Sample records for volume fill factor

  1. Impact of cross-sectional root canal shape on filled canal volume and remaining root filling material after retreatment.

    PubMed

    Rechenberg, D K; Paqué, F

    2013-06-01

    To assess the impact of cross-sectional root canal shape (CSRCS) on the canal volume that can be filled and the root filling material that remains following a subsequent retreatment procedure. A total of 15 extracted two-rooted human maxillary premolars and 15 mandibular first molars were used. Both root canals in the premolars (N = 30) and the distal root canal in the molars (N = 15) were prepared using ProFile instruments and filled by lateral compaction using gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. Canals were later retreated using the last ProFile used for instrumentation followed by two ProFiles of increasing size. Teeth were viewed in a μCT scanner before and after each treatment step. Defined and validated threshold levels were used to differentiate empty root canal volumes, root dentine and root filling materials from each other. CSRCS was defined as the averaged ratio between bucco-lingual and mesio-distal canal diameter (round ≤ 1, oval 1-2, long oval 2-4 and flattened ≥ 4), determined for each 1 mm over the total root length. Data were averaged between the two canals in premolars, only the distal canals were assessed in molars. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to statistically compare the data, alpha = 0.01. Canals in premolars had a round CSRCS after preparation (1.0 ± 0.0), whereas distal counterparts in molars were oval (1.6 ± 0.5). Significantly (P < 0.01) more canal volume could be filled, and significantly less filling material remained after retreatment in premolars compared with mandibular molar distal canals. There was a high correlation between CSRCS, filled canal volume and remaining filling material. The endodontic procedures under investigation were significantly influenced by the cross-sectional root canal shape. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Hole filling with oriented sticks in ultrasound volume reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Thomas; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Volumes reconstructed from tracked planar ultrasound images often contain regions where no information was recorded. Existing interpolation methods introduce image artifacts and tend to be slow in filling large missing regions. Our goal was to develop a computationally efficient method that fills missing regions while adequately preserving image features. We use directional sticks to interpolate between pairs of known opposing voxels in nearby images. We tested our method on 30 volumetric ultrasound scans acquired from human subjects, and compared its performance to that of other published hole-filling methods. Reconstruction accuracy, fidelity, and time were improved compared with other methods. PMID:26839907

  3. Measuring the fraction of pool volume filled with fine sediment

    Treesearch

    Sue Hilton; Thomas E. Lisle

    1993-01-01

    The fraction of pool volume filled with fine sediment (usually fine sand to medium gravel) can be a useful index of the sediment supply and substrate habitat of gravel-bed channels. It can be used to evaluate and monitor channel condition and to detect and evaluate sediment sources. This fraction (V*) is the ratio of fine-sediment volume to pool water volume plus fine-...

  4. Acoustic fill factors for a 120 inch diameter fairing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. Albert

    1992-01-01

    Data from the acoustic test of a 120-inch diameter payload fairing were collected and an analysis of acoustic fill factors were performed. Correction factors for obtaining a weighted spatial average of the interior sound pressure level (SPL) were derived based on this database and a normalized 200-inch diameter fairing database. The weighted fill factors were determined and compared with statistical energy analysis (VAPEPS code) derived fill factors. The comparison is found to be reasonable.

  5. Comparison of Gap Volume after Retrofilling Using 4 Different Filling Materials: Evaluation by Micro-computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sue Youn; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Shin, Su-Jung; Kim, Euiseong

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gap volume between dentin and root-end filling materials. Four root-end filling materials were compared in the present study: ProRoot MTA (PRM; Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK), MTA Angelus (MAG; Angelus, Londrina, Brazil), EndoCem MTA (ECM; Maruchi, Wonju, Korea), and RetroMTA (RTM; BioMTA, Seoul, Korea). Forty-eight single-rooted, extracted human teeth were instrumented with nickel-titanium instruments and oburated with gutta-percha. The apical 3 mm of the root tip was resected, and root-end preparation was performed with a diamond bur. The root-end cavity was filled with the experimental filling materials for the 4 designated groups (n = 10). Then, the samples were scanned with micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. Three-dimensional images of the samples were reconstructed, and the volume of the gap between the tooth surface (dentinal wall) and the root-end filling materials was measured. The percentage volume of the gap between the tooth structure and the root-end filling material (V G %) was calculated. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at a significance level of 95%. The median V G % values for the PRM, MAG, ECM, and RTM groups were 0.00472, 0.00134, 0.00014, and 0.00071, respectively. The ProRoot MTA group showed the greatest gap volume percentage among the experimental groups with a significant statistical difference (P < .05). From the micro-CT analysis, ProRoot MTA had a greater gap volume percentage than other root-end filling materials. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Validation of the minimal citrate tube fill volume for routine coagulation tests on ACL TOP 500 CTS®.

    PubMed

    Ver Elst, K; Vermeiren, S; Schouwers, S; Callebaut, V; Thomson, W; Weekx, S

    2013-12-01

    CLSI recommends a minimal citrate tube fill volume of 90%. A validation protocol with clinical and analytical components was set up to determine the tube fill threshold for international normalized ratio of prothrombin time (PT-INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen. Citrated coagulation samples from 16 healthy donors and eight patients receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKA) were evaluated. Eighty-nine tubes were filled to varying volumes of >50%. Coagulation tests were performed on ACL TOP 500 CTS(®) . Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) plot, with Total error (TE) and critical difference (CD) as possible acceptance criteria, was used to determine the fill threshold. Receiving Operating Characteristic was the most accurate with CD for PT-INR and TE for aPTT resulting in thresholds of 63% for PT and 80% for aPTT. By adapted ROC, based on threshold setting at a point of 100% sensitivity at a maximum specificity, CD was best for PT and TE for aPTT resulting in thresholds of 73% for PT and 90% for aPTT. For fibrinogen, the method was only valid with the TE criterion at a 63% fill volume. In our study, we validated the minimal citrate tube fill volumes of 73%, 90% and 63% for PT-INR, aPTT and fibrinogen, respectively. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Estimating the volume of glacial ice on Mars: Geographic and geometric constraints on concentric crater fill, lineated valley fill, and lobate debris aprons along the Martian dichotomy boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassett, C.; Levy, J.; Head, J.

    2013-09-01

    Landforms inferred to have formed from glacial processes are abundant on Mars and include features such as concentric crater fill (CCF), lobate debris aprons (LDA), and lineated valley fill (LVF). Here, we present new mapping of the spatial extent of these landforms derived from CTX and THEMIS VIS image data, and new geometric constraints on the volume of glaciogenic fill material present in concentric crater fill deposits.

  8. Estimation of Image Sensor Fill Factor Using a Single Arbitrary Image

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wei; Khatibi, Siamak

    2017-01-01

    Achieving a high fill factor is a bottleneck problem for capturing high-quality images. There are hardware and software solutions to overcome this problem. In the solutions, the fill factor is known. However, this is an industrial secrecy by most image sensor manufacturers due to its direct effect on the assessment of the sensor quality. In this paper, we propose a method to estimate the fill factor of a camera sensor from an arbitrary single image. The virtual response function of the imaging process and sensor irradiance are estimated from the generation of virtual images. Then the global intensity values of the virtual images are obtained, which are the result of fusing the virtual images into a single, high dynamic range radiance map. A non-linear function is inferred from the original and global intensity values of the virtual images. The fill factor is estimated by the conditional minimum of the inferred function. The method is verified using images of two datasets. The results show that our method estimates the fill factor correctly with significant stability and accuracy from one single arbitrary image according to the low standard deviation of the estimated fill factors from each of images and for each camera. PMID:28335459

  9. Improved cardiac filling facilitates the postprandial elevation of stroke volume in Python regius.

    PubMed

    Enok, Sanne; Leite, Gabriella S P C; Leite, Cléo A C; Gesser, Hans; Hedrick, Michael S; Wang, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    To accommodate the pronounced metabolic response to digestion, pythons increase heart rate and elevate stroke volume, where the latter has been ascribed to a massive and fast cardiac hypertrophy. However, numerous recent studies show that heart mass rarely increases, even upon ingestion of large meals, and we therefore explored the possibility that a rise in mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) serves to elevate venous pressure and cardiac filling during digestion. To this end, we measured blood flows and pressures in anaesthetized Python regius The anaesthetized snakes exhibited the archetypal tachycardia as well as a rise in both venous pressure and MCFP that fully account for the approximate doubling of stroke volume. There was no rise in blood volume and the elevated MCFP must therefore stem from increased vascular tone, possibly by means of increased sympathetic tone on the veins. Furthermore, although both venous pressure and MCFP increased during volume loading, there was no evidence that postprandial hearts were endowed with an additional capacity to elevate stroke volume. In vitro measurements of force development of paced ventricular strips also failed to reveal signs of increased contractility, but the postprandial hearts had higher activities of cytochrome oxidase and pyruvate kinase, which probably serves to sustain the rise in cardiac work during digestion. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Reduced left ventricular filling following blood volume extraction does not result in compensatory augmentation of cardiac mechanics.

    PubMed

    Lord, Rachel; MacLeod, David; George, Keith; Oxborough, David; Shave, Rob; Stembridge, Mike

    2018-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? A reduction in left ventricular (LV) filling, and concomitant increase in heart rate, augments LV mechanics to maintain stroke volume (SV); however, the impact of reduced LV filling in isolation on SV and LV mechanics is currently unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? An isolated decrease in LV filling did not provoke a compensatory increase in mechanics to maintain SV; in contrast, LV mechanics and SV were reduced. These data indicate that when LV filling is reduced without changes in heart rate, LV mechanics do not compensate to maintain SV. An acute non-invasive reduction in preload has been shown to augment cardiac mechanics to maintain stroke volume and cardiac output. Such interventions induce concomitant changes in heart rate, whereas blood volume extraction reduces preload without changes in heart rate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a preload reduction in isolation resulted in augmented stroke volume achieved via enhanced cardiac mechanics. Nine healthy volunteers (four female, age 29 ± 11 years) underwent echocardiography for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and mechanics in a supine position at baseline and end extraction after the controlled removal of 25% of total blood volume (1062 ± 342 ml). Arterial blood pressure was monitored continuously by a pressure transducer attached to an indwelling radial artery catheter. Heart rate and total peripheral resistance were unchanged from baseline to end extraction, but systolic blood pressure was reduced (from 148 to 127 mmHg). From baseline to end extraction there were significant reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (from 89 to 71 ml) and stroke volume (from 56 to 37 ml); however, there was no change in LV twist, basal or apical rotation. In contrast, LV longitudinal strain (from -20 to -17%) and basal circumferential strain (from -22 to -19%) were significantly reduced from

  11. Increasing Polymer Solar Cell Fill Factor by Trap-Filling with F4-TCNQ at Parts Per Thousand Concentration.

    PubMed

    Yan, Han; Manion, Joseph G; Yuan, Mingjian; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; McKeown, George R; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Sargent, Edward H; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-08-01

    Intrinsic traps in organic semiconductors can be eliminated by trap-filling with F4-TCNQ. Photovoltaic tests show that devices with F4-TCNQ at parts per thousand concentration outperform control devices due to an improved fill factor. Further studies confirm the trap-filling pathway and demonstrate the general nature of this finding. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Poling-assisted bleaching of soda-lime float glasses containing silver nanoparticles with a decreasing filling factor across the depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deparis, Olivier; Kazansky, Peter G.; Podlipensky, Alexander; Abdolvand, Amin; Seifert, Gerhard; Graener, Heinrich

    2006-08-01

    The recently discovered poling-assisted bleaching of glass with embedded silver nanoparticles has renewed the interest in thermal poling as a simple, reliable, and low-cost technique for controlling locally the surface-plasmon-resonant optical properties of metal-doped nanocomposite glasses. In the present study, the emphasis is put on the influence of the volume filling factor of metallic clusters on poling-assisted bleaching. Soda-lime silicate glass samples containing spherical silver nanoparticles with a decreasing filling factor across the depth were subject to thermal poling experiments with various poling temperatures, voltages, and times. Optical extinction spectra were measured from ultraviolet to near-infrared ranges and the surface-plasmon-resonant extinction due to silver nanoparticles (around 410nm) was modeled by the Maxwell Garnett [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 203, 385 (1904); 205, 237 (1906)] effective medium theory which was adapted in order to take into account the filling factor depth profile. A method was proposed for the retrieval of the filling factor depth profile from optical extinction spectra recorded in fresh and chemically etched samples. A stretched exponential depth profile turned out to be necessary in order to model samples having a high filling factor near the surface. Based on the fact that the electric-field-assisted dissolution of embedded metallic nanoparticles proceeded progressively from the top surface, a bleaching front was defined that moved forward in depth as time elapsed. The position of the bleaching front was determined after each poling experiment by fitting the measured extinction spectrum to the theoretical one. In samples with higher peak value and steeper gradient of the filling factor, the bleaching front reached more rapidly a steady-state depth as poling time increased. Also it increased less strongly with increasing poling voltage. These results were in agreement with the physics of the dissolution

  13. Water-filled balloon in the postoperative resection cavity improves dose distribution to target volumes in radiotherapy of maxillary sinus carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun; Lin, Shi-Rong; He, Fang; Kang, De-Hua; Chen, Guo-Zhang; Luo, Wei

    2011-11-01

    Postoperative radiotherapy is a major treatment for patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma. However, the irregular resection cavity poses a technical difficulty for this treatment, causing uneven dose distribution to target volumes. In this study, we evaluated the dose distribution to target volumes and normal tissues in postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) after placing a water-filled balloon into the resection cavity. Three postoperative patients with advanced maxillary sinus carcinoma were selected in this trial. Water-filled balloons and supporting dental stents were fabricated according to the size of the maxillary resection cavity. Simulation CT scans were performed with or without water-filled balloons, IMRT treatment plans were established, and dose distribution to target volumes and organs at risk were evaluated. Compared to those in the treatment plan without balloons, the dose (D98) delivered to 98% of the gross tumor volume (GTV) increased by 2.1 Gy (P = 0.009), homogeneity index (HI) improved by 2.3% (P = 0.001), and target volume conformity index (TCI) of 68 Gy increased by 18.5% (P = 0.011) in the plan with balloons. Dosimetry endpoints of normal tissues around target regions in both plans were not significantly different (P > 0.05) except for the optic chiasm. In the plan without balloons, 68 Gy high-dose regions did not entirely cover target volumes in the ethmoid sinus, posteromedial wall of the maxillary sinus, or surgical margin of the hard palate. In contrast, 68 Gy high-dose regions entirely covered the GTV in the plan with balloons. These results suggest that placing a water-filled balloon in the resection cavity for postoperative IMRT of maxillary sinus carcinoma can reduce low-dose regions and markedly and simultaneously increase dose homogeneity and conformity of target volumes.

  14. A compact tritium enrichment unit for large sample volumes with automated re-filling and higher enrichment factor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B; Han, L-F; Wassenaar, L I; Klaus, P M; Kainz, G G; Hillegonds, D; Brummer, D; Ahmad, M; Belachew, D L; Araguás, L; Aggarwal, P

    2016-12-01

    Tritium ( 3 H) in natural waters is a powerful tracer of hydrological processes, but its low concentrations require electrolytic enrichment before precise measurements can be made with a liquid scintillation counter. Here, we describe a newly developed, compact tritium enrichment unit which can be used to enrich up to 2L of a water sample. This allows a high enrichment factor (>100) for measuring low 3 H contents of <0.05TU. The TEU uses a small cell (250mL) with automated re-filling and a CO 2 bubbling technique to neutralize the high alkalinity of enriched samples. The enriched residual sample is retrieved from the cell under vacuum by cryogenic distillation at -20°C and the tritium enrichment factor for each sample is accurately determined by measuring pre- and post- enrichment 2 H concentrations with laser spectrometry. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Development of High-Fill-Factor Large-Aperture Micromirrors for Agile Optical Phased Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-28

    Final Project Report Contract/Grant Title: Development of High-Fill-Factor Large-Aperture Micromirrors for Agile Optical Phased Arrays...factor (HFF) micromirror array (MMA) has been proposed, fabricated and tested. Optical-phased-array (OPA) beam steering based on the HFF MMA has also...electrically tuned to multiple 2. 1. Background High-fill-factor (HFF) micromirror arrays (MMAs) can form optical phased arrays (OPAs) for laser beam

  16. Improving poor fill factors for solar cells via light-induced plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xing; Rui, Jia; Wuchang, Ding; Yanlong, Meng; Zhi, Jin; Xinyu, Liu

    2012-09-01

    Silicon solar cells are prepared following the conventional fabrication processes, except for the metallization firing process. The cells are divided into two groups with higher and lower fill factors, respectively. After light-induced plating (LIP), the fill factors of the solar cells in both groups with different initial values reach the same level. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images are taken under the bulk silver electrodes, which prove that the improvement for cells with a poor factor after LIP should benefit from sufficient exploitation of the high density silver crystals formed during the firing process. Moreover, the application of LIP to cells with poor electrode contact performance, such as nanowire cells and radial junction solar cells, is proposed.

  17. Accurate expressions for solar cell fill factors including series and shunt resistances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2016-02-01

    Together with open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current, fill factor is a key solar cell parameter. In their classic paper on limiting efficiency, Shockley and Queisser first investigated this factor's analytical properties showing, for ideal cells, it could be expressed implicitly in terms of the maximum power point voltage. Subsequently, fill factors usually have been calculated iteratively from such implicit expressions or from analytical approximations. In the absence of detrimental series and shunt resistances, analytical fill factor expressions have recently been published in terms of the Lambert W function available in most mathematical computing software. Using a recently identified perturbative relationship, exact expressions in terms of this function are derived in technically interesting cases when both series and shunt resistances are present but have limited impact, allowing a better understanding of their effect individually and in combination. Approximate expressions for arbitrary shunt and series resistances are then deduced, which are significantly more accurate than any previously published. A method based on the insights developed is also reported for deducing one-diode fits to experimental data.

  18. Competition between recombination and extraction of free charges determines the fill factor of organic solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Bartesaghi, Davide; Pérez, Irene del Carmen; Kniepert, Juliane; Roland, Steffen; Turbiez, Mathieu; Neher, Dieter; Koster, L. Jan Anton

    2015-01-01

    Among the parameters that characterize a solar cell and define its power-conversion efficiency, the fill factor is the least well understood, making targeted improvements difficult. Here we quantify the competition between charge extraction and recombination by using a single parameter θ, and we demonstrate that this parameter is directly related to the fill factor of many different bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Our finding is supported by experimental measurements on 15 different donor:acceptor combinations, as well as by drift-diffusion simulations of organic solar cells in which charge-carrier mobilities, recombination rate, light intensity, energy levels and active-layer thickness are all varied over wide ranges to reproduce typical experimental conditions. The results unify the fill factors of several very different donor:acceptor combinations and give insight into why fill factors change so much with thickness, light intensity and materials properties. To achieve fill factors larger than 0.8 requires further improvements in charge transport while reducing recombination. PMID:25947637

  19. The plasma filling factor of coronal bright points. II. Combined EIS and TRACE results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dere, K. P.

    2009-04-01

    Aims: In a previous paper, the volumetric plasma filling factor of coronal bright points was determined from spectra obtained with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). The analysis of these data showed that the median plasma filling factor was 0.015. One interpretation of this result was that the small filling factor was consistent with a single coronal loop with a width of 1-2´´, somewhat below the apparent width. In this paper, higher spatial resolution observations with the Transition Region and Corona Explorer (TRACE) are used to test this interpretation. Methods: Rastered spectra of regions of the quiet Sun were recorded by the EIS during operations with the Hinode satellite. Many of these regions were simultaneously observed with TRACE. Calibrated intensities of Fe xii lines were obtained and images of the quiet corona were constructed from the EIS measurements. Emission measures were determined from the EIS spectra and geometrical widths of coronal bright points were obtained from the TRACE images. Electron densities were determined from density-sensitive line ratios measured with EIS. A comparison of the emission measure and bright point widths with the electron densities yielded the plasma filling factor. Results: The median electron density of coronal bright points is 3 × 109 cm-3 at a temperature of 1.6 × 106 K. The volumetric plasma filling factor of coronal bright points was found to vary from 3 × 10-3 to 0.3 with a median value of 0.04. Conclusions: The current set of EIS and TRACE coronal bright-point observations indicate the median value of their plasma filling factor is 0.04. This can be interpreted as evidence of a considerable subresolution structure in coronal bright points or as the result of a single completely filled plasma loop with widths on the order of 0.2-1.5´´ that has not been spatially resolved in these measurements.

  20. The Influence of the Orbera Intragastric Balloon Filling Volumes on Weight Loss, Tolerability, and Adverse Events: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitin; Bazerbachi, Fateh; Rustagi, Tarun; McCarty, Thomas R; Thompson, Christopher C; Galvao Neto, Manoel P; Zundel, Natan; Wilson, Erik B; Gostout, Christopher J; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K

    2017-09-01

    The Orbera intragastric balloon (IGB) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in patients with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m 2 and is in wide use worldwide as a primary and bridge obesity management tool. The balloon filling volume (BFV) ranges between 400 and 700 mL of saline. Our objective was to determine whether there is an association between BFV and clinically relevant endpoints, namely weight loss outcomes, balloon tolerability, and adverse events. A systematic review of studies investigating the use of the Orbera IGB system for obesity treatment was performed. Data was examined using random effects modelling and meta-regression analyses. Forty-four studies (n = 5549 patients) reported BFV and % total body weight loss (TBWL) at 6 months. Pooled %TBWL at 6 months was 13.2% [95% CI 12.3-14.0]. A funnel plot demonstrated a low risk of publication bias. Meta-regression showed no statistically significant association between filling volume and %TBWL at 6 months (p = 0.268). Higher BFV was associated with lower rates of esophagitis (slope = -0.008, p < 0.001) and prosthesis migration (slope = -0.015, p < 0.001). There was no association between BFV and early removal (p = 0.1), gastroesophageal reflux symptom (p = 0.64), or ulcer rates (p = 0.09). No association was observed between Orbera IGB filling volume and weight loss outcomes. Higher volumes appear to be associated with lower migration and esophagitis rates; thus, a balloon filling volume of 600-650 mL is recommended.

  1. The "collimator monitoring fill factor" of a two-dimensional detector array, a measure of its ability to detect collimation errors.

    PubMed

    Stelljes, Tenzin Sonam; Looe, Hui Khee; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn

    2017-03-01

    Two-dimensional detector arrays are routinely used for constancy checks and treatment plan verification in photon-beam radiotherapy. In addition to the spatial resolution of the dose profiles, the "coverage" of the radiation field with respect to the detection of any beam collimation deficiency appears as the second characteristic feature of a detector array. The here proposed "collimator monitoring fill factor" (CM fill factor) has been conceived to serve as a quantitative characteristic of this "coverage". The CM fill factor is defined as the probability of a 2D array to detect any collimator position error. Therefore, it is represented by the ratio of the "sensitive area" of a single detector, in which collimator position errors are detectable, and the geometrical "cell area" associated with this detector within the array. Numerical values of the CM fill factor have been Monte Carlo simulated for 2D detector arrays equipped with air-vented ionization chambers, liquid-filled ionization chambers and diode detectors and were compared with the "FWHM fill factor" defined by Gago-Arias et al. (2012). For arrays with vented ionization chambers, the differences between the CM fill factor and the FWHM fill factor are moderate, but occasionally the latter exceeds unity. For narrower detectors such as liquid-filled ionization chambers and Si diodes and for small sampling distances, large differences between the FWHM fill factor and the CM fill factor have been observed. These differences can be explained by the shapes of the fluence response functions of these narrow detectors. A new parameter "collimator monitoring fill factor" (CM fill factor), applicable to quantitate the collimator position error detection probability of a 2D detector array, has been proposed. It is designed as a help in classifying the clinical performance of two-dimensional detector arrays in photon-beam radiotherapy. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Different Signatures of the Total Filling Factor 1 State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, Lars; Yoon, Youngsoo; Schmult, Stefan; Hauser, Maik; Dietsche, Werner; von Klitzing, Klaus

    2009-03-01

    Bringing two 2-dimensional electron systems in close proximity can yield a correlated state as the electrons will experience the presence of the neighboring system. At the individual filling factors of 1/2 this leads to a new double-layer ground state as positive and negative charges from opposite layers couple to excitons. Many remarkable properties were found such as vanishing Hall and longitudinal resistances in the counterflow configuration [1], a resonantly enhanced zero bias tunneling peak [2], and more recently, a critical DC tunneling current and vanishingly small interlayer resistances in DC measurements [3]. We will show how it is possible to combine the results of these three different measurements into a consistent picture. Under certain conditions it is possible to exceed the critical currents but still observe a minimum at total filling factor 1 in the counterflow configuration.[1] M. Kellogg et al. PRL 93, 036801 (2004); E. Tutuc et al. PRL 93, 036802 (2004)[2] I.B. Spielman et al., PRL 87, 036803 (2001)[3] L. Tiemann et al., New Journal of Physics 10, 045018 (2008)

  3. Influence of fundamental mode fill factor on disk laser output power and laser beam quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhiyong; Yang, Zhuo; Shao, Xichun; Li, Wei; Zhu, Mengzhen

    2017-11-01

    An three-dimensional numerical model based on finite element method and Fox-Li method with angular spectrum diffraction theoy is developed to calculate the output power and power density distribution of Yb:YAG disk laser. We invest the influence of fundamental mode fill factor(the ratio of fundamental mode size and pump spot size) on the output power and laser beam quality. Due to aspherical aberration and soft aperture effect in laser disk, high beam quality can be achieve with relative lower efficiency. The highest output power of fundamental laser mode is influenced by the fundamental mode fill factor. Besides we find that optimal mode fill factor increase with pump spot size.

  4. Systolic ventricular filling.

    PubMed

    Torrent-Guasp, Francisco; Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio; Komeda, Masashi; Cox, James; Flotats, A; Ballester-Rodes, Manel; Carreras-Costa, Francesc

    2004-03-01

    The evidence of the ventricular myocardial band (VMB) has revealed unavoidable coherence and mutual coupling of form and function in the ventricular myocardium, making it possible to understand the principles governing electrical, mechanical and energetical events within the human heart. From the earliest Erasistratus' observations, principal mechanisms responsible for the ventricular filling have still remained obscured. Contemporary experimental and clinical investigations unequivocally support the attitude that only powerful suction force, developed by the normal ventricles, would be able to produce an efficient filling of the ventricular cavities. The true origin and the precise time frame for generating such force are still controversial. Elastic recoil and muscular contraction were the most commonly mentioned, but yet, still not clearly explained mechanisms involved in the ventricular suction. Classical concepts about timing of successive mechanical events during the cardiac cycle, also do not offer understandable insight into the mechanism of the ventricular filling. The net result is the current state of insufficient knowledge of systolic and particularly diastolic function of normal and diseased heart. Here we summarize experimental evidence and theoretical backgrounds, which could be useful in understanding the phenomenon of the ventricular filling. Anatomy of the VMB, and recent proofs for its segmental electrical and mechanical activation, undoubtedly indicates that ventricular filling is the consequence of an active muscular contraction. Contraction of the ascendent segment of the VMB, with simultaneous shortening and rectifying of its fibers, produces the paradoxical increase of the ventricular volume and lengthening of its long axis. Specific spatial arrangement of the ascendent segment fibers, their interaction with adjacent descendent segment fibers, elastic elements and intra-cavitary blood volume (hemoskeleton), explain the physical principles

  5. Extracting Information about the Electronic Quality of Organic Solar-Cell Absorbers from Fill Factor and Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaienburg, Pascal; Rau, Uwe; Kirchartz, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the fill factor in organic solar cells remains challenging due to its complex dependence on a multitude of parameters. By means of drift-diffusion simulations, we thoroughly analyze the fill factor of such low-mobility systems and demonstrate its dependence on a collection coefficient defined in this work. We systematically discuss the effect of different recombination mechanisms, space-charge regions, and contact properties. Based on these findings, we are able to interpret the thickness dependence of the fill factor for different experimental studies from the literature. The presented model provides a facile method to extract the photoactive layer's electronic quality which is of particular importance for the fill factor. We illustrate that over the past 15 years, the electronic quality has not been continuously improved, although organic solar-cell efficiencies increased steadily over the same period of time. Only recent reports show the synthesis of polymers for semiconducting films of high electronic quality that are able to produce new efficiency records.

  6. Under Pressure: Intraluminal Filling Pressures of Postpartum Hemorrhage Tamponade Balloons

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Kathleen M.; Racusin, Diana A.; Belfort, Michael A.; Dildy, Gary A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Uterine tamponade by fluid-filled balloons is now an accepted method of controlling postpartum hemorrhage. Available tamponade balloons vary in design and material, which affects the filling attributes and volume at which they rupture. We aimed to characterize the filling capacity and pressure-volume relationship of various tamponade balloons. Study Design Balloons were filled with water ex vivo. Intraluminal pressure was measured incrementally (every 10 mL for the Foley balloons and every 50 mL for all other balloons). Balloons were filled until they ruptured or until 5,000 mL was reached. Results The Foley balloons had higher intraluminal pressures than the larger-volume balloons. The intraluminal pressure of the Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (gastric balloon) was initially high, but it decreased until shortly before rupture occurred. The Bakri intraluminal pressure steadily increased until rupture occurred at 2,850 mL. The condom catheter, BT-Cath, and ebb all had low intraluminal pressures. Both the BT-Cath and the ebb remained unruptured at 5,000 mL. Conclusion In the setting of acute hemorrhage, expeditious management is critical. Balloons that have a low intraluminal pressure-volume ratio may fill more rapidly, more easily, and to greater volumes. We found that the BT-Cath, the ebb, and the condom catheter all had low intraluminal pressures throughout filling. PMID:28497006

  7. ECO fill: automated fill modification to support late-stage design changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Greg; Wilson, Jeff; Yu, J. J.; Chiu, Anderson; Chuang, Yao-Jen; Yang, Ricky

    2014-03-01

    One of the most critical factors in achieving a positive return for a design is ensuring the design not only meets performance specifications, but also produces sufficient yield to meet the market demand. The goal of design for manufacturability (DFM) technology is to enable designers to address manufacturing requirements during the design process. While new cell-based, DP-aware, and net-aware fill technologies have emerged to provide the designer with automated fill engines that support these new fill requirements, design changes that arrive late in the tapeout process (as engineering change orders, or ECOs) can have a disproportionate effect on tapeout schedules, due to the complexity of replacing fill. If not handled effectively, the impacts on file size, run time, and timing closure can significantly extend the tapeout process. In this paper, the authors examine changes to design flow methodology, supported by new fill technology, that enable efficient, fast, and accurate adjustments to metal fill late in the design process. We present an ECO fill methodology coupled with the support of advanced fill tools that can quickly locate the portion of the design affected by the change, remove and replace only the fill in that area, while maintaining the fill hierarchy. This new fill approach effectively reduces run time, contains fill file size, minimizes timing impact, and minimizes mask costs due to ECO-driven fill changes, all of which are critical factors to ensuring time-to-market schedules are maintained.

  8. Using Temporal Fill Factor to Reduce Frame Reconstruction Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, James; Balram, Nikhil; Gille, Jennifer; Luszcz, Jeffery

    1997-01-01

    The newer active matrix display technologies such as TFT-LCD, DMD, PDP maintain their pixel values through the entire frame time, presenting a 100% temporal fill factor, in contrast to the duty cycle produced by the phosphor impulse response of the CRT. This sample-and-hold characteristic can be exploited to lower the displayed frame rate without affecting visual quality. The lower frame rate results in significantly lower transmission bandwidth, power, and cost.

  9. SU-E-T-35: A General Fill Factor Definition Serving to Characterise the MLC Misalignment Detection Capabilities of Two-Dimensional Detector Arrays

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stelljes, T.S.; Looe, H.K.; Poppe, B.

    Purpose: To present a general definition of the fill factor realistically characterizing the “field coverage”, i.e. the MLC misalignment detection capabilities of a detector array. Methods: According to Gago-Arias et al.{sup 1} the fill factor of a 2D array is defined as the ratio of the area enclosed by the FWHM of the fluence response function KM(x) of a single detector and its cell area defined by the detector spacing. More generally - accounting also for the possible overlap between FWHM’s of neighboured detectors - the fill factor is here defined as that fraction of the sum of the detectormore » cell areas in which a defined MLC misalignment is detectable when the induced percentage signal changes exceed a detection threshold d. Ideally the generalized fill factor may reach 100 %. With user code EGS-chamber and a 2 MeV photon slit beam 0.25 mm wide, both types of the fill factor were calculated for an array with total cell area 100 cm{sup 2} for chamber widths 1–9 mm, using =1mm, d=5%. Results: For single chamber width 5 mm, fill factors were 0.49 (FWHM) and 0.61 (generalized). For chamber width 2 mm the FWHM fill factor was 0.13 whereas the generalized fill factor was 0.32. For chamber widths above 7 mm, the FWHM fill factor exceeds unity, and the general fill factor is exactly 1.00. Conclusions: An updated fill factor definition is introduced which, as a generalization of the FWHM-based definition, more closely estimates the performance of small array chambers and gives a realistic value in the case of overlapping sensitive areas of neighboured chambers. References:{sup 1}A. Gago-Arias, L. Brualla-Gonzalez, D.M. Gonzalez-Castano, F. Gomez, M.S. Garcia, V.L. Vega, J.M. Sueiro, J. Pardo-Montero, “Evaluation of chamber response function influence on IMRT verification using 2D commercial detector arrays,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2005–2020 (2012)« less

  10. Effect of filling factor on photonic bandgap of chalcogenide photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajpal; Suthar, B.; Bhargava, A.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, the photonic band structure of 1-D chalcogenide photonic crystal of As2S3/air multilayered structure is calculated using the plane wave expansion method. The study is extended to investigate the effect of filling factor on the photonic bandgap. The increase of bandgap is explained in the study.

  11. Factors affecting volume calculation with single photon emission tomography (SPECT) method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, T.H.; Lee, K.H.; Chen, D.C.P.

    1985-05-01

    Several factors may influence the calculation of absolute volumes (VL) from SPECT images. The effect of these factors must be established to optimize the technique. The authors investigated the following on the VL calculations: % of background (BG) subtraction, reconstruction filters, sample activity, angular sampling and edge detection methods. Transaxial images of a liver-trunk phantom filled with Tc-99m from 1 to 3 ..mu..Ci/cc were obtained in 64x64 matrix with a Siemens Rota Camera and MDS computer. Different reconstruction filters including Hanning 20,32, 64 and Butterworth 20, 32 were used. Angular samplings were performed in 3 and 6 degree increments. ROI'smore » were drawn manually and with an automatic edge detection program around the image after BG subtraction. VL's were calculated by multiplying the number of pixels within the ROI by the slice thickness and the x- and y- calibrations of each pixel. One or 2 pixel per slice thickness was applied in the calculation. An inverse correlation was found between the calculated VL and the % of BG subtraction (r=0.99 for 1,2,3 ..mu..Ci/cc activity). Based on the authors' linear regression analysis, the correct liver VL was measured with about 53% BG subtraction. The reconstruction filters, slice thickness and angular sampling had only minor effects on the calculated phantom volumes. Detection of the ROI automatically by the computer was not as accurate as the manual method. The authors conclude that the % of BG subtraction appears to be the most important factor affecting the VL calculation. With good quality control and appropriate reconstruction factors, correct VL calculations can be achieved with SPECT.« less

  12. Optimal Filling of Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Huber, Greg; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2012-05-01

    We present filling as a type of spatial subdivision problem similar to covering and packing. Filling addresses the optimal placement of overlapping objects lying entirely inside an arbitrary shape so as to cover the most interior volume. In n-dimensional space, if the objects are polydisperse n-balls, we show that solutions correspond to sets of maximal n-balls. For polygons, we provide a heuristic for finding solutions of maximal disks. We consider the properties of ideal distributions of N disks as N→∞. We note an analogy with energy landscapes.

  13. Wear model simulating clinical abrasion on composite filling materials.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Gaute Floer; Taxt-Lamolle, Sébastien F; Haugen, Håvard J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a wear model for testing composite filling materials with abrasion properties closer to a clinical situation. In addition, the model was used to evaluate the effect of filler volume and particle size on surface roughness and wear resistance. Each incisor tooth was prepared with nine identical standardized cavities with respect to depth, diameter, and angle. Generic composite of 3 different filler volumes and 3 different particle sizes held together with the same resin were randomly filled in respective cavities. A multidirectional wet-grinder with molar cusps as antagonist wore the surface of the incisors containing the composite fillings in a bath of human saliva at a constant temperature of 37°C. The present study suggests that the most wear resistant filling materials should consist of medium filling content (75%) and that particles size is not as critical as earlier reported.

  14. Intermittent Surface Water Connectivity: Fill and Spill vs. Fill ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intermittent surface connectivity can influence aquatic systems, since chemical and biotic movements are often associated with water flow. Although often referred to as fill and spill, wetlands also fill and merge. We examined the effects of these connection types on water levels, ion concentrations, and biotic communities of eight prairie pothole wetlands between 1979 and 2015. Fill and spill caused pulsed surface water connections that were limited to periods following spring snow melt. In contrast, two wetlands connected through fill and merge experienced a nearly continuous, 20-year surface water connection and had completely coincident water levels. Fill and spill led to minimal convergence in dissolved ions and macroinvertebrate composition, while these constituents converged under fill and merge. The primary factor determining difference in responses was duration of the surface water connection between wetland pairs. Our findings suggest that investigations into the effects of intermittent surface water connections should not consider these connections generically, but need to address the specific types of connections. In particular, fill and spill promotes external water exports while fill and merge favors internal storage. The behaviors of such intermittent connections will likely be accentuated under a future with more frequent and severe climate extremes. Under the Safe and Sustainable Water Resources National Program, work is being done to qu

  15. Intermittent Surface Water Connectivity: Fill and Spill Vs. Fill ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intermittent surface connectivity can influence aquatic systems, since chemical and biotic movements are often associated with water flow. Although often referred to as fill and spill, wetlands also fill and merge. We examined the effects of these connection types on water levels, ion concentrations, and biotic communities of eight prairie pothole wetlands between 1979 and 2015. Fill and spill caused pulsed surface water connections that were limited to periods following spring snow melt. In contrast, two wetlands connected through fill and merge experienced a nearly continuous, 20-year surface water connection and had completely coincident water levels. Fill and spill led to minimal convergence in dissolved ions and macroinvertebrate composition, while these constituents converged under fill and merge. The primary factor determining difference in responses was duration of the surface water connection between wetland pairs. Our findings suggest that investigations into the effects of intermittent surface water connections should not consider these connections generically, but need to address the specific types of connections. In particular, fill and spill promotes external water exports while fill and merge favors internal storage. The behaviors of such intermittent connections will likely be accentuated under a future with more frequent and severe climate extremes. Under the Safe and Sustainable Water Resources National Program, work is being done to qu

  16. Densities and filling factors of the diffuse ionized gas in the Solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhuijsen, E. M.; Müller, P.

    2008-10-01

    Aims: We analyse electron densities and filling factors of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the Solar neighbourhood. Methods: We have combined dispersion measures and emission measures towards 38 pulsars at distances known to better than 50%, from which we derived the mean density in clouds, N_c, and their volume filling factor, F_v, averaged along the line of sight. The emission measures were corrected for absorption by dust and contributions from beyond the pulsar distance. Results: The scale height of the electron layer for our sample is 0.93± 0.13 kpc and the midplane electron density is 0.023± 0.004 cm-3, in agreement with earlier results. The average density along the line of sight is < n_e> = 0.018± 0.002 cm-3 and is nearly constant. Since < n_e> = F_vN_c, an inverse relationship between Fv and Nc is expected. We find F_v(N_c) = (0.011± 0.003) N_c-1.20± 0.13, which holds for the ranges N_c= 0.05-1 cm-3 and F_v= 0.4-0.01. Near the Galactic plane the dependence of Fv on Nc is significantly stronger than away from the plane. Fv does not systematically change along or perpendicular to the Galactic plane, but the spread about the mean value of 0.08± 0.02 is considerable. The total pathlength through the ionized regions increases linearly to about 80 pc towards |z| = 1 kpc. Conclusions: Our study of Fv and Nc of the DIG is the first one based on a sample of pulsars with known distances. We confirm the existence of a tight, nearly inverse correlation between Fv and Nc in the DIG. The exact form of this relation depends on the regions in the Galaxy probed by the pulsar sample. The inverse F_v-Nc relation is consistent with a hierarchical, fractal density distribution in the DIG caused by turbulence. The observed near constancy of < n_e> then is a signature of fractal structure in the ionized medium, which is most pronounced outside the thin disk.

  17. A carbon nanotube filled polydimethylsiloxane hybrid membrane for enhanced butanol recovery

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chuang; Du, Guang-Qing; Chen, Li-Jie; Ren, Jian-Gang; Sun, Jian-Xin; Bai, Feng-Wu; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2014-01-01

    The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid membrane was fabricated to evaluate its potential for butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth. Compared with the homogeneous PDMS membrane, the CNTs filled into the PDMS membrane were beneficial for the improvement of butanol recovery in butanol flux and separation factor. The CNTs acting as sorption-active sites with super hydrophobicity could give an alternative route for mass transport through the inner tubes or along the smooth surface. The maximum total flux and butanol separation factor reached up to 244.3 g/m2·h and 32.9, respectively, when the PDMS membrane filled with 10 wt% CNTs was used to separate butanol from the butanol/water solution at 80°C. In addition, the butanol flux and separation factor increased dramatically as temperature increased from 30°C to 80°C in feed solution since the higher temperature produced more free volumes in polymer chains to facilitate butanol permeation. A similar increase was also observed when butanol titer in solution increased from 10 g/L to 25 g/L. Overall, the CNTs/PDMS hybrid membrane with higher butanol flux and selectivity should have good potential for pervaporation separation of butanol from ABE fermentation broth. PMID:25081019

  18. Calculation of Local Volume Factors for Relascope Cruising

    Treesearch

    Charles B. Briscoe

    1957-01-01

    In these days of climbing stumpage prices it is frequently desirable to attain more precision from a relascope cruise than is possible using ready-made volume factors. Like any factors made to be approximately applicalble over a wide range of conditions, volume factors may give very misleading results under certain local condition. For this reason it is desirable to...

  19. Impact of gastric filling on radiation dose delivered to gastroesophageal junction tumors.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Myriam; McAleer, Mary Frances; Starkschall, George

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the impact of gastric filling variation on target coverage of gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) tumors in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), or IMRT with simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) plans. Eight patients previously receiving radiation therapy for esophageal cancer had computed tomography (CT) datasets acquired with full stomach (FS) and empty stomach (ES). We generated treatment plans for 3DCRT, IMRT, or IMRT-SIB for each patient on the ES-CT and on the FS-CT datasets. The 3DCRT and IMRT plans were planned to 50.4 Gy to the clinical target volume (CTV), and the same for IMRT-SIB plus 63.0 Gy to the gross tumor volume (GTV). Target coverage was evaluated using dose-volume histogram data for patient treatments simulated with ES-CT sets, assuming treatment on an FS for the entire course, and vice versa. FS volumes were a mean of 3.3 (range, 1.7-7.5) times greater than ES volumes. The volume of the GTV receiving >or=50.4 Gy (V(50.4Gy)) was 100% in all situations. The planning GTV V(63Gy) became suboptimal when gastric filling varied, regardless of whether simulation was done on the ES-CT or the FS-CT set. Stomach filling has a negligible impact on prescribed dose delivered to the GEJ GTV, using either 3DCRT or IMRT planning. Thus, local relapses are not likely to be related to variations in gastric filling. Dose escalation for GEJ tumors with IMRT-SIB may require gastric filling monitoring.

  20. Fluid dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thete, Sumeet; Appathurai, Santosh; Gao, Haijing; Basaran, Osman

    2012-11-01

    Bottle filling is ubiquitous in industry. Examples include filling of bottles with shampoos and cleaners, engine oil and pharmaceuticals. In these examples, fluid flows out of a nozzle to fill bottles in an assembly line. Once the required volume of fluid has flowed out of the nozzle, the flow is shut off. However, an evolving fluid thread or string may remain suspended from the nozzle following flow shut-off and persist. This stringing phenomenon can be detrimental to a bottle filling operation because it can adversely affect line speed and filling accuracy by causing uncertainty in fill volume, product loss and undesirable marring of the bottles' exterior surfaces. The dynamics of stringing are studied numerically primarily by using the 1D, slender-jet approximation of the flow equations. A novel feature entails development and use of a new boundary condition downstream of the nozzle exit to expedite the computations. While the emphasis is on stringing of Newtonian fluids and use of 1D approximations, results will also be presented for situations where (a) the fluids are non-Newtonian and (b) the full set of equations are solved without invoking the 1D approximation. Phase diagrams will be presented that identify conditions for which stringing can be problematic.

  1. Investigating Liquid Leak from Pre-Filled Syringes upon Needle Shield Removal: Effect of Air Bubble Pressure.

    PubMed

    Chan, Edwin; Maa, Yuh-Fun; Overcashier, David; Hsu, Chung C

    2011-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of headspace air pressure in pre-filled syringes on liquid leak (dripping) from the syringe needle upon needle shield removal. Drip tests to measure drip quantity were performed on syringes manually filled with 0.5 or 1.0 mL of various aqueous solutions. Parameters assessed included temperature (filling and test), bulk storage conditions (tank pressure and the type of the pressurized gas), solution composition (pure water, 0.9% sodium chloride, and a monoclonal antibody formulation), and testing procedures. A headspace pressure analyzer was used to verify the drip test method. Results suggested that leakage is indeed caused by headspace pressure increase, and the temperature effect (ideal gas expansion) is a major, but not the only, factor. The dissolved gases in the liquid bulk prior to or during filling may contribute to leakage, as these gases could be released into the headspace due to solubility changes (in response to test temperature and pressure conditions) and cause pressure increase. Needle shield removal procedures were found to cause dripping, but liquid composition played little role. Overall, paying attention to the processing history (pressure and temperature) of the liquid bulk is the key to minimize leakage. The headspace pressure could be reduced by decreasing liquid bulk storage pressure, filling at a higher temperature, or employing lower solubility gas (e.g., helium) for bulk transfer and storage. Leakage could also be mitigated by simply holding the syringe needle pointing upward during needle shield removal. Substantial advances in pre-filled syringe technology development, particularly in syringe filling accuracy, have been made. However, there are factors, as subtle as how the needle shield (or tip cap) is removed, that may affect dosing accuracy. We recently found that upon removal of the tip cap from a syringe held vertically with needle pointed downwards, a small amount of solution, up to 3-4% of

  2. Energy propagation by transverse waves in multiple flux tube systems using filling factors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Van Doorsselaere, T.; Gijsen, S. E.; Andries, J.

    2014-11-01

    In the last few years, it has been found that transverse waves are present at all times in coronal loops or spicules. Their energy has been estimated with an expression derived for bulk Alfvén waves in homogeneous media, with correspondingly uniform wave energy density and flux. The kink mode, however, is localized in space with the energy density and flux dependent on the position in the cross-sectional plane. The more relevant quantities for the kink mode are the integrals of the energy density and flux over the cross-sectional plane. The present paper provides an approximation to the energy propagated bymore » kink modes in an ensemble of flux tubes by means of combining the analysis of single flux tube kink oscillations with a filling factor for the tube cross-sectional area. This finally allows one to compare the expressions for energy flux of Alfvén waves with an ensemble of kink waves. We find that the correction factor for the energy in kink waves, compared to the bulk Alfvén waves, is between f and 2f, where f is the density filling factor of the ensemble of flux tubes.« less

  3. Intermittent surface water connectivity: Fill and spill vs. fill and merge dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leibowitz, Scott G.; Mushet, David M.; Newton, Wesley E.

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent surface connectivity can influence aquatic systems, since chemical and biotic movements are often associated with water flow. Although often referred to as fill and spill, wetlands also fill and merge. We examined the effects of these connection types on water levels, ion concentrations, and biotic communities of eight prairie pothole wetlands between 1979 and 2015. Fill and spill caused pulsed surface water connections that were limited to periods following spring snow melt. In contrast, two wetlands connected through fill and merge experienced a nearly continuous, 20-year surface water connection and had completely coincident water levels. Fill and spill led to minimal convergence in dissolved ions and macroinvertebrate composition, while these constituents converged under fill and merge. The primary factor determining differences in response was duration of the surface water connection between wetland pairs. Our findings suggest that investigations into the effects of intermittent surface water connections should not consider these connections generically, but need to address the specific types of connections. In particular, fill and spill promotes external water exports while fill and merge favors internal storage. The behaviors of such intermittent connections will likely be accentuated under a future with more frequent and severe climate extremes.

  4. Lightning Mapping Observations of Volume-Filling Small Discharges in Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Rodeheffer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Lightning is usually considered to be a large-scale electrical discharge in the atmosphere. For example, the American Meteorological Society's Glossary of Meteorology defines lightning as "a transient, high-current electric discharge with pathlengths measured in kilometers" (http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Lightning). There have been several reported examples of short-duration discharges in thunderstorms, which have a duration of a few microseconds to less than a millisecond, and have a small spatial extent These short-duration discharges were located at high altitudes (> 14 km), altitudes consistent with being located between the upper positive charge and the negative screening layer. At these altitudes, the electric field needed to initiate an electrical discharge is much lower than it is at the altitudes of initiation for IC (~8 km) or CG (~5 km) flashes. We have recently reported on short-duration "precursor" discharges with durations of a few microseconds to a few milliseconds, which occur in the high-fields between the mid-level negative and upper positive charge regions. These "precursor" discharges are discrete in both time and space, being separated in time by hundreds of milliseconds to several seconds, and localized in space, usually very close to the initiation location of a subsequent IC discharge. We have recently observed nearly continuous, volume filling short-duration discharges in several thunderstorms. These discharges have durations of much less than a millisecond, spatial extents of less than a few hundred meters, and occur randomly in the volume between the mid-level negative and upper positive charge regions. During an active period, these discharges occur every few milliseconds. The rates of these discharges decreases dramatically to a few per second following an IC discharge, then increases to several hundred per second until the next discharge. In a storm just off the Florida coast, one cell was producing a large number of these small

  5. Investigating Diffusion and Entropy with Carbon Dioxide-Filled Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jadrich, James; Bruxvoort, Crystal

    2010-01-01

    Fill an ordinary latex balloon with helium gas and you know what to expect. Over the next day or two the volume will decrease noticeably as helium escapes from the balloon. So what happens when a latex balloon is filled with carbon dioxide gas? Surprisingly, carbon dioxide balloons deflate at rates as much as an order of magnitude faster than…

  6. Factors influencing the measurement of closing volume.

    PubMed

    Make, B; Lapp, N L

    1975-06-01

    The various factors influencing closing volume were studied by performing the single-breath N2 test on 9 healthy nonsmokers. Time of day, day of the week, and preceding volume history had no effect on either closing volume or alveolar plateau. Slow inspiratory flow resulted in larger ratio of closing volume to vital capacity, ratio of closing capacity to total lung capacity, and change in N2 concentration than fast inspiratory flow. Voluntary regulation of the expiratory flow resulted in smaller ratios of closing volume to vital capacity and closing capacity to total lung capacity than when flow was regulated by a resistance. Prolonged breath holding of the inspired O2 led to larger ratio of closing volume to vital capacity and ratio of closing capacity to total lung capacity. To obtain uniform, comparable closing volumes, it is suggested that the subject inspire slowly, control expiratory flow (preferably voluntarily), and not pause between inspiration and expiration.

  7. The role of elastic restoring forces in right-ventricular filling

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Del Villar, Candelas; Bermejo, Javier; Rodríguez-Pérez, Daniel; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; Benito, Yolanda; Antoranz, J. Carlos; Desco, M. Mar; Ortuño, Juan E.; Barrio, Alicia; Mombiela, Teresa; Yotti, Raquel; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J.; Del Álamo, Juan C.; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Aims The physiological determinants of RV diastolic function remain poorly understood. We aimed to quantify the contribution of elastic recoil to RV filling and determine its sensitivity to interventricular interaction. Methods and results High-fidelity pressure–volume loops and simultaneous 3-dimensional ultrasound sequences were obtained in 13 pigs undergoing inotropic modulation, volume overload, and acute pressure overload induced by endotoxin infusion. Using a validated method, we isolated elastic restoring forces from ongoing relaxation using conventional pressure–volume data. The RV contracted below the equilibrium volume in >75% of the data sets. Consequently, elastic recoil generated strong sub-atmospheric passive pressure at the onset of diastole [−3 (−4 to −2) mmHg at baseline]. Stronger restoring suction pressure was related to a shorter isovolumic relaxation period, a higher rapid filling fraction, and lower atrial pressures (all P < 0.05). Restoring forces were mostly determined by the position of operating volumes around the equilibrium volume. By this mechanism, the negative inotropic effect of beta-blockade reduced and sometimes abolished restoring forces. During acute pressure overload, restoring forces initially decreased, but recovered at advanced stages. This biphasic response was related to alterations of septal curvature induced by changes in the diastolic LV–RV pressure balance. The constant of elastic recoil was closely related to the constant of passive stiffness (R = 0.69). Conclusion The RV works as a suction pump, exploiting contraction energy to facilitate filling by means of strong elastic recoil. Restoring forces are influenced by the inotropic state and RV conformational changes mediated by direct ventricular interdependence. PMID:25691537

  8. 46 CFR 38.15-1 - Filling of tanks-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... which tank may be loaded. V=volume of tank. d r=density of cargo at the temperature required for a cargo vapor pressure equal to the relief valve setting. d L=density of cargo at the loading temperature and pressure. (b) Nonrefrigerated tanks shall be filled so that their filling densities shall not exceed the...

  9. 46 CFR 38.15-1 - Filling of tanks-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... which tank may be loaded. V=volume of tank. d r=density of cargo at the temperature required for a cargo vapor pressure equal to the relief valve setting. d L=density of cargo at the loading temperature and pressure. (b) Nonrefrigerated tanks shall be filled so that their filling densities shall not exceed the...

  10. 46 CFR 38.15-1 - Filling of tanks-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... which tank may be loaded. V=volume of tank. d r=density of cargo at the temperature required for a cargo vapor pressure equal to the relief valve setting. d L=density of cargo at the loading temperature and pressure. (b) Nonrefrigerated tanks shall be filled so that their filling densities shall not exceed the...

  11. 46 CFR 38.15-1 - Filling of tanks-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... which tank may be loaded. V=volume of tank. d r=density of cargo at the temperature required for a cargo vapor pressure equal to the relief valve setting. d L=density of cargo at the loading temperature and pressure. (b) Nonrefrigerated tanks shall be filled so that their filling densities shall not exceed the...

  12. First third filling parameters of left ventricle assessed from gated equilibrium studies in patients with various heart diseases

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Adatepe, M.H.; Nichols, K.; Powell, O.M.

    1984-01-01

    The authors determined the first third filling fraction (1/3 FF), the maximum filling rate (1/3 FR) and the mean filling rate (1/3 MFR) for the first third diastolic filling period of the left ventricle in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), valvular heart disease (VHD), pericardial effusion (PE), cardiomyopathies (CM), chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and in 5 normals-all from resting gated equilibrium studies. Parameters are calculated from the third order Fourier fit to the LV volume curve and its derivative. 1/3 FF% = 1/3 diastolic count - end systolic count / 1/3 diastolic count x 100. Patients with CADmore » are divided into two groups: Group I with normal ejection fraction (EF) and wall motion (WM); Group II with abnormal EF and WM. Results are shown in the table. Abnormal filling parameters are found not only in CAD but in VHD, PE and CM. The authors conclude that the first third LV filling parameters are sensitive but non-specific indicators of filling abnormalities caused by diverse etiologic factors. Abnormal first third filling parameters may occur in the presence of a normal resting EF and WM in CAD.« less

  13. Analyses of mode filling factor of a laser end-pumped by a LD with high-order transverse modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Juhong; Wang, You; An, Guofei; Rong, Kepeng; Yu, Hang; Wang, Shunyan; Zhang, Wei; Cai, He; Xue, Liangping; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhou, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Although the concept of the mode filling factor (also named as "mode-matching efficiency") has been well discussed decades before, the concept of so-called overlap coefficient is often confused by the laser technicians because there are several different formulae for various engineering purposes. Furthermore, the LD-pumped configurations have become the mainstream of solid-state lasers since their compact size, high optical-to-optical efficiency, low heat generation, etc. As the beam quality of LDs are usually very unsatisfactory, it is necessary to investigate how the mode filling factor of a laser system is affected by a high-powered LD pump source. In this paper, theoretical analyses of an end-pumped laser are carried out based on the normalized overlap coefficient formalism. The study provides a convenient tool to describe the intrinsically complex issue of mode interaction corresponding to a laser and an end-pumped source. The mode filling factor has been studied for many cases in which the pump mode and the laser mode have been considered together in the calculation based on analyses of the rate equations. The results should be applied for analyses of any other types of lasers with the similar optical geometry.

  14. Effects of increasing left ventricular filling pressure in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Richard O.; Rackley, Charles E.; Pombo, Jaoquin; Hunt, David; Potanin, Constantine; Dodge, Harold T.

    1970-01-01

    Left ventricular performance in 19 patients with acute myocardial infarction has been evaluated by measuring left ventricular response in terms of cardiac output, stroke volume, work, and power to progressive elevation of filling pressure accomplished by progressive expansion of blood volume with rapid infusion of low molecular weight dextran. Such infusion can elevate the cardiac output, stroke volume, work, and power and thus delineate the function of the left ventricle by Frank-Starling function curves. Left ventricular filling pressure in the range of 20-24 mm Hg was associated with the peak of the curves and when the filling pressure exceeded this range, the curves became flattened or decreased. An increase in cardiac output could be maintained for 4 or more hr. Patients with a flattened function curve had a high mortality in the ensuing 8 wk. The function curve showed improvement in myocardial function during the early convalescence. When left ventricular filling pressure is monitored directly or as pulmonary artery end-diastolic pressure, low molecular weight dextran provides a method for assessment of left ventricular function. Images PMID:5431663

  15. TU-H-206-02: Novel Linearly-Filled Derenzo PET Phantom Design

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Graves, S; Cox, B; Valdovinos, H

    Purpose: To design a linearly-filled Derenzo positron emission tomography (PET) phantom, eliminating the extraneous radioisotope volumes in a conventional reservoir-type design. This activity reduction combined with the elimination of bubbles in smaller phantom channels would significantly reduce personnel dose, radioisotope cost, and would improve image quality by reducing out-of-slice activity scatter. Methods: A computer-aided design (CAD) was created of a modular Derenzo phantom consisting of three phantom layers with gaskets between the layers. The central piece contains the active pattern volume and channels connecting adjacent rods in a serpentine pattern. The two end-pieces contained an inlet and an outlet formore » filling purposes. Phantom prototypes were 3D printed on a Viper Si2 stereolithography machine. The two gaskets were fabricated from silicon sheets using a PLS 6.75 laser cutter. Phantoms were held together by pass-through glass-filled nylon bolts and nuts. Phantoms were filled with {sup 52}Mn, {sup 64}Cu, {sup 74}Br, and {sup 124}I for testing, and were imaged on a Siemens Inveon MicroPET scanner. Results: Four phantom prototypes were constructed using male Leur Lock fittings for inlet/outlet ports. 3D printed layers were sanded to ensure proper coupling to the silicon gaskets. The filling volume for each prototype was approximately 2.4 mL. The filling process was found to be rapid, leak-tight, and with minimal back-pressure. PET images were reconstructed by OSEM3D, and axial slices along the phantom pattern length were averaged to provide final images. Image distortion was isotope dependent with {sup 52}Mn and {sup 64}Cu having the least distortion and {sup 124}I having the most distortion. Conclusion: These results indicate that the linearlyfilled Derenzo design improves on conventional reservoir-type designs by eliminating potential bubbles in small channels and by reducing activity level, radioisotope volume, radioisotope cost, personnel

  16. Circuit filling factor (CFF) for multiply tuned probes, revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradi, Mark S.; Zens, Albert P.

    2018-07-01

    The concept of circuit filling factor (CFF) is re-examined for multi-tuned, multi-inductor probe circuits. The CFF is the fraction of magnetic stored energy residing in the NMR coil. The CFF theorem states that the CFF sums to unity across all the resonant normal modes. It dictates that improved performance from a large CFF in one mode comes at the expense of CFF (and performance) at the other mode(s). Simple analytical calculations of two-mode circuits are used to demonstrate and confirm the CFF theorem. A triple-resonance circuit is calculated to show the large trade-offs involved there. The theorem can provide guidance for choosing the best circuit and relative inductances in multi-nuclear probes. The CFF is directly accessible from ball frequency-shift measurements. We give experimental measures of the CFF from ball shifts and compare to calculated values of the CFF, with good agreement.

  17. New dual-curvature microlens array with a high fill-factor for organic light emitting diode modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsung-Hung; Yang, Hsiharng; Chao, Ching-Kong; Shui, Hung-Chi

    2013-09-01

    A new method for fabricating a novel dual-curvature microlens array with a high fill-factor using proximity printing in a lithography process is reported. The lens shapes include dual-curvature, which is a novel shape composed of triangles and hexagons. We utilized UV proximity printing by controlling a printing gap between the mask and substrate. The designed high density microlens array pattern can fabricate a dual-curvature microlens array with a high fill-factor in a photoresist material. It is due to the UV light diffraction which deflects away from the aperture edges and produces a certain exposure in the photoresist material outside the aperture edges. A dual-curvature microlens array with a height ratio of 0.48 can boost axial luminance up to 22%. Therefore, the novel dual-curvature microlens array offers an economical solution for increasing the luminance of organic light emitting diodes.

  18. Computed tomography assessment of the efficiency of different techniques for removal of root canal filling material.

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Cristina; Hartmann, Mateus Silveira Martins; Barletta, Fernando Branco

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of different techniques for removal of filling material from root canals, using computed tomography (CT). Sixty mesial roots from extracted human mandibular molars were used. Root canals were filled and, after 6 months, the teeth were randomly assigned to 3 groups, according to the root-filling removal technique: Group A - hand instrumentation with K-type files; Group B - reciprocating instrumentation with engine-driven K-type files; and Group C rotary instrumentation with engine-driven ProTaper system. CT scans were used to assess the volume of filling material inside the root canals before and after the removal procedure. In both moments, the area of filling material was outlined by an experienced radiologist and the volume of filling material was automatically calculated by the CT software program. Based on the volume of initial and residual filling material of each specimen, the percentage of filling material removed from the root canals by the different techniques was calculated. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and chi-square test for linear trend (?=0.05). No statistically significant difference (p=0.36) was found among the groups regarding the percent means of removed filling material. The analysis of the association between the percentage of filling material removal (high or low) and the proposed techniques by chi-square test showed statistically significant difference (p=0.015), as most cases in group B (reciprocating technique) presented less than 50% of filling material removed (low percent removal). In conclusion, none of the techniques evaluated in this study was effective in providing complete removal of filling material from the root canals.

  19. Factors affecting marginal integrity of class II bulk-fill composite resin restorations

    PubMed Central

    Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Bahari, Mahmoud; Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Ghiasvand, Negar; Savadi Oskoee, Ayda

    2017-01-01

    Background. Bulk-fill composite resins are a new type of resin-based composite resins, claimed to have the capacity to be placed in thick layers, up to 4 mm. This study was carried out to evaluate factors affecting gap formation in Cl II cavities restored using the bulk-fill technique. Methods. A total of 60 third molars were used in this study. Two Cl II cavities were prepared in each tooth, one on the mesial aspect 1 mm coronal to the CEJ and one on the distal aspect 1 mm apical to the CEJ. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: A: The cavities were restored using the bulk-fill technique with Filtek P90 composite resin and its adhesive system and light-cured with quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light-curing unit. B: The cavities were restored similar to that in group A but light-cured with an LED light-curing unit. C: The cavities were restored using the bulk-fill technique with X-tra Fil composite resin and Clearfil SE Bond adhesive system and light-cured with a QTH curing unit. D: The cavities were restored similar to that in group C but light-cured with an LED light-curing unit. The gaps were examined under a stereomicroscope at ×60. Data were analyzed with General Linear Model test. In cases of statistical significance (P<0.05), post hoc Bonferroni test was used for further analyses. Results. The light-curing unit type had no effect on gap formation. However, the results were significant in relation to the composite resin type and margin location (P<0.001). The cumulative effects of light-curing unit*gingival margin and light-curing unit*composite resin type were not significant; however, the cumulative effect of composite rein type*gingival margin was significant (P=0.04) Conclusion. X-tra Fil composite exhibited smaller gaps compared with Filtek P90 composite with both light-curing units. Both composite resins exhibited smaller gaps at enamel margins. PMID:28748051

  20. Accurate GM atrophy quantification in MS using lesion-filling with co-registered 2D lesion masks☆

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, V.; Ran, N.C.G.; Barkhof, F.; Chard, D.T.; Wheeler-Kingshott, C.A.; Vrenken, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background In multiple sclerosis (MS), brain atrophy quantification is affected by white matter lesions. LEAP and FSL-lesion_filling, replace lesion voxels with white matter intensities; however, they require precise lesion identification on 3DT1-images. Aim To determine whether 2DT2 lesion masks co-registered to 3DT1 images, yield grey and white matter volumes comparable to precise lesion masks. Methods 2DT2 lesion masks were linearly co-registered to 20 3DT1-images of MS patients, with nearest-neighbor (NNI), and tri-linear interpolation. As gold-standard, lesion masks were manually outlined on 3DT1-images. LEAP and FSL-lesion_filling were applied with each lesion mask. Grey (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes were quantified with FSL-FAST, and deep gray matter (DGM) volumes using FSL-FIRST. Volumes were compared between lesion mask types using paired Wilcoxon tests. Results Lesion-filling with gold-standard lesion masks compared to native images reduced GM overestimation by 1.93 mL (p < .001) for LEAP, and 1.21 mL (p = .002) for FSL-lesion_filling. Similar effects were achieved with NNI lesion masks from 2DT2. Global WM underestimation was not significantly influenced. GM and WM volumes from NNI, did not differ significantly from gold-standard. GM segmentation differed between lesion masks in the lesion area, and also elsewhere. Using the gold-standard, FSL-FAST quantified as GM on average 0.4% of the lesion area with LEAP and 24.5% with FSL-lesion_filling. Lesion-filling did not influence DGM volumes from FSL-FIRST. Discussion These results demonstrate that for global GM volumetry, precise lesion masks on 3DT1 images can be replaced by co-registered 2DT2 lesion masks. This makes lesion-filling a feasible method for GM atrophy measurements in MS. PMID:24567908

  1. Is Doppler tissue velocity during early left ventricular filling preload independent?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalcin, F.; Kaftan, A.; Muderrisoglu, H.; Korkmaz, M. E.; Flachskampf, F.; Garcia, M.; Thomas, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transmitral Doppler flow indices are used to evaluate diastolic function. Recently, velocities measured by Doppler tissue imaging have been used as an index of left ventricular relaxation. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Doppler tissue velocities are influenced by alterations in preload. METHODS: Left ventricular preload was altered in 17 patients (all men, mean (SD) age, 49 (8) years) during echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular end diastolic volume, maximum left atrial area, peak early Doppler filling velocity, and left ventricular myocardial velocities during early filling. Preload altering manoeuvres included Trendelenberg (stage 1), reverse Trendelenberg (stage 2), and amyl nitrate (stage 3). Systolic blood pressure was measured at each stage. RESULTS: In comparison with baseline, left ventricular end diastolic volume (p = 0.001), left atrial area (p = 0.003), peak early mitral Doppler filling velocity (p = 0.01), and systolic blood pressures (p = 0.001) were all changed by preload altering manoeuvres. Only left ventricular myocardial velocity during early filling remained unchanged by these manoeuvres. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to standard transmitral Doppler filling indices, Doppler tissue early diastolic velocities are not significantly affected by physiological manoeuvres that alter preload. Thus Doppler tissue velocities during early left ventricular diastole may provide a better index of diastolic function in cardiac patients by providing a preload independent assessment of left ventricular filling.

  2. A multifractal approach to space-filling recovery for PET quantification.

    PubMed

    Willaime, Julien M Y; Aboagye, Eric O; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2014-11-01

    A new image-based methodology is developed for estimating the apparent space-filling properties of an object of interest in PET imaging without need for a robust segmentation step and used to recover accurate estimates of total lesion activity (TLA). A multifractal approach and the fractal dimension are proposed to recover the apparent space-filling index of a lesion (tumor volume, TV) embedded in nonzero background. A practical implementation is proposed, and the index is subsequently used with mean standardized uptake value (SUV mean) to correct TLA estimates obtained from approximate lesion contours. The methodology is illustrated on fractal and synthetic objects contaminated by partial volume effects (PVEs), validated on realistic (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET simulations and tested for its robustness using a clinical (18)F-fluorothymidine PET test-retest dataset. TLA estimates were stable for a range of resolutions typical in PET oncology (4-6 mm). By contrast, the space-filling index and intensity estimates were resolution dependent. TLA was generally recovered within 15% of ground truth on postfiltered PET images affected by PVEs. Volumes were recovered within 15% variability in the repeatability study. Results indicated that TLA is a more robust index than other traditional metrics such as SUV mean or TV measurements across imaging protocols. The fractal procedure reported here is proposed as a simple and effective computational alternative to existing methodologies which require the incorporation of image preprocessing steps (i.e., partial volume correction and automatic segmentation) prior to quantification.

  3. Designing ternary blend bulk heterojunction solar cells with reduced carrier recombination and a fill factor of 77%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, Nicola; Jiao, Xuechen; Heumueller, Thomas; Baran, Derya; Matt, Gebhard J.; Fladischer, Stefanie; Spiecker, Erdmann; Ade, Harald; Brabec, Christoph J.; Ameri, Tayebeh

    2016-09-01

    In recent years the concept of ternary blend bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on organic semiconductors has been widely used to achieve a better match to the solar irradiance spectrum, and power conversion efficiencies beyond 10% have been reported. However, the fill factor of organic solar cells is still limited by the competition between recombination and extraction of free charges. Here, we design advanced material composites leading to a high fill factor of 77% in ternary blends, thus demonstrating how the recombination thresholds can be overcome. Extending beyond the typical sensitization concept, we add a highly ordered polymer that, in addition to enhanced absorption, overcomes limits predicted by classical recombination models. An effective charge transfer from the disordered host system onto the highly ordered sensitizer effectively avoids traps of the host matrix and features an almost ideal recombination behaviour.

  4. Interconnect patterns for printed organic thermoelectric devices with large fill factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordiz, Kiarash; Menon, Akanksha K.; Yee, Shannon K.

    2017-09-01

    Organic materials can be printed into thermoelectric (TE) devices for low temperature energy harvesting applications. The output voltage of printed devices is often limited by (i) small temperature differences across the active materials attributed to small leg lengths and (ii) the lower Seebeck coefficient of organic materials compared to their inorganic counterparts. To increase the voltage, a large number of p- and n-type leg pairs is required for organic TEs; this, however, results in an increased interconnect resistance, which then limits the device output power. In this work, we discuss practical concepts to address this problem by positioning TE legs in a hexagonal closed-packed layout. This helps achieve higher fill factors (˜91%) than conventional inorganic devices (˜25%), which ultimately results in higher voltages and power densities due to lower interconnect resistances. In addition, wiring the legs following a Hilbert spacing-filling pattern allows for facile load matching to each application. This is made possible by leveraging the fractal nature of the Hilbert interconnect pattern, which results in identical sub-modules. Using the Hilbert design, sub-modules can better accommodate non-uniform temperature distributions because they naturally self-localize. These device design concepts open new avenues for roll-to-roll printing and custom TE module shapes, thereby enabling organic TE modules for self-powered sensors and wearable electronic applications.

  5. Emergency department imaging: are weather and calendar factors associated with imaging volume?

    PubMed

    Burns, K; Chernyak, V; Scheinfeld, M H

    2016-12-01

    To identify weather and calendar factors that would enable prediction of daily emergency department (ED) imaging volume to aid appropriate scheduling of imaging resources for efficient ED function. Daily ED triage and imaging volumes for radiography, computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound were obtained from hospital databases for the period between January 2011 and December 2013 at a large tertiary urban hospital with a Level II trauma centre. These data were tabulated alongside daily weather conditions (temperature, wind and precipitation), day of week, season, and holidays. Multivariate analysis was performed. Pearson correlations were used to measure the association between number of imaging studies performed and ED triage volume. For every additional 50 triaged patients, the odds of having high (imaging volume ≥90th percentile) radiography, CT, and ultrasound volume increased by 4.3 times (p<0.001), 1.5 times (p=0.02), and 1.4 times (p=0.02), respectively. Tuesday was an independent predictor of high radiography volume (odds ratio=2.8) and Monday was an independent predictor of high CT volume (odds ratio=3.0). Weekday status was an independent factor increasing the odds of a high US volume compared to Saturday (odds ratios ranging from 5.6-9.8). Weather factors and other calendar variables were not independent predictors of high imaging volume. Using Pearson correlations, ED triage volume correlated with number of radiographs, CT, and ultrasound examinations with r=0.73, 0.37, and 0.41, respectively (p<0.0001). As ED triage volume was found to be the only factor associated with imaging volume for all techniques, analysis of predictors of ED triage volumes at a particular healthcare facility would be useful to determine imaging needs. Although calendar and weather factors were found to be minor or non-significant independent predictors of ED imaging utilisation, these may be important in influencing the actual number of ED triages. Copyright © 2016 The

  6. Factors influencing the difference between forecasted and actual drug sales volumes under the price-volume agreement in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Euna; Kim, Jini; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-08-01

    This study analyzed factors contributing to increases in the actual sales volumes relative to forecasted volumes of drugs under price-volume agreement (PVA) policy in South Korea. Sales volumes of newly listed drugs on the national formulary are monitored under PVA policy. When actual sales volume exceeds the pre-agreed forecasted volume by 30% or more, the drug is subject to price-reduction. Logistic regression assessed the factors related to whether drugs were the PVA price-reduction drugs. A generalized linear model with gamma distribution and log-link assessed the factors influencing the increase in actual volumes compared to forecasted volume in the PVA price-reduction drugs. Of 186 PVA monitored drugs, 34.9% were price-reduction drugs. Drugs marketed by pharmaceutical companies with previous-occupation in the therapeutic markets were more likely to be PVA price-reduction drugs than drugs marketed by firms with no previous-occupation. Drugs of multinational pharmaceutical companies were more likely to be PVA price-reduction drugs than those of domestic companies. Having more alternative existing drugs was significantly associated with higher odds of being PVA price-reduction drugs. Among the PVA price-reduction drugs, the increasing rate of actual volume compared to forecasted volume was significantly higher in drugs with clinical usefulness. By focusing the negotiation efforts on those target drugs, PVA policy can be administered more efficiently with the improved predictability of the drug sales volumes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Micro-CT and nano-CT analysis of filling quality of three different endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Celikten, Berkan; de Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; Ferreira Pinheiro Nicolielo, Laura; Lippiatt, Nicholas; Buyuksungur, Arda; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Orhan, Kaan

    2017-12-01

    To investigate voids in different root canal sealers using micro-CT and nano-CT, and to explore the feasibility of using nano-CT for quantitative analysis of sealer filling quality. 30 extracted mandibular central incisors were randomly assigned into three groups according to the applied root canal sealers (Total BC Sealer, Sure Seal Root, AH Plus) by the single cone technique. Subsequently, micro-CT and nano-CT were performed to analyse the incidence rate of voids, void fraction, void volume and their distribution in each sample. Micro-CT evaluation showed no significant difference among sealers for the incidence rate of voids or void fraction in the whole filling materials (p > 0.05), whereas a significant difference was found between AH Plus and the other two sealers using nano-CT (p < 0.05). All three sealers presented less void volume in the apical third; however, higher void volumes were observed in the apical and coronal thirds in AH Plus using micro-CT (p < 0.05), while nano-CT results displayed higher void volume in AH Plus among all the sealers and regions (p < 0.05). Bioactive sealers showed higher root filling rate, lower incidence rate of voids, void fraction and void volume than AH Plus under nano-CT analysis, when round root canals were treated by the single cone technique. The disparate results suggest that the higher resolution of nano-CT have a greater ability of distinguishing internal porosity, and therefore suggesting the potential use of nano-CT in quantitative analysis of filling quality of sealers.

  8. A multifractal approach to space-filling recovery for PET quantification

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Willaime, Julien M. Y., E-mail: julien.willaime@siemens.com; Aboagye, Eric O.; Tsoumpas, Charalampos

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: A new image-based methodology is developed for estimating the apparent space-filling properties of an object of interest in PET imaging without need for a robust segmentation step and used to recover accurate estimates of total lesion activity (TLA). Methods: A multifractal approach and the fractal dimension are proposed to recover the apparent space-filling index of a lesion (tumor volume, TV) embedded in nonzero background. A practical implementation is proposed, and the index is subsequently used with mean standardized uptake value (SUV {sub mean}) to correct TLA estimates obtained from approximate lesion contours. The methodology is illustrated on fractal andmore » synthetic objects contaminated by partial volume effects (PVEs), validated on realistic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET simulations and tested for its robustness using a clinical {sup 18}F-fluorothymidine PET test–retest dataset. Results: TLA estimates were stable for a range of resolutions typical in PET oncology (4–6 mm). By contrast, the space-filling index and intensity estimates were resolution dependent. TLA was generally recovered within 15% of ground truth on postfiltered PET images affected by PVEs. Volumes were recovered within 15% variability in the repeatability study. Results indicated that TLA is a more robust index than other traditional metrics such as SUV {sub mean} or TV measurements across imaging protocols. Conclusions: The fractal procedure reported here is proposed as a simple and effective computational alternative to existing methodologies which require the incorporation of image preprocessing steps (i.e., partial volume correction and automatic segmentation) prior to quantification.« less

  9. Finite element modelling of creep cavity filling by solute diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteylen, C. D.; Szymański, N. K.; Sluiter, M. H. F.; van Dijk, N. H.

    2018-04-01

    In recently discovered self healing creep steels, open-volume creep cavities are filled by the precipitation of supersaturated solute. These creep cavities form on the grain boundaries oriented perpendicular to the applied stress. The presence of a free surface triggers a flux of solute from the matrix, over the grain boundaries towards the creep cavities. We studied the creep cavity filling by finite element modelling and found that the filling time critically depends on (i) the ratio of diffusivities in the grain boundary and the bulk, and (ii) on the ratio of the intercavity distance and the cavity size. For a relatively large intercavity spacing 3D transport is observed when the grain boundary and volume diffusivities are of a similar order of magnitude, while a 2D behaviour is observed when the grain boundary diffusivity is dominant. Instead when the intercavity distance is small, the transport behaviour tends to a 1D behaviour in all cases, as the amount of solute available in the grain boundary is insufficient. A phase diagram with the transition lines is constructed.

  10. Influence of the internal anatomy on the leakage of root canals filled with thermoplastic technique.

    PubMed

    Al-Jadaa, Anas; Attin, T; Peltomäki, T; Heumann, C; Schmidlin, P R; Paquè, F

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the internal anatomy on the leakage of root canals filled with the thermoplastic technique. The upper central incisors (UCI) and mesial roots of the lower molars (MRLM) (n = 12 each) were tested regarding leakage using the gas-enhanced permeation test (GEPT) after root filling. The quality of the root fillings was assessed using micro-computed tomography (μCT) by superimposing scans before and after treatment to calculate unfilled volume. The calculated void volume was compared between the groups and correlated to the measured leakage values. Data were analyzed using t test and Pearson's correlation tests (p < 0.05). The mean void volume did not differ between UCI and MRLM (13.7 ± 6.2% vs. 14.2 ± 6.8%, respectively). However, significantly more leakage was evident in the MRLM (p < 0.001). While the leakage correlated highly to the void volume in the MRLM group (R 2  = 0.981, p < 0.001), no correlation was found in UCI (R 2  = 0.467, p = 0.126). MRLM showed higher leakage values, which correlated to the void volume in the root canal fillings. Care should always be taken while doing root canal treatments, but attention to teeth with known/expected complex root canal anatomy should be considered.

  11. Restoration of middle-ear input in fluid-filled middle ears by controlled introduction of air or a novel air-filled implant.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Chien, Wade W; Rosowski, John J

    2015-10-01

    The effect of small amounts of air on sound-induced umbo velocity in an otherwise saline-filled middle ear (ME) was investigated to examine the efficacy of a novel balloon-like air-filled ME implant suitable for patients with chronically non-aerated MEs. In this study, air bubbles or air-filled implants were introduced into saline-filled human cadaveric MEs. Umbo velocity, a convenient measure of ME response, served as an indicator of hearing sensitivity. Filling the ME with saline reduced umbo velocity by 25-30 dB at low frequencies and more at high frequencies, consistent with earlier work (Ravicz et al., Hear. Res. 195: 103-130 (2004)). Small amounts of air (∼30 μl) in the otherwise saline-filled ME increased umbo velocity substantially, to levels only 10-15 dB lower than in the dry ME, in a frequency- and location-dependent manner: air in contact with the tympanic membrane (TM) increased umbo velocity at all frequencies, while air located away from the TM increased umbo velocity only below about 500 Hz. The air-filled implant also affected umbo velocity in a manner similar to an air bubble of equivalent compliance. Inserting additional implants into the ME had the same effect as increasing air volume. These results suggest these middle-ear implants would significantly reduce conductive hearing loss in patients with chronically fluid-filled MEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exact mode volume and Purcell factor of open optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muljarov, E. A.; Langbein, W.

    2016-12-01

    The Purcell factor quantifies the change of the radiative decay of a dipole in an electromagnetic environment relative to free space. Designing this factor is at the heart of photonics technology, striving to develop ever smaller or less lossy optical resonators. The Purcell factor can be expressed using the electromagnetic eigenmodes of the resonators, introducing the notion of a mode volume for each mode. This approach allows an analytic treatment, reducing the Purcell factor and other observables to sums over eigenmode resonances. Calculating the mode volumes requires a correct normalization of the modes. We introduce an exact normalization of modes, not relying on perfectly matched layers. We present an analytic theory of the Purcell effect based on this exact mode normalization and the resulting effective mode volume. We use a homogeneous dielectric sphere in vacuum, which is analytically solvable, to exemplify these findings. We furthermore verify the applicability of the normalization to numerically determined modes of a finite dielectric cylinder.

  13. Fill factor in organic solar cells can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trukhanov, Vasily A.; Bruevich, Vladimir V.; Paraschuk, Dmitry Yu.

    2015-06-01

    The ultimate efficiency of organic solar cells (OSC) is under active debate. The solar cell efficiency is calculated from the current-voltage characteristic as a product of the open-circuit voltage (VOC), short-circuit current (JSC), and the fill factor (FF). While the factors limiting VOC and JSC for OSC were extensively studied, the ultimate FF for OSC is scarcely explored. Using numerical drift-diffusion modeling, we have found that the FF in OSC can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit (SQL) established for inorganic p-n junction solar cells. Comparing charge generation and recombination in organic donor-acceptor bilayer heterojunction and inorganic p-n junction, we show that such distinctive properties of OSC as interface charge generation and heterojunction facilitate high FF, but the necessary condition for FF exceeding the SQL in OSC is field-dependence of charge recombination at the donor-acceptor interface. These findings can serve as a guideline for further improvement of OSC.

  14. Experimental investigation on no-vent fill process using tetrafluoromethane (CF4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngcheol; Lee, Cheonkyu; Park, Jiho; Seo, Mansu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the transfer of liquid cryogens using a no-vent fill (NVF) process experimentally to identify the dominant NVF parameters. The experimental apparatus has been fabricated with extensive instrumentations to precisely study the effects of each NVF parameter. Liquid tetrafluoromethane (CF4) is selected as the working fluid due to its similar molecular structures and similar normal boiling point and triple point with liquid methane which has been considered as an attractive future cryogenic propellant. The experimental results show that the initial receiver tank wall temperature and the incoming liquid temperature are the primary factors that characterize the (non-equilibrium) thermodynamic state at the start of a NVF transfer. The supply pressure is also critical as it indicates the ability to condense vapor in the receiver tank. A non-dimensional map based on energy balance is proposed to find acceptable initial conditions of the filling volume at the desired final tank pressure. The non-dimensional map shows good agreement with the NVF data not only in this paper but also in the previous research.

  15. Combination film/splash fill for overcoming film fouling

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Phelps, P.M.; Minett, T.O.

    1995-02-01

    In summary, this large cooling tower user has found the Phelps film/splash Stack-Pack fill design to attain a substantial improvement in capability of their existing crossflow cooling towers, without increasing fan power or tower size. The lack of fouling in the film fill component of this fill design is due to the use of film fill with large (1 inch) spacing between sheets, coupled with effective water treatment as provided by Nalco. This combination of factors provides a proven method for significantly increasing crossflow or counterflow cooling tower capability while minimizing chances of serious fill fouling.

  16. Can technical factors explain the volume-outcome relationship in gastric bypass surgery?

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark D; Patterson, Emma; Wahed, Abdus S; Belle, Steven H; Courcoulas, Anita P; Flum, David; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Mitchell, James E; Pomp, Alfons; Pories, Walter J; Wolfe, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The existence of a relationship between surgeon volume and patient outcome has been reported for different complex surgical operations. This relationship has also been confirmed for patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) study. Despite multiple studies demonstrating volume-outcome relationships, fewer studies investigate the causes of this relationship. The purpose of the present study is to understand possible explanations for the volume-outcome relationship in LABS. LABS includes a 10-center, prospective study examining 30-day outcomes after bariatric surgery. The relationship between surgeon annual RYGB volume and incidence of a composite endpoint (CE) has been published previously. Technical aspects of RYGB surgery were compared between high and low volume surgeons. The previously published model was adjusted for select technical factors. High-volume surgeons (>100 RYGBs/yr) were more likely to perform a linear stapled gastrojejunostomy, use fibrin sealant, and place a drain at the gastrojejunostomy compared with low-volume surgeons (<25 RYGBs/yr), and less likely to perform an intraoperative leak test. After adjusting for the newly identified technical factors, the relative risk of CE was .93 per 10 RYGB/yr increase in volume, compared with .90 for clinical risk adjustment alone. High-volume surgeons exhibited certain differences in technique compared with low-volume surgeons. After adjusting for these differences, the strength of the volume-outcome relationship previously found was reduced only slightly, suggesting that other factors are also involved. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. Regional Disparities in Online Map User Access Volume and Determining Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Yang, N.; Li, R.; Huang, W.; Wu, H.

    2017-09-01

    The regional disparities of online map user access volume (use `user access volume' in this paper to indicate briefly) is a topic of growing interest with the increment of popularity in public users, which helps to target the construction of geographic information services for different areas. At first place we statistically analysed the online map user access logs and quantified these regional access disparities on different scales. The results show that the volume of user access is decreasing from east to the west in China as a whole, while East China produces the most access volume; these cities are also the crucial economic and transport centres. Then Principal Component Regression (PCR) is applied to explore the regional disparities of user access volume. A determining model for Online Map access volume is proposed afterwards, which indicates that area scale is the primary determining factor for regional disparities, followed by public transport development level and public service development level. Other factors like user quality index and financial index have very limited influence on the user access volume. According to the study of regional disparities in user access volume, map providers can reasonably dispatch and allocate the data resources and service resources in each area and improve the operational efficiency of the Online Map server cluster.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Filling CNG Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov Websites

    , therefore containing less energy by volume when the fuel system reaches the rated pressure. For this reason because when gas molecules are compressed, they create heat. The faster they are compressed, the more they heat up and expand. So when the gas is compressed rapidly through a fast-fill process, the molecules

  19. Factors confounding impedance catheter volume measurements in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bielefeld, M R; Cabreriza, S E; Spotnitz, H M

    1993-06-01

    The impedance catheter allows continuous measurement of ventricular volume. External influences have been described as causing parallel shifts in impedance-measured volumes; however, factors affecting impedance measurements in a nonparallel manner have not been fully characterized. Accordingly, an impedance catheter was placed inside a latex balloon into which known volumes of normal saline solution were injected. Conductive and nonconductive materials were individually placed within the balloon. Impedance was measured with materials touching (T) or not touching (NT) the catheter. Impedance-measured volumes were plotted versus actual volumes. Compared with the line of identity (LID), a statistical difference (p < 0.05) was found in the slopes in the presence of metallic objects only. These included a pacing lead (T, NT) (mT = 1.32m mNT = 1.29 versus mLID = 1.00), titanium (T) (mT = 1.68 versus mLID = 1.00), and aluminum (NT) (mNT = 0.72 versus mLID = 1.00). These changes in slope indicate nonparallel effects on impedance that confound the ability of the impedance catheter to determine volumes in vitro. These observations imply that serial calibration of both the slope constant (alpha) and the intercept (parallel conductance) of impedance may be necessary for in vivo measurements of ventricular volume based on impedance in the presence of metallic objects.

  20. Mean circulatory filling pressure: potential problems with measurement.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, M L; Rothe, C F; Tunin, R S; Moran, M; MacAnespie, C L

    1986-10-01

    Three experimental series using 22 acutely splenectomized mongrel dogs were completed to 1) compare fibrillation (Fib) and acetylcholine (ACh) injection as methods to stop the heart for the mean circulatory filling pressure (Pmcf) maneuver, and 2) test whether Pmcf equals portal venous pressure 7 s after heart stoppage (Pportal7s). Blood volume changes of -10, -20, +10, or +20 ml/kg were imposed and Pmcf and Pportal measurements were obtained. Pportal7s and Pmcf were significantly different with volume depletion but were similar under control conditions. Pmcf with ACh and Pmcf with Fib were significantly different only after a volume change of -20 ml/kg. However, severe pulmonary congestion and atelectasis were detected in animals where Ach was used to stop the heart. In some cases (with injection directly into the pulmonary artery) the damage was severe enough to cause irreversible arterial hypoxia. Thus we conclude that the repeated use of ACh may exert a detrimental influence on pulmonary function, changing the physiological status of the experimental animal. Also, the central venous pressure at 7 s of heart stoppage (Pcv7s) is not a fully accurate estimate of the true mean circulatory filling pressure during the Pmcf maneuver, because Pcv7s did not equal the Pportal7s under all experimental conditions.

  1. Brain responses to bladder filling in older women without urgency incontinence.

    PubMed

    Tadic, Stasa D; Tannenbaum, Cara; Resnick, Neil M; Griffiths, Derek

    2013-06-01

    To investigate normal brain responses to bladder filling, especially when there is little or no sensation as in much of daily life. We performed an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of brain responses to bladder filling in normal female subjects, evoked by infusion and withdrawal of fluid in and out of the bladder. Using the contrast (infusion-withdrawal), we imaged brain activity at small bladder volumes with weak filling sensation and also with full bladder and strong desire to void. Eleven women, average age 65 years (range: 60-71 years) were included. With full bladder and strong desire to void, filling provoked a well-known pattern of activation near the right insula and (as a trend) in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and supplementary motor area. There was no significant deactivation. With small bladder volume filling provoked widespread apparent deactivation and no significant activation. Apparent deactivation was associated with increased fMRI signal during withdrawal rather than decrease during infusion, suggesting artifact. A correction for global changes in cerebral blood flow eliminated it and revealed significant subcortical activation, although none in frontal or parietal cortex. In older women with normal bladder function, infusion into an already full bladder resulted in strong sensation and brain activation near the insula and in the dorsal anterior cingulate/supplementary motor complex. With near-empty bladder and little sensation, the situation during much of daily life, these cortical areas were not detectably activated, but activation in midbrain and parahippocampal regions presumably indicated unconscious monitoring of ascending bladder signals. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Small-bandgap polymer solar cells with unprecedented short-circuit current density and high fill factor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyosung; Ko, Seo-Jin; Kim, Taehyo; Morin, Pierre-Olivier; Walker, Bright; Lee, Byoung Hoon; Leclerc, Mario; Kim, Jin Young; Heeger, Alan J

    2015-06-03

    Small-bandgap polymer solar cells (PSCs) with a thick bulk heterojunction film of 340 nm exhibit high power conversion efficiencies of 9.40% resulting from high short-circuit current density (JSC ) of 20.07 mA cm(-2) and fill factor of 0.70. This remarkable efficiency is attributed to maximized light absorption by the thick active layer and minimized recombination by the optimized lateral and vertical morphology through the processing additive. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. EVALUATION OF RIGHT AND LEFT VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC FILLING

    PubMed Central

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2013-01-01

    A conceptual fluid-dynamics framework for diastolic filling is developed. The convective deceleration load (CDL) is identified as an important determinant of ventricular inflow during the E-wave (A-wave) upstroke. Convective deceleration occurs as blood moves from the inflow anulus through larger-area cross-sections toward the expanding walls. Chamber dilatation underlies previously unrecognized alterations in intraventricular flow dynamics. The larger the chamber, the larger become the endocardial surface and the CDL. CDL magnitude affects strongly the attainable E-wave (A-wave) peak. This underlies the concept of diastolic ventriculoannular disproportion. Large vortices, whose strength decreases with chamber dilatation, ensue after the E-wave peak and impound inflow kinetic energy, averting an inflow-impeding, convective Bernoulli pressure-rise. This reduces the CDL by a variable extent depending on vortical intensity. Accordingly, the filling vortex facilitates filling to varying degrees, depending on chamber volume. The new framework provides stimulus for functional genomics research, aimed at new insights into ventricular remodeling. PMID:23585308

  4. Investigating the Stability of a Bottle Filled with Different Amounts of Fluid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahwa, Gantavya; Pingali, Rushil G.; Khubchandani, Aashish K.; Roy, Ekansh; Mudaliyar, Roshni R.; Mudaliyar, Rajesh P.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the stability of a bottle filled with different volumes of water, and to determine the angle at which it topples over for each volume of water. Data for the angle at which the bottle toppled were gathered experimentally using a cylindrical 1 litre bottle, and two theoretical models were then developed,…

  5. Effects of selective attention on perceptual filling-in.

    PubMed

    De Weerd, P; Smith, E; Greenberg, P

    2006-03-01

    After few seconds, a figure steadily presented in peripheral vision becomes perceptually filled-in by its background, as if it "disappeared". We report that directing attention to the color, shape, or location of a figure increased the probability of perceiving filling-in compared to unattended figures, without modifying the time required for filling-in. This effect could be augmented by boosting attention. Furthermore, the frequency distribution of filling-in response times for attended figures could be predicted by multiplying the frequencies of response times for unattended figures with a constant. We propose that, after failure of figure-ground segregation, the neural interpolation processes that produce perceptual filling-in are enhanced in attended figure regions. As filling-in processes are involved in surface perception, the present study demonstrates that even very early visual processes are subject to modulation by cognitive factors.

  6. A new electric method for non-invasive continuous monitoring of stroke volume and ventricular volume-time curves

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this paper a new non-invasive, operator-free, continuous ventricular stroke volume monitoring device (Hemodynamic Cardiac Profiler, HCP) is presented, that measures the average stroke volume (SV) for each period of 20 seconds, as well as ventricular volume-time curves for each cardiac cycle, using a new electric method (Ventricular Field Recognition) with six independent electrode pairs distributed over the frontal thoracic skin. In contrast to existing non-invasive electric methods, our method does not use the algorithms of impedance or bioreactance cardiography. Instead, our method is based on specific 2D spatial patterns on the thoracic skin, representing the distribution, over the thorax, of changes in the applied current field caused by cardiac volume changes during the cardiac cycle. Since total heart volume variation during the cardiac cycle is a poor indicator for ventricular stroke volume, our HCP separates atrial filling effects from ventricular filling effects, and retrieves the volume changes of only the ventricles. Methods ex-vivo experiments on a post-mortem human heart have been performed to measure the effects of increasing the blood volume inside the ventricles in isolation, leaving the atrial volume invariant (which can not be done in-vivo). These effects have been measured as a specific 2D pattern of voltage changes on the thoracic skin. Furthermore, a working prototype of the HCP has been developed that uses these ex-vivo results in an algorithm to decompose voltage changes, that were measured in-vivo by the HCP on the thoracic skin of a human volunteer, into an atrial component and a ventricular component, in almost real-time (with a delay of maximally 39 seconds). The HCP prototype has been tested in-vivo on 7 human volunteers, using G-suit inflation and deflation to provoke stroke volume changes, and LVot Doppler as a reference technique. Results The ex-vivo measurements showed that ventricular filling caused a pattern over the

  7. Three-dimensional evaluation of effectiveness of hand and rotary instrumentation for retreatment of canals filled with different materials.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Mohammad; Qualtrough, Alison; Silikas, Nick

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the remaining filling volume of different obturation materials from root-filled extracted teeth by using 2 removal techniques. Eighty single-rooted teeth were collected and decoronated, and the root canal was prepared by using the ProTaper nickel-titanium rotary files. The teeth were randomly allocated into 4 groups, and each group was obturated by using a different material. Group 1 was filled with gutta-percha and TubliSeal sealer, group 2 was filled with EndoRez points and EndoRez sealer, group 3 was filled with RealSeal points and RealSeal sealer, and Group 4 was filled with a gutta-percha point and GuttaFlow sealer. Teeth were scanned with a micro-computed tomography scan, and then root fillings were removed by using ProTaper retreatment files or hand K-files. Teeth were scanned again, and volume measurements were carried out with micro-computed tomography software. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between the 2 removal techniques for gutta-percha and for both techniques between gutta-percha and the other groups. The present study showed that all tested filling materials were not completely removed during retreatment by using hand or rotary files. Gutta-percha was more efficiently removed by using hand K-files.

  8. Employing Lead Thiocyanate Additive to Reduce the Hysteresis and Boost the Fill Factor of Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ke, Weijun; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Wang, Changlei

    2016-05-04

    Lead thiocyanate in the perovskite precursor can increase the grain size of a perovskite thin film and reduce the conductivity of the grain boundaries, leading to perovskite solar cells with reduced hysteresis and enhanced fill factor. A planar perovskite solar cell with grain boundary and interface passivation achieves a steady-state efficiency of 18.42%.

  9. [Comparison of wear resistance and flexural strength of three kinds of bulk-fill composite resins].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Meng-Long; Qiu, Li-Hong; Yu, Jing-Tao; Zhan, Fu-Liang

    2016-06-01

    To compare the abrasion resistance and flexure strength of three bulk-fill resin composites with an universal nano-hybrid composite resins. The specimens were prepared with three kinds of bulk fill composites (SDR , sonicfill, Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill) and an universal nano-hybrid composite resins(Herculite Precis). 10 mm in diameter × 2mm in height specimens were prepared for abrasion resistance, while 2 mm in width × 2 mm in depth×25 mm in length specimens were prepared for flexure strength. The specimens were mounted in a bal1-on-disc wear testing machine and abraded with the media artificial saliva(50 N loads, 10000 cycles).Flexural test was performed with an Universal Testing Machine at a cross-head speed of 1mm/min. One-way variance analysis was used to determine the statistical differences of volume loss and flexural strength among groups with SPSS 13.0 software package(P<0.05). The volume loss was as follows: SDR (1.2433±0.11) mm3Fill (119.2082±20.32) MPa< SDR(103.6246±7.13) MPa. There was no significant difference between Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill and Herculite Precis either in volume loss or flexural strength(P>0.05). With regard to wear resistance and flexural strength, Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill is recommended as an alternative for posterior restorations.

  10. Rebound and jet formation of a fluid-filled sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killian, Taylor W.; Klaus, Robert A.; Truscott, Tadd T.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates the impact dynamics of hollow elastic spheres partially filled with fluid. Unlike an empty sphere, the internal fluid mitigates some of the rebound through an impulse driven exchange of energy wherein the fluid forms a jet inside the sphere. Surprisingly, this occurs on the second rebound or when the free surface is initially perturbed. Images gathered through experimentation show that the fluid reacts more quickly to the impact than the sphere, which decouples the two masses (fluid and sphere), imparts energy to the fluid, and removes rebound energy from the sphere. The experimental results are analyzed in terms of acceleration, momentum and an energy method suggesting an optimal fill volume in the neighborhood of 30%. While the characteristics of the fluid (i.e., density, viscosity, etc.) affect the fluid motion (i.e., type and size of jet formation), the rebound characteristics remain similar for a given fluid volume independent of fluid type. Implications of this work are a potential use of similar passive damping systems in sports technology and marine engineering.

  11. Factors that influence minority use of high-volume hospitals for colorectal cancer care.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lyen C; Tran, Thuy B; Ma, Yifei; Ngo, Justine V; Rhoads, Kim F

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies suggest that minorities cluster in low-quality hospitals despite living close to better performing hospitals. This may contribute to persistent disparities in cancer outcomes. The purpose of this work was to examine how travel distance, insurance status, and neighborhood socioeconomic factors influenced minority underuse of high-volume hospitals for colorectal cancer. The study was a retrospective, cross-sectional, population-based study. All hospitals in California from 1996 to 2006 were included. Patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed and treated in California between 1996 and 2006 were identified using California Cancer Registry data. Multivariable logistic regression models predicting high-volume hospital use were adjusted for age, sex, race, stage, comorbidities, insurance status, and neighborhood socioeconomic factors. A total of 79,231 patients treated in 417 hospitals were included in the study. High-volume hospitals were independently associated with an 8% decrease in the hazard of death compared with other settings. A lower proportion of minorities used high-volume hospitals despite a higher proportion living nearby. Although insurance status and socioeconomic factors were independently associated with high-volume hospital use, only socioeconomic factors attenuated differences in high-volume hospital use of black and Hispanic patients compared with white patients. The use of cross-sectional data and racial and ethnic misclassifications were limitations in this study. Minority patients do not use high-volume hospitals despite improved outcomes and geographic access. Low socioeconomic status predicts low use of high-volume settings in select minority groups. Our results provide a roadmap for developing interventions to increase the use of and access to higher quality care and outcomes. Increasing minority use of high-volume hospitals may require community outreach programs and changes in physician referral practices.

  12. Prognostic Factors for Hormone Sensitive Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Impact of Disease Volume

    PubMed

    Alhanafy, Alshimaa Mahmoud; Zanaty, Fouad; Ibrahem, Reda; Omar, Suzan

    2018-04-27

    Background and Aim: The optimal management of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer has been controversial in recent years with introduction of upfront chemohormonal treatment based on results of several Western studies. This changing landscape has renewed interest in the concept “disease volume”, the focus of the present study is the Egyptian patients. Methods: Patients with hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer presenting at Menoufia University Hospital, Egypt, during the period from June 2013 to May 2016, were enrolled. All received hormonal treatment. Radiologic images were evaluated and patients were stratified according to their disease volume into high or low, other clinical and pathological data that could affect survival also being collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 128 patients were included, with a median age of 70 years (53.9% ≥70). About 46% had co-morbidities, 62% having high volume disease. During the median follow up period of 28 months about half of the patients progressed and one third received chemotherapy. On univariate analysis, disease volume, performance status (PS), prostate specific antigen level (PSA) and presence of pain at presentation were identified as factors influencing overall survival. Multivariate analysis revealed the independent predictor factors for survival to be PS, PSA and disease volume. The median overall survival with 27 months was high volume versus 49 with low volume disease (hazard ratio 2.1; 95% CI 1.2 - 4.4; P=0.02). Median progression free survival was 19 months in the high volume, as compared with 48 months in the low volume disease patients (hazard ratio, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.42 – 7.4; P=0.009). Conclusions: Disease volume is a reliable predictor of survival which should be incorporated with other important factors as; patient performance status and comorbidities in treatment decision-making. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. Optical properties study of nano-composite filled D shape photonic crystal fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udaiyakumar, R.; Mohamed Junaid, K. A.; Janani, T.; Maheswar, R.; Yupapin, P.; Amiri, I. S.

    2018-06-01

    With the nano-composite materials gaining momentum in the optical field, a new nano-composite filled D shape Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) is designed and the various optical properties are investigated with help of Finite Element Method. In the proposed structure the D-shape PCF is made up of silica with embedded silver nanoparticles and air holes are distributed along the fibre. The designed fibre shows various optical properties such as dispersion, birefringence, beat length and loss with respect to wavelength and compared with different filling factor like 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5. From our estimation and comparative analysis, it has been proved that the fibre loss has been decreased with increasing filling factor. Further this also showed flat dispersion at maximum filling factor.

  14. Factors Impacting Habitable Volume Requirements: Results from the 2011 Habitable Volume Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M.; Whitmire, A.; Otto, C.; Neubek, D. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Habitable Volume Workshop held April 18-21, 2011 in Houston, TX at the Center for Advanced Space Studies-Universities Space Research Association. The workshop was convened by NASA to examine the factors that feed into understanding minimum habitable volume requirements for long duration space missions. While there have been confinement studies and analogs that have provided the basis for the guidance found in current habitability standards, determining the adequacy of the volume for future long duration exploration missions is a more complicated endeavor. It was determined that an improved understanding of the relationship between behavioral and psychosocial stressors, available habitable and net habitable volume, and interior layouts was needed to judge the adequacy of long duration habitat designs. The workshop brought together a multi-disciplinary group of experts from the medical and behavioral sciences, spaceflight, human habitability disciplines and design professionals. These subject matter experts identified the most salient design-related stressors anticipated for a long duration exploration mission. The selected stressors were based on scientific evidence, as well as personal experiences from spaceflight and analogs. They were organized into eight major categories: allocation of space; workspace; general and individual control of environment; sensory deprivation; social monotony; crew composition; physical and medical issues; and contingency readiness. Mitigation strategies for the identified stressors and their subsequent impact to habitat design were identified. Recommendations for future research to address the stressors and mitigating design impacts are presented.

  15. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Walls with Gas Filled Panel Insulation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shrestha, Som S.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    Gas filled insulation panels (GFP) are very light weight and compact (when uninflated) advanced insulation products. GFPs consist of multiple layers of thin, low emittance (low-e) metalized aluminum. When expanded, the internal, low-e aluminum layers form a honeycomb structure. These baffled polymer chambers are enveloped by a sealed barrier and filled with either air or a low-conductivity gas. The sealed exterior aluminum foil barrier films provide thermal resistance, flammability protection, and properties to contain air or a low conductivity inert gas. This product was initially developed with a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. The unexpanded product is nearlymore » flat for easy storage and transport. Therefore, transportation volume and weight of the GFP to fill unit volume of wall cavity is much smaller compared to that of other conventional insulation products. This feature makes this product appealing to use at Army Contingency Basing, when transportation cost is significant compared to the cost of materials. The objective of this study is to evaluate thermal performance of walls, similar to those used at typical Barracks Hut (B-Hut) hard shelters, when GFPs are used in the wall cavities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) tested performance of the wall in the rotatable guarded hotbox (RGHB) according to the ASTM C 1363 standard test method.« less

  16. The G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptor, TGR5, Stimulates Gallbladder Filling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Holmstrom, Sam R.; Kir, Serkan; Umetani, Michihisa; Schmidt, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    TGR5 is a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor present in brown adipose tissue and intestine, where its agonism increases energy expenditure and lowers blood glucose. Thus, it is an attractive drug target for treating human metabolic disease. However, TGR5 is also highly expressed in gallbladder, where its functions are less well characterized. Here, we demonstrate that TGR5 stimulates the filling of the gallbladder with bile. Gallbladder volume was increased in wild-type but not Tgr5−/− mice by administration of either the naturally occurring TGR5 agonist, lithocholic acid, or the synthetic TGR5 agonist, INT-777. These effects were independent of fibroblast growth factor 15, an enteric hormone previously shown to stimulate gallbladder filling. Ex vivo analyses using gallbladder tissue showed that TGR5 activation increased cAMP concentrations and caused smooth muscle relaxation in a TGR5-dependent manner. These data reveal a novel, gallbladder-intrinsic mechanism for regulating gallbladder contractility. They further suggest that TGR5 agonists should be assessed for effects on human gallbladder as they are developed for treating metabolic disease. PMID:21454404

  17. Dehydration reduces left ventricular filling at rest and during exercise independent of twist mechanics.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, Eric J; González-Alonso, José; Pearson, James; Low, David A; Ali, Leena; Barker, Horace; Shave, Rob

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the reduction in stroke volume (SV), previously shown to occur with dehydration and increases in internal body temperatures during prolonged exercise, is caused by a reduction in left ventricular (LV) function, as indicated by LV volumes, strain, and twist ("LV mechanics"). Eight healthy men [age: 20 ± 2, maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max): 58 ± 7 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹] completed two, 1-h bouts of cycling in the heat (35°C, 50% peak power) without fluid replacement, resulting in 2% and 3.5% dehydration, respectively. Conventional and two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography was used to determine LV volumes, strain, and twist at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise at baseline, both levels of dehydration, and following rehydration. Progressive dehydration caused a significant reduction in end-diastolic volume (EDV) and SV at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (rest: Δ-33 ± 14 and Δ-21 ± 14 ml, respectively; exercise: Δ-30 ± 10 and Δ-22 ± 9 ml, respectively, during 3.5% dehydration). In contrast to the marked decline in EDV and SV, systolic and diastolic LV mechanics were either maintained or even enhanced with dehydration at rest and during knee-extensor exercise. We conclude that dehydration-induced reductions in SV at rest and during exercise are the result of reduced LV filling, as reflected by the decline in EDV. The concomitant maintenance of LV mechanics suggests that the decrease in LV filling, and consequently ejection, is likely caused by the reduction in blood volume and/or diminished filling time rather than impaired LV function.

  18. Introduction of a theoretical splashing degree to assess the performance of low-viscosity oils in filling of capsules.

    PubMed

    Niederquell, Andreas; Kuentz, Martin

    2011-03-01

    These days an alternative to soft capsules is liquid-filled hard capsules. Their filling technology was investigated earlier with highly viscous formulations, while hardly any academic research focused on low-viscosity systems. Accordingly, this work addressed the filling of such oils that are splashing during the dosing process. It was aimed to first study capsule filling, using middle-chain triglycerides as reference oil, in order to then evaluate the concept of a new theoretical splashing degree for different oils. A laboratory-scale filling machine was used that included capsule sealing. Thus, the liquid encapsulation by microspray technology was employed to seal the dosage form. As a result of the study with reference oil, the filling volume and the temperature were found to be significant for the rate of leaking capsules. The filling volume was also important for weight variability of the capsules. However, most critical for this variability was the diameter of the filling nozzle. We proposed a power law for the coefficient of weight variability as a function of the nozzle diameter and the obtained exponent agreed with the proposed theory. Subsequently, a comparison of different oils revealed that the relative splashing degree shared a correlation with the coefficient of the capsule weight variability (Pearson product moment correlation of r=0.990). The novel theoretical concept was therefore found to be predictive for weight variability of the filled capsules. Finally, guidance was provided for the process development of liquid-filled capsules using low-viscosity oils. © 2011 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  19. Self-pressurization of a flightweight liquid hydrogen tank: Effects of fill level at low wall heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandresar, N. T.; Hasan, M. M.; Lin, C.-S.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the self pressurization and thermal stratification of a 4.89 cu m liquid hydrogen storage tank subjected to low heat flux (2.0 and 3.5 W/sq m) in normal gravity. The test tank was representative of future spacecraft tankage, having a low mass to volume ratio and high performance multilayer thermal insulation. Tests were performed at fill levels of 29 and 49 pcts. (by volume) and complement previous tests at 83 pct. fill. As the heat flux increases, the pressure rise rate at each fill level exceeds the homogeneous rate by an increasing ratio. Herein, this ratio did not exceed a value of 2. The slowest pressure rise rate was observed for the 49 pct. fill level at both heat fluxes. This result is attributed to the oblate spheroidal tank geometry which introduces the variables of wetted wall area, liquid-vapor interfacial area, and ratio of side wall to bottom heating as a function of fill level or liquid depth. Initial tank thermal conditions were found to affect the initial pressure rise rate. Quasi steady pressure rise rates are independent of starting conditions.

  20. Rouse-Bueche Theory and The Calculation of The Monomeric Friction Coefficient in a Filled System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinetti, Luca; Macosko, Christopher; Bates, Frank

    According to flexible chain theories of viscoelasticity, all relaxation and retardation times of a polymer melt (hence, any dynamic property such as the diffusion coefficient) depend on the monomeric friction coefficient, ζ0, i.e. the average drag force per monomer per unit velocity encountered by a Gaussian submolecule moving through its free-draining surroundings. Direct experimental access to ζ0 relies on the availability of a suitable polymer dynamics model. Thus far, no method has been suggested that is applicable to filled systems, such as filled rubbers or microphase-segregated A-B-A thermoplastic elastomers at temperatures where one of the blocks is glassy. Building upon the procedure proposed by Ferry for entangled and unfilled polymer melts, the Rouse-Bueche theory is applied to an undiluted triblock copolymer to extract ζ0 from the linear viscoelastic behavior in the rubber-glass transition region, and to estimate the size of Gaussian submolecules. At iso-free volume conditions, the so-obtained matrix monomeric friction factor is consistent with the corresponding value for the homopolymer melt. In addition, the characteristic Rouse dimensions are in good agreement with independent estimates based on the Kratky-Porod worm-like chain model. These results seem to validate the proposed approach for estimating ζ0 in a filled system. Although preliminary tested on a thermoplastic elastomer of the A-B-A type, the method may be extended and applied to filled homopolymers as well.

  1. [Prevention of refractory cough with mediastinal fat to fill the residual cavity after radical systematic mediastinal lymphadenectomy in patients with right lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia; Luo, Qingquan; Shentu, Yang; Zhao, Xiaojing

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the impact on the cough after radical systematic mediastinal lymphadenectomy and prevention of refractory cough with mediastinal fat to fill the residual cavity after radical systematic mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Sixty patients clinically diagnosed of lung cancer were selected according to the adopt standardization, from January 2008 to December 2008. All of the patients were divided into two groups randomly: the filling-fat group and the non-filling-fat group. The surgical information such as operation duration time bleeding volume during operation, post-operation bleeding volume were recorded. After one month, FACT-L and LCQ were completed. There are no remarkably differences between the operation duration time, bleeding volume in operation and 1st postoperation day's drainage volume of the two groups. There's significant difference in the scores of cough at night after taking off the chest tube, as well as in the scores of LCQ after one month and in the scores of last items of FACT-L. Filling the fat of the mediastinal to cover the residual cavity left by completely systematic mediastinal lymphadenectomy can reduce the refractory cough after surgery, and can also improve the quality of the life. It has no effect on the the operation duration time, bleeding volume in operation and 1st post-operation day's drainage volume of the patients.

  2. Space filling minimal surfaces and sphere packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, Veit

    1994-05-01

    A space filling minimal surface is defined to be any embedded minimal surface without boundary with the property that the area and genus enclosed by any large spherical region scales in proportion to the volume of the region. The triply periodic minimal surfaces are one realization, but not necessarily the only one. By using the genus per unit volume of the surface, a meaningful comparison of surface areas can be made even in cases where there is no unit cell. Of the known periodic minimal surfaces this measure of the surface area is smallest for Schoen's FRD surface. This surface is one of several that is closely related to packings of spheres. Its low area is largely due to the fact that the corresponding sphere packing (fcc) has the maximal kissing number.

  3. Employing Lead Thiocyanate Additive to Reduce the Hysteresis and Boost the Fill Factor of Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Weijun; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Wang, Changlei; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Duan, Hsin-Sheng; Zhao, Dewei; Xiao, Zewen; Schulz, Philip; Harvey, Steven P; Liao, Weiqiang; Meng, Weiwei; Yu, Yue; Cimaroli, Alexander J; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Kai; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Fang, Guojia; Mitzi, David B; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-07-01

    Lead thiocyanate in the perovskite precursor can increase the grain size of a perovskite thin film and reduce the conductivity of the grain boundaries, leading to perovskite solar cells with reduced hysteresis and enhanced fill factor. A planar perovskite solar cell with grain boundary and interface passivation achieves a steady-state efficiency of 18.42%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. NASA LeRC's Acoustic Fill Effect Test Program and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; Mcnelis, Mark E.; Manning, Jerome E.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center, in conjunction with General Dynamics Space Systems Division, has performed a test program to investigate the acoustic fill effect for an unblanketed payload fairing for a variety of payload simulators. This paper will discuss this test program and fill factor test data, and make comparisons with theoretical predictions. This paper will also address the NASA acoustic fill effect standard which was verified from the test data analysis.

  5. Large-scale tomographic particle image velocimetry using helium-filled soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Matthias; Ehrenfried, Klaus; Bosbach, Johannes; Wagner, Claus

    2011-04-01

    To measure large-scale flow structures in air, a tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomographic PIV) system for measurement volumes of the order of one cubic metre is developed, which employs helium-filled soap bubbles (HFSBs) as tracer particles. The technique has several specific characteristics compared to most conventional tomographic PIV systems, which are usually applied to small measurement volumes. One of them is spot lights on the HFSB tracers, which slightly change their position, when the direction of observation is altered. Further issues are the large particle to voxel ratio and the short focal length of the used camera lenses, which result in a noticeable variation of the magnification factor in volume depth direction. Taking the specific characteristics of the HFSBs into account, the feasibility of our large-scale tomographic PIV system is demonstrated by showing that the calibration errors can be reduced down to 0.1 pixels as required. Further, an accurate and fast implementation of the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique, which calculates the weighting coefficients when needed instead of storing them, is discussed. The tomographic PIV system is applied to measure forced convection in a convection cell at a Reynolds number of 530 based on the inlet channel height and the mean inlet velocity. The size of the measurement volume and the interrogation volumes amount to 750 mm × 450 mm × 165 mm and 48 mm × 48 mm × 24 mm, respectively. Validation of the tomographic PIV technique employing HFSBs is further provided by comparing profiles of the mean velocity and of the root mean square velocity fluctuations to respective planar PIV data.

  6. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sithamparam, S.; Ahmad, R.; Sabarudin, A.; Othman, Z.; Ismail, M.

    2017-05-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients.

  7. Accuracy of expressions for the fill factor of a solar cell in terms of open-circuit voltage and ideality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leilaeioun, Mehdi; Holman, Zachary C.

    2016-09-01

    An approximate expression proposed by Green predicts the maximum obtainable fill factor (FF) of a solar cell from its open-circuit voltage (Voc). The expression was originally suggested for silicon solar cells that behave according to a single-diode model and, in addition to Voc, it requires an ideality factor as input. It is now commonly applied to silicon cells by assuming a unity ideality factor—even when the cells are not in low injection—as well as to non-silicon cells. Here, we evaluate the accuracy of the expression in several cases. In particular, we calculate the recombination-limited FF and Voc of hypothetical silicon solar cells from simulated lifetime curves, and compare the exact FF to that obtained with the approximate expression using assumed ideality factors. Considering cells with a variety of recombination mechanisms, wafer doping densities, and photogenerated current densities reveals the range of conditions under which the approximate expression can safely be used. We find that the expression is unable to predict FF generally: For a typical silicon solar cell under one-sun illumination, the error is approximately 6% absolute with an assumed ideality factor of 1. Use of the expression should thus be restricted to cells under very low or very high injection.

  8. Initial 12-h operative fluid volume is an independent risk factor for pleural effusion after hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang; Wu, Jia-Wei; Sun, Ping; Song, Zi-Fang; Zheng, Qi-Chang

    2016-12-01

    Pleural effusion after hepatectomy is associated with significant morbidity and prolonged hospital stays. Several studies have addressed the risk factors for postoperative pleural effusion. However, there are no researches concerning the role of the initial 12-h operative fluid volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the initial 12-h operative fluid volume during liver resection is an independent risk factor for pleural effusion after hepatectomy. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 470 patients consecutively undergoing elective hepatectomy between January 2011 and December 2012. We prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed baseline and clinical data, including preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify whether the initial 12-h operative fluid volume was an independent risk factor for pleural effusion after hepatectomy. The multivariate analysis identified 2 independent risk factors for pleural effusion: operative time [odds ratio (OR)=10.2] and initial 12-h operative fluid volume (OR=1.0003). Threshold effect analyses revealed that the initial 12 h operative fluid volume was positively correlated with the incidence of pleural effusion when the initial 12-h operative fluid volume exceeded 4636 mL. We conclude that the initial 12-h operative fluid volume during liver resection and operative time are independent risk factors for pleural effusion after hepatectomy. Perioperative intravenous fluids should be restricted properly.

  9. Mathematical modeling of the process of filling a mold during injection molding of ceramic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkov, S. N.; Korobenkov, M. V.; Bragin, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    Using the software package Fluent it have been predicted of the filling of a mold in injection molding of ceramic products is of great importance, because the strength of the final product is directly related to the presence of voids in the molding, making possible early prediction of inaccuracies in the mold prior to manufacturing. The calculations were performed in the formulation of mathematical modeling of hydrodynamic turbulent process of filling a predetermined volume of a viscous liquid. The model used to determine the filling forms evaluated the influence of density and viscosity of the feedstock, and the injection pressure on the mold filling process to predict the formation of voids in the area caused by the shape defect geometry.

  10. Effects of natural and human factors on groundwater quality of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States-conceptual models for selected contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the factors that affect water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States. The SWPA study area includes four principal aquifers of the United States: the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; and the California Coastal Basin and Central Valley aquifer systems in California. Similarities in the hydrogeology, land- and water-use practices, and water-quality issues for alluvial basins within the study area allow for regional analysis through synthesis of the baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. Resulting improvements in the understanding of the sources, movement, and fate of contaminants are assisting in the development of tools used to assess aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability.This report synthesizes previously published information about the groundwater systems and water quality of 15 information-rich basin-fill aquifers (SWPA case-study basins) into conceptual models of the primary natural and human factors commonly affecting groundwater quality with respect to selected contaminants, thereby helping to build a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to those contaminants. Four relatively common contaminants (dissolved solids, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium) and two contaminant classes (volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticide compounds) were investigated for sources and controls affecting their occurrence and distribution above specified levels of concern in groundwater of the case-study basins. Conceptual models of factors that are important to aquifer vulnerability with respect to those contaminants and contaminant classes were subsequently formed. The

  11. Prospective Clinical Trial of Bladder Filling and Three-Dimensional Dosimetry in High-Dose-Rate Vaginal Cuff Brachytherapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stewart, Alexandra J.; Cormack, Robert A.; Lee, Hang

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of bladder filling on dosimetry and to determine the best bladder dosimetric parameter for vaginal cuff brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: In this prospective clinical trial, a total of 20 women underwent vaginal cylinder high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The bladder was full for Fraction 2 and empty for Fraction 3. Dose-volume histogram and dose-surface histogram values were generated for the bladder, rectum, and urethra. The midline maximal bladder point (MBP) and the midline maximal rectal point were recorded. Paired t tests, Pearson correlations, and regression analyses were performed. Results: The volume and surface area of the irradiated bladdermore » were significantly smaller when the bladder was empty than when full. Of the several dose-volume histogram and dose-surface histogram parameters evaluated, the bladder maximal dose received by 2 cm{sup 3} of tissue, volume of bladder receiving {>=}50% of the dose, volume of bladder receiving {>=}70% of the dose, and surface area of bladder receiving {>=}50% of the dose significantly predicted for the difference between the empty vs. full filling state. The volume of bladder receiving {>=}70% of the dose and the maximal dose received by 2 cm{sup 3} of tissue correlated significantly with the MBP. Bladder filling did not alter the volume or surface area of the rectum irradiated. However, an empty bladder did result in the nearest point of bowel being significantly closer to the vaginal cylinder than when the bladder was full. Conclusions: Patients undergoing vaginal cuff brachytherapy treated with an empty bladder have a lower bladder dose than those treated with a full bladder. The MBP correlated well with the volumetric assessments of bladder dose and provided a noninvasive method for reporting the MBP dose using three-dimensional imaging. The MBP can therefore be used as a surrogate for complex dosimetry in the clinic.« less

  12. Crystallization of sheared hard spheres at 64.5% volume fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinney, H. L.; Rietz, F.; Schroeter, M.; Radin, C.

    2017-11-01

    A classic experiment by G.D. Scott Nature 188, 908, 1960) showed that pouring balls into a rigid container filled the volume to an upper limit of 64% of the container volume, which is well below the 74% volume fraction filled by spheres in a hexagonal close packed (HCP) or face center cubic (FCC) lattice. Subsequent experiments have confirmed a ``random closed packed'' (RCP) fraction of about 64%. However, the physics of the RCP limit has remained a mystery. Our experiment on a cubical box filled with 49400 weakly sheared glass spheres reveals a first order phase transition from a disordered to an ordered state at a volume fraction of 64.5%. The ordered state consists of crystallites of mixed FCC and HCP symmetry that coexist with the amorphous bulk. The transition is initiated by homogeneous nucleation: in the shearing process small crystallites with about ten or fewer spheres dissolve, while larger crystallites grow. A movie illustrates the crystallization process. German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), German Research Foundation (DFG), NSF DMS, and R.A. Welch Foundation.

  13. Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yang, Cheng-Hsiu; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (rangemore » 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within {+-} 3 cm{sup 3}, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.« less

  14. Correlation Between Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure and Tracheal Wall Pressure Using Air and Saline Filled Cuffs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-31

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0004 Correlation Between Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure and Tracheal Wall Pressure Using Air- and Saline -Filled...Correlation Between Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure and Tracheal Wall Pressure Using Air- and Saline -Filled Cuffs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14...descending from altitude. When using saline in the ETT cuff, TW pressure differences with the 7.5 high-volume, low-pressure cuff and 8.0 TaperGuard

  15. Critical Evaluation of Risk Factors and Early Complications in 564 Consecutive Two-Stage Implant-Based Breast Reconstructions Using Acellular Dermal Matrix at a Single Center.

    PubMed

    Selber, Jesse C; Wren, James H; Garvey, Patrick B; Zhang, Hong; Erickson, Cameron; Clemens, Mark W; Butler, Charles E

    2015-07-01

    Acellular dermal matrix for implant-based breast reconstruction appears to cause higher early complication rates, but long-term outcomes are perceived to be superior. This dichotomy is the subject of considerable debate. The authors hypothesized that patient characteristics and operative variables would have a greater impact on complications than the type of acellular dermal matrix used. A retrospective cohort study was performed of consecutive patients who underwent two-stage, implant-based breast reconstruction with human cadaveric or bovine acellular dermal matrix from 2006 to 2012 at a single institution. Patient characteristics and operative variables were analyzed using logistic regression analyses to identify risk factors for complications. The authors included 564 reconstructions in the study. Radiation therapy and obesity increased the odds of all complications. Every 100-ml increase in preoperative breast volume increased the odds of any complication by 1 percent, the odds of infection by 27 percent, and the risk of explantation by 16 percent. The odds of seroma increased linearly with increasing surface area of acellular dermal matrix. Odds of infection were higher with an intraoperative expander fill volume greater than 50 percent of the total volume. Risk of explantation was twice as high when intraoperative expander fill volume was greater than 300 ml. Radiation therapy, obesity, larger breasts, higher intraoperative fill volumes, and larger acellular dermal matrices are all independent risk factors for early complications. Maximizing the initial mastectomy skin envelope fill must be balanced with the understanding that higher complication rates may result from a larger intraoperative breast mound. Risk, III.

  16. Micro-channel filling flow considering surface tension effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Sung; Lee, Kwang-Cheol; Kwon, Tai Hun; Lee, Seung S.

    2002-05-01

    Understanding filling flow into micro-channels is important in designing micro-injection molding, micro-fluidic devices and an MIMIC (micromolding in capillaries) process. In this paper, we investigated, both experimentally and numerically, 'transient filling' flow into micro-channels, which differs from steady-state completely 'filled' flow in micro-channels. An experimental flow visualization system was devised to facilitate observation of flow characteristics in filling into micro-channels. Three sets of micro-channels of various widths of different thicknesses (20, 30, and 40 μm) were fabricated using SU-8 on the silicon substrate to find a geometric effect with regard to pressure gradient, viscous force and, in particular, surface tension. A numerical analysis system has also been developed taking into account the surface tension effect with a contact angle concept. Experimental observations indicate that surface tension significantly affects the filling flow to such an extent that even a flow blockage phenomenon was observed at channels of small width and thickness. A numerical analysis system also confirms that the flow blockage phenomenon could take place due to the flow hindrance effect of surface tension, which is consistent with experimental observation. For proper numerical simulations, two correction factors have also been proposed to correct the conventional hydraulic radius for the filling flow in rectangular cross-sectioned channels.

  17. Tumor Volume Reduction Rate After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy as a Prognostic Factor in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yeo, Seung-Gu; Department of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan; Kim, Dae Yong, E-mail: radiopiakim@hanmail.net

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic significance of tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: In total, 430 primary LARC (cT3-4) patients who were treated with preoperative CRT and curative radical surgery between May 2002 and March 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes were measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest MR volumetry. Tumor volume reduction rate was determined using the equation TVRR (%) = (pre-CRT tumor volume - post-CRT tumor volume) Multiplication-Sign 100/pre-CRT tumor volume. The median follow-up period was 64 months (range, 27-99 months) for survivors. Endpoints weremore » disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: The median TVRR was 70.2% (mean, 64.7% {+-} 22.6%; range, 0-100%). Downstaging (ypT0-2N0M0) occurred in 183 patients (42.6%). The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 77.7% and 86.3%, respectively. In the analysis that included pre-CRT and post-CRT tumor volumes and TVRR as continuous variables, only TVRR was an independent prognostic factor. Tumor volume reduction rate was categorized according to a cutoff value of 45% and included with clinicopathologic factors in the multivariate analysis; ypN status, circumferential resection margin, and TVRR were significant prognostic factors for both DFS and OS. Conclusions: Tumor volume reduction rate was a significant prognostic factor in LARC patients receiving preoperative CRT. Tumor volume reduction rate data may be useful for tailoring surgery and postoperative adjuvant therapy after preoperative CRT.« less

  18. Detrusor expulsive strength is preserved, but responsiveness to bladder filling and urinary sensitivity is diminished in the aging mouse

    PubMed Central

    DeAngelis, Anthony; Kuchel, George A.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of urinary symptoms increases with age and is a significant source of distress, morbidity, and expense in the elderly. Recent evidence suggests that symptoms in the aged may result from sensory dysfunction, rather than abnormalities of detrusor performance. Therefore, we employed a pressure/flow multichannel urethane-anesthetized mouse cystometry model to test the hypothesis that in vivo detrusor performance does not degrade with aging. Secondarily, we sought to evaluate sensory responsiveness to volume using pressure-volume data generated during bladder filling. Cystometric data from 2-, 12-, 22-, and 26-mo-old female C57BL6 mice were compared. All 2- and 12-mo-old mice, 66% of 22-mo-old mice, and 50% of 26-mo-old mice responded to continuous bladder filling with periodic reflex voiding. Abdominal wall contraction with voiding had a minimal contribution to expulsive pressure, whereas compliance pressure was a significant contributor. Maximum bladder pressure, estimated detrusor pressure, detrusor impulse (pressure-time integral), as well as indices of detrusor power and work, did not decrease with aging. Bladder precontraction pressures decreased, compliance increased, and nonvoiding contraction counts did not change with increasing age. Intervoid intervals, per-void volumes, and voiding flow rates increased with age. Calculations approximating wall stress during filling suggested loss of bladder volume sensitivity with increasing age. We conclude that aging is associated with an impaired ability to respond to the challenge of continuous bladder filling with cyclic voiding, yet among responsive animals, voiding detrusor contraction strength does not degrade with aging in this murine model. Furthermore, indirect measures suggest that bladder volume sensitivity is diminished. Thus, changes in homeostatic reserve and peripheral and/or central sensory mechanisms may be important contributors to aging-associated changes in bladder function. PMID:22204955

  19. Impact of adhesive surface and volume of luting resin on fracture resistance of root filled teeth.

    PubMed

    Krastl, G; Gugger, J; Deyhle, H; Zitzmann, N U; Weiger, R; Müller, B

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the correlation between geometric parameters of severely compromised root filled (RCT) pre-molar teeth with irregular root canals and their fracture resistance. The null hypothesis tested was that the fracture resistance of root filled teeth is not influenced by: (i) the adhesive surface of the post-space preparation (A(PS) ), (ii) the coronal tooth surface (A(A) ), (iii) the amount of resin cement (V(C) ) and (iv) the Young's modulus of the specimens. A total of 48 noncarious human pre-molar teeth with irregular root canals were decoronated, root filled and adhesively restored with post-retained direct composite crowns. After thermomechanical loading (1,200,000×, 5-50° C), static load was applied until failure. The geometric parameters of the tooth were evaluated by microcomputed tomography (μCT) using impressions taken after post-space preparation. Linear regression analyses were performed to correlate the geometric parameters of the specimens with their fracture resistance. The amount of resin cement (V(C) ) comprised up to 88% of the entire post-space (mean 67%) and had no impact on the maximal load (P = 0.88). The latter was significantly influenced by post-space preparation (P = 0.003). Amongst the geometric parameters tested, the surface area in the root canal had the greatest impact on fracture resistance of root filled pre-molars restored with posts and composite crowns, whilst the fit of the post was less important. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  20. Efficacy of ultrasonic activation of NaOCl and orange oil in removing filling material from mesial canals of mandibular molars with and without isthmus

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; da Rosa, Ricardo Abreu; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Duarte, Marco Antônio Húngaro; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Só, Marcos Vinícius Reis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the volume of remaining filling material after passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and orange oil in mesial canals of mandibular molars, with and without isthmus. Material and Methods Thirty mesial roots of mandibular molars were divided according to the presence or absence of isthmus. Canals were prepared and filled (Micro-CT #1). Filling was removed using rotary instruments, and specimens were sub-divided into three groups according to the irrigation procedures: Conventional – conventional irrigation with NaOCl, PUI/NaOCl – PUI of NaOCl (three activations, 20 seconds each), and PUI/orange oil – PUI of orange oil (Micro-CT#2). Specimens were enlarged using the X2 and X3 ProTaper Next instruments and submitted to the same irrigation protocols (Micro-CT #3). Results No differences were found between the experimental groups in each stage of assessment (P>0.05). The volume of residual filling material was similar to those in Micro-CT #2 and Micro-CT #3, but lower than those observed in Micro-CT #1 (P<0.05). When groups were pooled according to the presence or absence of an isthmus, volume of residual filling material was higher in specimens presenting isthmus (P<0.05). Conclusions PUI of NaOCl or orange oil did not improve filling removal. Isthmus consists in an anatomical obstacle that impairs the removal of filling material. PMID:26200525

  1. Neural mechanisms of volume regulation.

    PubMed

    DiBona, G F

    1983-05-01

    Under steady-state conditions, urinary sodium excretion matches dietary sodium intake. Because extracellular fluid osmolality is tightly regulated, the quantity of sodium in the extracellular fluid determines the volume of this compartment. The left atrial volume receptor mechanism is an example of a neural mechanism of volume regulation. The left atrial mechanoreceptor, which functions as a sensor in the low-pressure vascular system, has a well-defined compliance relating intravascular volume to filling pressure and responds to changes in wall tension by discharging into afferent vagal fibers. These fibers have appropriate central nervous system representation whose related efferent neurohumoral mechanisms regulate thirst, renal excretion of water and sodium, and the redistribution of the extracellular fluid volume.

  2. Filling defects in the pancreatic duct on endoscopic retrograde pancreatography.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A J; Carmody, T J; Schmalz, M J; Wiedmeyer, D A; Stewart, E T

    1992-12-01

    Filling defects in the pancreatic duct are a frequent finding during endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) and have a variety of causes. Some filling defects may be artifactual or related to technical factors and, once their origin is recognized, can be disregarded. Others may be due to acute changes of pancreatitis and should prompt more careful injection of contrast material into the duct. Intraluminal masses may represent calculi or a neoplasm, either of which may require surgery or endoscopic intervention. The exact nature of these filling defects may not be apparent on radiographs, and other studies may be needed. This article reviews our approach to the evaluation of filling defects in the pancreatic duct.

  3. Defect-enhanced void filling and novel filled phases of open-structure skutterudites

    DOE PAGES

    Xi, Lili; Qiu, Yuting; Shi, Xun; ...

    2015-05-14

    Here, we report the design of novel filled CoSb 3 skutterudite phases based on a combination of filling and Sb-substituted Ga/In defects. Ga/In doped skutterudite phases with Li-, Nd-, and Sm-fillings can be formed via this strategy, which can have relatively wider ranges of carrier concentration than other conventional filled skutterudite phases.

  4. RIGHT AND LEFT VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC PRESSURE–VOLUME RELATIONS: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2012-01-01

    Ventricular compliance alterations can affect cardiac performance and adaptations. Moreover, diastolic mechanics are important in assessing both diastolic and systolic function, since any filling impairment can compromise systolic function. A sigmoidal passive filling pressure-volume relationship, developed using chronically instrumented, awake-animal disease models, is clinically adaptable to evaluating diastolic dynamics using subject-specific micromanometric and volumetric data from the entire filling period of any heartbeat(s). This innovative relationship is the global, integrated expression of chamber geometry, wall thickness, and passive myocardial wall properties. Chamber and myocardial compliance curves of both ventricles can be computed by the sigmoidal methodology over the entire filling period and plotted over appropriate filling pressure ranges. Important characteristics of the compliance curves can be examined and compared between the right and the left ventricle, and for different physiological and pathological conditions. The sigmoidal paradigm is more accurate and, therefore, a better alternative to the conventional exponential pressure-volume approximation. PMID:23179133

  5. Urothelium update: how the bladder mucosa measures bladder filling.

    PubMed

    Janssen, D A W; Schalken, J A; Heesakkers, J P F A

    2017-06-01

    This review critically evaluates the evidence on mechanoreceptors and pathways in the bladder urothelium that are involved in normal bladder filling signalling. Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies on (i) signalling pathways like the adenosine triphosphate pathway, cholinergic pathway and nitric oxide and adrenergic pathway, and (ii) different urothelial receptors that are involved in bladder filling signalling like purinergic receptors, sodium channels and TRP channels will be evaluated. Other potential pathways and receptors will also be discussed. Bladder filling results in continuous changes in bladder wall stretch and exposure to urine. Both barrier and afferent signalling functions in the urothelium are constantly adapting to cope with these dynamics. Current evidence shows that the bladder mucosa hosts essential pathways and receptors that mediate bladder filling signalling. Intracellular calcium ion increase is a dominant factor in this signalling process. However, there is still no complete understanding how interacting receptors and pathways create a bladder filling signal. Currently, there are still novel receptors investigated that could also be participating in bladder filling signalling. Normal bladder filling sensation is dependent on multiple interacting mechanoreceptors and signalling pathways. Research efforts need to focus on how these pathways and receptors interact to fully understand normal bladder filling signalling. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Concrete filled steel pipe inspection using electro magnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Won-Bae; Kundu, Tribikram; Ryu, Yeon-Sun; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2005-05-01

    Concrete-filled steel pipes are usually exposed in hostile environments such as seawater and deicing materials. The outside corrosion of the steel pipe can reduce the wall thickness and the corrosion-induced delamination of internal concrete can increase internal volume or pressure. In addition, the void that can possibly exist in the pipe reduces the bending resistance. To avoid structural failure due to this type of deterioration, appropriate inspection and repair techniques are to be developed. Guided wave techniques have strong potentials for this kind of inspection because of long-distance inspection capability. Among different transducer-coupling mechanism, electro-magnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) give relatively consistent results in comparison to piezoelectric transducers since they do not need any couplant. In this study EMATs are used for transmitting and receiving cylindrical guided waves through concrete-filled steel pipes. Through time history curves and wavelet transform, it is shown that EMAT-generated cylindrical guided wave techniques have good potential for the interface inspection of concrete-filled steel pipes.

  7. Development of a 3D Filling Model of Low-Pressure Die-Cast Aluminum Alloy Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jianglan; Maijer, Daan; Cockcroft, Steve; Reilly, Carl

    2013-12-01

    A two-phase computational fluid dynamics model of the low-pressure die-cast process for the production of A356 aluminum alloy wheels has been developed to predict the flow conditions during die filling. The filling model represents a 36-deg section of a production wheel, and was developed within the commercial finite-volume package, ANSYS CFX, assuming isothermal conditions. To fully understand the behavior of the free surface, a novel technique was developed to approximate the vent resistances as they impact on the development of a backpressure within the die cavity. The filling model was first validated against experimental data, and then was used to investigate the effects of venting conditions and pressure curves during die filling. It was found that vent resistance and vent location strongly affected die filling time, free surface topography, and air entrainment for a given pressure fill-curve. With regard to the pressure curve, the model revealed a strong relation between the pressure curve and the flow behavior in the hub, which is an area prone to defect formation.

  8. Is Detrusor Contraction during Rapid Bladder Filling Caused by Cold or Warm Water? A Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Kozomara, Marko; Mehnert, Ulrich; Seifert, Burkhardt; Kessler, Thomas M

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether detrusor contraction during rapid bladder filling is provoked by cold or warm water. Patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction were included in this randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. At the end of a standard urodynamic investigation patients underwent 2 bladder fillings using a 4C ice water test or a 36C warm water test saline solution at a filling speed of 100 ml per minute. The order was randomly selected, and patients and investigators were blinded to the order. The primary outcome measure was detrusor overactivity, maximum detrusor pressure and maximum bladder filling volume during the ice and warm water tests. Nine women and 31 men were the subject of data analysis. Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction was caused by spinal cord injury in 33 patients and by another neurological disorder in 7. Irrespective of test order detrusor overactivity occurred significantly more often during the ice water test than during the warm water test (30 of 40 patients or 75% vs 25 of 40 or 63%, p = 0.02). When comparing the ice water test to the warm water test, maximum detrusor pressure was significantly higher and maximum bladder filling volume was significantly lower during the ice water test (each p <0.001). The order of performing the tests (ice water first vs warm water first) had no effect on the parameters. Our findings imply that the more frequent detrusor overactivity, higher maximum detrusor pressure and lower bladder filling volume during the ice water test compared to the warm water test were caused by cold water. This underlies the theory of a C-fiber mediated bladder cooling reflex in humans. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamics of a grain-filled ball on a vibrating plate.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Ludewig, F; Dorbolo, S

    2014-09-12

    We study experimentally how the bouncing dynamics of a hollow ball on a vibrating plate is modified when it is partially filled with liquid or grains. Whereas empty and liquid-filled balls display a dominant chaotic dynamics, a ball with grains exhibits a rich variety of stationary states, determined by the grain size and filling volume. In the collisional regime, i.e., when the energy injected to the system is mainly dissipated by interparticle collisions, an unexpected period-1 orbit appears independently of the vibration conditions, over a wide range. This is a self-regulated state driven by the formation and collapse of a granular gas within the ball during one cycle. In the frictional regime (dissipation dominated by friction), the grains move collectively and generate different patterns and steady modes: oscillons, waves, period doubling, etc. From a phase diagram and a geometrical analysis, we deduce that these modes are the result of a coupling (synchronization) between the vibrating plate frequency and the trajectory followed by the particles inside the cavity.

  10. Dynamics of a Grain-Filled Ball on a Vibrating Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F.; Ludewig, F.; Dorbolo, S.

    2014-09-01

    We study experimentally how the bouncing dynamics of a hollow ball on a vibrating plate is modified when it is partially filled with liquid or grains. Whereas empty and liquid-filled balls display a dominant chaotic dynamics, a ball with grains exhibits a rich variety of stationary states, determined by the grain size and filling volume. In the collisional regime, i.e., when the energy injected to the system is mainly dissipated by interparticle collisions, an unexpected period-1 orbit appears independently of the vibration conditions, over a wide range. This is a self-regulated state driven by the formation and collapse of a granular gas within the ball during one cycle. In the frictional regime (dissipation dominated by friction), the grains move collectively and generate different patterns and steady modes: oscillons, waves, period doubling, etc. From a phase diagram and a geometrical analysis, we deduce that these modes are the result of a coupling (synchronization) between the vibrating plate frequency and the trajectory followed by the particles inside the cavity.

  11. Partially filled electrodes for digital microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyne, D. G.; Salman, W. M.; Abdelgawad, M.; Sun, Y.

    2013-07-01

    As digital microfluidics technology evolves, the need for integrating additional elements (e.g., sensing/detection and heating elements) on the electrode increases. Consequently, electrode area for droplet actuation is reduced to create space for accommodating these additional elements, which undesirably affects force generation. Electrodes cannot simply be scaled larger to compensate for this loss of force, as this would also increase droplet volume and thereby compromise the advantages thought in miniaturization. Here, we present a study evaluating, numerically with preliminary experimental verification, different partially filled electrode designs and suggesting designs that combine high actuation forces with a large reduction in electrode area.

  12. Financial factor influence on scaling and memory of trading volume in stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-10-01

    We study the daily trading volume volatility of 17 197 stocks in the US stock markets during the period 1989-2008 and analyze the time return intervals τ between volume volatilities above a given threshold q. For different thresholds q, the probability density function Pq(τ) scales with mean interval <τ> as Pq(τ)=<τ>-1f(τ/<τ>), and the tails of the scaling function can be well approximated by a power law f(x)˜x-γ. We also study the relation between the form of the distribution function Pq(τ) and several financial factors: stock lifetime, market capitalization, volume, and trading value. We find a systematic tendency of Pq(τ) associated with these factors, suggesting a multiscaling feature in the volume return intervals. We analyze the conditional probability Pq(τ|τ0) for τ following a certain interval τ0, and find that Pq(τ|τ0) depends on τ0 such that immediately following a short (long) return interval a second short (long) return interval tends to occur. We also find indications that there is a long-term correlation in the daily volume volatility. We compare our results to those found earlier for price volatility.

  13. Dissolved solids in basin-fill aquifers and streams in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Bauch, Nancy J.; Gerner, Steven J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Hamlin, Scott N.; Moore, Stephanie J.; Schaefer, Donald H.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program performed a regional study in the Southwestern United States (Southwest) to describe the status and trends of dissolved solids in basin-fill aquifers and streams and to determine the natural and human factors that affect dissolved solids. Basin-fill aquifers, which include the Rio Grande aquifer system, Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers, and California Coastal Basin aquifers, are the most extensively used ground-water supplies in the Southwest. Rivers, such as the Colorado, the Rio Grande, and their tributaries, are also important water supplies, as are several smaller river systems that drain internally within the Southwest, or drain externally to the Pacific Ocean in southern California. The study included four components that characterize (1) the spatial distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations in basin-fill aquifers, and dissolved-solids concentrations, loads, and yields in streams; (2) natural and human factors that affect dissolved-solids concentrations; (3) major sources and areas of accumulation of dissolved solids; and (4) trends in dissolved-solids concentrations over time in basin-fill aquifers and streams, and the relation of trends to natural or human factors.

  14. Atrial contribution to ventricular filling in mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Meisner, J S; Keren, G; Pajaro, O E; Mani, A; Strom, J A; Frater, R W; Laniado, S; Yellin, E L

    1991-10-01

    The importance of the contribution of atrial systole to ventricular filling in mitral stenosis is controversial. The cause of reduced cardiac output following the onset of atrial fibrillation may be due to an increased heart rate, a loss of booster pump function, or both. We studied the atrial contribution to filling under a variety of conditions by combining noninvasive studies of patients with computer modeling. Thirty patients in sinus rhythm with mild-to-severe stenosis were studied with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography for measurement of mitral flow velocity and mitral valve area (MVA). The mean +/- SD atrial contribution to left ventricular filling volume was 18 +/- 10% and varied inversely with mitral resistance. Patients with mild mitral stenosis (MVA, 1.8 +/- 0.7 cm2) and severe mitral stenosis (MVA, 0.9 +/- 0.2 cm2) had atrial contributions of 29 +/- 4% and 9 +/- 5%, respectively. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for these trends were further investigated by the computer model. In modeled severe mitral stenosis, increasing heart rate from 75 to 150 beats/min caused an increase of 5.2 mm Hg in mean left atrial pressure, whereas loss of atrial contraction at a heart rate of 150 beats/min caused only a 1.3 mm Hg increase. The atrial booster pump contributes less to ventricular filling in mitral stenosis than in the normal heart, and the loss of atrial pump function is less important than the effect of increasing heart rate as the cause of decompensation during atrial fibrillation.

  15. System-level simulation of liquid filling in microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongjun; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil

    2011-06-01

    Liquid filling in microfluidic channels is a complex process that depends on a variety of geometric, operating, and material parameters such as microchannel geometry, flow velocity∕pressure, liquid surface tension, and contact angle of channel surface. Accurate analysis of the filling process can provide key insights into the filling time, air bubble trapping, and dead zone formation, and help evaluate trade-offs among the various design parameters and lead to optimal chip design. However, efficient modeling of liquid filling in complex microfluidic networks continues to be a significant challenge. High-fidelity computational methods, such as the volume of fluid method, are prohibitively expensive from a computational standpoint. Analytical models, on the other hand, are primarily applicable to idealized geometries and, hence, are unable to accurately capture chip level behavior of complex microfluidic systems. This paper presents a parametrized dynamic model for the system-level analysis of liquid filling in three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic networks. In our approach, a complex microfluidic network is deconstructed into a set of commonly used components, such as reservoirs, microchannels, and junctions. The components are then assembled according to their spatial layout and operating rationale to achieve a rapid system-level model. A dynamic model based on the transient momentum equation is developed to track the liquid front in the microchannels. The principle of mass conservation at the junction is used to link the fluidic parameters in the microchannels emanating from the junction. Assembly of these component models yields a set of differential and algebraic equations, which upon integration provides temporal information of the liquid filling process, particularly liquid front propagation (i.e., the arrival time). The models are used to simulate the transient liquid filling process in a variety of microfluidic constructs and in a multiplexer, representing a

  16. Space station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 3: Safety impact of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockoff, L. A.; Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for Initial Operational Capability (IOC) during the early 1990's was considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris. Of particular interest here is volume three (of five volumes) pertaining to the safety impact of human factors.

  17. Effect of bladder filling on doses to prostate and organs at risk: a treatment planning study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mitchell; Kristensen, Sarah; Gelowitz, Gerald; Berthelet, Eric

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to evaluate effects of bladder filling on dose–volume distributions for bladder, rectum, planning target volume (PTV), and prostate in radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Patients (n=21) were scanned with a full bladder, and after 1 hour, having been allowed to void, with an empty bladder. Radiotherapy plans were generated using a four‐field box technique and dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. First, plans obtained for full‐ and empty‐bladder scans were compared. Second, situations in which a patient was planned on full bladder but was treated on empty bladder, and vice versa, were simulated, assuming that patients were aligned to external tattoos. Doses to the prostate [equivalent uniform dose (EUD)], bladder and rectum [effective dose (Deff)], and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were compared. Dose to the small bowel was examined. Mean bladder volume was 354.3 cm3 when full and 118.2 cm3 when empty. Median prostate EUD was 70 Gy for plans based on full‐ and empty‐bladder scans alike. The median rectal Deff was 55.6 Gy for full‐bladder anatomy and 56.8 Gy for empty‐bladder anatomy, and the corresponding bladder Deff was 29.0 Gy and 49.3 Gy respectively. In 1 patient, part of the small bowel (7.5 cm3) received more than 50 Gy with full‐bladder anatomy, and in 6 patients, part (2.5 cm3−30 cm3) received more than 50 Gy with empty‐bladder anatomy. Bladder filling had no significant impact on prostate EUD or rectal Deff. A minimal volume of the small bowel received more than 50 Gy in both groups, which is below dose tolerance. The bladder Deff was higher with empty‐bladder anatomy; however, the predicted complication rates were clinically insignificant. When the multileaf collimator pattern was applied in reverse, substantial underdosing of the planning target volume (PTV) was observed, particularly for patients with prostate shifts in excess of 0.5 cm in any one direction. However, the prostate

  18. [The Contribution of Vascular Capacity and Blood Volume to Maintain Stable Blood Circulation during General Anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Shigemi, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    To maintain proper cardiac preload is one of the most effective procedures for the systemic circulation remaining stable. In particular, the balance between vascular capacity and total blood volume must be maintained within appropriate range by the administration of fluids, blood and/or vasoactive drugs with mean circulatory filling pressure (Pmcf), central venous pressure (CVP) or stroke volume variation (SVV). End-diastolic left ventricular volume (Ved) is theoretically the best index of cardiac preload; however, without transesophageal echocardbalanceiogram we cannot directly monitor Ved during anesthesia. The infused fluid volume remaining in intravascular space, the vascular capacity controlled by autonomic nervous system and/or vasoactive agents, and the unstressed blood volume properly mobilized to excess blood volume are the crucial factors to maintain cardiac output The knowledge of vascular physiology contribute the decision making to manipulate such factors to control blood circulation during general anesthesia. For example, CVP is usually maintained in the narrow range and seems to be stable; however, it must be changed just after the circulatory disturbances, such as acute bleeding, blood transfusion, and fluid infusion, and followed by gradual returning to initial value, because of the solid mechanism to preserve cardiac output

  19. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and gray matter volume in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Poletti, S; Aggio, V; Hoogenboezem, T A; Ambrée, O; de Wit, H; Wijkhuijs, A J M; Locatelli, C; Colombo, C; Arolt, V; Drexhage, H A; Benedetti, F

    2017-02-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric condition characterized by grey matter (GM) volumes reduction. Neurotrophic factors have been suggested to play a role in the neuroprogressive changes during the illness course. In particular peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker related to disease activity and neuroprogression in BD. The aim of our study was to investigate if serum levels of BDNF are associated with GM volumes in BD patients and healthy controls (HC). We studied 36 inpatients affected by a major depressive episode in course of BD type I and 17 HC. Analysis of variance was performed to investigate the effect of diagnosis on GM volumes in the whole brain. Threshold for significance was P<0.05, Family Wise Error (FWE) corrected for multiple comparisons. All the analyses were controlled for the effect of nuisance covariates known to influence GM volumes, such as age, gender and lithium treatment. BD patients showed significantly higher serum BDNF levels compared with HC. Reduced GM volumes in BD patients compared to HC were observed in several brain areas, encompassing the caudate head, superior temporal gyrus, insula, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex. The interaction analysis between BDNF levels and diagnosis showed a significant effect in the middle frontal gyrus. HC reported higher BDNF levels associated with higher GM volumes, whereas no association between BDNF and GM volumes was observed in BD. Our study seems to suggest that although the production of BDNF is increased in BD possibly to prevent and repair neural damage, its effects could be hampered by underlying neuroinflammatory processes interfering with the neurodevelopmental role of BDNF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of xylene and passive ultrasonic irrigation on remaining root filling material during retreatment of anatomically complex teeth.

    PubMed

    Cavenago, B C; Ordinola-Zapata, R; Duarte, M A H; del Carpio-Perochena, A E; Villas-Bôas, M H; Marciano, M A; Bramante, C M; Moraes, I G

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the volume of remaining filling material in the mesial root canals of mandibular molars after root canal retreatment with different procedures performed sequentially. The mesial root canals of 12 human first mandibular molars were instrumented using the BioRace system until a size 25, .06 taper instrument. The mesial roots were filled with gutta-percha and AH-Plus using a vertical compaction technique. The specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography with a voxel size of 16.8 μm before and after the retreatment procedures. To remove the filling material, the root canals were enlarged until the size 40, .04 taper instrument. The second step was to irrigate the root canals with xylene in the attempt to clean the root canals with paper points. In the third step, the passive ultrasonic irrigation technique (PUI) was performed using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. The initial and residual filling material volume (mm(3) ) after each step was evaluated from the 0.5 to 6.5 mm level. The obtained data were expressed in terms of percentage of residual filling material. Statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman test (P < 0.05). All specimens had residual filling materials after all retreatment procedures. Passive ultrasonic irrigation enhanced the elimination of residual filling material in comparison with the mechanical stage at the 0.5-2.5 mm and 4.5-6.5 mm levels (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found between xylene and PUI methods. Filling materials were not completely removed by any of the retreatment procedures. The use of xylene and PUI after mechanical instrumentation enhanced removal of materials during endodontic retreatment of anatomically complex teeth. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Feast to famine: Sediment supply control on Laramide basin fill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Alan R.; Chetel, Lauren M.; Elliot Smith, M.

    2006-03-01

    Erosion of Laramide-style uplifts in the western United States exerted an important first-order influence on Paleogene sedimentation by controlling sediment supply rates to adjacent closed basins. During the latest Cretaceous through Paleocene, these uplifts exposed thick intervals of mud-rich Upper Cretaceous foreland basin fill, which was quickly eroded and redeposited. Cretaceous sedimentary lithologies dominate Paleocene conglomerate clast compositions, and the volume of eroded foreland basin strata is approximately twice the volume of preserved Paleocene basin fill. As a result of this sediment oversupply, clastic alluvial and paludal facies dominate Paleocene strata, and are associated with relatively shallow and ephemeral freshwater lake facies. In contrast, large, long-lived, carbonate-producing lakes occupied several of the basins during the Eocene. Basement-derived clasts (granite, quartzite, and other metamorphic rocks) simultaneously became abundant in lower Eocene conglomerate. We propose that Eocene lakes developed primarily due to exposure of erosion-resistant lithologies within cores of Laramide uplifts. The resultant decrease in erosion rate starved adjacent basins of sediment, allowing the widespread and prolonged deposition of organic-rich lacustrine mudstone. These observations suggest that geomorphic evolution of the surrounding landscape should be considered as a potentially important influence on sedimentation in many other interior basins, in addition to more conventionally interpreted tectonic and climatic controls.

  2. Volume Overload: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Functional Outcome in Survivors of Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Carlbom, David; Caldwell, Ellen; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Hough, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of septic shock have impaired functional status. Volume overload is associated with poor outcomes in patients with septic shock, but the impact of volume overload on functional outcome and discharge destination of survivors is unknown. Objectives: This study describes patterns of fluid management both during and after septic shock. We examined factors associated with volume overload upon intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. We then examined associations between volume overload upon ICU discharge, mobility limitation, and discharge to a healthcare facility in septic shock survivors, with the hypothesis that volume overload is associated with increased odds of these outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 247 patients admitted with septic shock to an academic county hospital between June 2009 and April 2012 who survived to ICU discharge. We defined volume overload as a fluid balance expected to increase the subject’s admission weight by 10%. Statistical methods included unadjusted analyses and multivariable logistic regression. Measurements and Main Results: Eighty-six percent of patients had a positive fluid balance, and 35% had volume overload upon ICU discharge. Factors associated with volume overload in unadjusted analyses included more severe illness, cirrhosis, blood transfusion during shock, and higher volumes of fluid administration both during and after shock. Blood transfusion during shock was independently associated with increased odds of volume overload (odds ratio [OR], 2.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33–5.27; P = 0.01) after adjusting for preexisting conditions and severity of illness. Only 42% of patients received at least one dose of a diuretic during their hospitalization. Volume overload upon ICU discharge was independently associated with inability to ambulate upon hospital discharge (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.24–4.25; P = 0.01) and, in patients admitted from home, upon discharge to

  3. Microtensile bond strength of bulk-fill restorative composites to dentin.

    PubMed

    Mandava, Jyothi; Vegesna, Divya-Prasanna; Ravi, Ravichandra; Boddeda, Mohan-Rao; Uppalapati, Lakshman-Varma; Ghazanfaruddin, M D

    2017-08-01

    To facilitate the easier placement of direct resin composite in deeper cavities, bulk fill composites have been introduced. The Mechanical stability of fillings in stress bearing areas restored with bulk-fill resin composites is still open to question, since long term clinical studies are not available so far. Thus, the objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the microtensile bond strength of three bulk-fill restorative composites with a nanohybrid composite. Class I cavities were prepared on sixty extracted mandibular molars. Teeth were divided into 4 groups (n= 15 each) and in group I, the prepared cavities were restored with nanohybrid (Filtek Z250 XT) restorative composite in an incremental manner. In group II, III and IV, the bulk-fill composites (Filtek, Tetric EvoCeram, X-tra fil bulk-fill restoratives) were placed as a 4 mm single increment and light cured. The restored teeth were subjected to thermocycling and bond strength testing was done using instron testing machine. The mode of failure was assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The bond strength values obtained in megapascals (MPa) were subjected to statistical analysis, using SPSS/PC version 20 software.One-way ANOVA was used for groupwise comparison of the bond strength. Tukey's Post Hoc test was used for pairwise comparisons among the groups. The highest mean bond strength was achieved with Filtek bulk-fill restorative showing statistically significant difference with Tetric EvoCeram bulk-fill ( p < 0.003) and X-tra fil bulk-fill ( p <0.001) composites. Adhesive failures are mostly observed with X-tra fil bulk fill composites, whereas mixed failures are more common with other bulk fill composites. Bulk-fill composites exhibited adequate bond strength to dentin and can be considered as restorative material of choice in posterior stress bearing areas. Key words: Bond strength, Bulk-fill restoratives, Configuration factor, Polymerization shrinkage.

  4. Light transmittance and micro-mechanical properties of bulk fill vs. conventional resin based composites.

    PubMed

    Bucuta, Stefan; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the blue light that passes through different incremental thicknesses of bulk fill in comparison to conventional resin-based composites (RBCs) and to relate it to the induced mechanical properties. Seven bulk fill, five nanohybrid and two flowable RBCs were analysed. Specimens (n = 5) of three incremental thicknesses (2, 4 and 6 mm) were cured from the top for 20 s, while at the bottom, a spectrometer monitored in real time the transmitted irradiance. Micro-mechanical properties (Vickers hardness, HV, and indentation modulus, E) were measured at the top and bottom after 24 h of storage in distilled water at 37 °C. Electron microscope images were taken for assessing the filler distribution and size. Bulk fill RBCs (except SonicFill) were more translucent than conventional RBCs. Low-viscosity bulk fill materials showed the lowest mechanical properties. HV depends highly on the following parameters: material (ηp (2) = 0.952), incremental thickness (0.826), filler volume (0.747), filler weight (0.746) and transmitted irradiance (0.491). The bottom-to-top HV ratio (HVbt) was higher than 80 % in all materials in 2- and 4-mm increments (except for Premise), whereas in 6-mm increments, this is valid only in four bulk fill materials (Venus Bulk Fill, SDR, x-tra fil, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill). The depth of cure is dependent on the RBC's translucency. Low-viscosity bulk fill RBCs have lower mechanical properties than all other types of analysed materials. All bulk fill RBCs (except SonicFill) are more translucent for blue light than conventional RBCs. Although bulk fill RBCs are generally more translucent, the practitioner has to follow the manufacturer's recommendations on curing technique and maximum incremental thickness.

  5. Theoretical distribution of gutta-percha within root canals filled using cold lateral compaction based on numeric calculus.

    PubMed

    Min, Yi; Song, Ying; Gao, Yuan; Dummer, Paul M H

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to present a new method based on numeric calculus to provide data on the theoretical volume ratio of voids when using the cold lateral compaction technique in canals with various diameters and tapers. Twenty-one simulated mathematical root canal models were created with different tapers and sizes of apical diameter, and were filled with defined sizes of standardized accessory gutta-percha cones. The areas of each master and accessory gutta-percha cone as well as the depth of their insertion into the canals were determined mathematically in Microsoft Excel. When the first accessory gutta-percha cone had been positioned, the residual area of void was measured. The areas of the residual voids were then measured repeatedly upon insertion of additional accessary cones until no more could be inserted in the canal. The volume ratio of voids was calculated through measurement of the volume of the root canal and mass of gutta-percha cones. The theoretical volume ratio of voids was influenced by the taper of canal, the size of apical preparation and the size of accessory gutta-percha cones. Greater apical preparation size and larger taper together with the use of smaller accessory cones reduced the volume ratio of voids in the apical third. The mathematical model provided a precise method to determine the theoretical volume ratio of voids in root-filled canals when using cold lateral compaction.

  6. Utilization of tooth filling services by people with disabilities in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Chuan; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Su, Hsun-Pi; Yen, Suh-May; Chiu, Li-Ting; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2016-04-05

    The oral condition of people with disabilities has considerable influence on their physical and mental health. However, nationwide surveys regarding this group have not been conducted. For this study, we used the National Health Insurance Research Database to explore the tooth filling utilization among people with disabilities. Using the database of the Ministry of the Interior in 2008 which included people with disabilities registered, we merged with the medical claims database in 2008 of the Bureau of National Health Insurance to calculate the tooth filling utilization and to analyze relative factors. We recruited 993,487 people with disabilities as the research sample. The tooth filling utilization was 17.53 %. The multiple logistic regression result showed that the utilization rate of men was lower than that of women (OR = 0.78, 95 % CI = 0.77-0.79) and older people had lower utilization rates (aged over 75, OR = 0.22, 95 % CI = 0.22-0.23) compared to those under the age of 20. Other factors that significantly influenced the low tooth filling utilization included a low education level, living in less urbanized areas, low economic capacity, dementia, and severe disability. We identified the factors that influence and decrease the tooth-filling service utilization rate: male sex, old age, low education level, being married, indigenous ethnicity, residing in a low urbanization area, low income, chronic circulatory system diseases, dementia, and severe disabilities. We suggest establishing proper medical care environments for high-risk groups to maintain their quality of life.

  7. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  8. Sorption of phenanthrene and benzene on differently structural kerogen: important role of micropore-filling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulong; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong

    2014-02-01

    Shale was thermally treated to obtain a series of kerogen with varied maturation. Their chemical, structural and porous properties were related to the sorption and/or desorption behaviors of phenanthrene and benzene. As the treatment temperature increases, aliphatic and carbonyl carbon of the kerogen samples decrease, while their aromaticity and maturation increase. Meanwhile, the isothermal nonlinearity of phenanthrene and benzene increases whereas the sorption capacity and micropore adsorption volumes (Vo,d) initially increase and then decrease. The Vo,d of benzene is significantly correlated with, but higher than that of phenanthrene, suggesting similar micropore filling mechanism and molecular sieve effect. The benzene desorption exhibits hysteresis, which is related to the pore deformation of the kerogen and the entrapment of solute in the kerogen matrix. The Vo,d of phenanthrene and benzene on the kerogen samples accounts for 23-46% and 36-65% of the maximum sorption volumes, respectively, displaying the importance of the micropore filling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Echo-Doppler estimation of left ventricular filling pressure: results of the multicentre EACVI Euro-Filling study.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Galderisi, Maurizio; Edvardsen, Thor; Donal, Erwan; Goliasch, Georg; Cardim, Nuno; Magne, Julien; Laginha, Sara; Hagendorff, Andreas; Haland, Trine F; Aaberge, Lars; Martinez, Christophe; Rapacciuolo, Antonio; Santoro, Ciro; Ilardi, Federica; Postolache, Adriana; Dulgheru, Raluca; Mateescu, Anca D; Beladan, Carmen C; Deleanu, Dan; Marchetta, Stella; Auffret, Vincent; Schwammenthal, Ehud; Habib, Gilbert; Popescu, Bogdan A

    2017-09-01

    The present Euro-Filling report aimed at comparing the diagnostic accuracy of the 2009 and 2016 echocardiographic grading algorithms for predicting invasively measured left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP). A total of 159 patients who underwent simultaneous evaluation of echo estimates of LVFP and invasive measurements of LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were enrolled at nine EACVI centres. Thirty-nine (25%) patients had a reduced LV ejection fraction (<50%), 77 (64%) were in NYHA ≥ II, and 85 (53%) had coronary artery disease. Sixty-four (40%) patients had elevated LVEDP (≥15 mmHg). Taken individually, all echocardiographic Doppler estimates of LVFP (E/A, E/e', left atrial volume, tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity) were marginally correlated with LVEDP. By using the 2016 recommendations, 65% of patients with normal non-invasive estimate of LVFP had normal LVEDP, while 79% of those with elevated non-invasive LVFP had elevated invasive LVEDP. By using 2009 recommendations, 68% of the patients with normal non-invasive LVFP had normal LVEDP, while 55% of those with elevated non-invasive LVFP had elevated LVEDP. The 2016 recommendations (sensitivity 75%, specificity 74%, positive predictive value 39%, negative predictive value 93%, AUC 0.78) identified slightly better patients with elevated invasive LVEDP (≥ 15 mmHg) as compared with the 2009 recommendations (sensitivity 43%, specificity 75%, positive predictive value 49%, negative predictive value 71%, AUC 0.68). The present Euro-Filling study demonstrates that the new 2016 recommendations for assessing LVFP non-invasively are fairly reliable and clinically useful, as well as superior to the 2009 recommendations in estimating invasive LVEDP. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Measurement of the refractive index of microquantity liquid filled in a capillary and a capillary wall without destruction.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Pu, Xiaoyun

    2013-07-20

    A method for measuring the refractive index (RI) of a small volume of liquid and a capillary wall is presented in this paper. A transparent capillary filled with liquid is used as a cylindrical positive lens; subsequently, the focal length of the lens is derived through the base of paraxial approximation, which is recorded as a function of the RIs of the liquid and capillary wall. With the RI of a capillary wall known, the RI of the liquid can be obtained by measuring the focal length of the lens, which is characterized by a microquantity liquid, spatial resolution, and easy operation. The RI of the capillary wall can be calculated without ruining the capillary if the capillary is filled with a standard liquid (RI is known), the deviation of which is less than 0.003 RIU. The factors affecting accuracy of the measurement, for instance, the depth of a field (DOF) in a reading microscope system and the outer and inner diameters of a capillary are analyzed, while illustrating that the effective DOF plays an essential role in accurate measurement.

  11. Biopharmaceutical formulations for pre-filled delivery devices.

    PubMed

    Jezek, Jan; Darton, Nicholas J; Derham, Barry K; Royle, Nikki; Simpson, Iain

    2013-06-01

    Pre-filled syringes are becoming an increasingly popular format for delivering biotherapeutics conveniently and cost effectively. The device design and stable liquid formulations required to enable this pre-filled syringe format are technically challenging. In choosing the materials and process conditions to fabricate the syringe unit, their compatibility with the biotherapeutic needs to be carefully assessed. The biothereaputic stability demanded for the production of syringe-compatible low-viscosity liquid solutions requires critical excipient choices to be made. The purpose of this review is to discuss key issues related to the stability aspects of biotherapeutics in pre-filled devices. This includes effects on both physical and chemical stability due to a number of stress conditions the product is subjected to, as well as interactions with the packaging system. Particular attention is paid to the control of stability by formulation. We anticipate that there will be a significant move towards polymer primary packaging for most drugs in the longer term. The timescales for this will depend on a number of factors and hence will be hard to predict. Formulation will play a critical role in developing successful products in the pre-filled syringe format, particularly with the trend towards concentrated biotherapeutics. Development of novel, smart formulation technologies will, therefore, be increasingly important.

  12. High fill-factor micromirror array using a self-aligned vertical comb drive actuator with two rotational axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minsoo; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Jeon, Jin-A.; Yoo, Byung-Wook; Park, I. H.; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2009-03-01

    We present a two-axis micromirror array with high fill-factor, using a new fabrication procedure on the full wafer scale. The micromirror comprises a self-aligned vertical comb drive actuator with a mirror plate mounted on it and electrical lines on a bottom substrate. A high-aspect-ratio vertical comb drive was built using a bulk micromachining technique on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The thickness of the torsion spring was adjusted using multiple silicon etching steps to enhance the static angular deflection of the mirrors. To address the array, electrical lines were fabricated on a glass substrate and combined with the comb actuators using an anodic bonding process. The silicon mirror plate was fabricated together with the actuator using a wafer bonding process and segmented at the final release step. The actuator and addressing lines were hidden behind the mirror plate, resulting in a high fill-factor of 84% in an 8 × 8 array of micromirrors, each 340 µm × 340 µm. The fabricated mirror plate has a high-quality optical surface with an average surface roughness (Ra) of 4 nm and a curvature radius of 0.9 m. The static and dynamic responses of the micromirror were characterized by comparing the measured results with the calculated values. The maximum static optical deflection for the outer axis is 4.32° at 60 V, and the maximum inner axis tilting angle is 2.82° at 96 V bias. The torsion resonance frequencies along the outer and inner axes were 1.94 kHz and 0.95 kHz, respectively.

  13. Fill-factor improvement of Si CMOS single-photon avalanche diode detector arrays by integration of diffractive microlens arrays.

    PubMed

    Intermite, Giuseppe; McCarthy, Aongus; Warburton, Ryan E; Ren, Ximing; Villa, Federica; Lussana, Rudi; Waddie, Andrew J; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R; Tosi, Alberto; Zappa, Franco; Buller, Gerald S

    2015-12-28

    Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector arrays generally suffer from having a low fill-factor, in which the photo-sensitive area of each pixel is small compared to the overall area of the pixel. This paper describes the integration of different configurations of high efficiency diffractive optical microlens arrays onto a 32 × 32 SPAD array, fabricated using a 0.35 µm CMOS technology process. The characterization of SPAD arrays with integrated microlens arrays is reported over the spectral range of 500-900 nm, and a range of f-numbers from f/2 to f/22. We report an average concentration factor of 15 measured for the entire SPAD array with integrated microlens array. The integrated SPAD and microlens array demonstrated a very high uniformity in overall efficiency.

  14. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination in pre-filled and photo-filled intermediate band solar cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mayani, Maryam Gholami; Reenaas, Turid Worren, E-mail: turid.reenaas@ntnu.no

    2014-08-18

    In this work, we study how Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination via energy levels in the bandgap, caused by defects or impurities, affects the performance of both photo-filled and pre-filled intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs). For a pre-filled cell, the IB is half-filled in equilibrium, while it is empty for the photo-filled cell in equilibrium. The energy level, density, and capture cross-sections of the defects/impurities are varied systematically. We find that the photo-filled cells are, in general, less efficient than pre-filled cells, except when the defect level is between the conduction band and the IB. In that case, for a range ofmore » light intensities, the photo-filled cell performs better than the pre-filled. When the defect level is at the same energy as the IB, the efficiency is above 82% of the defect-free case, when less than 50% of the states at the IB lead to SRH recombination. This shows that even if SRH recombination via the IB takes place, high efficiencies can be achieved. We also show that band gap optimization can be used to reduce the SRH recombination.« less

  15. Mean circulatory filling pressure: its meaning and measurement.

    PubMed

    Rothe, C F

    1993-02-01

    The volume-pressure relationship of the vasculature of the body as a whole, its vascular capacitance, requires a measurement of the mean circulatory filling pressure (Pmcf). A change in vascular capacitance induced by reflexes, hormones, or drugs has physiological consequences similar to a rapid change in blood volume and thus strongly influences cardiac output. The Pmcf is defined as the mean vascular pressure that exists after a stop in cardiac output and redistribution of blood, so that all pressures are the same throughout the system. The Pmcf is thus related to the fullness of the circulatory system. A change in Pmcf provides a uniquely useful index of a change in overall venous smooth muscle tone if the blood volume is not concomitantly changed. The Pmcf also provides an estimate of the distending pressure in the small veins and venules, which contain most of the blood in the body and comprise most of the vascular compliance. Thus the Pmcf, which is normally independent of the magnitude of the cardiac output, provides an estimate of the upstream pressure that determines the rate of flow returning to the heart.

  16. Efficacy of Twisted File Adaptive, Reciproc and ProTaper Universal Retreatment instruments for root-canal-filling removal: A cone-beam computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Makbule Bilge; Akman, Melek; Terlemez, Arslan; Magat, Guldane; Sener, Sevgi; Shetty, Heeresh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Twisted File (TF) Adaptive, Reciproc, and ProTaper Universal Retreatment (UR) System instruments for removing root-canal-filling. Sixty single rooted teeth were decoronated, instrumented and obturated. Preoperative CBCT scans were taken and the teeth were retreated with TF Adaptive, Reciproc, ProTaper UR, or hand files (n=15). Then, the teeth were rescanned, and the percentage volume of the residual root-canal-filling material was established. The total time for retreatment was recorded, and the data was statistically analyzed. The statistical ranking of the residual filling material volume was as follows: hand file=TF Adaptive>ProTaper UR=Reciproc. The ProTaper UR and Reciproc systems required shorter periods of time for retreatment. Root canal filling was more efficiently removed by using Reciproc and ProTaper UR instruments than TF Adaptive instruments and hand files. The TF Adaptive system was advantageous over hand files with regard to operating time.

  17. Influence of plasma volume expansion with saline on the plasma levels of an ouabain-like factor

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rauch, A.L.; Morris, M.; Buckalew, V.M. Jr.

    1986-03-05

    Plasma volume expansion with saline activates the cardiopulmonary baroreflex and causes the release of natriuretic factors(s). One putative natriuretic factor has ouabain-like activity (OLA). To examine the relationship between this factor and plasma volume expansion, the OLA of plasma was examined in rats that were volume expanded with 0.9% saline at a rate of 150..mu..l/min/100 g of rat for 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes. Plasma OLA was quantitated with a radioreceptor assay utilizing /sup 3/H-ouabain and erythrocytes ghosts. The OLA and hematocrit of control rats were 18.2 +/- 2.93 pmoles of OLA/ml of plasma and 43.7 +/- 0.65. Aftermore » plasma volume expansion for 15 and 30 minutes, plasma OLA was not significantly altered (27.1 +/- 6.64 and 15.3 +/- 2.80, respectively). However, the hematocrit was reduced 13.9% (37.6 +/- 1.34, p < 0.05) and 33.6% (29.0 +/- 1.92, p < 0.01) for 15 and 30 minutes of volume expansion, respectively. After 60 minutes of volume expansion the hematocrit began to recover (33.7 +/- 2.16) although it was still significantly depressed (p < 0.01). At this time point the OLA was increased 248% to 63.4 +/- 22.7 pmoles of OLA/ml of plasma (p < 0.01). At 120 minutes of volume expansion the hematocrit was 38.3 +/- 1.24 and the OLA returned to control values (13.4 +/- 5.17). This data indicates that volume expansion causes an increase in plasma OLA and this increase in activity may contribute to the recovery of hematocrit that is seen with continued volume expansion.« less

  18. Left atrial strain: a new parameter for assessment of left ventricular filling pressure.

    PubMed

    Cameli, Matteo; Mandoli, Giulia Elena; Loiacono, Ferdinando; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Henein, Michael; Mondillo, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain accurate diagnosis, treatment and prognostication in many cardiac conditions, there is a need for assessment of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. While systole depends on ejection function of LV, diastole and its disturbances influence filling function and pressures. The commonest condition that represents the latter is heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in which LV ejection is maintained, but diastole is disturbed and hence filling pressures are raised. Significant diastolic dysfunction results in raised LV end-diastolic pressure, mean left atrial (LA) pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, all referred to as LV filling pressures. Left and right heart catheterization has traditionally been used as the gold standard investigation for assessing these pressures. More recently, Doppler echocardiography has taken over such application because of its noninvasive nature and for being patient friendly. A number of indices are used to achieve accurate assessment of filling pressures including: LV pulsed-wave filling velocities (E/A ratio, E wave deceleration time), pulmonary venous flow (S wave and D wave), tissue Doppler imaging (E' wave and E/E' ratio) and LA volume index. LA longitudinal strain derived from speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is also sensitive in estimating intracavitary pressures. It is angle-independent, thus overcomes Doppler limitations and provides highly reproducible measures of LA deformation. This review examines the application of various Doppler echocardiographic techniques in assessing LV filling pressures, in particular the emerging role of STE in assessing LA pressures in various conditions, e.g., HF, arterial hypertension and atrial fibrillation.

  19. Single crowns versus conventional fillings for the restoration of root filled teeth.

    PubMed

    Fedorowicz, Zbys; Carter, Ben; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Chaves, Carolina de Andrade Lima; Nasser, Mona; Sequeira-Byron, Patrick

    2012-05-16

    Endodontic treatment, involves removal of the dental pulp and its replacement by a root canal filling. Restoration of root filled teeth can be challenging due to structural differences between vital and non-vital root filled teeth. Direct restoration involves placement of a restorative material e.g. amalgam or composite directly into the tooth. Indirect restorations consist of cast metal or ceramic (porcelain) crowns. The choice of restoration depends on the amount of remaining tooth which may influence long term survival and cost. The comparative in service clinical performance of crowns or conventional fillings used to restore root filled teeth is unclear. To assess the effects of restoration of endodontically treated teeth (with or without post and core) by crowns versus conventional filling materials. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE via OVID, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL via EBSCO, LILACS via BIREME and the reference lists of articles as well as ongoing trials registries.There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. Date of last search was 13 February 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised controlled trials in participants with permanent teeth which have undergone endodontic treatment. Single full coverage crowns compared with any type of filling materials for direct restoration, as well as indirect partial restorations (e.g. inlays and onlays). Comparisons considered the type of post and core used (cast or prefabricated post), if any. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. One trial judged to be at high risk of bias due to missing outcome data, was included. 117 participants with a root filled premolar tooth restored with a carbon fibre post, were randomised to either a full coverage metal-ceramic crown or direct adhesive composite restoration. At 3 years there was no reported difference between the non

  20. Experimental Study of Goaf Filling Materials Based on Red Mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Mangen; Gao, Xiaozhen; Guo, Taoming; Hu, Xinping

    2018-01-01

    Red mud as soild waste is difficult to treatment. Goaf filling materials can make a large use of red mud. By the experimental study,we find that the red mud, fly ash, ground slag and desulfida-tion gypsum can be used to make goaf filling materials based on the principle of alkali excitation and metalion stability.Through the control variable method, we find that the optimal proportion of goaf filling materials based on red mud is red mud 55%, fly ash 30%, cement 7.5%, fly ash 2.5%, desulfurization gypsum 5%, admixture 1%, and water solid ratio=1:1.2.The 28days final material strength was 2.0 MPa,which achives the technical specification requirements.Through the test of SEM, XRD and IR, it is indicated that the strength formation of goaf filling material based on red mud is from the unformed linking hydration products of amorphous alkali excitation system. With curing time from 3 to 7 days, the unformed linking hydration products grown a lot of vitreous hydration products. When hydration reaction basicly finished after 28 days, the hydration products have developed into a large volume of massive vitreous with an extremely dense structure. The Ca2SiO3 mineral phase is significantly reduced, which is participate in hydration reactions. The decrease of Ca2SiO3 indicates that the Si-O bond in the system have been ruptured and reorganized.

  1. Via fill properties of organic BARCs in dual-damascene application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Runhui

    2004-05-01

    With the introduction of copper as the interconnect metal, the Dual Damascene (DD) process has been integrated into integrated circuit (IC) device fabrication. The DD process utilizes organic bottom anti-reflective coatings (BARCs) not only to eliminate the thin film interference effects but also to act as via fill materials. However, three serious processing problems are encountered with organic BARCs. One is the formation of voids, which are trapped gas bubbles (evaporating solvent, byproduct of the curing reaction and air) inside the vias. Another problem is non-uniform BARC layer thickness in different via pitch areas. The third problem is the formation of fences during plasma etch. Fences are formed from materials that are removed by plasma and subsequently deposited on the sidewall surrounding the via openings during the etching process. Voids can cause variations in BARC top thickness, optical properties, via fill percentage, and plasma etch rate. This study focuses on the factors that influence the formation of voids and addresses the ways to eliminate them by optimizing the compositions of formulations and the processing conditions. Effects of molecular weight of the polymer, nature of the crosslinker, additives, and bake temperature were examined. The molecular weight of the polymer is one of the important factors that needs to be controlled carefully. Polymers with high molecular weights tend to trap voids inside the vias. Low molecular weight polymers have low Tg and low viscosity, which enables good thermal flow so that the BARC can fill vias easily without voids. Several kinds of crosslinkers were investigated in this study. When used with the same polymer system, formulations with different crosslinkers show varying results that affect planar fill, sidewall coverage, and, in some cases, voids. Additives also can change via fill behavior dramatically, and choosing the right additive will improve the via fill property. Processing conditions such as

  2. Antibiotic Prescription Fills for Acute Conjunctivitis among Enrollees in a Large United States Managed Care Network.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Nakul S; Shtein, Roni M; Blachley, Taylor S; Stein, Joshua D

    2017-08-01

    Antibiotics are seldom necessary to treat acute conjunctivitis. We assessed how frequently patients with newly diagnosed acute conjunctivitis fill prescriptions for topical antibiotics and factors associated with antibiotic prescription fills. Retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 340 372 enrollees in a large nationwide United States managed care network with newly diagnosed acute conjunctivitis, from 2001 through 2014. We identified all enrollees newly diagnosed with acute conjunctivitis, calculating the proportion filling 1 or more topical antibiotic prescription within 14 days of initial diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression assessed sociodemographic, medical, and other factors associated with antibiotic prescription fills for acute conjunctivitis. Geographic variation in prescription fills also was studied. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for filling an antibiotic prescription for acute conjunctivitis. Among 340 372 enrollees with acute conjunctivitis, 198 462 (58%) filled ≥1 topical antibiotic prescriptions; 38 774 filled prescriptions for antibiotic-corticosteroid combination products. Compared with whites, blacks (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.92) and Latinos (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.81-0.86) had lower odds of filling antibiotic prescriptions. More affluent and educated enrollees had higher odds of filling antibiotic prescriptions compared with those with lesser affluence and education (P < 0.01 for all). Compared with persons initially diagnosed with acute conjunctivitis by ophthalmologists, enrollees had considerably higher odds of antibiotic prescription fills if first diagnosed by an optometrist (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.21-1.31), urgent care physician (OR, 3.29; 95% CI, 3.17-3.41), internist (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.69-2.90), pediatrician (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 2.13-2.43), or family practitioner (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 2.37-2.55). Antibiotic prescription fills did not differ for persons with versus without risk factors for

  3. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  4. Intercomparison of methods for coincidence summing corrections in gamma-ray spectrometry--part II (volume sources).

    PubMed

    Lépy, M-C; Altzitzoglou, T; Anagnostakis, M J; Capogni, M; Ceccatelli, A; De Felice, P; Djurasevic, M; Dryak, P; Fazio, A; Ferreux, L; Giampaoli, A; Han, J B; Hurtado, S; Kandic, A; Kanisch, G; Karfopoulos, K L; Klemola, S; Kovar, P; Laubenstein, M; Lee, J H; Lee, J M; Lee, K B; Pierre, S; Carvalhal, G; Sima, O; Tao, Chau Van; Thanh, Tran Thien; Vidmar, T; Vukanac, I; Yang, M J

    2012-09-01

    The second part of an intercomparison of the coincidence summing correction methods is presented. This exercise concerned three volume sources, filled with liquid radioactive solution. The same experimental spectra, decay scheme and photon emission intensities were used by all the participants. The results were expressed as coincidence summing corrective factors for several energies of (152)Eu and (134)Cs, and different source-to-detector distances. They are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intraoperative assessment of intraocular pressure in vitrectomized air-filled and fluid-filled eyes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chan Hee; Choi, Kyung Seek; Rhee, Mi Ri; Lee, Sung Jin

    2013-11-01

    To ascertain the difference of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement between vitrectomized air-filled and fluid-filled eyes. Thirty-one eyes of 31 consecutive patients who underwent conventional vitrectomy and intraocular gas tamponade were assessed. After vitrectomy, IOP of the fluid-filled eyes was measured by Tono-Pen. Thereafter, fluid-air exchange was performed, and IOP of the air-filled eyes was measured again. The IOP within each fluid- and air-filled eye was varied by selecting settings on the vitrectomy system, from 10 to 50 mmHg with 5-mmHg increments. Postoperatively, IOP was assessed by both Tono-Pen and Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). Linear and nonlinear regression analyses were conducted between intraoperatively measured Tono-Pen readings and actual IOPs. Bland-Altman plot was used to assess the agreements between postoperatively measured Tono-Pen readings and GAT readings. The discrepancy between Tono-Pen readings and actual IOP in fluid-filled eyes was not significant, except for the profound high pressures over 45 mmHg. However, Tono-Pen readings in air-filled eyes were significantly lower than actual IOPs in all ranges, and Tono-Pen increasingly underestimates IOP at higher levels. Intraoperative Tono-Pen readings were correlated significantly with actual IOP and a quadratic equation evidenced the best fit (R(2) = 0.996). Postoperatively, difference of the measurements between Tono-Pen and GAT was not significant. Tono-Pen and GAT significantly underestimate actual IOP in air-filled eyes. It should be considered that actual IOP would be greater than the measured IOP in gas-filled eyes, even though the IOP is measured as normal. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Using remote sensing data to predict road fill areas and areas affected by fill erosion with planned forest road construction: a case study in Kastamonu Regional Forest Directorate (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Aricak, Burak

    2015-07-01

    Forest roads are essential for transport in managed forests, yet road construction causes environmental disturbance, both in the surface area the road covers and in erosion and downslope deposition of road fill material. The factors affecting the deposition distance of eroded road fill are the slope gradient and the density of plant cover. Thus, it is important to take these factors into consideration during road planning to minimize their disturbance. The aim of this study was to use remote sensing and field surveying to predict the locations that would be affected by downslope deposition of eroding road fill and to compile the data into a geographic information system (GIS) database. The construction of 99,500 m of forest roads is proposed for the Kastamonu Regional Forest Directorate in Turkey. Using GeoEye satellite images and a digital elevation model (DEM) for the region, the location and extent of downslope deposition of road fill were determined for the roads as planned. It was found that if the proposed roads were constructed by excavators, the fill material would cover 910,621 m(2) and the affected surface area would be 1,302,740 m(2). Application of the method used here can minimize the adverse effects of forest roads.

  7. Solution-processed small molecule:fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells: impedance spectroscopy deduced bulk and interfacial limits to fill-factors.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Antonio; Loser, Stephen; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà; Bruns, Carson J; Smith, Jeremy; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki; Stupp, Samuel I; Bisquert, Juan; Marks, Tobin J

    2013-10-21

    Using impedance spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the low fill factor (FF) typically observed in small molecule solar cells is due to hindered carrier transport through the active layer and hindered charge transfer through the anode interfacial layer (IFL). By carefully tuning the active layer thickness and anode IFL in BDT(TDPP)2 solar cells, the FF is increased from 33 to 55% and the PCE from 1.9 to 3.8%. These results underscore the importance of simultaneously optimizing active layer thickness and IFL in small molecule solar cells.

  8. CO2-filled vesicles in mid-ocean basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.G.; Batchelder, J.N.; Cunningham, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    Volatile-filled vesicles are present in minor amounts in all samples of mid-ocean basalt yet collected (and presumably erupted) down to depths of 4.8 km. When such vesicles are pierced in liquid under standard conditions, the volume expansion of the gas is 0.2 ?? 0.05 times the eruption pressure in bars or 20 ?? 5 times the eruption depth in km. Such expansion could be used as a measure of eruption depth. A variety of techniques: (1) vacuum crushing and gas chromatographic, freezing separation, and mass spectrographic analyses; (2) measurements of phase changes on a freezing microscope stage; (3) microscopic chemical and solubility observations; and (4) volume change measurements, all indicate that CO2 comprises more than 95% by volume of the vesicle gas in several submarine basalt samples from the Atlantic and Pacific. The CO2 held in vesicles is present in quantities about equal to or greater than that presumed to be dissolved in the glass (melt) and amounts to 400-900 ppm of the rock. The rigid temperature of the glass is 800-1000??C and increases for shallower samples. A sulfur gas was originally present in subordinate amounts in the vesicles, but has largely reacted with iron in the vesicle walls to produce sulfide spherules. ?? 1977.

  9. Fuzzy Regression Prediction and Application Based on Multi-Dimensional Factors of Freight Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Mengting; Li, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Based on the reality of the development of air cargo, the multi-dimensional fuzzy regression method is used to determine the influencing factors, and the three most important influencing factors of GDP, total fixed assets investment and regular flight route mileage are determined. The system’s viewpoints and analogy methods, the use of fuzzy numbers and multiple regression methods to predict the civil aviation cargo volume. In comparison with the 13th Five-Year Plan for China’s Civil Aviation Development (2016-2020), it is proved that this method can effectively improve the accuracy of forecasting and reduce the risk of forecasting. It is proved that this model predicts civil aviation freight volume of the feasibility, has a high practical significance and practical operation.

  10. Factors controlling volume errors through 2D gully erosion assessment: guidelines for optimal survey design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; Pérez, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of gully erosion volumes is essential for the quantification of soil losses derived from this relevant degradation process. Traditionally, 2D and 3D approaches has been applied for this purpose (Casalí et al., 2006). Although innovative 3D approaches have recently been proposed for gully volume quantification, a renewed interest can be found in literature regarding the useful information that cross-section analysis still provides in gully erosion research. Moreover, the application of methods based on 2D approaches can be the most cost-effective approach in many situations such as preliminary studies with low accuracy requirements or surveys under time or budget constraints. The main aim of this work is to examine the key factors controlling volume error variability in 2D gully assessment by means of a stochastic experiment involving a Monte Carlo analysis over synthetic gully profiles in order to 1) contribute to a better understanding of the drivers and magnitude of gully erosion 2D-surveys uncertainty and 2) provide guidelines for optimal survey designs. Owing to the stochastic properties of error generation in 2D volume assessment, a statistical approach was followed to generate a large and significant set of gully reach configurations to evaluate quantitatively the influence of the main factors controlling the uncertainty of the volume assessment. For this purpose, a simulation algorithm in Matlab® code was written, involving the following stages: - Generation of synthetic gully area profiles with different degrees of complexity (characterized by the cross-section variability) - Simulation of field measurements characterised by a survey intensity and the precision of the measurement method - Quantification of the volume error uncertainty as a function of the key factors In this communication we will present the relationships between volume error and the studied factors and propose guidelines for 2D field surveys based on the minimal survey

  11. A pilot study on bladder wall thickness at different filling stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Liu, Yang; Li, Baojuan; Zhang, Guopeng; Liang, Zhengrong; Lu, Hongbing

    2015-03-01

    The ever-growing death rate and the high recurrence of bladder cancer make the early detection and appropriate followup procedure of bladder cancer attract more attention. Compare to optical cystoscopy, image-based studies have revealed its potentials in non-invasive observations of the abnormities of bladder recently, in which MR imaging turns out to be a better choice for bladder evaluation due to its non-ionizing and high contrast between urine and wall tissue. Recent studies indicate that bladder wall thickness tends to be a good indicator for detecting bladder wall abnormalities. However, it is difficult to quantitatively compare wall thickness of the same subject at different filling stages or among different subjects. In order to explore thickness variations at different bladder filling stages, in this study, we preliminarily investigate the relationship between bladder wall thickness and bladder volume based on a MRI database composed of 40 datasets acquired from 10 subjects at different filling stages, using a pipeline for thickness measurement and analysis proposed in our previous work. The Student's t-test indicated that there was no significant different on wall thickness between the male group and the female group. The Pearson correlation analysis result indicated that negative correlation with a correlation coefficient of -0.8517 existed between the wall thickness and bladder volume, and the correlation was significant(p <0.01). The corresponding linear regression equation was then estimated by the unary linear regression. Compared to the absolute value of wall thickness, the z-score of wall thickness would be more appropriate to reflect the thickness variations. For possible abnormality detection of a bladder based on wall thickness, the intra-subject and inter-subject thickness variation should be considered.

  12. Increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII and longer plasma-derived factor VII half-life may explain their long lasting prophylactic effect.

    PubMed

    Mathijssen, Natascha C J; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Holme, Pal Andre; van Kraaij, Marian G J; Laros-van Gorkom, Britta A P; Peyvandi, Flora; van Heerde, Waander L

    2013-08-01

    Prophylaxis with plasma-derived or recombinant activated factor VII is beneficial in severe factor VII deficiency. To understand why prophylactic treatment with both products is efficacious, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study. Ten factor VII deficient patients were treated with either recombinant activated (20 μg/kg) or plasma-derived (25 IU/kg) factor VII in a cross-over design. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed through activated factor VII activity, factor VII clotting activity, and factor VII antigen levels on depicted time points. Factor VII activity half-lifes, determined by non-compartmental and one-compartmental analysis (results in brackets), were shorter for recombinant activated (1.4h; 0.7h) than for plasma-derived factor VII (6.8h; 3.2h); both recombinant activated (5.1h; 2.1h and plasma-derived factor VII (5.8h; 3.2h) resulted in longer half-lives of factor VII antigen. Activated factor VII half-lives (based on activated factor VII activity levels) were significantly higher compared to factor VII clotting activity (1.6h; 0.9h). Volumes of distribution were significantly higher for activated factor VII (236 ml/kg; 175 ml/kg, measured by activated factor VII) as compared to plasma-derived factor VII (206 ml/kg; 64 ml/kg, measured by factor FVII activity), suggesting a plasma- and extracellular fluid distribution for recombinant activated factor VII. Recombinant activated factor VII showed significantly shorter half-lifes than plasma-derived factor VII. Volumes of distribution were significantly higher for treatment with recombinant activated factor VII. The longer half-life for plasma-derived factor VII, compared to recombinant activated factor VII, and the increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII, compared to plasma-derived factor VII may further elucidate the beneficial effect of prophylactic treatment of both products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors Affecting Canagliflozin-Induced Transient Urine Volume Increase in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Takano, Kazuhiko; Iijima, Hiroaki; Kubo, Hajime; Maruyama, Nobuko; Hashimoto, Toshio; Arakawa, Kenji; Togo, Masanori; Inagaki, Nobuya; Kaku, Kohei

    2017-02-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exhibit diuretic activity, which is a possible mechanism underlying the cardiovascular benefit of these inhibitors. However, the osmotic diuresis-induced increase in urine volume, and the risk of dehydration have been of concern with SGLT2 inhibitor treatment. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin-induced diuresis in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Thirteen T2DM patients received a daily oral dose of 100 mg canagliflozin before breakfast for 6 days. Blood and urine samples were collected at predetermined time points. The primary endpoint was evaluation of correlations between changes from baseline in urine volume and factors that are known to affect urine volume and between actual urine volume and these factors. Canagliflozin transiently increased urine volume and urinary sodium excretion on Day 1 with a return to baseline levels thereafter. Canagliflozin administration increased urinary glucose excretion, which was sustained during repeated-dose administration. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels decreased, while plasma renin activity increased. On Day 1 of treatment, changes in sodium and potassium excretion were closely correlated with changes in urine output. A post hoc multiple regression analysis showed changes in sodium excretion and water intake as factors that affected urine volume change at Day 1. Furthermore, relative to that at baseline, canagliflozin decreased blood glucose throughout the day and increased plasma total GLP-1 after breakfast. Canagliflozin induced transient sodium excretion and did not induce water intake at Day 1; hence, natriuresis rather than glucose-induced osmotic diuresis may be a major factor involved in the canagliflozin-induced transient increase in urine output. In addition, canagliflozin decreased plasma ANP and NT-proBNP levels and

  14. Bladder volume at onset of vesicoureteral reflux is an independent risk factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Siobhan E; Arlen, Angela M; Storm, Douglas W; Kieran, Kathleen; Cooper, Christopher S

    2015-04-01

    Improved identification of children with vesicoureteral reflux at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infection may impact management decisions. We hypothesized that reflux occurring earlier during bladder filling increases the duration of exposure of the kidneys to bacteria, and, therefore, increases the risk of pyelonephritis. Children with vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram data were identified. Bladder volume at onset of reflux was normalized for age. Demographics, reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction and breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections were assessed. Median followup was 24 months (IQR 12 to 52). A total of 208 girls and 47 boys were analyzed with a mean ± SD age at diagnosis of 3.1 ± 2.6 years. On univariate analysis history of febrile urinary tract infection (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.33-2.85, p = 0.01), dilating vesicoureteral reflux (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.05-2.42, p = 0.03) and bladder-bowel dysfunction (HR 1.66, 95% CI 0.99-2.75, p = 0.05) were associated with an increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection. Median bladder volume at onset of reflux in children with breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection was significantly less (33.1%) than in those without infection (49.5%, p = 0.003). Reflux onset at 35% predicted bladder capacity or less was associated with a significantly increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection on multivariate analysis (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.05-2.38, p = 0.03). Children with early filling vesicoureteral reflux are at increased risk for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection independent of reflux grade. Bladder volume at onset of reflux should be recorded during cystograms since it provides additional prognostic information about the risk of pyelonephritis and resolution, and may assist with counseling and clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  15. Deep inductively coupled plasma etching of ELO-GaN grown with high fill factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haiyong; Lee, Jaesoong; Ni, Xianfeng; Leach, Jacob; Özgür, Ümit; Morkoç, Hadis

    2011-02-01

    The epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) gallium nitride (GaN) was grown with high fill factor using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of ELO-GaN based on Cl2/Ar/SiCl4 gas mixture was performed. Surface properties of ELO-GaN subjected to ICP etching have been investigated and optimized etching condition in ELO-GaN with ICP etching is presented. Radiofrequency (RF) power and the flow rate of Cl2 gas were modified during the experiments. The window region, wing region and the edge region of ELO-GaN pattern present different etching characteristics. Different etching conditions were studied to get the minimized plasma-induced damage, relatively high etching rates, and excellent surface profiles. Etch depths of the etched ELO-GaN with smooth surface up to about 19 μm were achieved. The most suitable three-step etching condition is discussed with the assessment based on the morphology observation of the etched surface of ELO-GaN patterns.

  16. [Continuous registration of the filling volume of the human urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Preussner, P R

    1991-11-01

    A sensing system for continuous recording of bladder volume is described. The system is intended for use in particular in patients with paraplegia or bladder plastique. Owing to the very simple measuring procedure employed the implantable components can be designed for very low power consumption. Also, there is no need for an additional data transfer from inside the body to the exterior, because measurement and telemetry are physically the same procedures.

  17. Enhanced sensitivity to near-infrared with high fill factor in small molecular organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyun-Sub; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Ji Whan; Kim, Sei-Yong; Jeong, Won-Ik; Kim, Tae-Min; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2012-09-01

    High efficiency near-infrared (NIR) absorbing solar cells based on lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) are reported using copper iodide (CuI) as a templating layer to control the crystal structure of PbPc. Devices with CuI inserted between the ITO and PbPc layers exhibit a two times enhancement of the JSC compared to the case in the absence of the CuI layer. This is due to the increase of crystallinity in the molecules grown on the CuI templating layer, which is investigated via an x-ray diffraction study. Moreover, fill factor is also enhanced to 0.63 from 0.57 due to low series resistance although the additional CuI layer is inserted between the ITO and the PbPc layer. As a result, the corrected power conversion efficiency of 2.5% was obtained, which is the highest one reported up to now among the PbPc based solar cells.

  18. Optimal bladder filling during high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer: a dosimetric study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Saurabha; Majumder, Dipanjan; Adurkar, Pranjal; Swamidas, Jamema; Engineer, Reena; Chopra, Supriya; Shrivastava, Shyamkishore

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to compare 3D dose volume histogram (DVH) parameters of bladder and other organs at risk with different bladder filling protocol during high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in cervical cancer, and to find optimized bladder volume. Material and methods This dosimetric study was completed with 21 patients who underwent HDR-ICBT with computed tomography/magnetic resonance compatible applicator as a routine treatment. Computed tomography planning was done for each patient with bladder emptied (series 1), after 50 ml (series 2), and 100 ml (series 3) bladder filling with a saline infusion through the bladder catheter. Contouring was done on the Eclipse Planning System. 7 Gy to point A was prescribed with the standard loading patterns. Various 3D DVH parameters including 0.1 cc, 1 cc, 2 cc doses and mean doses to the OAR’s were noted. Paired t-test was performed. Results The mean (± SD) bladder volume was 64.5 (± 25) cc, 116.2 (± 28) cc, and 172.9 (± 29) cc, for series 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The 0.1 cm3,1 cm3, 2 cm3 mean bladder doses for series 1, series 2, and series 3 were 9.28 ± 2.27 Gy, 7.38 ± 1.72 Gy, 6.58 ± 1.58 Gy; 9.39 ± 2.28 Gy, 7.85 ± 1.85 Gy, 7.05 ± 1.59 Gy, and 10.09 ± 2.46 Gy, 8.33 ± 1.75 Gy, 7.6 ± 1.55 Gy, respectively. However, there was a trend towards higher bladder doses in series 3. Similarly, for small bowel dose 0.1 cm3, 1 cm3, and 2 cm3 in series 1, 2, and 3 were 5.44 ± 2.2 Gy, 4.41 ± 1.84 Gy, 4 ± 1.69 Gy; 4.57 ± 2.89 Gy, 3.78 ± 2.21 Gy, 3.35 ± 2.02 Gy, and 4.09 ± 2.38 Gy, 3.26 ± 1.8 Gy, 3.05 ± 1.58 Gy. Significant increase in small bowel dose in empty bladder (series 1) compared to full bladder (series 3) (p = 0.03) was noted. However, the rectal and sigmoid doses were not significantly affected with either series. Conclusions Bladder filling protocol with 50 ml and 100 ml was well tolerated and achieved a reasonably reproducible bladder volume during cervical

  19. Experimental study on energy absorption of foam filled kraft paper honeycomb subjected to quasi-static uniform compression loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Kadir, N.; Aminanda, Y.; Ibrahim, M. S.; Mokhtar, H.

    2016-10-01

    A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of factor and to obtain the optimum configuration of Kraft paper honeycomb. The factors considered in this study include density of paper, thickness of paper and cell size of honeycomb. Based on three level factorial design, two-factor interaction model (2FI) was developed to correlate the factors with specific energy absorption and specific compression strength. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the most influential factor on responses and the optimum configuration was identified. After that, Kraft paper honeycomb with optimum configuration is used to fabricate foam-filled paper honeycomb with five different densities of polyurethane foam as filler (31.8, 32.7, 44.5, 45.7, 52 kg/m3). The foam-filled paper honeycomb is subjected to quasi-static compression loading. Failure mechanism of the foam-filled honeycomb was identified, analyzed and compared with the unfilled paper honeycomb. The peak force and energy absorption capability of foam-filled paper honeycomb are increased up to 32% and 30%, respectively, compared to the summation of individual components.

  20. Online blind source separation using incremental nonnegative matrix factorization with volume constraint.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoxu; Yang, Zuyuan; Xie, Shengli; Yang, Jun-Mei

    2011-04-01

    Online blind source separation (BSS) is proposed to overcome the high computational cost problem, which limits the practical applications of traditional batch BSS algorithms. However, the existing online BSS methods are mainly used to separate independent or uncorrelated sources. Recently, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) shows great potential to separate the correlative sources, where some constraints are often imposed to overcome the non-uniqueness of the factorization. In this paper, an incremental NMF with volume constraint is derived and utilized for solving online BSS. The volume constraint to the mixing matrix enhances the identifiability of the sources, while the incremental learning mode reduces the computational cost. The proposed method takes advantage of the natural gradient based multiplication updating rule, and it performs especially well in the recovery of dependent sources. Simulations in BSS for dual-energy X-ray images, online encrypted speech signals, and high correlative face images show the validity of the proposed method.

  1. Filling a Conical Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  2. Intermittent Surface Water Connectivity: Fill and Spill Vs. Fill and Merge Dynamics.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intermittent surface connectivity can influence aquatic systems, since chemical and biotic movements are often associated with water flow. Although often referred to as fill and spill, wetlands also fill and merge. We examined the effects of these connection types on water level...

  3. Intermittent Surface Water Connectivity: Fill and Spill vs. Fill and Merge Dynamics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intermittent surface connectivity can influence aquatic systems, since chemical and biotic movements are often associated with water flow. Although often referred to as fill and spill, wetlands also fill and merge. We examined the effects of these connection types on water level...

  4. Single crowns versus conventional fillings for the restoration of root-filled teeth.

    PubMed

    Sequeira-Byron, Patrick; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Carter, Ben; Nasser, Mona; Alrowaili, Eman F

    2015-09-25

    Endodontic treatment involves removal of the dental pulp and its replacement by a root canal filling. Restoration of root filled teeth can be challenging due to structural differences between vital and non-vital root-filled teeth. Direct restoration involves placement of a restorative material e.g. amalgam or composite, directly into the tooth. Indirect restorations consist of cast metal or ceramic (porcelain) crowns. The choice of restoration depends on the amount of remaining tooth, and may influence durability and cost. The decision to use a post and core in addition to the crown is clinician driven. The comparative clinical performance of crowns or conventional fillings used to restore root-filled teeth is unknown. This review updates the original, which was published in 2012. To assess the effects of restoration of endodontically treated teeth (with or without post and core) by crowns versus conventional filling materials. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE via OVID, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL via EBSCO, LILACS via BIREME. We also searched the reference lists of articles and ongoing trials registries.There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. The search is up-to-date as of 26 March 2015. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised controlled trials in participants with permanent teeth that have undergone endodontic treatment. Single full coverage crowns compared with any type of filling materials for direct restoration or indirect partial restorations (e.g. inlays and onlays). Comparisons considered the type of post and core used (cast or prefabricated post), if any. Two review authors independently extracted data from the included trial and assessed its risk of bias. We carried out data analysis using the 'treatment as allocated' patient population, expressing estimates of intervention effect for dichotomous data as risk ratios, with 95% confidence

  5. Orbitofrontal Cortex Volume and Effortful Control as Prospective Risk Factors for Substance Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Ali; Allen, Nicholas B; Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian; Yücel, Murat; Lubman, Dan I

    2017-01-01

    Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) dysfunction has been proposed to increase the risk for developing a substance use disorder (SUD) during adolescence. In this study, we suggest that a reduction in OFC volumes might underlie temperament-based risk factors for SUD, and examined whether smaller OFC volumes during early adolescence could predict later development of SUD. Adolescents (n = 107; 58 male, 49 female) underwent structural MRI and completed a self-report measure of temperamental effortful control at age 12. At 3 subsequent assessments (aged 15, 16, and 18) SUD was assessed via a semi-structured clinical interview. By the third assessment, 24 participants (22.4%) had received a lifetime diagnosis of SUD. Smaller volumes of the left OFC, right OFC, and left medial subregions predicted lifetime history of SUD by age 18. Volumes of the left OFC and left lateral subregions were positively correlated with effortful control, and left OFC volumes mediated the relationship between effortful control and SUD. Smaller volumes of the OFC and low effortful control during adolescence appear to be associated phenotypes that increase the risk of subsequent SUD. Further studies examining the temporal sequence of these risk factors are needed to fully understand this relationship. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Wave energy devices with compressible volumes.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, Adi; Greaves, Deborah; Chaplin, John

    2014-12-08

    We present an analysis of wave energy devices with air-filled compressible submerged volumes, where variability of volume is achieved by means of a horizontal surface free to move up and down relative to the body. An analysis of bodies without power take-off (PTO) systems is first presented to demonstrate the positive effects a compressible volume could have on the body response. Subsequently, two compressible device variations are analysed. In the first variation, the compressible volume is connected to a fixed volume via an air turbine for PTO. In the second variation, a water column separates the compressible volume from another volume, which is fitted with an air turbine open to the atmosphere. Both floating and bottom-fixed, axisymmetric, configurations are considered, and linear analysis is employed throughout. Advantages and disadvantages of each device are examined in detail. Some configurations with displaced volumes less than 2000 m 3 and with constant turbine coefficients are shown to be capable of achieving 80% of the theoretical maximum absorbed power over a wave period range of about 4 s.

  7. Wave energy devices with compressible volumes

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Adi; Greaves, Deborah; Chaplin, John

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of wave energy devices with air-filled compressible submerged volumes, where variability of volume is achieved by means of a horizontal surface free to move up and down relative to the body. An analysis of bodies without power take-off (PTO) systems is first presented to demonstrate the positive effects a compressible volume could have on the body response. Subsequently, two compressible device variations are analysed. In the first variation, the compressible volume is connected to a fixed volume via an air turbine for PTO. In the second variation, a water column separates the compressible volume from another volume, which is fitted with an air turbine open to the atmosphere. Both floating and bottom-fixed, axisymmetric, configurations are considered, and linear analysis is employed throughout. Advantages and disadvantages of each device are examined in detail. Some configurations with displaced volumes less than 2000 m3 and with constant turbine coefficients are shown to be capable of achieving 80% of the theoretical maximum absorbed power over a wave period range of about 4 s. PMID:25484609

  8. High Fill Factors of Si Solar Cells Achieved by Using an Inverse Connection Between MOS and PN Junctions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang-Xing; Zhou, Zhi-Quan; Zhang, Tian-Ning; Chen, Xin; Lu, Ming

    2016-12-01

    Fill factors (FFs) of ~0.87 have been obtained for crystalline Si (c-Si) solar cells based on Ag front contacts after rapid thermal annealing. The usual single PN junction model fails to explain the high FF result. A metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) junction at the emitter is found to be inversely connected to the PN one, and when its barrier height/e is close to the open-circuit voltage of the solar cell, very high FF is obtainable. In this work, although the open-circuit voltage (<580 mV) is not high here, the efficiency of c-Si solar cell still reaches the state-of-the-art value (>20 %) due to the high FF achieved.

  9. Spheroidal and conical shapes of ferrofluid-filled capsules in magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischnewski, Christian; Kierfeld, Jan

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the deformation of soft spherical elastic capsules filled with a ferrofluid in external uniform magnetic fields at fixed volume by a combination of numerical and analytical approaches. We develop a numerical iterative solution strategy based on nonlinear elastic shape equations to calculate the stretched capsule shape numerically and a coupled finite element and boundary element method to solve the corresponding magnetostatic problem and employ analytical linear response theory, approximative energy minimization, and slender-body theory. The observed deformation behavior is qualitatively similar to the deformation of ferrofluid droplets in uniform magnetic fields. Homogeneous magnetic fields elongate the capsule and a discontinuous shape transition from a spheroidal shape to a conical shape takes place at a critical field strength. We investigate how capsule elasticity modifies this hysteretic shape transition. We show that conical capsule shapes are possible but involve diverging stretch factors at the tips, which gives rise to rupture for real capsule materials. In a slender-body approximation we find that the critical susceptibility above which conical shapes occur for ferrofluid capsules is the same as for droplets. At small fields capsules remain spheroidal and we characterize the deformation of spheroidal capsules both analytically and numerically. Finally, we determine whether wrinkling of a spheroidal capsule occurs during elongation in a magnetic field and how it modifies the stretching behavior. We find the nontrivial dependence between the extent of the wrinkled region and capsule elongation. Our results can be helpful in quantitatively determining capsule or ferrofluid material properties from magnetic deformation experiments. All results also apply to elastic capsules filled with a dielectric liquid in an external uniform electric field.

  10. Recombination in liquid filled ionisation chambers with multiple charge carrier species: Theoretical and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, P.; González-Castaño, D. M.; Gómez, F.; Pardo-Montero, J.

    2014-10-01

    Liquid-filled ionisation chambers (LICs) are used in radiotherapy for dosimetry and quality assurance. Volume recombination can be quite important in LICs for moderate dose rates, causing non-linearities in the dose rate response of these detectors, and needs to be corrected for. This effect is usually described with Greening and Boag models for continuous and pulsed radiation respectively. Such models assume that the charge is carried by two different species, positive and negative ions, each of those species with a given mobility. However, LICs operating in non-ultrapure mode can contain different types of electronegative impurities with different mobilities, thus increasing the number of different charge carriers. If this is the case, Greening and Boag models can be no longer valid and need to be reformulated. In this work we present a theoretical and numerical study of volume recombination in parallel-plate LICs with multiple charge carrier species, extending Boag and Greening models. Results from a recent publication that reported three different mobilities in an isooctane-filled LIC have been used to study the effect of extra carrier species on recombination. We have found that in pulsed beams the inclusion of extra mobilities does not affect volume recombination much, a behaviour that was expected because Boag formula for charge collection efficiency does not depend on the mobilities of the charge carriers if the Debye relationship between mobilities and recombination constant holds. This is not the case in continuous radiation, where the presence of extra charge carrier species significantly affects the amount of volume recombination.

  11. Biologics formulation factors affecting metal leachables from stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuxia; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K

    2011-03-01

    An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life. © 2011 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  12. The Young's Modulus, Fracture Stress, and Fracture Strain of Gellan Hydrogels Filled with Whey Protein Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Lam, Cherry Wing Yu; Ikeda, Shinya

    2017-05-01

    Texture modifying abilities of whey protein microparticles are expected to be dependent on pH during heat-induced aggregation of whey protein in the microparticulation process. Therefore, whey protein microparticles were prepared at either pH 5.5 or 6.8 and their effects on small and large deformation properties of gellan gels containing whey protein microparticles as fillers were investigated. The majority of whey protein microparticles had diameters around 2 μm. Atomic force microscopy images showed that whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 6.8 partially collapsed and flatted by air-drying, while those prepared at pH 5.5 did not. The Young's modulus of filled gels adjusted to pH 5.5 decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles, while those of filled gels adjusted to pH 6.8 increased with increasing volume fraction of filler particles. These results suggest that filler particles were weakly bonded to gel matrices at pH 5.5 but strongly at pH 6.8. Whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 showed more enhanced increases in the Young's modulus than those prepared at pH 6.8 at volume fractions between 0.2 and 0.4, indicating that microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 were mechanically stronger. The fracture stress of filled gels showed trends somewhat similar to those of the Young's modulus, while their fracture strains decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles in all examined conditions, indicating that the primary effect of these filler particles was to enhance the brittleness of filled gels. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Evaluation of the effects of insufficient blood volume samples on the performance of blood glucose self-test meters.

    PubMed

    Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B

    2013-11-01

    Accuracy of blood glucose readings is (among other things) dependent on the test strip being completely filled with sufficient sample volume. The devices are supposed to display an error message in case of incomplete filling. This laboratory study was performed to test the performance of 31 commercially available devices in case of incomplete strip filling. Samples with two different glucose levels (60-90 and 300-350 mg/dl) were used to generate three different sample volumes: 0.20 µl (too low volume for any device), 0.32 µl (borderline volume), and 1.20 µl (low but supposedly sufficient volume for all devices). After a point-of-care capillary reference measurement (StatStrip, NovaBiomedical), the meter strip was filled (6x) with the respective volume, and the response of the meters (two devices) was documented (72 determinations/meter type). Correct response was defined as either an error message indicating incomplete filling or a correct reading (±20% compared with reference reading). Only five meters showed 100% correct responses [BGStar and iBGStar (both Sanofi), ACCU-CHEK Compact+ and ACCU-CHEK Mobile (both Roche Diagnostics), OneTouch Verio (LifeScan)]. The majority of the meters (17) had up to 10% incorrect reactions [predominantly incorrect readings with sufficient volume; Precision Xceed and Xtra, FreeStyle Lite, and Freedom Lite (all Abbott); GlucoCard+ and GlucoMen GM (both Menarini); Contour, Contour USB, and Breeze2 (all Bayer); OneTouch Ultra Easy, Ultra 2, and Ultra Smart (all LifeScan); Wellion Dialog and Premium (both MedTrust); FineTouch (Terumo); ACCU-CHEK Aviva (Roche); and GlucoTalk (Axis-Shield)]. Ten percent to 20% incorrect reactions were seen with OneTouch Vita (LifeScan), ACCU-CHEK Aviva Nano (Roche), OmniTest+ (BBraun), and AlphaChek+ (Berger Med). More than 20% incorrect reactions were obtained with Pura (Ypsomed), GlucoCard Meter and GlucoMen LX (both Menarini), Elite (Bayer), and MediTouch (Medisana). In summary, partial and

  14. Inverted polymer solar cells with enhanced fill factor by inserting the potassium stearate interfacial modification layer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Li, Jiangsheng; Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, No. 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo 315211; Jiu, Tonggang, E-mail: jiutonggang@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: fangjf@nimte.ac.cn

    2016-05-02

    A thin potassium stearate (KSt) film combined with an optimized ZnO film was introduced to improve the fill factor (FF) of highly efficient inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). Atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements were used to show that the introduction of KSt did not change the morphology of interlayer. On the contrary, it is beneficial for the spread of the active layer on the interlayer. The origin of enhanced FF was systematically studied by the ideal current-voltage model for a single heterojunction solar cell and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. On the basis of the data analysis, the reduced chargemore » recombination loss was responsible for this improved FF. At last, when KSt was replaced by sodium stearate (NaSt), the similar experiment phenomenon was observed. This indicates that inserting a metallic stearate modified layer is a promising strategy to enhance inverted PSCs performance.« less

  15. Assessment of Cultivation Factors that Affect Biomass and Geraniol Production in Transgenic Tobacco Cell Suspension Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Schmitz, Christian; Grömping, Ulrike; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN) cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ∼5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources. PMID:25117009

  16. Assessment of cultivation factors that affect biomass and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Schmitz, Christian; Grömping, Ulrike; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN) cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ∼ 5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources.

  17. Role of atrial natriuretic peptide in systemic responses to acute isotonic volume expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Yancy, Clyde W.; Buckey, Jay C.; Lane, Lynda D.; Hargens, Alan R.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed that a temporal relationship exists between increases in cardiac filling pressure and plasma artrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration and also between ANP elevation and vasodilation, fluid movement from plasma to interstitium, and increased urine volume (UV). To test the hypothesis, 30 ml/kg isotonic saline were infused in supine male subjects over 24 min and responses were monitored for 3 h postinfusion. Results show that at end infusion, mean arterial pressure (RAP), heart rate and plasma volume exhibited peak increases of 146, 23, and 27 percent, respectively. Mean plasma ANP and UV peaked (45 and 390 percent, respectively) at 30 min postinfusion. Most cardiovascular variables had returned toward control levels by 1 h postinfusion, and net reabsorption of extravascular fluid ensued. It is concluded that since ANP was not significantly increased until 30 min postinfusion, factors other than ANP initiate responses to intravascular fluid loading. These factors include increased vascular pressures, baroreceptor-mediated vasolidation, and hemodilution of plasma proteins. ANP is suggested to mediate, in part, the renal response to saline infusion.

  18. Statistical evaluation of metal fill widths for emulated metal fill in parasitic extraction methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J-Me, Teh; Noh, Norlaili Mohd.; Aziz, Zalina Abdul

    2015-05-01

    In the chip industry today, the key goal of a chip development organization is to develop and market chips within a short time frame to gain foothold on market share. This paper proposes a design flow around the area of parasitic extraction to improve the design cycle time. The proposed design flow utilizes the usage of metal fill emulation as opposed to the current flow which performs metal fill insertion directly. By replacing metal fill structures with an emulation methodology in earlier iterations of the design flow, this is targeted to help reduce runtime in fill insertion stage. Statistical design of experiments methodology utilizing the randomized complete block design was used to select an appropriate emulated metal fill width to improve emulation accuracy. The experiment was conducted on test cases of different sizes, ranging from 1000 gates to 21000 gates. The metal width was varied from 1 x minimum metal width to 6 x minimum metal width. Two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test were used to analyze the interconnect net capacitance values of the different test cases. This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis for the 45 nm process technology. The recommended emulated metal fill width was found to be 4 x the minimum metal width.

  19. Construction of a test embankment using a sand-tire shred mixture as fill material.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Siddiki, Nayyar Zia; Kim, Bumjoo

    2006-01-01

    Use of tire shreds in construction projects, such as highway embankments, is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires. However, in the last decade there was a decline in the use of pure tire shreds as fill materials in embankment construction, as they are susceptible to fire hazards due to the development of exothermic reactions. Tire shred-sand mixtures, on the other hand, were found to be effective in inhibiting exothermic reactions. When compared with pure tire shreds, tire shred-sand mixtures are less compressible and have higher shear strength. However, the literature contains limited information on the use of tire shred-soil mixtures as a fill material. The objectives of this paper are to discuss and evaluate the feasibility of using tire shred-sand mixtures as a fill material in embankment construction. A test embankment constructed using a 50/50 mixture, by volume, of tire shreds and sand was instrumented and monitored to: (a) determine total and differential settlements; (b) evaluate the environmental impact of the embankment construction on the groundwater quality due to leaching of fill material; and (c) study the temperature variation inside the embankment. The findings in this research indicate that mixtures of tire shreds and sand are viable materials for embankment construction.

  20. A hybrid six-dimensional muon cooling channel using gas filled rf cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Stratakis, D.

    2017-09-25

    We describe an alternative cooling approach to prevent rf breakdown in magnetic fields that simultaneously reduces all six phase-space dimensions of a muon beam. In this process, cooling is accomplished by reducing the beam momentum through ionization energy loss in discrete absorbers and replenishing the momentum loss only in the longitudinal direction through gas-filled rf cavities. The advantage of gas filled cavities is that they can run at high gradients in magnetic fields without breakdown. Using this approach, we show that our channel can achieve a decrease of the 6-dimensional phase-space volume by several orders of magnitude. With the aidmore » of numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the transmission of our proposed channel is comparable to that of an equivalent channel with vacuum rf cavities. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of the channel performance to the choice of gas and operating pressure.« less

  1. A hybrid six-dimensional muon cooling channel using gas filled rf cavities

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stratakis, D.

    We describe an alternative cooling approach to prevent rf breakdown in magnetic fields that simultaneously reduces all six phase-space dimensions of a muon beam. In this process, cooling is accomplished by reducing the beam momentum through ionization energy loss in discrete absorbers and replenishing the momentum loss only in the longitudinal direction through gas-filled rf cavities. The advantage of gas filled cavities is that they can run at high gradients in magnetic fields without breakdown. Using this approach, we show that our channel can achieve a decrease of the 6-dimensional phase-space volume by several orders of magnitude. With the aidmore » of numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the transmission of our proposed channel is comparable to that of an equivalent channel with vacuum rf cavities. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of the channel performance to the choice of gas and operating pressure.« less

  2. Evaluation of the BD BACTEC FX blood volume monitoring system as a continuous quality improvement measure.

    PubMed

    Coorevits, L; Van den Abeele, A-M

    2015-07-01

    The yield of blood cultures is proportional to the volume of blood cultured. We evaluated an automatic blood volume monitoring system, recently developed by Becton Dickinson within its BACTEC EpiCenter module, that calculates mean volumes of negative aerobic bottles and generates boxplots and histograms. First, we evaluated the filling degree of 339 aerobic glass blood cultures by calculating the weight-based volume for each bottle. A substantial amount of the bottles (48.3%) were inadequately filled. Evaluation of the accuracy of the monitoring system showed a mean bias of -1.4 mL (-15.4%). Additional evaluation, using the amended software on 287 aerobic blood culture bottles, resulted in an acceptable mean deviation of -0.3 mL (-3.3%). The new software version was also tested on 200 of the recently introduced plastic bottles, which will replace the glass bottles in the near future, showing a mean deviation of +2.8 mL (+26.7%). In conclusion, the mean calculated volumes can be used for the training of a single phlebotomist. However, filling problems appear to be masked when using them for phlebotomist groups or on wards. Here, visual interpretation of boxplots and histograms can serve as a useful tool to observe the spread of the filling degrees and to develop a continuous improvement program. Re-adjustment of the software has proven to be necessary for use with plastic bottles. Due to our findings, BD has developed further adjustments to the software for validated use with plastic bottles, which will be released soon.

  3. Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, “Southwest”) since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality.The synthesis consists of three major components:1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report).2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants.3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination.Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in

  4. Filling the blanks in temporal intervals: the type of filling influences perceived duration and discrimination performance

    PubMed Central

    Horr, Ninja K.; Di Luca, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    In this work we investigate how judgments of perceived duration are influenced by the properties of the signals that define the intervals. Participants compared two auditory intervals that could be any combination of the following four types: intervals filled with continuous tones (filled intervals), intervals filled with regularly-timed short tones (isochronous intervals), intervals filled with irregularly-timed short tones (anisochronous intervals), and intervals demarcated by two short tones (empty intervals). Results indicate that the type of intervals to be compared affects discrimination performance and induces distortions in perceived duration. In particular, we find that duration judgments are most precise when comparing two isochronous and two continuous intervals, while the comparison of two anisochronous intervals leads to the worst performance. Moreover, we determined that the magnitude of the distortions in perceived duration (an effect akin to the filled duration illusion) is higher for tone sequences (no matter whether isochronous or anisochronous) than for continuous tones. Further analysis of how duration distortions depend on the type of filling suggests that distortions are not only due to the perceived duration of the two individual intervals, but they may also be due to the comparison of two different filling types. PMID:25717310

  5. Oil Formation Volume Factor Determination Through a Fused Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, Amin

    2016-12-01

    Volume change of oil between reservoir condition and standard surface condition is called oil formation volume factor (FVF), which is very time, cost and labor intensive to determine. This study proposes an accurate, rapid and cost-effective approach for determining FVF from reservoir temperature, dissolved gas oil ratio, and specific gravity of both oil and dissolved gas. Firstly, structural risk minimization (SRM) principle of support vector regression (SVR) was employed to construct a robust model for estimating FVF from the aforementioned inputs. Subsequently, an alternating conditional expectation (ACE) was used for approximating optimal transformations of input/output data to a higher correlated data and consequently developing a sophisticated model between transformed data. Eventually, a committee machine with SVR and ACE was constructed through the use of hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search (GA-PS). Committee machine integrates ACE and SVR models in an optimal linear combination such that makes benefit of both methods. A group of 342 data points was used for model development and a group of 219 data points was used for blind testing the constructed model. Results indicated that the committee machine performed better than individual models.

  6. Crack sealing and filling: best practices.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the current state of practice for crack sealing/filling. In addition, the INDOT crack sealing/filling practice was : experimentally evaluated for the effectiveness of crack sealing/filling, the effectiveness of routing, the pe...

  7. Natural vibration frequencies of horizontal tubes partially filled with liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santisteban Hidalgo, Juan Andrés; Gama, Antonio Lopes; Moreira, Roger Matsumoto

    2017-11-01

    This work presents an experimental and numerical study on the flexural vibration of horizontal circular tubes partially filled with liquid. The tube is configured as a free-free beam with attention being directed to the case of small amplitudes of transverse oscillation whereas the axial movements of the tube and liquid are disregarded. At first vertical and horizontal polarizations of the flexural tube are investigated experimentally for different amounts of filling liquid. In contrast with the empty and fully-filled tubes, it is observed that natural frequencies of the vertical and horizontal polarizations are different due to asymmetry induced by the liquid layer, which acts like an added mass. Less mass of liquid is added to the tube when oscillating horizontally; as a consequence, eigenfrequencies for the horizontal polarization are found to be greater than the case of the vertically polarized tube. A simple method to calculate the natural vibration frequencies using coefficients of added mass of liquid is proposed. It is shown that the added mass coefficient increases with the liquid's level and viscosity. At last a numerical investigation of the interaction between the liquid and the tube is carried out by solving in two-dimensions the full Navier-Stokes equations via a finite volume method, with the free-surface flow being modeled with a homogeneous multiphase Eulerian-Eulerian fluid approach. Vertical and horizontal polarizations are imposed to the tube with pressure and shear stresses being determined numerically to assess the liquid's forcing onto the tube's wall. The coefficient of added mass of liquid is then estimated by the ratio between the resulting force and the acceleration imposed to the wall. A good agreement is found between experimental and numerical results, especially for the horizontally oscillating tube. It is also shown that viscosity can noticeably affect the added mass coefficients, particularly at low filling levels.

  8. Mullins effect in a filled elastomer under uniaxial tension

    DOE PAGES

    Maiti, A.; Small, W.; Gee, R. H.; ...

    2014-01-16

    Modulus softening and permanent set in filled polymeric materials due to cyclic loading and unloading, commonly known as the Mullins effect, can have a significant impact on their use as support cushions. The quantitative analysis of such behavior is essential to ensure the effectiveness of such materials in long-term deployment. In this work we combine existing ideas of filler-induced modulus enhancement, strain amplification, and irreversible deformation within a simple non-Gaussian constitutive model to quantitatively interpret recent measurements on a relevant PDMS-based elastomeric cushion. Also, we find that the experimental stress-strain data is consistent with the picture that during stretching (loading)more » two effects take place simultaneously: (1) the physical constraints (entanglements) initially present in the polymer network get disentangled, thus leading to a gradual decrease in the effective cross-link density, and (2) the effective filler volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing strain due to the irreversible pulling out of an initially occluded volume of the soft polymer domain.« less

  9. Shear design expressions for concrete filled steel tube and reinforced concrete filled tube components.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-06-01

    Concrete-filled steel tubes (CFSTs) and reinforced concrete-filled steel tubes (RCFSTs) are increasingly : used in transportation structures as piers, piles, caissons or other foundation components. While the axial : and flexural properties of CFTs h...

  10. Transfer factor, lung volumes, resistance and ventilation distribution in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Verbanck, Sylvia; Van Muylem, Alain; Schuermans, Daniel; Bautmans, Ivan; Thompson, Bruce; Vincken, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of chronic lung disease requires reference values of lung function indices, including putative markers of small airway function, spanning a wide age range.We measured spirometry, transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO), static lung volume, resistance and ventilation distribution in a healthy population, studying at least 20 subjects per sex and per decade between the ages of 20 and 80 years.With respect to the Global Lung Function Initiative reference data, our subjects had average z-scores for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC of -0.12, 0.04 and -0.32, respectively. Reference equations were obtained which could account for a potential dependence of index variability on age and height. This was done for (but not limited to) indices that are pertinent to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease studies: forced expired volume in 6 s, forced expiratory flow, TLCO, specific airway conductance, residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC), and ventilation heterogeneity in acinar and conductive lung zones.Deterioration in acinar ventilation heterogeneity and lung clearance index with age were more marked beyond 60 years, and conductive ventilation heterogeneity showed the greatest increase in variability with age. The most clinically relevant deviation from published reference values concerned RV/TLC values, which were considerably smaller than American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society-endorsed reference values. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  11. Doppler echocardiographic analysis of left ventricular filling in treated hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R A; Coplan, N L; Krakoff, L R; Yeager, K; Ross, R S; Gorlin, R; Goldman, M E

    1987-02-01

    Early detection and prevention of cardiac dysfunction is an important goal in the management of hypertensive patients. In this study, Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate the pattern of left ventricular diastolic filling in 38 subjects: 18 treated hypertensive patients (blood pressure 141 +/- 17/83 +/- 10 mm Hg, mean +/- SD) without other coronary risk factors and 20 risk-free normotensive subjects of similar age (47 +/- 10 and 49 +/- 13 years, respectively). Peak velocity of late left ventricular filling due to the atrial contraction was greater in hypertensive compared with normotensive subjects (69 +/- 14 versus 52 +/- 13 cm/s; p less than 0.001). Peak velocity of late filling was significantly greater in hypertensive versus normotensive subjects in those aged 50 years or younger and those older than age 50 (65 +/- 12 versus 50 +/- 11; p less than 0.01 and 75 +/- 15 versus 56 +/- 15 cm/s; p less than 0.05, respectively). In hypertensive subjects, peak velocity of late filling did not correlate with routine indexes of hypertensive heart disease (including posterior wall thickness and left ventricular mass), systolic and diastolic blood pressure or duration of hypertension. These results indicate that increased velocity of late left ventricular filling may be independent of left ventricular hypertrophy and persist despite effective blood pressure control.

  12. Dynamic mechanical analysis of waste tyre rubber filled brake friction composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi, Mukesh Kumar; Singh, Tej; Chauhan, Ranchan

    2018-05-01

    In this research work, the dynamic mechanical properties of waste tyre rubber filled friction composites were studied. Four friction composites with varying amount of waste rubber (0, 4, 8, 12 wt.%) and barium sulphate (38, 42, 46, 50 wt.%) were designed and fabricated as per industrial norms. Dynamic mechanical analysis has been carried out to characterize the storage modulus, loss modulus and damping factor of the fabricated friction composite. Experimental results indicated that storage modulus decreases with increasing waste rubber content up to particular loading (4 wt.%), and after that it increases with further loading. The loss modulus of the composites increases steadily with increasing waste rubber content whereas, damping factor remain maximum for 12 wt.% waste rubber filled friction composites.

  13. Magnitude of Myocutaneous Flaps and Factors Associated With Loss of Volume in Oral Cancer Reconstructive Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuki; Yanamoto, Souichi; Ota, Yoshihide; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide; Umeda, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Myocutaneous flaps are often used to repair oral and maxillofacial defects after surgery for oral cancer; however, their volume decreases during the postoperative period. To facilitate treatment planning, the authors measured the extent of such postoperative flap volume loss and identified associated factors in patients who underwent oral reconstruction with myocutaneous flaps. The authors designed and performed a retrospective observational study of patients who underwent reconstructive procedures involving rectus abdominal myocutaneous (RAM) or pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flaps at Tokai University Hospital, Kobe University Hospital, or Nagasaki University Hospital from April 2009 through March 2013. Flap type and other clinical variables were examined as potential predictors of flap loss. The primary outcome was flap loss at 6 months postoperatively. Correlations between each potential predictor and the primary outcome were examined using multiple regression analysis. The subjects were 75 patients whose oral defects were reconstructed with RAM flaps (n = 57) or PMMC flaps (n = 18). RAM flaps exhibited a mean volume shrinkage of 22% at 6 months postoperatively, which was less than the 27.5% displayed by the PMMC flaps, but the difference was not important. Renal failure, previous surgery of the oral region, postoperative radiotherapy, and postoperative serum albumin level were found to be meaningful risk factors for postoperative flap volume loss. The results of this study suggest that larger flaps should be used in patients who possess these risk factors or are scheduled to undergo postoperative radiotherapy. Future studies should examine the utility of postoperative nutritional management for preventing flap volume loss. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Protein aggregation studied by forward light scattering and light transmission analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penzkofer, A.; Shirdel, J.; Zirak, P.; Breitkreuz, H.; Wolf, E.

    2007-12-01

    The aggregation of the circadian blue-light photo-receptor cryptochrome from Drosophila melanogaster (dCry) is studied by transmission and forward light scattering measurement in the protein transparent wavelength region. The light scattering in forward direction is caused by Rayleigh scattering which is proportional to the degree of aggregation. The light transmission through the samples in the transparent region is reduced by Mie light scattering in all directions. It depends on the degree of aggregation and the monomer volume fill factor of the aggregates (less total scattering with decreasing monomer volume fill factor of protein globule) allowing a distinction between tightly packed protein aggregation (monomer volume fill factor 1) and loosely packed protein aggregation (monomer volume fill factor less than 1). An increase in aggregation with temperature, concentration, and blue-light exposure is observed. At a temperature of 4 °C and a protein concentration of less than 0.135 mM no dCry aggregation was observed, while at 24 °C and 0.327 mM gelation occurred (loosely packed aggregates occupying the whole solution volume).

  15. Premature melt solidification during mold filling and its influence on the as-cast structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M.; Ahmadein, M.; Ludwig, A.

    2018-03-01

    Premature melt solidification is the solidification of a melt during mold filling. In this study, a numerical model is used to analyze the influence of the pouring process on the premature solidification. The numerical model considers three phases, namely, air, melt, and equiaxed crystals. The crystals are assumed to have originated from the heterogeneous nucleation in the undercooled melt resulting from the first contact of the melt with the cold mold during pouring. The transport of the crystals by the melt flow, in accordance with the socalled "big bang" theory, is considered. The crystals are assumed globular in morphology and capable of growing according to the local constitutional undercooling. These crystals can also be remelted by mixing with the superheated melt. As the modeling results, the evolutionary trends of the number density of the crystals and the volume fraction of the solid crystals in the melt during pouring are presented. The calculated number density of the crystals and the volume fraction of the solid crystals in the melt at the end of pouring are used as the initial conditions for the subsequent solidification simulation of the evolution of the as-cast structure. A five-phase volume-average model for mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification is used for the solidification simulation. An improved agreement between the simulation and experimental results is achieved by considering the effect of premature melt solidification during mold filling. Finally, the influences of pouring parameters, namely, pouring temperature, initial mold temperature, and pouring rate, on the premature melt solidification are discussed.

  16. Staggered Orbital Currents in the Half-Filled Two-Leg Ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fjaerestad, J. O.; Marston, Brad; Sudbo, A.

    2002-03-01

    We present strong analytical and numerical evidence for the existence of a staggered flux (SF) phase in the half-filled two-leg ladder, with true long-range order in the counter-circulating currents. Using abelian bosonization with a careful treatment of the Klein factors, we show that a certain phase of the half-filled ladder, previously identified as having spin-Peierls order, instead exhibits staggered orbital currents with no dimerization.(J. O. Fjærestad and J. B. Marston, cond- mat/0107094.) This result, combined with a weak-coupling renormalization-group analysis, implies that the SF phase exists in a region of the phase diagram of the half-filled t-U-V-J ladder. Using the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) approach generalized to complex-valued wavefunctions, we demonstrate that the SF phase exhibits robust currents at intermediate values of the interaction strengths.

  17. Ultrasound therapy transducers with space-filling non-periodic arrays.

    PubMed

    Raju, Balasundar I; Hall, Christopher S; Seip, Ralf

    2011-05-01

    Ultrasound transducers designed for therapeutic purposes such as tissue ablation, histotripsy, or drug delivery require large apertures for adequate spatial localization while providing sufficient power and steerability without the presence of secondary grating lobes. In addition, it is highly preferred to minimize the total number of channels and to maintain simplicity in electrical matching network design. To this end, we propose array designs that are both space-filling and non-periodic in the placement of the elements. Such array designs can be generated using the mathematical concept of non-periodic or aperiodic tiling (tessellation) and can lead to reduced grating lobes while maintaining full surface area coverage to deliver maximum power. For illustration, we designed two 2-D space-filling therapeutic arrays with 128 elements arranged on a spherical shell. One was based on the two-shape Penrose rhombus tiling, and the other was based on a single rectangular shape arranged non-periodically. The steerability performance of these arrays was studied using acoustic field simulations. For comparison, we also studied two other arrays, one with circular elements distributed randomly, and the other a periodic array with square elements. Results showed that the two space-filling non-periodic arrays were able to steer to treat a volume of 16 x 16 x 20 mm while ensuring that the grating lobes were under -10 dB compared with the main lobe. The rectangular non-periodic array was able to generate two and half times higher power than the random circles array. The rectangular array was then fabricated by patterning the array using laser scribing methods and its steerability performance was validated using hydrophone measurements. This work demonstrates that the concept of space-filling aperiodic/non-periodic tiling can be used to generate therapy arrays that are able to provide higher power for the same total transducer area compared with random arrays while maintaining

  18. Three dimensional ultrasonography for advanced neurosonography (Neurosofe-3d). Analysis of acquisition-related factors influencing the quality of the brain volumes.

    PubMed

    Maiz, Nerea; Alonso, Ignacio; Belar, María; Burgos, Jorge; Irasarri, Ana; Molina, Francisca S; de Paco, Catalina; Pijoan, José I; Plasencia, Walter; Rodó, Carlota; Rodríguez, M Angeles; Tajada, Mauricio; Tubau, Albert

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the acquisition-related factors influencing the quality of the brain volumes for further study of advanced neurosonography. This was a prospective multicentre study. Five centres were asked to include five cases each, acquiring two volumes per case, at different gestational ages. Ten operators performed an advanced neurosonography per case. The potential influence of the following factors on the number of evaluable structures was assessed: vaginal/ abdominal acquisition, position of the head, gestational age, subjective quality of the volume and the acquiring operator itself. Four hundred and thirty-two evaluations were included in the study. A total of 80% of the structures were evaluated satisfactorily in the axial plane, 67.1% and 55.1% in the coronal and sagittal plane, respectively. Sagittal volumes acquired transvaginally had a better quality than those acquired transabdominally. Gestational age affected the quality of axial and sagittal volumes (p < 0.001), and the best quality was obtained between 20 and 27 weeks. In axial and sagittal volumes, the head position influenced the percentage of structures visualized (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). Factors affecting the quality of the volume for advanced neurosonography are gestational age, fetal head position, transvaginal acquisition in sagittal volumes, the acquiring operator and the subjective quality of the volume. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Risk factors for radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic radiation therapy for lung tumours: clinical usefulness of the planning target volume to total lung volume ratio.

    PubMed

    Ueyama, Tomoko; Arimura, Takeshi; Takumi, Koji; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Higashi, Ryutaro; Ito, Soichiro; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Nakajo, Masanori; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    To identify risk factors for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for lung tumours. We retrospectively evaluated 68 lung tumours in 63 patients treated with SRT between 2011 and 2015. RP was graded according to the National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. SRT was delivered at 7.0-12.0 Gy per each fraction, once daily, to a total of 48-64 Gy (median, 50 Gy). Univariate analysis was performed to assess patient- and treatment-related factors, including age, sex, smoking index (SI), pulmonary function, tumour location, serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 value (KL-6), dose-volume metrics (V5, V10, V20, V30, V40 and VS5), homogeneity index of the planning target volume (PTV), PTV dose, mean lung dose (MLD), contralateral MLD and V2, PTV volume, lung volume and the PTV/lung volume ratio (PTV/Lung). Performance of PTV/Lung in predicting symptomatic RP was also analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The median follow-up period was 21 months. 10 of 63 patients (15.9%) developed symptomatic RP after SRT. On univariate analysis, V10, V20, PTV volume and PTV/Lung were significantly associated with occurrence of RP  ≥Grade 2. ROC curves indicated that symptomatic RP could be predicted using PTV/Lung [area under curve (AUC): 0.88, confidence interval (CI: 0.78-0.95), cut-off value: 1.09, sensitivity: 90.0% and specificity: 72.4%]. PTV/Lung is a good predictor of symptomatic RP after SRT. Advances in knowledge: The cases with high PTV/Lung should be carefully monitored with caution for the occurrence of RP after SRT.

  20. Study of the Peak Shear Strength of a Cement-Filled Hard Rock Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Cheng-Xue; Sun, Fu-Ting

    2018-03-01

    The peak shear strength of a cement-filled hard rock joint is studied by theoretical analysis and laboratory testing. Based on the concept of the shear resistance angle, by combining the statistical method and fractal theory, three new parameters are proposed to characterize the three-dimensional joint morphology, reflecting the effects of the average roughness, multi-scale asperities and the dispersion degree of the roughness distribution. These factors are independent of the measurement scale, and they reflect the anisotropy of the joint roughness. Compressive shear tests are conducted on cement-filled joints. Because joints without cement can be considered special cement-filled joints in which the filling degree of cement is zero, they are also tested. The cement-filled granite joint fails primarily along the granite-cement interfaces. The filling degree of cement controls the joint failure and affects its mechanical behaviour. With a decrease in the filling degree of cement, the joint cohesion decreases; however, the dilatancy angle and the basic friction angle of the interface increase. As the filling degree approaches zero, the cohesion approaches zero, while the dilatancy angle and the basic friction angle increase to those of the joint without cement. A set of formulas is proposed to evaluate the peak shear strength of the joints with and without cement. The formulas are shown to be reasonable by comparison with the tested peak shear strength, and they reflect the anisotropy of the strength. This research deepens the understanding of cement-filled joints and provides a method to evaluate their peak shear strength.

  1. Development of a design space and predictive statistical model for capsule filling of low-fill-weight inhalation products.

    PubMed

    Faulhammer, E; Llusa, M; Wahl, P R; Paudel, A; Lawrence, S; Biserni, S; Calzolari, V; Khinast, J G

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a predictive statistical model for low-fill-weight capsule filling of inhalation products with dosator nozzles via the quality by design (QbD) approach and based on that to create refined models that include quadratic terms for significant parameters. Various controllable process parameters and uncontrolled material attributes of 12 powders were initially screened using a linear model with partial least square (PLS) regression to determine their effect on the critical quality attributes (CQA; fill weight and weight variability). After identifying critical material attributes (CMAs) and critical process parameters (CPPs) that influenced the CQA, model refinement was performed to study if interactions or quadratic terms influence the model. Based on the assessment of the effects of the CPPs and CMAs on fill weight and weight variability for low-fill-weight inhalation products, we developed an excellent linear predictive model for fill weight (R(2 )= 0.96, Q(2 )= 0.96 for powders with good flow properties and R(2 )= 0.94, Q(2 )= 0.93 for cohesive powders) and a model that provides a good approximation of the fill weight variability for each powder group. We validated the model, established a design space for the performance of different types of inhalation grade lactose on low-fill weight capsule filling and successfully used the CMAs and CPPs to predict fill weight of powders that were not included in the development set.

  2. Filling of orbital fluid management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merino, F.; Blatt, M. H.; Thies, N. C.

    1978-01-01

    A study was performed with three objectives: (1) analyze fluid management system fill under orbital conditions; (2) determine what experimentation is needed; and (3) develop an experimental program. The fluid management system was a 1.06m (41.7 in) diameter pressure vessel with screen channel device. Analyses were conducted using liquid hydrogen and N2O4. The influence of helium and autogenous pressurization systems was considered. Analyses showed that fluid management system fill will be more difficult with a cryogen than with an earth storable. The key to a successful fill with cryogens is in devising techniques for filling without vent liquid, and removing trapped vapor from the screen device at tank fill completion. This will be accomplished with prechill, fill, and vapor condensation processes. Refill will require a vent and purge process, to dilute the residual helium, prior to introducing liquid. Neither prechill, chill, nor purge processes will be required for earth storables.

  3. Production, characterization, and modeling of mineral filled polypropylene filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Brian Robert

    1999-11-01

    This research produced mineral filled polypropylene filaments using a variety of fillers, characterized these filaments, and attempted to model their mechanical properties with current composite models. Also, these filaments were compared with bone to determine if they are suitable for modeling the mechanical properties of bone. Fillers used consist of wollastonite, talc, calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, and hydroxyapatite. Fillers and polypropylene chips were combined and extruded into rods with the use of a mixer. The rods were chipped up and then formed into filaments through melt extrusion utilizing a piston extruder. Filaments with volume fractions of filler of 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 were produced. Additionally, some methods of trying to improve the properties of these filaments were attempted, but did not result in any significant property improvements. The fillers and filaments were visually characterized with a scanning electron microscope. Cross-sections, filament outer surfaces, fracture surfaces, and longitudinal cut open surfaces were viewed in this manner. Those filaments with anisotropic filler had some oriented filler particles, while all filaments suffered from poor adhesion between the polypropylene and the filler as well as agglomerations of filler particles. Twenty specimens of each filament were tensile tested and the average tenacity, strain, and modulus were calculated. Filaments containing talc, talc and wollastonite, titanium dioxide, or hydroxyapatite suffered from a drastic transition from ductile to brittle with the addition of 0.05 volume fraction of filler. This is evidenced by the sharp decrease in strain at this volume fraction of filler when compared to the strain of the unfilled polypropylene filament. Additionally, these same filaments suffered a sharp decrease in tenacity at the same volume fraction. These instant decreases are attributed to the agglomerations of filler in the filament. Generally, the modulus of the

  4. Liquid Transfer Cryogenic Test Facility: Initial hydrogen and nitrogen no-vent fill data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Nyland, Ted W.; Papell, S. Stephen

    1990-03-01

    The Liquid Transfer Cryogenic Test Facility is a versatile testbed for ground-based cryogenic fluid storage, handling, and transfer experimentation. The test rig contains two well instrumented tanks, and a third interchangeable tank, designed to accommodate liquid nitrogen or liquid hydrogen testing. The internal tank volumes are approx. 18, 5, and 1.2 cu. ft. Tank pressures can be varied from 2 to 30 psia. Preliminary no vent fill tests with nitrogen and hydrogen were successfully completed with the test rig. Initial results indicate that no vent fills of nitrogen above 90 percent full are achievable using this test configuration, in a 1-g environment, and with inlet liquid temperatures as high as 143 R, and an average tank wall temperature of nearly 300 R. This inlet temperature corresponds to a saturation pressure of 19 psia for nitrogen. Hydrogen proved considerably more difficult to transfer between tanks without venting. The highest temperature conditions resulting in a fill level greater than 90 percent were with an inlet liquid temperature of 34 R, and an estimated tank wall temperature of slightly more than 100 R. Saturation pressure for hydrogen at this inlet temperature is 10 psia. All preliminary no vent fill tests were performed with a top mounted full cone nozzle for liquid injection. The nozzle produces a 120 degree conical droplet spray at a differential pressure of 10 psi. Pressure in the receiving tank was held to less than 30 psia for all tests.

  5. Liquid Transfer Cryogenic Test Facility: Initial hydrogen and nitrogen no-vent fill data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Nyland, Ted W.; Papell, S. Stephen

    1990-01-01

    The Liquid Transfer Cryogenic Test Facility is a versatile testbed for ground-based cryogenic fluid storage, handling, and transfer experimentation. The test rig contains two well instrumented tanks, and a third interchangeable tank, designed to accommodate liquid nitrogen or liquid hydrogen testing. The internal tank volumes are approx. 18, 5, and 1.2 cu. ft. Tank pressures can be varied from 2 to 30 psia. Preliminary no vent fill tests with nitrogen and hydrogen were successfully completed with the test rig. Initial results indicate that no vent fills of nitrogen above 90 percent full are achievable using this test configuration, in a 1-g environment, and with inlet liquid temperatures as high as 143 R, and an average tank wall temperature of nearly 300 R. This inlet temperature corresponds to a saturation pressure of 19 psia for nitrogen. Hydrogen proved considerably more difficult to transfer between tanks without venting. The highest temperature conditions resulting in a fill level greater than 90 percent were with an inlet liquid temperature of 34 R, and an estimated tank wall temperature of slightly more than 100 R. Saturation pressure for hydrogen at this inlet temperature is 10 psia. All preliminary no vent fill tests were performed with a top mounted full cone nozzle for liquid injection. The nozzle produces a 120 degree conical droplet spray at a differential pressure of 10 psi. Pressure in the receiving tank was held to less than 30 psia for all tests.

  6. Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Breast Implants Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Description: Silicone gel-filled breast implants have a silicone outer ...

  7. Tumor Volume Is a Prognostic Factor in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Chemoradiotherapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Alexander, Brian M.; Othus, Megan; Caglar, Hale B.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether primary tumor and nodal volumes defined on radiotherapy planning scans are correlated with outcome (survival and recurrence) after combined-modality treatment. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer treated with chemoradiation at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute from 2000 to 2006 was performed. Tumor and nodal volume measurements, as computed by Eclipse (Varian, Palo Alto, CA), were used as independent variables, along with existing clinical factors, in univariate and multivariate analyses for association with outcomes. Results: For patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy, both nodal volume (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09;more » p < 0.01) and tumor volume (HR, 1.03; p < 0.01) were associated with overall survival on multivariate analysis. Both nodal volume (HR, 1.10; p < 0.01) and tumor volume (HR, 1.04; p < 0.01) were also associated with local control but not distant metastases. Conclusions: In addition to traditional surgical staging variables, disease burden, measured by primary tumor and nodal metastases volume, provides information that may be helpful in determining prognosis and identifying groups of patients for which more aggressive local therapy is warranted.« less

  8. A new taxonomy for perceptual filling-in

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Rimona S.; Rees, Geraint

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual filling-in occurs when structures of the visual system interpolate information across regions of visual space where that information is physically absent. It is a ubiquitous and heterogeneous phenomenon, which takes place in different forms almost every time we view the world around us, such as when objects are occluded by other objects or when they fall behind the blind spot. Yet, to date, there is no clear framework for relating these various forms of perceptual filling-in. Similarly, whether these and other forms of filling-in share common mechanisms is not yet known. Here we present a new taxonomy to categorize the different forms of perceptual filling-in. We then examine experimental evidence for the processes involved in each type of perceptual filling-in. Finally, we use established theories of general surface perception to show how contextualizing filling-in using this framework broadens our understanding of the possible shared mechanisms underlying perceptual filling-in. In particular, we consider the importance of the presence of boundaries in determining the phenomenal experience of perceptual filling-in. PMID:21059374

  9. CFD Modeling of Chamber Filling in a Micro-Biosensor for Protein Detection

    PubMed Central

    Islamov, Meiirbek; Sypabekova, Marzhan; Kanayeva, Damira; Rojas-Solórzano, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the main causes of human death around the globe. The mortality rate for patients infected with active TB goes beyond 50% when not diagnosed. Rapid and accurate diagnostics coupled with further prompt treatment of the disease is the cornerstone for controlling TB outbreaks. To reduce this burden, the existing gap between detection and treatment must be addressed, and dedicated diagnostic tools such as biosensors should be developed. A biosensor is a sensing micro-device that consists of a biological sensing element and a transducer part to produce signals in proportion to quantitative information about the binding event. The micro-biosensor cell considered in this investigation is designed to operate based on aptamers as recognition elements against Mycobacterium tuberculosis secreted protein MPT64, combined in a microfluidic-chamber with inlet and outlet connections. The microfluidic cell is a miniaturized platform with valuable advantages such as low cost of analysis with low reagent consumption, reduced sample volume, and shortened processing time with enhanced analytical capability. The main purpose of this study is to assess the flooding characteristics of the encapsulated microfluidic cell of an existing micro-biosensor using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. The main challenge in the design of the microfluidic cell lies in the extraction of entrained air bubbles, which may remain after the filling process is completed, dramatically affecting the performance of the sensing element. In this work, a CFD model was developed on the platform ANSYS-CFX using the finite volume method to discretize the domain and solving the Navier–Stokes equations for both air and water in a Eulerian framework. Second-order space discretization scheme and second-order Euler Backward time discretization were used in the numerical treatment of the equations. For a given inlet–outlet diameter and dimensions of an in-house built cell

  10. CFD Modeling of Chamber Filling in a Micro-Biosensor for Protein Detection.

    PubMed

    Islamov, Meiirbek; Sypabekova, Marzhan; Kanayeva, Damira; Rojas-Solórzano, Luis

    2017-10-03

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the main causes of human death around the globe. The mortality rate for patients infected with active TB goes beyond 50% when not diagnosed. Rapid and accurate diagnostics coupled with further prompt treatment of the disease is the cornerstone for controlling TB outbreaks. To reduce this burden, the existing gap between detection and treatment must be addressed, and dedicated diagnostic tools such as biosensors should be developed. A biosensor is a sensing micro-device that consists of a biological sensing element and a transducer part to produce signals in proportion to quantitative information about the binding event. The micro-biosensor cell considered in this investigation is designed to operate based on aptamers as recognition elements against Mycobacterium tuberculosis secreted protein MPT64, combined in a microfluidic-chamber with inlet and outlet connections. The microfluidic cell is a miniaturized platform with valuable advantages such as low cost of analysis with low reagent consumption, reduced sample volume, and shortened processing time with enhanced analytical capability. The main purpose of this study is to assess the flooding characteristics of the encapsulated microfluidic cell of an existing micro-biosensor using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. The main challenge in the design of the microfluidic cell lies in the extraction of entrained air bubbles, which may remain after the filling process is completed, dramatically affecting the performance of the sensing element. In this work, a CFD model was developed on the platform ANSYS-CFX using the finite volume method to discretize the domain and solving the Navier-Stokes equations for both air and water in a Eulerian framework. Second-order space discretization scheme and second-order Euler Backward time discretization were used in the numerical treatment of the equations. For a given inlet-outlet diameter and dimensions of an in-house built cell chamber

  11. 7 CFR 58.923 - Filling containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.923 Section 58.923 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.923 Filling containers. (a) The filling of small containers with product shall be done in a sanitary manner. The containers shall not contaminate or detract from the quality of the product in any way...

  12. Long pulse gas-filled halfraums on OMEGA for high growth-factor ablative Rayleigh-Taylor experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casner, Alexis; Huser, G.; Villette, B.; Vandenboomgaerde, M.; Galmiche, D.; Liberatore, S.; Philippe, F.; Masse, L.

    2007-11-01

    Mitigation of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities growth is crucial to enhance the performance of LMJ and NIF ignition targets. We recently develop on OMEGA a long-pulse platform in order to experimentally prove two mechanisms invoked for RTI stabilization, i.e the graded-doped ablator [1] and the new laminated ablator concept [2]. We used gas-filled halfraums (1 atm neopentane) and stack up to 20 drive beams along 3 cones to create a 7 ns long radiation drive. The new E-IDI-300 phase plates were associated with 1D SSD and halfraum energetics was validated along P5/P8 axis for backscattering measurements along 2 cones. We will also present the first face-on radiographies for modulated CH(Ge) samples and compare them with FCI2 hydrocodes simulations. Foil thickness optimization based on these simulations allows us to anticipate growth factors up to 500 in optical depth and the experimental emulator designs for [1,2] will be presented. [1] S.W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 056316 (2005). [2] L. Masse., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 245001 (2007). DPP07 invited talk.

  13. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  14. Volume of a laser-induced microjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Sennosuke; Hayasaka, Keisuke; Noguchi, Yuto; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Needle-free injection systems are of great importance for medical treatments. In spite of their great potential, these systems are not commonly used. One of the common problems is strong pain caused by diffusion shape of the jet. To solve this problem, the usage of a high-speed highly-focused microjet as needle-free injection system is expected. It is thus crucial to control important indicators such as ejected volume of the jet for its safe application. We conduct experiments to reveal which parameter influences mostly the ejected volume. In the experiments, we use a glass tube of an inner diameter of 500 micro-meter, which is filled with the liquid. One end is connected to a syringe and the other end is opened. Radiating the pulse laser instantaneously vapors the liquid, followed by the generation of a shockwave. We find that the maximum volume of a laser-induced bubble is approximately proportional to the ejected volume. It is also found that the occurrence of cavitation does not affect the ejected volume while it changes the jet velocity.

  15. Performance analysis of no-vent fill process for liquid hydrogen tank in terrestrial and on-orbit environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Yanzhong; Zhang, Feini; Ma, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    Two finite difference computer models, aiming at the process predictions of no-vent fill in normal gravity and microgravity environments respectively, are developed to investigate the filling performance in a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank. In the normal gravity case model, the tank/fluid system is divided into five control volume including ullage, bulk liquid, gas-liquid interface, ullage-adjacent wall, and liquid-adjacent wall. In the microgravity case model, vapor-liquid thermal equilibrium state is maintained throughout the process, and only two nodes representing fluid and wall regions are applied. To capture the liquid-wall heat transfer accurately, a series of heat transfer mechanisms are considered and modeled successively, including film boiling, transition boiling, nucleate boiling and liquid natural convection. The two models are validated by comparing their prediction with experimental data, which shows good agreement. Then the two models are used to investigate the performance of no-vent fill in different conditions and several conclusions are obtained. It shows that in the normal gravity environment the no-vent fill experiences a continuous pressure rise during the whole process and the maximum pressure occurs at the end of the operation, while the maximum pressure of the microgravity case occurs at the beginning stage of the process. Moreover, it seems that increasing inlet mass flux has an apparent influence on the pressure evolution of no-vent fill process in normal gravity but a little influence in microgravity. The larger initial wall temperature brings about more significant liquid evaporation during the filling operation, and then causes higher pressure evolution, no matter the filling process occurs under normal gravity or microgravity conditions. Reducing inlet liquid temperature can improve the filling performance in normal gravity, but cannot significantly reduce the maximum pressure in microgravity. The presented work benefits the

  16. The impact on revenue of increasing patient volume at surgical suites with relatively high operating room utilization.

    PubMed

    Dexter, F; Macario, A; Lubarsky, D A

    2001-05-01

    We previously studied hospitals in the United States of America that are losing money despite limiting the hours that operating room (OR) staff are available to care for patients undergoing elective surgery. These hospitals routinely keep utilization relatively high to maximize revenue. We tested, using discrete-event computer simulation, whether increasing patient volume while being reimbursed less for each additional patient can reliably achieve an increase in revenue when initial adjusted OR utilization is 90%. We found that increasing the volume of referred patients by the amount expected to fill the surgical suite (100%/90%) would increase utilization by <1% for a hospital surgical suite (with longer duration cases) and 4% for an ambulatory surgery suite (with short cases). The increase in patient volume would result in longer patient waiting times for surgery and more patients leaving the surgical queue. With a 15% reduction in payment for the new patients, the increase in volume may not increase revenue and can even decrease the contribution margin for the hospital surgical suite. The implication is that for hospitals with a relatively high OR utilization, signing discounted contracts to increase patient volume by the amount expected to "fill" the OR can have the net effect of decreasing the contribution margin (i.e., profitability). Hospitals may try to attract new surgical volume by offering discounted rates. For hospitals with a relatively high operating room utilization (e.g., 90%), computer simulations predict that increasing patient volume by the amount expected to "fill" the operating room can have the net effect of decreasing contribution margin (i.e., profitability).

  17. Characterization of subvisible particle formation during the filling pump operation of a monoclonal antibody solution.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Arpan; Colandene, James; Bradford, Victor; Perkins, Melissa

    2011-10-01

    Characterization and control of aggregate and subvisible particle formation during fill-finish process steps are important for biopharmaceutical products. The filling step is of key importance as there is no further filtration of the drug product beyond sterile filtration. Filling processes can impact product quality by introducing physical stresses such as shear, friction, and cavitation. Other detrimental factors include temperature generated in the process of filling, foaming, and contact with filling system materials, including processing aids such as silicone oil. Certain pumps may shed extrinsic particles that may lead to heterogeneous nucleation-induced aggregation. In this work, microflow imaging, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and turbidimetry were utilized to quantify subvisible particles, aggregation, and opalescence, respectively. The filling process was performed using several commonly used filling systems, including rotary piston pump, rolling diaphragm pump, peristaltic pump, and time-pressure filler. The rolling diaphragm pump, peristaltic pump, and time-pressure filler generated notably less protein subvisible particles than the rotary piston pump, although no change in aggregate content by SEC was observed by any pump. An extreme increase in subvisible particles was also reflected in an increase in turbidity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Risk Factors for Chronic Subdural Hematoma Recurrence Identified Using Quantitative Computed Tomography Analysis of Hematoma Volume and Density.

    PubMed

    Stavrinou, Pantelis; Katsigiannis, Sotirios; Lee, Jong Hun; Hamisch, Christina; Krischek, Boris; Mpotsaris, Anastasios; Timmer, Marco; Goldbrunner, Roland

    2017-03-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), a common condition in elderly patients, presents a therapeutic challenge with recurrence rates of 33%. We aimed to identify specific prognostic factors for recurrence using quantitative analysis of hematoma volume and density. We retrospectively reviewed radiographic and clinical data of 227 CSDHs in 195 consecutive patients who underwent evacuation of the hematoma through a single burr hole, 2 burr holes, or a mini-craniotomy. To examine the relationship between hematoma recurrence and various clinical, radiologic, and surgical factors, we used quantitative image-based analysis to measure the hematoma and trapped air volumes and the hematoma densities. Recurrence of CSDH occurred in 35 patients (17.9%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the percentage of hematoma drained and postoperative CSDH density were independent risk factors for recurrence. All 3 evacuation methods were equally effective in draining the hematoma (71.7% vs. 73.7% vs. 71.9%) without observable differences in postoperative air volume captured in the subdural space. Quantitative image analysis provided evidence that percentage of hematoma drained and postoperative CSDH density are independent prognostic factors for subdural hematoma recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Small-Molecule Solar Cells with Simultaneously Enhanced Short-Circuit Current and Fill Factor to Achieve 11% Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Nian, Li; Gao, Ke; Jiang, Yufeng; Rong, Qikun; Hu, Xiaowen; Yuan, Dong; Liu, Feng; Peng, Xiaobin; Russell, Thomas P; Zhou, Guofu

    2017-08-01

    High-efficiency small-molecule-based organic photovoltaics (SM-OPVs) using two electron donors (p-DTS(FBTTh 2 ) 2 and ZnP) with distinctively different absorption and structural features are reported. Such a combination works well and synergically improves device short-circuit current density (J sc ) to 17.99 mA cm -2 and fill factor (FF) to 77.19%, yielding a milestone efficiency of 11%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest power conversion efficiency reported for SM-OPVs to date and the first time to combine high J sc over 17 mA cm -2 and high FF over 77% into one SM-OPV. The strategy of using multicomponent materials, with a selecting role of balancing varied electronic and structural necessities can be an important route to further developing higher performance devices. This development is important, which broadens the dimension and versatility of existing materials without much chemistry input. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Planning for the Rheumatologist Workforce: Factors Associated With Work Hours and Volumes.

    PubMed

    Barber, Claire E H; Nasr, Mina; Barnabe, Cheryl; Badley, Elizabeth M; Lacaille, Diane; Pope, Janet; Cividino, Alfred; Yacyshyn, Elaine; Baillie, Cory; Mosher, Dianne; Thomson, John G; Charnock, Christine; Thorne, J Carter; Zummer, Michel; Brophy, Julie; Ruban, Thanu Nadarajah; Ahluwalia, Vandana; McDougall, Robert; Marshall, Deborah A

    2018-05-25

    The aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with rheumatologists' clinical work hours and patient volumes based on a national workforce survey in rheumatology. Adult rheumatologists who participated in a 2015 workforce survey were included (n = 255). Univariate analysis evaluated the relationship between demographics (sex, age, academic vs. community practice, billing fee for service vs. other plan, years in practice, retirement plans) and workload (total hours and number of ½-day clinics per week) or patient volumes (number of new and follow-up consults per week). Multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between practice type, sex, age, and working hours or clinical volumes. Male rheumatologists had more ½-day clinics (P = 0.05) and saw more new patients per week (P = 0.001) compared with females. Community rheumatologists had more ½-day clinics and new and follow-up visits per week (all P < 0.01). Fee-for-service rheumatologists reported more ½-day clinics per week (P < 0.001) and follow-ups (P = 0.04). Workload did not vary by age, years in practice, or retirement plans. In multivariate analysis, community practice remained independently associated with higher patient volumes and more clinics per week. Female rheumatologists reported fewer clinics and fewer follow-up patients per week than males, but this did not affect the duration of working hours or new consultations. Age was not associated with work volumes or hours. Practice type and rheumatologist sex should be considered when evaluating rheumatologist workforce needs, as the proportion of female rheumatologists has increased over time and alternative billing practices have been introduced in many centers.

  1. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 6-hour precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a... as the fill is not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core... upstream drainage is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 6-hour precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a... as the fill is not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core... upstream drainage is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall be...

  3. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 6-hour precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a... as the fill is not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core... upstream drainage is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall be...

  4. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 6-hour precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a... as the fill is not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core... upstream drainage is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall be...

  5. 30 CFR 816.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fills/head-of-hollow fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 6-hour precipitation event. (b) Rock-core chimney drains. A rock-core chimney drain may be used in a... as the fill is not located in an area containing intermittent or perennial streams. A rock-core... upstream drainage is diverted around the fill. The alternative rock-core chimney drain system shall be...

  6. Increased risk of volume overload with plasma compared with four‐factor prothrombin complex concentrate for urgent vitamin K antagonist reversal

    PubMed Central

    Refaai, Majed A.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Lee, Martin L.; Durn, Billie L.; Milling, Truman J.; Sarode, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Plasma is commonly used for vitamin K antagonist (VKA) reversal, but observational studies suggest that it is associated with transfusion‐related adverse reactions (e.g., volume overload). However, this issue has not previously been addressed in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Factors associated with volume overload were examined using data from two Phase IIIb RCTs comparing plasma with four‐factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F‐PCC, Beriplex/Kcentra, CSL Behring) for urgent VKA reversal. VKA‐treated patients with major bleeding (NCT00708435) or requiring an urgent surgical or invasive procedure (NCT00803101) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either plasma or 4F‐PCC, concomitant with vitamin K. Adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs were prospectively captured up to Day 10 and 45, respectively. Volume overload predictors were evaluated on a univariate and multivariate basis. RESULTS A total of 388 patients (4F‐PCC, n = 191; plasma, n = 197) were enrolled. Volume overload occurred in 34 (9%) patients (4F‐PCC, n = 9; plasma, n = 25). In univariate analyses, use of plasma (vs. 4F‐PCC), use of nonstudy plasma and/or platelets, race, history of congestive heart failure (CHF), and history of renal disease were associated with volume overload. In multivariate analyses, use of plasma (vs. 4F‐PCC), history of CHF, and history of renal disease were independent volume overload predictors. In an additional analysis restricted to volume overload events recorded up to Day 7, only use of plasma (vs. 4F‐PCC) was an independent volume overload predictor. CONCLUSIONS After adjusting for other potential risk factors, plasma use was independently associated with a greater risk of volume overload than 4F‐PCC in patients requiring urgent VKA reversal. PMID:26135740

  7. Design of antibody-functionalized carbon nanotubes filled with radioactivable metals towards a targeted anticancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinato, Cinzia; Perez Ruiz de Garibay, Aritz; Kierkowicz, Magdalena; Pach, Elzbieta; Martincic, Markus; Klippstein, Rebecca; Bourgognon, Maxime; Wang, Julie Tzu-Wen; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.; Ballesteros, Belén; Tobias, Gerard; Bianco, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    In the present work we have devised the synthesis of a novel promising carbon nanotube carrier for the targeted delivery of radioactivity, through a combination of endohedral and exohedral functionalization. Steam-purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been initially filled with radioactive analogues (i.e. metal halides) and sealed by high temperature treatment, affording closed-ended CNTs with the filling material confined in the inner cavity. The external functionalization of these filled CNTs was then achieved by nitrene cycloaddition and followed by the derivatization with a monoclonal antibody (Cetuximab) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), overexpressed by several cancer cells. The targeting efficiency of the so-obtained conjugate was evaluated by immunostaining with a secondary antibody and by incubation of the CNTs with EGFR positive cells (U87-EGFR+), followed by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy or elemental analyses. We demonstrated that our filled and functionalized CNTs can internalize more efficiently in EGFR positive cancer cells.In the present work we have devised the synthesis of a novel promising carbon nanotube carrier for the targeted delivery of radioactivity, through a combination of endohedral and exohedral functionalization. Steam-purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been initially filled with radioactive analogues (i.e. metal halides) and sealed by high temperature treatment, affording closed-ended CNTs with the filling material confined in the inner cavity. The external functionalization of these filled CNTs was then achieved by nitrene cycloaddition and followed by the derivatization with a monoclonal antibody (Cetuximab) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), overexpressed by several cancer cells. The targeting efficiency of the so-obtained conjugate was evaluated by immunostaining with a secondary antibody and by incubation of the CNTs with EGFR positive cells (U87

  8. Filled Craters

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-11

    This MOC image shows adjacent impact craters located north-northwest of the Acheron Fossae region of Mars. The two craters are of similar size and formed by meteor impacts. However, one is much more filled than the other, indicating that it is older

  9. Filling the Fighter Gap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-18

    1 Filling the Fighter Gap by Major Justin DeMarco, USAF The purpose of this paper is to suggest how the Air Force can mitigate the...estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services...SUBTITLE Filling the Fighter Gap 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  10. Detector to detector corrections: a comprehensive experimental study of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small radiotherapy beams.

    PubMed

    Azangwe, Godfrey; Grochowska, Paulina; Georg, Dietmar; Izewska, Joanna; Hopfgartner, Johannes; Lechner, Wolfgang; Andersen, Claus E; Beierholm, Anders R; Helt-Hansen, Jakob; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Yajima, Kaori; Gouldstone, Clare; Sharpe, Peter; Meghzifene, Ahmed; Palmans, Hugo

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide a comprehensive set of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small beams, for a wide range of real time and passive detectors. The detector specific correction factors determined in this study may be potentially useful as a reference data set for small beam dosimetry measurements. Dose response of passive and real time detectors was investigated for small field sizes shaped with a micromultileaf collimator ranging from 0.6 × 0.6 cm(2) to 4.2 × 4.2 cm(2) and the measurements were extended to larger fields of up to 10 × 10 cm(2). Measurements were performed at 5 cm depth, in a 6 MV photon beam. Detectors used included alanine, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), stereotactic diode, electron diode, photon diode, radiophotoluminescent dosimeters (RPLDs), radioluminescence detector based on carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C), organic plastic scintillators, diamond detectors, liquid filled ion chamber, and a range of small volume air filled ionization chambers (volumes ranging from 0.002 cm(3) to 0.3 cm(3)). All detector measurements were corrected for volume averaging effect and compared with dose ratios determined from alanine to derive a detector correction factors that account for beam perturbation related to nonwater equivalence of the detector materials. For the detectors used in this study, volume averaging corrections ranged from unity for the smallest detectors such as the diodes, 1.148 for the 0.14 cm(3) air filled ionization chamber and were as high as 1.924 for the 0.3 cm(3) ionization chamber. After applying volume averaging corrections, the detector readings were consistent among themselves and with alanine measurements for several small detectors but they differed for larger detectors, in particular for some small ionization chambers with volumes larger than 0.1 cm(3). The results demonstrate how important it is for the appropriate corrections to be applied to give

  11. Diastolic time – frequency relation in the stress echo lab: filling timing and flow at different heart rates

    PubMed Central

    Bombardini, Tonino; Gemignani, Vincenzo; Bianchini, Elisabetta; Venneri, Lucia; Petersen, Christina; Pasanisi, Emilio; Pratali, Lorenza; Alonso-Rodriguez, David; Pianelli, Mascia; Faita, Francesco; Giannoni, Massimo; Arpesella, Giorgio; Picano, Eugenio

    2008-01-01

    A cutaneous force-frequency relation recording system based on first heart sound amplitude vibrations has been recently validated. Second heart sound can be simultaneously recorded in order to quantify both systole and diastole duration. Aims 1- To assess the feasibility and extra-value of operator-independent, force sensor-based, diastolic time recording during stress. Methods We enrolled 161 patients referred for stress echocardiography (exercise 115, dipyridamole 40, pacing 6 patients). The sensor was fastened in the precordial region by a standard ECG electrode. The acceleration signal was converted into digital and recorded together with ECG signal. Both systolic and diastolic times were acquired continuously during stress and were displayed by plotting times vs. heart rate. Diastolic filling rate was calculated as echo-measured mitral filling volume/sensor-monitored diastolic time. Results Diastolic time decreased during stress more markedly than systolic time. At peak stress 62 of the 161 pts showed reversal of the systolic/diastolic ratio with the duration of systole longer than diastole. In the exercise group, at 100 bpm HR, systolic/diastolic time ratio was lower in the 17 controls (0.74 ± 0.12) than in patients (0.86 ± 0.10, p < 0.05 vs. controls). Diastolic filling rate increased from 101 ± 36 (rest) to 219 ± 92 ml/m2* s-1 at peak stress (p < 0.5 vs. rest). Conclusion Cardiological systolic and diastolic duration can be monitored during stress by using an acceleration force sensor. Simultaneous calculation of stroke volume allows monitoring diastolic filling rate. Stress-induced "systolic-diastolic mismatch" can be easily quantified and is associated to several cardiac diseases, possibly expanding the spectrum of information obtainable during stress. PMID:18426559

  12. Measurement of absolute regional lung air volumes from near-field x-ray speckles.

    PubMed

    Leong, Andrew F T; Paganin, David M; Hooper, Stuart B; Siew, Melissa L; Kitchen, Marcus J

    2013-11-18

    Propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBX) imaging yields high contrast images of the lung where airways that overlap in projection coherently scatter the x-rays, giving rise to a speckled intensity due to interference effects. Our previous works have shown that total and regional changes in lung air volumes can be accurately measured from two-dimensional (2D) absorption or phase contrast images when the subject is immersed in a water-filled container. In this paper we demonstrate how the phase contrast speckle patterns can be used to directly measure absolute regional lung air volumes from 2D PBX images without the need for a water-filled container. We justify this technique analytically and via simulation using the transport-of-intensity equation and calibrate the technique using our existing methods for measuring lung air volume. Finally, we show the full capabilities of this technique for measuring regional differences in lung aeration.

  13. The efficacy of the Self-Adjusting File versus WaveOne in removal of root filling residue that remains in oval canals after the use of ProTaper retreatment files: A cone-beam computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Ajinkya M; Thakur, Bhagyashree; Metzger, Zvi; Kfir, Anda; Pawar, Mansing

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The current ex vivo study compared the efficacy of removing root fillings using ProTaper retreatment files followed by either WaveOne reciprocating file or the Self-Adjusting File (SAF). Materials and Methods: Forty maxillary canines with single oval root canal were selected and sectioned to obtain 18-mm root segments. The root canals were instrumented with WaveOne primary files, followed by obturation using warm lateral compaction, and the sealer was allowed to fully set. The teeth were then divided into two equal groups (N = 20). Initial removal of the bulk of root filling material was performed with ProTaper retreatment files, followed by either WaveOne files (Group 1) or SAF (Group 2). Endosolv R was used as a gutta-percha softener. Preoperative and postoperative high-resolution cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the volume of the root filling residue that was left after the procedure. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test. Results: The mean volume of root filling residue in Group 1 was 9.4 (±0.5) mm3, whereas in Group 2 the residue volume was 2.6 (±0.4) mm3, (P < 0.001; t-test). Conclusions: When SAF was used after ProTaper retreatment files, significantly less root filling residue was left in the canals compared to when WaveOne was used. PMID:26957798

  14. The Particle Distribution in Liquid Metal with Ceramic Particles Mould Filling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qi; Xing, Shu-ming

    2017-09-01

    Adding ceramic particles in the plate hammer is an effective method to increase the wear resistance of the hammer. The liquid phase method is based on the “with the flow of mixed liquid forging composite preparation of ZTA ceramic particle reinforced high chromium cast iron hammer. Preparation method for this system is using CFD simulation analysis the particles distribution of flow mixing and filling process. Taking the 30% volume fraction of ZTA ceramic composite of high chromium cast iron hammer as example, by changing the speed of liquid metal viscosity to control and make reasonable predictions of particles distribution before solidification.

  15. Filled Prescriptions for Opioids After Vaginal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Jarlenski, Marian; Bodnar, Lisa M; Kim, Joo Yeon; Donohue, Julie; Krans, Elizabeth E; Bogen, Debra L

    2017-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of filled opioid prescriptions after vaginal delivery. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 164,720 Medicaid-enrolled women in Pennsylvania who delivered a liveborn neonate vaginally from 2008 to 2013, excluding women who used opioids during pregnancy or who had an opioid use disorder. We assessed overall filled prescriptions as well as filled prescriptions in the presence or absence of the following pain-inducing conditions: bilateral tubal ligation, perineal laceration, or episiotomy. Outcomes included a binary measure of whether a woman had any opioid prescription fill 5 days or less after delivery and, among those women, a second opioid prescription fill 6-60 days after delivery. Among women with no coded pain-inducing conditions at delivery, we used multivariable logistic regression with standard errors clustered to account for within-hospital correlation to assess the association between patient characteristics and odds of a filled opioid prescription. Twelve percent of women (n=18,131) filled an outpatient opioid prescription 5 days or less after vaginal delivery; among those women, 14% (n=2,592, or 1.6% of the total) filled a second opioid prescription 6-60 days after delivery. Of the former, 5,110 (28.2%) had one or more pain-inducing conditions. Predictors of filled opioid prescriptions with no observed pain-inducing condition at delivery included tobacco use (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.4) and a mental health condition (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). Having a diagnosis of substance use disorder other than opioid use disorder was not associated with filling an opioid prescription 5 days or less after delivery, but was associated with having a second opioid prescription 6-60 days after delivery (adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6). More than 1 in 10 Medicaid-enrolled women fill an outpatient opioid prescription after vaginal delivery. National opioid-prescribing recommendations for

  16. A Semi-parametric Multivariate Gap-filling Model for Eddy Covariance Latent Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Chen, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative descriptions of latent heat fluxes are important to study the water and energy exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The eddy covariance approaches have been recognized as the most reliable technique for measuring surface fluxes over time scales ranging from hours to years. However, unfavorable micrometeorological conditions, instrument failures, and applicable measurement limitations may cause inevitable flux gaps in time series data. Development and application of suitable gap-filling techniques are crucial to estimate long term fluxes. In this study, a semi-parametric multivariate gap-filling model was developed to fill latent heat flux gaps for eddy covariance measurements. Our approach combines the advantages of a multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA) and a nonlinear interpolation technique (K-nearest-neighbors, KNN). The PCA method was first used to resolve the multicollinearity relationships among various hydrometeorological factors, such as radiation, soil moisture deficit, LAI, and wind speed. The KNN method was then applied as a nonlinear interpolation tool to estimate the flux gaps as the weighted sum latent heat fluxes with the K-nearest distances in the PCs’ domain. Two years, 2008 and 2009, of eddy covariance and hydrometeorological data from a subtropical mixed evergreen forest (the Lien-Hua-Chih Site) were collected to calibrate and validate the proposed approach with artificial gaps after standard QC/QA procedures. The optimal K values and weighting factors were determined by the maximum likelihood test. The results of gap-filled latent heat fluxes conclude that developed model successful preserving energy balances of daily, monthly, and yearly time scales. Annual amounts of evapotranspiration from this study forest were 747 mm and 708 mm for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Nocturnal evapotranspiration was estimated with filled gaps and results are comparable with other studies

  17. Hospital volume and other risk factors for in-hospital mortality among diverticulitis patients: A nationwide analysis

    PubMed Central

    Diamant, Michael J; Coward, Stephanie; Buie, W Donald; MacLean, Anthony; Dixon, Elijah; Ball, Chad G; Schaffer, Samuel; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that a higher volume of colorectal surgery was associated with lower mortality rates. While diverticulitis is an increasingly common condition, the effect of hospital volume on outcomes among diverticulitis patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between hospital volume and other factors on in-hospital mortality among patients admitted for diverticulitis. METHODS: Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (years 1993 to 2008) were analyzed to identify 822,865 patients representing 4,108,726 admissions for diverticulitis. Hospitals were divided into quartiles based on the volume of diverticulitis cases admitted over the study period, adjusted for years contributed to the dataset. Mortality according to hospital volume was modelled using logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, race, comorbidities, health care insurance, admission type, calendar year, colectomy, disease severity and clustering. Risk estimates were expressed as adjusted ORs with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Patients at high-volume hospitals were more likely to be admitted emergently, undergo surgical treatment and have more severe disease. In-hospital mortality was higher among the lowest quartile of hospital volume compared with the highest volume (OR 1.13 [95% CI 1.05 to 1.21]). In-hospital mortality was increased among patients admitted emergently (OR 2.58 [95% CI 2.40 to 2.78]) as well as those receiving surgical treatment (OR 3.60 [95% CI 3.42 to 3.78]). CONCLUSIONS: Diverticulitis patients admitted to hospitals with a low volume of diverticulitis cases had an increased risk for death compared with those admitted to high-volume centres. PMID:25965439

  18. Archimedes Revisited: A Faster, Better, Cheaper Method of Accurately Measuring the Volume of Small Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2005-01-01

    A little-known method of measuring the volume of small objects based on Archimedes' principle is described, which involves suspending an object in a water-filled container placed on electronic scales. The suspension technique is a variation on the hydrostatic weighing technique used for measuring volume. The suspension method was compared with two…

  19. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY Dummy fill effect on CMP planarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junxiong, Zhou; Lan, Chen; Wenbiao, Ruan; Zhigang, Li; Weixiang, Shen; Tianchun, Ye

    2010-10-01

    With the use of a chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) simulator verified by testing data from a foundry, the effect of dummy fill characteristics, such as fill size, fill density and fill shape, on CMP planarity is analyzed. The results indicate that dummy density has a significant impact on oxide erosion, and copper dishing is in proportion to dummy size. We also demonstrate that cross shape dummy fill can have the best dishing performance at the same density.

  20. Paleovalley fills: Trunk vs. tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvale, E.P.; Archer, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    A late Mississippian-early Pennsylvanian eustatic sea level drop resulted in a complex lowstand drainage network being eroded across the Illinois Basin in the eastern United States. This drainage system was filled during the early part of the Pennsylvanian. Distinct differences can be recognized between the trunk and tributary paleovalley fills. Fills preserved within the trunk systems tend to be fluvially dominated and consist of bed-load deposits of coarse- to medium-grained sandstone and conglomerate. Conversely, the incised valleys of tributary systems tend to be filled with dark mudstone, thinly interbedded sandstones, and mudstones and siltstones. These finer grained facies exhibit marine influences manifested by tidal rhythmites, certain traces fossils, and macro- and microfauna. Examples of tributary and trunk systems, separated by no more than 7 km (4.3 mi) along strike, exhibit these styles of highly contrasting fills. Useful analogs for understanding this Pennsylvanian system include the Quaternary glacial sluiceways present in the lower Ohio, White, and Wabash river valleys of Indiana (United States) and the modern Amazon River (Brazil). Both the Amazon River and the Quaternary rivers of Indiana have (or had) trunk rivers that are (were) dominated by large quantities of bed load relative to their tributaries. The trunk valley systems of these analogs aggraded much more rapidly than their tributary valleys, which evolved into lakes because depositional rates along the trunk are (were) so high that the mouths of the tributaries have been dammed by bed-load deposits. These Holocene systems illustrate that sediment yields can significantly influence the nature of fill successions within incised valleys independent of rates of sea level changes or proximity to highstand coastlines. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  1. 7 CFR 2902.20 - Fluid-filled transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid-filled transformers. 2902.20 Section 2902.20... Items § 2902.20 Fluid-filled transformers. (a) Definition. (1) Synthetic ester-based fluid-filled transformers. Electric power transformers that are designed to utilize a synthetic ester-based dielectric (non...

  2. 7 CFR 3201.20 - Fluid-filled transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid-filled transformers. 3201.20 Section 3201.20... Designated Items § 3201.20 Fluid-filled transformers. (a) Definition. (1) Synthetic ester-based fluid-filled transformers. Electric power transformers that are designed to utilize a synthetic ester-based dielectric (non...

  3. 7 CFR 3201.20 - Fluid-filled transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fluid-filled transformers. 3201.20 Section 3201.20... Designated Items § 3201.20 Fluid-filled transformers. (a) Definition—(1) Synthetic ester-based fluid-filled transformers. Electric power transformers that are designed to utilize a synthetic ester-based dielectric (non...

  4. 7 CFR 2902.20 - Fluid-filled transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluid-filled transformers. 2902.20 Section 2902.20... Items § 2902.20 Fluid-filled transformers. (a) Definition. (1) Synthetic ester-based fluid-filled transformers. Electric power transformers that are designed to utilize a synthetic ester-based dielectric (non...

  5. 7 CFR 3201.20 - Fluid-filled transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid-filled transformers. 3201.20 Section 3201.20... Designated Items § 3201.20 Fluid-filled transformers. (a) Definition—(1) Synthetic ester-based fluid-filled transformers. Electric power transformers that are designed to utilize a synthetic ester-based dielectric (non...

  6. 7 CFR 51.902 - Fairly well filled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly well filled. 51.902 Section 51.902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Definitions § 51.902 Fairly well filled. Fairly well filled means that the berries are reasonably closely...

  7. 7 CFR 51.902 - Fairly well filled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly well filled. 51.902 Section 51.902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Definitions § 51.902 Fairly well filled. Fairly well filled means that the berries are reasonably closely...

  8. A voxel-based technique to estimate the volume of trees from terrestrial laser scanner data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienert, A.; Hess, C.; Maas, H.-G.; von Oheimb, G.

    2014-06-01

    The precise determination of the volume of standing trees is very important for ecological and economical considerations in forestry. If terrestrial laser scanner data are available, a simple approach for volume determination is given by allocating points into a voxel structure and subsequently counting the filled voxels. Generally, this method will overestimate the volume. The paper presents an improved algorithm to estimate the wood volume of trees using a voxel-based method which will correct for the overestimation. After voxel space transformation, each voxel which contains points is reduced to the volume of its surrounding bounding box. In a next step, occluded (inner stem) voxels are identified by a neighbourhood analysis sweeping in the X and Y direction of each filled voxel. Finally, the wood volume of the tree is composed by the sum of the bounding box volumes of the outer voxels and the volume of all occluded inner voxels. Scan data sets from several young Norway maple trees (Acer platanoides) were used to analyse the algorithm. Therefore, the scanned trees as well as their representing point clouds were separated in different components (stem, branches) to make a meaningful comparison. Two reference measurements were performed for validation: A direct wood volume measurement by placing the tree components into a water tank, and a frustum calculation of small trunk segments by measuring the radii along the trunk. Overall, the results show slightly underestimated volumes (-0.3% for a probe of 13 trees) with a RMSE of 11.6% for the individual tree volume calculated with the new approach.

  9. Asymmetrical color filling-in from the nasal to the temporal side of the blind spot

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Luo, Junxiang; Lu, Yiliang; Kan, Janis; Spillmann, Lothar; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The physiological blind spot, corresponding to the optic disk in the retina, is a relatively large (6 × 8°) area in the visual field that receives no retinal input. However, we rarely notice the existence of it in daily life. This is because the blind spot fills in with the brightness, color, texture, and motion of the surround. The study of filling-in enables us to better understand the creative nature of the visual system, which generates perceptual information where there is none. Is there any retinotopic rule in the color filling-in of the blind spot? To find out, we used mono-colored and bi-colored annuli hugging the boundary of the blind spot. We found that mono-colored annuli filled in the blind spot uniformly. By contrast, bi-colored annuli, where one half had a given color, while the other half had a different one, filled in the blind spot asymmetrically. Specifically, the color surrounding the nasal half typically filled in about 75% of the blind spot area, whereas the color surrounding the temporal half filled in only about 25%. This asymmetry was dependent on the relative size of the half rings, but not the two colors used, and was absent when the bi-colored annulus was rotated by 90°. Here, the two colors on the upper and lower sides of the blind spot filled in the enclosed area equally. These results suggest that the strength of filling-in decreases with distance from the fovea consistent with the decrease of the cortical magnification factor. PMID:25100977

  10. Asymmetrical color filling-in from the nasal to the temporal side of the blind spot.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Luo, Junxiang; Lu, Yiliang; Kan, Janis; Spillmann, Lothar; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The physiological blind spot, corresponding to the optic disk in the retina, is a relatively large (6 × 8°) area in the visual field that receives no retinal input. However, we rarely notice the existence of it in daily life. This is because the blind spot fills in with the brightness, color, texture, and motion of the surround. The study of filling-in enables us to better understand the creative nature of the visual system, which generates perceptual information where there is none. Is there any retinotopic rule in the color filling-in of the blind spot? To find out, we used mono-colored and bi-colored annuli hugging the boundary of the blind spot. We found that mono-colored annuli filled in the blind spot uniformly. By contrast, bi-colored annuli, where one half had a given color, while the other half had a different one, filled in the blind spot asymmetrically. Specifically, the color surrounding the nasal half typically filled in about 75% of the blind spot area, whereas the color surrounding the temporal half filled in only about 25%. This asymmetry was dependent on the relative size of the half rings, but not the two colors used, and was absent when the bi-colored annulus was rotated by 90°. Here, the two colors on the upper and lower sides of the blind spot filled in the enclosed area equally. These results suggest that the strength of filling-in decreases with distance from the fovea consistent with the decrease of the cortical magnification factor.

  11. Phase II test plan for the evaluation of the performance of container filling systems

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    BOGER, R.M.

    The PHMC will provide tank wastes for final treatment by BNFL from Hanford's waste tanks. Concerns about the ability for ''grab'' sampling to provide large volumes of representative waste samples has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. Preferred concepts for filling sample containers that meet RCRA organic sample criteria were identified by a PHMC Decision Board. These systems will replace the needle based sampling ''T'' that is currently on the sampling system. This test plan document identifies cold tests with simulants that will demonstrate the preferred bottle filling concepts abilities to provide representative waste samples andmore » will meet RCRA criteria. Additional tests are identified that evaluate the potential for cross-contamination between samples and the ability for the system to decontaminate surfaces which have contacted tank wastes. These tests will be performed with kaolid/water and sand/water slurry simulants in the test rig that was used by AEAT to complete Phase 1 tests in FY 1999.« less

  12. Microstructure Filled Hohlraums

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moore, A. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Reese, T. M.

    2017-02-24

    We propose replacing the gas fill in a hohlraum with a low average density, variable uniformity 3D printed structure. This creates a bimodal hohlraum which acts like a vacuum hohlraum initially during the picket, but could protect the capsule from glint or direct illumination, and then once expanded, homogenizes to behave like a variable z gas-fill during peak portion of the drive. This is motivated by a two main aims: 1) reduction of the Au bubble velocity to improve inner beam propagation, and 2) the introduction of a low density, high-Z, x-ray converter to improve x-ray production in the hohlraummore » and uniformity of the radiation field seen by the capsule.« less

  13. 7 CFR 51.902 - Fairly well filled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly well filled. 51.902 Section 51.902 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.902 Fairly well filled. Fairly well filled means that the berries are reasonably closely spaced on main and lateral stems and...

  14. 7 CFR 51.902 - Fairly well filled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly well filled. 51.902 Section 51.902 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.902 Fairly well filled. Fairly well filled means that the berries are reasonably closely spaced on main and lateral stems and...

  15. 7 CFR 51.902 - Fairly well filled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly well filled. 51.902 Section 51.902 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.902 Fairly well filled. Fairly well filled means that the berries are reasonably closely spaced on main and lateral stems and...

  16. [Effects of shading at different phases of grain-filling on wheat grain protein components contents and processing quality].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Chen, Mao-xue; Yu, Zhen-wen; Xu, Zhen-zhu

    2011-10-01

    Taking three wheat cultivars Jimai 20 (strong gluten), Taishan 23 (medium gluten), and Ningmai 9 (weak gluten) as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of shading at different phases of grain-filling on the grain protein components contents and processing quality. Four treatments were installed, i. e., no shading (S0), shading at early grain-filling phase (from 0 day after anthesis (DAA) to 11 DAA; S1), shading at medium grain-filling phase (from 12 DAA to 23 DAA; S2), and shading at late grain-filling phase (from 24 DAA to 35 DAA; S3). No significant differences were observed in the grain albumin+globulin contents of the three cultivars among the four treatments. Shading increased the grain HMW-GS, LMW-GS, gluten, glutenin, and total protein contents of Jimai 20 and Taishan 23 significantly, and the increments were higher in treatment S2 than in other shading treatments. Treatments S2 and S3 increased the grain protein components contents of Ningmai 9 significantly. Comparing with the control, shading decreased the grain yield significantly, but increased the dough development time, dough stability time, and sedimentation volume, especially for treatment S2, which suggested that the wheat grain quality had a close relationship with the light intensity at medium phase of grain-filling. Overall, the regulation effect of shading at grain-filling stage on the wheat grain yield, grain protein components contents, and indices values of grain processing quality for the test cultivars was in the order of Jimai 20 > Taishan 23 > Ningmai 9.

  17. Filling of High-Concentration Monoclonal Antibody Formulations into Pre-filled Syringes: Investigating Formulation-Nozzle Interactions To Minimize Nozzle Clogging.

    PubMed

    Shieu, Wendy; Stauch, Oliver B; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2015-01-01

    Syringe filling of high-concentration/viscosity monoclonal antibody formulations is a complex process that is not fully understood. This study, which builds on a previous investigation that used a bench-top syringe filling unit to examine formulation drying at the filling nozzle tip and subsequent nozzle clogging, further explores the impact of formulation-nozzle material interactions on formulation drying and nozzle clogging. Syringe-filling nozzles made of glass, stainless steel, or plastic (polypropylene, silicone, and Teflon®), which represent a full range of materials with hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties as quantified by contact angle measurements, were used to fill liquids of different viscosity, including a high-concentration monoclonal antibody formulation. Compared with hydrophilic nozzles, hydrophobic nozzles offered two unique features that discouraged formulation drying and nozzle clogging: (1) the liquid formulation is more likely to be withdrawn into the hydrophobic nozzle under the same suck-back conditions, and (2) the residual liquid film left on the nozzle wall when using high suck-back settings settles to form a liquid plug away from the hydrophobic nozzle tip. Making the tip of the nozzle hydrophobic (silicone-coating on glass and Teflon-coating stainless steel) could achieve the same suck-back performance as plastic nozzles. This study demonstrated that using hydrophobic nozzles are most effective in reducing the risk of nozzle clogging by drying of high-concentration monoclonal antibody formulation during extended nozzle idle time in a large-scale filling facility and environment. Syringe filling is a well-established manufacturing process and has been implemented by numerous contract manufacturing organizations and biopharmaceutical companies. However, its technical details and associated critical process parameters are rarely published. Information on high-concentration/viscosity formulation filling is particularly lacking. This

  18. Spatial distribution of sediment storage types and quantification of valley fill deposits in an alpine basin, Reintal, Bavarian Alps, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrott, Lothar; Hufschmidt, Gabi; Hankammer, Martin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Dikau, Richard

    2003-09-01

    Spatial patterns of sediment storage types and associated volumes using a novel approach for quantifying valley fill deposits are presented for a small alpine catchment (17 km 2) in the Bavarian Alps. The different sediment storage types were analysed with respect to geomorphic coupling and sediment flux activity. The most landforms in the valley in terms of surface area were found to be talus slopes (sheets and cones) followed by rockfall deposits and alluvial fans and plains. More than two-thirds of the talus slopes are relict landforms, completely decoupled from the geomorphic system. Notable sediment transport is limited to avalanche tracks, debris flows, and along floodplains. Sediment volumes were calculated using a combination of polynomial functions of cross sections, seismic refraction, and GIS modelling. A total of, 66 seismic refraction profiles were carried out throughout the valley for a more precise determination of sediment thicknesses and to check the bedrock data generated from geomorphometric analysis. We calculated the overall sediment volume of the valley fill deposits to be 0.07 km 3. This corresponds to a mean sediment thickness of 23.3 m. The seismic refraction data showed that large floodplains and sedimentation areas, which have been developed through damming effects from large rockfalls, are in general characterised by shallow sediment thicknesses (<20 m). By contrast, the thickness of several talus slopes is more than twice as much. For some locations (e.g., narrow sections of valley), the polynomial-generated cross sections resulted in overestimations of up to one order of magnitude; whereas in sections with a moderate valley shape, the modelled cross sections are in good accordance with the obtained seismic data. For the quantification of valley fill deposits, a combined application of bedrock data derived from polynomials and geophysical prospecting is highly recommended.

  19. Relationship of ischemic times and left atrial volume and function in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Ilic, Ivan; Stankovic, Ivan; Vidakovic, Radosav; Jovanovic, Vladimir; Vlahovic Stipac, Alja; Putnikovic, BiIjana; Neskovic, Aleksandar N

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the impact of duration of ischemia on left atrial (LA) volumes and function during acute phase of myocardial infarction. We investigated the relationship of ischemic times, echocardiographic indices of diastolic function and LA volumes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 433 consecutive STEMI patients underwent echocardiographic examination within 48 h of primary PCI, including the measurement of LA volumes and the ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e'). Time intervals from onset of chest pain to hospital admission and reperfusion were collected and magnitude of Troponin I release was used to assess infarct size. Patients with LA volume index (LAVI) ≥28 ml/m(2) had longer total ischemic time (410 ± 347 vs. 303 ± 314 min, p = 0.007) and higher E/e' ratio (15 ± 5 vs. 10 ± 3, p < 0.001) than those with LAVI <28 ml/m(2), while the indices of LA function were similar between the study groups (p > 0.05, for all). Significant correlation was found between E/e' and LA volumes at all stages of LA filling and contraction (r = 0.363-0.434; p < 0.001, for all) while total ischemic time along with E/e' and restrictive filling pattern remained independent predictor of LA enlargement. Increased LA volume is associated with longer ischemic times and may be a sensitive marker of increased left ventricular filling pressures in STEMI patients treated with primary PCI.

  20. Biomineral nanoparticles are space-filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Killian, Christopher E.; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2011-02-01

    Sea urchin biominerals have been shown to form from aggregating nanoparticles of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), which then crystallize into macroscopic single crystals of calcite. Here we measure the surface areas of these biominerals and find them to be comparable to those of space-filling macroscopic geologic calcite crystals. These biominerals differ from synthetic mesocrystals, which are invariably porous. We propose that space-filling ACC is the structural precursor for echinoderm biominerals.Sea urchin biominerals have been shown to form from aggregating nanoparticles of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), which then crystallize into macroscopic single crystals of calcite. Here we measure the surface areas of these biominerals and find them to be comparable to those of space-filling macroscopic geologic calcite crystals. These biominerals differ from synthetic mesocrystals, which are invariably porous. We propose that space-filling ACC is the structural precursor for echinoderm biominerals. This article was submitted as part of a Themed Issue on Crystallization and Formation Mechanisms of Nanostructures. Other papers on this topic can be found in issue 11 of vol. 2 (2010). This issue can be found from the Nanoscale homepage [http://www.rsc.org/nanoscale

  1. Effect of customization of master gutta-percha cone on apical control of root filling using different techniques: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, S P; Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L

    2005-09-01

    (i) To compare the prevalence of extrusion of root filling material when placed using different root filling techniques, with or without customization of the master gutta-percha (GP) cone; and (ii) to investigate the effects of some factors influencing root filling extrusion and presence of voids. A total of 180 roots were selected, prepared and randomly allocated to three groups. Five general dental practitioners performed the root fillings; each filled one group of roots (n = 60) using each of three techniques; 'cold lateral compaction' (n = 20), 'warm vertical compaction' (n = 20) and 'continuous-wave' (n = 20) techniques. For each obturation technique, the master GP cone was customized using chloroform in 10 samples. Two groups of the roots were recycled to allow all five operators to fulfill their remit. Two observers, blind to operator and obturation technique, examined the radiographs (master apical file, post-obturation) to determine the presence of root filling extrusion and voids within the apical 5 mm, independently. Root filling extrusion was also confirmed by direct inspection of the root apex after obturation. The data were analysed using logistic regression models. A total of 300 root fillings were performed; nine were excluded from the analysis. Most of the root fillings (80%, n = 233) were placed within 0.5 mm of the working length; only 20% (n = 58) were placed >0.5 mm beyond the working length. The odds of prevalence of extrusion (>0.5 mm) were significantly reduced by about 50% when cold lateral compaction or customization of GP were used. One operator produced 2.5 times more extruded root fillings than others. Curvature & length of root canal, apical size of prepared canal, as well as operator's preferred obturation technique had no significant influence on the prevalence of extrusion. Customization of GP was the sole factor to significantly reduce the prevalence of voids within the apical 5 mm of working length. Root filling extrusion was

  2. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: risk factors for complications and the effect of hospital volume on outcomes.

    PubMed

    Menger, Richard P; Kalakoti, Piyush; Pugely, Andrew J; Nanda, Anil; Sin, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of scoliosis. Limited literature exists defining risk factors associated with outcomes during initial hospitalization in these patients. In this study, the authors investigated patient demographics, clinical and hospital characteristics impacting short-term outcomes, and costs in adolescent patients undergoing surgical deformity correction for idiopathic scoliosis. Additionally, the authors elucidate the impact of hospital surgical volume on outcomes for these patients. METHODS Using the National Inpatient Sample database and appropriate International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes, the authors identified adolescent patients (10-19 years of age) undergoing surgical deformity correction for idiopathic scoliosis during 2001-2014. For national estimates, appropriate weights provided by the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality were used. Multivariable regression techniques were employed to assess the association of risk factors with discharge disposition, postsurgical neurological complications, length of hospital stay, and hospitalization costs. RESULTS Overall, 75,106 adolescent patients underwent surgical deformity correction. The rates of postsurgical complications were estimated at 0.9% for neurological issues, 2.8% for respiratory complications, 0.8% for cardiac complications, 0.4% for infections, 2.7% for gastrointestinal complications, 0.1% for venous thromboembolic events, and 0.1% for acute renal failure. Overall, patients stayed at the hospital for an average of 5.72 days (median 5 days) and on average incurred hospitalization costs estimated at $54,997 (median $47,909). As compared with patients at low-volume centers (≤ 50 operations/year), those undergoing surgical deformity correction at high-volume centers (> 50/year) had a significantly lower likelihood of an unfavorable discharge (discharge to rehabilitation) (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.30, p = 0.016) and

  3. Liquid-filled simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengnan; Gao, Wei; Li, Hongwei; Dong, Yongkang; Zhang, Hongying

    2014-12-01

    We report on a novel type of liquid-filled simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs), and investigate their transmission properties with various filling liquids, including water, ethanol and FC-40. The loss and dispersion characterizations are calculated for different fiber parameters including strut thickness and core diameter. The results show that there are still low-loss windows existing for liquid-filled simplified HC-PCFs, and the low-loss windows and dispersions can be easily tailored by filling different liquids. Such liquid-filled simplified HC-PCFs open up many possibilities for nonlinear fiber optics, optical, biochemical and medical sensing.

  4. Impaired myocardial function does not explain reduced left ventricular filling and stroke volume at rest or during exercise at high altitude

    PubMed Central

    Ainslie, Philip N.; Hughes, Michael G.; Stöhr, Eric J.; Cotter, James D.; Tymko, Michael M.; Day, Trevor A.; Bakker, Akke; Shave, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Impaired myocardial systolic contraction and diastolic relaxation have been suggested as possible mechanisms contributing to the decreased stroke volume (SV) observed at high altitude (HA). To determine whether intrinsic myocardial performance is a limiting factor in the generation of SV at HA, we assessed left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic mechanics and volumes in 10 healthy participants (aged 32 ± 7; mean ± SD) at rest and during exercise at sea level (SL; 344 m) and after 10 days at 5,050 m. In contrast to SL, LV end-diastolic volume was ∼19% lower at rest (P = 0.004) and did not increase during exercise despite a greater untwisting velocity. Furthermore, resting SV was lower at HA (∼17%; 60 ± 10 vs. 70 ± 8 ml) despite higher LV twist (43%), apical rotation (115%), and circumferential strain (17%). With exercise at HA, the increase in SV was limited (12 vs. 22 ml at SL), and LV apical rotation failed to augment. For the first time, we have demonstrated that EDV does not increase upon exercise at high altitude despite enhanced in vivo diastolic relaxation. The increase in LV mechanics at rest may represent a mechanism by which SV is defended in the presence of a reduced EDV. However, likely because of the higher LV mechanics at rest, no further increase was observed up to 50% peak power. Consequently, although hypoxia does not suppress systolic function per se, the capacity to increase SV through greater deformation during submaximal exercise at HA is restricted. PMID:25749445

  5. External root resorption during orthodontic treatment in root-filled teeth and contralateral teeth with vital pulp: A clinical study of contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Ju; Lee, Tae Yeon

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of research to support the belief that root canal treatment can be considered for stopping or decreasing external apical root resorption (EARR). There is conflicting evidence as to whether root-filled teeth are more or less likely to experience EARR after orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of EARR of root-filled teeth with that of contralateral teeth with vital pulp after fixed orthodontic treatment. The study sample consisted of 35 patients aged 25.23 ± 4.92 years who had at least 1 root-filled tooth before orthodontic treatment. Digital panoramic radiographs of each patient taken before and after orthodontic treatment were used to measure the EARR. The Student t test for matched pairs and the Pearson correlation analysis were applied. The mean EARR values were 0.22 (0.14, 0.35) for root-filled teeth and 0.87 (0.59, 1.31) for contralateral teeth with vital pulp, indicating significantly less EARR for root-filled teeth compared with the contralateral teeth with vital pulp after orthodontic treatment. EARR was influenced by the patient's age, treatment duration, treatment type, and periapical pathosis, but not by tooth type and sex. Root-filled teeth appear to be associated with significantly less EARR than are contralateral teeth with vital pulp. This study suggests that the possible complication of EARR in root-filled teeth may not be an important consideration in orthodontic treatment planning, and root canal treatment can be considered for stopping or decreasing EARR when severe EARR occurs during orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of filling-drawdown cycles of the Vajont reservoir on Mt. Toc slope stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paronuzzi, Paolo; Rigo, Elia; Bolla, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    In the present work, the 1963 Vajont landslide has been back-analyzed in detail to examine the influence of reservoir operations (filling and drawdown) on Mt. Toc slope stability. The combined seepage-slope stability analyses carried out show that the main destabilizing factor that favored the 1963 Vajont landslide was the reservoir-induced water table that formed as a consequence of rapid seepage inflow within the submerged toe of the slope — decrease in the factor of safety (FOS) up to 12% compared to the initial slope stability condition, i.e., in the absence of the Vajont reservoir. Rainfall would only have been a decisive factor if the initial stability condition of the Mt. Toc slope had already been very close to failure (decrease in FOS caused by heavy or prolonged rainfall is about 3-4%, for the worst case scenario analyzed). The permeability of the shear zone material occurring at the base of the prehistoric Vajont rockslide has been evaluated at 5 × 10- 4 m/s, and back-calculated values of the friction angles Φ range from 17.5° to 27.5°. When considering mountain reservoirs, slope failures can occur during both filling and drawdown phases. In the Vajont case, owing to the highly permeable materials of the shear zone, slope stability decreased during filling and increased during drawdown. Another displacement-dependent phenomenon of a mechanical nature - progressive failure of the NE landslide constraint - has to be considered to understand the slope collapse that occurred during the last drawdown (26 September-9 October 1963). The results of the combined seepage-slope stability models indicate that permeability of bank-forming material and filling-drawdown rates of reservoirs can strongly influence slope stability. Slow lowering of the reservoir level is a necessary measure to reduce the occurrence of very dangerous transient negative peaks of FOS.

  7. The effect of using an inverted master cone in a lateral compaction technique on the density of the gutta-percha fill.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min-Kai; de Groot, Sjoerd D; van der Sluis, Luc W M; Wesselink, Paul R

    2003-09-01

    We sought to measure and calculate the percentage of the gutta-percha-filled area in the apical root canal after the use of a standardized or inverted master cone in cold lateral compaction.Study design Two groups of extracted mandibular premolars with a single canal were instrumented with instruments of the same size; furthermore, they were obturated with laterally compacted gutta-percha cones with AH26 used as a sealer. In the first group, a standardized master cone was used with its narrow end in an apical position, whereas in the other group, an inverted master cone was used with its wide end in an apical position. The 2 master cones had the same apical diameter and fit in the apical canal. After lateral compaction, horizontal sections were cut at a level 3 and 5 mm from the apex of each filled tooth. Photographs of the sections were taken by using a microscope equipped with a digital camera; the photos were then scanned as tagged-image file format images. The cross-sectional area of the canal and the gutta-percha were measured by using an image-analysis program. The percentage of gutta-percha-filled area was calculated. At both levels, the inverted master cone produced a significantly higher percentage, statistically, of gutta-percha-filled area than did the standardized master cone (P =.001 at 3 mm; P =.012 at 5 mm). The use of an inverted master cone in cold lateral compaction may facilitate the apical placement of accessory cones, significantly increasing the volume of gutta-percha while reducing the volume of sealer in the apical root canal.

  8. Brain responses to filled gaps.

    PubMed

    Hestvik, Arild; Maxfield, Nathan; Schwartz, Richard G; Shafer, Valerie

    2007-03-01

    An unresolved issue in the study of sentence comprehension is whether the process of gap-filling is mediated by the construction of empty categories (traces), or whether the parser relates fillers directly to the associated verb's argument structure. We conducted an event-related potentials (ERP) study that used the violation paradigm to examine the time course and spatial distribution of brain responses to ungrammatically filled gaps. The results indicate that the earliest brain response to the violation is an early left anterior negativity (eLAN). This ERP indexes an early phase of pure syntactic structure building, temporally preceding ERPs that reflect semantic integration and argument structure satisfaction. The finding is interpreted as evidence that gap-filling is mediated by structurally predicted empty categories, rather than directly by argument structure operations.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of some critical factors affecting simulated intrusion volumes during a low pressure transient event in a full-scale water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Ebacher, G; Besner, M C; Clément, B; Prévost, M

    2012-09-01

    Intrusion events caused by transient low pressures may result in the contamination of a water distribution system (DS). This work aims at estimating the range of potential intrusion volumes that could result from a real downsurge event caused by a momentary pump shutdown. A model calibrated with transient low pressure recordings was used to simulate total intrusion volumes through leakage orifices and submerged air vacuum valves (AVVs). Four critical factors influencing intrusion volumes were varied: the external head of (untreated) water on leakage orifices, the external head of (untreated) water on submerged air vacuum valves, the leakage rate, and the diameter of AVVs' outlet orifice (represented by a multiplicative factor). Leakage orifices' head and AVVs' orifice head levels were assessed through fieldwork. Two sets of runs were generated as part of two statistically designed experiments. A first set of 81 runs was based on a complete factorial design in which each factor was varied over 3 levels. A second set of 40 runs was based on a latin hypercube design, better suited for experimental runs on a computer model. The simulations were conducted using commercially available transient analysis software. Responses, measured by total intrusion volumes, ranged from 10 to 366 L. A second degree polynomial was used to analyze the total intrusion volumes. Sensitivity analyses of both designs revealed that the relationship between the total intrusion volume and the four contributing factors is not monotonic, with the AVVs' orifice head being the most influential factor. When intrusion through both pathways occurs concurrently, interactions between the intrusion flows through leakage orifices and submerged AVVs influence intrusion volumes. When only intrusion through leakage orifices is considered, the total intrusion volume is more largely influenced by the leakage rate than by the leakage orifices' head. The latter mainly impacts the extent of the area affected by

  10. Metastatic volume: an old oncologic concept and a new prognostic factor for stage IV melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Panasiti, V; Curzio, M; Roberti, V; Lieto, P; Devirgiliis, V; Gobbi, S; Naspi, A; Coppola, R; Lopez, T; di Meo, N; Gatti, A; Trevisan, G; Londei, P; Calvieri, S

    2013-01-01

    The last melanoma staging system of the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer takes into account, for stage IV disease, the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the site of distant metastases. Our aim was to compare the significance of metastatic volume, as evaluated at the time of stage IV melanoma diagnosis, with other clinical predictors of prognosis. We conducted a retrospective multicentric study. To establish which variables were statistically correlated both with death and survival time, contingency tables were evaluated. The overall survival curves were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Metastatic volume and number of affected organs were statistically related to death. In detail, patients with a metastatic volume >15 cm(3) had a worse prognosis than those with a volume lower than this value (survival probability at 60 months: 6.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively). The Kaplan-Meier method confirmed that survival time was significantly related to the site(s) of metastases, to elevated LDH serum levels and to melanoma stage according to the latest system. Our results suggest that metastatic volume may be considered as a useful prognostic factor for survival among melanoma patients.

  11. Integration of different data gap filling techniques to facilitate ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data gap filling techniques are commonly used to predict hazard in the absence of empirical data. The most established techniques are read-across, trend analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) are less frequently used data gap filling techniques which are applied to estimate relative potencies for mixtures of chemicals that contribute to an adverse outcome through a common biological target. For example, The TEF approach has been used for dioxin-like effects comparing individual chemical activity to that of the most toxic dioxin: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The aim of this case study was to determine whether integration of two data gap filling techniques: QSARs and TEFs improved the predictive outcome for the assessment of a set of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and their mixtures. PCBs are associated with many different adverse effects, including their potential for neurotoxicity, which is the endpoint of interest in this study. The dataset comprised 209 PCB congeners, out of which 87 altered in vitro Ca(2+) homeostasis from which neurotoxic equivalency values (NEQs) were derived. The preliminary objective of this case study was to develop a QSAR model to predict NEQ values for the 122 untested PCB congeners. A decision tree model was developed using the number of position specific chlorine substitutions on the biphenyl scaffold as a fingerprint descriptor. Three different positiona

  12. Polymerization Behavior and Mechanical Properties of High-Viscosity Bulk Fill and Low Shrinkage Resin Composites.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, S; Takamizawa, T; Nojiri, K; Imai, A; Tsujimoto, A; Endo, H; Suzuki, S; Suda, S; Barkmeier, W W; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    The present study determined the mechanical properties and volumetric polymerization shrinkage of different categories of resin composite. Three high viscosity bulk fill resin composites were tested: Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TB, Ivoclar Vivadent), Filtek Bulk Fill posterior restorative (FB, 3M ESPE), and Sonic Fill (SF, Kerr Corp). Two low-shrinkage resin composites, Kalore (KL, GC Corp) and Filtek LS Posterior (LS, 3M ESPE), were used. Three conventional resin composites, Herculite Ultra (HU, Kerr Corp), Estelite ∑ Quick (EQ, Tokuyama Dental), and Filtek Supreme Ultra (SU, 3M ESPE), were used as comparison materials. Following ISO Specification 4049, six specimens for each resin composite were used to determine flexural strength, elastic modulus, and resilience. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage was determined using a water-filled dilatometer. Data were evaluated using analysis of variance followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference test (α=0.05). The flexural strength of the resin composites ranged from 115.4 to 148.1 MPa, the elastic modulus ranged from 5.6 to 13.4 GPa, and the resilience ranged from 0.70 to 1.0 MJ/m 3 . There were significant differences in flexural properties between the materials but no clear outliers. Volumetric changes as a function of time over a duration of 180 seconds depended on the type of resin composite. However, for all the resin composites, apart from LS, volumetric shrinkage began soon after the start of light irradiation, and a rapid decrease in volume during light irradiation followed by a slower decrease was observed. The low shrinkage resin composites KL and LS showed significantly lower volumetric shrinkage than the other tested materials at the measuring point of 180 seconds. In contrast, the three bulk fill resin composites showed higher volumetric change than the other resin composites. The findings from this study provide clinicians with valuable information regarding the mechanical properties and

  13. Left ventricular pressure and volume data acquisition and analysis using LabVIEW.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, S C; Teitel, D F

    1997-03-01

    To automate analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume data, we used LabVIEW to create applications that digitize and display data recorded from conductance and manometric catheters. Applications separate data into cardiac cycles, calculate parallel conductance, and calculate indices of left ventricular function, including end-systolic elastance, preload-recruitable stroke work, stroke volume, ejection fraction, stroke work, maximum and minimum derivative of ventricular pressure, heart rate, indices of relaxation, peak filling rate, and ventricular chamber stiffness. Pressure-volume loops can be graphically displayed. These analyses are exported to a text-file. These applications have simplified and automated the process of evaluating ventricular function.

  14. New Approach in Filling of Fixed-Point Cells: Case Study of the Melting Point of Gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkovski, J.; Hiti, M.; Batagelj, V.; Drnovšek, J.

    2008-02-01

    The typical way of constructing fixed-point cells is very well described in the literature. The crucible is loaded with shot, or any other shape of pure metal, inside an argon-filled glove box. Then, the crucible is carefully slid into a fused-silica tube that is closed at the top with an appropriate cap. After that, the cell is removed from the argon glove box and melted inside a furnace while under vacuum or filled with an inert gas like argon. Since the metal comes as shot, or in some other shape such as rods of various sizes, and takes more volume than the melted material, it is necessary to repeat the procedure until a sufficient amount of material is introduced into the crucible. With such a procedure, there is the possibility of introducing additional impurities into the pure metal with each cycle of melting the material and putting it back into the glove box to fill the cell. Our new approach includes the use of a special, so-called dry-box system, which is well known in chemistry. The atmosphere inside the dry box contains less than 20 ppm of water and less than 3 ppm of oxygen. Also, the size of the dry box allows it to contain a furnace for melting materials, not only for gallium but for higher-temperature materials as well. With such an approach, the cell and all its parts (pure metal, graphite, fused-silica tube, and cap) are constantly inside the controlled atmosphere, even while melting the material and filling the crucible. With such a method, the possibility of contaminating the cell during the filling process is minimized.

  15. Filling in the retinal image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, James; Piantanida, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    The optics of the eye form an image on a surface at the back of the eyeball called the retina. The retina contains the photoreceptors that sample the image and convert it into a neural signal. The spacing of the photoreceptors in the retina is not uniform and varies with retinal locus. The central retinal field, called the macula, is densely packed with photoreceptors. The packing density falls off rapidly as a function of retinal eccentricity with respect to the macular region and there are regions in which there are no photoreceptors at all. The retinal regions without photoreceptors are called blind spots or scotomas. The neural transformations which convert retinal image signals into percepts fills in the gaps and regularizes the inhomogeneities of the retinal photoreceptor sampling mosaic. The filling-in mechamism plays an important role in understanding visual performance. The filling-in mechanism is not well understood. A systematic collaborative research program at the Ames Research Center and SRI in Menlo Park, California, was designed to explore this mechanism. It was shown that the perceived fields which are in fact different from the image on the retina due to filling-in, control some aspects of performance and not others. Researchers have linked these mechanisms to putative mechanisms of color coding and color constancy.

  16. Flexural-response of the McMurdo Ice Shelf to surface lake filling and drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwell, A. F.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Willis, I.; Macdonald, G. J.; Goodsell, B.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctic ice-shelf instability and break-up, as exhibited by the Larsen B ice shelf in 2002, remains one of the most difficult glaciological processes to observe directly. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have previously been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain. During the austral summer of 2016/2017, we monitored the filling and draining of four surface lakes on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, and the effect of these processes on ice-shelf flexure. Water-depth data from pressure sensors reveal that two lakes filled to >2 m in depth and subsequently drained over multiple week timescales, which had a simultaneous effect on vertical ice deflection in the area. Differential GPS data from 12 receivers over three months show that vertical deflection varies as a function of distance from the maximum load change (i.e. at the lake centre). Using remote sensing techniques applied to both Landsat 8 and Worldview imagery, we also quantify the meltwater volume in these two lakes through the melt season, which, together with the vertical deflection data, are used to constrain key flexural parameter values in numerical models of ice-shelf flexure.

  17. Hydrogen no-vent fill testing in a 5 cubic foot (142 liter) tank using spray nozzle and spray bar liquid injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Nyland, Ted W.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 38 hydrogen no-vent fill tests were performed in this test series using various size spray nozzles and a spray bar with different hole sizes in a 5 cubic foot receiver tank. Fill levels of 90 percent by volume or greater were achieved in 26 of the tests while maintaining a receiver tank pressure below 30 psia. Spray nozzles were mounted at the top of the tank, whereas, the spray bar was centered in the tank axially. The spray nozzle no-vent fills demonstrated tank pressure and temperature responses comparable to previous test series. Receiver tank pressure responses for the spray bar configuration were similar to the spray nozzle tests with the pressure initially rising rapidly, then leveling off as vapor condenses onto the discharging liquid streams, and finally ramping up near the end of the test due to ullage compression. Both liquid injection techniques tested were capable of filling the receiver tank to 90 percent under variable test conditions. Comparisons between the spray nozzle and spray bar configurations for well matched test conditions indicate the spray nozzle injection technique is more effective in minimizing the receiving tank pressure throughout a no-vent fill compared to the spray bar under normal gravity conditions.

  18. Simultaneous in vivo comparison of water-filled and air-filled pressure measurement catheters: Implications for good urodynamic practice.

    PubMed

    Gammie, A; Abrams, P; Bevan, W; Ellis-Jones, J; Gray, J; Hassine, A; Williams, J; Hashim, H

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the pressure readings obtained from air-filled catheters (AFCs) are the same as the readings from simultaneously inserted water-filled catheters (WFCs). It also aimed to make any possible recommendations for the use of AFCs to conform to International Continence Society (ICS) Good Urodynamic Practices (GUP). Female patients undergoing urodynamic studies in a single center had water-filled and air-filled catheters simultaneously measuring abdominal and intravesical pressure during filling with saline and during voiding. The pressures recorded by each system at each event during the test were compared using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analyses. 62 patients were recruited, of whom 51 had pressures that could be compared during filling, and 23 during voiding. On average, the pressures measured by the two systems were not significantly different during filling and at maximum flow, but the values for a given patient were found to differ by up to 10 cmH 2 O. This study shows that AFCs and WFCs cannot be assumed to register equal values of pressure. It has further shown that even when the p det readings are compared with their value at the start of a test, a divergence of values of up to 10 cmH 2 O remains. If AFCs are used, care must be taken to compensate for any p det variations that occur during patient movement. Before AFCs are adopted, new normal values for resting pressures need to be developed to allow good quality AFC pressure readings to be made. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:926-933, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effects of pore volume-transmissivity correlation on transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Lunati, Ivan; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Ivan

    2003-12-01

    The relevant velocity that describes transport phenomena in a porous medium is the pore velocity. For this reason, one needs not only to describe the variability of transmissivity, which fully determines the Darcy velocity field for given source terms and boundary conditions, but also any variability of the pore volume. We demonstrate that hydraulically equivalent media with exactly the same transmissivity field can produce dramatic differences in the displacement of a solute if they have different pore volume distributions. In particular, we demonstrate that correlation between pore volume and transmissivity leads to a much smoother and more homogeneous solute distribution. This was observed in a laboratory experiment performed in artificial fractures made of two plexiglass plates into which a space-dependent aperture distribution was milled. Using visualization by a light transmission technique, we observe that the solute behaviour is much smoother and more regular after the fractures are filled with glass powder, which plays the role of a homogeneous fault gouge material. This is due to a perfect correlation between pore volume and transmissivity that causes pore velocity to be not directly dependent on the transmissivity, but only indirectly through the hydraulic gradient, which is a much smoother function due to the diffusive behaviour of the flow equation acting as a filter. This smoothing property of the pore volume-transmissivity correlation is also supported by numerical simulations of tracer tests in a dipole flow field. Three different conceptual models are used: an empty fracture, a rough-walled fracture filled with a homogeneous material and a parallel-plate fracture with a heterogeneous fault gouge. All three models are hydraulically equivalent, yet they have a different pore volume distribution. Even if piezometric heads and specific flow rates are exactly the same at any point of the domain, the transport process differs dramatically. These

  20. Gastropod shell size and architecture influence the applicability of methods used to estimate internal volume.

    PubMed

    Ragagnin, Marilia Nagata; Gorman, Daniel; McCarthy, Ian Donald; Sant'Anna, Bruno Sampaio; de Castro, Cláudio Campi; Turra, Alexander

    2018-01-11

    Obtaining accurate and reproducible estimates of internal shell volume is a vital requirement for studies into the ecology of a range of shell-occupying organisms, including hermit crabs. Shell internal volume is usually estimated by filling the shell cavity with water or sand, however, there has been no systematic assessment of the reliability of these methods and moreover no comparison with modern alternatives, e.g., computed tomography (CT). This study undertakes the first assessment of the measurement reproducibility of three contrasting approaches across a spectrum of shell architectures and sizes. While our results suggested a certain level of variability inherent for all methods, we conclude that a single measure using sand/water is likely to be sufficient for the majority of studies. However, care must be taken as precision may decline with increasing shell size and structural complexity. CT provided less variation between repeat measures but volume estimates were consistently lower compared to sand/water and will need methodological improvements before it can be used as an alternative. CT indicated volume may be also underestimated using sand/water due to the presence of air spaces visible in filled shells scanned by CT. Lastly, we encourage authors to clearly describe how volume estimates were obtained.

  1. Kinetic study of ferronickel slag grinding at variation of ball filling and ratio of feed to grinding balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanwani, Edy; Ikhwanto, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of ball filling and ratio of feed to grinding balls on the kinetic of grinding of ferronickel slag in a laboratory scale ball mill. The experiments were started by crushing the ferronickel slag samples using a roll crusher to produce -3 mesh (-6.7 mm) product. This product, after sampling and sample dividing processes, was then used as feed for grinding process. The grinding was performed with variations of ball filling and ratio of feed to grinding balls for 150 minutes. At every certain time interval, particle size analysis was carried out on the grinding product. The results of the experiments were also used to develop linear regression model of the effect of grinding variables on the P80 of the product. Based on this study, it was shown that P80 values of the grinding products declined sharply until 70 minutes of grinding time due to the dominant mechanism of impact breakage and then decreased slowly after 70 minutes until 150 minutes of grinding time due to dominant mechanism of attrition breakage. Kinetics study of the grinding process on variations of grinding ball filling showed that the optimum rate of formation of fine particles for 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% mill volume was achieved at a particle size of 400 µm in which the best initial rate of formation occurred at 50% volume of mill. At the variations of ratio of feed to grinding balls it was shown that the optimum rate of grinding for the ratio of 1:10, 1: 8 and 1: 6 was achieved at a particle size of 400 µm and for the ratio of 1: 4 was at 841 µm in which the best initial rate of formation occurred at a 1:10 ratio. In this study, it was also produced two regression models that can predict the P80 value of the grinding product as a function of the variables of grinding time, ball filling and the ratio of the feed to grinding balls.

  2. Biomineral nanoparticles are space-filling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Killian, Christopher E; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Gilbert, P U P A

    2011-02-01

    Sea urchin biominerals have been shown to form from aggregating nanoparticles of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), which then crystallize into macroscopic single crystals of calcite. Here we measure the surface areas of these biominerals and find them to be comparable to those of space-filling macroscopic geologic calcite crystals. These biominerals differ from synthetic mesocrystals, which are invariably porous. We propose that space-filling ACC is the structural precursor for echinoderm biominerals.

  3. Age and prostate volume are risk factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Yosuke; Kato, Yuji; Fujita, Kiichiro

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the predictive factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 584 patients who underwent transurethral enucleation with bipolar between December 2011 and September 2016 operated by a single surgeon. Urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar was defined as involuntary leakage of urine that required the use of pads. It was evaluated at 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. We defined transient urinary incontinence as urinary incontinence persisting up to 1 month after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. Based on independent risk factors identified by a multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, a nomogram to predict transient urinary incontinence was developed. Of the 584 patients, 17.3%, 13.5%, 3.1%, 0.41%, and 0% patients had urinary incontinence at 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after transurethral enucleation with bipolar, respectively. The mean (±standard error) age was 69.6 ± 0.26 years, estimated prostate volume was 54.7 ± 0.91 cm 3 , operative time was 58.0 ± 1.1 min and the prostate specimen weight was 30.6 ± 0.69 g. On univariate analysis, age, prostate volume estimated by transrectal ultrasonography, prostate-specific antigen, prostate specimen weight, operative time, prostate specimen weight/prostate volume and prostate specimen weight/operative time were significant predictive factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. On multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio 1.07, P-value = 0.0034) and prostate volume (hazard ratio 1.03, P-value < 0.0001) were independent risk factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. Age and prostate volume estimated by transrectal ultrasonography seem to represent significant independent risk factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral

  4. Blood Volume: Its Adaptation to Endurance Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    Expansion of blood volume (hypervolemia) has been well documented in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies as a consequence of endurance exercise training. Plasma volume expansion can account for nearly all of the exercise-induced hypervolemia up to 2-4 wk; after this time expansion may be distributed equally between plasma and red cell volumes. The exercise stimulus for hypervolemia has both thermal and nonthermal components that increase total circulating plasma levels of electrolytes and proteins. Although protein and fluid shifts from the extravascular to intravascular space may provide a mechanism for rapid hypervolemia immediately after exercise, evidence supports the notion that chronic hypervolemia associated with exercise training represents a net expansion of total body water and solutes. This net increase of body fluids with exercise training is associated with increased water intake and decreased urine volume output. The mechanism of reduced urine output appears to be increased renal tubular reabsorption of sodium through a more sensitive aldosterone action in man. Exercise training-induced hypervolemia appears to be universal among most animal species, although the mechanisms may be quite different. The hypervolemia may provide advantages of greater body fluid for heat dissipation and thermoregulatory stability as well as larger vascular volume and filling pressure for greater cardiac stroke volume and lower heart rates during exercise.

  5. Radiation damping and reciprocity in nuclear magnetic resonance: the replacement of the filling factor.

    PubMed

    Tropp, James; Van Criekinge, Mark

    2010-09-01

    The basic equation describing radiation damping in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is rewritten by means of the reciprocity principle, to remove the dependence of the damping constant upon filling factor - a parameter which is neither uniquely defined for easily measured. The new equation uses instead the transceive efficiency, i.e. the peak amplitude of the radiofrequency B field in laboratory coordinates, divided by the square root of the resistance of the detection coil, for which a simple and direct means of measurement exists. We use the efficiency to define the intrinsic damping constant, i.e. that which obtains when both probe and preamplifier are perfectly matched to the system impedance. For imperfect matching of the preamp, it is shown that the damping constant varies with electrical distance to the probe, and equations are given and simulations performed, to predict the distance dependence, which (for lossless lines) is periodic modulo a half wavelength. Experimental measurements of the radiation-damped free induction NMR signal of protons in neat water are performed at a static B field strength of 14.1T; and an intrinsic damping constant measured using the variable line method. For a sample of 5mm diameter, in an inverse detection probe we measure an intrinsic damping constant of 204 s(-1), corresponding to a damping linewidth of 65 Hz for small tip angles. The predicted intrinsic linewidth, based upon three separate measurements of the efficiency, is 52.3 Hz, or 80% of the measured value. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanism for Angular Deformation of L-shaped Specimens —Influence of Filling Material and Shrinkage Factor—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuhashi, Hiroshi; Aoki, Takerou; Okabe, Sayaka; Arai, Tsuyoshi; Seto, Masahiro; Yamabe, Masashi

    L-shape is the important and fundamental shape for injection molded parts. Therefore to reveal the corner angular deformation mechanism of this shape is also valuable for understanding the warpage mechanism of injection molded parts. In this study, we investigated the influence of the filling materials (fiber, talc and not filled) and two kinds of anisotropic shrinkage factors, solidification shrinkage and shrinkage caused by thermal expansion coefficient during cooling, to the angular deformation of L-shaped specimens and the following conclusions were obtained 1) The anisotropic solidification shrinkage of MD/TD and the anisotropic thermal expansion coefficient of MD/TD are considered to cause the angular deformation of L-shaped specimens. But the contribution ratios of these two anisotropies depend on the filling material for plastics. 2) The angular deformation of PP and PBT filled with glass fiber is mainly caused by the anisotropic thermal expansion coefficient and on the other hand, that of PP and PBT without filling material is caused by anisotropic solidification shrinkage. However both anisotropies cause the angular deformation of PP filled with talc. 3) The plate thickness dependence of the angular deformation of PP filled with talc is the singular peculiar phenomenon. The plate thickness dependence of anisotropic solidification shrinkage of this material (it is also singular) is considered to have an important influence on this phenomenon.

  7. [Cermet cements for milk tooth fillings. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Hickel, R; Petschelt, A; Voss, A

    1989-06-01

    106 Ketac-Silver fillings in deciduous molars were reevaluated after 1 to 3.3 years, i.e. 25 month on the average. About 90% of 50 occlusal fillings and about 84% of 56 multisurface restorations were unchanged. Without claiming statistical evidence for their conclusiveness, we consider these results as an indication that cermet cements are a useful alternative to amalgam fillings in deciduous teeth, particularly since the life of these fillings is limited to the time until the milk tooth is physiologically lost.

  8. High external quantum efficiency and fill-factor InGaN/GaN heterojunction solar cells grown by NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, J. R.; Neufeld, C. J.; Hurni, C. A.; Cruz, S. C.; Matioli, E.; Mishra, U. K.; Speck, J. S.

    2011-03-01

    High external quantum efficiency (EQE) p-i-n heterojunction solar cells grown by NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy are presented. EQE values including optical losses are greater than 50% with fill-factors over 72% when illuminated with a 1 sun AM0 spectrum. Optical absorption measurements in conjunction with EQE measurements indicate an internal quantum efficiency greater than 90% for the InGaN absorbing layer. By adjusting the thickness of the top p-type GaN window contact layer, it is shown that the short-wavelength (<365 nm) quantum efficiency is limited by the minority carrier diffusion length in highly Mg-doped p-GaN.

  9. A population study on risk factors for insomnia among adult Japanese women: a possible effect of road traffic volume.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, T; Kabuto, M; Nitta, H; Kurokawa, Y; Taira, K; Suzuki, S; Takemoto, T

    1997-11-01

    In an effort to identify risk factors for insomnia and determine the contribution of nightime road traffic volume to insomnia in the general population, a questionnaire survey was carried out among 3,600 adult Japanese women living in eight urban residential areas. The crude prevalence rate of insomnia was 11.2%. Multivariate analysis revealed that aging, living with a child/children aged six or younger, undergoing medical treatment, experiencing major life events, having an irregular bedtime, having a sleep apnealike symptom, and living near a road with a heavy volume of traffic are risk factors for insomnia. Taking into account other risk factors, there was a level-response relationship between the nighttime traffic volume of main roads and the risk of insomnia in the subjects living in the zones 0-20 m from these roads. These results suggest that road traffic noise raises the sound level in bedrooms in such zones, and consequently the prevalence rate of insomnia among the residents, and that noise-induced insomnia is an important public health problem, at least in highly urbanized areas. To confirm this, a further study on noise exposure is needed.

  10. Slotted Polyimide-Aerogel-Filled-Waveguide Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Solis, Rafael A.; Pacheco, Hector L.; Miranda, Felix A.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2013-01-01

    Polyimide aerogels were considered to serve as a filling for millimeter-wave waveguides. While these waveguides present a slightly higher loss than hollow waveguides, they have less losses than Duroid substrate integrated waveguides (less than 0.15 dB at Ka-band, in a 20 mm section), and exhibit an order of magnitude of mass reduction when compared to commercial waveguides. A Ka-band slotted aerogel-filled-waveguide array was designed, which provided the same gain (9 dBi) as its standard waveguide counterpart, and a slotted aerogel-filled-waveguide array using folded-slots was designed for comparison, obtaining a gain of 9 dB and a bandwidth of 590 MHz.

  11. Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater remediation with simulated permeable reactive barrier (PRB) filled with natural pyrite as reactive material: Environmental factors and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Mou, Haiyan; Chen, Liqun; Mirza, Zakaria A; Liu, Li

    2015-11-15

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are efficient technologies for in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater, the effectiveness of which greatly depends on the reactive media filled. Natural pyrite is an iron sulfide material with a very low content of iron and sulfur, and a mining waste which is a potential material for Cr(VI) immobilization. In this study, we conducted a series of batch tests to research the effects of typical environmental factors on Cr(VI) removal and also simulated PRB filled with natural pyrite to investigate its effectiveness, in order to find a both environmentally and economically fine method for groundwater remediation. Batch tests showed that pH had the significant impact on Cr(VI) removal with an apparently higher efficiency under acidic conditions, and dissolved oxygen (DO) would inhibit Cr(VI) reduction; a relatively high initial Cr(VI) concentration would decrease the rate of Cr(VI) sorption; ionic strength and natural organic matter resulted in no significant effects on Cr(VI) removal. Column tests demonstrated that the simulated PRB with natural pyrite as the reactive media was considerably effective for removing Cr(VI) from groundwater, with a sorption capability of 0.6222 mg Cr per gram of natural pyrite at an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 10mg/L at pH 5.5 in an anoxic environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spin-valley skyrmions in graphene at filling factor ν =-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yunlong; Goerbig, Mark O.

    2017-06-01

    We model quantum Hall skyrmions in graphene monolayer at quarter filling by a theory of CP3 fields and study the energy minimizing skyrmions in the presence of valley pseudospin anisotropy and Zeeman coupling. We present a diagram of all types of skyrmions in a wide range of the anisotropy parameters. For each type of skyrmion, we visualize it on three Bloch spheres, and present the profiles of its texture on the graphene honeycomb lattice, thus providing references for the scanning-tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy imaging of spin-pseudospin textures in graphene monolayer in the quantum Hall regime. Besides the spin and pseudospin skyrmions for the corresponding degrees of freedom of an electron in the N =0 Landau level, we discuss two unusual types—the "entanglement skyrmion", the texture of which lies in the space of the entanglement of spin and pseudospin, as well as the "deflated pseudospin skyrmion" with partial entanglement. For all skyrmion types, we study the dependence of the energy and the size of a skyrmion on the anisotropy parameters and perpendicular magnetic field. We also propose three ways to modify the anisotropy energy, namely, the sample tilting, the substrate anisotropy, and the valley pseudospin analog of Zeeman coupling.

  13. Combined Recipe for Clinical Target Volume and Planning Target Volume Margins

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stroom, Joep, E-mail: joep.stroom@fundacaochampalimaud.pt; Gilhuijs, Kenneth; Vieira, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a combined recipe for clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) margins. Methods and Materials: A widely accepted PTV margin recipe is M{sub geo} = aΣ{sub geo} + bσ{sub geo}, with Σ{sub geo} and σ{sub geo} standard deviations (SDs) representing systematic and random geometric uncertainties, respectively. On the basis of histopathology data of breast and lung tumors, we suggest describing the distribution of microscopic islets around the gross tumor volume (GTV) by a half-Gaussian with SD Σ{sub micro}, yielding as possible CTV margin recipe: M{sub micro} = ƒ(N{sub i}) × Σ{sub micro}, with N{sub i}more » the average number of microscopic islets per patient. To determine ƒ(N{sub i}), a computer model was developed that simulated radiation therapy of a spherical GTV with isotropic distribution of microscopic disease in a large group of virtual patients. The minimal margin that yielded D{sub min} <95% in maximally 10% of patients was calculated for various Σ{sub micro} and N{sub i}. Because Σ{sub micro} is independent of Σ{sub geo}, we propose they should be added quadratically, yielding for a combined GTV-to-PTV margin recipe: M{sub GTV-PTV} = √([aΣ{sub geo}]{sup 2} + [ƒ(N{sub i})Σ{sub micro}]{sup 2}) + bσ{sub geo}. This was validated by the computer model through numerous simultaneous simulations of microscopic and geometric uncertainties. Results: The margin factor ƒ(N{sub i}) in a relevant range of Σ{sub micro} and N{sub i} can be given by: ƒ(N{sub i}) = 1.4 + 0.8log(N{sub i}). Filling in the other factors found in our simulations (a = 2.1 and b = 0.8) yields for the combined recipe: M{sub GTV-PTV} = √((2.1Σ{sub geo}){sup 2} + ([1.4 + 0.8log(N{sub i})] × Σ{sub micro}){sup 2}) + 0.8σ{sub geo}. The average margin difference between the simultaneous simulations and the above recipe was 0.2 ± 0.8 mm (1 SD). Calculating M{sub geo} and M{sub micro} separately and adding them linearly overestimated PTVs

  14. TANKS 18 AND 19-F EQUIPMENT GROUT FILL MATERIAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) intends to remove Tanks 18-F and 19-F at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from service. The high-level waste (HLW) tanks have been isolated from the F-area Tank Farm (FTF) facilities and will be filled with cementitious grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the empty volumes in the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways from the surface to residual waste on the bottom of the tanks, (3) providing an intruder barrier, and (4) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to limit solubility of residual radionuclides. Bulk waste andmore » heel waste removal equipment will remain in Tanks 18-F and 19-F when the tanks are closed. This equipment includes: mixer pumps, transfer pumps, transfer jets, equipment support masts, sampling masts and dip tube assemblies. The current Tank 18-F and 19-F closure strategy is to grout the internal void spaces in this equipment to eliminate fast vertical pathways and slow water infiltration to the residual material on the tank floor. This report documents the results of laboratory testing performed to identify a grout formulation for filling the abandoned equipment in Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The objective of this work was to formulate a flowable grout for filling internal voids of equipment that will remain in Tanks 18-F and 19-F during the final closures. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, Tank Farm Closure Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The scope for this task is provided in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The specific objectives of this task were to: (1) Prepare and evaluate the SRR cooling coil grout identified in WSRC-STI-2008-00298 per the TTR for this work. The cooling coil grout is a mixture of BASF MasterFlow{reg_sign} 816 cable grout (67.67 wt. %), Grade 100 ground granulated blast furnace slag (7.52 wt. %) and water (24.81 wt. %); (2) Identify equipment grout placement

  15. 27 CFR 19.389 - Filling containers from tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filling containers from tanks. 19.389 Section 19.389 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Rules for Storing Denatured Spirits and Filling Containers § 19.389 Filling containers...

  16. Gray Matter Volume in Adolescent Anxiety: An Impact of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val[superscript 66]Met Polymorphism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Sven C.; Aouidad, Aveline; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Minimal research links anxiety disorders in adolescents to regional gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities and their modulation by genetic factors. Prior research suggests that a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) Val[superscript 66]Met polymorphism may modulate such brain morphometry profiles. Method: Using voxel-based…

  17. System and method for filling a plurality of isolated vehicle fluid circuits through a common fluid fill port

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, Scott C; Fansler, Douglas

    2014-10-14

    A vehicle having multiple isolated fluid circuits configured to be filled through a common fill port includes a first fluid circuit disposed within the vehicle, the first fluid circuit having a first fill port, a second fluid circuit disposed within the vehicle, and a conduit defining a fluid passageway between the first fluid circuit and second fluid circuit, the conduit including a valve. The valve is configured such that the first and second fluid circuits are fluidly coupled via the passageway when the valve is open, and are fluidly isolated when the valve is closed.

  18. Applications of Dredging and Beach Fills in GenCade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    June 2016 6 In the beach fills section, it was mentioned that multiple beach fills can be added at the same time to represent nonuniform beach fills...Figure 8 compares the shoreline change of a nonuniform beach fill to a uniform beach fill. For the uniform case, the added berm width along the...entire 1,000 ft is 100 ft. The added berm width for the first 500 ft of the nonuniform case is 150 ft while the added berm width for the second 500 ft is

  19. Experiments of draining and filling processes in a collapsible tube at high external pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaud, P.; Guesdon, P.; Fullana, J.-M.

    2012-02-01

    The venous circulation in the lower limb is mainly controlled by the muscular action of the calf. To study the mechanisms governing the venous draining and filling process in such a situation, an experimental setup, composed by a collapsible tube under external pressure, has been built. A valve preventing back flows is inserted at the bottom of the tube and allows to model two different configurations: physiological when the fluid flow is uni-directional and pathological when the fluid flows in both directions. Pressure and flow rate measurements are carried out at the inlet and outlet of the tube and an original optical device with three cameras is proposed to measure the instantaneous cross-sectional area. The experimental results (draining and filling with physiological or pathological valves) are confronted to a simple one-dimensional numerical model which completes the physical interpretation. One major observation is that the muscular contraction induces a fast emptying phase followed by a slow one controlled by viscous effects, and that a defect of the valve decreases, as expected, the ejected volume.

  20. Biomechanical characterization of a low density silicone elastomer filled with hollow microspheres for maxillofacial prostheses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Shao, L Q; Xiang, H F; Zhen, D; Zhao, N; Yang, S G; Zhang, X L; Xu, J

    2013-01-01

    An ideal material for maxillofacial prostheses has not been found. We created a novel material: silicone elastomer filled with hollow microspheres and characterized its biomechanical properties. Expancel hollow microspheres were mixed with MDX4-4210 silicone elastomer using Q7-9180 silicone fluid as diluent. The volume fractions of microspheres were 0, 5, 15, and 30% v/v (volume ratio to the total volume of MDX4-4210 and microspheres). The microspheres dispersed well in the matrix. The physical properties and biocompatibility of the composites were examined. Shock absorption was the greatest by the 5% v/v composite, and decreased with increasing concentrations of microspheres. The density, thermal conductivity, Shore A hardness, tear and tensile strength decreased with increasing concentrations of microspheres, while elongation at break increased. Importantly, the tear strength of all composites was markedly lower than that of pure silicone elastomer. Cell viability assays indicated that the composite was of good biocompatibility. The composite with a volume fraction of 5% exhibited the optimal properties for use as a maxillofacial prosthesis, though its tear strength was markedly lower than that of silicone elastomer. In conclusion, we developed a novel light and soft material with good flexibility and biocompatibility, which holds a promising prospect for clinical application as maxillofacial prosthesis.

  1. 7 CFR 58.730 - Filling containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.730 Section 58.730 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.730 Filling containers. Hot fluid cheese from the cookers may be held in hotwells or hoppers... shall effectively measure the desired amount of product into the pouch or container in a sanitary manner...

  2. Heat transfer comparison of nanofluid filled transformer and traditional oil-immersed transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Ho, Siu-lau; Fu, Weinong

    2018-05-01

    Dispersing nanoparticles with high thermal conductivity into transformer oil is an innovative approach to improve the thermal performance of traditional oil-immersed transformers. This mixture, also known as nanofluid, has shown the potential in practical application through experimental measurements. This paper presents the comparisons of nanofluid filled transformer and traditional oil-immersed transformer in terms of their computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions from the perspective of optimal design. Thermal performance of transformers with the same parameters except coolants is compared. A further comparison on heat transfer then is made after minimizing the oil volume and maximum temperature-rise of these two transformers. Adaptive multi-objective optimization method is employed to tackle this optimization problem.

  3. Modeling and Fault Simulation of Propellant Filling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yunchun; Liu, Weidong; Hou, Xiaobo

    2012-05-01

    Propellant filling system is one of the key ground plants in launching site of rocket that use liquid propellant. There is an urgent demand for ensuring and improving its reliability and safety, and there is no doubt that Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a good approach to meet it. Driven by the request to get more fault information for FMEA, and because of the high expense of propellant filling, in this paper, the working process of the propellant filling system in fault condition was studied by simulating based on AMESim. Firstly, based on analyzing its structure and function, the filling system was modular decomposed, and the mathematic models of every module were given, based on which the whole filling system was modeled in AMESim. Secondly, a general method of fault injecting into dynamic system was proposed, and as an example, two typical faults - leakage and blockage - were injected into the model of filling system, based on which one can get two fault models in AMESim. After that, fault simulation was processed and the dynamic characteristics of several key parameters were analyzed under fault conditions. The results show that the model can simulate effectively the two faults, and can be used to provide guidance for the filling system maintain and amelioration.

  4. 33 CFR 183.564 - Fuel tank fill system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tank fill system. 183.564...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.564 Fuel tank fill system. (a) Each fuel fill opening must be located so that a gasoline overflow of up to five...

  5. One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexandr O.; Tuzhilin, Alexey A.

    2012-05-01

    The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.

  6. Effect of baffle size and orientation on lateral sloshing of partially filled containers: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sajid; Kamran, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Sikandar

    2017-11-01

    The fluid sloshing in partially filled road tankers has significantly increased the number of road accidents for the last few decades. Significant research is needed to investigate and to come up with optimum baffles designs that can help to increase the rollover stability of the partially filled tankers. In this investigation, a detailed analysis of the anti-slosh effectiveness of different baffle configurations is presented. This investigation extends the already available studies in the literature by introducing new modified rectangular tank's shapes that correspond to maximum rollover stability as compared to the already available standard tank designs. The various baffles configurations that are analysed in this study are horizontal, vertical, vertical-horizontal and diagonal. In the current study, numerical investigations are performed for rectangular, elliptical and circular tank shapes. Lateral sloshing, caused by constant radius turn manoeuvre, was simulated numerically using the volume-of-fluid method, and effect of the different baffle configurations was analysed. The effect of tank fill levels on sloshing measured in terms of horizontal force and pressure moments is also reported for with and without baffles configurations. Vertical baffles were the most effective at reducing sloshing in modified rectangular tanks, whereas a combination of horizontal and vertical baffles gave better results for the circular and elliptical tanks geometries.

  7. Filling carbon nanotubes with particles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byong M; Qian, Shizhi; Bau, Haim H

    2005-05-01

    The filling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with fluorescent particles was studied experimentally and theoretically. The fluorescent signals emitted by the particles were visible through the walls of the nanotubes, and the particles inside the tubes were observable with an electron microscope. Taking advantage of the template-grown carbon nanotubes' transparency to fluorescent light, we measured the filling rate of the tubes with particles at room conditions. Liquids such as ethylene glycol, water, and ethylene glycol/water mixtures, laden with 50 nm diameter fluorescent particles, were brought into contact with 500 nm diameter CNTs. The liquid and the particles' transport were observed, respectively, with optical and fluorescence microscopy. The CNTs were filled controllably with particles by the complementary action of capillary forces and the evaporation of the liquid. The experimental results were compared and favorably agreed with theoretical predictions. This is the first report on fluorescence studies of particle transport in carbon nanotubes.

  8. Association between ventricular filling patterns and the extent of late enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    De Zan, M; Carrascosa, P; Deviggiano, A; Capunay, C; Rodríguez-Granillo, G A

    To explore the relationship between ventricular filling curves and the extent of late enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We retrospectively included consecutive patients with suspected and/or confirmed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a control group of patients matched for age and sex who underwent cardiac MRI with evaluation of late enhancement. Among other determinations, we evaluated the following parameters on cine sequences: peak filling rate, time to the first peak filling rate, and filling rate normalized to the filling volume. Late enhancement was observed in 29 (73%) of the 40 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The normalized peak filling rate was significantly lower in patients with late enhancement (4.9 ± 1.6 in those with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy positive for late enhancement vs. 5.8 ± 2.2 in those with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy negative for late enhancement vs. 6.3 ± 1.5 in controls, p = 0.008) and the time to peak filling was longer in patients with late enhancement (540.6 ± 89.7 ms vs. 505.5 ± 99.3 ms in those with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy negative for late enhancement vs. 486.9 ± 86.3 ms in controls, p = 0.02). When the population was stratified into three groups in function of the normalized peak filling rate, significant differences were observed among groups for age (p = 0.002), mean wall thickness (p = 0.036), and myocardial mass (p = 0.046) and atrial dimensions, whereas no significant differences with respect to late enhancement were seen. In patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, we found a significant association between ventricular filling patterns and age, wall thicknesses, and atrial dimensions, but not with the extent of late enhancement. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of 2D ERT measurements conducted along a small earth-filled dyke using 3D topographic data and 3D computation of geometric factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bièvre, Grégory; Oxarango, Laurent; Günther, Thomas; Goutaland, David; Massardi, Michael

    2018-06-01

    In the framework of earth-filled dykes characterization and monitoring, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) turns out to be a commonly used method. 2D sections are generally acquired along the dyke crest thus putting forward the question of 3D artefacts in the inversion process. This paper proposes a methodology based on 3D direct numerical simulations of the ERT acquisition using a realistic topography of the study site. It allows computing ad hoc geometrical factors which can be used for the inversion of experimental ERT data. The method is first evaluated on a set of synthetic dyke configurations. Then, it is applied to experimental static and time-lapse ERT data set acquired before and after repair works carried out on a leaking zone of an earth-filled canal dyke in the centre of France. The computed geometric factors are lower than the analytic geometric factors in a range between -8% and - 18% for measurements conducted on the crest of the dyke. They exhibit a maximum under-estimation for intermediate electrode spacings in the Wenner and Schlumberger configurations. In the same way, for measurements conducted on the mid-slope of the dyke, the computed geometric factors are higher for short electrode spacings (+18%) and lower for lower for large electrode spacings (-8%). The 2D inversion of the synthetic data with these computed geometric factors provides a significant improvement of the agreement with the original resistivity. Two experimental profiles conducted on the same portion of the dyke but at different elevations also reveal a better agreement using this methodology. The comparison with apparent resistivity from EM31 profiling along the stretch of the dyke also supports this evidence. In the same way, some spurious effects which affected the time-lapse data were removed and improved the global readability of the time-lapse resistivity sections. The benefit on the structural interpretation of ERT images remains moderate but allows a better

  10. Factors associated with elevated plateau pressure in patients with acute lung injury receiving lower tidal volume ventilation.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Hallie C; Brower, Roy G; Cooke, Colin R; Phillips, Gary; O'Brien, James M

    2013-03-01

    Lung-protective ventilation with lower tidal volume and lower plateau pressure improves mortality in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We sought to determine the incidence of elevated plateau pressure in acute lung injury /acute respiratory distress syndrome patients receiving lower tidal volume ventilation and to determine the factors that predict elevated plateau pressure in these patients. We used data from 1398 participants in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network trials, who received lower tidal volume ventilation (≤ 6.5mL/kg predicted body weight). We considered patients with a plateau pressure greater than 30cm H2O and/or a tidal volume less than 5.5mL/kg predicted body weight on study day 1 to have "elevated plateau pressure." We used logistic regression to identify baseline clinical variables associated with elevated plateau pressure and to develop a model to predict elevated plateau pressure using a subset of 1,188 patients. We validated the model in the 210 patients not used for model development. Medical centers participating in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network clinical trials. None. Of the 1,398 patients in our study, 288 (20.6%) had elevated plateau pressure on day 1. Severity of illness indices and demographic factors (younger age, greater body mass index, and non-white race) were independently associated with elevated plateau pressure. The multivariable logistic regression model for predicting elevated plateau pressure had an area under the receiving operator characteristic curve of 0.71 for both the developmental and the validation subsets. acute lung injury patients receiving lower tidal volume ventilation often have a plateau pressure that exceeds Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network goals. Race, body mass index, and severity of lung injury are each independently associated with elevated plateau pressure. Selecting a smaller initial tidal volume for non-white patients and patients

  11. Technology for Space Station Evolution. Volume 4: Power Systems/Propulsion/Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) conducted a workshop on technology for space station evolution on 16-19 Jan. 1990. The purpose of this workshop was to collect and clarify Space Station Freedom technology requirements for evolution and to describe technologies that can potentially fill those requirements. These proceedings are organized into an Executive Summary and Overview and five volumes containing the Technology Discipline Presentations. Volume 4 consists of the technology discipline sections for Power, Propulsion, and Robotics. For each technology discipline, there is a Level 3 subsystem description, along with the papers.

  12. 27 CFR 19.482 - Age and fill date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Age and fill date. 19.482... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Spirits from Customs Custody § 19.482 Age and fill date. For the purpose of this part, the age and fill date for spirits that are imported or brought into...

  13. Gap Reversal at Filling Factors 3 +1 /3 and 3 +1 /5 : Towards Novel Topological Order in the Fractional Quantum Hall Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinbaum, Ethan; Kumar, Ashwani; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Csáthy, G. A.

    2015-02-01

    In the region of the second Landau level several theories predict fractional quantum Hall states with novel topological order. We report the opening of an energy gap at the filling factor ν =3 +1 /3 , firmly establishing the ground state as a fractional quantum Hall state. This and other odd-denominator states unexpectedly break particle-hole symmetry. Specifically, we find that the relative magnitudes of the energy gaps of the ν =3 +1 /3 and 3 +1 /5 states from the upper spin branch are reversed when compared to the ν =2 +1 /3 and 2 +1 /5 counterpart states in the lower spin branch. Our findings raise the possibility that at least one of the former states is of an unusual topological order.

  14. Novel concept for neutron detection: proportional counter filled with 10B nanoparticle aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, F. D.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Antognini, A.

    2017-02-01

    The high neutron detection efficiency, good gamma-ray discrimination and non-toxicity of 3He made of proportional counters filled with this gas the obvious choice for neutron detection, particularly in radiation portal monitors (RPM), used to control the illicit transport of nuclear material, of which neutron detectors are key components. 3He is very rare and during the last decade this gas has become increasingly difficult to acquire. With the exception of BF3, which is toxic, no other gas can be used for neutron detection in proportional counters. We present an alternative where the 3He atoms are replaced by nanoparticles made of another neutron sensitive material, 10B. The particles are dispersed in a gaseous volume, forming an aerosol with neutron sensitive properties. A proportional counter filled with such aerosol was exposed to a thermal neutron beam and the recorded response indicates that the neutrons have interacted with the particles in the aerosol. This original technique, which transforms a standard proportional gas mixture into a neutron sensitive aerosol, is a breakthrough in the field of radiation detection and has the potential to become an alternative to the use of 3He in proportional counters.

  15. Geospatial data to support analysis of water-quality conditions in basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Southwest Principal Aquifers study area consists of most of California and Nevada and parts of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado; it is about 409,000 square miles. The Basin-fill aquifers extend through about 201,000 square miles of the study area and are the primary source of water for cities and agricultural communities in basins in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Southwest). The demand on limited ground-water resources in areas in the southwestern United States has increased significantly. This increased demand underscores the importance of understanding factors that affect the water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region, which are being studied through the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. As a part of this study, spatial datasets of natural and anthropogenic factors that may affect ground-water quality of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States were developed. These data include physical characteristics of the region, such as geology, elevation, and precipitation, as well as anthropogenic factors, including population, land use, and water use. Spatial statistics for the alluvial basins in the Southwest have been calculated using the datasets. This information provides a foundation for the development of conceptual and statistical models that relate natural and anthropogenic factors to ground-water quality across the Southwest. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to determine and illustrate the spatial distribution of these basin-fill variables across the region. One hundred-meter resolution raster data layers that represent the spatial characteristics of the basins' boundaries, drainage areas, population densities, land use, and water use were developed for the entire Southwest.

  16. Vaginal motion and bladder and rectal volumes during pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy after hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Jhingran, Anuja; Salehpour, Mohammad; Sam, Marianne; Levy, Larry; Eifel, Patricia J

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate variations in bladder and rectal volume and the position of the vaginal vault during a 5-week course of pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after hysterectomy. Twenty-four patients were instructed how to fill their bladders before simulation and treatment. These patients underwent computed tomography simulations with full and empty bladders and then underwent rescanning twice weekly during IMRT; patients were asked to have full bladder for treatment. Bladder and rectal volumes and the positions of vaginal fiducial markers were determined, and changes in volume and position were calculated. The mean full and empty bladder volumes at simulation were 480 cc (range, 122-1,052) and 155 cc (range, 49-371), respectively. Bladder volumes varied widely during IMRT: the median difference between the maximum and minimum volumes was 247 cc (range, 96-585). Variations in rectal volume during IMRT were less pronounced. For the 16 patients with vaginal fiducial markers in place throughout IMRT, the median maximum movement of the markers during IMRT was 0.59 cm in the right-left direction (range, 0-0.9), 1.46 cm in the anterior-posterior direction (range, 0.8-2.79), and 1.2 cm in the superior-inferior direction (range, 0.6-2.1). Large variations in rectal or bladder volume frequently correlated with significant displacement of the vaginal apex. Although treatment with a full bladder is usually preferred because of greater sparing of small bowel, our data demonstrate that even with detailed instruction, patients are unable to maintain consistent bladder filling. Variations in organ position during IMRT can result in marked changes in the position of the target volume and the volume of small bowel exposed to high doses of radiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vaginal Motion and Bladder and Rectal Volumes During Pelvic Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy After Hysterectomy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jhingran, Anuja, E-mail: ajhingra@mdanderson.org; Salehpour, Mohammad; Sam, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate variations in bladder and rectal volume and the position of the vaginal vault during a 5-week course of pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after hysterectomy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients were instructed how to fill their bladders before simulation and treatment. These patients underwent computed tomography simulations with full and empty bladders and then underwent rescanning twice weekly during IMRT; patients were asked to have full bladder for treatment. Bladder and rectal volumes and the positions of vaginal fiducial markers were determined, and changes in volume and position were calculated. Results: The mean full and empty bladdermore » volumes at simulation were 480 cc (range, 122-1,052) and 155 cc (range, 49-371), respectively. Bladder volumes varied widely during IMRT: the median difference between the maximum and minimum volumes was 247 cc (range, 96-585). Variations in rectal volume during IMRT were less pronounced. For the 16 patients with vaginal fiducial markers in place throughout IMRT, the median maximum movement of the markers during IMRT was 0.59 cm in the right-left direction (range, 0-0.9), 1.46 cm in the anterior-posterior direction (range, 0.8-2.79), and 1.2 cm in the superior-inferior direction (range, 0.6-2.1). Large variations in rectal or bladder volume frequently correlated with significant displacement of the vaginal apex. Conclusion: Although treatment with a full bladder is usually preferred because of greater sparing of small bowel, our data demonstrate that even with detailed instruction, patients are unable to maintain consistent bladder filling. Variations in organ position during IMRT can result in marked changes in the position of the target volume and the volume of small bowel exposed to high doses of radiation.« less

  18. The water-filled versus air-filled status of vessels cut open in air: the 'Scholander assumption' revisited

    Treesearch

    M.T. Tyree; H. Cochard; P. Cruziat

    2003-01-01

    When petioles of transpiring leaves are cut in the air, according to the 'Scholander assumption', the vessels cut open should fill with air as the water is drained away by continued transpiration, The distribution of air-filled vessels versus distance from the cut surface should match the distribution of lengths of 'open vessels', i.e. vessels cut...

  19. A simple and effective method for filling gaps in Landsat ETM+ SLC-off images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Jin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Vogelmann, James E.; Gao, Feng; Jin, Suming

    2011-01-01

    The scan-line corrector (SLC) of the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor failed in 2003, resulting in about 22% of the pixels per scene not being scanned. The SLC failure has seriously limited the scientific applications of ETM+ data. While there have been a number of methods developed to fill in the data gaps, each method has shortcomings, especially for heterogeneous landscapes. Based on the assumption that the same-class neighboring pixels around the un-scanned pixels have similar spectral characteristics, and that these neighboring and un-scanned pixels exhibit similar patterns of spectral differences between dates, we developed a simple and effective method to interpolate the values of the pixels within the gaps. We refer to this method as the Neighborhood Similar Pixel Interpolator (NSPI). Simulated and actual SLC-off ETM+ images were used to assess the performance of the NSPI. Results indicate that NSPI can restore the value of un-scanned pixels very accurately, and that it works especially well in heterogeneous regions. In addition, it can work well even if there is a relatively long time interval or significant spectral changes between the input and target image. The filled images appear reasonably spatially continuous without obvious striping patterns. Supervised classification using the maximum likelihood algorithm was done on both gap-filled simulated SLC-off data and the original "gap free" data set, and it was found that classification results, including accuracies, were very comparable. This indicates that gap-filled products generated by NSPI will have relevance to the user community for various land cover applications. In addition, the simple principle and high computational efficiency of NSPI will enable processing large volumes of SLC-off ETM+ data.

  20. IgG particle formation during filling pump operation: a case study of heterogeneous nucleation on stainless steel nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Anil K; Randolph, Theodore W; Dong, Aichun; Maloney, Kevin M; Hitscherich, Carl; Carpenter, John F

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated factors associated with vial filling with a positive displacement piston pump leading to formation of protein particles in a formulation of an IgG. We hypothesized that nanoparticles shed from the pump's solution-contact surfaces nucleated protein aggregation and particle formation. Vials of IgG formulation filled at a clinical manufacturing site contained a few visible particles and about 100,000 particles (1.5-3 microm) per mL. In laboratory studies with the same model (National Instruments FUS-10) of pump, pumping of 20 mg/mL IgG formulation resulted in about 300,000 particles (1.5-3 microm) per mL. Pumping of protein-free formulation resulted in 13,000 particles (1.5-15 microm) per mL. More than 99% of the particles were 0.25-0.95 microm in size. Mixing of protein-free pumped solution with an equal volume of 40 mg/mL IgG resulted in 300,000 particles (1.5-15 microm) per mL. Also, mixing IgG formulation with 30,000/mL stainless steel nanoparticles resulted in formation of 30,000 protein microparticles (1.5-15 microm) per mL. Infrared spectroscopy showed that secondary structure of IgG in microparticles formed by pumping or mixing with steel nanoparticles was minimally perturbed. Our results document that nanoparticles of foreign materials shed by pumps can serve as heterogeneous nuclei for formation of protein microparticles. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  1. Pyrotechnic filled molding powder

    DOEpatents

    Hartzel, Lawrence W.; Kettling, George E.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to thermosetting molding compounds and more particularly to a pyrotechnic filled thermosetting compound comprising a blend of unfilled diallyl phthalate molding powder and a pyrotechnic mixture.

  2. 27 CFR 19.410 - Age and fill date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Age and fill date. 19.410... Spirits from Customs Custody § 19.410 Age and fill date. For purposes of this part, the age and fill date for spirits imported or brought into the United States will be: (a) The claimed age, as shown on the...

  3. 27 CFR 19.410 - Age and fill date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Age and fill date. 19.410... Spirits from Customs Custody § 19.410 Age and fill date. For purposes of this part, the age and fill date for spirits imported or brought into the United States will be: (a) The claimed age, as shown on the...

  4. 27 CFR 19.410 - Age and fill date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Age and fill date. 19.410... Spirits from Customs Custody § 19.410 Age and fill date. For purposes of this part, the age and fill date for spirits imported or brought into the United States will be: (a) The claimed age, as shown on the...

  5. 27 CFR 19.410 - Age and fill date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Age and fill date. 19.410... Spirits from Customs Custody § 19.410 Age and fill date. For purposes of this part, the age and fill date for spirits imported or brought into the United States will be: (a) The claimed age, as shown on the...

  6. The Filled Arm Fizeau Telescope (FFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to the design of a Mills Cross imaging interferometer in which the arms are fully filled with mirror segments of a Ritchey-Chretien primary and which has sensitivity to 27th magnitude per pixel and resolution a factor of 10 greater than Hubble. The optical design, structural configuration, thermal disturbances, and vibration, material, control, and metrology issues, as well as scientific capabilities are discussed, and technology needs are identified. The technologies under consideration are similar to those required for the development of the other imaging interferometers that have been proposed over the past decade. A comparison of the imaging capabilities of a 30-m diameter FFT, an 8-m telescope with a collecting area equal to that of the FFT, and the HST is presented.

  7. Impact of left atrial volume reduction concomitant with atrial fibrillation surgery on left atrial geometry and mechanical function.

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Saji, Yoshiaki; Nishina, Takeshi; Tadamura, Eiji; Kanao, Shotaro; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Sasahashi, Nozomu; Ikeda, Tadashi; Komeda, Masashi

    2008-06-01

    Left atrial geometry and mechanical functions exert a profound effect on left ventricular filling and overall cardiovascular performance. We sought to investigate the perioperative factors that influence left atrial geometry and mechanical functions after the Maze procedure in patients with refractory atrial fibrillation and left atrial enlargement. Seventy-four patients with atrial fibrillation and left atrial enlargement (diameter > or = 60 mm) underwent the Maze procedure in association with mitral valve surgery. The maximum left atrial volume and left atrial mechanical functions (booster pump, reservoir, and conduit function [%]) were calculated from the left atrial volume-cardiac cycle curves obtained by magnetic resonance imaging. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the independent variables that influenced the postoperative left atrial geometry and function. The multivariate analysis showed that left atrial reduction surgery concomitant with the Maze procedure and the postoperative maintenance of sinus rhythm were predominant independent variables for postoperative left atrial geometry and mechanical functions. Among the 58 patients who recovered sinus rhythm, the postoperative left atrial geometry and function were compared between patients with (VR group) and without (control group) left atrial volume reduction. At a mean follow-up period of 13.8 months, sinus rhythm recovery rate was better (85% vs 68%, P < .05) in the VR group and maximum left atrial volume was less (116 +/- 25 mL vs 287 +/- 73 mL, P < .001) than in the control group. The maximum left atrial volume reduced with time only in the VR group (reverse remodeling). Postoperative booster pump and reservoir function in the VR group were better than in the control group (25% +/- 6% vs 11% +/- 4% and 34% +/- 7% vs 16% +/- 4%, respectively, P < .001), whereas the conduit function in the VR group was lower than in the control group, indicating that the improvement of

  8. Risk factors for neovascular glaucoma after carbon ion radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma using dose-volume histogram analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hirasawa, Naoki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk factors for neovascular glaucoma (NVG) after carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) of choroidal melanoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 55 patients with choroidal melanoma were treated between 2001 and 2005 with C-ion RT based on computed tomography treatment planning. All patients had a tumor of large size or one located close to the optic disk. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors of NVG for the following parameters; gender, age, dose-volumes of the iris-ciliary body and the wall of eyeball, and irradiation of the optic disk (ODI). Results: Neovascular glaucomamore » occurred in 23 patients and the 3-year cumulative NVG rate was 42.6 {+-} 6.8% (standard error), but enucleation from NVG was performed in only three eyes. Multivariate analysis revealed that the significant risk factors for NVG were V50{sub IC} (volume irradiated {>=}50 GyE to iris-ciliary body) (p = 0.002) and ODI (p = 0.036). The 3-year NVG rate for patients with V50{sub IC} {>=}0.127 mL and those with V50{sub IC} <0.127 mL were 71.4 {+-} 8.5% and 11.5 {+-} 6.3%, respectively. The corresponding rate for the patients with and without ODI were 62.9 {+-} 10.4% and 28.4 {+-} 8.0%, respectively. Conclusion: Dose-volume histogram analysis with computed tomography indicated that V50{sub IC} and ODI were independent risk factors for NVG. An irradiation system that can reduce the dose to both the anterior segment and the optic disk might be worth adopting to investigate whether or not incidence of NVG can be decreased with it.« less

  9. Effect of bulk-fill base material on fracture strength of root-filled teeth restored with laminate resin composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Taha, N A; Maghaireh, G A; Ghannam, A S; Palamara, J E

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of using a bulk-fill flowable base material on fracture strength and fracture patterns of root-filled maxillary premolars with MOD preparations restored with laminate restorations. Fifty extracted maxillary premolars were selected for the study. Standardized MOD cavities with endodontic treatment were prepared for all teeth, except for intact control. The teeth were divided randomly into five groups (n=10); (Group 1) sound teeth, (Group 2) unrestored teeth; (Group 3) MOD cavities with Vitrebond base and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal); (Group 4) MOD cavities with 2mm GIC base (Fuji IX GP) and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal) open laminate, (Group 5) MOD cavities were restored with 4mm of bulk-fill flowable base material (SDR) and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal). All teeth were thermocycled and subjected to a 45° ramped oblique load in a universal testing machine. Fracture load and fracture patterns were recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's T3 test. Restoration in general increased the fracture strength compared to unrestored teeth. The fracture strength of group 5 (bulk-fill) was significantly higher than the fracture strength of the GIC laminate groups and not significantly different from the intact teeth (355±112N, P=0.118). The type of failure was unfavorable for most of the groups, with the majority being mixed failures. The use of a bulk-fill flowable base material significantly increased the fracture strength of extracted root-filled teeth with MOD cavities; however it did not improve fracture patterns to more favorable ones. Investigating restorative techniques that may improve the longevity of root-filled premolar teeth restored with direct resin restorations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eccentricity-driven fluvial fill terrace formation in the southern-central Andes, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofelde, Stefanie; Savi, Sara; Wickert, Andrew D.; Wittmann, Hella; Alonso, Ricardo; Strecker, Manfred R.; Schildgen, Taylor F.

    2016-04-01

    Across the world, fill-terrace formation in glaciated catchments has been linked to variable sediment production and river discharge over glacial-interglacial cycles. Little is known, however, how variability in global climate may have affected rainfall patterns and associated surface-processes on multi-millennial timescales in regions far from major glaciers and ice sheets, and how those changes might be reflected in the landscape. Here, we investigate the timing of fluvial fill terrace planation and abandonment in the Quebrada del Toro, an intermontane basin located in the Eastern Cordillera of the southern-central Andes of NW Argentina. Fluvial fills in the valley reach more than 150 m above the current river level. Sculpted into the fills, we observe at least 5 terrace levels with pronounced differences in their extent and preservation. We sampled four TCN (in situ 10Be) depth profiles to date the abandonment of the most extensive terrace surfaces in locations, where subsequent overprint by erosion and deposition was not pronounced. We interpret unexpectedly low 10Be concentrations at shallow depths and surface samples to be related to aeolian input, causing surface inflation. Correcting the depth profiles for inflation results in a reduction of the terrace surface ages by up to 70 ka. The inflation-corrected ages fall within the late Pleistocene (~140 - 370 ka) and suggest a potential link to orbital eccentricity (~100 ka) cycles. The studied fills in the Toro Basin document successive episodes of incision, punctuated by periods of lateral planation and possible partial re-filling. We propose climate cycles as a potentially-dominant factor in forming these terraces. To our knowledge, none of the previously studied fluvial terraces in the Andes date back more than 2 glacial cycles, thus making the Quebrada del Toro an important archive of paleoenvironmental conditions over longer timescales.

  11. 3D magneto-convective heat transfer in CNT-nanofluid filled cavity under partially active magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A.; Kolsi, Lioua; Oztop, Hakan F.; Aydi, Abdelkarim; Malekshah, Emad Hasani; Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal; Borjini, Mohamed Naceur

    2018-05-01

    A computational study has been performed to investigate the effects of partially active magnetic field on natural convection heat transfer in CNT-nanofluid filled and three-dimensional differentially heated closed space. Two cases are considered to see this effect as magnetic field is applied to upper half (Case I) and lower half (Case II) while remaining walls are insulated. The finite volume method is used to solve governing equations and results are obtained for different governing parameters as Hartmann number (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 100), nanoparticle volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.05) and height of the active zone (0 ≤ LB ≤ 1). It is found that location of magnetic field plays an important role even at the same Hartmann number. Thus, it can be a good parameter to control heat and fluid flow inside the closed space.

  12. Molecular and morphological surface analysis: effect of filling pastes and cleaning agents on root dentin

    PubMed Central

    DAINEZI, Vanessa Benetello; IWAMOTO, Alexsandra Shizue; MARTIN, Airton Abrahão; SOARES, Luís Eduardo Silva; HOSOYA, Yumiko; PASCON, Fernanda Miori; PUPPIN-RONTANI, Regina Maria

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The quality of the dentin root is the most important factor for restoration resin sealing and drives the outcome of endodontic treatment. Objective This study evaluated the effect of different filling pastes and cleaning agents on the root dentin of primary teeth using Fourier-transformed Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), micro energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (µ-EDXRF) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. Material and Methods Eighty roots of primary teeth were endodontically prepared and distributed into 4 groups and filled according to the following filling pastes: Control-no filling (CP), Calen®+zinc oxide (CZ), Calcipex II® (CII), Vitapex® (V). After seven days, filling paste groups were distributed to 4 subgroups according to cleaning agents (n=5): Control-no cleaning (C), Ethanol (E), Tergenform® (T), 35% Phosphoric acid (PA). Then, the roots were sectioned and the dentin root sections were internally evaluated by FT-Raman, µ-EDXRF and SEM. Data was submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results Regarding filling pastes, there was no significant difference in organic content. CP provided the lowest calcium values and, calcium/phosphoric ratio (Ca/P), and the highest phosphoric values. For cleaning agents there was no difference in organic content when compared to the C; however, T showed significantly higher calcium and Ca/P than PA. All groups showed similar results for phosphorus. The dentin smear layer was present after use of the cleaning agents, except PA. Conclusion The filling pastes changed the inorganic content, however they did not change the organic content. Cleaning agents did not alter the inorganic and organic content. PA cleaned and opened dentin tubules. PMID:28198982

  13. Water volume and sediment accumulation in Lake Linganore, Frederick County, Maryland, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sekellick, Andrew J.; Banks, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    To assist in understanding sediment and phosphorus loadings and the management of water resources, a bathymetric survey was conducted at Lake Linganore in Frederick County, Maryland in June 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Frederick and Frederick County, Maryland. Position data and water-depth data were collected using a survey grade echo sounder and a differentially corrected global positioning system. Data were compiled and edited using geographic information system software. A three-dimensional triangulated irregular network model of the lake bottom was created to calculate the volume of stored water in the reservoir. Large-scale topographic maps of the valley prior to inundation in 1972 were provided by the City of Frederick and digitized. The two surfaces were compared and a sediment volume was calculated. Cartographic representations of both water depth and sediment accumulation were produced along with an area/capacity table. An accuracy assessment was completed on the resulting bathymetric model. Vertical accuracy at the 95-percent confidence level for the collected data, the bathymetric surface model, and the bathymetric contour map was calculated to be 0.95 feet, 1.53 feet, and 3.63 feet, respectively. The water storage volume of Lake Linganore was calculated to be 1,860 acre-feet at full pool elevation. Water volume in the reservoir has decreased by 350 acre-feet (about 16 percent) in the 37 years since the dam was constructed. The total calculated volume of sediment deposited in the lake since 1972 is 313 acre-feet. This represents an average rate of sediment accumulation of 8.5 acre-feet per year since Linganore Creek was impounded. A sectional analysis of sediment distribution indicates that the most upstream third of Lake Linganore contains the largest volume of sediment whereas the section closest to the dam contains the largest amount of water. In comparison to other Maryland Piedmont reservoirs, Lake Linganore

  14. Injury rates in martial art athletes: anthropometric parameters and training volume, but not foot morphology indexes, are predictive risk factors for lower limb injuries.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Jacopo A; Bassani, Tito; Galbusera, Fabio; Bianchi, Alberto; Martinelli, Nicolò

    2017-09-22

    Previous studies attempted to identify possible risk factors for acute and overuse injuries in several sports disciplines such as running, gymnastics or team sports. Given the lack of scientific works focused on risk factors for lower limb injuries in martial arts, the present study was aimed to investigate foot anatomy, anthropometric measures, and other background information as possible risk factors of injury in barefoot athletes practicing judo, karate, kung fu, thai boxe, or aikido. In addition, the injury rates were evaluated in relation with the different martial art styles. One group of 130 martial artists was retrospectively evaluated. Data of three foot morphological variables were collected: navicular height (NH), navicular drop (ND) and the rear foot (RF). In addition, each participant filled an interview questionnaire providing the following information: age, sex, body weight, height, BMI, hours of training per week, the kind of injury occurred to the lower limbs in the preceding year. Of 130 subjects, 70 (53.8%) did not sustain injuries, 35 (27.0%) suffered an acute injury and the remaining 25 (19.2%) reported an overuse injury. No significant differences were observed in the injury rates in relation to style and kind of martial art. Age, training volume and BMI were found as significant predictors of injury, while NH, ND and RF were not able to predict acute or overuse injury at lower limbs. The injury rates were similar in karate, judo, kung fu, aikido, and thai boxe. The foot morphology variables were not related with the presence or absence of acute and overuse injuries. Conversely, older and heavier martial artists, performing more hours of barefoot training, are at higher risk of acute and overuse injury. Athletic trainers should strongly take into account the present information in order to develop more accurate and specific injury prevention programs for martial artists.

  15. Topological materials discovery using electron filling constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ru; Po, Hoi Chun; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2018-01-01

    Nodal semimetals are classes of topological materials that have nodal-point or nodal-line Fermi surfaces, which give them novel transport and topological properties. Despite being highly sought after, there are currently very few experimental realizations, and identifying new materials candidates has mainly relied on exhaustive database searches. Here we show how recent studies on the interplay between electron filling and nonsymmorphic space-group symmetries can guide the search for filling-enforced nodal semimetals. We recast the previously derived constraints on the allowed band-insulator fillings in any space group into a new form, which enables effective screening of materials candidates based solely on their space group, electron count in the formula unit, and multiplicity of the formula unit. This criterion greatly reduces the computation load for discovering topological materials in a database of previously synthesized compounds. As a demonstration, we focus on a few selected nonsymmorphic space groups which are predicted to host filling-enforced Dirac semimetals. Of the more than 30,000 entires listed, our filling criterion alone eliminates 96% of the entries before they are passed on for further analysis. We discover a handful of candidates from this guided search; among them, the monoclinic crystal Ca2Pt2Ga is particularly promising.

  16. Impact of fill-level in twin-screw granulation on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets.

    PubMed

    Meier, Robin; Moll, Klaus-Peter; Krumme, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2017-06-01

    In a previous study a change of the fill-level in the barrel exerted a huge influence on the twin-screw granulation (TSG) process of a high drug loaded, simplified formulation. The present work investigated this influence systematically. The specific feed load (SFL) indicating the mass per revolution as surrogate parameter for the fill-level was applied and the correlation to the real volumetric fill level of an extruder could be demonstrated by a newly developed method. A design of experiments was conducted to examine the combined influence of SFL and screw speed on the process and on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets. The same formulation was granulated at constant liquid level with the same screw configuration and led to distinctively different results by only changing the fill-level and the screw speed. The power consumption of the extruder increased at higher SFLs with hardly any influence of screw speed. At low SFL the median residence time was mainly fill-level dependent and at higher SFL mainly screw speed dependent. Optimal values for the product characteristics were found at medium values for the SFL. Granule size distributions shifted from mono-modal and narrow shape to broader and even bimodal distributions of larger median granule sizes, when exceeding or falling below a certain fill-level. Deviating from the optimum fill-level, tensile strength of tablets decreased by about 25% and disintegration times of tablets increased for more than one third. At low fill-levels, material accumulation in front of the kneading zone was detected by pressure measurements and was assumed to be responsible for the unfavored product performance. At high fill-levels, granule consolidation due to higher propensity of contact with the result of higher material temperature was accounted for inferior product performance. The fill-level was found to be an important factor in assessment and development of twin-screw granulation processes as it impacted

  17. Cytotoxic evaluation of hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled acrylate-based restorative composite resins: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chadda, Harshita; Naveen, Sangeetha Vasudevaraj; Mohan, Saktiswaren; Satapathy, Bhabani K; Ray, Alok R; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-07-01

    Although the physical and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite-filled dental restorative composite resins have been examined, the biocompatibility of these materials has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the toxicity of acrylate-based restorative composite resins filled with hydroxyapatite and a silica/hydroxyapatite combination. Five different restorative materials based on bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA) and tri-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were developed: unfilled (H0), hydroxyapatite-filled (H30, H50), and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled (SH30, SH50) composite resins. These were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity by using human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Surface morphology, elemental composition, and functional groups were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The spectra normalization, baseline corrections, and peak integration were carried out by OPUS v4.0 software. Both in vitro cytotoxicity results and SEM analysis indicated that the composite resins developed were nontoxic and supported cell adherence. Elemental analysis with EDX revealed the presence of carbon, oxygen, calcium, silicon, and gold, while the presence of methacrylate, hydroxyl, and methylene functional groups was confirmed through FTIR analysis. The characterization and compatibility studies showed that these hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled bis-GMA/TEGDMA-based restorative composite resins are nontoxic to human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and show a favorable biologic response, making them potential biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cryogenic Thermal Performance Testing of Bulk-Fill and Aerogel Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholtens, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; Sass, J. P.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Heckle, K. W.

    2007-01-01

    The research testing and demonstration of new bulk-fill materials for cryogenic thermal insulation systems was performed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at NASA Kennedy Space Center. Thermal conductivity testing under actual-use cryogenic conditions is a key to understanding the total system performance encompassing engineering, economics, and materials factors. A number of bulk fill insulation materials, including aerogel beads, glass bubbles, and perlite powder, were tested using a new cylindrical cryostat. Boundary temperatures for the liquid nitrogen boil-off method were 293 K and 78 K. Tests were performed as a function of cold vacuum pressure from high vacuum to no vacuum conditions. Results are compared with other complementary test methods in the range of 300 K to 20 K. Various testing techniques are shown to be required to obtain a complete understanding of the operating performance of a material and to provide data for answers to design engineering questions.

  19. Influence of the boundary conditions on heat and mass transfer in spacer-filled channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciofalo, M.; La Cerva, M. F.; Di Liberto, M.; Tamburini, A.

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss some problems which arise in heat or mass transfer in complex channels, with special reference to the spacer-filled channels adopted in membrane processes. Among the issues addressed are the consistent definition of local and mean heat or mass transfer coefficients; the influence of the wall boundary conditions; the influence of one-side versus two-side heat/mass transfer. Most of the results discussed were obtained by finite volume CFD simulations concerning heat transfer in Membrane Distillation or mass transfer in Electrodialysis and Reverse Electrodialysis, but many of the conclusions apply also to different processes involving geometrically complex channels

  20. Generation of digitized microfluidic filling flow by vent control.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Junghyo; Lee, Eundoo; Kim, Jaehoon; Han, Sewoon; Chung, Seok

    2017-06-15

    Quantitative microfluidic point-of-care testing has been translated into clinical applications to support a prompt decision on patient treatment. A nanointerstice-driven filling technique has been developed to realize the fast and robust filling of microfluidic channels with liquid samples, but it has failed to provide a consistent filling time owing to the wide variation in liquid viscosity, resulting in an increase in quantification errors. There is a strong demand for simple and quick flow control to ensure accurate quantification, without a serious increase in system complexity. A new control mechanism employing two-beam refraction and one solenoid valve was developed and found to successfully generate digitized filling flow, completely free from errors due to changes in viscosity. The validity of digitized filling flow was evaluated by the immunoassay, using liquids with a wide range of viscosity. This digitized microfluidic filling flow is a novel approach that could be applied in conventional microfluidic point-of-care testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Crack sealer fill characteristics.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-06-01

    Laboratory testing was conducted to determine the extent of crack fill for crack sealers composed of methyl methacrylate, : epoxy, urethane, and high molecular weight methacrylate. The test specimens consisted of eight-inch long concrete : cylinders ...

  2. 46 CFR 151.03-21 - Filling density.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling density. 151.03-21 Section 151.03-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-21 Filling density. The ratio, expressed as...

  3. 46 CFR 151.03-21 - Filling density.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filling density. 151.03-21 Section 151.03-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-21 Filling density. The ratio, expressed as...

  4. 46 CFR 151.03-21 - Filling density.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filling density. 151.03-21 Section 151.03-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-21 Filling density. The ratio, expressed as...

  5. 46 CFR 151.03-21 - Filling density.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filling density. 151.03-21 Section 151.03-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-21 Filling density. The ratio, expressed as...

  6. 46 CFR 151.03-21 - Filling density.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filling density. 151.03-21 Section 151.03-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-21 Filling density. The ratio, expressed as...

  7. Effect of filling ratio and orientation on the thermal performance of closed loop pulsating heat pipe using ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Chowdhury, Mehrin; Islam, Nawshad Arslan; Mufti, Sayed Muhammad; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Pulsating heat pipe (PHP) is a new, promising yet ambiguous technology for effective heat transfer of microelectronic devices where heat is carried by the vapor plugs and liquid slugs of the working fluid. The aim of this research paper is to better understand the operation of PHP through experimental investigations and obtain comparative results for different parameters. A series of experiments are conducted on a closed loop PHP (CLPHP) with 8 loops made of copper capillary tube of 2 mm inner diameter. Ethanol is taken as the working fluid. The operating characteristics are studied for the variation of heat input, filling ratio (FR) and orientation. The filling ratios are 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% based on its total volume. The orientations are 0° (vertical), 30°, 45° and 60°. The results clearly demonstrate the effect of filling ratio and inclination angle on the performance, operational stability and heat transfer capability of ethanol as working fluid of CLPHP. Important insight of the operational characteristics of CLPHP is obtained and optimum performance of CLPHP using ethanol is thus identified. Ethanol works best at 50-60%FR at wide range of heat inputs. At very low heat inputs, 40%FR can be used for attaining a good performance. Filling ratio below 40%FR is not suitable for using in CLPHP as it gives a low performance. The optimum performance of the device can be obtained at vertical position.

  8. Parylene supported 20um*20um uncooled thermoelectric infrared detector with high fill factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres-Zadeh, Mohammad J.; Carpenter, Zachary S.; Rockley, Mark G.; Abdolvand, Reza

    2012-06-01

    Presented is a novel design for an uncooled surface-micromachined thermoelectric (TE) infrared (IR) detector. The detector features a P-doped polysilicon/Nichrome (Cr20-Ni80) thermocouple, which is embedded into a thin layer of Parylene-N to provide structural support. The low thermal conductivity (~0.1W/m.K), chemical resistance, and ease of deposition/patterning of Parylene-N make it an excellent choice of material for use in MEMS thermal detectors. This detector also features an umbrella-like IR absorber composed of a three layer stack of NiCr/SiN/NiCr to optimize IR absorption. The total device area is 20 um * 20 um per pixel with an absorber area of ~19 um * 19 um resulting in a fill factor of 90%. At room temperature, a DC responsivity of ~170V/W with a rise time of less than 8 ms is measured from the fabricated devices in vacuum when viewing a 500K blackbody without any concentrating optics. The dominant source of noise in thermoelectric IR detectors is typically Johnson noise when the detectors are operating in an open circuit condition. The fabricated detectors have resistances about 85KOhm which results in Johnson noise of about 38nV/Hz^0.5. The D* is calculated to be 9 * 106 cm*Hz0.5/ W. Preliminary finite element analysis indicates that the thermal conduction from the hot junction to the substrate through the TE wires is dominant ( GTE >> Gparylene) considering the fabricated dimensions of the parylene film and the TE wires. Thus, by further reducing the size of the TE wires, GTE can be decreased and hence, responsivity can be improved while the parylene film sustains the structural integrity of the cell.

  9. Recycling of Pleistocene valley fills dominates 125 ka of sediment flux, upper Indus River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munack, Henry; Blöthe, Jan Henrik; Fülöp, Réka-Hajnalka; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Fink, David; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Rivers draining the semiarid Transhimalayan Ranges along the western Tibetan Plateau margin underwent alternating phases of massive valley infill and incision in Pleistocene times. The imprints of these cut-and-fill cycles on long-term sediment fluxes have remained largely elusive. We investigate the timing and geomorphic consequences of headward incision of the Zanskar River, which taps the vast More Plains valley fill that currently impedes drainage of the endorheic high-altitude basins of Tso Kar and Tso Moriri. In situ 10Be exposure dating and topographic analyses indicate that a phase of valley infill gave way to net dissection of the >250-m thick sedimentary stacks ˜125 ka ago, i.e. during the last interglacial (MIS 5e). Rivers eroded >14.7 km3 of sediment from the Zanskar headwaters since then, fashioning specific sediment yields that surpass 10Be-derived denudation rates from neighbouring catchments by factors of two to ten. We conclude that recycling of Pleistocene valley fills has provided Transhimalayan headwater rivers with more sediment than bedrock denudation, at least since the beginning of the last glacial cycle. This protracted liberation of sediment stored in thick valley fills could bias rate estimates of current sediment loads and long-term bedrock denudation.

  10. Physico-mechanical characteristics of commercially available bulk-fill composites.

    PubMed

    Leprince, Julian G; Palin, William M; Vanacker, Julie; Sabbagh, Joseph; Devaux, Jacques; Leloup, Gaetane

    2014-08-01

    Bulk-fill composites have emerged, arguably, as a new "class" of resin-based composites, which are claimed to enable restoration in thick layers, up to 4mm. The objective of this work was to compare, under optimal curing conditions, the physico-mechanical properties of most currently available bulk-fill composites to those of two conventional composite materials chosen as references, one highly filled and one flowable "nano-hybrid" composite. Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar-Vivadent), Venus Bulk Fill (Heraeus-Kulzer), SDR (Dentsply), X-tra Fil (VOCO), X-tra Base (VOCO), Sonic Fill (Kerr), Filtek Bulk Fill (3M-Espe), Xenius (GC) were compared to the two reference materials. The materials were light-cured for 40s in a 2mm×2mm×25mm Teflon mould. Degree of conversion was measured by Raman spectroscopy, Elastic modulus and flexural strength were evaluated by three point bending, surface hardness using Vickers microindentation before and after 24h ethanol storage, and filler weight content by thermogravimetric analysis. The ratio of surface hardness before and after ethanol storage was considered as an evaluation of polymer softening. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test (p=0.05). The mechanical properties of the bulk-fill composites were mostly lower compared with the conventional high viscosity material, and, at best, comparable to the conventional flowable composite. Linear correlations of the mechanical properties investigated were poor with degree of conversion (0.090.8). Softening in ethanol revealed differences in polymer network density between material types. The reduction of time and improvement of convenience associated with bulk-fill materials is a clear advantage of this particular material class. However, a compromise with mechanical properties compared with more conventional commercially-available nano-hybrid materials was demonstrated by the present work. Given the lower mechanical

  11. Decrease in coronary vascular volume in systole augments cardiac contraction.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, M J; Duncker, D J; Krams, R; Dijkman, M A; Lamberts, R R; Sipkema, P; Westerhof, N

    2001-08-01

    Coronary arterial inflow is impeded and venous outflow is increased as a result of the decrease in coronary vascular volume due to cardiac contraction. We evaluated whether cardiac contraction is influenced by interfering with the changes of the coronary vascular volume over the heart cycle. Length-tension relationships were determined in Tyrode-perfused rat papillary muscle and when coronary vascular volume changes were partly inhibited by filling it with congealed gelatin or perfusing it with a high viscosity dextran buffer. Also, myocyte thickening during contraction was reduced by placing a silicon tube around the muscle. Increasing perfusion pressure from 8 to 80 cmH2O, increased developed tension by approximately 40%. When compared with the low perfusion state, developed tension of the gelatin-filled vasculature was reduced to 43 +/- 6% at the muscle length where the muscle generates the largest developed tension (n = 5, means +/- SE). Dextran reduced developed tension to 73 +/- 6% (n = 6). The silicon tube, in low perfusion state, reduced the developed tension to 83 +/- 7% (n = 4) of control. Time-control and oxygen-lowering experiments show that the findings are based on mechanical effects. Thus interventions to prevent myocyte thickening reduce developed tension. We hypothesize that when myocyte thickening is prevented, intracellular pressure increases and counteracts the force produced by the contractile apparatus. We conclude that emptying of the coronary vasculature serves a physiological purpose by facilitating cardiomyocyte thickening thereby augmenting force development.

  12. Factors determining the average atomic volumes in intermetallic compounds.

    PubMed

    Pauling, L

    1987-07-01

    In formation of an intermetallic compound from the elementary metals there is usually a contraction in volume. Electron transfer leading to the charge states M(+) and M(-) with increase in valence and decrease in volume explains the more than 2-fold range in contraction for different compounds in the same binary system. In a more thorough analysis, the better packing of atoms of different sizes also needs to be considered.

  13. 3-D ultrasound volume reconstruction using the direct frame interpolation method.

    PubMed

    Scheipers, Ulrich; Koptenko, Sergei; Remlinger, Rachel; Falco, Tony; Lachaine, Martin

    2010-11-01

    A new method for 3-D ultrasound volume reconstruction using tracked freehand 3-D ultrasound is proposed. The method is based on solving the forward volume reconstruction problem using direct interpolation of high-resolution ultrasound B-mode image frames. A series of ultrasound B-mode image frames (an image series) is acquired using the freehand scanning technique and position sensing via optical tracking equipment. The proposed algorithm creates additional intermediate image frames by directly interpolating between two or more adjacent image frames of the original image series. The target volume is filled using the original frames in combination with the additionally constructed frames. Compared with conventional volume reconstruction methods, no additional filling of empty voxels or holes within the volume is required, because the whole extent of the volume is defined by the arrangement of the original and the additionally constructed B-mode image frames. The proposed direct frame interpolation (DFI) method was tested on two different data sets acquired while scanning the head and neck region of different patients. The first data set consisted of eight B-mode 2-D frame sets acquired under optimal laboratory conditions. The second data set consisted of 73 image series acquired during a clinical study. Sample volumes were reconstructed for all 81 image series using the proposed DFI method with four different interpolation orders, as well as with the pixel nearest-neighbor method using three different interpolation neighborhoods. In addition, volumes based on a reduced number of image frames were reconstructed for comparison of the different methods' accuracy and robustness in reconstructing image data that lies between the original image frames. The DFI method is based on a forward approach making use of a priori information about the position and shape of the B-mode image frames (e.g., masking information) to optimize the reconstruction procedure and to reduce

  14. Toughening Mechanisms in Silica-Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Binay S.

    Epoxies are widely used as underfill resins throughout the microelectronics industry to mechanically couple and protect various components of flip-chip assemblies. Generally rigid materials largely surround underfill resins. Improving the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resins to better match those of their rigid counterparts can help extend the service lifetime of flip-chip assemblies. Recently, researchers have demonstrated that silica nanoparticles are effective toughening agents for lightly-crosslinked epoxies. Improvements in the fracture toughness of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites have primarily been attributed to two toughening mechanisms: particle debonding with subsequent void growth and matrix shear banding. Various attempts have been made to model the contribution of these toughening mechanisms to the overall fracture energy observed in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. However, disparities still exist between experimental and modeled fracture energy results. In this dissertation, the thermal, rheological and mechanical behavior of eight different types of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites was investigated. Each nanocomposite consisted of up to 10 vol% of silica nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm, with a variety of surface treatments and particle structures. Fractographical analysis was conducted with new experimental approaches in order to accurately identify morphological evidence for each proposed toughening mechanism. Overall, three major insights into the fracture behavior of real world silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites were established. First, microcracking was observed as an essential toughening mechanism in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. Microcracking was observed on the surface and subsurface of fractured samples in each type of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposite. The additional toughening contribution of microcracking to overall fracture energy yielded excellent agreement between experimental

  15. SRB Environment Evaluation and Analysis. Volume 2: RSRB Joint Filling Test/Analysis Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, E. C.; Woods, G. Hamilton

    1991-01-01

    Following the Challenger accident a very comprehensive solid rocket booster (SRB) redesign program was initiated. One objective of the program was to develop expertise at NASA/MSFC in the techniques for analyzing the flow of hot gases in the SRB joints. Several test programs were undertaken to provide a data base of joint performance with manufactured defects in the joints to allow hot gases to fill the joints. This data base was used also to develop the analytical techniques. Some of the test programs were Joint Environment Simulator (JES), Nozzle Joint Environment Simulator (NJES), Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA), and Seventy-Pound Charge (SPC). In 1988 the TPTA test hardware was moved from the Utah site to MSFC and several RSRM tests were scheduled, to be followed by tests for the ASRM program. REMTECH Inc. supported these activities with pretest estimates of the flow conditions in the test joints, and post-test analysis and evaluation of the measurements. During this support REMTECH identified deficiencies in the gas-measurement instrumentation that existed in the TPTA hardware, made recommendations for its replacement, and identified improvements to the analytical tools used in the test support. Only one test was completed under the TPTA RSRM test program, and those scheduled for the ASRM were rescheduled to a time after the expiration of this contract. The attention of this effort was directed toward improvements in the analytical techniques in preparation for when the ASRM program begins.

  16. Experimental and FE displacement and polymerization stress of bonded restorations as a function of the C-Factor, volume and substrate stiffness.

    PubMed

    Boaro, Letícia Cristina Cidreira; Brandt, William Cunha; Meira, Josete Barbosa Cruz; Rodrigues, Flávia Pires; Palin, William M; Braga, Roberto Ruggiero

    2014-02-01

    To determine the free surface displacement of resin-composite restorations as a function of the C-Factor, volume and substrate stiffness, and to compare the results with interfacial stress values evaluated by finite element analysis (FEA). Surface displacement was determined by an extensometer using restorations with 4 or 6mm diameter and 1 or 2mm depth, prepared in either bovine teeth or glass. The maximum displacement of the free surface was monitored for 5 min from the start of photoactivation, at an acquisition rate of 1s(-1). Axisymmetric cavity models were performed by FEA. Structural stiffness and maximum stresses were investigated. For glass, displacement showed a stronger correlation with volume (r=0.771) than with C-Factor (r=0.395, p<0.001 for both). For teeth, a stronger correlation was found with C-Factor (r=0.709; p<0.001) than with volume (r=0.546, p<0.001). For similar dimensions, stress and displacement were defined by stiffness. Simultaneous increases in volume and C-Factor led to increases in stress and surface displacement. Maximum stresses were located at the cavosurface angle, internal angle (glass) and at the dentine-enamel junction (teeth). The displacement of the restoration's free surface was related to interfacial stress development. Structural stiffness seems to affect the shrinkage stress at the tooth/resin-composite interface in bonded restorations. Deep restorations are always problematic because they showed high shear stress, regardless of their width. FEA is the only tool capable of detecting shear stress due to polymerization as there is still no reliable experimental alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors Impacting Habitable Volume Requirements for Long Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Matthew; Neubek, Deborah; Whitmire, Alexandria

    2012-01-01

    One possible next leap in human space exploration for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA). In order to achieve such an ambitious goal, a space habitat will need to accommodate a crew of four for the 380-day round trip. The Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) developed a conceptual design for such a habitat. The team identified activities that would be performed inside a long-duration, deep space habitat, and the capabilities needed to support such a mission. A list of seven functional activities/capabilities was developed: individual and group crew care, spacecraft and mission operations, subsystem equipment, logistics and resupply, and contingency operations. The volume for each activity was determined using NASA STD-3001 and the companion Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Although, the sum of these volumes produced an over-sized spacecraft, the team evaluated activity frequency and duration to identify functions that could share a common volume without conflict, reducing the total volume by 24%. After adding 10% for growth, the resulting functional pressurized volume was calculated to be a minimum of 268 m3 (9,464 ft3) distributed over the functions. The work was validated through comparison to Mir, Skylab, the International Space Station (ISS), Bigelow Aerospace s proposed habitat module, and NASA s Trans-Hab concept. Using HIDH guidelines, the team developed an internal layout that (a) minimized the transit time between related crew stations, (b) accommodated expected levels of activity at each station, (c) isolated stations when necessary for health, safety, performance, and privacy, and (d) provided a safe, efficient, and comfortable work and living environment.

  18. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy as method of choice for non-invasive and automated detection of microbial growth in media fills.

    PubMed

    Brueckner, David; Roesti, David; Zuber, Ulrich; Sacher, Meik; Duncan, Derek; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Braissant, Olivier

    2017-05-15

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was evaluated on its potential to detect bacterial growth of contaminated media fill vials. The target was a replacement/ automation of the traditional visual media fill inspection. TDLAS was used to determine non-invasively O 2 and/or CO 2 changes in headspaces of such vials being induced by metabolically active microorganisms. Four different vial formats, 34 microorganisms (inoculation volume<10 cells) and two different media (TSB/FTM) were tested. Applying parallel CO 2 and O 2 headspace measurements all format-organism combinations were detected within <11 days reliably with reproducible results. False negatives were exclusively observed for samples that were intentionally breached with syringes of 0.3mm in diameter. Overall it was shown that TDLAS functionality for a replacement of the visual media fill inspection is given and that investing in further validation and implementation studies is valuable. Nevertheless, some small but vincible challenges remain to have this technology in practical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of verapamil on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: pressure-volume analysis with a nonimaging scintillation probe.

    PubMed

    Bonow, R O; Ostrow, H G; Rosing, D R; Cannon, R O; Lipson, L C; Maron, B J; Kent, K M; Bacharach, S L; Green, M V

    1983-11-01

    To investigate the effects of verapamil on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, we studied 14 patients at catheterization with a nonimaging scintillation probe before and after serial intravenous infusions of low-, medium-, and high-dose verapamil (total dose 0.17 to 0.72 mg/kg). Percent change in radionuclide stroke counts after verapamil correlated well with percent change in thermodilution stroke volume (r = .87), and changes in diastolic and systolic counts were used to assess relative changes in left ventricular volumes after verapamil. Verapamil produced dose-related increases in end-diastolic counts (19 +/- 9% increase; p less than .001), end-systolic counts (91 +/- 54% increase; p less than .001), and stroke counts (7 +/- 10% increase; p less than .02). This was associated with a decrease in ejection fraction (83 +/- 8% control, 73 +/- 10% verapamil; p less than .001) and, in the 10 patients with left ventricular outflow tract gradients, a reduction in gradient (62 +/- 27 mm Hg control, 32 +/- 35 mm Hg verapamil; p less than .01). The end-systolic pressure-volume relation was shifted downward and rightward in all patients, suggesting a negative inotropic effect. In 10 patients, left ventricular pressure-volume loops were constructed with simultaneous micromanometer pressure recordings and the radionuclide time-activity curve. In five patients, verapamil shifted the diastolic pressure-volume curve downward and rightward, demonstrating improved pressure-volume relations despite the negative inotropic effect, and also increased the peak rate of rapid diastolic filling. In the other five patients, the diastolic pressure-volume relation was unaltered by verapamil, and increased end-diastolic volumes occurred at higher end-diastolic pressures; in these patients, the peak rate of left ventricular diastolic filling was not changed by verapamil. The negative inotropic effects of intravenous verapamil are

  20. Improved Gas Filling and Sealing of an HC-PCF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Meras, Patrick; Chang, Daniel; Spiers, Gary

    2008-01-01

    An improved packaging approach has been devised for filling a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber (HC-PCF) with a gas, sealing the HC-PCF to retain the gas, and providing for optical connections and, optionally, a plumbing fitting for changing or augmenting the gas filling. Gas-filled HC-PCFs can be many meters long and have been found to be attractive as relatively compact, lightweight, rugged alternatives to conventional gas-filled glass cells for use as molecular-resonance frequency references for stabilization of lasers in some optical-metrology, lidar, optical-communication, and other advanced applications. Prior approaches to gas filling and sealing of HC-PCFs have involved, variously, omission of any attempt to connectorize the PCF, connectorization inside a vacuum chamber (an awkward and expensive process), or temporary exposure of one end of an HC-PCF to the atmosphere, potentially resulting in contamination of the gas filling. Prior approaches have also involved, variously, fusion splicing of HC-PCFs with other optical fibers or other termination techniques that give rise to Fresnel reflections of about 4 percent, which results in output intensity noise.

  1. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triolo, A.; Lo Celso, F.; Negroni, F.; Arrighi, V.; Qian, H.; Lechner, R. E.; Desmedt, A.; Pieper, J.; Frick, B.; Triolo, R.

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface.

  2. 19 CFR 132.22 - When quota is filled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY QUOTAS Mail Importation of Absolute Quota Merchandise § 132.22 When quota is filled. Any packages containing merchandise subject to an absolute quota which is filled shall be returned to the postmaster for...

  3. 19 CFR 132.22 - When quota is filled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY QUOTAS Mail Importation of Absolute Quota Merchandise § 132.22 When quota is filled. Any packages containing merchandise subject to an absolute quota which is filled shall be returned to the postmaster for...

  4. Factors determining the average atomic volumes in intermetallic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Linus

    1987-01-01

    In formation of an intermetallic compound from the elementary metals there is usually a contraction in volume. Electron transfer leading to the charge states M+ and M- with increase in valence and decrease in volume explains the more than 2-fold range in contraction for different compounds in the same binary system. In a more thorough analysis, the better packing of atoms of different sizes also needs to be considered. PMID:16578809

  5. Regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes in normal aging adults.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroyuki; Takahara, Miwa; Honjo, Naomi F; Doi, Shun'ichi; Sadato, Norihiro; Uchiyama, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Although low executive functioning is a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly drivers, the neural basis of individual differences in this cognitive ability remains largely unknown. Here we aimed to examine regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive functioning in normal aging individuals, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). To this end, 39 community-dwelling elderly volunteers who drove a car on a daily basis participated in structural magnetic resonance imaging, and completed two questionnaires concerning executive functioning and risky driving tendencies in daily living. Consequently, we found that participants with low executive function capacity were prone to risky driving. Furthermore, VBM analysis revealed that lower executive function capacity was associated with smaller gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Thus, the current data suggest that SMA volume is a reliable predictor of individual differences in executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly persons. The implication of our results is that regional frontal gray matter volume might underlie the variation in driving tendencies among elderly drivers. Therefore, detailed driving behavior assessments might be able to detect early neurodegenerative changes in the frontal lobe in normal aging adults.

  6. Endurance of Damping Properties of Foam-Filled Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Strano, Matteo; Marra, Alessandro; Mussi, Valerio; Goletti, Massimo; Bocher, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The favorable energy-absorption properties of metal foams have been frequently proposed for damping or anti-crash applications. The aim of this paper is to investigate the endurance of these properties for composite structures, made by a metal or a hybrid metal-polymeric foam used as the core filling of a tubular metal case. The results of experimental tests are shown, run with two types of structures: 1) square steel tubes filled with aluminum or with hybrid aluminum-polymer foams; 2) round titanium tubes filled with aluminum foams. The paper shows that the damping properties of a foam-filled tube change (improve) with the number of cycles, while all other dynamic properties are nearly constant. This result is very important for several potential applications where damping is crucial, e.g., for machine tools. PMID:28793425

  7. Endurance of Damping Properties of Foam-Filled Tubes.

    PubMed

    Strano, Matteo; Marra, Alessandro; Mussi, Valerio; Goletti, Massimo; Bocher, Philippe

    2015-07-07

    The favorable energy-absorption properties of metal foams have been frequently proposed for damping or anti-crash applications. The aim of this paper is to investigate the endurance of these properties for composite structures, made by a metal or a hybrid metal-polymeric foam used as the core filling of a tubular metal case. The results of experimental tests are shown, run with two types of structures: 1) square steel tubes filled with aluminum or with hybrid aluminum-polymer foams; 2) round titanium tubes filled with aluminum foams. The paper shows that the damping properties of a foam-filled tube change (improve) with the number of cycles, while all other dynamic properties are nearly constant. This result is very important for several potential applications where damping is crucial, e.g., for machine tools.

  8. Highly Efficient Porphyrin-Based OPV/Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cells with Extended Photoresponse and High Fill Factor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ke; Zhu, Zonglong; Xu, Bo; Jo, Sae Byeok; Kan, Yuanyuan; Peng, Xiaobin; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2017-12-01

    Employing a layer of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic semiconductors on top of perovskite to further extend its photoresponse is considered as a simple and promising way to enhance the efficiency of perovskite-based solar cells, instead of using tandem devices or near infrared (NIR)-absorbing Sn-containing perovskites. However, the progress made from this approach is quite limited because very few such hybrid solar cells can simultaneously show high short-circuit current (J SC ) and fill factor (FF). To find an appropriate NIR-absorbing BHJ is essential for highly efficient, organic, photovoltaics (OPV)/perovskite hybrid solar cells. The materials involved in the BHJ layer not only need to have broad photoresponse to increase J SC , but also possess suitable energy levels and high mobility to afford high V OC and FF. In this work, a new porphyrin is synthesized and blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) to function as an efficient BHJ for OPV/perovskite hybrid solar cells. The extended photoresponse, well-matched energy levels, and high hole mobility from optimized BHJ morphology afford a very high power conversion efficiency (PCE) (19.02%) with high V oc , J SC , and FF achieved simultaneously. This is the highest value reported so far for such hybrid devices, which demonstrates the feasibility of further improving the efficiency of perovskite devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Simon, Matthias; Engel, Klaus Juergen; Menser, Bernd

    2008-03-15

    The need for fine detail visibility in various applications such as dental imaging, mammography, but also neurology and cardiology, is the driver for intensive efforts in the development of new x-ray detectors. The spatial resolution of current scintillator layers is limited by optical diffusion. This limitation can be overcome by a pixelation, which prevents optical photons from crossing the interface between two neighboring pixels. In this work, an array of pores was etched in a silicon wafer with a pixel pitch of 50 {mu}m. A very high aspect ratio was achieved with wall thicknesses of 4-7 {mu}m and pore depthsmore » of about 400 {mu}m. Subsequently, the pores were filled with Tl-doped cesium iodide (CsI:Tl) as a scintillator in a special process, which includes powder melting and solidification of the CsI. From the sample geometry and x-ray absorption measurement the pore fill grade was determined to be 75%. The scintillator-filled samples have a circular active area of 16 mm diameter. They are coupled with an optical sensor binned to the same pixel pitch in order to measure the x-ray imaging performance. The x-ray sensitivity, i.e., the light output per absorbed x-ray dose, is found to be only 2.5%-4.5% of a commercial CsI-layer of similar thickness, thus very low. The efficiency of the pores to transport the generated light to the photodiode is estimated to be in the best case 6.5%. The modulation transfer function is 40% at 4 lp/mm and 10%-20% at 8 lp/mm. It is limited most likely by the optical gap between scintillator and sensor and by K-escape quanta. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is determined at different beam qualities and dose settings. The maximum DQE(0) is 0.28, while the x-ray absorption with the given thickness and fill factor is 0.57. High Swank noise is suspected to be the reason, mainly caused by optical scatter inside the CsI-filled pores. The results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations of the photon transport inside the pore

  10. Thermo-mechanical properties of high aspect ratio silica nanofiber filled epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Liyun

    The optimization of thermo-mechanical properties of polymer composites at low filler loadings is of great interest in both engineering and scientific fields. There have been several studies on high aspect ratio fillers as novel reinforcement phase for polymeric materials. However, facile synthesis method of high aspect ratio nanofillers is limited. In this study, a scalable synthesis method of high aspect ratio silica nanofibers is going to be presented. I will also demonstrate that the inclusion of high aspect ratio silica nanofibers in epoxy results in a significant improvement of epoxy thermo-mechanical properties at low filler loadings. With silica nanofiber concentration of 2.8% by volume, the Young's modulus, ultimate tensile strength and fracture toughness of epoxy increased ~23, ~28 and ~50%, respectively, compared to unfilled epoxy. At silica nanofiber volume concentration of 8.77%, the thermal expansion coefficient decreased by ˜40% and the thermal conductivity was improved by ˜95% at room temperature. In the current study, the influence of nano-sized silica filler aspect ratio on mechanical and thermal behavior of epoxy nanocomposites were studied by comparing silica nanofibers to spherical silica nanoparticles (with aspect ratio of one) at various filler loadings. The significant reinforcement of composite stiffness is attributed to the variation of the local stress state in epoxy due to the high aspect ratio of the silica nanofiber and the introduction of a tremendous amount of interfacial area between the nanofillers and the epoxy matrix. The fracture mechanisms of silica nanofiber filled epoxy were also investigated. The existence of high aspect ratio silica nanofiber promotes fracture energy dissipation by crack deflection, crack pinning as well as debonding with fiber pull-out leading to enhanced fracture toughness. High aspect ratio fillers also provide significant reduction of photon scattering due to formation of a continuous fiber network

  11. Control volume based hydrocephalus research; a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Madsen, Joseph; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a complex spectrum of neurophysiological disorders involving perturbation of the intracranial contents; primarily increased intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume and intracranial pressure are observed. CSF dynamics are highly coupled to the cerebral blood flows and pressures as well as the mechanical properties of the brain. Hydrocephalus, as such, is a very complex biological problem. We propose integral control volume analysis as a method of tracking these important interactions using mass and momentum conservation principles. As a first step in applying this methodology in humans, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the intracranial space. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. Within the gel a hollow spherical cavity represents the ventricular system and a cylindrical passage represents the spinal canal. A computer controlled piston pump supplies sinusoidal volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and momentum flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients and normal individuals. Flow and pressure measurements on the flow phantom will be presented through the control volume framework.

  12. Excavation/Fill/Soil Disturbance, Self-Study #31419

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Grogin, Phillip W.

    This course, Excavation/Fill/Soil Disturbance Self-Study (#31419), presents an overview of the hazards, controls, and requirements that affect safe excavations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An overview of the LANL excavation/fill/soil disturbance permit (EXID permit) approval process is also presented, along with potholing requirements for planning and performing excavations at LANL.

  13. Anti-aging and filling efficacy of six types hyaluronic acid based dermo-cosmetic treatment: double blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Buonocore, Daniela; Michelotti, Angela; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-12-01

    Human skin aging is a multifactorial and complex biological process affecting the different skin constituents. Even if the skin aging mechanism is not yet fully unravelled is evident that epidermis loses the principal molecule responsible for binding and retaining water molecules, resulting in loss of skin moisture and accounting for some of the most striking alterations of the aged skin. This Study investigated the cosmetic filling efficacy of Fillerina® in decreasing the skin aging signs and in improving facial volume deficiencies. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was carried out on 40 healthy female subjects showing mild to moderate clinical signs of skin aging. The effect of the treatment on skin surface and on face volumes was assessed both in the short-term (3 h after a single product application) and in the long-term (7, 14, and 30 days after continuative daily use). Three hours after a single application and after 7, 14, and 30 days of treatment the lips volume was increased by 8.5%, 11.3%, 12.8%, and 14.2%. After 7, 14, and 30 days: (1) skin sagging of the face contours was decreased by -0.443 ± 0.286, -1.124 ± 0.511, and -1.326 ± 0.649 mm, respectively; (2) skin sagging of the cheekbones contours was decreased by -0.989 ± 0.585, -2.500 ± 0.929, and -2.517 ± 0.927 mm, respectively; (3) cheekbones volume was increased by 0.875 ± 0.519, 2.186 ± 0.781, and 2.275 ± 0.725 mm, respectively; (4) wrinkle volume was decreased by -11.3%, -18.4%, and -26.3%, respectively; and (5) wrinkle depth was decreased by -8.4%, -14.5%, and -21.8% respectively. This study demonstrated the positive filling effect of Fillerina® in decreasing the clinical signs of skin aging and in improving the face volumes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Rockets and People. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chertok, Boris E; Siddiqi, Asif A. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written in the West on the history of the Soviet space program but few Westerners have read direct first-hand accounts of the men and women who were behind the many Russian accomplishments in exploring space.The memoirs of Academician Boris Chertok, translated from the original Russian, fills that gap.Chertok began his career as an electrician in 1930 at an aviation factory near Moscow.Twenty-seven years later, he became deputy to the founding figure of the Soviet space program, the mysterious Chief Designer Sergey Korolev. Chertok s sixty-year-long career and the many successes and failures of the Soviet space program constitute the core of his memoirs, Rockets and People. These writings are spread over four volumes. This is volume I. Academician Chertok not only describes and remembers, but also elicits and extracts profound insights from an epic story about a society s quest to explore the cosmos. In Volume 1, Chertok describes his early years as an engineer and ends with the mission to Germany after the end of World War II when the Soviets captured Nazi missile technology and expertise. Volume 2 takes up the story with the development of the world s first intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM) and ends with the launch of Sputnik and the early Moon probes. In Volume 3, Chertok recollects the great successes of the Soviet space program in the 1960s including the launch of the world s first space voyager Yuriy Gagarin as well as many events connected with the Cold War. Finally, in Volume 4, Chertok meditates at length on the massive Soviet lunar project designed to beat the Americans to the Moon in the 1960s, ending with his remembrances of the Energiya-Buran project.

  15. Evaluation of methods for delineating areas that contribute water to wells completed in valley-fill aquifers in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.; Madden, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Valley-fill aquifers in Pennsylvania are the source of drinking water for many wells in the glaciated parts of the State and along major river valleys. These aquifers area subject to contamination because of their shallow water-table depth and highly transmissive sediments. The possibility for contamination of water-supply wells in valley-fill aquifers can be minimized by excluding activities that could contaminate areas that contribute water to supply wells. An area that contributes water to a well is identified in this report as either an area of diversion, time-of-travel area, or contributing area. The area of diversion is a projection to land surface of the valley-fill aquifer volume through which water is diverted to a well and the time-of travel area is that fraction of the area of diversion through which water moves to the well in a specified time. The contributing area, the largest of three areas, includes the area of diversion but also incorporates bedrock uplands and other area that contribute water. Methods for delineating areas of diversion and contributing areas in valley-fill aquifers, described and compared in order of increasing complexity, include fixed radius, uniform flow, analytical, semianalytical, and numerical modeling. Delineated areas are considered approximations because the hydraulic properties and boundary conditions of the real ground-water system are simplified even in the most complex numerical methods. Successful application of any of these methods depends on the investigator's understanding of the hydrologic system in and near the well field, and the limitations of the method. The hydrologic system includes not only the valley-fill aquifer but also the regional surface-water and ground-water flow systems within which the valley is situated. As shown by numerical flow simulations of a well field in the valley-fill aquifer along Marsh Creek Valley near Asaph, Pa., water from upland bedrock sources can provide nearly all the water

  16. Comparison of orbital volume obtained by tomography and rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Roça, Guilherme Berto; Foggiatto, José Aguiomar; Ono, Maria Cecilia Closs; Ono, Sergio Eiji; da Silva Freitas, Renato

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to compare orbital volume obtained by helical tomography and rapid prototyping. The study sample was composed of 6 helical tomography scans. Eleven healthy orbits were identified to have their volumes measured. The volumetric analysis with the helical tomography utilized the same protocol developed by the Plastic Surgery Unit of the Federal University of Paraná. From the CT images, 11 prototypes were created, and their respective volumes were analyzed in 2 ways: using software by SolidWorks and by direct analysis, when the prototype was filled with saline solution. For statistical analysis, the results of the volumes of the 11 orbits were considered independent. The average orbital volume measurements obtained by the method of Ono et al was 20.51 cm, the average obtained by the SolidWorks program was 20.64 cm, and the average measured using the prototype method was 21.81 cm. The 3 methods demonstrated a strong correlation between the measurements. The right and left orbits of each patient had similar volumes. The tomographic method for the analysis of orbital volume using the Ono protocol yielded consistent values, and by combining this method with rapid prototyping, both reliability validations of results were enhanced.

  17. Cuff filling volumes for pediatric classic laryngeal mask airways: comparison of clinical end points versus adjusted cuff pressure.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Babita; Sethi, Sameer; Ram, Jagat; Wig, Jyotsna

    2013-02-01

    Clinical end points are often used to guide inflation and adequacy of cuff seal after laryngeal mask airway placement. However, clinical end points for cuff inflation have been shown to have significantly higher intracuff pressure. The adjusted cuff pressure between 55 and 60 cm H(2)O causes significantly better seal of laryngeal mask airway. We prospectively assessed the cuff pressures generated by cuff inflation guided by clinical end points, and the actual volume of air required to achieve cuff pressures between 55 and 60 cm H(2)O for sizes 1-2.5 reusable classic laryngeal mask airway. Two hundred and three ASA I and II children undergoing elective cataract surgery requiring general anesthesia receiving laryngeal mask airway sizes 1-2.5 were recruited to this study. The laryngeal mask airway was placed using standard technique. After insertion of laryngeal mask airway, the cuff was slowly inflated until a slight outward shift of device was noted. Cuff pressures were measured using calibrated hand held Portex Cuff Inflator Pressure Gauge (Portex Limited, Hythe, Kent, UK). If the cuff pressure was >60 cm H(2)O, the cuff was deflated to achieve a cuff pressure of 55-60 cm H(2)O. The volume of air required to achieve this pressure was recorded. The volume of air required to achieve the pressure between 55 and 60 cm H(2)O in laryngeal mask airway size 1, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 were 2.750 ± 0.2565, 4.951 ± 0.5378, 6.927 ± 0.6328, and 10.208 ± 1.4535 ml, respectively. The difference between the initial and the final cuff volumes and pressures in all laryngeal mask airway sizes were statistically significant(P = 0.000). Lower cuff volumes are required to achieve a pressure of 60 cm H(2)O than those required if clinical end points are used as a sole guide for determining cuff inflation for patients receiving pediatric laryngeal mask airways. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... durability groups) that is equipped with unproven emission control systems. (v) The manufacturer must... small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups. 86.1826-01 Section 86.1826-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... durability groups) that is equipped with unproven emission control systems. (v) The manufacturer must... small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups. 86.1826-01 Section 86.1826-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... durability groups) that is equipped with unproven emission control systems. (v) The manufacturer must... small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups. 86.1826-01 Section 86.1826-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... durability groups) that is equipped with unproven emission control systems. (v) The manufacturer must... small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups. 86.1826-01 Section 86.1826-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...

  2. Differentiated muscles are mandatory for gas-filling of the Drosophila airway system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; Cruz, Tina; Irion, Uwe; Moussian, Bernard

    2015-11-30

    At the end of development, organs acquire functionality, thereby ensuring autonomy of an organism when it separates from its mother or a protective egg. In insects, respiratory competence starts when the tracheal system fills with gas just before hatching of the juvenile animal. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of this process are not fully understood. Analyses of the phenotype of Drosophila embryos with malformed muscles revealed that they fail to gas-fill their tracheal system. Indeed, we show that major regulators of muscle formation like Lame duck and Blown fuse are important, while factors involved in the development of subsets of muscles including cardiac and visceral muscles are dispensable for this process, suggesting that somatic muscles (or parts of them) are essential to enable tracheal terminal differentiation. Based on our phenotypic data, we assume that somatic muscle defect severity correlates with the penetrance of the gas-filling phenotype. This argues that a limiting molecular or mechanical muscle-borne signal tunes tracheal differentiation. We think that in analogy to the function of smooth muscles in vertebrate lungs, a balance of physical forces between muscles and the elasticity of tracheal walls may be decisive for tracheal terminal differentiation in Drosophila. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Degradation of strength properties of epoxy resin filled with natural-based particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valášek, Petr; Habrová, Karolína; Müller, Miroslav

    2018-05-01

    Degradation of polymeric materials can be considered as a limiting factor for their use. Mechanical characteristics of epoxy resins are reduced, for example, by the action and changes of temperature or humidity. Degradation also occurs in composite systems where the epoxy resins function as matrices, i.e. in polymer composite materials. If a natural filler is used together with the epoxy resin, we refer to these materials as biocomposites, where also the natural character of the filler material greatly affects the degradation process. The paper focuses on the description of the shear strength of the resin filled with particles prepared from the seeds of dates of Phoenix Dactylifera plant. The degradation was evaluated experimentally in laboratory conditions via the climatic chamber. The experiment describes composites with a particle size of filler 100-200 μm with a concentration of 5 - 10 wt%. As the number of degradation cycles increased, the tensile strength of both the unfilled and the filled epoxy resin decreased. After 5 weeks, the drop was up to 50%. The presence of the particles did not significantly affect the shear strength compared to the non-filled resin. The described way of utilization of the natural-based particles is the possibility of material utilization of secondary natural materials.

  4. Human CST has independent functions during telomere duplex replication and C-strand fill-in

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Stewart, Jason A.; Kasbek, Christopher; Zhao, Yong; Wright, Woodring E.; Price, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Human CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) is an RPA-like complex that is needed for efficient replication through the telomere duplex and genome-wide replication restart after fork stalling. Here we show that STN1/CST has a second function in telomere replication during G-overhang maturation. Analysis of overhang structure after STN1 depletion revealed normal kinetics for telomerase-mediated extension in S-phase but a delay in subsequent overhang shortening. This delay resulted from a defect in C-strand fill-in. Short telomeres exhibited the fill-in defect but normal telomere duplex replication, indicating that STN1/CST functions independently in these processes. Our work also indicates that the requirement for STN1/CST in telomere duplex replication correlates with increasing telomere length and replication stress. Our results provide the first direct evidence that STN1/CST participates in C-strand fill-in. They also demonstrate that STN1/CST participates in two mechanistically separate steps during telomere replication and identify CST as a novel replication factor that solves diverse replication-associated problems. PMID:23142664

  5. Biocompatibility of root-end filling materials: recent update

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Newaskar, Vilas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of a root-end filling is to establish a seal between the root canal space and the periradicular tissues. As root-end filling materials come into contact with periradicular tissues, knowledge of the tissue response is crucial. Almost every available dental restorative material has been suggested as the root-end material of choice at a certain point in the past. This literature review on root-end filling materials will evaluate and comparatively analyse the biocompatibility and tissue response to these products, with primary focus on newly introduced materials. PMID:24010077

  6. Resistance to fracture of roots filled with different sealers.

    PubMed

    Sağsen, Burak; Ustün, Yakup; Pala, Kanşad; Demırbuğa, Sezer

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of roots filled with gutta percha (GP) and different root canal sealers.Fifty-five human maxillary central incisors were selected and randomly divided into three experimental groups (Groups 1-3) and two control groups (Groups 4 and 5). They were Group 1-15 root canals filled with an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus) and GP, Group 2 -15 root canals filled with a calcium silicate-based sealer (iRoot SP) and GP, Group 3: 15 root canals filled with another calcium silicate-based sealer (MTA Fillapex) and GP, Group 4: five roots were instrumented but not filled, and Group 5: five roots were neither instrumented nor filled. Compressive loading was carried out using a universal testing machine until fracture occurred. Force applied at time of fracture was recorded as fracture strength of specimen in Newtons. There were no significant differences in fracture strength among the three experimental groups (p>0.05), whose results were significantly superior to that of Group 4 (p<0.05). In conclusion, all the root canal sealers used in the present study increased the fracture resistance of instrumented root canals.

  7. Concrete Cracking Prediction Including the Filling Proportion of Strand Corrosion Products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Dai, Lizhao; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Jianren

    2016-12-23

    The filling of strand corrosion products during concrete crack propagation is investigated experimentally in the present paper. The effects of stirrups on the filling of corrosion products and concrete cracking are clarified. A prediction model of crack width is developed incorporating the filling proportion of corrosion products and the twisting shape of the strand. Experimental data on cracking angle, crack width, and corrosion loss obtained from accelerated corrosion tests of concrete beams are presented. The proposed model is verified by experimental data. Results show that the filling extent of corrosion products varies with crack propagation. The rust filling extent increases with the propagating crack until a critical width. Beyond the critical width, the rust-filling extent remains stable. Using stirrups can decrease the critical crack width. Stirrups can restrict crack propagation and reduce the rust filling. The tangent of the cracking angle increases with increasing corrosion loss. The prediction of corrosion-induced crack is sensitive to the rust-filling extent.

  8. Concrete Cracking Prediction Including the Filling Proportion of Strand Corrosion Products

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Dai, Lizhao; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Jianren

    2016-01-01

    The filling of strand corrosion products during concrete crack propagation is investigated experimentally in the present paper. The effects of stirrups on the filling of corrosion products and concrete cracking are clarified. A prediction model of crack width is developed incorporating the filling proportion of corrosion products and the twisting shape of the strand. Experimental data on cracking angle, crack width, and corrosion loss obtained from accelerated corrosion tests of concrete beams are presented. The proposed model is verified by experimental data. Results show that the filling extent of corrosion products varies with crack propagation. The rust filling extent increases with the propagating crack until a critical width. Beyond the critical width, the rust-filling extent remains stable. Using stirrups can decrease the critical crack width. Stirrups can restrict crack propagation and reduce the rust filling. The tangent of the cracking angle increases with increasing corrosion loss. The prediction of corrosion-induced crack is sensitive to the rust-filling extent. PMID:28772367

  9. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    polyurethanes reduced the loss factor and emphasized the correlation between molecular storage modulus by increasing the length of the structure and...one tempera- static deformations. He gave storage and loss ture/frequency range is difficult with copoly- moduli for a carbon black filled and an...has been described (18). The shear loss author states that the frequency dependence of and storage moduli of a void-filled polyurethane the elastomers

  10. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation on Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Left Atrial Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Simone Nascimento; Henz, Benhur Davi; Zanatta, André Rodrigues; Barreto, José Roberto; Loureiro, Kelly Bianca; Novakoski, Clarissa; dos Santos, Marcus Vinícius Nascimento; Giuseppin, Fabio F.; Oliveira, Edna Maria; Leite, Luiz Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), and the estimation of elevated LV filling pressures by E/e' ratio is related to worse outcomes in patients with AF. However, it is unknown if restoring sinus rhythm reverses this process. Objective To evaluate the impact of AF ablation on estimated LV filling pressure. Methods A total of 141 patients underwent radiofrequency (RF) ablation to treat drug-refractory AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed 30 days before and 12 months after ablation. LV functional parameters, left atrial volume index (LAVind), and transmitral pulsed and mitral annulus tissue Doppler (e' and E/e') were assessed. Paroxysmal AF was present in 18 patients, persistent AF was present in 102 patients, and long-standing persistent AF in 21 patients. Follow-up included electrocardiographic examination and 24-h Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation. Results One hundred seventeen patients (82.9%) were free of AF during the follow-up (average, 18 ± 5 months). LAVind reduced in the successful group (30.2 mL/m2 ± 10.6 mL/m2 to 22.6 mL/m2 ± 1.1 mL/m2, p < 0.001) compared to the non-successful group (37.7 mL/m2 ± 14.3 mL/m2 to 37.5 mL/m2 ± 14.5 mL/m2, p = ns). Improvement of LV filling pressure assessed by a reduction in the E/e' ratio was observed only after successful ablation (11.5 ± 4.5 vs. 7.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.001) but not in patients with recurrent AF (12.7 ± 4.4 vs. 12 ± 3.3, p = ns). The success rate was lower in the long-standing persistent AF patient group (57% vs. 87%, p = 0.001). Conclusion Successful AF ablation is associated with LA reverse remodeling and an improvement in LV filling pressure. PMID:25590928

  11. High-order finite-volume solutions of the steady-state advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear Robin boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhi; Zhang, Qinghai

    2017-09-01

    We propose high-order finite-volume schemes for numerically solving the steady-state advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear Robin boundary conditions. Although the original motivation comes from a mathematical model of blood clotting, the nonlinear boundary conditions may also apply to other scientific problems. The main contribution of this work is a generic algorithm for generating third-order, fourth-order, and even higher-order explicit ghost-filling formulas to enforce nonlinear Robin boundary conditions in multiple dimensions. Under the framework of finite volume methods, this appears to be the first algorithm of its kind. Numerical experiments on boundary value problems show that the proposed fourth-order formula can be much more accurate and efficient than a simple second-order formula. Furthermore, the proposed ghost-filling formulas may also be useful for solving other partial differential equations.

  12. Effectiveness of Sonic, Ultrasonic, and Photon-Induced Photoacoustic Streaming Activation of NaOCl on Filling Material Removal Following Retreatment in Oval Canal Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Zou, Ting; Li, Dongxia; Chang, Jeffery W W; Huang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Chengfei

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of sonic, ultrasonic and laser [photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS)] irrigation activation in removing filling remnants from oval root canals after standard canal retreatment procedures with the ProTaper universal rotary retreatment system. Twenty-eight maxillary first premolars were instrumented with ProTaper NiTi rotary instruments and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using the continuous wave of condensation technique. After storage at 37°C and 100% humidity for 1 week, the specimens were retreated with the ProTaper universal retreatment system for the removal of filling material. Teeth were then randomly assigned into four groups (n = 7): group 1, positive control; group 2, retreated with sonic irrigation; group 3, retreated with ultrasonic irrigation; and group 4, retreated with laser irradiation. The specimens were scanned using micro-CT before instrumentation, after obturation and mechanical retreatment, and after additional activation procedures. The percentage volume of the filling remnants was measured. Specimens were split longitudinally after micro-CT scan, canal walls were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the amount of residual filling material was scored. The filling materials' removal efficacy in the three experimental groups was higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05), whereas filling materials ranging from 1.46 ± 0.30 to 2.21 ± 0.46 mm(3) remained in the canal in all three experimental groups. Additionally, there was a significantly greater reduction in the amount of filling remnants in the PIPS group than in the sonic and ultrasonic groups (both p < 0.05), and significantly greater reduction in the ultrasonic group than the sonic group (p < 0.05). Activation of NaOCl with PIPS showed significantly better performance than sonic and ultrasonic techniques in removing the filling remnants following mechanical retreatment of

  13. Localized vibrational modes in thallium-filled skuterudites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petculescu, Gabriela; Keppens, Veerle; Taylor, Andrew; Sales, Brian; Mandrus, David

    2003-03-01

    Elastic constant measurements using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy have been performed on Tl_xCo_ 4Sb_12-ySny skutterudites as a function of temperature and Tl filling ratio, x (y = 0 or 1, for small and large values of x, respectively). In addition to being promising thermoelectric materials (ZT = 0.8 at T = 800 K) [1], these Tl-filled compounds provide a ``clean'' system to investigate the mechanism involved in the lattice thermal conductivity drop. The behavior of the elastic constants at low temperatures depends directly on the rattling atoms' (e.g.: Tl) local vibrational modes which could be associated with an Einstein oscillator or a two-level system. This was previously illustrated for the lanthanum-filled skutterudite La_0.75 Fe_3CoSb_12 [2]. In the present study, we examine the influence of the rattler filling ratio on the dominant mechanism of excitation. The results will be discussed and compared with findings in related skutterudite and clathrate compounds. [Work supported by the National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval Research.] [1] B. C. Sales et al., Phys. Rev. B 61, 2475-2481 (2000). [2] V. Keppens et al., Nature 395, 876-878 (1998).

  14. Rectal compliance as a routine measurement: extreme volumes have direct clinical impact and normal volumes exclude rectum as a problem.

    PubMed

    Felt-Bersma, R J; Sloots, C E; Poen, A C; Cuesta, M A; Meuwissen, S G

    2000-12-01

    The clinical impact of rectal compliance and sensitivity measurement is not clear. The aim of this study was to measure the rectal compliance in different patient groups compared with controls and to establish the clinical effect of rectal compliance. Anorectal function tests were performed in 974 consecutive patients (284 men). Normal values were obtained from 24 controls. Rectal compliance measurement was performed by filling a latex rectal balloon with water at a rate of 60 ml per minute. Volume and intraballoon pressure were measured. Volume and pressure at three sensitivity thresholds were recorded for analysis: first sensation, urge, and maximal toleration. At maximal toleration, the rectal compliance (volume/pressure) was calculated. Proctoscopy, anal manometry, anal mucosal sensitivity, and anal endosonography were also performed as part of our anorectal function tests. No effect of age or gender was observed in either controls or patients. Patients with fecal incontinence had a higher volume at first sensation and a higher pressure at maximal toleration (P = 0.03), the presence of a sphincter defect or low or normal anal pressures made no difference. Patients with constipation had a larger volume at first sensation and urge (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.01). Patients with a rectocele had a larger volume at first sensation (P = 0.004). Patients with rectal prolapse did not differ from controls; after rectopexy, rectal compliance decreased (P < 0.0003). Patients with inflammatory bowel disease had a lower rectal compliance, most pronounced in active proctitis (P = 0.003). Patients with ileoanal pouches also had a lower compliance (P < 0.0001). In the 17 patients where a maximal toleration volume < 60 ml was found, 11 had complaints of fecal incontinence, and 6 had a stoma. In 31 patients a maximal toleration volume between 60 and 100 ml was found; 12 patients had complaints of fecal incontinence, and 6 had a stoma. Proctitis or pouchitis was the main cause for a

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA FILL MATERIALS AND SOILS 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Foundation Fill Data Base project of the Foundation Fill Materials Specifications Task Area of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Work included determination of radon concentrations...

  16. 21 CFR 1306.14 - Labeling of substances and filling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prescriptions. (a) The pharmacist filling a written or emergency oral prescription for a controlled substance... Schedule II; and (4) The system employed by the pharmacist in filling a prescription is adequate to... not be filled until a certain date, no pharmacist may fill the prescription before that date. [36 FR...

  17. 21 CFR 1306.14 - Labeling of substances and filling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prescriptions. (a) The pharmacist filling a written or emergency oral prescription for a controlled substance... Schedule II; and (4) The system employed by the pharmacist in filling a prescription is adequate to... not be filled until a certain date, no pharmacist may fill the prescription before that date. [36 FR...

  18. 21 CFR 1306.14 - Labeling of substances and filling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prescriptions. (a) The pharmacist filling a written or emergency oral prescription for a controlled substance... Schedule II; and (4) The system employed by the pharmacist in filling a prescription is adequate to... not be filled until a certain date, no pharmacist may fill the prescription before that date. [36 FR...

  19. 21 CFR 1306.14 - Labeling of substances and filling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prescriptions. (a) The pharmacist filling a written or emergency oral prescription for a controlled substance... Schedule II; and (4) The system employed by the pharmacist in filling a prescription is adequate to... not be filled until a certain date, no pharmacist may fill the prescription before that date. [36 FR...

  20. 21 CFR 1306.14 - Labeling of substances and filling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prescriptions. (a) The pharmacist filling a written or emergency oral prescription for a controlled substance... Schedule II; and (4) The system employed by the pharmacist in filling a prescription is adequate to... not be filled until a certain date, no pharmacist may fill the prescription before that date. [36 FR...

  1. Polyaniline nanofiber sponge filled graphene foam as high gravimetric and volumetric capacitance electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrós, J.; Boscá, A.; Martínez, J.; Ruiz-Gómez, S.; Pérez, L.; Barranco, V.; Calle, F.

    2016-06-01

    A 3D hierarchical porous composite structure is developed via the controlled electrodeposition of a polyaniline nanofiber sponge (PANI-NFS) that fills the pores of a chemical vapor deposited graphene foam (GF). The PANI-NFS/GF composite combines the efficient electronic transport in the GF scaffold (with 100-500 μm pore size) with the rapid diffusion of the electrolyte ions into the high-specific-surface-area and densely-packed PANI-NFS (with 100-500 nm pore size). The factor of 1000 in the pore hierarchy and the synergy between the materials, that form a supercapacitor composite electrode with an integrated extended current collector, lead to both very high gravimetric and volumetric capacitances. In particular, values of 1474 F g-1 and 86 F cm-3 for a GF filling factor of 11% (leading to an estimated value of 782 F cm-3 for 100%), respectively, are obtained at a current density of 0.47 A g-1. Moreover, the composite electrode presents a capacitance retention of 83% after 15000 cycles. This excellent behavior makes the PANI-NFS/GF composite electrodes very attractive for high-performance supercapacitors.

  2. Atrial Fibrillation in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: Association With Exercise Capacity, Left Ventricular Filling Pressures, Natriuretic Peptides, and Left Atrial Volume.

    PubMed

    Lam, Carolyn S P; Rienstra, Michiel; Tay, Wan Ting; Liu, Licette C Y; Hummel, Yoran M; van der Meer, Peter; de Boer, Rudolf A; Van Gelder, Isabelle C; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Voors, Adriaan A; Hoendermis, Elke S

    2017-02-01

    This study sought to study the association of atrial fibrillation (AF) with exercise capacity, left ventricular filling pressure, natriuretic peptides, and left atrial size in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The diagnosis of HFpEF in patients with AF remains a challenge because both contribute to impaired exercise capacity, and increased natriuretic peptides and left atrial volume. We studied 94 patients with symptomatic heart failure and left ventricular ejection fractions ≥45% using treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise testing and right- and/or left-sided cardiac catheterization with simultaneous echocardiography. During catheterization, 62 patients were in sinus rhythm, and 32 patients had AF. There were no significant differences in age, sex, body size, comorbidities, or medications between groups; however, patients with AF had lower peak oxygen consumption (VO 2 ) compared with those with sinus rhythm (10.8 ± 3.1 ml/min/kg vs. 13.5 ± 3.8 ml/min/kg; p = 0.002). Median (25th to 75th percentile) N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was higher in AF versus sinus rhythm (1,689; 851 to 2,637 pg/ml vs. 490; 272 to 1,019 pg/ml; p < 0.0001). Left atrial volume index (LAVI) was higher in AF than sinus rhythm (57.8 ± 17.0 ml/m 2 vs. 42.5 ± 15.1 ml/m 2 ; p = 0.001). Invasive hemodynamics showed higher mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) (19.9 ± 3.7 vs. 15.2 ± 6.8) in AF versus sinus rhythm (all p < 0.001), with a trend toward higher left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (17.7 ± 3.0 mm Hg vs. 15.7 ± 6.9 mm Hg; p = 0.06). After adjusting for clinical covariates and mean PCWP, AF remained associated with reduced peak VO 2 increased log NT-proBNP, and enlarged LAVI (all p ≤0.005). AF is independently associated with greater exertional intolerance, natriuretic peptide elevation, and left atrial remodeling in HFpEF. These data support the application of different thresholds of NT-proBNP and LAVI

  3. Potential of scrap tire rubber as lightweight aggregate in flowable fill.

    PubMed

    Pierce, C E; Blackwell, M C

    2003-01-01

    Flowable fill is a self-leveling and self-compacting material that is rapidly gaining acceptance and application in construction, particularly in transportation and utility earthworks. When mixed with concrete sand, standard flowable fill produces a mass density ranging from 1.8 to 2.3 g/cm(3) (115-145 pcf). Scrap tires can be granulated to produce crumb rubber, which has a granular texture and ranges in size from very fine powder to coarse sand-sized particles. Due to its low specific gravity, crumb rubber can be considered a lightweight aggregate. This paper describes an experimental study on replacing sand with crumb rubber in flowable fill to produce a lightweight material. To assess the technical feasibility of using crumb rubber, the fluid- and hardened-state properties of nine flowable fill mixtures were measured. Mixture proportions were varied to investigate the effects of water-to-cement ratio and crumb rubber content on fill properties. Experimental results indicate that crumb rubber can be successfully used to produce a lightweight flowable fill (1.2-1.6 g/cm(3) [73-98 pcf]) with excavatable 28-day compressive strengths ranging from 269 to 1194 kPa (39-173 psi). Using a lightweight fill reduces the applied stress on underlying soils, thereby reducing the potential for bearing capacity failure and minimizing soil settlement. Based on these results, a crumb rubber-based flowable fill can be used in a substantial number of construction applications, such as bridge abutment fills, trench fills, and foundation support fills.

  4. Critical temperature of noninteracting bosonic gases in cubic optical lattices at arbitrary integer fillings.

    PubMed

    Rakhimov, Abdulla; Askerzade, Iman N

    2014-09-01

    We have shown that the critical temperature of a Bose-Einstein condensate to a normal phase transition of noninteracting bosons in cubic optical lattices has a linear dependence on the filling factor, especially at large densities. The condensed fraction exhibits a linear power law dependence on temperature in contrast to the case of ideal homogeneous Bose gases.

  5. Simultaneous improvement in short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and fill factor of polymer solar cells through ternary strategy.

    PubMed

    An, Qiaoshi; Zhang, Fujun; Li, Lingliang; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Weihua; Deng, Zhenbo

    2015-02-18

    We present a smart strategy to simultaneously increase the short circuit current (Jsc), the open circuit voltage (Voc), and the fill factor (FF) of polymer solar cells (PSCs). A two-dimensional conjugated small molecule photovoltaic material (SMPV1), as the second electron donor, was doped into the blend system of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl (PC71BM) to form ternary PSCs. The ternary PSCs with 5 wt % SMPV1 doping ratio in donors achieve 4.06% champion power conversion efficiency (PCE), corresponding to about 21.2% enhancement compared with the 3.35% PCE of P3HT:PC71BM-based PSCs. The underlying mechanism on performance improvement of ternary PSCs can be summarized as (i) harvesting more photons in the longer wavelength region to increase Jsc; (ii) obtaining the lower mixed highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level by incorporating SMPV1 to increase Voc; (iii) forming the better charge carrier transport channels through the cascade energy level structure and optimizing phase separation of donor/acceptor materials to increase Jsc and FF.

  6. Tribological properties of nanosized calcium carbonate filled polyamide 66 nanocomposites

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Itagaki, Kaito; Nishitani, Yosuke; Kitano, Takeshi

    For the purpose of developing high performance tribomaterials for mechanical sliding parts such as gears, bearings and so on, nanosized calcium carbonate (nano-CaCO{sub 3}) filled polyamide 66 (PA66) nanocomposites were investigated. The nano-CaCO{sub 3} was a kind of precipitated (colloid typed) CaCO{sub 3}, and its average particle size was 40, 80 and 150 nm. Surface treatment was performed by fatty acid on the nano-CaCO{sub 3} and its volume fraction in the nanocomposite was varied from 1 to 20vol.%. These nanocomposites were melt-mixed by a twin screw extruder and injection-molded. Tribological properties were measured by two types of sliding wear testers suchmore » as ring-on-plate type and ball-on-plate type one under dry condition. The counterface, worn surface and wear debris were observed by digital microscope and scanning electron microscope. It was found that the nano-CaCO{sub 3} has a good effect on the tribological properties, although the effect on the frictional coefficient and specific wear rate is differed by the volume fraction and the type of sliding wear modes. This is attributed to the change of wear mechanisms, which is the change of form of the transfer films on the counterface and the size of wear debris. It follows from these results that PA66/nano-CaCO{sub 3} nanocomposites may be possible to be the high performance tribomaterials.« less

  7. On stable exponential cosmological solutions with non-static volume factor in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchuk, V. D.; Ernazarov, K. K.

    2017-01-01

    A (n + 1)-dimensional gravitational model with cosmological constant and Gauss-Bonnet term is studied. The ansatz with diagonal cosmological metrics is adopted and solutions with exponential dependence of scale factors: ai ˜ exp (vit), i = 1, …, n, are considered. The stability analysis of the solutions with non-static volume factor is presented. We show that the solutions with v 1 = v 2 = v 3 = H > 0 and small enough variation of the effective gravitational constant G are stable if certain restriction on (vi ) is obeyed. New examples of stable exponential solutions with zero variation of G in dimensions D = 1 + m + 2 with m > 2 are presented.

  8. Economic Factors Affecting the Financing of Education. National Educational Finance Project, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Roe L., Ed.; And Others

    Eleven articles on various aspects of educational finance comprise this document, volume two of the NEFP series. Volume one of this series deals with educational needs, volume three with educational planning and finance, and volume four with the impact of educational finance programs. In general, the material in this volume treats education as a…

  9. Plasma volume during stress in man - Osmolality and red cell volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Convertino, V. A.; Mangseth, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose was (1) to test the hypothesis that in man there is a range of plasma osmolality within which the red cell volume (RCV) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) remain essentially constant and (2) to determine the upper limit of this range. During a variety of stresses - submaximal and maximal exercise, heat and altitude exposure, +Gz acceleration, and tilting - changes in plasma osmolality between -1 and +13 mosmol/kg resulted in essentially no change in the regression of percent change in plasma volume (PV) calculated from a change in hematocrit (Hct) on that calculated from a change in Hct + hemoglobin (Hb), i.e., the RCV and MCV were constant. Factors that do not influence RCV are the level of metabolism, heat exposure at rest, and short-term orthostasis (heat-to-foot acceleration). Factors that may influence RCV are exposure to high altitude and long-term orthostasis (head-up tilting). Factors that definitely influence RCV are prior dehydration and extended periods of stress. Thus, either the Hct or the Hct + Hb equations can be used to calculate percent changes in PV under short-term periods of stress when the change in plasma osmolality is less than 13 mosmol/kg.

  10. Biomonitoring of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of subjects with dental restorative fillings.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Angela; Visalli, Giuseppa; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna; Baluce, Barbara; Matarese, Giovanni; Cingano, Luciano; Scoglio, Maria Elena

    2008-02-29

    Dental fillings provide a major iatrogenic exposure to xenobiotic compounds due to the high prevalence of surface restorations in developed countries. Experimental data suggest that both amalgams, which contain mercury, and resin-based dental materials cause an impairment of the cellular pro- and anti-oxidant redox balance. The aim of this study was to assess the potential genotoxicity of dental restorative compounds in peripheral blood lymphocytes of young exposed subjects compared with controls. The study examined, by use of the comet assay, 68 carefully selected subjects taking into account the major known confounding factors. In the 44 exposed subjects, the mean numbers of restored surfaces was 3.0 and 3.8 in males and females, respectively. Tail length, percentage of DNA in the tail, tail moment or Olive tail moment were twofold higher in the exposed group than in unexposed controls, with significant differences. No significant difference was observed between amalgam and composite fillings. Furthermore, as shown by multivariate analysis, the association between dental fillings and DNA damage was enhanced by the number of fillings and by the exposure time. Among the lifestyle variables, a moderate physical activity showed a protective effect, being inversely correlated to the DNA damage parameters evaluated. On the whole, the use of DNA-migration allowed us to detect for the first time the potential adverse impact on human health of both kinds of dental filling constituents, the amalgams and the methacrylates. The main mechanism underlying the genotoxicity of dental restorative materials of various nature may be ascribed to the ability of both amalgams and methacrylates to trigger the generation of cellular reactive oxygen species, able to cause oxidative DNA lesions.

  11. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  12. Shop for quality or volume? Volume, quality, and outcomes of coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Andrew D; Hilton, Joan F; Maselli, Judith; Pekow, Penelope S; Rothberg, Michael B; Lindenauer, Peter K

    2009-05-19

    Care from high-volume centers or surgeons has been associated with lower mortality rates in coronary artery bypass surgery, but how volume and quality of care relate to each other is not well understood. To determine how volume and differences in quality of care influence outcomes after coronary artery bypass surgery. Observational cohort. 164 hospitals in the United States. 81,289 patients 18 years or older who had coronary artery bypass grafting from 1 October 2003 to 1 September 2005. Hospital and surgeon case volumes were estimated by using a data set. Quality measures were defined by whether patients received specific medications and by counting the number of measures missed. Hierarchical models were used to estimate effects of volume and quality on death and readmission up to 30 days. After adjustment for clinical factors, lowest surgeon volume and highest hospital volume were associated with higher mortality rates and lower readmission risk, respectively. Patients who did not receive aspirin (odds ratio, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.65 to 2.16) or beta-blockers (odds ratio, 1.29 [CI, 1.12 to 1.49]) had higher odds for death, after adjustment for clinical risk factors and case volume. Adjustment for individual quality measures did not alter associations between volume and readmission or death. However, if no quality measures were missed, mortality rates at the lowest-volume centers (adjusted mortality rate, 1.05% [CI, 0.81% to 1.29%]) and highest-volume centers (adjusted mortality rate, 0.98% [CI, 0.72% to 1.25%]) were similar. Because administrative data were used, the quality measures may not replicate measures collected through chart abstraction. Maximizing adherence to quality measures is associated with improved mortality rates, independent of hospital or surgeon volume. California HealthCare Foundation.

  13. Unnoticed Post-Void Residual Urine Volume in People with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Waal, K. H.; Tinselboer, B. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Penning, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Increased post-void residual urine volume (PVR) is often seen in geriatric populations. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have risk factors in common with these populations. Aims: To investigate in adults with ID: (1) Feasibility of portable ultrasound bladder scanning; (2) Prevalence of PVR; and (3) Relations with proposed…

  14. Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes II: simulation for Spallation Neutron Sources and planetary exploration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian; Baik, Kyungmin; Leighton, Timothy G

    2011-08-01

    This paper uses a finite element method (FEM) to compare predictions of the attenuation and sound speeds of acoustic modes in a fluid-filled pipe with those of the analytical model presented in the first paper in this series. It explains why, when the predictions of the earlier paper were compared with experimental data from a water-filled PMMA pipe, the uncertainties and agreement for attenuation data were worse than those for sound speed data. Having validated the FEM approach in this way, the versatility of FEM is thereafter demonstrated by modeling two practical applications which are beyond the analysis of the earlier paper. These applications model propagation in the mercury-filled steel pipework of the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Tennessee), and in a long-standing design for acoustic sensors for use on planetary probes. The results show that strong coupling between the fluid and the solid walls means that erroneous interpretations are made of the data if they assume that the sound speed and attenuation in the fluid in the pipe are the same as those that would be measured in an infinite volume of identical fluid, assumptions which are common when such data have previously been interpreted.

  15. Does ITV vaginal procedure ensure dosimetric coverage during IMRT of post-operative gynaecological tumours without instructions concerning rectal filling?

    PubMed

    Verges, Ramona; Giraldo, Alexandra; Seoane, Alejandro; Toral, Elisabet; Ruiz, M Carmen; Pons, Ariadna; Giralt, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    To find out whether the internal target volume (ITV) vaginal procedure ensures dosimetric coverage during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of post-operative gynaecological tumours without instructions on rectal filling. The ITV vaginal procedure does not necessarily include all movements of the bladder, and does not include changes in the rectal volume. We should know if the vaginal ITV is a useful tool in maintaining CTV coverage during treatment. A retrospective analysis of 24 patients treated between July 2012 and July 2014 with adjuvant IMRT for gynaecological cancer. All patients underwent empty and full bladder CT on simulation (CT-planning) and three weeks later (CT-control). ITV displacement was measured and the 3D vector was calculated. ITV coverage was then evaluated by comparing the volume covered by the prescription isodose on both CT's. Patients were asked to have full bladder but they did not follow recommendations for the rectum. The mean 3D vector was 0.64 ± 0.32 cm (0.09-1.30). The mean ITV coverage loss was 5.8 ± 5.7% (0-20.2). We found a significant positive correlation between the 3D vector and the loss of coverage (Pearson correlation, r  = 0.493, 95% CI: 0.111-0.748, p  = 0.0144). We did not find any significant correlation between the bladder and rectal parameters with the 3D vector and loss of dosimetric coverage. We found a trend between the maximum rectal diameter in CT-planning and 3D vector ( r  = 0.400, 95% CI: -0.004 to 0.692, p  = 0.0529). ITV vaginal procedure contributed to ensuring a good dose coverage without instructions on rectal filling.

  16. ESR Detection of optical dynamic nuclear polarization in GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As quantum wells at unity filling factor in the quantum Hall effect

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vitkalov, Sergey A.; Bowers, C. Russell; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2000-02-15

    This paper presents a study of the enhancement of the Zeeman energy of two-dimensional (2D) conduction electrons near the {nu}=1 filling factor of the quantum Hall effect by optical dynamic nuclear polarization. The change in the Zeeman energy is determined from the Overhauser shift of the transport detected electron spin resonance in GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As multiquantum wells. In a separate experiment the NMR signal enhancement factor is obtained by radio frequency detected nuclear magnetic resonance under similar conditions in the same sample. These measurements afford an estimation of the hyperfine coupling constant between the nuclei and 2D conduction electrons. (c)more » 2000 The American Physical Society.« less

  17. 21 CFR 1306.13 - Partial filling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prescription for a controlled substance listed in Schedule II is permissible if the pharmacist is unable to... or cannot be filled within the 72-hour period, the pharmacist shall notify the prescribing individual... as having a terminal illness, the pharmacist must contact the practitioner prior to partially filling...

  18. 21 CFR 1306.13 - Partial filling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prescription for a controlled substance listed in Schedule II is permissible if the pharmacist is unable to... or cannot be filled within the 72-hour period, the pharmacist shall notify the prescribing individual... as having a terminal illness, the pharmacist must contact the practitioner prior to partially filling...

  19. 21 CFR 1306.13 - Partial filling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prescription for a controlled substance listed in Schedule II is permissible if the pharmacist is unable to... or cannot be filled within the 72-hour period, the pharmacist shall notify the prescribing individual... as having a terminal illness, the pharmacist must contact the practitioner prior to partially filling...

  20. 21 CFR 1306.13 - Partial filling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prescription for a controlled substance listed in Schedule II is permissible if the pharmacist is unable to... or cannot be filled within the 72-hour period, the pharmacist shall notify the prescribing individual... as having a terminal illness, the pharmacist must contact the practitioner prior to partially filling...

  1. Psychopharmacologic Services for Homeless Veterans: Comparing Psychotropic Prescription Fills Among Homeless and Non-Homeless Veterans with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Eric; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Using national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data, this study evaluated differences in psychotropic medication use between homeless and non-homeless adults with serious mental illness (SMI) who used VHA services in 2010. The adjusted mean number of psychotropic prescription fills associated with homeless individuals were identified using regression models adjusted for socio-demographics, diagnoses, and use of health services. Of the 876,989 individuals with SMI using VHA services, 7.2 % were homeless at some time during 2010. In bivariate analysis, homeless individuals filled more psychotropic medication prescriptions compared with non-homeless individuals. However, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables, homeless individuals were found to have filled 16.2 % fewer prescriptions than non-homeless individuals when all psychotropics were analyzed together (F = 6947.1, p < .001) and for most individual classes of psychotropics. Greater use of residential/inpatient mental health services by the homeless was the most important single factor associated with filling more psychotropic prescriptions than non-homeless individuals.

  2. Stress Memory in Fluid-Filled Fractures - Insights From Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dura-Gomez, I.; Talwani, P.

    2007-05-01

    Detailed studies of reservoir and injection induced seismicity provide an opportunity to study the characteristics of the fractures associated with fluid-induced seismicity. In 1996, we noted that the first three series of earthquakes with M greater or equal than 5.0 in the vicinity of the Koyna reservoir, occurred only when the reservoir levels had exceeded the previous maxima. In subsequent years, three more similar episodes were noted in the vicinity of the Koyna and the nearby Warna reservoir, without a single repetition in the epicentral location. This behavior was similar to Kaiser effect observed in the laboratory. A similar behavior has been observed in many cases of injection induced seismicity. At the Denver arsenal well in the 1960s and the Soultz, France, hot rock site in the 1990s, among others, seismicity only occurred when the differential pressure, (downhole well borehole pressure excess over the ambient natural pressure) reached a threshold value. These threshold values differed for different wells and depths. The seismicity stopped when the differential pressure was lowered below the threshold value. These observations show that the stress memory (associated with Kaiser effect) observed in the laboratory with small samples, is also displayed in nature where the volume of rocks is from hundreds to thousands of cu.km. The fluid-filled seismogenic fractures near the reservoirs and bore wells, associated with fluid-induced seismicity, seems to behave like a finely tuned, sensitive system that "remember" the largest stress perturbation they have been subjected to. Here we present these observations of stress memory in fluid-filled fractures associated with induced seismicity and suggest possible causes.

  3. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in cream-filled cake.

    PubMed

    Anunciaçao, L L; Linardi, W R; do Carmo, L S; Bergdoll, M S

    1995-07-01

    Cakes were baked with normal ingredients and filled with cream, inoculated with different size enterotoxigenic-staphylococcal inocula. Samples of the cakes were incubated at room temperature and put in the refrigerator. Samples of cake and filling were taken at different times and analyzed for staphylococcal count and presence of enterotoxin. The smaller the inoculum, the longer the time required for sufficient growth (10(6)) to occur for production of detectable enterotoxin. Enterotoxin added to the cake dough before baking (210 degrees C, 45 min) did not survive the baking. The presence of enterotoxin in the contaminated cream filling indicated this as the cause of staphylococcal food poisoning from cream-filled cakes. Refrigeration of the cakes prevented the growth of the staphylococci.

  4. Relationship between trabecular texture features of CT images and an amount of bone cement volume injection in percutaneous vertebroplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tack, Gye Rae; Choi, Hyung Guen; Shin, Kyu-Chul; Lee, Sung J.

    2001-06-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a surgical procedure that was introduced for the treatment of compression fracture of the vertebrae. This procedure includes puncturing vertebrae and filling with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Recent studies have shown that the procedure could provide structural reinforcement for the osteoporotic vertebrae while being minimally invasive and safe with immediate pain relief. However, treatment failures due to disproportionate PMMA volume injection have been reported as one of complications in vertebroplasty. It is believed that control of PMMA volume is one of the most critical factors that can reduce the incidence of complications. In this study, appropriate amount of PMMA volume was assessed based on the imaging data of a given patient under the following hypotheses: (1) a relationship can be drawn between the volume of PMMA injection and textural features of the trabecular bone in preoperative CT images and (2) the volume of PMMA injection can be estimated based on 3D reconstruction of postoperative CT images. Gray-level run length analysis was used to determine the textural features of the trabecular bone. The width of trabecular (T-texture) and the width of intertrabecular spaces (I-texture) were calculated. The correlation between PMMA volume and textural features of patient's CT images was also examined to evaluate the appropriate PMMA amount. Results indicated that there was a strong correlation between the actual PMMA injection volume and the area of the intertrabecular space and that of trabecular bone calculated from the CT image (correlation coefficient, requals0.96 and requals-0.95, respectively). T- texture (requals-0.93) did correlate better with the actual PMMA volume more than the I-texture (requals0.57). Therefore, it was demonstrated that appropriate PMMA injection volume could be predicted based on the textural analysis for better clinical management of the osteoporotic spine.

  5. Efficiency enhancement of ZnO nanostructure assisted Si solar cell based on fill factor enlargement and UV-blue spectral down-shifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholizadeh, A.; Reyhani, A.; Parvin, P.; Mortazavi, S. Z.

    2017-05-01

    ZnO nanostructures (including nano-plates and nano-rods (NRs)) are grown in various temperatures and Ar/O2 flow rates using thermal chemical vapor deposition, which affect the structure, nano-plate/NR population, and the quality of ZnO nanostructures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) attests that the peak intensity of the crystallographic plane (1 0 0) is correlated to nano-plate abundance. Moreover, optical properties elucidate that the population of nano-plates in samples strongly affect the band gap, binding energy of the exciton, and UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption and spectral luminescence emissions. In fact, the exciton binding energy reduces from ~100 to 80 meV when the population of nano-plates increases in samples. Photovoltaic characteristics based on the drop-casting on Si solar cells reveals three dominant factors, namely, the equivalent series resistance, decreasing reflectance, and down-shifting, in order to scale up the absolute efficiency by 3%. As a consequence, the oxygen vacancies in ZnO nanostructures give rise to the down-shifting and increase of free-carriers, leading to a reduction in the equivalent series resistance and an enlargement of fill factor. To obtain a larger I sc, reduction of spectral reflectance is essential; however, the down-shifting process is shown to be dominant by lessening the surface electron-hole recombination rate over the UV-blue spectral range.

  6. Structure and Filling Characteristics of Paleokarst Reservoirs in the Northern Tarim Basin, Revealed by Outcrop, Core and Borehole Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fei; Lu, Xinbian; Zheng, Songqing; Zhang, Hongfang; Rong, Yuanshuai; Yang, Debin; Liu, Naigui

    2017-06-01

    The Ordovician paleokarst reservoirs in the Tahe oilfield, with burial depths of over 5300 m, experienced multiple phases of geologic processes and exhibit strong heterogeneity. Core testing can be used to analyse the characteristics of typical points at the centimetre scale, and seismic datasets can reveal the macroscopic outlines of reservoirs at the >10-m scale. However, neither method can identify caves, cave fills and fractures at the meter scale. Guided by outcrop investigations and calibrations based on core sample observations, this paper describes the interpretation of high longitudinal resolution borehole images, the identification of the characteristics of caves, cave fills (sedimentary, breccia and chemical fills) and fractures in single wells, and the identification of structures and fill characteristics at the meter scale in the strongly heterogeneous paleokarst reservoirs. The paleogeomorphology, a major controlling factor in the distribution of paleokarst reservoirs, was also analysed. The results show that one well can penetrate multiple cave layers of various sizes and that the caves are filled with multiple types of fill. The paleogeomorphology can be divided into highlands, slopes and depressions, which controlled the structure and fill characteristics of the paleokarst reservoirs. The results of this study can provide fundamental meter-scale datasets for interpreting detailed geologic features of deeply buried paleocaves, can be used to connect core- and seismic-scale interpretations, and can provide support for the recognition and development of these strongly heterogeneous reservoirs.

  7. 21 CFR 1306.24 - Labeling of substances and filling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... filling of prescriptions. (a) The pharmacist filling a prescription for a controlled substance listed in... employed by the pharmacist in filling a prescription is adequate to identify the supplier, the product and...

  8. 21 CFR 1306.24 - Labeling of substances and filling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... filling of prescriptions. (a) The pharmacist filling a prescription for a controlled substance listed in... employed by the pharmacist in filling a prescription is adequate to identify the supplier, the product and...

  9. 21 CFR 1306.24 - Labeling of substances and filling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... filling of prescriptions. (a) The pharmacist filling a prescription for a controlled substance listed in... employed by the pharmacist in filling a prescription is adequate to identify the supplier, the product and...

  10. Radiographic Evaluation of Root Canal Fillings Accomplished by Undergraduate Dental Students

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Hamidreza; Samiei, Mohammad; Shahi, Shahriar; Borna, Zahra; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan; Ghiasvand, Negar; Shariati, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic quality of root canal fillings by fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year undergraduate students at Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry between 2006 and 2012. Methods and Materials: A total of 1183 root canal fillings in 620 teeth were evaluated by two investigators (and in case of disagreement by a third investigator) regarding the presence or absence of under-fillings, over-fillings and perforations. For each tooth, preoperative, working and postoperative radiographs were checked. The Pearson’s chi-square test was used for statistical evaluation of the data. Inter-examiner agreement was measured by Cohen’s kappa (k) values. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Total frequencies of over-filling, under-filling and perforation were 5.6%, 20.4% and 1.9%, respectively. There were significant differences between frequencies of over- and under-fillings (P<0.05). Unacceptable quality, under- and over-fillings were detected in 27.9% of 1183 evaluated canals. Conclusion: The technical quality of root canal therapies performed by undergraduate dental students using step-back preparation and lateral compaction techniques was unacceptable in almost one-fourth of the cases. PMID:25834598

  11. Radiographic evaluation of root canal fillings accomplished by undergraduate dental students.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Hamidreza; Samiei, Mohammad; Shahi, Shahriar; Borna, Zahra; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan; Ghiasvand, Negar; Shariati, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic quality of root canal fillings by fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year undergraduate students at Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry between 2006 and 2012. A total of 1183 root canal fillings in 620 teeth were evaluated by two investigators (and in case of disagreement by a third investigator) regarding the presence or absence of under-fillings, over-fillings and perforations. For each tooth, preoperative, working and postoperative radiographs were checked. The Pearson's chi-square test was used for statistical evaluation of the data. Inter-examiner agreement was measured by Cohen's kappa (k) values. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Total frequencies of over-filling, under-filling and perforation were 5.6%, 20.4% and 1.9%, respectively. There were significant differences between frequencies of over- and under-fillings (P<0.05). Unacceptable quality, under- and over-fillings were detected in 27.9% of 1183 evaluated canals. The technical quality of root canal therapies performed by undergraduate dental students using step-back preparation and lateral compaction techniques was unacceptable in almost one-fourth of the cases.

  12. Implications of Earth analogs to Martian sulfate-filled Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, R. M.; Powers, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate-filled fractures in fine-grained sediments on Mars are interpreted to be the result of fluid movement during deep burial. Fractures in the Dewey Lake (aka Quartermaster) Formation of southeastern New Mexico and west Texas are filled with gypsum that is at least partially synsedimentary. Sulfate in the Dewey Lake takes two principal forms: gypsum cement and gypsum (mainly fibrous) that fills fractures ranging from horizontal to vertical. Apertures are mainly mm-scale, though some are > 1 cm. The gypsum is antitaxial, fibrous, commonly approximately perpendicular to the wall rock, and displays suture lines and relics of the wall rock. Direct evidence of synsedimentary, near-surface origin includes gypsum intraclasts, intraclasts that include smaller intraclasts that contain gypsum clasts, intraclasts of gypsum with suture lines, gypsum concentrated in small desiccation cracks, and intraclasts that include fibrous gypsum-filled fractures that terminate at the eroded clast boundary. Dewey Lake fracture fillings suggest that their Martian analogs may also have originated in the shallow subsurface, shortly following the deposition of Martian sediments, in the presence of shallow aquifers.

  13. 27 CFR 19.356 - Alcohol content and fill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol content and fill. 19.356 Section 19.356 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.356 Alcohol content and fill. (a) General. At...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification...

  15. An improved water-filled impedance tube.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Preston S; Roy, Ronald A; Carey, William M

    2003-06-01

    A water-filled impedance tube capable of improved measurement accuracy and precision is reported. The measurement instrument employs a variation of the standardized two-sensor transfer function technique. Performance improvements were achieved through minimization of elastic waveguide effects and through the use of sound-hard wall-mounted acoustic pressure sensors. Acoustic propagation inside the water-filled impedance tube was found to be well described by a plane wave model, which is a necessary condition for the technique. Measurements of the impedance of a pressure-release terminated transmission line, and the reflection coefficient from a water/air interface, were used to verify the system.

  16. Technology for Space Station Evolution. Volume 5: Structures and Materials/Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) conducted a workshop on technology for space station evolution on 16-19 Jan. 1990. The purpose of this workshop was to collect and clarify Space Station Freedom technology requirements for evolution and to describe technologies that can potentially fill those requirements. These proceedings are organized into an Executive Summary and Overview and five volumes containing the Technology Discipline Presentations. Volume 5 consists of the technology discipline sections for Structures/Materials and the Thermal Control System. For each technology discipline, there is a level 3 subsystem description, along with papers.

  17. Technology for Space Station Evolution. Volume 3: EVA/Manned Systems/Fluid Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) conducted a workshop on technology for space station evolution 16-19 Jan. 1990 in Dallas, Texas. The purpose of this workshop was to collect and clarify Space Station Freedom technology requirements for evolution and to describe technologies that can potentially fill those requirements. These proceedings are organized into an Executive Summary and Overview and five volumes containing the Technology Discipline Presentations. Volume 3 consists of the technology discipline sections for Extravehicular Activity/Manned Systems and the Fluid Management System. For each technology discipline, there is a Level 3 subsystem description, along with the papers.

  18. Enhanced fill factor of tandem organic solar cells incorporating a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low-bandgap polymer and optimized interlayer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong Hwan; Kyaw, Aung Ko Ko; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that reproducible results can be obtained from tandem solar cells based on the wide-bandgap poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4,7-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole] (PCDTBT) and the diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based narrow bandgap polymer (DT-PDPP2T-TT) with a decyltetradecyl (DT) and an electron-rich 2,5-di-2-thienylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (2T-TT) group fabricated using an optimized interlayer (ZnO NPs/ph-n-PEDOT:PSS) [NPs: nanoparticles; ph-n: pH-neutral PEDOT: poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene); PSS: polystyrene sulfonate]. The tandem cells are fabricated by applying a simple process without thermal annealing. The ZnO NP interlayer operates well when the ZnO NPs are dispersed in 2-methoxyethanol, as no precipitation and chemical reactions occur. In addition to the ZnO NP film, we used neutral PEDOT:PSS as a second interlayer which is not affect to the sequential deposited bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layer of acidification. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a tandem device reaches 7.4 % (open-circuit voltage VOC =1.53 V, short-circuit current density JSC =7.3 mA cm(-2) , and fill factor FF=67 %). Furthermore, FF is increased to up to 71 % when another promising large bandgap (bandgap ∼1.94 eV) polymer (PBnDT-FTAZ) is used. The surface of each layer with nanoscale morphology (BHJ1/ZnO NPs film/ph-n-PEDOT:PSS/BHJ2) was examined by means of AFM analysis during sequential processing. The combination of these factors, efficient DPP-based narrow bandgap material and optimized interlayer, leads to the high FF (average approaches 70 %) and reproducibly operating tandem BHJ solar cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Hugoniot-based equations of state for two filled EPDM rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Adam; Dattelbaum, Dana; Orler, E.; Gustavsen, R.

    2013-06-01

    The shock response of silica filled and Kevlar filled ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) rubbers was studied using gas gun-driven plate impact experiments. Both materials are proprietary formulations made by Kirkhill-TA, Brea CA USA, and are used for ablative internal rocket motor insulation. Two types of experiments were performed. In the first, the filled-EPDM sample was mounted on the front of the projectile and impacted a Lithium Fluoride (LiF) window. The Hugoniot state was determined from the measured projectile velocity, the EPDM/LiF interface velocity (measured using VISAR) and impedance matching to LiF. In the second type of experiment, electromagnetic particle velocity gauges were embedded between layers of filled-EPDM. These provided in situ particle velocity and shock velocity measurements. Experiments covered a pressure range of 0.34 - 14 GPa. Hugoniot-based equations of state were obtained for both materials, and will be compared to those of other filled elastomers such as silica-filled polydimethylsiloxane and adiprene. Work performed while at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  20. TANKS 18 AND 19-F STRUCTURAL FLOWABLE GROUT FILL MATERIAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2011-11-01

    Cementitious grout will be used to close Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The functions of the grout are to: (1) physically stabilize the final landfill by filling the empty volume in the tanks with a non compressible material; (2) provide a barrier for inadvertent intrusion into the tank; (3) reduce contaminant mobility by (a) limiting the hydraulic conductivity of the closed tank and (b) reducing contact between the residual waste and infiltrating water; and (4) providing an alkaline, chemically reducing environment in the closed tank to control speciation and solubility of selected radionuclides. The objective of this work was to identifymore » a single (all-in-one) grout to stabilize and isolate the residual radionuclides in the tank, provide structural stability of the closed tank and serve as an inadvertent intruder barrier. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The complete task scope is provided in the Task Technical and QA Plan, SRNL-RP-2011-00587 Revision 0. The specific objectives of this task were to: (1) Identify new admixtures and dosages for formulating a zero bleed flowable tank fill material selected by HLW Tank Closure Project personnel based on earlier tank fill studies performed in 2007. The chemical admixtures used for adjusting the flow properties needed to be updated because the original admixture products are no longer available. Also, the sources of cement and fly ash have changed, and Portland cements currently available contain up to 5 wt. % limestone (calcium carbonate). (2) Prepare and evaluate the placement, compressive strength, and thermal properties of the selected formulation with new admixture dosages. (3) Identify opportunities for improving the mix selected by HLW Closure Project personnel and prepare and evaluate two potentially improved zero bleed flowable fill design concepts; one based on the reactor fill grout and the other based on a shrinkage compensating flowable

  1. Extension and Density of Root Fillings and Post-operative Apical Radiolucencies in the Veterans Affairs Dental Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yan; Chasen, Joel; Yamanaka, Ryan; Garcia, Raul; Kaye, Elizabeth Krall; Kaufman, Jay S; Cai, Jianwen; Wilcosky, Tim; Trope, Martin; Caplan, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiographically-assessed extension and density of root canal fillings and post-operative apical radiolucencies (AR) using data from 288 participants in the Veterans Affairs Dental Longitudinal Study. Study subjects were not VA patients; all received their medical and dental care in the private sector. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to account for multiple teeth within subjects and to control for covariates of interest. Defective root filling density was associated with increased odds of post-operative AR among teeth with no pre-operative AR (Odds Ratio=3.0, 95%CI=1.3–7.1), though pre-operative AR was the strongest risk factor for post-operative AR (Odds Ratio=29.2, 95%CI=13.6–63.0 among teeth with ideal density). Compared to well-extended root fillings, neither over- nor under-extended root fillings separately were related to post-operative AR, but when those two categories were collapsed into one “poorly-extended” category, poor extension was related to post-operative AR (Odds Ratio=1.8, 95%CI=1.1–3.2). PMID:18570982

  2. Analysis of natural convection in nanofluid-filled H-shaped cavity by entropy generation and heatline visualization using lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Alireza; Sepehr, Mohammad; Lariche, Milad Janghorban; Mesbah, Mohammad; Kasaeipoor, Abbas; Malekshah, Emad Hasani

    2018-03-01

    The lattice Boltzmann simulation of natural convection in H-shaped cavity filled with nanofluid is performed. The entropy generation analysis and heatline visualization are employed to analyze the considered problem comprehensively. The produced nanofluid is SiO2-TiO2/Water-EG (60:40) hybrid nanofluid, and the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of used nanofluid are measured experimentally. To use the experimental data of thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity, two sets of correlations based on temperature for six different solid volume fractions of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 vol% are derived. The influences of different governing parameters such different aspect ratio, solid volume fractions of nanofluid and Rayleigh numbers on the fluid flow, temperature filed, average/local Nusselt number, total/local entropy generation and heatlines are presented.

  3. Elution of monomer from different bulk fill dental composite resins.

    PubMed

    Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Cebe, Fatma; Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Cetin, Ali Rıza; Arpag, Osman Fatih; Ozturk, Bora

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the elution of Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA, and Bis-EMA monomers from six bulk fill composite resins over four different time periods, using HPLC. Six different composite resin materials were used in the present study: Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY), X-tra Fill (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany), Sonic Fill (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA), Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE Dental Product, St. Paul, MN), SDR (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), EQUIA (GC America INC, Alsip, IL). The samples (4mm thickness, 5mm diameter) were prepared and polymerized for 20s with a light emitted diode unit. After fabrication, each sample was immediately immersed in 75wt% ethanol/water solution used as extraction fluid and stored in the amber colored bottles at room temperature. Ethanol/water samples were taken (0.5mL) at predefined time intervals:10m (T1), 1h (T2), 24h (T3) and 30 days (T4). These samples were analyzed by HPLC. The obtained data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD at significance level of p<0.05. Amount of eluted Bis-EMA and Bis-GMA from Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk Fill and amount of eluted TEGDMA and HEMA from X-tra Fill higher than others composites (p<0.05). Residual monomers were eluted from bulk fill composite resins in all time periods and the amount of eluted monomers was increased with time. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermoelectric materials with filled skutterudite structure for thermoelectric devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alex (Inventor); Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Morelli, Donald T. (Inventor); Meisner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A class of thermoelectric compounds based on the skutterudite structure with heavy filling atoms in the empty octants and substituting transition metals and main-group atoms. High Seebeck coefficients and low thermal conductivities are achieved in combination with large electrical conductivities in these filled skutterudites for large ZT values. Substituting and filling methods are disclosed to synthesize skutterudite compositions with desired thermoelectric properties. A melting and/or sintering process in combination with powder metallurgy techniques is used to fabricate these new materials.

  5. Thermoelectric devices based on materials with filled skutterudite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alex (Inventor); Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Morelli, Donald T. (Inventor); Meisner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A class of thermoelectric compounds based on the skutterudite structure with heavy filling atoms in the empty octants and substituting transition metals and main-group atoms. High Seebeck coefficients and low thermal conductivities are achieved in combination with large electrical conductivities in these filled skutterudites for large ZT values. Substituting and filling methods are disclosed to synthesize skutterudite compositions with desired thermoelectric properties. A melting and/or sintering process in combination with powder metallurgy techniques is used to fabricate these new materials.

  6. Comparative Investigation on Thermal Insulation of Polyurethane Composites Filled with Silica Aerogel and Hollow Silica Microsphere.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunyuan; Kim, Jin Seuk; Kwon, Younghwan

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on thermal conductivity of PU composites containing open-cell nano-porous silica aerogel and closed-cell hollow silica microsphere, respectively. The thermal conductivity of PU composites is measured at 30 degrees C with transient hot bridge method. The insertion of polymer in pores of silica aerogel creates mixed interfaces, increasing the thermal conductivity of resulting composites. The measured thermal conductivity of PU composites filled with hollow silica microspheres is estimated using theoretical models, and is in good agreement with Felske model. It appears that the thermal conductivity of composites decreases with increasing the volume fraction (phi) when hollow silica microsphere (eta = 0.916) is used.

  7. 27 CFR 19.386 - Alcohol content and fill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol content and fill. 19.386 Section 19.386 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.386 Alcohol content and fill. (a...

  8. Summary of 1968-1970 multidisciplinary accident investigation reports. Volume 2

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-08-01

    In June 1971, Volume 1 of a two-volume series summarizing the causal factors, conclusions and recommendations which emanated from various in-depth accident reports was published. This first volume contained a listing of these factors according to tea...

  9. Developing Specifications for Waste Glass, Municipal Waste Combustor Ash and Waste Tires as Highway Fill Materials (Continuation): Final Report. Volume 2. Waste Glass.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-04-01

    A two year study was conducted as a continuation project for the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) to evaluate Municipal Waste Combustor (MWD) ash, Waste Glass, and Waste Tires for use as general highway fill. Initial studies conducted at F...

  10. Developing Specifications for Waste Glass, Municipal Waste Combustor Ash and Waste Tires as Highway Fill Materials (Continuation). Final Report. Volume 3. Waste Tires.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-04-01

    A two year study was conducted as a continuation project for the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) to evaluate Municipal Waste Combustor (MWC) ash, Waste Glass, and Waste Tires for use as general highway fill. Initial studies conducted at F...

  11. Determination of the Molar Volume of Hydrogen from the Metal-Acid Reaction: An Experimental Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Berg, Kevin; Chapman, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Describes an alternative technique for determining the molar volume of hydrogen from the metal-acid reaction in which the metal sample is encased in a specially prepared cage and a pipette filler is used to fill an inverted burette with water. Eliminates some difficulties encountered with the conventional technique. (JRH)

  12. Relative Evaluation of the Independent Volume Measures of Caverns

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    MUNSON,DARRELL E.

    2000-08-01

    Throughout the construction and operation of the caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), three types of cavern volume measurements have been maintained. These are: (1) the calculated solution volume determined during initial construction by solution mining and any subsequent solutioning during oil transfers, (2) the calculated sonar volume determined through sonar surveys of the cavern dimensions, and (3) the direct metering of oil to determine the volume of the cavern occupied by the oil. The objective of this study is to compare these measurements to each other and determine, if possible, the uncertainties associated with a given type ofmore » measurement. Over time, each type of measurement has acquired a customary, or an industry accepted, stated uncertainty. This uncertainty is not necessarily the result of a technical analysis. Ultimately there is one definitive quantity, the oil volume measure by the oil custody transfer meters, taken by all parties to the transfer as the correct ledger amount and for which the SPR Project is accountable. However, subsequent transfers within a site may not be with meters of the same accuracy. In this study, a very simple theory of the perfect relationship is used to evaluate the correlation (deviation) of the various measures. This theory permits separation of uncertainty and bias. Each of the four SPR sites are examined, first with comparisons between the calculated solution volumes and the sonar volumes determined during construction, then with comparisons of the oil inventories and the sonar volumes obtained either by surveying through brine prior to oil filling or through the oil directly.« less

  13. 27 CFR 4.72 - Metric standards of fill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metric standards of fill. 4.72 Section 4.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Fill for Wine § 4.72 Metric...

  14. 33 CFR 183.564 - Fuel tank fill system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel tank fill system. 183.564...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.564 Fuel tank... floating position. (b) Each hose in the tank fill system must be secured to a pipe, spud, or hose fitting...

  15. Identification and Characterization of microRNAs during Maize Grain Filling

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Panqing; Peng, Qian; Ding, Dong; Li, Weihua; Tang, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    The grain filling rate is closely associated with final grain yield of maize during the period of maize grain filling. To identify the key microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA-dependent gene regulation networks of grain filling in maize, a deep-sequencing technique was used to research the dynamic expression patternsof miRNAs at four distinct developmental grain filling stages in Zhengdan 958, which is an elite hybrid and cultivated widely in China. The sequencing result showed that the expression amount of almost all miRNAs was changing with the development of the grain filling and formed in seven groups. After normalization, 77 conserved miRNAs and 74 novel miRNAs were co-detected in these four samples. Eighty-one out of 162 targets of the conserved miRNAs belonged to transcriptional regulation (81, 50%), followed by oxidoreductase activity (18, 11%), signal transduction (16, 10%) and development (15, 9%). The result showed that miRNA 156, 393, 396 and 397, with their respective targets, might play key roles in the grain filling rate by regulating maize growth, development and environment stress response. The result also offered novel insights into the dynamic change of miRNAs during the developing process of maize kernels and assistedin the understanding of how miRNAs are functioning about the grain filling rate. PMID:25951054

  16. Identification and Characterization of microRNAs during Maize Grain Filling.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xining; Fu, Zhiyuan; Lv, Panqing; Peng, Qian; Ding, Dong; Li, Weihua; Tang, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    The grain filling rate is closely associated with final grain yield of maize during the period of maize grain filling. To identify the key microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA-dependent gene regulation networks of grain filling in maize, a deep-sequencing technique was used to research the dynamic expression patterns of miRNAs at four distinct developmental grain filling stages in Zhengdan 958, which is an elite hybrid and cultivated widely in China. The sequencing result showed that the expression amount of almost all miRNAs was changing with the development of the grain filling and formed in seven groups. After normalization, 77 conserved miRNAs and 74 novel miRNAs were co-detected in these four samples. Eighty-one out of 162 targets of the conserved miRNAs belonged to transcriptional regulation (81, 50%), followed by oxidoreductase activity (18, 11%), signal transduction (16, 10%) and development (15, 9%). The result showed that miRNA 156, 393, 396 and 397, with their respective targets, might play key roles in the grain filling rate by regulating maize growth, development and environment stress response. The result also offered novel insights into the dynamic change of miRNAs during the developing process of maize kernels and assisted in the understanding of how miRNAs are functioning about the grain filling rate.

  17. Can-Filled Crash Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    Crash barrier composed largely of used aluminum beverage cans protects occupants of cars in collisions with poles or trees. Lightweight, can-filled barrier very effective in softening impact of an automobile in head-on and off-angle collisions. Preliminary results indicate barrier is effective in collisions up to 40 mi/h (64 km/h).

  18. [Evaluation of cermet fillings in abutment teeth in removable partial prostheses].

    PubMed

    Saulic, S; Tihacek-Sojic, Lj

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the clinical process of setting the purpose filling on abutment teeth, after finishing the removable partial dentures. The aim was also to investigate the use of cermet glass-ionomer cement for the purpose filling in the abutment teeth for removable partial dentures, as well as to investigate the surface of the purpose filling. For the clinical evaluation of purpose filling slightly modified criteria according to Ryg's were used in 20 patients with different type of edentulousness. Changes occurring on the surface of purpose filling have been experimentally established by the method of scanning electron microscopy on the half-grown third molars in seven patients. It could be concluded that cement glass-ionomer was not the appropriate material for the purpose fillings in abutment teeth for removable partial dentures.

  19. Comparative evaluation of low cost materials as constructed wetland filling media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, Henrique J. O.; Vaz, Mafalda M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.

    2017-11-01

    Three waste materials from civil construction activities were assessed as low cost alternative filling materials used in Constructed Wetlands (CW). CW are green processes for wastewater treatment, whose design includes an appropriate selection of vegetation and filling material. The sustainability of such processes may be incremented using recovered wastes as filling materials. The abilities of the materials to support plant growth and to contribute to pollutants removal from wastewater were assessed and compared to expanded clay, a filling usually used in CW design. Statistical analysis, using one-way ANOVA and Welch's ANOVA, demonstrate that limestone fragments are a better choice of filling material than brick fragments and basalt gravel.

  20. Reduction of Non-uniform Beam Filling Effects by Vertical Decorrelation: Theory and Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David; Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Iguchi, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Algorithms for estimating precipitation rates from spaceborne radar observations of apparent radar reflectivity depend on attenuation correction procedures. The algorithm suite for the Ku-band precipitation radar aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite is one such example. The well-known problem of nonuniform beam filling is a source of error in the estimates, especially in regions where intense deep convection occurs. The error is caused by unresolved horizontal variability in precipitation characteristics such as specific attenuation, rain rate, and effective reflectivity factor. This paper proposes the use of vertical decorrelation for correcting the nonuniform beam filling error developed under the assumption of a perfect vertical correlation. Empirical tests conducted using ground-based radar observations in the current simulation study show that decorrelation effects are evident in tilted convective cells. However, the problem of obtaining reasonable estimates of a governing parameter from the satellite data remains unresolved.

  1. Measurement of filling factor 5/2 quasiparticle interference with observation of charge e/4 and e/2 period oscillations.

    PubMed

    Willett, R L; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W

    2009-06-02

    A standing problem in low-dimensional electron systems is the nature of the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state: Its elementary excitations are a focus for both elucidating the state's properties and as candidates in methods to perform topological quantum computation. Interferometric devices may be used to manipulate and measure quantum Hall edge excitations. Here we use a small-area edge state interferometer designed to observe quasiparticle interference effects. Oscillations consistent in detail with the Aharonov-Bohm effect are observed for integer quantum Hall and FQH states (filling factors nu = 2, 5/3, and 7/3) with periods corresponding to their respective charges and magnetic field positions. With these factors as charge calibrations, periodic transmission through the device consistent with quasiparticle charge e/4 is observed at nu = 5/2 and at lowest temperatures. The principal finding of this work is that, in addition to these e/4 oscillations, periodic structures corresponding to e/2 are also observed at 5/2 nu and at lowest temperatures. Properties of the e/4 and e/2 oscillations are examined with the device sensitivity sufficient to observe temperature evolution of the 5/2 quasiparticle interference. In the model of quasiparticle interference, this presence of an effective e/2 period may empirically reflect an e/2 quasiparticle charge or may reflect multiple passes of the e/4 quasiparticle around the interferometer. These results are discussed within a picture of e/4 quasiparticle excitations potentially possessing non-Abelian statistics. These studies demonstrate the capacity to perform interferometry on 5/2 excitations and reveal properties important for understanding this state and its excitations.

  2. Measurement of filling factor 5/2 quasiparticle interference with observation of charge e/4 and e/2 period oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Willett, R. L.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2009-01-01

    A standing problem in low-dimensional electron systems is the nature of the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state: Its elementary excitations are a focus for both elucidating the state's properties and as candidates in methods to perform topological quantum computation. Interferometric devices may be used to manipulate and measure quantum Hall edge excitations. Here we use a small-area edge state interferometer designed to observe quasiparticle interference effects. Oscillations consistent in detail with the Aharonov–Bohm effect are observed for integer quantum Hall and FQH states (filling factors ν = 2, 5/3, and 7/3) with periods corresponding to their respective charges and magnetic field positions. With these factors as charge calibrations, periodic transmission through the device consistent with quasiparticle charge e/4 is observed at ν = 5/2 and at lowest temperatures. The principal finding of this work is that, in addition to these e/4 oscillations, periodic structures corresponding to e/2 are also observed at 5/2 ν and at lowest temperatures. Properties of the e/4 and e/2 oscillations are examined with the device sensitivity sufficient to observe temperature evolution of the 5/2 quasiparticle interference. In the model of quasiparticle interference, this presence of an effective e/2 period may empirically reflect an e/2 quasiparticle charge or may reflect multiple passes of the e/4 quasiparticle around the interferometer. These results are discussed within a picture of e/4 quasiparticle excitations potentially possessing non-Abelian statistics. These studies demonstrate the capacity to perform interferometry on 5/2 excitations and reveal properties important for understanding this state and its excitations. PMID:19433804

  3. PERVAPORATION USING ADSORBENT-FILLED MEMBRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Membranes containing selective fillers, such as zeolites and activated carbon, can improve the separation by pervaporation. Applications of adsorbent-filled membranes in pervaporation have been demonstrated by a number of studies. These applications include removal of organic co...

  4. Monitoring culvert load with shallow filling under Geofoam areas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-08-01

    Geofoam and the "Imperfect Ditch" method can be used effectively on embankment projects to reduce pressures on underground structures when sufficient fill height is available to create an arching effect. When the fill height is too shallow the archin...

  5. Parameter analysis on the ultrasonic TSV-filling process and electrochemical characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuliang; Ren, Xinyu; Wang, Yan; Zeng, Peng; Zhou, Zhaohua; Xiao, Hongbin; Zhu, Wenhui

    2017-10-01

    As one of the key technologies in 3D packaging, through silicon via (TSV) interconnection technology has become a focus recently. In this paper, an electrodeposition method for TSV filling with the assistance of ultrasound and additives are introduced. Two important parameters i.e. current density and ultrasonic power are studied for TSV filling process and electrochemical properties. It is found that ultrasound can improve the quality of TSV-filling and change the TSV-filling mode. The experimental results also indicate that the filling rate enhances more significantly with decreasing current density under ultrasonic conditions than under silent conditions. In addition, according to the voltammetry curve, the increase of ultrasonic power can significantly increase the current density of cupric reduction, and decrease the thickness of diffusion layer. So that the reduction speed of copper ions is accelerated, resulting in a higher TSV-filling rate.

  6. Gap Fill Materials Using Cyclodextrin Derivatives in ArF Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi; Shinjo, Tetsuya; Sakaida, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Keisuke

    2007-11-01

    High planarizing gap fill materials based on β-cyclodextrin in ArF photoresist under-layer materials have been developed for fast etching in CF4 gas. Gap fill materials used in the via-first dual damascene process need to have high etch rates to prevent crowning or fencing on top of the trench after etching and a small thickness bias between the dense and blanket areas to minimize issues observed during trench lithography by narrowing the process latitude. Cyclodextrin is a circular oligomer with a nanoscale porous structure that has a high number of oxygen atoms, as calculated using the Ohnishi parameter, providing high etch rates. Additionally, since gap fill materials using cyclodextrin derivatives have low viscosities and molecular weights, they are expected to exhibit excellent flow properties and minimal thermal shrinkage during baking. In this paper, we describe the composition and basic film properties of gap fill materials; planarization in the via-first dual damascene process and etch rates in CF4 gas compared with dextrin with α-glycoside bonds in polysaccharide, poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) and poly(4-hydroxystyrene). The β-cyclodextrin used in this study was obtained by esterifying the hydroxyl groups of dextrin resulting in improved wettability on via substrates and solubility in photoresist solvents such as propylene glycol monomethyl ether, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate and ethyl lactate. Gap fill materials using cyclodextrin derivatives showed good planarization and via filling performance without observing voids in via holes. In addition to superior via filling performance, the etch rate of gap fill materials using β-cyclodextrin derivatives was 2.8-2.9 times higher than that of an ArF photoresist, evaluated under CF4 gas conditions by reactive ion etching. These results were attributed to the combination of both nanoscale porous structures and a high density of oxygen atoms in our gap fill materials using cyclodextrin

  7. Image-Based 3D Treatment Planning for Vaginal Cylinder Brachytherapy: Dosimetric Effects of Bladder Filling on Organs at Risk

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hung, Jennifer; Shen Sui; De Los Santos, Jennifer F.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric effects of bladder filling on organs at risk (OARs) using three-dimensional image-based treatment planning for vaginal cylinder brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with endometrial or cervical cancer underwent postoperative high-dose rate vaginal cylinder brachytherapy. For three-dimensional planning, patients were simulated by computed tomography with an indwelling catheter in place (empty bladder) and with 180 mL of sterile water instilled into the bladder (full bladder). The bladder, rectum, sigmoid, and small bowel (OARs) were contoured, and a prescription dose was generated for 10 to 35 Gy in 2 to 5 fractions at the surface ormore » at 5 mm depth. For each OAR, the volume dose was defined by use of two different criteria: the minimum dose value in a 2.0-cc volume receiving the highest dose (D{sub 2cc}) and the dose received by 50% of the OAR volume (D{sub 50%}). International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) bladder and rectum point doses were calculated for comparison. The cylinder-to-bowel distance was measured using the shortest distance from the cylinder apex to the contoured sigmoid or small bowel. Statistical analyses were performed with paired t tests. Results: Mean bladder and rectum D{sub 2cc} values were lower than their respective ICRU doses. However, differences between D{sub 2cc} and ICRU doses were small. Empty vs. full bladder did not significantly affect the mean cylinder-to-bowel distance (0.72 vs. 0.92 cm, p = 0.08). In contrast, bladder distention had appreciable effects on bladder and small bowel volume dosimetry. With a full bladder, the mean small bowel D{sub 2cc} significantly decreased from 677 to 408 cGy (p = 0.004); the mean bladder D{sub 2cc} did not increase significantly (1,179 cGy vs. 1,246 cGy, p = 0.11). Bladder distention decreased the mean D{sub 50%} for both the bladder (441 vs. 279 cGy, p = 0.001) and the small bowel (168 vs. 132 cGy, p = 0

  8. Differential effects of lower body negative pressure and upright tilt on splanchnic blood volume

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Indu; Moran, Christopher; Medow, Marvin S.; Glover, June L.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Stewart, Julian M.

    2015-01-01

    Upright posture and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) both induce reductions in central blood volume. However, regional circulatory responses to postural changes and LBNP may differ. Therefore, we studied regional blood flow and blood volume changes in 10 healthy subjects undergoing graded lower-body negative pressure (−10 to −50 mmHg) and 8 subjects undergoing incremental head-up tilt (HUT; 20°, 40°, and 70°) on separate days. We continuously measured blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and regional blood volumes and blood flows in the thoracic, splanchnic, pelvic, and leg segments by impedance plethysmography and calculated regional arterial resistances. Neither LBNP nor HUT alt