Yu, Changhui; Liu, Jiaxin; Teng, Lesheng; Sun, Fengying; Li, Youxin

    2015-11-30

    The goal of this research is to prepare poly(cyclohexane-1,4 diyl acetone dimethylene ketal) (PCADK)/poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) blend microspheres loaded with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). The effect of PCADK degradation products on the structural integrity, secondary and tertiary structure and pharmacodynamics of rhGH was evaluated by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE), size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC), circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy and in hypophysectomized rat models. Compared with PLGA degradation products, rhGH was found to be more stable in the presence of PCADK degradation products. PCADK/PLGA blend microspheres were then prepared and the morphology, encapsulation efficiency, release behavior and rhGH stability were investigated. PCADK/PLGA microspheres had regular shapes and smooth surfaces when the proportion of PCADK was less than 50%. The late-releasable amount of rhGH in PCADK/PLGA microspheres was greater than that in PLGA microspheres. In addition, the PCADK/PLGA microspheres showed larger AUC and improved therapeutic effects on rats than PLGA microspheres. Furthermore, the pH inside the microspheres was detected by CLSM to explain the improved rhGH stability in the PCADK/PLGA microspheres. In conclusion, PCADK/PLGA blend microspheres showed potential to improve rhGH stability and the efficacy of sustained-release of rhGH compared with PLGA microspheres.

  7. An in vitro and in vivo toxicologic evaluation of a stabilized aloe vera gel supplement drink in mice.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Inder; Winters, Wallace D; Scott, Michael; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-05-01

    Aloe vera gel is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of a stabilized aloe vera gel derived from the inner gel fillet and marketed as a drink. The gel juice was assessed through assays of genotoxicity in vivo and acute and subchronic toxicity in B6C3F1 mice. Aloe vera did not increase the SOS DNA repair response in Escherichia coli and at 1× and 0.25× it did not increase mutagenesis of Salmonella TA100 resulting in histidine biosynthesis. At 3 and 14days following acute exposure, male and female mice gavaged with the stabilized aloe gel had daily appearances, total body weight gain, selected organ weights, necropsy and hematology tests similar to control mice gavaged with water. After a 13-week aloe gel feed study, male and female mice evaluated by the same criteria as the acute study plus feed consumption and serum chemistry tests were found to be equivalent to control groups. These data indicate that a commercial stabilized aloe gel consumed as a beverage was not genotoxic or toxic in vivo. These results contrast with those obtained using preparations containing aloe latex phenolic compounds such as anthraquinones.

  8. Analysis and test evaluation of the dynamic response and stability of three advanced turboprop models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, P. N.; Arseneaux, P. J.; Smith, A. F.; Turnberg, J. E.; Brooks, B. M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of dynamic response and stability wind tunnel tests of three 62.2 cm (24.5 in) diameter models of the Prop-Fan, advanced turboprop, are presented. Measurements of dynamic response were made with the rotors mounted on an isolated nacelle, with varying tilt for nonuniform inflow. One model was also tested using a semi-span wing and fuselage configuration for response to realistic aircraft inflow. Stability tests were performed using tunnel turbulence or a nitrogen jet for excitation. Measurements are compared with predictions made using beam analysis methods for the model with straight blades, and finite element analysis methods for the models with swept blades. Correlations between measured and predicted rotating blade natural frequencies for all the models are very good. The IP dynamic response of the straight blade model is reasonably well predicted. The IP response of the swept blades is underpredicted and the wing induced response of the straight blade is overpredicted. Two models did not flutter, as predicted. One swept blade model encountered an instability at a higher RPM than predicted, showing predictions to be conservative.

  9. Evaluation of Thermal Stability of Organic Electro-Optic Device by Using Thermally Stimulated Current.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Ryoma; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Yamada, Toshiki; Otomo, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurement was employed to study the thermal stability of electro-optic (EO) polymers, i.e., guest/host polymer DR1/PMMA and side-chain polymer PMMA-co-DR1. Here the isothermal relaxation test showed that the relaxation time τ (85 °C) of side-chain polymer PMMA-co-DR1 is longer than that of guest/host polymer DR1/PMMA. TSC peaks appeared symmetrically in proportion to the poling electric field Ep, indicating that DR1 molecules make a dominant contribution to dipolar depolarization. Thermal sampling (TS) method showed that the activation energy of the DR1/PMMA is around 1 eV, while that of the PMMA-co-DR1 is distributed >1 eV. Results suggested that side-chain polymer is preferable to the guest/host polymer in the thermal stability. TSC measurement is helpful as a conventional method for studying the life time of EO polymers in terms of dipolar motion. PMID:27451636

  10. Critical evaluation of the unsteady aerodynamics approach to dynamic stability at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    Bifurcation theory is used to analyze the nonlinear dynamic stability characteristics of an aircraft subject to single-degree-of-freedom. The requisite moment of the aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion is shown to be representable in a form equivalent to the response to finite amplitude oscillations. It is shown how this information can be deduced from the case of infinitesimal-amplitude oscillations. The bifurcation theory analysis reveals that when the bifurcation parameter is increased beyond a critical value at which the aerodynamic damping vanishes, new solutions representing finite amplitude periodic motions bifurcate from the previously stable steady motion. The sign of a simple criterion, cast in terms of aerodynamic properties, determines whether the bifurcating solutions are stable or unstable. For the pitching motion of flat-plate airfoils flying at supersonic/hypersonic speed and for oscillation of flaps at transonic speed, the bifurcation is subcritical, implying either the exchanges of stability between steady and periodic motion are accompanied by hysteresis phenomena, or that potentially large aperiodic departures from steady motion may develop.

  11. Design and evaluation approach for increasing stability and performance of touch pens in screen handwriting tasks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fong-Gong; Luo, Shuyi

    2006-05-01

    Touch pens allow user to write directly on a computer screen. An ergonomically designed touch pen can improve user performance and reduce musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigates the touch pen use in three sections. First, observations of users' handwriting during three screen tasks: writing, pointing-and-clicking and drawing. Second, examinations of the design and development of touch pens based on observed results and related design theory. Third, this study compares the five-point grip pen (FPGP) with the common touch pen. Study conclusions are as follows: (1) The gesture of gripping a common touch pen for on-screen handwriting is unnatural; that is, users tend to use the wrist, elbow or little finger for support. A user's hand and fingers are in a more natural position when using an FPGP. (2) User performance with the FPGP is superior to that with the common touch pen during three screen tasks. (3) The advantages of the FPGP include: increased hand stability, reduced hand fatigue, enhanced performance, and provided adjustability. (4) This study proposed an FPGP whereby a brace was added to a touch pen to increase the stability during screen-based tasks. The idea of adding a brace can be applied to those tasks requiring higher accuracy or continuous freehand without other limb support tasks, such as wall-painting, surgery operation, and other aiming tasks.

  12. Using AIRS and IASI Data to Evaluate Absolute Radiometric Accuracy and Stability for Climate Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Pagano, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The creation of multi-decadal data sets for climate research requires better than 100 mK absolute calibration accuracy for the full range of spectral temperatures encountered under global conditions. Validation that this accuracy is achieved by the operational hyperspectral sounders from polar orbit is facilitated by comparing data from two instruments. Extreme radiometric calibration stability is critical to allow a long time series of noisy, but presumably long-term accurate truth measurements to be used for the validation of absolute accuracy at the 100 mK level. We use the RTGSST in the tropical oceans as ground truth. The difference between the AIRS derived sst2616 and the RTGSST based on six years of data shows a systematic cold bias of about 250 mK, but better than 4 mK/year stability. The double difference between AIRS and the RTGSST and IASI and the RTGSST with less than one year of data already allows statements at the 100 mK absolute level. It shows a 60 mK difference between the AIRS and the IASI calibration at 2616 cm-(sup 1) and 300 K, with a statistically insignificant 20 mK shift in six months.

  13. Stability evaluation of the PUMA-560 robot arm under model mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Thomas; Perev, K.; Valavanis, Kimon P.; Gardner, S.

    1991-02-01

    This paper summarizes the stability of the PUMA - 560 robot manipulator under dynamic model mismatch resulting from incomplete knowledge of the link masses centers of mass and radii of gyration. PD and PID controllers are used. PAPER SUMMARY Model based control of robotic manipulators eliminates the nonlinearities in the manipulator equations under perfect knowledge of dynamic model parameters. When this is the case the manipulator model matches completely the real robot arm. However robot manipulators are in general extremely complicated to even approximately model. Moreover to keep the system model within practical and acceptable limits one has to accept (and control) unmodeled dynamics. Model mismatch may also result from incomplete knowledge of manipulator hardware parameters. This paper summarizes the stability of the PUMA - 560 manipulator under model mismatch using PD and PID controllers. Craig''s method [3] is directly applied when a PD controller is used. However it is also extended and modified to incorporate PID controllers [12]. The PUMA-560 robot arm has been selected because of our knowledge related to its real-time behavior [6 7 10 11]. All desired trajectories are achievable in real-time do not violate arm speed acceleration structural and hardware limits and have been repeatedly tested and used for real-time control of the PUMA robot arm. A software package (robot simulation package) has been built on top of the original software given to us by Dr.

  14. Biomechanical Evaluation of Pedicle Screw-Based Dynamic Stabilization Devices for the Lumbar Spine: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ponnappan, Ravi K.; Song, Jason; Vaccaro, Alexander R.

    2008-01-01

    Study Design This study is a systematic review of published biomechanical studies involving pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization devices (PDS) with a special focus on kinematics and load transmission through the functional spine unit (FSU). Methods A literature search was performed via the PubMed online database from 1990 to 2008 using the following key words: “biomechanics,” “lumbar dynamic stabilization,” “Graf system,” “Dynesys,” and “posterior dynamic implant.” Citations were limited to papers describing biomechanics of pedicle screw-based PDS devices currently available for clinical use. Studies describing clinical experience, radiology, and in vivo testing were excluded from the review. Parameters measured included kinematics of the FSU (range of motion (ROM), neutral zone (NZ), and location of the center of rotation) and load transmission through the disk, facets, and instrumentation. Results A total of 27 publications were found that concerned the biomechanical evaluation of lumbar pedicle screw-based dynamic stabilization instrumentation. Nine in vitro experimental studies and 4 finite element analyses satisfied the inclusion criteria. The Dynesys implant was the most investigated pedicle screw-based PDS system. In vitro cadaveric studies mainly focused on kinematics comparing ROM of intact versus instrumented spines whereas finite element analyses allowed analysis of load transmission at the instrumented and adjacent levels. Conclusion Biomechanical studies demonstrate that pedicle screw-based PDS devices limit intervertebral motion while unloading the intervertebral disk. The implant design and the surgical technique have a significant impact on the biomechanical behavior of the instrumented spinal segment. The posterior placement of such devices results in non-physiologic intervertebral kinematics with a posterior shift of the axis of rotation. Biomechanical studies suggest that the difference at the adjacent level

  15. Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Integrated Component Systems, Inc. incorporated information from a NASA Tech Briefs article into a voltage-controlled oscillator it designed for a customer. The company then applied the technology to its series of phase-locked loop synthesizers, which offer superior phase noise performance.

  16. High Voltage Insulation Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherb, V.; Rogalla, K.; Gollor, M.

    2008-09-01

    In preparation of new Electronic Power Conditioners (EPC's) for Travelling Wave Tub Amplifiers (TWTA's) on telecom satellites a study for the development of new high voltage insulation technology is performed. The initiative is mandatory to allow compact designs and to enable higher operating voltages. In a first task a market analysis was performed, comparing different materials with respect to their properties and processes. A hierarchy of selection criteria was established and finally five material candidates (4 Epoxy resins and 1 Polyurethane resin) were selected to be further investigated in the test program. Samples for the test program were designed to represent core elements of an EPC, the high voltage transformer and Printed Circuit Boards of the high voltage section. All five materials were assessed in the practical work flow of the potting process and electrical, mechanical, thermal and lifetime testing was performed. Although the lifetime tests results were overlayed by a larges scatter, finally two candidates have been identified for use in a subsequent qualification program. This activity forms part of element 5 of the ESA ARTES Programme.

  17. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it is…

  18. Measuring Breakdown Voltage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Herbert J.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses an aspect of conductivity, one of the electrical properties subdivisions, and describes a tester that can be shop-built. Breakdown voltage of an insulation material is specifically examined. Test procedures, parts lists, diagrams, and test data form are included. (MF)

  19. Evaluating the Effect of Ionic Strength on Duplex Stability for PNA Having Negatively or Positively Charged Side Chains

    PubMed Central

    De Costa, N. Tilani S.; Heemstra, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    The enhanced thermodynamic stability of PNA:DNA and PNA:RNA duplexes compared with DNA:DNA and DNA:RNA duplexes has been attributed in part to the lack of electrostatic repulsion between the uncharged PNA backbone and negatively charged DNA or RNA backbone. However, there are no previously reported studies that systematically evaluate the effect of ionic strength on duplex stability for PNA having a charged backbone. Here we investigate the role of charge repulsion in PNA binding by synthesizing PNA strands having negatively or positively charged side chains, then measuring their duplex stability with DNA or RNA at varying salt concentrations. At low salt concentrations, positively charged PNA binds more strongly to DNA and RNA than does negatively charged PNA. However, at medium to high salt concentrations, this trend is reversed, and negatively charged PNA shows higher affinity for DNA and RNA than does positively charged PNA. These results show that charge screening by counterions in solution enables negatively charged side chains to be incorporated into the PNA backbone without reducing duplex stability with DNA and RNA. This research provides new insight into the role of electrostatics in PNA binding, and demonstrates that introduction of negatively charged side chains is not significantly detrimental to PNA binding affinity at physiological ionic strength. The ability to incorporate negative charge without sacrificing binding affinity is anticipated to enable the development of PNA therapeutics that take advantage of both the inherent benefits of PNA and the multitude of charge-based delivery technologies currently being developed for DNA and RNA. PMID:23484047

  20. Application of matrix singular value properties for evaluating gain and phase margins of multiloop systems. [stability margins for wing flutter suppression and drone lateral attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Newsom, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A stability margin evaluation method in terms of simultaneous gain and phase changes in all loops of a multiloop system is presented. A universal gain-phase margin evaluation diagram is constructed by generalizing an existing method using matrix singular value properties. Using this diagram and computing the minimum singular value of the system return difference matrix over the operating frequency range, regions of guaranteed stability margins can be obtained. Singular values are computed for a wing flutter suppression and a drone lateral attitude control problem. The numerical results indicate that this method predicts quite conservative stability margins. In the second example if the eigenvalue magnitude is used instead of the singular value, as a measure of nearness to singularity, more realistic stability margins are obtained. However, this relaxed measure generally cannot guarantee global stability.

  1. Three Year RSA Evaluation of Vitamin E Diffused Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene Liners and Cup Stability.

    PubMed

    Sillesen, Nanna H; Greene, Meridith E; Nebergall, Audrey K; Nielsen, Poul T; Laursen, Mogens B; Troelsen, Anders; Malchau, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin E diffusion into highly cross-linked polyethylene (E-XLPE) is a method for enhancing oxidative stability of acetabular liners. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo penetration of E-XLPE using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Eighty-four hips were recruited into a prospective 10-year RSA. This is the first evaluation of the multicenter cohort after 3-years. All patients received E-XLPE liners (E1, Biomet) and porous-titanium coated cups (Regenerex, Biomet). There was no difference (P=0.450) in median femoral head penetration into the E-XLPE liners at 3-years comparing cobalt-chrome heads (-0.028mm; inter-quartile range (IQR) - 0.065 to 0.047) with ceramic heads (-0.043mm, IQR - 0.143to0.042). The 3-year follow-up indicates minimal E-XLPE liner penetration regardless of head material and minimal early cup movement.

  2. ISO 12189 standard for the preclinical evaluation of posterior spinal stabilization devices--II: A parametric comparative study.

    PubMed

    La Barbera, Luigi; Costa, Francesco; Villa, Tomaso

    2016-02-01

    The International Standardization Organization (ISO) 12189 standard was recently introduced to preclinically evaluate and compare the mechanical properties of posterior stabilization devices. This scenario presents some new significant steps ahead over the vertebrectomy model recommended by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F1717 standard: the modular anterior support allows for describing a closer scenario to the effective clinical use as well as to test very flexible and dynamic posterior stabilization devices. Despite these significant advantages, ISO 12189 received little attention in the literature. Anatomical parameters depending on the spinal level were compared to the published data or original measurements on biplanar stereoradiography on 13 patients. Other mechanical variables, describing the test set-up design, were considered and all parameters were investigated using a numerical parametric finite element model. Stress values were calculated by also considering their worst-case combination. The standard set-up represents quite well the anatomy of an instrumented average thoracolumbar segment. The parametric comparative analysis demonstrates a significant (even beyond +350%) maximum increase in the stress on the device, compared to the standard currently in use. The anterior support stiffness plays the most detrimental effect (maximum stress increases up to 396%). The initial precompression step has an important role in determining the final stress values achieved at peak load (up to +76%). Moreover, when combining these two contributions, an even higher stress increase may be achieved (up to 473%). Despite the other anatomical parameters playing a secondary role, their worst-case combination demonstrates that a device could potentially undergo higher stresses than those reached according to standard suggestions (maximum increase of 22.4% at L1). Any user/designer should be aware of these effects when using ISO 12189 standard for the

  3. Ti-Ni Rods with Variable Stiffness for Spine Stabilization: Manufacture and Biomechanical Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brailovski, Vladimir; Facchinello, Yann; Brummund, Martin; Petit, Yvan; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc

    2016-03-01

    A new concept of monolithic spinal rods with variable flexural stiffness is proposed to reduce the risk of adjacent segment degeneration and vertebral fracture, while providing adequate stability to the spine. The variability of mechanical properties is generated by locally annealing Ti-Ni shape memory alloy rods. Ten-minute Joule effect annealing allows the restoration of the superelasticity in the heated portion of the rod. Such processing also generates a mechanical property gradient between the heated and the unheated zones. A numerical model simulating the annealing temperature and the distributions of the mechanical properties was developed to optimize the Joule-heating strategy and to modulate the rod's overall flexural stiffness. Subsequently, the rod model was included in a finite element model of a porcine lumbar spine to study the effect of the rod's stiffness profiles on the spinal biomechanics.

  4. Evaluation of Stability and Biological Activity of Solid Nanodispersion of Lambda-Cyhalothrin

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Bo; Feng, Lei; Pan, Zhenzhong; Yu, Manli; Zeng, Zhanghua; Sun, Changjiao; Zhao, Xiang; Wang, Yan; Cui, Haixin

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides are essential agrochemicals used to protect plants from diseases, pests and weeds. However, the formulation defects of conventional pesticides cause food toxicity and ecological environmental problems. In this study, a novel, efficient and environmentally friendly formulation of lambda-cyhalothrin, a solid nanodispersion, was successfully developed based on melt-emulsification and high-speed shearing methods. The solid nanodispersion presented excellent advantages over conventional pesticide formulations in such formulation functions as dispersibility, stability and bioavailability. The formulation is free of organic solvents, and the use of surfactant is reduced. Therefore, the application of the solid nanodispersion in crop production will improve efficacy and reduce the occurrence of both pesticide residues in food and environmental pollution from pesticides. PMID:26281043

  5. Surface voltage gradient role in high voltage solar array-plasma interaction: Center Director's discretionary fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A large amount of experimental and analytical effort has been directed toward understanding the plasma sheath growth and discharge phenomena which lead to high voltage solar array-space plasma interactions. An important question which has not been addressed is how the surface voltage gradient on such an array may affect these interactions. The results of this study indicate that under certain conditions, the voltage gradient should be taken into account when evaluating the effect on a solar array operating in a plasma environment.

  6. An evaluation of a solar radiation/delta-T method for estimating Pasquill-Gifford (P-G) stability categories

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    There has been a continuing need to develop robust methods for determining Pasquill-Gifford (P-G) stability categories using solely on-site meteorological instrumentation. The Revised EPA Guideline on Air Quality Models recommends several such methods. Experience with these suggests that, since they rely on turbulence measurements, they can be unduly influenced by local effects such as mesoscale circulation (e.g., upslope/downslope flows, land/sea breeze), wakes from tree barriers or buildings, etc. to such an extent as to diminish their practical usefulness. In the following discussion, a methodology is proposed for estimating P-G stability categories that employs on-site meteorological measurements (10m wind speed coupled with solar radiation during the day and temperature difference, {Delta}T, at night) in lieu of cloud cover and ceiling height observations. The proposed method was adapted from Bowen and is herein referred to as the solar radiation/delta-T (SRDT) method. To evaluate the method, an attempt was made to acquire data bases from diverse geographical areas. Data bases with {Delta}T measurements from 2-10m above ground level were of primary interest for characterizing the boundary layer; other intervals were considered for evaluation, as available. To document the consequence of implementing the method in practical applications, an analysis was needed of the effect on design concentration ratios.

  7. J-integral evaluation for 2D mixed-mode crack problems employing a meshfree stabilized conforming nodal integration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satoyuki; Suzuki, Hirotaka; Sadamoto, Shota; Sannomaru, Shogo; Yu, Tiantang; Bui, Tinh Quoc

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) in-plane mixed-mode fracture mechanics problems are analyzed employing an efficient meshfree Galerkin method based on stabilized conforming nodal integration (SCNI). In this setting, the reproducing kernel function as meshfree interpolant is taken, while employing the SCNI for numerical integration of stiffness matrix in the Galerkin formulation. The strain components are smoothed and stabilized employing Gauss divergence theorem. The path-independent integral ( J-integral) is solved based on the nodal integration by summing the smoothed physical quantities and the segments of the contour integrals. In addition, mixed-mode stress intensity factors (SIFs) are extracted from the J-integral by decomposing the displacement and stress fields into symmetric and antisymmetric parts. The advantages and features of the present formulation and discretization in evaluation of the J-integral of in-plane 2D fracture problems are demonstrated through several representative numerical examples. The mixed-mode SIFs are evaluated and compared with reference solutions. The obtained results reveal high accuracy and good performance of the proposed meshfree method in the analysis of 2D fracture problems.

  8. VIIRS Reflective Solar Band Radiometric and Stability Evaluation Using Deep Convective Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Mu, Qiaozhen

    2016-01-01

    This work takes advantage of the stable distribution of deep convective cloud (DCC) reflectance measurements to assess the calibration stability and detector difference in Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) reflective bands. VIIRS Sensor Data Records (SDRs) from February 2012 to June 2015 are utilized to analyze the long-term trending, detector difference, and half angle mirror (HAM) side difference. VIIRS has two thermal emissive bands with coverage crossing 11 microns for DCC pixel identification. The comparison of the results of these two processing bands is one of the indicators of analysis reliability. The long-term stability analysis shows downward trends (up to approximately 0.4 per year) for the visible and near-infrared bands and upward trends (up to 0.5per year) for the short- and mid-wave infrared bands. The detector difference for each band is calculated as the difference relative to the average reflectance overall detectors. Except for the slightly greater than 1 difference in the two bands at 1610 nm, the detector difference is less than1 for other solar reflective bands. The detector differences show increasing trends for some short-wave bands with center wavelengths from 400 to 600 nm and remain unchanged for the bands with longer center wavelengths. The HAM side difference is insignificant and stable. Those short-wave bands from 400 to 600 nm also have relatively larger HAM side difference, up to 0.25.Comparing the striped images from SDR and the smooth images after the correction validates the analyses of detector difference and HAM side difference. These analyses are very helpful for VIIRS calibration improvement and thus enhance product quality

  9. Preparation and in vivo evaluation of a novel stabilized linker for 211At labeling of protein.

    PubMed

    Talanov, Vladimir S; Garmestani, Kayhan; Regino, Celeste A S; Milenic, Diane E; Plascjak, Paul S; Waldmann, Thomas A; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2006-05-01

    Significant improvement of in vivo stability of 211At-labeled radioimmunoconjugates achieved upon employment of a recently reported new linker, succinimidyl N-2-(4-[211At]astatophenethyl)succinamate (SAPS), prompted additional studies of its chemistry. The 211At radiolabeling of succinimidyl N-2-(4-tributylstannylphenethyl)succinamate (1) was noted to decline after storage at -15 degrees C for greater than 6 months. Compound 1 was found to degrade via a ring closure reaction with the formation of N-2-(4-tributylstannylphenethyl)succinimide (3), and a modified procedure for the preparation of 1 was developed. The N-methyl structural analog of 1, succinimidyl N-2-(4-tributylstannylphenethyl)-N-methyl succinamate (SPEMS), was synthesized to investigate the possibility of improving the stability of reagent-protein linkage chemistry. Radiolabeling of SPEMS with 211At generates succinimidyl N-2-(4-[211At]astatophenethyl)-N-methyl succinamate (Methyl-SAPS), with yields being consistent for greater than 1 year. Radiolabelings of 1 and SPEMS with 125I generated succinimidyl N-2-(4-[125I]iodophenethyl)succinamate (SIPS) and succinimidyl N-2-(4-[125I]iodophenethyl)-N-methyl succinamate (Methyl-SIPS), respectively, and showed no decline in yields. Methyl-SAPS, SAPS, Methyl-SIPS and SIPS were conjugated to Herceptin for a comparative assessment in LS-174T xenograft-bearing mice. The conjugates of Herceptin with Methyl-SAPS or Methyl-SIPS demonstrated immunoreactivity equivalent to if not superior to the SAPS and SIPS paired analogs. The in vivo studies also revealed that the N-methyl modification resulted in a superior statinated product. PMID:16720238

  10. Comparative evaluation of multi-purpose solutions in the stabilization of tear lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Barniak, Vicki L; Burke, Susan E; Venkatesh, Srini

    2010-12-01

    The range and extent of tear proteins removed by various multi-purpose solutions has been investigated, but there is little information in the literature about their ability to prevent denaturation of tear proteins, particularly lysozyme. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of Bausch+Lomb Biotrue™ multi-purpose solution and other care solutions to affect denaturation of lysozyme using a lysozyme activity assay. The test solutions used were: Biotrue multi-purpose solution, Bausch+Lomb renu(®) fresh™, formerly ReNu MultiPlus(®), Alcon OPTI-FREE RepleniSH, Alcon OPTI-FREE EXPRESS, CIBA VISION AQuify, and AMO COMPLETE Multi-Purpose Solution Easy Rub Formula. A phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution served as a control. The test and control solutions containing lysozyme were exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a known denaturant of the enzyme. The assay was based on digestion of the cell wall of Micrococcus luteus in a suspension, a substrate sensitive to active lysozyme. Enzymatic activity against M. luteus was used to assess activity of lysozyme. The decrease in the turbidity of the cell wall suspension, a measure of relative enzyme activity, was determined by following the decrease in absorbance (at 450nm) over time using a spectrophotometer. Statistically significant greater stabilization of lysozyme was observed with Biotrue multi-purpose solution and renu fresh than with OPTI-FREE RepleniSH, OPTI-FREE EXPRESS, AQuify, COMPLETE Multi-Purpose Solution Easy Rub Formula, and a PBS control. The lysozyme activity assay revealed that Biotrue multi-purpose solution and renu fresh have the ability to stabilize lysozyme under conditions that typically denature the protein.

  11. Evaluating stability of histomorphometric features across scanner and staining variations: predicting biochemical recurrence from prostate cancer whole slide images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Patrick; Lee, George; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative histomorphometry (QH) is the process of computerized extraction of features from digitized tissue slide images. Typically these features are used in machine learning classifiers to predict disease presence, behavior and outcome. Successful robust classifiers require features that both discriminate between classes of interest and are stable across data from multiple sites. Feature stability may be compromised by variation in slide staining and scanning procedures. These laboratory specific variables include dye batch, slice thickness and the whole slide scanner used to digitize the slide. The key therefore is to be able to identify features that are not only discriminating between the classes of interest (e.g. cancer and non-cancer or biochemical recurrence and non- recurrence) but also features that will not wildly fluctuate on slides representing the same tissue class but from across multiple different labs and sites. While there has been some recent efforts at understanding feature stability in the context of radiomics applications (i.e. feature analysis of radiographic images), relatively few attempts have been made at studying the trade-off between feature stability and discriminability for histomorphometric and digital pathology applications. In this paper we present two new measures, preparation-induced instability score (PI) and latent instability score (LI), to quantify feature instability across and within datasets. Dividing PI by LI yields a ratio for how often a feature for a specific tissue class (e.g. low grade prostate cancer) is different between datasets from different sites versus what would be expected from random chance alone. Using this ratio we seek to quantify feature vulnerability to variations in slide preparation and digitization. Since our goal is to identify stable QH features we evaluate these features for their stability and thus inclusion in machine learning based classifiers in a use case involving prostate cancer

  12. Linking measurements of biodegradability, thermal stability and chemical composition to evaluate the effects of management on soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorich, Ed; Gillespie, Adam; Beare, Mike; Curtin, Denis; Sanei, Hamed; Yanni, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    The stability of soil organic matter (SOM) as it relates to resistance to microbial degradation has important implications for nutrient cycling, emission of greenhouse gases, and C sequestration. Hence, there is interest in developing new ways to accurately quantify and characterise the labile and stable forms of soil organic C. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate and describe relationships among the biodegradability, thermal stability and chemistry of SOM in soil under widely contrasting management regimes. Samples from the same soil under permanent pasture, an arable cropping rotation, and chemical fallow were fractionated (sand: 2000-50 μm; silt: 50-5 μm, and clay: < 5 μm). Biodegradability of the SOM in size fractions and whole soils was assessed in a laboratory mineralization study. The chemical composition of SOM was characterized by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the K-edge and its thermal stability was determined by analytical pyrolysis using a Rock-Eval pyrolyser. The mineralization bioassay showed that whole soils and soil fractions under fallow were less susceptible to biodegradation than other managements and that sand-associated organic matter was significantly more susceptible than that in the silt or clay fractions. Analysis by XANES showed accumulation of carboxylates and strong depletion of amides (protein) and aromatics in the fallow whole soil. Moreover, protein depletion was most significant in the sand fraction of the fallow soil. Sand fractions in fallow and cropped soils were, however, enriched in plant-derived phenols, aromatics and carboxylates compared to the sand fraction of pasture soils. In contrast, ketones, which have been identified as products of microbially-processed organic matter, were slightly enriched in the silt fraction of the pasture soil. These data suggest reduced inputs and cropping restrict the decomposition of plant residues and, without supplemental N additions, protein-N in

  13. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples

    PubMed Central

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p < 0.005) while for samples with severely deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days. PMID:27103895

  14. Evaluation of stabilized rice bran as an ingredient in dry extruded dog diets.

    PubMed

    Spears, J K; Grieshop, C M; Fahey, G C

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research were to examine the palatability of stabilized rice bran (SRB) when included in a dry canine diet, and to determine the effects of SRB on food intake, digestion, fecal characteristics, blood lipid characteristics, and selected immune mediators. Experiment 1 tested the palatability of SRB. Diets contained poultry fat in Test 1 and soybean oil in Test 2, in conjunction with either 12% SRB or 12% defatted rice bran (DRB, as-fed basis), and were fed to 20 dogs. Diets contained approximately 32% protein and 22% fat (DM basis). Food intake data were collected and intake ratios calculated (grams of SRB diet consumed divided by total consumed of both diets). Intake ratios were 0.73 for Test 1 (P < 0.01) and 0.61 for Test 2 (P < 0.14) for SRB diets. Diets in Exp. 2 contained 12% SRB or DRB (as-fed basis), and poultry fat, beef tallow, or poultry fat:soybean oil (50:50) as the main fat sources, and were fed to 36 beagles. Diets contained approximately 32% protein and 22% fat (DM basis). The effects of SRB and DRB were determined on food intake, digestibility, fecal characteristics, and blood fatty acid, phospholipid, and eicosanoid concentrations. No differences were noted in food intake, digestibility, or fecal characteristics. Fat sources contributed much more to dietary fat than rice bran source; therefore, fat source profiles overwhelmed the rice bran source contribution. Dogs consuming a DRB diet had lower (P < 0.050) plasma phospholipid total monounsaturated fatty acids compared with those consuming a SRB diet (-1.17 vs. 0.95%, respectively), whereas plasma fatty acid concentrations tended (P < 0.119) to decrease more than with SRB diets. Total concentrations of red blood cell phospholipid SFA tended (P < 0.15) to be greater in dogs consuming a beef tallow-containing diet compared with those consuming a poultry fat or poultry fat:soybean oil diet. Total concentrations of red blood cell phospholipid PUFA and n-6 PUFA tended to be greater

  15. Evaluating the temporal stability of synthetically generated time-series for crop types in central Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetically generated Landsat time-series based on the STARFM algorithm are increasingly used for applications in forestry or agriculture. Although successes in classification and derivation of phenological orbiomass parameters are evident, a thorough evaluation of the limits of the method is stil...

  16. Understanding Skill in EVA Mass Handling. Volume 4; An Integrated Methodology for Evaluating Space Suit Mobility and Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. Vernon; Newman, Dava

    1999-01-01

    The empirical investigation of extravehicular activity (EVA) mass handling conducted on NASA's Precision Air-Bearing Floor led to a Phase I SBIR from JSC. The purpose of the SBIR was to design an innovative system for evaluating space suit mobility and stability in conditions that simulate EVA on the surface of the Moon or Mars. The approach we used to satisfy the Phase I objectives was based on a structured methodology for the development of human-systems technology. Accordingly the project was broken down into a number of tasks and subtasks. In sequence, the major tasks were: 1) Identify missions and tasks that will involve EVA and resulting mobility requirements in the near and long term; 2) Assess possible methods for evaluating mobility of space suits during field-based EVA tests; 3) Identify requirements for behavioral evaluation by interacting with NASA stakeholders;.4) Identify necessary and sufficient technology for implementation of a mobility evaluation system; and 5) Prioritize and select technology solutions. The work conducted in these tasks is described in this final volume of the series on EVA mass handling. While prior volumes in the series focus on novel data-analytic techniques, this volume addresses technology that is necessary for minimally intrusive data collection and near-real-time data analysis and display.

  17. A low voltage ``railgun''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Stanley O.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Cox, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent advances in solid-state switches and ultra-capacitors, it is now possible to construct a "railgun" that can operate at voltages below 20 V. Railguns typically operate above a thousand volts, generating huge currents for a few milliseconds to provide thousands of g's of acceleration to a small projectile. The low voltage railgun described herein operates for much longer time periods (tenths of seconds to seconds), has far smaller acceleration and speed, but can potentially propel a much larger object. The impetus for this development is to lay the groundwork for a possible ground-based supersonic launch track, but the resulting system may also have applications as a simple linear motor. The system would also be a useful teaching tool, requiring concepts from electrodynamics, mechanics, and electronics for its understanding, and is relatively straightforward to construct.

  18. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  19. Insulators for high voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Looms, J.S.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes electrical insulators for high voltage applications. Topics considered include the insulating materials, the manufacture of wet process porcelain, the manufacture of tempered glass, the glass-fibre core, the polymeric housing, the common problem - terminating an insulator, mechanical constraints, the physics of pollution flashover, the physics of contamination, testing of insulators, conclusions from testing, remedies for flashover, insulators for special cases, interference and noise, and the insulator of the future.

  20. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Springfield, Ray M.; Wheat, Jr., Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  1. High voltage generator

    DOEpatents

    Schwemin, A. J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator for producing relatively large currents at high voltages is described. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The above-noted circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  2. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  3. High Voltage Connector

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-03-06

    The originally designed high voltage connectors were to be made of brass. However, if treated like a Bellevile spring with the initially given dimensions, the stresses of the connector when crimped were calculated to be much higher than the yield stress of brass. Since the flange and outer diameters of the connector are to remain small, it was necessary to alter the other dimensions and choice of material in order to bring down the stresses applied to the connector.

  4. HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Schwemin, A.J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator is presented for producing relatively large currents at high voltages. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  5. Alginate stabilized gold nanoparticle as multidrug carrier: Evaluation of cellular interactions and hemolytic potential.

    PubMed

    Dey, Soma; Sherly, M Caroline Diana; Rekha, M R; Sreenivasan, K

    2016-01-20

    This work delineates the synthesis of curcumin (Ccm) and methotrexate (MTX) conjugated biopolymer stabilized AuNPs (MP@Alg-Ccm AuNPs). The dual drug conjugated nano-vector was characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopic techniques. Hydrodynamic diameter and surface charge of the AuNPs were determined by DLS analysis and the spherical particles were visualized by TEM. MP@Alg-Ccm AuNPs exhibited improved cytotoxic potential against C6 glioma and MCF-7 cancer cell lines and was found to be highly hemocompatible. MP@Alg-Ccm AuNPs also exhibited active targeting efficiency against MCF-7 cancer cells due to the presence of "antifolate" drug MTX. Thus MP@Alg-Ccm AuNPs may find potential application in targeted combination chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer. The study is also interesting from the synthetic point of view because, here generation of AuNPs was done using "green chemical" alginate and dual drug conjugated AuNPs were created in two simple reaction steps using "green solvent" water. PMID:26572330

  6. Design and biological evaluation of synthetic retinoids: probing length vs. stability vs. activity.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Graeme; Flower, Kevin R; Gardner, Peter; Henderson, Andrew P; Knowles, Jonathan P; Marder, Todd B; Whiting, Andrew; Przyborski, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    All trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is widely used to direct the differentiation of cultured stem cells. When exposed to the pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma (EC) stem cell line, TERA2.cl.SP12, ATRA induces ectoderm differentiation and the formation of neuronal cell types. We report in this study that novel polyene chain length analogues of ATRA require a specific chain length to elicit a biological responses of the EC cells TERA2.cl.SP12, with synthetic retinoid AH61 being particularly active, and indeed more so than ATRA. The impacts of both the synthetic retinoid AH61 and natural ATRA on the TERA2.cl.SP12 cells were directly compared using both RT-PCR and Fourier Transform Infrared Micro-Spectroscopy (FT-IRMS) coupled with multivariate analysis. Analytical results produced from this study also confirmed that the synthetic retinoid AH61 had biological activity comparable or greater than that of ATRA. In addition to this, AH61 has the added advantage of greater compound stability than ATRA, therefore, avoiding issues of oxidation or decomposition during use with embryonic stem cells. PMID:24108350

  7. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Krason, J.; Finley, P.

    1988-01-01

    The summaries of regional basin analyses document that potentially economic accumulations of gas hydrates can be formed in both active and passive margin settings. The principal requirement for gas hydrate formation in either setting is abundant methane. Passive margin sediments with high sedimentation rates and sufficient sedimentary organic carbon can generate large quantities of biogenic methane for hydrate formation. Similarly, active margin locations near a terrigenous sediment source can also have high methane generation potential due to rapid burial of adequate amounts of sedimentary organic matter. Many active margins with evidence of gas hydrate presence correspond to areas subject to upwelling. Upwelling currents can enhance methane generation by increasing primary productivity and thus sedimentary organic carbon. Structural deformation of the marginal sediments at both active and passive sites can enhance gas hydrate formation by providing pathways for migration of both biogenic and thermogenic gas to the shallow gas hydrate stability zone. Additionally, conventional hydrocarbon traps may initially concentrate sufficient amounts of hydrocarbons for subsequent gas hydrate formation.

  8. Oxidative stability and shelf-life evaluation of selected culinary oils.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, S Parkash; Henry, C Jeya K

    2009-01-01

    Four out of eight 'healthier' oils-namely, almond oil, avocado oil, hazelnut oil and macadamia nut oil-studied were rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids like olive oil. Grape seed oil, rice barn oil (marketed recently), toasted sesame oil and walnut oil contained high levels of essential fatty acids. The order of oxidative stability determined by Rancimat measuring of the induction period at four temperatures (90 degrees C, 100 degrees C, 110 degrees C, and 120 degrees C) was found to be macadamia oil > rice bran oil approximately toasted sesame oil > avocado oil > almond oil > hazelnut oil > grape seed oil > walnut oil. High-level monounsaturated fatty acid oils gave a linear relationship between 100 times the reciprocal of the induction period against the total unsaturated fatty acid content obtained as %C18:2 + 0.08 x C18:1 + 2.08 x %C18:3, while the polyunsaturated fatty acid oils gave an exponential relationship. In the case of rice bran and hazelnut oils, shelf-life prediction from the extrapolation of the Arrhenius plots and the Q(10) factors was compared well with that of storage time given by the oil producers. In the cases of the other oils (with an exception of macadamia nut oil), the predicted shelf-lives were significantly lower than that of the storage times; especially, walnut oil (very prone to oxidation) gave 15-20 times lower shelf-life than the best-before storage life.

  9. Evaluation of Stability of Surface-Treated Mini-Implants in Diabetic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Nam-Hee; Kim, Eun-Young; Paek, Janghyun; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Jeong, Do-Min; Cho, Il-Sik; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of surface treatment of mini-implants in diabetes-induced rabbits by comparing osseointegration around mini-implants. Methods. Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups (alloxan-induced diabetic group and control group). A total of 48 mini-implants were placed after four weeks of diabetic induction. 24 mini-implants were surface-treated with SLA (sandblasted with large grit, and acid etched) and the remaining 24 mini-implants had smooth surfaces. Four weeks after placement, 32 mini-implants were removed from 4 control and 4 diabetic rabbits. Insertion and removal torques were measured. The remaining 16 mini-implants from the two groups were histomorphometrically analyzed. Results. Maximum insertion torque showed no difference between diabetic and control groups, but total insertion energy was higher in control group. In surface-treated mini-implants, maximum removal torque was higher in both diabetic and control groups. Bone-implant contact (BIC) was increased in the control group when compared to the diabetic group. Surface-treated group had higher BIC than smooth surface group in both control and diabetic groups. However, there was no significantly statistical difference. Conclusions. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and surface treatment method of mini-implant affected primary stability of mini-implants. In addition, the use of orthodontic mini-implants in a diabetic patient is likely to show results similar to the healthy patient. PMID:24971093

  10. Lead leachability in stabilized/solidified soil samples evaluated with different leaching tests.

    PubMed

    Jing, Chuanyong; Meng, Xiaoguang; Korfiatis, George P

    2004-10-18

    Leaching tests and model calculations were performed to investigate the immobilization mechanisms of Pb and compare different leaching protocols. Stabilization/solidification (S/S) treatments reduced Pb concentrations in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachate from 5.9 mg/L for untreated soil to less than 0.7 mg/L. The results of eight different leaching protocols show that: (1) the main factor controlling the Pb concentration in the leachate is the final pH; (2) the final pH is a function of the leachant acidity; and (3) for a given final pH, the type of leachant has a relatively minor effect on leachability. The diffuse layer adsorption model, aqueous and precipitation reactions were employed in the MINTEQA2 program to describe the Pb leaching behavior. Both leaching tests and model simulations indicate that the Pb leaching behavior can be divided into three stages based on the leachate pH: a high alkalinity leaching stage at pH > 12, where Pb formed soluble hydroxide anion complexes and leached out; a neutral to alkaline immobilization stage in the pH range of 6-12, which was characterized by low Pb leachability caused by adsorption and precipitation; and an acid leaching stage with pH < 6, where the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of the S/S materials was totally consumed and therefore free Pb-ion leached out.

  11. Epoxidized Soybean Oil: Evaluation of Oxidative Stabilization and Metal Quenching/Heat Transfer Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simencio Otero, Rosa L.; Canale, Lauralice C. F.; Said Schicchi, Diego; Agaliotis, Eliana; Totten, George E.; Sánchez Sarmiento, Gustavo

    2013-07-01

    Vegetable and animal oils as a class of fluids have been used for hundreds of years, if not longer, as quenchants for hardening steel. However, when petroleum oils became available in the late 1800s and early 1900s, the use of these fluids as quenchants, in addition to their use in other industrial oil applications, quickly diminished. This was primarily, but not exclusively, due to their generally very poor thermal-oxidative instability and the difficulty for formulating fluid analogs with varying viscosity properties. Interest in the use of renewable fluids, such as vegetable oils, has increased dramatically in recent years as alternatives to the use of relatively non-biodegradable and toxic petroleum oils. However, the relatively poor thermal-oxidative stability has continued to be a significant reason for their general non-acceptance in the marketplace. Soybean oil (SO) is one of the most highly produced vegetable oils in Brazil. Currently, there are commercially produced epoxidized versions of SO which are available. The objective of this paper is to discuss the potential use of epoxidized SO and its heat transfer properties as a viable alternative to petroleum oils for hardening steel.

  12. Co-surfactant free microemulsions: Preparation, characterization and stability evaluation for food application.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenbo; Jin, Jun; Zheng, Minying; Zheng, Yan; Xu, Xuebing; Liu, Yuanfa; Wang, Xingguo

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study is to prepare co-surfactant free microalgal oil microemulsions and investigate their properties as well as processing stability for food application. The physicochemical characteristics of the microemulsions were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), turbidity, conductivity, rheological measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Within the microemulsion region, when the surfactant to oil ratio was 9:1, the hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) was 18nm; when the surfactant to oil ratio was 7.5:1, the hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) was 50nm. Rheological studies proved that the microemulsion system was a pseudoplastic fluid, which followed a shear thinning flow behavior. The loss rate of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was less than 5%wt after ultra high temperature (UHT) and high temperature short time (HTST) thermal treatments. A high content of CaCl2 (10.0%wt) could not destroy the microemulsion system, and it could be stored at 4°C for two years. PMID:26988493

  13. Alginate stabilized gold nanoparticle as multidrug carrier: Evaluation of cellular interactions and hemolytic potential.

    PubMed

    Dey, Soma; Sherly, M Caroline Diana; Rekha, M R; Sreenivasan, K

    2016-01-20

    This work delineates the synthesis of curcumin (Ccm) and methotrexate (MTX) conjugated biopolymer stabilized AuNPs (MP@Alg-Ccm AuNPs). The dual drug conjugated nano-vector was characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopic techniques. Hydrodynamic diameter and surface charge of the AuNPs were determined by DLS analysis and the spherical particles were visualized by TEM. MP@Alg-Ccm AuNPs exhibited improved cytotoxic potential against C6 glioma and MCF-7 cancer cell lines and was found to be highly hemocompatible. MP@Alg-Ccm AuNPs also exhibited active targeting efficiency against MCF-7 cancer cells due to the presence of "antifolate" drug MTX. Thus MP@Alg-Ccm AuNPs may find potential application in targeted combination chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer. The study is also interesting from the synthetic point of view because, here generation of AuNPs was done using "green chemical" alginate and dual drug conjugated AuNPs were created in two simple reaction steps using "green solvent" water.

  14. First-year evaluation of low-level waste-management stabilization techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    The first year of observation for effectiveness of biobarriers and herbicides in revegetation efforts demonstrated that certain practices will result in successful site stabilization: proper orientation of burial trench to reduce erosion; utilization of mulches to conserve moisture; seeding mixed perennial or annual grass species at the proper time for optimization of establishment and growth; and applying 2,4-D amine/Dicamba selective herbicide at the optimum time for enhancement of disirable grasses and reduction of competition from other species. The ultimate success or failure of a revegetation operation depends in part on the availability of equipment and manpower, weather conditions, and engineering feasibility. The data indicated that perennial grasses offered advantages over annual grasses and that the 2,4-D amine/Dicamba herbicide spray program was successful and should be expanded for next year. However, programmatic decisions should not be based on the data for 1 year, but should be based on data gathered over the full 3 years of the project.

  15. Evaluation of the Conformational Stability of Recombinant Desulfurizing Enzymes from a Newly Isolated Rhodococcus sp.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, Federica; Brocca, Stefania; Lotti, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic pathways of aerobic bacteria able to assimilate sulfur can provide biocatalysts for biodesulfurization of petroleum and of other sulfur-containing pollutants. Of major interest is the so-called "4S pathway," in that C-S bonds are specifically cleaved leaving the carbon skeleton of substrates intact. This pathway is carried out by four enzymes, named Dsz A, B, C, and D. In view of a possible application of recombinant Dsz enzymes in biodesulfurization treatments, we have investigated the structural features of enzymes cloned from a Rhodococcus strain isolated from polluted environmental samples and their resistance to temperature (20-95 °C) and to organic solvents (5, 10, and 20 % v/v methanol, acetonitrile, hexane, and toluene). Changes in protein structures were assessed by circular dichroism and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. We found that all Dsz proteins are unfolded by temperatures in the range 45-60 °C and by all solvents tested, with the most dramatic effect being produced by toluene. These results suggest that stabilization of the biocatalysts by protein engineering will be necessary for developing biodesulfurization technologies based on Dsz enzymes.

  16. Determination of halonitromethanes and haloacetamides: an evaluation of sample preservation and analyte stability in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Liew, Deborah; Linge, Kathryn L; Joll, Cynthia A; Heitz, Anna; Charrois, Jeffrey W A

    2012-06-01

    Simultaneous quantitation of 6 halonitromethanes (HNMs) and 5 haloacetamides (HAAms) was achieved with a simplified liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Stability tests showed that brominated tri-HNMs immediately degraded in the presence of ascorbic acid, sodium sulphite and sodium borohydride, and also reduced in samples treated with ammonium chloride, or with no preservation. Both ammonium chloride and ascorbic acid were suitable for the preservation of HAAms. Ammonium chloride was most suitable for preserving both HNMs and HAAms, although it is recommended that samples be analysed as soon as possible after collection. While groundwater samples exhibited a greater analytical bias compared to other waters, the good recoveries (>90%) of most analytes in tap water suggest that the method is very appropriate for determining these analytes in treated drinking waters. Application of the method to water from three drinking water treatment plants in Western Australia indicating N-DBP formation did occur, with increased detections after chlorination. The method is recommended for low-cost, rapid screening of both HNMs and HAAms in drinking water.

  17. Oxidative stability and shelf-life evaluation of selected culinary oils.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, S Parkash; Henry, C Jeya K

    2009-01-01

    Four out of eight 'healthier' oils-namely, almond oil, avocado oil, hazelnut oil and macadamia nut oil-studied were rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids like olive oil. Grape seed oil, rice barn oil (marketed recently), toasted sesame oil and walnut oil contained high levels of essential fatty acids. The order of oxidative stability determined by Rancimat measuring of the induction period at four temperatures (90 degrees C, 100 degrees C, 110 degrees C, and 120 degrees C) was found to be macadamia oil > rice bran oil approximately toasted sesame oil > avocado oil > almond oil > hazelnut oil > grape seed oil > walnut oil. High-level monounsaturated fatty acid oils gave a linear relationship between 100 times the reciprocal of the induction period against the total unsaturated fatty acid content obtained as %C18:2 + 0.08 x C18:1 + 2.08 x %C18:3, while the polyunsaturated fatty acid oils gave an exponential relationship. In the case of rice bran and hazelnut oils, shelf-life prediction from the extrapolation of the Arrhenius plots and the Q(10) factors was compared well with that of storage time given by the oil producers. In the cases of the other oils (with an exception of macadamia nut oil), the predicted shelf-lives were significantly lower than that of the storage times; especially, walnut oil (very prone to oxidation) gave 15-20 times lower shelf-life than the best-before storage life. PMID:19634067

  18. HIGH VOLTAGE ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-04-19

    A device is described for providing a source of molecular ions having a large output current and with an accelerated energy of the order of 600 kv. Ions are produced in an ion source which is provided with a water-cooled source grid of metal to effect maximum recombination of atomic ions to molecular ions. A very high accelerating voltage is applied to withdraw and accelerate the molecular ions from the source, and means are provided for dumping the excess electrons at the lowest possible potentials. An accelerating grid is placed adjacent to the source grid and a slotted, grounded accelerating electrode is placed adjacent to the accelerating grid. A potential of about 35 kv is maintained between the source grid and accelerating grid, and a potential of about 600 kv is maintained between the accelerating grid and accelerating electrode. In order to keep at a minimum the large number of oscillating electrons which are created when such high voltages are employed in the vicinity of a strong magnetic field, a plurality of high voltage cascaded shields are employed with a conventional electron dumping system being employed between each shield so as to dump the electrons at the lowest possible potential rather than at 600 kv.

  19. Student evaluations of physics teachers: On the stability and persistence of gender bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potvin, Geoff; Hazari, Zahra

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] There is a long history of research which confounds the simple interpretation that evaluations in an educational context are purely measures of competency. One such issue is that of gender bias in student evaluations of their teachers. In our prior work, we found that male students underrated female high school teachers in biology and chemistry while all students underrated female high school teachers in physics. In the current work, we independently checked and extended this earlier work to examine the effect of physics identity on student evaluations and gender bias. Employing multiple regression on survey data from a representative sample of 6772 college students across the U.S., attending both 2-year and 4-year post-secondary institutions (including STEM and non-STEM majors), we find the core physics effect is unchanged despite a gap between studies of nearly 10 years. Namely, both male and female students underrate their female high school physics teachers, even after controlling for physics grades and classroom experiences. Our new focus on physics identity reveals that students with a strong physics identity show a larger gender bias in favor of male teachers than those with less of a physics identity. These results may help to explain how structures that privilege certain groups and marginalize others are prevalent amongst the youngest members of a defined physics community and may serve to uphold the status quo as these young members traverse to higher levels of physics community membership. Furthermore, biased evaluative feedback structures may be one of the propagators of women's lower competency beliefs in physics, a result that has been found by many prior studies.

  20. Histomorphometric Evaluation of the Effects of Various Diode Lasers and Force Levels on Orthodontic Mini Screw Stability

    PubMed Central

    Isman, Eren; Taner, Lale; Kurkcu, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different laser dose and force levels on the stability of orthodontic mini screws used for anchorage, by histomorphometric analyses. Background data Low-level laser therapy speeds up blood flow, improves the mechanism of the revitalization processes, reduces the risk of infection, boosts metabolic activities, and accelerates the healing of the damaged tissue. Although there are many research studies about low-level laser therapy applications in a variety of areas, no investigations were found concerning mini screw stability using various laser dose levels with different force level applications. Methods Seventeen New Zealand white rabbits were used. A total of 68 cylindrical, self-drilling orthodontic mini screws were threaded at the fibula. Experimental subjects were divided into six groups; force application was not performed in the first three groups, whereas 150g of force was applied via nickel-titanium closed-coil springs placed between two mini screws in the other three groups. Measurements of the initial torque values (10 Ncm) were manipulated by a digital portable torque gauge. Various low-level laser doses were applied to the groups during the postoperative 10 days. After 4 weeks, bone-to-implant contact and cortical bone thickness were histomorphometrically analyzed. Results In the 150g force plus 20 J/cm2 dosage group, the highest bone-to-implant contact values were observed. (p<0.05) There were no statistically significant correlations between cortical bone thickness and bone-to-implant contact values; on the other hand, no significant difference was found among the same groups in terms of cortical bone thickness values (p>0.05). Conclusions Low-level laser therapy was noticed to induce the mini screw–bone contact area. Low-level laser therapy may be a supplementary treatment method to increase the stability of the orthodontic mini screw. PMID:25594769

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of green tea extract and its effect on the biscuits lipid fraction oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Mildner-Szkudlarz, S; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R; Obuchowski, W; Gośliński, M

    2009-10-01

    This article investigates the effect of green tea extract (GTE) on biscuits lipid fraction oxidative stability. The antioxidant activity of GTE was compared with commonly used synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Biscuits were prepared in 3 variations. Control samples were prepared without addition of antioxidants. The other variations were prepared by adding BHA (0.02%) and GTE at 3 different levels: 0.02%, 0.1%, and 1%. Biscuits were subjected to sensory studies and instrumental and chemical analysis. Phenolic compounds of GTE characterized powerful antioxidant activities evaluated using free radical, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method, compared with gallic acid and significantly better than BHA. Antioxidants added to the samples clearly slowed down the process of oxidation of fatty acids, inhibiting the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decomposition. Addition of GTE at the level of 1% gave an excellent antioxidant effect on the biscuits lipid stability, inhibiting hydroperoxides formation by about 47% to 73% compared with BHA, which showed about 16% to 60% inhibition. However, GTE did not improve significantly lipid stability, measured by anisidine value (p-AV), and inhibited formation of secondary oxidation products only by 3.5%. After accelerated storage time, insensitivity of oxidized-like flavor was about 2 times higher for control samples compared to samples with addition of antioxidants. Moreover, after storage biscuits treated with natural antioxidant received a higher panel score of overall acceptance compared to samples with BHA. Using volatile compound formation as a marker of lipid oxidation, both GTE and BHA were effective inhibitors of the decomposition of hydroperoxides.

  2. Self micro-emulsifying drug delivery system of tacrolimus: Formulation, in vitro evaluation and stability studies

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pranav V; Patel, Hitesh K; Panchal, Shital S; Mehta, Tejal A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tacrolimus has poor solubility in water ranging from 4 to 12 μg/mL. The oral bio availabilities of tacrolimus is poor and exhibits high intra and inter-subject variability (4-89%, average 25%) in the liver and the kidney transplant recipients and in patients with renal impairment. Aim: The present study deals with the development and characterization of self-micro-emulsifying drug delivery system to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drug tacrolimus. Materials and Methods: Solubility of the tacrolimus was estimated in various oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants. Various in vitro tests such as percentage transmittance, emulsification time, cloud point, precipitation, and thermodynamic stabilities were used to find out optimized formulations. Optimized liquid self micro-emulsifying (SMEDDS) were characterized by particle size analysis and converted in solid by using the Florite RE as an adsorbent, which is further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and particle size analysis. Results: The optimized liquid SMEDDS formulation contained 10% Lauroglycol FCC as an oil, 60% Cremophor RH, and 30% PEG (polyethylene glycol) 400 as a surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. The optimized liquid and solid SMEDDS showed higher drug release than the marketed capsule and pure API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) powder. For optimized liquid SMEDDS and solid SMEDDS, the globule sizes were found 113 nm and 209 nm respectively. The solid state characterization of solid-SMEDDS by SEM, DSC, FTIR, and XRD revealed the absence of crystalline tacrolimus in the solid-SMEDDS. Shelf-lives for liquid SMEDDS and solid SMEDDS were found to be 1.84 and 2.25 year respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that liquid SMEDDS and solid SMEDDS of tacrolimus, owing to nano-sized, have potential to enhance the absorption of the drug

  3. Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2011-09-15

    Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis.

  4. Automatic voltage-imbalance detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbett, R.E.; McCormick, J.B.; Kerwin, W.J.

    1981-05-20

    A device is described for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  5. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanecek, David L.; Pike, Chester D.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly (10) having a tubular insulator (15) extending between the ground plane ring (16) and the high voltage ring (30). The insulator (15) is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring (16) to the high voltage ring (30), producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall (27) of the insulator (15) to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly (10).

  6. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  7. Using modeling and simulation to evaluate stability and traction performance of a track-laying robotic vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunter, D. D.; Bylsma, W. W.; Edgar, K.; Letherwood, M. D.; Gorsich, D. J.

    2005-05-01

    DOD has been involved in the research, development and acquisition of unmanned ground vehicle systems to support the troops in the field while minimizing the risks associated with supplying these troops. Engineers and scientists at TARDEC are using computer based modeling and simulation (M&S) to investigate how modifications to unmanned ground vehicles impact their mobility and stability, and to predict performance levels attainable for these types of vehicle systems. The objective of this paper will be to describe the computerbased modeling, simulation, and limited field testing effort that has been undertaken to investigate the dynamic performance of an unmanned tracked vehicle system while conducting a full matrix of tests designed to evaluate system shock, vibration, dynamic stability and off road mobility characteristics. In this paper we will describe the multi-body modeling methodology used as well as the characteristic data incorporated to define the models and their subsystems. The analysis undertaken is applying M&S to baseline the dynamic performance of the vehicle, and comparing these results with performance levels recorded for several manned vehicle systems. We will identify the virtual test matrix over which we executed the models. Finally we will describe our efforts to visualize our findings through the use of computer generated animations of the vehicle system negotiating various virtual automotive tests making up the test matrix.

  8. Assessment of gait stability, harmony, and symmetry in subjects with lower-limb amputation evaluated by trunk accelerations.

    PubMed

    Iosa, Marco; Paradisi, Francesco; Brunelli, Stefano; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Pellegrini, Roberto; Zenardi, Daniele; Paolucci, Stefano; Traballesi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of upper-body accelerations is a promising and simple technique for quantitatively assessing some general features of gait such as stability, harmony, and symmetry. Despite the growing literature on elderly healthy populations and neurological patients, few studies have used accelerometry to investigate these features in subjects with lower-limb amputation. We enrolled four groups of subjects: subjects with transfemoral amputation who walked with a locked knee prosthesis, subjects with transfemoral amputation who walked with an unlocked knee prosthesis, subjects with transtibial amputation, and age-matched nondisabled subjects. We found statistically significant differences for stability (p < 0.001), harmony (p < 0.001), and symmetry (p < 0.001) of walking, with general trends following the noted order of subjects, but with the lowest laterolateral harmony in subjects with transtibial amputation. This study is the first to investigate upper-body acceleration of subjects with unilateral lower-limb amputation during walking who were evaluated upon dismissal from a rehabilitation hospital; it is also the first study to differentiate the sample in terms of level of amputation and type of prosthesis used. PMID:25144175

  9. Evaluation of the stability of ketoprofen in pluronic lecithin organogel and the determination of an appropriate beyond-use date.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Gina F; Sauvageot, Jurgita; Addo, Richard T

    2014-01-01

    Previous reports indicate that pharmacists are assigning a wide variety of beyond-use dates to extemporaneously compounded medications in topical Pluronic lecithin organogel. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of ketoprofen in Pluronic lecithin organogel over a period of six months and to determine an appropriate beyond-use date for this formulation. A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method for ketoprofen in Pluronic lecithin organogel was validated in our laboratory. Samples of the formulation were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 45, 60, 90, and 180 days. At each time point, the average concentration and average percent of initial concentration were calculated. The beyond-use date was determined as the time period that the samples were physically stable and maintained at least 90% of the initial concentration. Ketoprofen in Pluronic lecithin organogel was chemically and physically stable for six months when stored at room temperature and protected from light. Therefore, a beyond-use date of six months is appropriate for this preparation.

  10. Assessment of gait stability, harmony, and symmetry in subjects with lower-limb amputation evaluated by trunk accelerations.

    PubMed

    Iosa, Marco; Paradisi, Francesco; Brunelli, Stefano; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Pellegrini, Roberto; Zenardi, Daniele; Paolucci, Stefano; Traballesi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of upper-body accelerations is a promising and simple technique for quantitatively assessing some general features of gait such as stability, harmony, and symmetry. Despite the growing literature on elderly healthy populations and neurological patients, few studies have used accelerometry to investigate these features in subjects with lower-limb amputation. We enrolled four groups of subjects: subjects with transfemoral amputation who walked with a locked knee prosthesis, subjects with transfemoral amputation who walked with an unlocked knee prosthesis, subjects with transtibial amputation, and age-matched nondisabled subjects. We found statistically significant differences for stability (p < 0.001), harmony (p < 0.001), and symmetry (p < 0.001) of walking, with general trends following the noted order of subjects, but with the lowest laterolateral harmony in subjects with transtibial amputation. This study is the first to investigate upper-body acceleration of subjects with unilateral lower-limb amputation during walking who were evaluated upon dismissal from a rehabilitation hospital; it is also the first study to differentiate the sample in terms of level of amputation and type of prosthesis used.

  11. METHOD FOR STABILIZING KLYSTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Magnuson, D.W.; Smith, D.F.

    1959-04-14

    High-frequency oscillators for the generation of microwaves, particularly a system for stabilizing frequency-modulated klystron oscillators of the reflex type, are described. The system takos advantage of the fact that a change in oscillator frequency will alter the normal phase displacement between the cavity and its modulator, creating an error voltage which is utilized to regulate the frequency of the oscillator and stabilize it.

  12. Novel SiL evaluation of an optimal H∞ controller on the stability of a MAV in flight simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, Rafael C. B.; Becker, Marcelo; Siqueira, Adriano A. G.; Freschi, Leonardo W.; Montanher, Marcelo P.

    This paper introduces a novel methodology to assist the evaluation of control algorithms for MAVs (Micro Aerial Vehicles) using Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) based flight simulation. The originality of this paper is to use © Microsoft Flight Simulator (MSFS) as the environment to embed both the dynamic and graphic models of © Ascending Technologies Pelican MAV flying robot. The resulting is a reliable model of the Pelican quadrotor. The full duplex communication between the virtual aircraft and the control algorithm is achieved by a custom C++/C software named FVMS (Flight Variables Management System), developed by Aerial Robots Team (ART), which is able to reach (read/write) a great number of flight variables from MSFS. To illustrate the effectiveness of such method, we first completely present FVMS architecture and main features. Later, the synthesis and then the application of the optimal H∞ robust control algorithm and its operation into the FVMS SiL context are explained. Regarding MAVs control evaluation, SiL simulation considerably contributes to save battery time, to ease control synthesis and prototyping and to prevent accidents during tests with the real robot. The final goal is to evaluate the stability of the Pelican platform in hovering tasks in flight simulation focusing on the efficiency of FVMS to properly run the optimal H∞ robust control algorithm. The SiL control of the MAV has proven FVMS capabilities, which may be extended to assist the design of other classes of controllers.

  13. LDEF Space Plasma-High Voltage Drainage Experiment post-flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaung, J. Y.; Blakkolb, B. K.; Wong, W. C.; Ryan, L. E.; Schurig, H. J.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Plasma-High Voltage Drainage Experiment (SP-HVDE) was comprised of two identical experimental trays. With one tray located on the leading (ram facing, B10) edge and the other located on the trailing (wake facing, D4) edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), it was possible to directly compare the effects of ram and wake spacecraft environments on charged dielectric materials. Six arrays of Kapton dielectric samples of 2 mil, 3 mil, and 5 mil thicknesses maintained at +/- 300, +/- 500, and +/- 1000 voltage bias formed the experimental matrix of each tray. In addition, each tray carried two solar cell strings, one biased at +300 volts and the other at -300 volts, to study current leakage from High Voltage Solar Arrays (HVSA). The SP-HVDE provides the first direct, long-term, in-flight measurements of average leakage current through dielectric materials under electric stress. The experiment also yields information on the long term stability of the bulk dielectric properties of such materials. Data and findings of the SP-HVDE are an extension of those from shorter term flight experiments such as the PIX-1 (Plasma Interaction Experiment) and PIX-2 and are therefore valuable in the design and evaluation of long-lived space systems with high voltage systems exposed to the low earth orbital environment. A summary of the SP-HVDE post flight analysis final report delivered to the LDEF Project Office under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is presented.

  14. Low input voltage switching amplifiers for piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Douglas K.; Zhu, Huiyu; Song, Chunping; Huang, Weixing; Cheng, Danling

    2002-07-01

    The Inertially Stabilized Rifle is a new stabilized rifle system that can eliminate the disturbances induced by the shooter. Recurve actuator is used in this system to provide the precise movement of the rifle barrel. In such a portable device, only low voltage electrical sources are available yet the piezoelectric actuator needs high voltage to drive the actuator. The actuators consume little real power but a large amount of reactive power. Furthermore, the piezoelectric actuators are present an almost purely capacitive load. In this paper, we describe the development of a low input voltage amplifier for a high voltage piezoelectric actuator. This amplifier is based on switching technology so it efficiently handles the regenerative energy from the piezoelectric actuator. This amplifier consists of two stages. The first stage is a flyback converter which boosts the (low) input voltage to the maximum voltage required by the piezoelectric actuator. The second stage is a half-bridge amplifier which delivers the output voltage to the actuator as commanded by the reference signal. The basic structure of the amplifier is described, and its performance is characterized in terms of bandwidth, distortion, and efficiency.

  15. Stability evaluation of hydrate-bearing sediments during thermally-driven hydrate dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, T.; Cho, G.; Santamarina, J.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.

    2009-12-01

    observed. In summary, the study indicates that the early stability of the sediment (i.e., when any hydrate is still present) is governed by the intensity of a heat source and the thermal conductivity of sediments. Later, the excess pore fluid pressure diffused from the dissociation region destabilizes the shallower sediments. In critical cases, an effective drainage path is necessary to prevent instability problems such as blow-up of sediments or buckling of a well.

  16. Viscoelastic evaluation of topical creams containing microcrystalline cellulose/sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Adeyeye, Moji Christianah; Jain, Ashwinkumar C; Ghorab, Mohamed K M; Reilly, William J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the viscoelastic properties of topical creams containing various concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Avicel(R) CL-611) as a stabilizer. Avicel CL-611 was used at 4 different levels (1%, 2%, 4%, and 6% dispersion) to prepare topical creams, and hydrocortisone acetate was used as a model drug. The viscoelastic properties such as loss modulus (G"), storage modulus (G'), and loss tangent (tan delta) of these creams were measured using a TA Instruments AR 1000 Rheometer and compared to a commercially available formulation. Continuous flow test to determine the yield stress and thixotropic behavior, and dynamic mechanical tests for determining the linear viscosity time sweep data, were performed. Drug release from the various formulations was studied using an Enhancer TM Cell assembly. Formulations containing 1% and 2% Avicel CL-611 had relative viscosity, yield stress, and thixotropic values that were similar to those of the commercial formulation. The elastic modulus (G') of the 1% and 2% formulation was relatively high and did not cross the loss modulus (G"), indicating that the gels were strong. In the commercial formulation, G' increased after preshearing and broke down after 600 seconds. The strain sweep tests showed that for all formulations containing Avicel CL-611, the G' was above G" with a good distance between them. The gel strength and the predominance of G' can be ranked 6% > 4% > 2%. The strain profiles for the 1% and 2% formulations were similar to those of the commercial formulation. The delta values for the 1% and 2% formulations were similar, and the formulations containing 4% Avicel CL-611 had lower delta values, indicating greater elasticity. Drug release from the commercial preparation was fastest compared to the formulations prepared using Avicel CL-611, a correlation with the viscoelastic properties. It was found that viscoelastic data, especially the strain

  17. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    During the reported year we have enhanced our knowledge on and gained considerable experience in assessment of the gas hydrate resources in the offshore environments. Specifically, we have learned and gained experience in the following: Efficiently locating data sources, including published literature and unpublished information. We have established personal communication extremely critical in data accessability and acquisition. We have updated information pertinent to gas hydrate knowledge, also based on thorough study and evaluation of most Russian literature and additional publications in languages other than English. Besides critical evaluation of widely spread literature, in many cases our reports include previously unpublished information (e.g. BSRs from the Gulf of Mexico). The assessment of the gas resources potential associated with the gas hydrates, although in most cases at a low level of confidence, appears also very encouraging for further, more detailed, study. We are also confident that, because of the present reports' format, new data and a concept-oriented approach, the result of our study will be of strong interest to various industries, research institutions and numerous governmental agencies.

  18. Evaluation of a Treadmill with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization (TVIS) for Use on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCrory, Jean L.; Lemmon, David R.; Sommer, H. Joseph; Prout, Brian; Smith, Damon; Korth, Deborah W.; Lucero, Javier; Greenisen, Michael; Moore, Jim

    1999-01-01

    A treadmill with vibration isolation and stabilization designed for the International Space Station (ISS) was evaluated during Shuttle mission STS-81. Three crew members ran and walked on the device, which floats freely in zero gravity. For the majority of the more than 2 hours of locomotion studied, the treadmill showed peak to peak linear and angular displacements of less than 2.5 cm and 2.5 deg, respectively. Vibration transmitted to the vehicle was within the microgravity allocation limits that are defined for the ISS. Refinements to the treadmill and harness system are discussed. This approach to treadmill design offers the possibility of generating 1G-like loads on the lower extremities while preserving the microgravity environment of the ISS for structural safety and vibration free experimental conditions.

  19. Evaluation of a Treadmill with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization (TVIS) for use on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    McCrory, J L; Lemmon, D R; Sommer, H J; Prout, B; Smith, D; Korth, D W; Lucero, J; Greenisen, M; Moore, J; Kozlovskaya, I; Pestov, I; Stepansov, V; Miyakinchenko, Y; Cavanagh, P R

    1999-08-01

    A treadmill with vibration isolation and stabilization designed for the International Space Station (ISS) was evaluated during Shuttle mission STS-81. Three crew members ran and walked on the device, which floats freely in zero gravity. For the majority of the more than 2 hours of locomotion studied, the treadmill showed peak to peak linear and angular displacements of less than 2.5 cm and 2.5 degrees, respectively. Vibration transmitted to the vehicle was within the microgravity allocation limits that are defined for the ISS. Refinements to the treadmill and harness system are discussed. This approach to treadmill design offers the possibility of generating 1G-like loads on the lower extremities while preserving the microgravity environment of the ISS for structural safety and vibration free experimental conditions.

  20. Evaluation of nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia anode degradation during discharge operation and redox cycles operation by electrochemical calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimura, Takaaki; Jiao, Zhenjun; Shikazono, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode during discharge operation and redox cycles operation were evaluated by three-dimensional electrochemical calculations using a Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Three dimensional microstructures were obtained by Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) reconstruction. In the electrochemical calculations, changes in exchange current density and ionic conductivity of Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) during the operations were assumed and their values were calculated by fitting the calculated overpotential values to the experimental ones. Changes in triple phase boundary density calculated from the reconstructed microstructures were inconsistent with the gradual degradation observed during repeated redox-discharge cycles. Changes of the fitted exchange current density and YSZ ionic conductivity values in both discharge operation and redox cycle operation showed same tendency as the experimental results. Change in exchange current density or YSZ ionic conductivity should be considered as an essential factor which governs the cell performance change regardless of the redox treatment.

  1. CSER 00-003 Criticality Safety Evaluation report for PFP Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process for Plutonium Stabilization Glovebox 3

    SciTech Connect

    LAN, J.S.

    2000-07-13

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report analyzes the stabilization of plutonium/uranium solutions in Glovebox 3 using the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process at PFP. The process covered are the receipt of diluted plutonium solutions into three precipitation tanks, the precipitation of plutonium from the solution, the filtering of the plutonium precipitate from the solution, the scraping of the precipitate from the filter into boats, and the initial drying of the precipitated slurry on a hot plate. A batch (up to 2.5 kg) is brought into the glovebox as plutonium nitrate, processed, and is then removed in boats for further processing. This CSER establishes limits for the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process in Glovebox 3 to maintain criticality safety while handling fissionable material.

  2. An efficient impedance method for induced field evaluation based on a stabilized Bi-conjugate gradient algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Feng; Xia, Ling; Crozier, Stuart

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a stabilized Bi-conjugate gradient algorithm (BiCGstab) that can significantly improve the performance of the impedance method, which has been widely applied to model low-frequency field induction phenomena in voxel phantoms. The improved impedance method offers remarkable computational advantages in terms of convergence performance and memory consumption over the conventional, successive over-relaxation (SOR)-based algorithm. The scheme has been validated against other numerical/analytical solutions on a lossy, multilayered sphere phantom excited by an ideal coil loop. To demonstrate the computational performance and application capability of the developed algorithm, the induced fields inside a human phantom due to a low-frequency hyperthermia device is evaluated. The simulation results show the numerical accuracy and superior performance of the method.

  3. Electrostatic precipitator performance: Improvement with frame stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Optimum electrostatic precipitator performance depends upon maintaining proper clearances between the high voltage components. Historically, the high voltage discharge electrode systems was either unstabilized and allowed to swing between the collection plate surfaces, or was stabilized with various mechanical methods. Free swinging electric fields will normally result in higher spark rates and reduced available power for collection of dust particles. Various mechanical stabilization methods have produced unsatisfactory results. The subject of this paper discusses an innovative mechanical stabilization method which will provide proper clearance for the high voltage components which will maintain maximum precipitator performance. The end of this report includes actual case studies where stabilization resulted in improved performance and reliability.

  4. Optical sensing in high voltage transmission lines using power over fiber and free space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, João Batista; Bassan, Fabio Renato; Penze, Rivael Strobel; Leonardi, Ariovaldo Antonio; Fracarolli, João Paulo Vicentini; Floridia, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    In this work we propose the use of power over fiber (PoF) and free space optics (FSO) techniques to powering and receive signals from an electrical current sensor placed at high voltage potential using a pair of optical collimators. The technique evaluation was performed in a laboratorial prototype using 62.5/125 μm multimode fiber to study the sensitivity of the optical alignment and the influence of the collimation process in the sensing system wavelengths: data communication (1310 nm) and powering (830 nm). The collimators were installed in a rigid electric insulator in order to maintain the stability of transmission.

  5. Evaluating the Stability of Open Bite Treatments and Its Predictive Factors in the Retention Phase during Permanent Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Parisa; Pakshir, Hamid Reza; Hoseini, Seyed Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Orthodontists often find challenges in treating the anterior open bite and maintaining the results. Purpose This retrospective study was aimed to evaluate the stability of corrected open bite in the retention phase during permanent dentition. Materials and Method A total number of 37 patients, including 20 males and 17 females, with the mean age of 18±2.1 years at the beginning of the treatment were studied after correction of the anterior open bite. Overbites of the patients were measured from their lateral cephalograms before (T1), at the end (T2) and at least 3 years after the end of the treatment in the presence of their fixed retainers (T3).The mean overbite changes and the number of patients with open bite, due to treatment relapse, at T3 were calculated. The relationship between the pre-treatment factors and the treatment relapse was assessed at T1 and T2. Also the effects of treatment methods, extraction and adjunctive use of removable appliances on the post-treatment relapse were evaluated. Results The mean overbite change during the post-treatment period was -0.46±0.7 mm and six patients (16.2%) had relapse in the follow-up recall. Cephalometric Jaraback index showed statistically significant, but weak correlation with overbite changes after the treatment (p= 0.035; r= -0.353). No significant difference was found between the extraction and non-extraction groups (p= 0.117) the use and the type of the removable appliances (p= 0.801). Conclusion Fixed retainers alone are insufficient for stabilizing the results of corrected open bite. The change of overbite in the retention phase could not be predicted from cephalometric measurements. Extraction and use of adjunctive removable appliance did not have any effect on the treatment relapse. PMID:25759854

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Journal Bearing Stability and New Gas Bearing Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Dimofte, Florin

    2001-01-01

    It has been estimated that the noise levels in aircraft engine transmissions can be reduced by as much as 10 dB through the use of journal bearings. The potential benefits of lower noise levels include reduced wear, longer gear life and enhanced comfort for passengers and crew. Based on this concept the journal-thrust wave bearing was analyzed and its performance was evaluated. Numerical codes, developed over the past 30 years by Dr. Dimofte, were used to predict the performance of the bearing. The wave bearing is a fluid film bearing and therefore was analyzed using the Reynolds pressure equation. The formulation includes turbulent flow concepts and possesses a viscosity-temperature correction. The centrifugal growth of the bearing diameter and the deformation of the bearing under gear loads were also incorporated into the code. An experimental rig was developed to test the journal-thrust wave bearing.

  7. Serial extraction of first premolars--postretention evaluation of stability and relapse.

    PubMed

    Little, R M; Riedel, R A; Engst, E D

    1990-01-01

    Case records were evaluated for 30 patients who had undergone serial extraction of deciduous teeth plus first premolars followed by comprehensive orthodontic treatment and retention. Diagnostic records were available for the following stages: pre-extraction, start of active treatment, end of active treatment, and a minimum of 10 years postretention. All cases were treated with standard edgewise mechanics and were judged clinically satisfactory by the end of active treatment. Twenty-two of the 30 cases (73%) demonstrated clinically unsatisfactory mandibular anterior alignment postretention. Intercanine width and arch length decreased in 29 of the 30 cases by the postretention stage. There was no difference between the serial extraction sample and a matched sample extracted and treated after full eruption.

  8. Stabilization of the Virulence Plasmid pSLT of Salmonella Typhimurium by Three Maintenance Systems and Its Evaluation by Using a New Stability Test

    PubMed Central

    Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Molina-García, Laura; Moreno-Córdoba, Inma; García-del Portillo, Francisco; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Certain Salmonella enterica serovars belonging to subspecies I carry low-copy-number virulence plasmids of variable size (50–90 kb). All of these plasmids share the spv operon, which is important for systemic infection. Virulence plasmids are present at low copy numbers. Few copies reduce metabolic burden but suppose a risk of plasmid loss during bacterial division. This drawback is counterbalanced by maintenance modules that ensure plasmid stability, including partition systems and toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci. The low-copy number virulence pSLT plasmid of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encodes three auxiliary maintenance systems: one partition system (parAB) and two TA systems (ccdABST and vapBC2ST). The TA module ccdABST has previously been shown to contribute to pSLT plasmid stability and vapBC2ST to bacterial virulence. Here we describe a novel assay to measure plasmid stability based on the selection of plasmid-free cells following elimination of plasmid-containing cells by ParE toxin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor. Using this new maintenance assay we confirmed a crucial role of parAB in pSLT maintenance. We also showed that vapBC2ST, in addition to contribute to bacterial virulence, is important for plasmid stability. We have previously shown that ccdABST encodes an inactive CcdBST toxin. Using our new stability assay we monitored the contribution to plasmid stability of a ccdABST variant containing a single mutation (R99W) that restores the toxicity of CcdBST. The “activation” of CcdBST (R99W) did not increase pSLT stability by ccdABST. In contrast, ccdABST behaves as a canonical type II TA system in terms of transcriptional regulation. Of interest, ccdABST was shown to control the expression of a polycistronic operon in the pSLT plasmid. Collectively, these results show that the contribution of the CcdBST toxin to pSLT plasmid stability may depend on its role as a co-repressor in coordination with CcdAST antitoxin more than on its toxic activity. PMID

  9. Converter Circuit «Voltage-Voltage» Investigation for Power Calibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomichev, Yu M.; Silushkin, S. V.; Mylnikova, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents possible circuits to construct a voltage-voltage converter for the calibrator of fictitious power. The problems of circuit solutions were experimentally identified, and the ways of their elimination were found. One of the main problems of convectors is to provide small harmonic distortions and additional phase shift. The use of deep negative instantaneous value feedback helps to provide the desired level of nonlinear distortions and to reduce the phase shift. Corrective circuits are used to ensure the stability of the transducer at greater depths of the feedback; the half-period average value or rms value feedback is used to ensure the stability and accuracy of conversion. However, the accuracy of the power calibrator can be upgraded and its work for various types of loads can be ensured by means of application follower circuit with modern electronic components which are also discussed in the paper.

  10. STABILIZED OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Jessen, P.L.; Price, H.J.

    1958-03-18

    This patent relates to sine-wave generators and in particular describes a generator with a novel feedback circuit resulting in improved frequency stability. The generator comprises two triodes having a common cathode circuit connected to oscillate at a frequency and amplitude at which the loop galn of the circutt ls unity, and another pair of triodes having a common cathode circuit arranged as a conventional amplifier. A signal is conducted from the osciliator through a frequency selective network to the amplifier and fed back to the osciliator. The unique feature of the feedback circuit is the amplifier operates in the nonlinear portion of its tube characteristics thereby providing a relatively constant feedback voltage to the oscillator irrespective of the amplitude of its input signal.

  11. Superconducting Fault Current Limiter for Transmission Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Hans-Peter; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Cai, Hong; Gamble, Bruce; Madura, David; MacDonald, Tim; McNamara, Joe; Romanosky, Walther; Snitchler, Greg; Lallouet, Nicolas; Schmidt, Frank; Ahmed, Syed

    Within a collaboration of American Superconductor, Siemens, Nexans and Southern California Edison one electrical phase of a resistive superconducting fault current limiter for the 115 kV transmission voltage level has been designed and manufactured. The active part of the limiter consists of 63 bifilar coils made of 12 mm wide steel-stabilized YBCO conductor and is housed in a cryostat operated at 5 bar and 74 K. The first phase was completely assembled and successfully subjected to power switching tests and high voltage tests. The basic design of the system and the test results are reported. The work was funded in part by US-DOE under Contract Number DE-FC26-07NT43243.

  12. Under-performance evaluation and rehabilitation strategy for waste stabilization ponds in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, B J; Leitner, A R; Vorkas, C A; Guganesharajah, R K

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen high altitude (> 2,500 m amsl) small Waste Stabilisation Pond systems (WSPs) commissioned during the last 12 years in the State of Mexico in Mexico, were built to a common 3-stage design. Each system is comprised of 2 parallel series of bio-digesters, anaerobic and facultative ponds. All fourteen WSP systems produce poor quality effluents, and eight studied in more detail did not meet any of the national standards for discharge to rivers or the standards required for reuse. The under-performance of these WSPs is underlined by the anaerobic condition of the upper reaches of the Lerma river which receives the sewage from the towns served by these treatment plants. Preliminary surveillance diagnostics identified fundamental operational problems in all eight WSP systems located in the upper Lerma catchment. The results of an intensive secondary diagnostic performance evaluation on one system were used to identify the reasons for under-performance. Under-performance was caused by under-design, hydraulic short-circuiting, adverse environmental conditions and poor operation and maintenance. A strategy for improvement of design and operation to meet national standards is presented.

  13. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the effects of paraffin section storage on biomarker stability.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Vara, J A; Webster, J D; DuSold, D; Miller, M A

    2014-01-01

    Environmental stresses can alter immunoreactivity of biomarkers in stored tissue sections. The effect of temperature and lighting on 49 cellular or microbial antigens was evaluated in 4 serial paraffin sections, cut 12 months, 10 months, 8 months, 5 months, 3 months, 1 month, 3 days, and 1 day before immunohistochemistry. Slides were stored at room temperature (RT) in the dark, at 4°C in the dark, at RT under fluorescent light, or at RT with windowpane exposure to sunlight. Immunohistochemistry was performed simultaneously in an automated immunostainer. Immunoreactivity was compared with that in the corresponding 1-day-old section and scored as 4 (<10% reduction), 3 (10%-25% reduction), 2 (26%-60% reduction), 1(>60% reduction), or 0 (no reactivity). Any loss of immunoreactivity was proportional to the tissue section age and was least in sections stored in the dark. Immunoreactivity was only completely lost in light-exposed sections and as early as 1 month for CD45. Other markers with complete loss of immunoreactivity were bovine viral diarrhea virus, CD18 (only with fluorescent light), CD31, CD68, canine parvovirus, chromogranins, and thyroid transcription factor-1. Markers with complete loss after light exposure also had reduced immunoreactivity when stored in the dark, as early as day 3. Eight markers (Bartonella spp, CD11d, high molecular weight cytokeratins, feline coronavirus, GATA-4, insulin, p63, progesterone receptor) had minimal decrease in immunoreactivity, regardless of treatment. In conclusion, light-induced antigen decay (tissue section aging) is antigen dependent and could explain unexpectedly weak or negative immunohistochemical reactions in stored paraffin sections. PMID:23435571

  14. Isomerically Pure Tetramethylrhodamine Voltage Reporters.

    PubMed

    Deal, Parker E; Kulkarni, Rishikesh U; Al-Abdullatif, Sarah H; Miller, Evan W

    2016-07-27

    We present the design, synthesis, and application of a new family of fluorescent voltage indicators based on isomerically pure tetramethylrhodamines. These new Rhodamine Voltage Reporters, or RhoVRs, use photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) as a trigger for voltage sensing, display excitation and emission profiles in the green to orange region of the visible spectrum, demonstrate high sensitivity to membrane potential changes (up to 47% ΔF/F per 100 mV), and employ a tertiary amide derived from sarcosine, which aids in membrane localization and simultaneously simplifies the synthetic route to the voltage sensors. The most sensitive of the RhoVR dyes, RhoVR 1, features a methoxy-substituted diethylaniline donor and phenylenevinylene molecular wire at the 5'-position of the rhodamine aryl ring, exhibits the highest voltage sensitivity to date for red-shifted PeT-based voltage sensors, and is compatible with simultaneous imaging alongside green fluorescent protein-based indicators. The discoveries that sarcosine-based tertiary amides in the context of molecular-wire voltage indicators prevent dye internalization and 5'-substituted voltage indicators exhibit improved voltage sensitivity should be broadly applicable to other types of PeT-based voltage-sensitive fluorophores. PMID:27428174

  15. Transistor voltage comparator performs own sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    Detection of the highest voltage input among a group of varying voltage inputs is accomplished by a transistorized voltage comparison circuit. The collector circuits of the transistors perform the sensing function. Input voltage levels are governed by the transistors.

  16. Thermal Mechanical Stability of Single-Crystal-Oxide Refractive Concentrators Evaluated for High-Temperature Solar-Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, refractive secondary solar concentrator systems were developed for solar thermal power and propulsion (ref. 1). Single-crystal oxides-such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO), and sapphire (Al2O3)-are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials. However, the refractive concentrator system will experience high-temperature thermal cycling in the solar thermal engine during the sun/shade transition of a space mission. The thermal mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions. In this research at the NASA Lewis Research Center, a controlled heat flux test approach was developed for investigating the thermal mechanical stability of the candidate oxide. This approach used a 3.0-kW continuous-wave (wavelength, 10.6 mm) carbon dioxide (CO2) laser (ref. 2). The CO2 laser is especially well-suited for single-crystal thermal shock tests because it can directly deliver well-characterized heat energy to the oxide surfaces. Since the oxides are opaque at the 10.6-mm wavelength of the laser beam, the light energy is absorbed at the surfaces rather than transmitting into the crystals, and thus generates the required temperature gradients within the specimens. The following figure is a schematic diagram of the test rig.

  17. ISO 12189 standard for the preclinical evaluation of posterior spinal stabilization devices--I: Assembly procedure and validation.

    PubMed

    La Barbera, Luigi; Villa, Tomaso

    2016-02-01

    The International Standardization Organization introduced standard 12189 for the preclinical evaluation of the mechanical reliability of posterior stabilization devices. The well-known vertebrectomy model formalized in standard F1717 by the American Society for Testing and Materials was modified with the introduction of a modular anterior support made up of three calibrated springs, which allows to describe a more realistic scenario, closer to the effective clinical use, as well to test even very flexible and dynamic posterior stabilization implants. Despite these important improvements, ISO 12189 received very little attention in the literature. The aim of the work is to provide a systematic procedure for the assembly and validation of a finite element model capable of describing the experimental test according to ISO 12189. The validated finite element model is able to catch very well the effective stiffness of the unassembled and assembled constructs (percentage differences <2% and <10%, respectively). As concern the assembled construct, the experimentally measured and predicted strains were found in a good agreement (R2 > 0.75, root mean square error < 30%), but the procedure without precompression lead to much better results (R2 > 0.96, root mean square error < 10%). Given the prediction errors of the assembled construct fall within the experimental range of repeatability, the finite element model can be systematically implemented to support the mechanical design of a variety of spinal implants, to quantitatively investigate the load-sharing mechanism, as well as to investigate the loading conditions set by ISO 12189 standard. PMID:26679431

  18. Mathematical evaluation of the influence of multiple factors on implant stability quotient values in clinical practice: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hairong; Wismeijer, Daniel; Shao, Xianhong; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to mathematically evaluate the influence of multiple factors on implant stability quotient values in clinical practice. Patients and methods Resonance frequency analysis was performed at T1 (measured immediately at the time of implant placement) and at T2 (measured before dental restoration) in 177 patients (329 implants). Using a multivariate linear regression model, we analyzed the influence of the following eleven candidate factors: sex, age, maxillary/mandibular location, bone type, immediate/delayed implantation, bone grafting (presence or absence), insertion torque, I-/II-stage healing pattern, implant diameter, implant length, and T1–T2 time interval. Results The following factors were identified to significantly influence the implant stability quotient (ISQ) values at T1: insertion torque, bone grafting, I-/II-stage healing pattern, immediate/delayed implantation, maxillary/mandibular location, implant diameter, and sex. In contrast, the ISQ values at T2 were significantly influenced only by three factors: implant diameter, T1–T2 time interval, and insertion torque. Conclusion Among the eleven candidate factors, seven key factors were found to influence the T1-ISQ values, while only three key factors influenced the T2-ISQ values. Both T1 and T2-ISQ values were found to be influenced by implant diameter and insertion torque. T1 was influenced specifically by the sex of the patient, the location (maxillary or mandibular), the implantation mode (immediate/delayed implantation), the healing stage, and the absence or presence of bone graft materials. PMID:27785040

  19. In vitro evaluation of the long-term stability of polyimide as a material for neural implants.

    PubMed

    Rubehn, Birthe; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    In order to be used as a material for neural prostheses, polyimide has to withstand the body environment over years. To obtain more information about the long-term stability of this material, we tested three commercially available polyimides (PI2611 - HD-Microsystems (type: BPDA-PPD), U-Varnish-S - UBE (type: BPDA-PPD), Durimide 7510 - Fujifilm (type: information not provided)). Specimens were stored in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 degrees C to simulate body temperature and at elevated temperatures of 60 degrees C and 85 degrees C to accelerate aging. During the course of 20 months, stress-strain curves were measured monthly by tensile testing. From these curves the Young's modulus, the stress and strain at break, the stress at 10% strain as well as the fracture energy were extracted and used to characterize and to statistically evaluate the mechanical material properties. Mass loss was determined by weighing polyimide foils (Upilex25S - UBE) and optical measurements were conducted to examine changes in chemical structure and crystallinity. At 37 degrees C and 60 degrees C no change in material behavior could be observed, except for an increase of the Young's modulus of the BPDA-PPD type stored at 60 degrees C. This demonstrates the long-term stability of all tested polyimides with respect to PBS. All extracted quantities mentioned above, as well as the mass, decreased in specimens stored in PBS at 85 degrees C. As a comparison, BPDA-PPD type specimens stored at 85 degrees C in deionized water showed no change in any property but behaved similarly to the reference material.

  20. High voltage feedthrough bushing

    DOEpatents

    Brucker, John P.

    1993-01-01

    A feedthrough bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  1. High voltage isolation transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  2. Evaluation of the bank stability and toe erosion model (BSTEM) for predicting lateral retreat on composite streambanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midgley, Taber L.; Fox, Garey A.; Heeren, Derek M.

    2012-04-01

    Streambank erosion is known to be a major source of sediment in streams and rivers. The Bank Stability and Toe Erosion Model (BSTEM) was developed in order to predict streambank retreat due to both fluvial erosion and geotechnical failure. However, few, if any, model evaluations using long-term streambank retreat data have been performed. The objectives of this research were to (1) monitor long-term composite streambank retreat during a hydraulically active period on a rapidly migrating stream, (2) evaluate BSTEM's ability to predict the measured streambank retreat, and (3) assess the importance of accurate geotechnical, fluvial erosion, and near-bank pore-water pressure properties. The Barren Fork Creek in northeastern Oklahoma laterally eroded 7.8 to 20.9 m along a 100-m length of stream between April and October 2009 based on regular bank location surveys. The most significant lateral retreat occurred in mid- to late-May and September due to a series of storm events, and not necessarily the most extreme events observed during the monitoring period. BSTEM (version 5.2) was not originally programmed to run multiple hydrographs iteratively, so a subroutine was written that automatically input the temporal sequence of stream stage and to lag the water table in the near-bank ground water depending on user settings. Eight BSTEM simulations of the Barren Fork Creek streambank were performed using combinations of the following input data: with and without a water table lag; default BSTEM geotechnical parameters (moderate silt loam) versus laboratory measured geotechnical parameters based on direct shear tests on saturated soil samples; and default BSTEM fluvial erosion parameters versus field measured fluvial erosion parameters from submerged jet tests. Using default BSTEM input values underestimated the actual erosion that occurred. Lagging the water table predicted more geotechnical failures resulting in greater streambank retreat. Using measured fluvial and

  3. Evaluation of Solvita compost stability and maturity tests for assessment of quality of end-products from mixed latrine style compost toilets

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Geoffrey B.; Baldwin, Susan A.; Vinnerås, Bjorn

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Solvita® stability and maturity tests used on composting toilet end-product. • Solvita® ammonia better suited in evaluation of feedstock suitability for vermicomposting. • No clear value of Solvita® stability test due to prevalent inhibition of decomposition by ammonia. - Abstract: It is challenging and expensive to monitor and test decentralized composting toilet systems, yet critical to prevent the mismanagement of potentially harmful and pathogenic end-product. Recent studies indicate that mixed latrine composting toilets can be inhibited by high ammonia content, a product of urea hydrolysis. Urine-diverting vermicomposting toilets are better able to accomplish the goals of remote site human waste management by facilitating the consumption of fecal matter by earthworms, which are highly sensitive to ammonia. The reliability of Solvita® compost stability and maturity tests were evaluated as a means of determining feedstock suitability for vermicomposting (ammonia) and end-product stability/completeness (carbon dioxide). A significant linear regression between Solvita® ammonia and free ammonia gas was found. Solvita® ranking of maturity did not correspond to ranking assigned by ammonium:nitrate standards. Solvita® ammonia values 4 and 5 contained ammonia levels below earthworm toxicity limits in 80% and 100% of samples respectively indicative of their use in evaluating feedstock suitability for vermicomposting. Solvita® stability tests did not correlate with carbon dioxide evolution tests nor ranking of stability by the same test, presumably due to in situ inhibition of decomposition and microbial respiration by ammonia which were reported by the Solvita® CO{sub 2} test as having high stability values.

  4. Computed voltage distributions around solar electric propulsion spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program is used to conduct preliminary computations of the voltage distributions around such large spacecraft in geomagnetic substorm environments at geosynchronous altitudes. Both a standard operating voltage (+ or - 150 volts on solar arrays) and direct-drive (+1200 volts on arrays) configurations are considered. Thruster-off simulations are computed for both operating voltage configurations while the effect of simulated thruster-on conditions are evaluated only for direct-drive configuration. These simulated thruster-on conditions are evaluated only for direct-drive configuration. These simulated thruster operations appear to alleviate surface charging.

  5. Price Incentivised Electric Vehicle Charge Control for Community Voltage Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Damian; Baroncelli, Fabio; Fowler, Christopher; Boundy, David; Pratt, Annabelle

    2014-11-03

    With the growing availability of Electric Vehicles, there is a significant opportunity to use battery 'smart-charging' for voltage regulation. This work designs and experimentally evaluates a system for price-incentivised electric vehicle charging. The system is designed to eliminate negative impacts to the user while minimising the cost of charging and achieving a more favourable voltage behaviour throughout the local grid over time. The practical issues associated with a real-life deployment are identified and resolved. The efficacy of the system is evaluated in the challenging scenario in which EVs are deployed in six closely distributed homes, serviced by the same low voltage residential distribution feeder.

  6. Frequency to Voltage Converter Analog Front-End Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos; Raines, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The frequency to voltage converter analog front end evaluation prototype (F2V AFE) is an evaluation board designed for comparison of different methods of accurately extracting the frequency of a sinusoidal input signal. A configurable input stage is routed to one or several of five separate, configurable filtering circuits, and then to a configurable output stage. Amplifier selection and gain, filter corner frequencies, and comparator hysteresis and voltage reference are all easily configurable through the use of jumpers and potentiometers.

  7. Evaluating the Effect of Rainfall Infiltration on the Slope Stability of T16 tower of Taipei Mao-kong Gondola by Numerical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RUNG, J.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, a series of rainfall-stability analyses were performed to simulate the failure mechanism and the function of remediation works of the down slope of T-16 tower pier, Mao-Kong gondola (or T-16 Slope) at the hillside of Taipei City using two-dimensional finite element method. The failure mechanism of T-16 Slope was simulated using the rainfall hyetograph of Jang-Mi typhoon in 2008 based on the field investigation data, monitoring data, soil/rock mechanical testing data and detail design plots of remediation works. Eventually, the numerical procedures and various input parameters in the analysis were verified by comparing the numerical results with the field observations. In addition, 48 hrs design rainfalls corresponding to 5, 10, 25 and 50 years return periods were prepared using the 20 years rainfall data of Mu-Zha rainfall observation station, Central Weather Bureau for the rainfall-stability analyses of T-16 Slope to inspect the effect of the compound stabilization works on the overall stability of the slope. At T-16 Slope, without considering the longitudinal and transverse drainages on the ground surface, there totally 4 types of stabilization works were installed to stabilize the slope. From the slope top to the slope toe, the stabilization works of T-16 Slope consists of RC-retaining wall with micro-pile foundation at the up-segment, earth anchor at the up-middle-segment, soil nailing at the middle-segment and retaining pile at the down-segment of the slope. The effect of each individual stabilization work on the slope stability under rainfall condition was examined and evaluated by raising field groundwater level.

  8. The identification of goat peroxiredoxin-5 and the evaluation and enhancement of its stability by nanoparticle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaozhou; Liu, Juanjuan; Fan, Shuai; Liu, Fan; Li, Yadong; Jin, Yuanyuan; Bai, Liping; Yang, Zhaoyong

    2016-04-01

    An anticancer bioactive peptide (ACBP), goat peroxiredoxin-5 (gPRDX5), was identified from goat-spleen extract after immunizing the goat with gastric cancer-cell lysate. Its amino acid sequence was determined by employing 2D nano-LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap MS/MS combined with Mascot database search in the goat subset of the Uniprot database. The recombinant gPRDX5 protein was acquired by heterogeneous expression in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, the anti-cancer bioactivity of the peptide was measured by several kinds of tumor cells. The results indicated that the gPRDX5 was a good anti-cancer candidate, especially for killing B16 cells. However, the peptide was found to be unstable without modification with pharmaceutical excipients, which would be a hurdle for future medicinal application. In order to overcome this problem and find an effective way to evaluate the gPRDX5, nanoparticle formation, which has been widely used in drug delivery because of its steadiness in application, less side-effects and enhancement of drug accumulation in target issues, was used here to address the issues. In this work, the gPRDX5 was dispersed into nanoparticles before delivered to B16 cells. By the nanotechnological method, the gPRDX5 was stabilized by a fast and accurate procedure, which suggests a promising way for screening the peptide for further possible medicinal applications.

  9. Mechanical properties and short-term in-vivo evaluation of yttrium-oxide-partially-stabilized zirconia.

    PubMed

    Christel, P; Meunier, A; Heller, M; Torre, J P; Peille, C N

    1989-01-01

    Yttrium-oxide-partially-stabilized zirconia (YPSZ) belongs to a new class of ceramics exhibiting an improved toughness when compared to alumina. The toughening mechanism is related to a martensitic-like transformation of tetragonal metastable grains into a monoclinic state occurring at the crack tip. Specific tests showed that YPSZ exhibited a high bending strength (900-1200 MPa), a low Young's modulus (200 GPa), and a high toughness (KIC = 9-10 MN/m3/2). Its average grain size of 0.5 microns allows a surface roughness as low as 0.008 microns. Sterilization or aging in saline solution at room temperature for 100 days did not affect the toughness of this material. Cylindrical YPSZ samples, manufactured by cold isostatic pressing and sintering, were implanted in the paraspinal muscles in the rat up to 12 weeks. The tissue reaction was evaluated with reference to alumina (ISO requirements) by means of quantitative histomorphometry. No significant differences were found between YPSZ and alumina for both the membrane thickness and cell distributions surrounding the implants.

  10. The identification of goat peroxiredoxin-5 and the evaluation and enhancement of its stability by nanoparticle formation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaozhou; Liu, Juanjuan; Fan, Shuai; Liu, Fan; Li, Yadong; Jin, Yuanyuan; Bai, Liping; Yang, Zhaoyong

    2016-01-01

    An anticancer bioactive peptide (ACBP), goat peroxiredoxin-5 (gPRDX5), was identified from goat-spleen extract after immunizing the goat with gastric cancer-cell lysate. Its amino acid sequence was determined by employing 2D nano-LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap MS/MS combined with Mascot database search in the goat subset of the Uniprot database. The recombinant gPRDX5 protein was acquired by heterogeneous expression in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, the anti-cancer bioactivity of the peptide was measured by several kinds of tumor cells. The results indicated that the gPRDX5 was a good anti-cancer candidate, especially for killing B16 cells. However, the peptide was found to be unstable without modification with pharmaceutical excipients, which would be a hurdle for future medicinal application. In order to overcome this problem and find an effective way to evaluate the gPRDX5, nanoparticle formation, which has been widely used in drug delivery because of its steadiness in application, less side-effects and enhancement of drug accumulation in target issues, was used here to address the issues. In this work, the gPRDX5 was dispersed into nanoparticles before delivered to B16 cells. By the nanotechnological method, the gPRDX5 was stabilized by a fast and accurate procedure, which suggests a promising way for screening the peptide for further possible medicinal applications. PMID:27074889

  11. Chiral HPLC versus chiral SFC: evaluation of long-term stability and selectivity of Chiralcel OD using various eluents.

    PubMed

    Lynam, K G; Nicolas, E C

    1993-01-01

    The long-term stability of Chiralcel OD columns under varying HPLC and SFC conditions was evaluated. Two new columns from the same supplier lot were procured, and one was installed in an HPLC system, and the other was installed in an SFC system. Enantiomeric mixtures of trans-stilbene oxide and carbobenzyloxy phenylalaninol were repeatedly injected in both systems over several days. For HPLC, hexane was the primary solvent used, along with IPA, EtOH, MeOH/IPA, or EtOH/TFA modifier. Carbon dioxide was the primary SFC solvent, together with the similar modifiers as the HPLC. Column performance was monitored by measuring resolution, theoretical plate number, and alpha between enantiomeric peaks. It was observed that, when the eluent strengths were adjusted to provide comparable retention times, the Chiralcel OD gave superior enantiomeric resolution when used in the SFC than the HPLC. Equilibration in between solvents was faster with SFC. The columns were demonstrated to be quite stable in both systems. PMID:8123734

  12. Formulation and stability evaluation of 3D alginate beads potentially useful for cumulus-oocyte complexes culture.

    PubMed

    Dorati, Rossella; Genta, Ida; Ferrari, Michela; Vigone, Giulia; Merico, Valeria; Garagna, Silvia; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Conti, Bice

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian follicle encapsulation in synthetic or natural matrixes based on biopolymers is potentially a promising approach to in vitro maturation (IVM) process, since it maintains follicle 3D organisation by preventing its flattening and consequent disruption of gap junctions, preserving the functional relationship between oocyte and companion follicle cells. The aim of the work was to optimise physico-chemical parameters of alginate microcapsules for perspective IVM under 3D environments. On this purpose alginate and cross-linking agent concentrations were investigated. Alginate concentration between 0.75% and 0.125% w/w and Mg(2+), Ba(2+), Ca(2+ )at concentration between 100 and 20 mM were tested. Follicle encapsulation was obtained by on purpose modified diffusion setting gelation technique, and evaluated together with beads, chemical and mechanical stability in standard and stressing conditions. Beads permeability was tested towards albumin, fetuin, pyruvate, glucose, pullulan. Results demonstrated that 0.25% alginate cross-linked in 100 mM CaCl2 beads is suitable to follicle encapsulation. PMID:26791322

  13. Control voltage and power fluctuations when connecting wind farms

    SciTech Connect

    Berinde, Ioan Bălan, Horia Oros, Teodora Susana

    2015-12-23

    Voltage, frequency, active power and reactive power are very important parameters in terms of power quality. These parameters are followed when connecting any power plant, the more the connection of wind farms. Connecting wind farms to the electricity system must not cause interference outside the limits set by regulations. Modern solutions for fast and automatic voltage control and power fluctuations using electronic control systems of reactive power flows. FACTS (Flexible Alternating Current Transmision System) systems, established on the basis of power electronic circuits ensure control of electrical status quantities to achieve the necessary transfer of power to the power grid. FACTS devices can quickly control parameters and sizes of state power lines, such as impedance line voltages and phase angles of the voltages of the two ends of the line. Their use can lead to improvement in power system operation by increasing the transmission capacity of power lines, power flow control lines, improved static and transient stability reserve.

  14. Value-Added Teacher Estimates as Part of Teacher Evaluations: Exploring the Effects of Data and Model Specifications on the Stability of Teacher Value-Added Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersting, Nicole B.; Chen, Mei-kuang; Stigler, James W.

    2013-01-01

    If teacher value-added estimates (VAEs) are to be used as indicators of individual teacher performance in teacher evaluation and accountability systems, it is important to understand how much VAEs are affected by the data and model specifications used to estimate them. In this study we explored the effects of three conditions on the stability of…

  15. Interface connections of a transmembrane voltage sensor.

    PubMed

    Freites, J Alfredo; Tobias, Douglas J; von Heijne, Gunnar; White, Stephen H

    2005-10-18

    Voltage-sensitive ion channels open and close in response to changes in transmembrane (TM) potential caused by the motion of the S4 voltage sensors. These sensors are alpha-helices that include four or more positively charged amino acids, most commonly arginine. The so-called paddle model, based on the high-resolution structure of the KvAP K+ channel [Jiang, et al. (2003) Nature 423, 33-41], posits that the S4 sensors move within the membrane bilayer in response to TM voltage changes. Direct exposure of S4 sensors to lipid is contrary to the classical expectation that the dielectric contrast between the membrane hydrocarbon core and water presents an insurmountable energetic penalty to burial of electric charges. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that a helix with the sequence of KvAP S4 can be inserted across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. To reconcile this result with the classical energetics argument, we have carried out a molecular dynamics simulation of an isolated TM S4 helix in a lipid bilayer. The simulation reveals a stabilizing hydrogen-bonded network of water and lipid phosphates around the arginines that reduces the effective thickness of the bilayer hydrocarbon core to approximately 10 A in the vicinity of the helix. It suggests that bilayer phospholipids can adapt locally to strongly perturbing protein elements, causing the phospholipids to become a structural extension of the protein.

  16. A Study on a Centralized Under-Voltage Load Shedding Scheme Considering the Load Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiyu; Liu, Junyong

    Under-voltage load shedding is an important measure for maintaining voltage stability.Aiming at the optimal load shedding problem considering the load characteristics,firstly,the traditional under-voltage load shedding scheme based on a static load model may cause the analysis inaccurate is pointed out on the equivalent Thevenin circuit.Then,the dynamic voltage stability margin indicator is derived through local measurement.The derived indicator can reflect the voltage change of the key area in a myopia linear way.Dimensions of the optimal problem will be greatly simplified using this indicator.In the end,mathematical model of the centralized load shedding scheme is built with the indicator considering load characteristics.HSPPSO is introduced to slove the optimal problem.Simulation results on IEEE-39 system show that the proposed scheme display a good adaptability in solving the under-voltage load shedding considering dynamic load characteristics.

  17. Evaluation of Colloidal Stability and Ecotoxicity of Metal-based Nanoparticles in the Aquatic and Terrestrial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Lok Raj

    Intrinsic to the many nano-enabled products are atomic-size multifunctional engineered nanomaterials, which upon release contaminate the environments, raising considerable health and safety concerns. This Ph.D. dissertation is designed to investigate (i) whether metals or oxide nanoparticles are more toxic than ions, and if MetPLATE(TM) bioassay is applicable as a rapid nanotoxicity screening tool; (ii) how variable water chemistry (dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, and hardness) and organic compounds (cysteine, humic acid, and trolox) modulate colloidal stability, ion release, and aquatic toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNP); and (iii) the developmental responses of crop plants exposed to Ag- or ZnO- (zinc oxide) nanoparticles. Results suggest that the MetPLATE can be considered a high-throughput screening tool for rapid nanotoxicity evaluation. Detectable changes in the colloidal diameter, surface charge, and plasmonic resonance revealed modulating effects of variable water chemistry and organic ligands on the particle stability, dissolution, and toxicity of AgNPs against Escherichia coli or Daphnia magna. Silver dissolution increased as a function of DOC concentrations but decreased with increasing hardness, pH, cysteine, or trolox levels. Notably, the dissociated Ag+ was inadequate to explain AgNP toxicity, and that the combined effect of AgNPs and dissolved Ag+ under each ligand treatment was lower than of AgNO 3. Significant attenuation by trolox signifies an oxidative stress-mediated AgNP toxicity; its inability to attenuate AgNO3 toxicity, however, negates oxidative stress as Ag+ toxicity mechanism, and that cysteine could effectively quench free Ag+ to alleviate AgNO 3 toxicity in D. magna. Surprisingly, DOC-AgNPs complex that apparently formed at higher DOC levels might have led daphnids filter-feed on aggregates, potentially elevating internal dose, and thus higher mortality. Maize root anatomy showed differential alterations upon exposure to Ag

  18. Proposal of the new method to evaluate of the tectonic stability for the last 100 ky in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hataya, R.; Tanaka, K.

    2001-12-01

    characteristics common to all data, we divided the studied area into several tectonic blocks. Each block has individual characteristics of tectonic style, i.e. uplift rate, deformation, volcanic activities, etc. This tectonic blocking can be explained mainly by the oblique subduction of the Pacific plate to the North American plate and a collision of the Chishima arc due to the collision, and also suggests that another tectonic boundary distribute in the Japan Sea. Therefore, the applicability of the proposed method to evaluate the long-term tectonic stability for the last 100 ky is thought to be verified. 4. CONCLUSION We proposed the new method to evaluate the long-term tectonic stability in the local area. Tectonic blocks identified by our method should help the site selection by the following investigation; 1) Is tectonic activity is high or low? 2) Is the block large or small? 3) How far is a candidate site from the block boundary? etc. * This study was financially supported by ten electric power companies in Japan.

  19. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOEpatents

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J.; Schulze, Gerald K.

    2004-04-20

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  20. Voltage sensor and dielectric material

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2006-10-17

    A voltage sensor is described that consists of an arrangement of impedance elements. The sensor is optimized to provide an output ratio that is substantially immune to changes in voltage, temperature variations or aging. Also disclosed is a material with a large and stable dielectric constant. The dielectric constant can be tailored to vary with position or direction in the material.

  1. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated.

  2. 30 CFR 18.53 - High-voltage longwall mining systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage longwall mining systems. 18.53..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.53 High-voltage longwall mining systems. (a) In each high-voltage...

  3. 30 CFR 18.53 - High-voltage longwall mining systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-voltage longwall mining systems. 18.53..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.53 High-voltage longwall mining systems. (a) In each high-voltage...

  4. 30 CFR 18.53 - High-voltage longwall mining systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-voltage longwall mining systems. 18.53..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.53 High-voltage longwall mining systems. (a) In each high-voltage...

  5. 30 CFR 18.53 - High-voltage longwall mining systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-voltage longwall mining systems. 18.53..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.53 High-voltage longwall mining systems. (a) In each high-voltage...

  6. 30 CFR 18.53 - High-voltage longwall mining systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-voltage longwall mining systems. 18.53..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.53 High-voltage longwall mining systems. (a) In each high-voltage...

  7. Evaluation of structure and material properties of RF magnetron sputter-deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piascik, Jeffrey Robert

    (˜ 100 MPa) in the compressive stress of the films. Environmental aging suggests the change in compressive stress was related to water vapor absorption. These effects were then evaluated for films formed under different deposition parameters with varying density (calculated packing density) and crystal structure (XRD). Based on the above results, it was determined to evaluate stress as a function of substrate bias. It was shown that increasing substrate bias power disrupted columnar grain growth and reduced the percent change in compressive stress when exposed to ambient environments. TEM confirmed a reduction in inter-granular porosity for substrate bias depositions, but an increase in lateral defects. It was hypothesized that substrate bias would increase the film's density, but after inspection of SEM and TEM micrographs, it appeared that as bias was increased the density decreased. This T⇒M phase transformation has been well documented for bulk PSZ, but limited data exists for PSZ thin films. Data is presented that supports a stress-induced T=>M transformation mechanism that occurs during sputter-deposition in the presence of a substrate bias. Substrate bias (0--50W) was originally applied to increase film density, modify microstructure, and vary film stress. The films were deposited using rf magnetron sputtering from a sintered yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) target and subsequently characterized using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and wafer bow measurement (for stress analysis). With no substrate bias the films exhibited a columnar grain structure consistent with sputter-deposited films, with a majority tetragonal phase as determined by XRD. Under higher substrate bias, wafer bow measurements indicated a steady increase in compressive stress as substrate bias increased (max. 310MPa at 50W bias), while XRD indicated a corresponding increase in the percentage of monoclinic phase. Both SEM and TEM analyses

  8. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  9. Voltage Controlled Magnetic Skyrmion Motion for Racetrack Memory.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wang; Huang, Yangqi; Zheng, Chentian; Lv, Weifeng; Lei, Na; Zhang, Youguang; Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmion, vortex-like swirling topologically stable spin configurations, is appealing as information carrier for future nanoelectronics, owing to the stability, small size and extremely low driving current density. One of the most promising applications of skyrmion is to build racetrack memory (RM). Compared to domain wall-based RM (DW-RM), skyrmion-based RM (Sky-RM) possesses quite a few benefits in terms of energy, density and speed etc. Until now, the fundamental behaviors, including nucleation/annihilation, motion and detection of skyrmion have been intensively investigated. However, one indispensable function, i.e., pinning/depinning of skyrmion still remains an open question and has to be addressed before applying skyrmion for RM. Furthermore, Current research mainly focuses on physical investigations, whereas the electrical design and evaluation are still lacking. In this work, we aim to promote the development of Sky-RM from fundamental physics to realistic electronics. First, we investigate the pinning/depinning characteristics of skyrmion in a nanotrack with the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect. Then, we propose a compact model and design framework of Sky-RM for electrical evaluation. This work completes the elementary memory functionality of Sky-RM and fills the technical gap between the physicists and electronic engineers, making a significant step forward for the development of Sky-RM. PMID:26975697

  10. Voltage Controlled Magnetic Skyrmion Motion for Racetrack Memory.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wang; Huang, Yangqi; Zheng, Chentian; Lv, Weifeng; Lei, Na; Zhang, Youguang; Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2016-03-15

    Magnetic skyrmion, vortex-like swirling topologically stable spin configurations, is appealing as information carrier for future nanoelectronics, owing to the stability, small size and extremely low driving current density. One of the most promising applications of skyrmion is to build racetrack memory (RM). Compared to domain wall-based RM (DW-RM), skyrmion-based RM (Sky-RM) possesses quite a few benefits in terms of energy, density and speed etc. Until now, the fundamental behaviors, including nucleation/annihilation, motion and detection of skyrmion have been intensively investigated. However, one indispensable function, i.e., pinning/depinning of skyrmion still remains an open question and has to be addressed before applying skyrmion for RM. Furthermore, Current research mainly focuses on physical investigations, whereas the electrical design and evaluation are still lacking. In this work, we aim to promote the development of Sky-RM from fundamental physics to realistic electronics. First, we investigate the pinning/depinning characteristics of skyrmion in a nanotrack with the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect. Then, we propose a compact model and design framework of Sky-RM for electrical evaluation. This work completes the elementary memory functionality of Sky-RM and fills the technical gap between the physicists and electronic engineers, making a significant step forward for the development of Sky-RM.

  11. Voltage Controlled Magnetic Skyrmion Motion for Racetrack Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wang; Huang, Yangqi; Zheng, Chentian; Lv, Weifeng; Lei, Na; Zhang, Youguang; Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic skyrmion, vortex-like swirling topologically stable spin configurations, is appealing as information carrier for future nanoelectronics, owing to the stability, small size and extremely low driving current density. One of the most promising applications of skyrmion is to build racetrack memory (RM). Compared to domain wall-based RM (DW-RM), skyrmion-based RM (Sky-RM) possesses quite a few benefits in terms of energy, density and speed etc. Until now, the fundamental behaviors, including nucleation/annihilation, motion and detection of skyrmion have been intensively investigated. However, one indispensable function, i.e., pinning/depinning of skyrmion still remains an open question and has to be addressed before applying skyrmion for RM. Furthermore, Current research mainly focuses on physical investigations, whereas the electrical design and evaluation are still lacking. In this work, we aim to promote the development of Sky-RM from fundamental physics to realistic electronics. First, we investigate the pinning/depinning characteristics of skyrmion in a nanotrack with the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect. Then, we propose a compact model and design framework of Sky-RM for electrical evaluation. This work completes the elementary memory functionality of Sky-RM and fills the technical gap between the physicists and electronic engineers, making a significant step forward for the development of Sky-RM.

  12. Voltage Controlled Magnetic Skyrmion Motion for Racetrack Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wang; Huang, Yangqi; Zheng, Chentian; Lv, Weifeng; Lei, Na; Zhang, Youguang; Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmion, vortex-like swirling topologically stable spin configurations, is appealing as information carrier for future nanoelectronics, owing to the stability, small size and extremely low driving current density. One of the most promising applications of skyrmion is to build racetrack memory (RM). Compared to domain wall-based RM (DW-RM), skyrmion-based RM (Sky-RM) possesses quite a few benefits in terms of energy, density and speed etc. Until now, the fundamental behaviors, including nucleation/annihilation, motion and detection of skyrmion have been intensively investigated. However, one indispensable function, i.e., pinning/depinning of skyrmion still remains an open question and has to be addressed before applying skyrmion for RM. Furthermore, Current research mainly focuses on physical investigations, whereas the electrical design and evaluation are still lacking. In this work, we aim to promote the development of Sky-RM from fundamental physics to realistic electronics. First, we investigate the pinning/depinning characteristics of skyrmion in a nanotrack with the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect. Then, we propose a compact model and design framework of Sky-RM for electrical evaluation. This work completes the elementary memory functionality of Sky-RM and fills the technical gap between the physicists and electronic engineers, making a significant step forward for the development of Sky-RM. PMID:26975697

  13. Evaluating factors affecting the permeability of emulsions used to stabilize radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device.

    PubMed

    Fox, Garey A; Medina, Victor F

    2005-05-15

    Present strategies for alleviating radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or dirty bomb involve either demolishing and removing radioactive surfaces or abandoning portions of the area near the release point. In both cases, it is imperative to eliminate or reduce migration of the radioisotopes until the cleanup is complete or until the radiation has decayed back to acceptable levels. This research investigated an alternative strategy of using emulsions to stabilize radioactive particulate contamination. Emergency response personnel would coat surfaces with emulsions consisting of asphalt or tall oil pitch to prevent migration of contamination. The site can then be evaluated and cleaned up as needed. In order for this approach to be effective, the treatment must eliminate migration of the radioactive agents in the terror device. Water application is an environmental condition that could promote migration into the external environment. This research investigated the potential for water, and correspondingly contaminant, migration through two emulsions consisting of Topein, a resinous byproduct during paper manufacture. Topein C is an asphaltic-based emulsion and Topein S is a tall oil pitch, nonionic emulsion. Experiments included water adsorption/ mobilization studies, filtration tests, and image analysis of photomicrographs from an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and a stereomicroscope. Both emulsions were effective at reducing water migration. Conductivity estimates were on the order of 10(-80) cm s(-1) for Topein C and 10(-7) cm s(-1) for Topein S. Water mobility depended on emulsion flocculation and coalescence time. Photomicrographs indicate that Topein S consisted of greater and more interconnected porosity. Dilute foams of isolated spherical gas cells formed when emulsions were applied to basic surfaces. Gas cells rose to the surface and ruptured, leaving void spaces that penetrated throughout the emulsion. These

  14. Evaluation of the stability of arsenic immobilized by microbial sulfate reduction using TCLP extractions and long-term leaching techniques.

    PubMed

    Jong, Tony; Parry, David L

    2005-07-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the stability or leachability of arsenic immobilized by microbial sulfate reduction. Anoxic solid-phase samples taken from a bioreactor previously used to treat metal and As contaminated water using sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were subjected to the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and long-term column leaching tests. The results from TCLP experiments showed that the concentration of As leached from solid-phase sulfide material (SSM) samples after an 18 h extraction time was <300 microgl(-1), which is below the current maximum Australian TCLP leachate value for As, and thus would not be characterized as a hazardous waste. In terms of percent total As leached, this was equivalent to <8.5% for SSM samples initially containing 61.3 mgkg(-1) As. The levels of As extracted by the TCLP was found to be significantly lowered or underestimated in the presence of dissolved oxygen, with As concentrations increasing with decreasing headspace-to-leachant volume ratios. The concentration of As was also consistently higher in nitrogen purged extractions compared to those performed in air. This was attributed to the dissolution of Fe-sulfide precipitates and subsequent oxidation of Fe(II) ions and precipitation of ferric(hydr)oxides, resulting in the adsorption of soluble As and corresponding decrease in As concentrations. According to the experimental data, it is recommended that TCLP tests for As leachability should be performed at least in zero-headspace vessels or preferably under nitrogen to minimize the oxidation of Fe(II) to ferric(hydr)oxides. In long-term leaching studies (approximately 68 days), it was found that the low solubility of the SSM ensured that rate of release of As was relatively slow, and the resulting leachate concentrations of As were below the current Australian guideline concentration for arsenic in drinking water.

  15. [Toxicological evaluation of colloidal nano-sized silver stabilized polyvinylpyrrolidone. III. Enzymological, biochemical markers, state of antioxidant defense system].

    PubMed

    Gmoshinsky, I V; Shipelin, V A; Vorozhko, I V; Sentsova, T B; Soto, S Kh; Avren'eva, L I; Guseva, G V; Kravchenko, L V; Khotimchenko, S A; Tutelyan, V A

    2016-01-01

    Nanosized colloidal silver (NCS) with primary nanoparticles (NPs) size in the range of 10-80 nm in aqueous suspension was administered to rats with initial weight 80±10 gfor the first 30 day intragastrically and for lasting 62 days with the diet consumed in doses of 0.1; 1.0 and 10 mg/kg of body weight b.w) per day based on silver (Ag). The control animals received deionized water and carrier of NPs - aqueous solution of stabilizer polyvinylpyrrolidone. Activity (Vmax) was determined in liver of microsomal mixed function monooxygenase isoforms CYP 1A1, 1A2 and 2B1 against their specific substrates, the activity of liver conjugating enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) in the microsomal fraction and a cytosol, and the overall and non-sedimentable activities of lysosomal hydrolases. In blood plasma there were evaluated malonic dialdehyde, PUFA diene conjugates, in erythrocytes - the activity of antioxidant enzymes. A set of standard biochemical indicators of blood serum was also determined. The studies revealed changes in a number of molecular markers of toxic action. Among them - the increase in the activity of key enzymes I and II stages of detoxification of xenobiotics, indicating its functional overvoltage; reducing the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GP), the total arylsulfatase A and B, β-galactosidase (in the absence of changes in their non-sedimentable activity), levels of uric acid, increased alkaline phosphatase activity. These changes occurred mainly at the dose Ag of 10 mg/kg b.w., except for the GP to which the threshold dose was 1 mg/kg b.w. No significant changes in the studied markers in a dose Ag 0,1 mg/kg b.w. were identified. Possible mechanisms of the toxic action of silver NPs are discussed.

  16. [Toxicological evaluation of colloidal nano-sized silver stabilized polyvinylpyrrolidone. III. Enzymological, biochemical markers, state of antioxidant defense system].

    PubMed

    Gmoshinsky, I V; Shipelin, V A; Vorozhko, I V; Sentsova, T B; Soto, S Kh; Avren'eva, L I; Guseva, G V; Kravchenko, L V; Khotimchenko, S A; Tutelyan, V A

    2016-01-01

    Nanosized colloidal silver (NCS) with primary nanoparticles (NPs) size in the range of 10-80 nm in aqueous suspension was administered to rats with initial weight 80±10 gfor the first 30 day intragastrically and for lasting 62 days with the diet consumed in doses of 0.1; 1.0 and 10 mg/kg of body weight b.w) per day based on silver (Ag). The control animals received deionized water and carrier of NPs - aqueous solution of stabilizer polyvinylpyrrolidone. Activity (Vmax) was determined in liver of microsomal mixed function monooxygenase isoforms CYP 1A1, 1A2 and 2B1 against their specific substrates, the activity of liver conjugating enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) in the microsomal fraction and a cytosol, and the overall and non-sedimentable activities of lysosomal hydrolases. In blood plasma there were evaluated malonic dialdehyde, PUFA diene conjugates, in erythrocytes - the activity of antioxidant enzymes. A set of standard biochemical indicators of blood serum was also determined. The studies revealed changes in a number of molecular markers of toxic action. Among them - the increase in the activity of key enzymes I and II stages of detoxification of xenobiotics, indicating its functional overvoltage; reducing the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GP), the total arylsulfatase A and B, β-galactosidase (in the absence of changes in their non-sedimentable activity), levels of uric acid, increased alkaline phosphatase activity. These changes occurred mainly at the dose Ag of 10 mg/kg b.w., except for the GP to which the threshold dose was 1 mg/kg b.w. No significant changes in the studied markers in a dose Ag 0,1 mg/kg b.w. were identified. Possible mechanisms of the toxic action of silver NPs are discussed. PMID:27455597

  17. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  18. Evaluation of resin bond strength to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia and framework marginal fit: comparison of different surface conditionings.

    PubMed

    Vanderlei, A; Bottino, M A; Valandro, L F

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) on bond strength durability and marginal discrepancies. For adhesion testing, 144 specimens of VITA In-Ceram YZ ceramic for InLab were obtained (5.25×3.75×4.5 mm) and divided into six groups (n=24) according to the surface treatment: 1) Control (CRTL): untreated; 2) SIL: tribochemical silica coating (CoJet system, 3M/ESPE AG); 3) V1+HF: spray application of low-fusing porcelain glaze (V1, VITA Akzent Spray Glaze) followed by etching with hydrofluoric acid (HF) (one minute); 4) V1+SIL: V1 glazing (VITA Akzent Spray Glaze) followed by tribochemical silica coating; 5) V2+HF: brush application of low-fusing porcelain glaze (VITA Akzent Glaze) plus etching with HF (one minute); and 6) V2+SIL: V2 glazing (VITA Akzent Glaze) plus tribochemical silica coating. After all treatments, the surfaces were silanized for five minutes (ESPE-SIL) and cementation was performed using Panavia F (Kuraray). Half of the specimens in each treatment were tested 24 hours after cementation (dry), with the other half subjected to storage (150 days) and thermocycling (12,000×) (aging), and then a shear test was carried out (1 mm/min). The micromorphological (digital optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy) and elemental analyses of the treated surfaces were performed. The inner surfaces of 60 Y-TZP infrastructures were conditioned and marginal fit was evaluated. The statistical analysis revealed that the groups treated via surface glaze application followed by hydrofluoric acid etching and silanization showed the highest bond strength (in dry and aging conditions), but the bond strengths were affected by aging. The highest marginal discrepancies were observed in the groups receiving glaze (117.4 ± 29.6 to 105.8 ± 12.2 μm) when compared to other groups (55.3 ± 8.7 and 55 ± 8.5 μm). Low-fusing porcelain glaze + hydrofluoric acid etching

  19. KCNQ1 channels voltage dependence through a voltage-dependent binding of the S4-S5 linker to the pore domain.

    PubMed

    Choveau, Frank S; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Abderemane Ali, Fayal; Labro, Alain J; Rose, Thierry; Dahimène, Shehrazade; Boudin, Hélène; Le Hénaff, Carole; Escande, Denis; Snyders, Dirk J; Charpentier, Flavien; Mérot, Jean; Baró, Isabelle; Loussouarn, Gildas

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels are tetramers of six transmembrane domain (S1-S6) proteins. Crystallographic data demonstrate that the tetrameric pore (S5-S6) is surrounded by four voltage sensor domains (S1-S4). One key question remains: how do voltage sensors (S4) regulate pore gating? Previous mutagenesis data obtained on the Kv channel KCNQ1 highlighted the critical role of specific residues in both the S4-S5 linker (S4S5(L)) and S6 C terminus (S6(T)). From these data, we hypothesized that S4S5(L) behaves like a ligand specifically interacting with S6(T) and stabilizing the closed state. To test this hypothesis, we designed plasmid-encoded peptides corresponding to portions of S4S5(L) and S6(T) of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1 and evaluated their effects on the channel activity in the presence and absence of the ancillary subunit KCNE1. We showed that S4S5(L) peptides inhibit KCNQ1, in a reversible and state-dependent manner. S4S5(L) peptides also inhibited a voltage-independent KCNQ1 mutant. This inhibition was competitively prevented by a peptide mimicking S6(T), consistent with S4S5(L) binding to S6(T). Val(254) in S4S5(L) is known to contact Leu(353) in S6(T) when the channel is closed, and mutations of these residues alter the coupling between the two regions. The same mutations introduced in peptides altered their effects, further confirming S4S5(L) binding to S6(T). Our results suggest a mechanistic model in which S4S5(L) acts as a voltage-dependent ligand bound to its receptor on S6 at rest. This interaction locks the channel in a closed state. Upon plasma membrane depolarization, S4 pulls S4S5(L) away from S6(T), allowing channel opening.

  20. HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRODES

    DOEpatents

    Murray, J.J.

    1963-04-23

    S>This patent relates to electrode structure for creating an intense direct current electric field which may have a field strength of the order of two to three times that heretofore obtained, with automatic suppression of arcing. The positive electrode is a conventional conductive material such as copper while the negative electrode is made from a special material having a resistivity greater than that of good conductors and less than that of good insulators. When an incipient arc occurs, the moderate resistivity of the negative electrode causes a momentary, localized decrease in the electric field intensity, thus suppressing the flow of electrons and avoiding arcing. Heated glass may be utilized for the negative electrode, since it provides the desired combination of resistivity, capacity, dielectric strength, mechani-cal strength, and thermal stability. (AEC)