Science.gov

Sample records for volumes 20-40 ml

  1. Method for the Thermal Characterization of PCM Systems in the Volume Range from 100 ml to 1000 ml

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göbel, A.; Vidi, S.; Klinker, F.; Hemberger, F.; Brütting, M.; Ebert, H.-P.; Mehling, H.

    2017-05-01

    The storage of latent heat in phase change materials (PCM) is of great interest in many applications, for example in building applications. However, there is no standard method for the determination of the thermophysical properties of application-sized PCM specimens, i.e., specimens with sizes around 100 ml to 1000 ml. In order to close this metrological gap, a commercially available heat flow meter was modified to perform enthalpy measurements. The feasibility of this method was proven by performing comparative measurements on a stainless steel specimen using both the standard method DSC and the modified heat flow meter. Furthermore, measurements on a gypsum board with microencapsulated PCM were performed with the heat flow meter in order to determine the enthalpy. The coincidence with literature values is within ±4% which demonstrates that this method is a good choice for performing measurements on application-sized PCM specimens.

  2. Frequency of early remodeling of left ventricle and its comparison between patients with stroke volume ≥97 Ml versus patients with stroke volume <97 Ml after aortic valve replacement for severe aortic regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Ali Rizvi, Hafiz Muhammad Farhan; Khalid, Zaigham Rasool; Baksh, Allah; Raza Baig, Mirza Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of early remodeling in patients of severe aortic regurgitation after aortic valve replacement and to see the incidence of early remodeling in patients with stroke volume >97 ml versus < 97 ml before aortic valve replacement. Method: This was a prospective comparative study conducted from August 2013 to December 2014 in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty seven (57) patients of isolated chronic aortic regurgitation were included in this study. SPSS v23 was used for data analysis. Independent sample t-test was used for analysis of continuous variables and chi-square test for qualitative variables. Results: Out of fifty seven patients, early remodeling occurred in 34 (59.64%) patients after surgery. The mean pre-operative stroke volume of patient in whom remodeling occurred was 110.3+9.66 ml while mean pre-operative stroke volume of patients who did not undergo remodeling was 86.65+7.63 ml. There were 28 (82.4%) patients with stroke volume >97 ml in whom Remodeling occurred where as in patients with stroke volume <97 ml remodeling occurred only in 6 (17.6%) patients (p value 0.004). There was no in-hospital mortality. Conclusion: There is an association between stroke volume and early LV remodeling after Aortic valve replacement. Stroke volume >97 ml is a good predictor of early LV remodeling. PMID:28083026

  3. Biological tumour volumes of gliomas in early and standard 20-40 min18F-FET PET images differ according to IDH mutation status.

    PubMed

    Unterrrainer, M; Winkelmann, I; Suchorska, B; Giese, A; Wenter, V; Kreth, F W; Herms, J; Bartenstein, P; Tonn, J C; Albert, N L

    2018-02-27

    For the clinical evaluation of O-(2- 18 F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ( 18 F-FET) PET images, the use of standard summation images obtained 20-40 min after injection is recommended. However, early summation images obtained 5-15 min after injection have been reported to allow better differentiation between low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG) by capturing the early 18 F-FET uptake peak specific for HGG. We compared early and standard summation images with regard to delineation of the PET-derived biological tumour volume (BTV) in correlation with the molecular genetic profile according the updated 2016 WHO classification. The analysis included 245 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically verified glioma and a positive 18 F-FET PET scan prior to any further treatment. BTVs were delineated during the early 5-15 min and standard 20-40 min time frames using a threshold of 1.6 × background activity and were compared intraindividually. Volume differences between early and late summation images of >20% were considered significant and were correlated with WHO grade and the molecular genetic profile (IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion status). In 52.2% of the patients (128/245), a significant difference in BTV of >20% between early and standard summation images was found. While 44.3% of WHO grade II gliomas (31 of 70) showed a significantly smaller BTV in the early summation images, 35.0% of WHO grade III gliomas (28/80) and 37.9% of WHO grade IV gliomas (36/95) had a significantly larger BTVs. Among IDH-wildtype gliomas, an even higher portion (44.4%, 67/151) showed significantly larger BTVs in the early summation images, which was observed in 5.3% (5/94) of IDH-mutant gliomas only: most of the latter had significantly smaller BTVs in the early summation images, i.e. 51.2% of IDH-mutant gliomas without 1p/19q codeletion (21/41) and 39.6% with 1p/19q codeletion (21/53). BTVs delineated in early and standard summation images differed significantly in

  4. Is a volume of 3.6 mL better than 1.8 mL for inferior alveolar nerve blocks in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis?

    PubMed

    Fowler, Sara; Reader, Al

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the success of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block using either 3.6 mL or 1.8 mL 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in patients presenting with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. As part of 7 previously published studies, 319 emergency patients presenting with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis received either a 1.8-mL volume or 3.6-mL volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in an IAN block. One hundred ninety patients received a 1.8-mL volume, and 129 received a 3.6-mL volume. Endodontic emergency treatment was completed on each subject. Success was defined as the ability to access and instrument the tooth without pain (visual analog scale score of 0) or mild pain (VAS rating ≤54 mm). Success of the 1.8-mL volume was 28%, and for the 3.6-mL volume it was 39%. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 volumes. In conclusion, for patients presenting with irreversible pulpitis, success was not significantly different between a 3.6-mL volume and a 1.8-mL volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The success rates (28%-39%) with either volume were not high enough to ensure complete pulpal anesthesia. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Low-temperature volume radiation annealing of cold-worked bands of Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloy by 20-40 keV Ar+ ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, V. V.; Gushchina, N. V.; Mozharovsky, S. M.; Kaigorodova, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    The processes of radiation-dynamic nature (in contrast to the thermally-activated processes) in the course of short-term irradiation of 1 mm thick bands of cold-worked aluminum alloy 1441 (of system Al-Li-Cu-Mg) with Ar+ 20-40 keV were studied. An effect of in-the-bulk (throughout the whole of metal bands thickness) low-temperature radiation annealing of the named alloy, multiply accelerated as compared with common thermal annealing processes was registered (with projected ranges of ions of considered energies definitely not exceeding 0.1 μm). The processes of recrystallization and intermetallic structure changes (occurring within a few seconds of Ar+ irradiation) have the common features as well as the differences in comparison with the results of two hour standard thermal annealing.

  6. Final report on regional supplementary comparison SIM.M.FF-S5: Volume of liquids at 50 mL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Abed; Malta, Dalni; Kornblit, Fernando; Ramírez, Ruben R.; Arias, Roberto; Trujillo, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    A regional supplementary comparison for the volume of liquid at 50 mL was conducted during October 2009 to June 2010 between the SIM members CENAM, INTI, INMETRO, INDECOPI and INTN. The transfer standard consisted of two 50 mL glass pycnometers, of the Gay Lussac type. CENAM acted as the pilot, collected the measurement results, analyzed the data and produced the comparison report. The median of all participants' results was used to calculate the regional comparison reference value because the result for one of the two pycnometers in one laboratory failed the chi-squared test at the 0.05 probability level. The measurements reported by the participants show an excellent overlap in four out of the five NMIs (-34×10-6 < Di < 29×10-6). The degree of equivalence obtained herein will be taken into account for the preparation of calibration and measurement capabilities claims from the participants. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Comparative bioavailability study of a new formulation of injection of 75 mg diclofenac sodium in 1 ml with the conventional injection of 75 mg diclofenac sodium given in 3 ml volume.

    PubMed

    Shep, Dhaneshwar; Ojha, Ashwini; Patel, Sweta; Nivsarkar, Manish; Jaiswal, Vijaya; Padh, Harish

    2011-02-01

    Diclofenac a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) is widely used for the management of various musculoskeletal conditions. An injectable test formulation of diclofenac sodium (75 mg/mL) was prepared to facilitate reduction in injection volume as compared to already marketed formulations of diclofenac sodium (75 mg/3 mL). The objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability of test formulation with the reference formulation given intramuscularly in healthy volunteers. This two way randomized crossover study was performed in 14 healthy, adult, Indian, male human subjects to compare bioavailability. The formulations were administered intramuscularly (intragluteal) to the volunteers in a two way randomized fashion with a wash out period of 6 days. Blood samples were collected till 6.0 h following drug administration. The samples were analyzed using pre-validated HPLC method. The mean Cmax and Tmax for the test and reference formulations were 2.14 µg/mL, 1.91 µg/mL and 0.49 h, 0.50 h respectively. The mean AUC(0-t) for test and reference formulations were 3.79 µg.h/mL, and 3.43 µg.h/mL respectively. The mean AUC(0-γ) for test and reference formulation were 4.03 µg.h/mL and 3.65 µg.h/mL respectively. The mean (90% CI) C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-γ) ratio (Test:Reference) were 1.15 (100.25-132.99), 1.10 (100.34-119.96) and 1.09 (100.78-118.88), respectively. The test formulation shows a comparable AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-γ) but a higher C(max) in comparison to the reference when given intra-gluteally. The lower volume of the test formulation offers advantage of injection at other sites, like deltoid region. Absence of propylene glycol in the test formulation could be advantageous in terms of improved tolerability. Hence, such formulations of previously well established molecules provide a new direction towards developing better and convenient dosing alternatives.

  8. MPS and ML

    MedlinePlus

    ... VII ML II and ML III MPS and ML Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) and mucolipidosis (ML) are genetic lysosomal ... support and information to individuals about MPS and ML, the National MPS Society has created a central ...

  9. Reduction of cerebral mean blood flow velocity and oxygenation after high-volume (1.5 ml kg⁻¹) caudal block in infants.

    PubMed

    Lundblad, M; Forestier, J; Marhofer, D; Eksborg, S; Winberg, P; Lönnqvist, P A

    2014-10-01

    We have recently described a bi-directional bulk flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (coined 'the CSF rebound mechanism') after the use of high-volume caudal block in infants, which may explain the secondary longitudinal spread of the block. If important the initial cephalad transfer of CSF should be of such a magnitude that it would cause a transient reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygenation. The primary aim of this observational study was to delineate the magnitude of the reduction of CBF velocity (CBFV) associated with high-volume caudal block in infants. Ultrasound Doppler measurements of CBFV in the middle cerebral artery and also haemodynamic parameters and cerebral regional oxygenation (C(R)SO2) were followed during 5 min after the initial caudal injection (1.5 ml kg(-1), ropivacaine 0.2%) in 12 infants <3 months of age. The caudal injection was associated with immediate and major reductions in CBFV indicating a concomitant reduction in CBF. A significant reduction of cerebral regional oxygenation C(R)SO2 was also observed. Systemic haemodynamic parameters were unchanged during the observation period. High-volume caudal block causes a biphasic change in CBFV and was also found to affect cerebral oxygenation. Our findings lend further support to 'the CSF rebound mechanism' for secondary spread of high-volume caudal block. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. SIM.M.FF-S7: Final report on SIM/ANDIMET supplementary comparison for volume of liquids at 100 mL and 100 μL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, S.; Maldonado, J. M.; Vega, M. C.; Santalla, E.; Sica, A.; Cantero, D.; Salazar, M.; Morales, A.; Solano, P.; Rodríguez, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    A SIM/ANDIMET comparison for liquid volume using two 100 mL pycnometers and two 100 μL piston pipettes was performed between January 2012 and October 2013. The National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Bolivia was the coordinating laboratory and the Mexican NMI provided technical assistance. The participating labs were IBMETRO (Bolivia), INM (Colombia), INEN (Ecuador), INDECOPI (Peru), LACOMET (Costa Rica), LATU (Uruguay), INTN (Paraguay), and CENAM (Mexico). Based on measurements made by CENAM at the beginning and end of the comparison, the transfer standards were stable during the comparison within 0.0001 mL for the 100 mL pycnometers and 0.03 μL for the 100 μL pipettes. For 100 mL, six of the eight participants agreed within ± 0.003 % and had standardized degrees of equivalence (EN) less than 1. Two participants (INEN and INM) had EN values greater than 1. For the 100 μL pipettes, the results were corrected for the influence of altitude and seven of the eight participants agreed within ± 0.3 %. Results from INEN and some from INM and IBMETRO had EN values greater than 1 for the 100 μL pipettes. Uncertainties recommended by Guideline DKD-R 8-1 for micropipettes were included. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. 46 CFR 42.20-40 - Standard height of superstructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard height of superstructure. 42.20-40 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-40 Standard height of superstructure. (a) The standard height of a superstructure shall be as given in Table 42.20-40(a): Table 42.20-40(a) Standard Heights (in Feet...

  12. 46 CFR 42.20-40 - Standard height of superstructure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard height of superstructure. 42.20-40 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-40 Standard height of superstructure. (a) The standard height of a superstructure shall be as given in Table 42.20-40(a): Table 42.20-40(a) Standard Heights (in Feet...

  13. 46 CFR 190.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other spaces. 190.20-40 Section 190.20-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel...

  14. 46 CFR 190.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other spaces. 190.20-40 Section 190.20-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel...

  15. 46 CFR 190.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other spaces. 190.20-40 Section 190.20-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel...

  16. 46 CFR 190.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other spaces. 190.20-40 Section 190.20-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel...

  17. 46 CFR 190.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other spaces. 190.20-40 Section 190.20-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel...

  18. 46 CFR 92.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other spaces. 92.20-40 Section 92.20-40 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a... with hot and cold fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on an...

  19. 46 CFR 72.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other spaces. 72.20-40 Section 72.20-40 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a) Sufficient facilities... fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on an open deck to which...

  20. 46 CFR 72.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other spaces. 72.20-40 Section 72.20-40 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a) Sufficient facilities... fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on an open deck to which...

  1. 46 CFR 72.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other spaces. 72.20-40 Section 72.20-40 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a) Sufficient facilities... fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on an open deck to which...

  2. 46 CFR 92.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other spaces. 92.20-40 Section 92.20-40 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a... with hot and cold fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on an...

  3. 46 CFR 72.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other spaces. 72.20-40 Section 72.20-40 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a) Sufficient facilities... fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on an open deck to which...

  4. 46 CFR 92.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other spaces. 92.20-40 Section 92.20-40 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a... with hot and cold fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on an...

  5. 46 CFR 92.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other spaces. 92.20-40 Section 92.20-40 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a... with hot and cold fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on an...

  6. 46 CFR 92.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other spaces. 92.20-40 Section 92.20-40 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a... with hot and cold fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on an...

  7. 46 CFR 72.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other spaces. 72.20-40 Section 72.20-40 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a) Sufficient facilities... fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on an open deck to which...

  8. ML Construction Progress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-17

    Modifications continue on the Mobile Launcher, or ML, at the Mobile Launcher Park Site at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Scaffolding, or work platforms, have been installed around the base of the tower on the ML to continue upgrades and modifications to the structure. The ML is being modified and strengthened to accommodate the weight, size and thrust at launch of NASA's Space Launch System, or SLS, and Orion spacecraft. The ML is one of the key elements of ground support equipment that is being upgraded by the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program at Kennedy. The ML will carry the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft to Launch Pad 39B for its first uncrewed mission, Exploration Mission-1, in 2018.

  9. ML Construction Progress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-17

    Modifications continue on the Mobile Launcher, or ML, at the Mobile Launcher Park Site at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The haunch, a structure that will support the launch vehicle on the ML, arrives by flatbed truck at the park site. The ML is being modified and strengthened to accommodate the weight, size and thrust at launch of NASA's Space Launch System, or SLS, and Orion spacecraft. In 2013, the agency awarded a contract to J.P. Donovan Construction Inc. of Rockledge, Fla., to modify the ML, which is one of the key elements of ground support equipment that is being upgraded by the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program at Kennedy. The existing 24-foot exhaust hole is being enlarged and strengthened for the larger, heavier SLS rocket. The ML will carry the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft to Launch Pad 39B for its first uncrewed mission, Exploration Mission-1, in 2018.

  10. ML Construction Progress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-17

    Modifications continue on the Mobile Launcher, or ML, at the Mobile Launcher Park Site at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. A crane is being used to move scaffolding, or work platforms, around the base of the tower on the ML to continue upgrades and modifications to the structure. The ML is being modified and strengthened to accommodate the weight, size and thrust at launch of NASA's Space Launch System, or SLS, and Orion spacecraft. The ML is one of the key elements of ground support equipment that is being upgraded by the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program at Kennedy. The ML will carry the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft to Launch Pad 39B for its first uncrewed mission, Exploration Mission-1, in 2018.

  11. A comparison of the tolerability of two dilution volumes (0.5 mL and 1.0 mL) of a purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine administered intramuscularly to healthy adult volunteers: A randomized, intraindividual, assessor-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Renuka; Thatte, Urmila; Shinde, Vaishali; Dharadhar, Shalaka; Popova, Olga; Vakil, Hoshang

    2004-01-01

    Background: The current recommendation of the manufacturer for administering purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCECV) is to reconstitute the contents with 1.0 mL of water for injection (WFI). However, it has been debated whether a lower volume of WFI (0.5 mL) is likely to cause less pain. Objectives: The aims of this study were to compare the tolerability of PCECV administered IM at a volume of 0.5 mL versus 1.0 mL of diluent and to determine the immunogenicity of the vaccine when administered according to the World Health Organization-recommended preexposure prophylaxis regimen for rabies immunization. Methods: This comparative, intraindividual, assessor-blind study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Topiwala National Medical College and Bai Yamunabai Laxman Nair Charitable Hospital Mumbai, India). Healthy volunteers aged 18 to 50 years received, by randomized sequence, 3 IM injections of PCECV, diluted in 0.5 mL or 1.0 mL of WFI, on study days 0, 7, and 28. Tolerability was assessed at 30 minutes and 24 hours after injection and included assessments for local and systemic reactions. For immunogenicity assessment, rabies virus-neutralizing antibody 0RVNA) titers were assayed at baseline and on day 49 (ie, 3 weeks after the third injection). Results: Twenty-six subjects (24 men, 2 women; mean [SD] age, 22.4 [2.4] years; mean [SD] body weight, 59.0 [11.3] kg) entered the study. Twenty-five subjects were included in the tolerability assessment; 24 in the immunogenicity assessment. No statistically significant differences were found between dilutions in the frequency of local and systemic reactions. Most reactions were mild. All subjects developed RVNA titers >0.5 IU/mL (indicative of protection) by day 49. Conclusions: In this population of healthy volunteers, a full antigenic dose of PCECV in a dilution of 0.5 mL WFI is as well tolerated locally and systemically as in a dilution of 1.0 mL. All subjects developed levels of RVNA far

  12. Workers Welding on ML

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-24

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Modifications continue on the Mobile Launcher, or ML, at the Mobile Launcher Park Site at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. A construction worker prepares a metal beam that will be attached to the ML. In 2013, the agency awarded a contract to J.P. Donovan Construction Inc. of Rockledge, Fla., to modify the ML, which is one of the key elements of ground support equipment that is being upgraded by the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program office at Kennedy. The ML will carry the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft to Launch Pad 39B for its first mission, Exploration Mission 1, in 2017. Photo credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

  13. ML Construction Progress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-17

    A water moccasin snake travels across the gravel surface near the Mobile Launcher, or ML, at the Mobile Launcher Park Site at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Nearby, the haunch, a structure that will support the launch vehicle on the ML, arrives by flatbed truck at the park site. The ML is being modified and strengthened to accommodate the weight, size and thrust at launch of NASA's Space Launch System, or SLS, and Orion spacecraft. In 2013, the agency awarded a contract to J.P. Donovan Construction Inc. of Rockledge, Fla., to modify the ML, which is one of the key elements of ground support equipment that is being upgraded by the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program at Kennedy. The existing 24-foot exhaust hole is being enlarged and strengthened for the larger, heavier SLS rocket. The ML will carry the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft to Launch Pad 39B for its first uncrewed mission, Exploration Mission-1, in 2018.

  14. The results of real-time brachytherapy for the management of low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer in patients with prostate volumes up to 100 mL.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Nicola L; Malone, Peter R; Jones, Adam; Doggart, Andrew J; McConway, Kevin J; Rogers, Paul B

    2012-08-01

    • To report the results of real-time brachytherapy in the management of low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer in patients with prostate volumes up to 100 mL, over a 6-year period. • To prospectively determine whether prostate volume influences the ability to achieve a quality implant and therefore impact upon prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse-free survival, and urinary and rectal toxicity. • In all, 216 men with localized prostate cancer were treated with real-time prostate brachytherapy using (125) I implants between November 2003 and December 2009. • Patient selection was based upon functional parameters; International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and flowmetry. • Patients had computed tomography imaging at 1 month to assess post-implant dosimetry. PSA, IPSS and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group rectal toxicity scores were recorded prospectively over the follow-up period. • Patients with prostate volumes ≤50 mL and those with volumes >50 mL were compared. • Overall PSA relapse-free survival was 98.8%; 97.0% for intermediate-risk patients and 100.0% for low-risk patients. By volume, 98.5% of men with standard prostates were free from PSA relapse compared with 100.0% of men with large prostates. • The mean post-implant D90 was 177.0 Gy; 175.5 Gy in standard prostates and 183.5 Gy in large prostates. • The overall acute urinary retention rate was 1.9%; 1.7% in standard prostates and 2.4% in large prostates. There were three urethral strictures, all in the standard prostate group. The mean IPSS increased to 11 and 14 at 3 months for the standard and large prostate groups, respectively, before settling to 2 above baseline for both groups at 12 months. • There were no rectovesical fistulae. Persistent rectal bleeding was reported by one (0.5%) patient in the standard prostate group. • Prostate brachytherapy is effective in the treatment of low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. • It is technically possible to deliver a

  15. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hunter who took the birds, stating such hunter's address, the total number and species of birds and the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No...

  16. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hunter who took the birds, stating such hunter's address, the total number and species of birds and the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No...

  17. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hunter who took the birds, stating such hunter's address, the total number and species of birds and the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No...

  18. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hunter who took the birds, stating such hunter's address, the total number and species of birds and the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No...

  19. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hunter who took the birds, stating such hunter's address, the total number and species of birds and the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No...

  20. The Makassar Strait Pycnocline Variability at 20-40 Days

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-25

    Research, Upper Grandview, NY, United States d Faculty of Earth Säences and Technology at Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung West Java , Indonesia ...plausible genesis of the 20 -40 day variability observed within the Labani Channel, a constriction within the Makassar Strait, Indonesia , are described...ARTICLE INFO Article history : Received 28 May 2011 Received in revised form 1 December 2011 Accepted 5 January 2012 Available online 14

  1. The Hard X-ray 20-40 keV AGN Luminosity Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckmann, V.; Soldi, S.; Shrader, C. R.; Gehrels, N.; Produit, N.

    2006-01-01

    We have compiled a complete, significance limited extragalactic sample based on approximately 25,000 deg(sup 2) to a limiting flux of 3 x 10(exp -11) ergs per square centimeter per second. (approximately 7,000 deg(sup 2)) to a flux limit of 10(exp -11) ergs per square centimeter per second)) in the 20 - 40 keV band with INTEGRAL. We have constructed a detailed exposure map to compensate for effects of non-uniform exposure. The flux-number relation is best described by a power-law with a slope of alpha = 1.66 plus or minus 0.11. The integration of the cumulative flux per unit area leads to f(sub 20-40 keV) = 2.6 x 10(exp -10) ergs per square centimeter per second per sr(sup -1) which is about 1% of the known 20-40 keV X-ray background. We present the first luminosity function of AGN in the 20-40 keV energy range, based on 68 extragalactic objects detected by the imager IBIS/ISGRI on-board INTEGRAL. The luminosity function shows a smoothly connected two power-law form, with an index of gamma (sub 1) = 0.9 below, and gamma (sub 2) = 2.2 above the turn-over luminosity of L(sub *), = 4.6 x 10(sup 43) ergs per second. The emissivity of all INTEGRAL AGNs per unit volume is W(sub 20-40keV)(greater than 10(sup 41) ergs per second) = 2.8 x 10(sup 38) ergs per second h(sup 3)(sub 70) Mpc(sup -3). These results are consistent with those derived in the 2-20keV energy band and do not show a significant contribution by Compton-thick objects. Because the sample used in this study is truly local (z(raised bar) = 0.022)), only limited conclusions can be drawn for the evolution of AGNs in this energy band. But the objects explaining the peak in the cosmic X-ray background are likely to be either low luminosity AGN (L(sub x) less than 10(sup 41) ergs per second) or of other type, such as intermediate mass black holes, clusters, and star forming regions.

  2. ML Crew Access Arm Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-10

    A heavy-load transport truck carrying the Orion crew access arm makes its way toward the mobile launcher (ML) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The crew access arm will be installed at about the 274-foot level on the mobile launcher tower. It will rotate from its retracted position and interface with the Orion crew hatch location to provide entry to the Orion crew module. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing installation of umbilicals and launch accessories on the ML tower to prepare for Exploration Mission-1.

  3. ML Crew Access Arm Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-09

    The Orion crew access arm is secured in a storage location at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The access arm will be prepared for its move to the mobile launcher (ML) tower near the Vehicle Assembly Building at the center. The crew access arm will be installed at about the 274-foot level on the tower. It will rotate from its retracted position and interface with the Orion crew hatch location to provide entry to the Orion crew module. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing installation of umbilicals and launch accessories on the ML tower.

  4. ML Crew Access Arm Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-10

    A heavy-load transport truck carries the Orion crew access arm along the NASA Causeway east toward State Road 3 at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The access arm will be moved to the mobile launcher (ML) near the Vehicle Assembly Building at the center. The crew access arm will be installed at about the 274-foot level on the tower. It will rotate from its retracted position and interface with the Orion crew hatch location to provide entry to the Orion crew module. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing installation of umbilicals and launch accessories on the ML tower to prepare for Exploration Mission-1.

  5. ML Crew Access Arm Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-10

    A heavy-load transport truck carries the Orion crew access arm along the NASA Causeway east toward State Road 3 at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The access arm will be moved to the mobile launcher (ML) near the Vehicle Assembly Building at the center. The crew access arm will be installed at about the 274-foot level on the mobile launcher tower. It will rotate from its retracted position and interface with the Orion crew hatch location to provide entry to the Orion crew module. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing installation of umbilicals and launch accessories on the ML tower to prepare for Exploration Mission-1.

  6. ML Crew Access Arm Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-16

    The Orion crew access arm departs Precision Fabricating and Cleaning in Cocoa, Florida, atop a flatbed truck. The access arm is transported to a storage location at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Later this month, the arm will be transported to the mobile launcher (ML) tower at the center. The crew access arm will be located at about the 274-foot level on the tower. It will rotate from its retracted position and interface with the Orion crew hatch location to provide entry to the Orion crew module. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing installation of umbilicals and launch accessories on the ML tower.

  7. ML Crew Access Arm Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-10

    The Orion crew access arm is secured on a flatbed transporter for its move from a storage location at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to the mobile launcher (ML) tower near the Vehicle Assembly Building at the center. The crew access arm will be installed at about the 274-foot level on the mobile launcher tower. It will rotate from its retracted position and interface with the Orion crew hatch location to provide entry to the Orion crew module. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing installation of umbilicals and launch accessories on the ML tower to prepare for Exploration Mission-1.

  8. ML Crew Access Arm Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-09

    The Orion crew access arm, secured on a stand, is being prepared for its move from a storage location at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, to the mobile launcher (ML) tower near the Vehicle Assembly Building at the center. The crew access arm will be installed at about the 274-foot level on the tower. It will rotate from its retracted position and interface with the Orion crew hatch location to provide entry to the Orion crew module. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing installation of umbilicals and launch accessories on the ML tower.

  9. ML Crew Access Arm Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-10

    A heavy-load transport truck carrying the Orion crew access arm nears the mobile launcher (ML) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The crew access arm will be installed at about the 274-foot level on the mobile launcher tower. It will rotate from its retracted position and interface with the Orion crew hatch location to provide entry to the Orion crew module. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing installation of umbilicals and launch accessories on the ML tower to prepare for Exploration Mission-1.

  10. 46 CFR 35.20-40 - Maneuvering characteristics-T/OC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics-T/OC. 35.20-40 Section 35.20-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-40 Maneuvering characteristics—T/OC. For each ocean and coastwise tankship of 1,600 gross tons or...

  11. ML Crew Access Arm Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-10

    A heavy-load transport truck carrying the Orion crew access arm passes the Vehicle Assembly Building on its way to the mobile launcher at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The access arm will be installed at about the 274-foot level on the mobile launcher tower. It will rotate from its retracted position and interface with the Orion crew hatch location to provide entry to the Orion crew module. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing installation of umbilicals and launch accessories on the ML tower to prepare for Exploration Mission-1.

  12. ML 3.1 developer's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Marzio; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2004-05-01

    ML development was started in 1997 by Ray Tuminaro and Charles Tong. Currently, there are several full- and part-time developers. The kernel of ML is written in ANSI C, and there is a rich C++ interface for Trilinos users and developers. ML can be customized to run geometric and algebraic multigrid; it can solve a scalar or a vector equation (with constant number of equations per grid node), and it can solve a form of Maxwell's equations. For a general introduction to ML and its applications, we refer to the Users Guide [SHT04], and to the ML web site, http://software.sandia.gov/ml.

  13. Atypical small acinar proliferation and two or more cores of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia on a previous prostate biopsy are significant predictors of cancer during a transperineal template-guided saturation biopsy aimed at sampling one core for each 1 mL of prostate volume

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Yasushi; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Miyake, Makito; Hori, Shunta; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Morizawa, Yosuke; Fujii, Tomomi; Konishi, Noboru; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate whether high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) predict prostate cancer (PCa) during repeat transperineal template saturation biopsy with a high number of cores per prostate volume in patients with persistent clinical suspicion of PCa who underwent at least one previous negative transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 135 consecutive patients with persistent clinical suspicion of PCa, despite a set of negative TRUS-guided biopsies and increasing prostate-specific antigen levels; abnormal findings on digital rectal examination, TRUS, or magnetic resonance imaging; previous biopsy showing HGPIN; and previous biopsy showing atypical glands. Transperineal template saturation biopsy (TTSB) was performed at 5mm intervals to sample one core for each 1 mL of prostate volume. Results The median rate of biopsy cores per prostate volume was 1.00 (range: 0.75–1.39). The PCa detection rates in patients who were diagnosed with HGPIN, or had two or more cores of HGPIN or ASAP, were 53% (9/17), 89% (8/9), and 83% (10/12), respectively. Two or more HGPIN cores and ASAP were positive predictors of PCa on TTSB. The high-grade cancer rates (Gleason score [GS] ≥7) in patients with ASAP and two or more cores of HGPIN were 20% and 80%, respectively. The cancer detection rate represented by a GS score ≥8 in patients with ASAP or two or more cores of HGPIN at a previous TRUS-guided biopsy was 5.5% (1/18). Conclusion ASAP or two or more cores of HGPIN at a previous TRUS-guided biopsy strongly indicated the presence of PCa on TTSB. PMID:29034221

  14. CytometryML and other data formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.

    2006-02-01

    Cytology automation and research will be enhanced by the creation of a common data format. This data format would provide the pathology and research communities with a uniform way for annotating and exchanging images, flow cytometry, and associated data. This specification and/or standard will include descriptions of the acquisition device, staining, the binary representations of the image and list-mode data, the measurements derived from the image and/or the list-mode data, and descriptors for clinical/pathology and research. An international, vendor-supported, non-proprietary specification will allow pathologists, researchers, and companies to develop and use image capture/analysis software, as well as list-mode analysis software, without worrying about incompatibilities between proprietary vendor formats. Presently, efforts to create specifications and/or descriptions of these formats include the Laboratory Digital Imaging Project (LDIP) Data Exchange Specification; extensions to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM); Open Microscopy Environment (OME); Flowcyt, an extension to the present Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS); and CytometryML. The feasibility of creating a common data specification for digital microscopy and flow cytometry in a manner consistent with its use for medical devices and interoperability with both hospital information and picture archiving systems has been demonstrated by the creation of the CytometryML schemas. The feasibility of creating a software system for digital microscopy has been demonstrated by the OME. CytometryML consists of schemas that describe instruments and their measurements. These instruments include digital microscopes and flow cytometers. Optical components including the instruments' excitation and emission parts are described. The description of the measurements made by these instruments includes the tagged molecule, data acquisition subsystem, and the format of the list-mode and/or image data. Many

  15. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML Update, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Commissionthe Management; Application Inte, I.

    2012-12-01

    CGI Interoperability Working Group activities during 2012 include deployment of services using the GeoSciML-Portrayal schema, addition of new vocabularies to support properties added in version 3.0, improvements to server software for deploying services, introduction of EarthResourceML v.2 for mineral resources, and collaboration with the IUSS on a markup language for soils information. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been used as the basis for the INSPIRE Geology and Mineral Resources specifications respectively. GeoSciML-Portrayal is an OGC GML simple-feature application schema for presentation of geologic map unit, contact, and shear displacement structure (fault and ductile shear zone) descriptions in web map services. Use of standard vocabularies for geologic age and lithology enables map services using shared legends to achieve visual harmonization of maps provided by different services. New vocabularies have been added to the collection of CGI vocabularies provided to support interoperable GeoSciML services, and can be accessed through http://resource.geosciml.org. Concept URIs can be dereferenced to obtain SKOS rdf or html representations using the SISSVoc vocabulary service. New releases of the FOSS GeoServer application greatly improve support for complex XML feature schemas like GeoSciML, and the ArcGIS for INSPIRE extension implements similar complex feature support for ArcGIS Server. These improved server implementations greatly facilitate deploying GeoSciML services. EarthResourceML v2 adds features for information related to mining activities. SoilML provides an interchange format for soil material, soil profile, and terrain information. Work is underway to add GeoSciML to the portfolio of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications.

  16. phraSED-ML: A paraphrased, human-readable adaptation of SED-ML.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kiri; Smith, Lucian P; Medley, J Kyle; Sauro, Herbert M

    2016-12-01

    Model simulation exchange has been standardized with the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), but specialized software is needed to generate simulations in this format. Text-based languages allow researchers to create and modify experimental protocols quickly and easily, and export them to a common machine-readable format. phraSED-ML language allows modelers to use simple text commands to encode various elements of SED-ML (models, tasks, simulations, and results) in a format easy to read and modify. The library can translate this script to SED-ML for use in other softwares. phraSED-ML language specification, libphrasedml library, and source code are available under BSD license from http://phrasedml.sourceforge.net/ .

  17. CytometryML binary data standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.

    2005-03-01

    CytometryML is a proposed new Analytical Cytology (Cytomics) data standard, which is based on a common set of XML schemas for encoding flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types (metadata). CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. The separation of the large binary data objects (list mode and image data) from the XML description of the metadata permits the metadata to be directly displayed, analyzed, and reported with standard commercial software packages; the direct use of XML languages; and direct interfacing with clinical information systems. The separation of the binary data into its own files simplifies parsing because all extraneous header data has been eliminated. The storage of images as two-dimensional arrays without any extraneous data, such as in the Adobe Photoshop RAW format, facilitates the development by scientists of their own analysis and visualization software. Adobe Photoshop provided the display infrastructure and the translation facility to interconvert between the image data from commercial formats and RAW format. Similarly, the storage and parsing of list mode binary data type with a group of parameters that are specified at compilation time is straight forward. However when the user is permitted at run-time to select a subset of the parameters and/or specify results of mathematical manipulations, the development of special software was required. The use of CytometryML will permit investigators to be able to create their own interoperable data analysis software and to employ commercially available software to disseminate their data.

  18. The Ml Magnitude Scale In Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, P.; Lolli, B.; Filippucci, M.; de Simoni, B.

    To improve the reliability of Ml magnitude estimates in Italy, we have updated the database of real Wood-Anderson (WA) and of simulated Wood Anderson (SWA) am- plitudes recently revised by Gasperini (2002). This was done by the re-reading of orig- inal WA seismograms, made available by the SISMOS Project of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (INGV), as well as by the analysis of further Very Broad Band (VBB) recordings of the MEDNET network of INGV for the period from 1996 to 1998. The full operability, in the last five years, of a VBB station located exactly at the same site (TRI) of a former WA instrument allowed us to reliably infer a new attenuation function from the joined WA and SWA dataset. We found a significant deviation of the attenuation law from the standard Richter table at distances larger than 400 km where the latter overestimates the magnitude up to about 0.3 units. We also computed regionalized attenuation functions accounting for the differences in the propagation properties of seismic waves between the Adriatic (less attenuating) and Tyrrhenian (more attenuating) sides of the Italian peninsula. Using this improved Ml magnitude database we were also able to further improve the computation of duration (Md) and amplitude (Ma) magnitudes computed from short period vertical seismometers of the INGV as well as to analyze the time variation of the station calibrations. We found that the absolute amplification of INGV stations is underestimated almost exactly by a factor 2 starting from the entering upon in operation of the digital acquisition system at INGV in middle 1984.

  19. ML0405 and ML2331 Are Antigens of Mycobacterium leprae with Potential for Diagnosis of Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Stephen T.; Ireton, Greg; Mohamath, Raodoh; Guderian, Jeffrey; Goto, Wakako; Gelber, Robert; Groathouse, Nathan; Spencer, John; Brennan, Patrick; Reed, Steven G.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the success of multidrug therapy in reducing the number of registered leprosy cases worldwide, evidence suggests that Mycobacterium leprae continues to be transmitted. A serological diagnostic test capable of identifying and allowing treatment of early-stage disease could reduce transmission and prevent the onset of the disability, a common complication of the disease in later stages. Serological diagnosis based on antibody recognition of phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) cannot reliably identify individuals with lower bacterial indices (BI). One strategy that might improve this situation is the provision of highly specific serological antigens that may be combined with PGL-I to improve the sensitivity of diagnosis. Using serological expression cloning with a serum pool of untreated lepromatous leprosy (LL) patients, we identified 14 strongly reactive M. leprae proteins, 5 of which were previously unstudied. We present results suggesting that two of these proteins, ML0405 and ML2331, demonstrate the ability to specifically identify LL/borderline lepromatous (BL) patients on the basis of immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivity. In a household contact study, LL index cases were identified on the basis of this reactivity, while household contacts of these patients demonstrated undetectable reactivity. At a serum dilution of 1:800, suitable to reduce background PGL-I IgM reactivity, two BL patients with a BI of <4 showed anti-human polyvalent immunoglobulin G, A, and M reactivity measured with a combination of ML0405, ML2331, and natural disaccharide O-linked human serum albumin (NDOHSA) (synthetic PGL-I) that was markedly higher than IgM reactivity to NDOHSA alone. We suggest that ML0405 and ML2331 may have utility in serological leprosy diagnosis. PMID:16522774

  20. ML0405 and ML2331 are antigens of Mycobacterium leprae with potential for diagnosis of leprosy.

    PubMed

    Reece, Stephen T; Ireton, Greg; Mohamath, Raodoh; Guderian, Jeffrey; Goto, Wakako; Gelber, Robert; Groathouse, Nathan; Spencer, John; Brennan, Patrick; Reed, Steven G

    2006-03-01

    Despite the success of multidrug therapy in reducing the number of registered leprosy cases worldwide, evidence suggests that Mycobacterium leprae continues to be transmitted. A serological diagnostic test capable of identifying and allowing treatment of early-stage disease could reduce transmission and prevent the onset of the disability, a common complication of the disease in later stages. Serological diagnosis based on antibody recognition of phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) cannot reliably identify individuals with lower bacterial indices (BI). One strategy that might improve this situation is the provision of highly specific serological antigens that may be combined with PGL-I to improve the sensitivity of diagnosis. Using serological expression cloning with a serum pool of untreated lepromatous leprosy (LL) patients, we identified 14 strongly reactive M. leprae proteins, 5 of which were previously unstudied. We present results suggesting that two of these proteins, ML0405 and ML2331, demonstrate the ability to specifically identify LL/borderline lepromatous (BL) patients on the basis of immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivity. In a household contact study, LL index cases were identified on the basis of this reactivity, while household contacts of these patients demonstrated undetectable reactivity. At a serum dilution of 1:800, suitable to reduce background PGL-I IgM reactivity, two BL patients with a BI of <4 showed anti-human polyvalent immunoglobulin G, A, and M reactivity measured with a combination of ML0405, ML2331, and natural disaccharide O-linked human serum albumin (NDOHSA) (synthetic PGL-I) that was markedly higher than IgM reactivity to NDOHSA alone. We suggest that ML0405 and ML2331 may have utility in serological leprosy diagnosis.

  1. Comparison of time to positivity of the VersaTREK® REDOX 80-mL and the REDOX EZ draw 40-mL blood culture bottles for common bacterial bloodstream pathogens.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Linoj P; Pimentel, Jason D; Tibbetts, Robert J; Martin, Rebekah; Hensley, Rhonda; Meier, Frederick A

    2011-10-01

    The VersaTREK(®) microbial detection system offers 2 media formulations, an aerobic and an anaerobic bottle available in a 40-mL direct draw format and an 80-mL format. The 40-mL EZ Draw(®) bottle can be inoculated with a maximum volume of 5 mL, while the REDOX 80-mL bottle accommodates a 10-mL volume. The effect of volume of blood inoculum on time to positivity (TTP) has not been clearly established with these bottle types. This study utilized simulated blood cultures seeded with clinically relevant microorganisms in human blood to evaluate the impact of inoculum volume and organism load on TTP for the 2 bottle types. For 13/15 organisms, the EZ Draw bottle flagged positive earlier than the REDOX 80-mL bottles. The lower volume of blood inoculum did not negatively impact TTP using the EZ Draw blood culture bottles as compared to REDOX 80-mL bottles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The CellML 1.1 Specification.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Autumn; Hedley, Warren; Nelson, Melanie; Lloyd, Catherine; Halstead, Matt; Bullivant, David; Nickerson, David; Hunter, Peter; Nielsen, Poul

    2015-09-04

    This document specifies CellML 1.1, an XML-based language for describing and exchanging models of cellular and subcellular processes. MathML embedded in CellML documents is used to define the underlying mathematics of models. Models consist of a network of reusable components, each with variables and equations manipulating those variables. Models may import other models to create systems of increasing complexity. Metadata may be embedded in CellML documents using RDF.

  3. The XBabelPhish MAGE-ML and XML translator.

    PubMed

    Maier, Don; Wymore, Farrell; Sherlock, Gavin; Ball, Catherine A

    2008-01-18

    MAGE-ML has been promoted as a standard format for describing microarray experiments and the data they produce. Two characteristics of the MAGE-ML format compromise its use as a universal standard: First, MAGE-ML files are exceptionally large - too large to be easily read by most people, and often too large to be read by most software programs. Second, the MAGE-ML standard permits many ways of representing the same information. As a result, different producers of MAGE-ML create different documents describing the same experiment and its data. Recognizing all the variants is an unwieldy software engineering task, resulting in software packages that can read and process MAGE-ML from some, but not all producers. This Tower of MAGE-ML Babel bars the unencumbered exchange of microarray experiment descriptions couched in MAGE-ML. We have developed XBabelPhish - an XQuery-based technology for translating one MAGE-ML variant into another. XBabelPhish's use is not restricted to translating MAGE-ML documents. It can transform XML files independent of their DTD, XML schema, or semantic content. Moreover, it is designed to work on very large (> 200 Mb.) files, which are common in the world of MAGE-ML. XBabelPhish provides a way to inter-translate MAGE-ML variants for improved interchange of microarray experiment information. More generally, it can be used to transform most XML files, including very large ones that exceed the capacity of most XML tools.

  4. jTraML: an open source Java API for TraML, the PSI standard for sharing SRM transitions.

    PubMed

    Helsens, Kenny; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Deutsch, Eric; Moritz, Robert L; Martens, Lennart

    2011-11-04

    We here present jTraML, a Java API for the Proteomics Standards Initiative TraML data standard. The library provides fully functional classes for all elements specified in the TraML XSD document, as well as convenient methods to construct controlled vocabulary-based instances required to define SRM transitions. The use of jTraML is demonstrated via a two-way conversion tool between TraML documents and vendor specific files, facilitating the adoption process of this new community standard. The library is released as open source under the permissive Apache2 license and can be downloaded from http://jtraml.googlecode.com . TraML files can also be converted online at http://iomics.ugent.be/jtraml .

  5. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. ISOMETRIC: EXISTING ML NO. 3 LAUNCHER. Sheet A1 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. Estimating maximum likelihood phylogenies with PhyML.

    PubMed

    Guindon, Stéphane; Delsuc, Frédéric; Dufayard, Jean-François; Gascuel, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of the origins, the functions and/or the structures of biological sequences strongly depends on our ability to decipher the mechanisms of molecular evolution. These complex processes can be described through the comparison of homologous sequences in a phylogenetic framework. Moreover, phylogenetic inference provides sound statistical tools to exhibit the main features of molecular evolution from the analysis of actual sequences. This chapter focuses on phylogenetic tree estimation under the maximum likelihood (ML) principle. Phylogenies inferred under this probabilistic criterion are usually reliable and important biological hypotheses can be tested through the comparison of different models. Estimating ML phylogenies is computationally demanding, and careful examination of the results is warranted. This chapter focuses on PhyML, a software that implements recent ML phylogenetic methods and algorithms. We illustrate the strengths and pitfalls of this program through the analysis of a real data set. PhyML v3.0 is available from (http://atgc_montpellier.fr/phyml/).

  7. Model-driven Service Engineering with SoaML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvesæter, Brian; Carrez, Cyril; Mohagheghi, Parastoo; Berre, Arne-Jørgen; Johnsen, Svein G.; Solberg, Arnor

    This chapter presents a model-driven service engineering (MDSE) methodology that uses OMG MDA specifications such as BMM, BPMN and SoaML to identify and specify services within a service-oriented architecture. The methodology takes advantage of business modelling practices and provides a guide to service modelling with SoaML. The presentation is case-driven and illuminated using the telecommunication example. The chapter focuses in particular on the use of the SoaML modelling language as a means for expressing service specifications that are aligned with business models and can be realized in different platform technologies.

  8. BindML/BindML+: Detecting Protein-Protein Interaction Interface Propensity from Amino Acid Substitution Patterns.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing; La, David; Kihara, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of protein-protein interaction sites in a protein structure provides important information for elucidating the mechanism of protein function and can also be useful in guiding a modeling or design procedures of protein complex structures. Since prediction methods essentially assess the propensity of amino acids that are likely to be part of a protein docking interface, they can help in designing protein-protein interactions. Here, we introduce BindML and BindML+ protein-protein interaction sites prediction methods. BindML predicts protein-protein interaction sites by identifying mutation patterns found in known protein-protein complexes using phylogenetic substitution models. BindML+ is an extension of BindML for distinguishing permanent and transient types of protein-protein interaction sites. We developed an interactive web-server that provides a convenient interface to assist in structural visualization of protein-protein interactions site predictions. The input data for the web-server are a tertiary structure of interest. BindML and BindML+ are available at http://kiharalab.org/bindml/ and http://kiharalab.org/bindml/plus/ .

  9. The CellML Metadata Framework 2.0 Specification.

    PubMed

    Cooling, Michael T; Hunter, Peter

    2015-09-04

    The CellML Metadata Framework 2.0 is a modular framework that describes how semantic annotations should be made about mathematical models encoded in the CellML (www.cellml.org) format, and their elements. In addition to the Core specification, there are several satellite specifications, each designed to cater for model annotation in a different context. Basic Model Information, Citation, License and Biological Annotation specifications are presented.

  10. Thogoto virus ML protein suppresses IRF3 function

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Stephanie . E-mail: stephanie.jennings@uniklinik-freiburg.de; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis . E-mail: Luis.Martinez@mssm.edu; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo . E-mail: adolfo.garcia-sastre@mssm.edu; Weber, Friedemann . E-mail: friedemann.weber@uniklinik-freiburg.de; Kochs, Georg . E-mail: georg.kochs@uniklinik-freiburg.de

    2005-01-05

    The Thogoto virus (THOV) is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae. It prevents induction of alpha/beta interferons (IFN) in cell culture and in vivo via the action of the viral ML protein. Phenotypically, the effect of THOV ML resembles that of the NS1 protein of influenza A virus (FLUAV) in that it blocks the expression of IFN genes. IFN expression depends on IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Upon activation, IRF3 forms homodimers and accumulates in the nucleus where it binds the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP). Here, we show that expression of ML blocked the transcriptional activity of IRF3 after stimulation by virus infection. Further biochemical analysis revealed that ML acts by blocking IRF3 dimerization and association with CBP. Surprisingly, however, ML did not interfere with the nuclear transport of IRF3. Thus, the action of ML differs strikingly from that of FLUAV NS1 that prevents IFN induction by retaining IRF3 in the cytoplasm.

  11. From WaterML to TimeseriesML: Evolution and implications for cross-domain data interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arctur, D. K.; Taylor, P.; Lowe, D.; Tomkins, J.; Teng, W. L.; Ames, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    WaterML 2.0 part 1 was adopted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) in 2012 as an international standard profile of the Observations and Measurements conceptual model, for exchange of water observations time series data. It is implemented by national data producers such as the US Geological Survey for surface water time series, the NOAA/National Weather Service for forecast time series, the French Geological Survey for groundwater level monitoring, and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for surface water observations. But WaterML 2.0 is not "just for water". The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has recognized its potential role as a common time series description that could work for multiple application domains such as meteorology, climate, oceanography, and others. Accordingly, the WMO requested the OGC to migrate the non-hydrology parts of WaterML 2.0 to a new standard to be called TimeseriesML. This would then be considered by WMO for adoption as an operational standard globally. What does this mean for the geosciences? How far can this time series description be applied? What about time series of satellite retrievals? What will happen to WaterML 2.0 (and applications that work with it) when TimeseriesML is finished? These are among the questions we address in this presentation.

  12. QuakeML 2.0: Recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euchner, Fabian; Kästli, Philipp; Heiniger, Lukas; Saul, Joachim; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Clinton, John

    2016-04-01

    QuakeML is a community-backed data model for seismic event parameter description. Its current version 1.2, released in 2013, has become the gold standard for parametric data dissemination at seismological data centers, and has been adopted as an FDSN standard. It is supported by several popular software products and data services, such as FDSN event web services, QuakePy, and SeisComP3. Work on the successor version 2.0 is under way since 2015. The scope of QuakeML has been expanded beyond event parameter description. Thanks to a modular architecture, many thematic packages have been added, which cover peak ground motion, site and station characterization, hydraulic parameters of borehole injection processes, and macroseismics. The first three packages can be considered near final and implementations of program codes and SQL databases are in productive use at various institutions. A public community review process has been initiated in order to turn them into community-approved standards. The most recent addition is a package for single station quake location, which allows a detailed probabilistic description of event parameters recorded at a single station. This package adds some information elements such as angle of incidence, frequency-dependent phase picks, and dispersion relations. The package containing common data types has been extended with a generic type for probability density functions. While on Earth, single station methods are niche applications, they are of prominent interest in planetary seismology, e.g., the NASA InSight mission to Mars. So far, QuakeML is lacking a description of seismic instrumentation (inventory). There are two existing standards of younger age (FDSN StationXML and SeisComP3 Inventory XML). We discuss their respective strengths, differences, and how they could be combined into an inventory package for QuakeML, thus allowing full interoperability with other QuakeML data types. QuakeML is accompanied by QuakePy, a Python package

  13. ML 3.0 smoothed aggregation user's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Marzio; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2004-05-01

    ML is a multigrid preconditioning package intended to solve linear systems of equations Az = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. ML should be used on large sparse linear systems arising from partial differential equation (PDE) discretizations. While technically any linear system can be considered, ML should be used on linear systems that correspond to things that work well with multigrid methods (e.g. elliptic PDEs). ML can be used as a stand-alone package ormore » to generate preconditioners for a traditional iterative solver package (e.g. Krylov methods). We have supplied support for working with the AZTEC 2.1 and AZTECOO iterative package [15]. However, other solvers can be used by supplying a few functions. This document describes one specific algebraic multigrid approach: smoothed aggregation. This approach is used within several specialized multigrid methods: one for the eddy current formulation for Maxwell's equations, and a multilevel and domain decomposition method for symmetric and non-symmetric systems of equations (like elliptic equations, or compressible and incompressible fluid dynamics problems). Other methods exist within ML but are not described in this document. Examples are given illustrating the problem definition and exercising multigrid options.« less

  14. ML 3.1 smoothed aggregation user's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Marzio; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2004-10-01

    ML is a multigrid preconditioning package intended to solve linear systems of equations Ax = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. ML should be used on large sparse linear systems arising from partial differential equation (PDE) discretizations. While technically any linear system can be considered, ML should be used on linear systems that correspond to things that work well with multigrid methods (e.g. elliptic PDEs). ML can be used as a stand-alone package ormore » to generate preconditioners for a traditional iterative solver package (e.g. Krylov methods). We have supplied support for working with the Aztec 2.1 and AztecOO iterative package [16]. However, other solvers can be used by supplying a few functions. This document describes one specific algebraic multigrid approach: smoothed aggregation. This approach is used within several specialized multigrid methods: one for the eddy current formulation for Maxwell's equations, and a multilevel and domain decomposition method for symmetric and nonsymmetric systems of equations (like elliptic equations, or compressible and incompressible fluid dynamics problems). Other methods exist within ML but are not described in this document. Examples are given illustrating the problem definition and exercising multigrid options.« less

  15. ML 3.0 smoothed aggregation user's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Marzio; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2004-05-01

    ML is a multigrid preconditioning package intended to solve linear systems of equations Az = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. ML should be used on large sparse linear systems arising from partial differential equation (PDE) discretizations. While technically any linear system can be considered, ML should be used on linear systems that correspond to things that work well with multigrid methods (e.g. elliptic PDEs). ML can be used as a stand-alone package or to generate preconditioners for a traditional iterative solver package (e.g. Krylov methods). We have supplied support for working with the AZTEC 2.1 and AZTECOO iterative package [15]. However, other solvers can be used by supplying a few functions. This document describes one specific algebraic multigrid approach: smoothed aggregation. This approach is used within several specialized multigrid methods: one for the eddy current formulation for Maxwell's equations, and a multilevel and domain decomposition method for symmetric and non-symmetric systems of equations (like elliptic equations, or compressible and incompressible fluid dynamics problems). Other methods exist within ML but are not described in this document. Examples are given illustrating the problem definition and exercising multigrid options.

  16. GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    orientation (e.g. 'miarolitic cavities'). The Earth material package allows for the description of both individual components, such as minerals, and compound materials, such as rocks or unconsolidated materials. Provision is made for alteration, weathering, metamorphism, particle geometry, fabric, and petrophysical descriptions. Mapped features describe the shape of the geological features using standard GML geometries, such as polygons, lines, points or 3D volumes. Geological events provide the age, process and environment of formation of geological features. The Earth Resource section includes features to represent mineral occurrences and mines and associated human activities independently. This addition allows description of resources and reserves that can comply with national and internationally accepted reporting codes. GeoSciML v3 is under consideration as the data model for INSPIRE annex 2 geologic reporting in Europe.

  17. DrML: Probabilistic Modeling of Gene Duplications

    PubMed Central

    Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Abstract DrML is a software program for inferring evolutionary scenarios from a gene tree and a species tree with speciation time estimates that is based on a general maximum likelihood model. The program implements novel algorithms that efficiently infer most likely scenarios of gene duplication and loss events. Our comparative studies suggest that the general maximum likelihood model provides more credible estimates than standard parsimony reconciliation, especially when speciation times differ significantly. DrML is an open source project written in Python, and along with an on-line manual and sample data sets publicly available. PMID:24073895

  18. DocML: A Digital Library of University Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadakis, Ioannis; Karakoidas, Vassileios; Chrissikopoulos, Vassileios

    2002-01-01

    Describes DocML, a Web-based digital library of university data that is used to build a system capable of preserving and managing student assignments. Topics include requirements for a digital library of university data; metadata and XML; three-tier architecture; user interface; searching; browsing; content delivery; and administrative issues.…

  19. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. ISOMETRIC VIEW: MLP NO. 1. Sheet A10 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. CytometryML: a markup language for analytical cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    2003-06-01

    Cytometry Markup Language, CytometryML, is a proposed new analytical cytology data standard. CytometryML is a set of XML schemas for encoding both flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types. CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. These schemas provide representations for the keywords in FCS 3.0 and will soon include DICOM microscopic image data. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. A preliminary version of a list mode binary data type, which does not presently exist in DICOM, has been designed. This binary type is required to enhance the storage and transmission of flow cytometry and digital microscopy data. Index files based on Waveform indices will be used to rapidly locate the cells present in individual subsets. DICOM has the advantage of employing standard file types, TIF and JPEG, for Digital Microscopy. Using an XML schema based representation means that standard commercial software packages such as Excel and MathCad can be used to analyze, display, and store analytical cytometry data. Furthermore, by providing one standard for both DICOM data and analytical cytology data, it eliminates the need to create and maintain special purpose interfaces for analytical cytology data thereby integrating the data into the larger DICOM and other clinical communities. A draft version of CytometryML is available at www.newportinstruments.com.

  1. Event reconstruction in NEXT using the ML-EM algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simón, A.; Ferrario, P.; Izmaylov, A.; NEXT Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The NEXT collaboration aims to find the neutrinoless double beta decay in 136Xe. The rareness of this decay demands an exceptional background rejection. This can be obtained with an excellent energy resolution, which has been already demonstrated in the NEXT prototypes. In addition to this, the ββ 0 ν decay in gas produces a characteristic topological signal which could be an extremely useful extra handle to avoid background events. The need for a satisfactory topology reconstruction has led the NEXT Collaboration to implement the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization method (ML-EM) in the data processing scheme. ML-EM is a generic iterative algorithm for many kinds of inverse problems. Although this method is well known in medical imaging and has been used widely in Positron Emission Tomography, it has never been applied to a time projection chamber. First results and studies of the performance of the method will be presented in this poster.

  2. Modeling Off-Nominal Behavior in SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, John C.; Donahue, Kenneth; Ingham, Michel; Kadesch, Alex; Kennedy, Andrew K.; Post, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Specification and development of fault management functionality in systems is performed in an ad hoc way - more of an art than a science. Improvements to system reliability, availability, safety and resilience will be limited without infusion of additional formality into the practice of fault management. Key to the formalization of fault management is a precise representation of off-nominal behavior. Using the upcoming Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission for source material, we have modeled the off-nominal behavior of the SMAP system during its initial spin-up activity, using the System Modeling Language (SysML). In the course of developing these models, we have developed generic patterns for capturing off-nominal behavior in SysML. We show how these patterns provide useful ways of reasoning about the system (e.g., checking for completeness and effectiveness) and allow the automatic generation of typical artifacts (e.g., success trees and FMECAs) used in system analyses.

  3. Core Stage Inter-Tank Umbilical (CSITU) Lift at ML

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-11

    A heavy-lift crane and rigging are used to lift the Core Stage Inter-tank Umbilical (CSITU) up to about the 140-foot level of the mobile launcher (ML) tower at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The CSITU is moved into place for a fit check of the attachment hardware. The umbilical will then be lowered down and installed permanently on the ML at a later date. The CSITU is a swing-arm umbilical that will connect to the Space Launch System core stage inter-tank. It will provide conditioned air, pressurized gases and power and data connection to the core stage. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing installation of the umbilicals.

  4. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, ELEVATION – SIDE 1 & 2. Sheet A15 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, PLAN – DECK A. Sheet A13 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, ELEVATION – SIDE 3 & 4. Sheet A16 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  7. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, PLAN – DECK B. Sheet A14 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, PLAN – DECK 0. Sheet A12 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, SECTIONS II. Sheet A18 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, SECTIONS I. Sheet A17 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, SECTIONS IV. Sheet A20 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. CellML and associated tools and techniques.

    PubMed

    Garny, Alan; Nickerson, David P; Cooper, Jonathan; Weber dos Santos, Rodrigo; Miller, Andrew K; McKeever, Steve; Nielsen, Poul M F; Hunter, Peter J

    2008-09-13

    We have, in the last few years, witnessed the development and availability of an ever increasing number of computer models that describe complex biological structures and processes. The multi-scale and multi-physics nature of these models makes their development particularly challenging, not only from a biological or biophysical viewpoint but also from a mathematical and computational perspective. In addition, the issue of sharing and reusing such models has proved to be particularly problematic, with the published models often lacking information that is required to accurately reproduce the published results. The International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiome Project was launched in 1997 with the aim of tackling the aforementioned issues by providing a framework for the modelling of the human body. As part of this initiative, the specifications of the CellML mark-up language were released in 2001. Now, more than 7 years later, the time has come to assess the situation, in particular with regard to the tools and techniques that are now available to the modelling community. Thus, after introducing CellML, we review and discuss existing editors, validators, online repository, code generators and simulation environments, as well as the CellML Application Program Interface. We also address possible future directions including the need for additional mark-up languages.

  13. Representing Misalignments of the STAR Geometry Model using AgML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Jason C.; Lauret, Jérôme; Perevotchikov, Victor; Smirnov, Dmitri; Van Buren, Gene

    2017-10-01

    The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) was designed to provide high-precision tracking for the identification of charmed hadron decays in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. It consists of three independently mounted subsystems, providing four precision measurements along the track trajectory, with the goal of pointing decay daughters back to vertices displaced by less than 100 microns from the primary event vertex. The ultimate efficiency and resolution of the physics analysis will be driven by the quality of the simulation and reconstruction of events in heavy-ion collisions. In particular, it is important that the geometry model properly accounts for the relative misalignments of the HFT subsystems, along with the alignment of the HFT relative to STARs primary tracking detector, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The Abstract Geometry Modeling Language (AgML) provides a single description of the STAR geometry, generating both our simulation (GEANT 3) and reconstruction geometries (ROOT). AgML implements an ideal detector model, while misalignments are stored separately in database tables. These have historically been applied at the hit level. Simulated detector hits are projected from their ideal position along the track’s trajectory, until they intersect the misaligned detector volume, where the struck detector element is calculated for hit digitization. This scheme has worked well as hit errors have been negligible compared with the size of sensitive volumes. The precision and complexity of the HFT detector require us to apply misalignments to the detector volumes themselves. In this paper we summarize the extension of the AgML language and support libraries to enable the static misalignment of our reconstruction and simulation geometries, discussing the design goals, limitations and path to full misalignment support in ROOT/VMC-based simulation.

  14. [Quantitative analysis of psychometric indicators among 20-40 years old Georgian men and women of normal physical development].

    PubMed

    Nadashvili, L A

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the work was to establish quantitative analysis of individual indicators and constitutional types among 20-40 years old Georgian men and women of normal physical development. The studied contingent was divided into 4 scales of age: 20-24 years old 65 women and 35 men; 25-29 years old 35 women and 25 men; 30-34 years old 10 women and 5 men; and 35-39 years old 10 women and 10 men. On the basis of the conducted research it was established that younger Georgian women of normal physical development are mainly sanguines, extroverts, express middle logic intellect, plastic-dynamic mood, constitutional and stable middle excitement, and are mainly harmonic and dynamic constitutional types. Younger Georgian men are sanguines, extroverts, express middle logic intellect plastic - dynamic and constitutional-stable mood, and are mainly harmonic and dynamic constitutional types.

  15. Cellular cardiac electrophysiology modeling with Chaste and CellML

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jonathan; Spiteri, Raymond J.; Mirams, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Chaste is an open-source C++ library for computational biology that has well-developed cardiac electrophysiology tissue simulation support. In this paper, we introduce the features available for performing cardiac electrophysiology action potential simulations using a wide range of models from the Physiome repository. The mathematics of the models are described in CellML, with units for all quantities. The primary idea is that the model is defined in one place (the CellML file), and all model code is auto-generated at compile or run time; it never has to be manually edited. We use ontological annotation to identify model variables describing certain biological quantities (membrane voltage, capacitance, etc.) to allow us to import any relevant CellML models into the Chaste framework in consistent units and to interact with them via consistent interfaces. This approach provides a great deal of flexibility for analysing different models of the same system. Chaste provides a wide choice of numerical methods for solving the ordinary differential equations that describe the models. Fixed-timestep explicit and implicit solvers are provided, as discussed in previous work. Here we introduce the Rush–Larsen and Generalized Rush–Larsen integration techniques, made available via symbolic manipulation of the model equations, which are automatically rearranged into the forms required by these approaches. We have also integrated the CVODE solvers, a ‘gold standard’ for stiff systems, and we have developed support for symbolic computation of the Jacobian matrix, yielding further increases in the performance and accuracy of CVODE. We discuss some of the technical details of this work and compare the performance of the available numerical methods. Finally, we discuss how this is generalized in our functional curation framework, which uses a domain-specific language for defining complex experiments as a basis for comparison of model behavior. PMID:25610400

  16. SysML: A Language for Space System Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, S.; Strangapede, A.

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an ESA/ESTEC internal study, performed with the support of INTECS, about modeling languages to support Space System Engineering activities and processes, with special emphasis on system requirements identification and analysis. The study was focused on the assessment of dedicated UML profiles, their positioning alongside the system and software life cycles and associated methodologies. Requirements for a Space System Requirements Language were identified considering the ECSS-E-10 and ECSS-E_40 processes. The study has identified SysML as a very promising language, having as theoretical background the reference system processes defined by the ISO15288, as well as industrial practices.

  17. SysML model of exoplanet archive functionality and activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Solange

    2016-08-01

    The NASA Exoplanet Archive is an online service that serves data and information on exoplanets and their host stars to help astronomical research related to search for and characterization of extra-solar planetary systems. In order to provide the most up to date data sets to the users, the exoplanet archive performs weekly updates that include additions into the database and updates to the services as needed. These weekly updates are complex due to interfaces within the archive. I will be presenting a SysML model that helps us perform these update activities in a weekly basis.

  18. Improving Interoperability by Incorporating UnitsML Into Markup Languages

    PubMed Central

    Celebi, Ismet; Dragoset, Robert A.; Olsen, Karen J.; Schaefer, Reinhold; Kramer, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of analytical data over time is a challenge. Years ago, data were recorded on paper that was pasted directly into a laboratory notebook. The digital age has made maintaining the integrity of data harder. Nowadays, digitized analytical data are often separated from information about how the sample was collected and prepared for analysis and how the data were acquired. The data are stored on digital media, while the related information about the data may be written in a paper notebook or stored separately in other digital files. Sometimes the connection between this “scientific meta-data” and the analytical data is lost, rendering the spectrum or chromatogram useless. We have been working with ASTM Subcommittee E13.15 on Analytical Data to create the Analytical Information Markup Language or AnIML—a new way to interchange and store spectroscopy and chromatography data based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). XML is a language for describing what data are by enclosing them in computer-useable tags. Recording the units associated with the analytical data and metadata is an essential issue for any data representation scheme that must be addressed by all domain-specific markup languages. As scientific markup languages proliferate, it is very desirable to have a single scheme for handling units to facilitate moving information between different data domains. At NIST, we have been developing a general markup language just for units that we call UnitsML. This presentation will describe how UnitsML is used and how it is being incorporated into AnIML. PMID:27134778

  19. A 20-40 MHz low-power clock oscillator with open-loop frequency calibration and temperature compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Hongjin; Lee, Kang-Yoon

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a 20-40 MHz low-power clock oscillator is presented to provide the frequency reference in data interface applications. The frequency source is referenced to a frequency-calibrated and temperature-compensated 2.5 GHz LC VCO that is implemented with a bondwire inductor. Class-C type VCO is adopted in order to improve the phase noise and reduce the current consumption. A full digital frequency calibration circuit is proposed to cover the wide output frequency range minimizing the frequency variation. External crystal oscillator (REF_CLK) is used only for the absolute frequency calibration at the initial programming stage and is not needed after the programming stage. On the other hand, temperature compensation is performed in an analogue way by controlling the varactor in the LC VCO. This chip is fabricated using 0.18-µm CMOS with the option of lateral PNP transistor. Lateral PNP transistors are used in the temperature compensation circuits. It can be implemented laterally in standard CMOS process. The power consumption is 4.8 mW from a 1.8 V supply. The accuracy of the frequency is ±58 ppm from -20°C to 80°C. The nominal phase noise at 1 MHz and period jitter is -122 dBc/Hz and 2 ps, respectively, when the output frequency is 25 MHz.

  20. The Native Plasmid pML21 Plays a Role in Stress Tolerance in Enterococcus faecalis ML21, as Analyzed by Plasmid Curing Using Plasmid Incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Fang-Lei; Chen, Li-Li; Zeng, Zhu; Feng, Xiu-Juan; Yu, Rui; Lu, Xiao-Ming; Ma, Hui-Qin; Chen, Shang-Wu

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the role of the native plasmid pML21 in Enterococcus faecalis ML21's response to abiotic stresses, the plasmid pML21 was cured based on the principle of plasmid incompatibility and segregational instability, generating E. faecalis mutant strain ML0. The mutant and the wild strains were exposed to abiotic stresses: bile salts, low pH, H2O2, ethanol, heat, and NaCl, and their survival rate was measured. We found that curing of pML21 lead to reduced tolerance to stress in E. faecalis ML0, especially oxidative and osmotic stress. Complementation analysis suggested that the genes from pML21 played different role in stress tolerance. The result indicated that pML21 plays a role in E. faecalis ML21's response to abiotic stresses.

  1. Optical 10-20 and 20-40 Gbits/s pseudorandom bit sequence data multiplexing utilizing conversion-dispersion-based tunable optical delays.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoxia; Christen, Louis; Yilmaz, Omer F; Nuccio, Scott R; Willner, Alan E

    2008-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate all-optical 2(7)-1 pseudorandom bit sequence data multiplexing using wavelength conversion, interchannel chromatic dispersion, and intrachannel dispersion compensation. Bit-rate tuning capability is demonstrated with 10-20 and 20-40 Gbits/s multiplexing, achieving a bit-error rate <10(-9) for both rates.

  2. Application and performance of an ML-EM algorithm in NEXT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simón, A.; Lerche, C.; Monrabal, F.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carrión, J. V.; Cebrián, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Escada, J.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Goldschmidt, A.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C. A. O.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Jones, B. J. P.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; McDonald, A. D.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2017-08-01

    The goal of the NEXT experiment is the observation of neutrinoless double beta decay in 136Xe using a gaseous xenon TPC with electroluminescent amplification and specialized photodetector arrays for calorimetry and tracking. The NEXT Collaboration is exploring a number of reconstruction algorithms to exploit the full potential of the detector. This paper describes one of them: the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (ML-EM) method, a generic iterative algorithm to find maximum-likelihood estimates of parameters that has been applied to solve many different types of complex inverse problems. In particular, we discuss a bi-dimensional version of the method in which the photosensor signals integrated over time are used to reconstruct a transverse projection of the event. First results show that, when applied to detector simulation data, the algorithm achieves nearly optimal energy resolution (better than 0.5% FWHM at the Q value of 136Xe) for events distributed over the full active volume of the TPC.

  3. Large-field ion optics for projection and proximity printing and for maskless lithography (ML2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeschner, Hans; Stengl, Gerhard; Buschbeck, Herbert; Chalupka, A.; Lammer, Gertraud; Platzgummer, Elmar; Vonach, Herbert; de Jager, Patrick W.; Kaesmaier, Rainer; Ehrmann, Albrecht; Hirscher, Stefan; Wolter, Andreas; Dietzel, Andreas; Berger, Ruediger; Grimm, Hubert; Terris, Bruce D.; Bruenger, Wilhelm H.; Adam, Dieter; Boehm, Michael; Eichhorn, Hans; Springer, Reinhard; Butschke, Joerg; Letzkus, Florian; Ruchhoeft, Paul; Wolfe, John C.

    2002-07-01

    Recent studies carried out with Infineon Technologies have shown the utility of Ion Projection Lithography (IPL) for the manufacturing of integrated circuits. In cooperation with IBM Storage Technology Division the patterning of magnetic films by resist-less Ion Projection Direct Structuring (IPDS) has been demonstrated. With masked ion beam proximity techniques unique capabilities for lithography on non-planar (curved) surfaces are outlined. Designs are presented for a masked ion beam proximity lithography (MIBPL) exposure tool with sub - 20 nm resolution capability within 88 mmo exposure fields. The possibility of extremely high reduction ratios (200:1) for high-volume ion projection mask-less lithography (IP-ML2) is discussed.

  4. Transient radicular irritation after spinal anesthesia induced with hyperbaric solutions of cerebrospinal fluid-diluted lidocaine 50 mg/ml or mepivacaine 40 mg/ml or bupivacaine 5 mg/ml.

    PubMed

    Salmela, L; Aromaa, U

    1998-08-01

    Transient radicular irritation (TRI) is common after spinal anesthesia induced with hyperbaric lidocaine 50 mg/ml. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of TRI after spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric lidocaine 50 mg/ml diluted with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 1:1 and hyperbaric mepivacaine 40 mg/ml and hyperbaric bupivacaine 5 mg/ml. Ninety ASA class I-IV patients undergoing mostly brief urological procedures under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to receive either hyperbaric lidocaine 50 mg/ml diluted with CSF 1:1 (Group L), hyperbaric mepivacaine 40 mg/ml (Group M) or hyperbaric bupivacaine 5 mg/ml (Group B). Characteristics of the patients and details of the surgical procedures and spinal anesthesias were similar in all groups except for the intensity of motor block. The patients were evaluated on the first postoperative day by an anesthesiologist who did not know which spinal anesthetic agent had been used. Six patients (20%) in group L, 11 patients (37%) in Group M and none (0%) in Group B experienced pain in the legs and/or back (TRI) after spinal anesthesia. TRI is frequent after spinal anesthesia induced with hyperbaric lidocaine 50 mg/ml diluted with CSF 1:1. The incidence of TRI after hyperbaric mepivacaine 40 mg/ml is of the same magnitude. TRI could not be observed after bupivacaine spinal anesthesia.

  5. SED-ML web tools: generate, modify and export standard-compliant simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Frank T; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar; Scharm, Martin

    2017-04-15

    The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) is a standardized format for exchanging simulation studies independently of software tools. We present the SED-ML Web Tools, an online application for creating, editing, simulating and validating SED-ML documents. The Web Tools implement all current SED-ML specifications and, thus, support complex modifications and co-simulation of models in SBML and CellML formats. Ultimately, the Web Tools lower the bar on working with SED-ML documents and help users create valid simulation descriptions. http://sysbioapps.dyndns.org/SED-ML_Web_Tools/ . fbergman@caltech.edu .

  6. Preclinical evaluation of 18F-ML-10 to determine timing of apoptotic response to chemotherapy in solid tumors

    DOE PAGES

    Demirci, Emre; Ahmed, Rafay; Ocak, Meltem; ...

    2017-01-10

    Here, we investigated 2-(5-fluoro-pentyl)-2-methyl-malonic acid ( 18F-ML-10) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of apoptosis posttherapy to determine optimal timing for predicting chemotherapy response in a mouse head/neck xenograft cancer model. BALB/c nude mice (4-8 weeks old) were implanted with UM-SCC-22B tumors. The treatment group received 2 doses of doxorubicin (10 mg/kg, days 0, 2). Small animal 18F-ML-10 PET/computed tomography was performed before and on days 1, 3, and 7 postchemotherapy. Using regions of interest around tumors, 18F-ML-10 uptake change was measured as %ID/g and uptake relative to liver. Terminal Uridine Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) immunohistochemistry assay was performed using tumor samplesmore » of baseline and on days 1, 3, and 7 posttreatment. As a result, treated mice demonstrated increased 18F-ML-10 uptake compared to baseline and controls, and 10 of 13 mice showed tumor volume decreases. All control mice showed tumor volume increases. Tumor-to-liver (T/L) ratios from the control group mice did not show significant change from baseline ( P > .05); however, T/L ratios of the treatment group showed significant 18F-ML-10 uptake differences from baseline compared to days 3 and 7 posttreatment ( P < .05), but no significant difference at 1 day posttreatment. In conclusion, 2-(5-Fluoro-pentyl)-2-methyl-malonic acid PET imaging has the potential for early assessment of treatment-induced apoptosis. Timing and image analysis strategies may require optimization, depending on the type of tumor and cancer treatment.« less

  7. jqcML: an open-source java API for mass spectrometry quality control data in the qcML format.

    PubMed

    Bittremieux, Wout; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Valkenborg, Dirk; Martens, Lennart; Laukens, Kris

    2014-07-03

    The awareness that systematic quality control is an essential factor to enable the growth of proteomics into a mature analytical discipline has increased over the past few years. To this aim, a controlled vocabulary and document structure have recently been proposed by Walzer et al. to store and disseminate quality-control metrics for mass-spectrometry-based proteomics experiments, called qcML. To facilitate the adoption of this standardized quality control routine, we introduce jqcML, a Java application programming interface (API) for the qcML data format. First, jqcML provides a complete object model to represent qcML data. Second, jqcML provides the ability to read, write, and work in a uniform manner with qcML data from different sources, including the XML-based qcML file format and the relational database qcDB. Interaction with the XML-based file format is obtained through the Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB), while generic database functionality is obtained by the Java Persistence API (JPA). jqcML is released as open-source software under the permissive Apache 2.0 license and can be downloaded from https://bitbucket.org/proteinspector/jqcml .

  8. mzML2ISA & nmrML2ISA: generating enriched ISA-Tab metadata files from metabolomics XML data.

    PubMed

    Larralde, Martin; Lawson, Thomas N; Weber, Ralf J M; Moreno, Pablo; Haug, Kenneth; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Viant, Mark R; Steinbeck, Christoph; Salek, Reza M

    2017-08-15

    Submission to the MetaboLights repository for metabolomics data currently places the burden of reporting instrument and acquisition parameters in ISA-Tab format on users, who have to do it manually, a process that is time consuming and prone to user input error. Since the large majority of these parameters are embedded in instrument raw data files, an opportunity exists to capture this metadata more accurately. Here we report a set of Python packages that can automatically generate ISA-Tab metadata file stubs from raw XML metabolomics data files. The parsing packages are separated into mzML2ISA (encompassing mzML and imzML formats) and nmrML2ISA (nmrML format only). Overall, the use of mzML2ISA & nmrML2ISA reduces the time needed to capture metadata substantially (capturing 90% of metadata on assay and sample levels), is much less prone to user input errors, improves compliance with minimum information reporting guidelines and facilitates more finely grained data exploration and querying of datasets. mzML2ISA & nmrML2ISA are available under version 3 of the GNU General Public Licence at https://github.com/ISA-tools. Documentation is available from http://2isa.readthedocs.io/en/latest/. reza.salek@ebi.ac.uk or isatools@googlegroups.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. A multicentre trial of ropivacaine 7.5 mg x ml(-1) vs bupivacaine 5 mg x ml(-1) for supra clavicular brachial plexus anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Vaghadia, H; Chan, V; Ganapathy, S; Lui, A; McKenna, J; Zimmer, K

    1999-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of ropivacaine 7.5 mg x ml(-1) with bupivacaine 5.0 mg x ml(-1) for subclavian perivascular brachial plexus block. After informed consent, 104 ASA I-III adults participated in a randomized, double-blind, multi-center trial to receive 30 ml of either ropivacaine 7.5 mg x ml(-1) or bupivacaine 5.0 mg x ml(-1) for subclavian perivascular brachial plexus block prior to upper limb surgery. Onset and duration of sensory and motor block in the distribution of the axillary, median, musculo-cutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves were assessed. Onset times and duration of sensory and motor block were similar between groups. Mean duration of analgesia for the five nerves was between 11.3 and 14.3 hr with ropivacaine and between 10.3 and 17.1 hr with bupivacaine. Quality of muscle relaxation judged as excellent by the investigators was not significantly different (ropivacaine - 35/49, bupivacaine - 30/49). The median time to first request for analgesia was comparable between the two groups (11-12 hr). One patient developed a grand mal seizure shortly after receiving bupivacaine and recovered consciousness within 30 min. There were no serious adverse events in the ropivacaine group. Thirty ml ropivacaine 7.5 mg x ml(-1) (225 mg) produced effective and well tolerated brachial plexus block of long duration by the subclavian perivascular route. In this study, the results were similar to those of 30 ml bupivacaine 5.0 mg x ml(-1).

  10. Virtual Construction of Space Habitats: Connecting Building Information Models (BIM) and SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polit-Casillas, Raul; Howe, A. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Current trends in design, construction and management of complex projects make use of Building Information Models (BIM) connecting different types of data to geometrical models. This information model allow different types of analysis beyond pure graphical representations. Space habitats, regardless their size, are also complex systems that require the synchronization of many types of information and disciplines beyond mass, volume, power or other basic volumetric parameters. For this, the state-of-the-art model based systems engineering languages and processes - for instance SysML - represent a solid way to tackle this problem from a programmatic point of view. Nevertheless integrating this with a powerful geometrical architectural design tool with BIM capabilities could represent a change in the workflow and paradigm of space habitats design applicable to other aerospace complex systems. This paper shows some general findings and overall conclusions based on the ongoing research to create a design protocol and method that practically connects a systems engineering approach with a BIM architectural and engineering design as a complete Model Based Engineering approach. Therefore, one hypothetical example is created and followed during the design process. In order to make it possible this research also tackles the application of IFC categories and parameters in the aerospace field starting with the application upon the space habitats design as way to understand the information flow between disciplines and tools. By building virtual space habitats we can potentially improve in the near future the way more complex designs are developed from very little detail from concept to manufacturing.

  11. Graphical methods of psychometrical indicators in Georgian women (20-40 years old) of normal physical development according to forms of temperament and character.

    PubMed

    Nadashvili, L

    2009-04-01

    To establish temperament and forms of character and graphical image, we have studied 120 Georgian women of normal physical development, who were divided by 4 age groups with 5 years intervals. To establish temperament and forms of character we used Eysenck's questionnaire (57 questions) and Sheldon's scale of temperament. The material was worked out by the recognized methods of mathematical psychology. It was stated that Georgian women of young age (20-40 years old) are of sanguine temperament, by character extraverts, which means that they are strong, moving, balanced, stable.

  12. Graphical methods of psychometrical indicators in Georgian women (20-40 years old) of normal physical development according to intellect and types of mood.

    PubMed

    Nadashvili, L

    2009-03-01

    To establish intellect and types of mood and graphical image, we have studied 120 Georgian women of normal physical development, who were divided by 4 age groups with 5 years intervals. To establish intellect we used the tests and schemes approved in England and America; to research the mood types we used fixed mood research experimental classical methods by D. Uznadze. It was stated that young Georgian women (20-40 years old) have average verbal and average logical intellect, plastic-dynamic, constant-stable, average excitement harmonious constitutional types.

  13. Thulium laser resection versus plasmakinetic resection of prostates larger than 80 ml.

    PubMed

    Wei, Haibin; Shao, Yi; Sun, Feng; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhuo, Jian; Zhao, Fujun; Han, Bangmin; Jiang, Juntao; Chen, Huirong; Xia, Shujie

    2014-08-01

    To compare the safety and efficiency of thulium laser resection of the prostate-tangerine technique (TmLRP-TT) and plasmakinetic resection of the prostate (PKRP) for aged symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with large volume prostates (>80 ml) in a prospective randomized trial with an 18-month follow-up. From January 2010 to November 2011, 90 BPH patients with large volume prostates were randomized for surgical treatment with TmLRP-TT (n = 45, group 1) or PKRP (n = 45, group 2). The preoperative and postoperative parameters were recorded and compared. All patients were evaluated at 1, 6, 12 and 18 months postoperatively using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life score (QoL), maximum flow rate (Q max), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR) and the five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function score. All perioperative complications were also documented and classified according to the modified Clavien classification system. Compared with the PKRP group, the TmLRP-TT group had a statistically lower hemoglobin drop (0.86 ± 0.42 vs. 1.34 ± 1.04 g/dl, P < 0.01), shorter catheterization time (1.91 ± 0.85 vs. 2.36 ± 0.74 days, P < 0.01) and hospital stay (3.80 ± 0.46 vs. 5.02 ± 0.54 days, P < 0.01). Within the observation period of 18 months, both groups had significant postoperative improvement in IPSS, QoL, Q max and PVR, although no difference was observed between the two groups. Only one patient receiving PKRP treatment required a blood transfusion perioperatively. During the 18-month follow-up, one patient in each group experienced urethral stricture and one patient in the PKRP group experienced bladder neck contracture. Minor complications that required no or noninterventional treatment occurred in 6 (13.33 %) of TmLRP-TT group (Clavien grade 1, 13.33 % and grade 2, 0 %) and 10 (22.22 %) of PKRP group (Clavien grade 1, 20.00 % and grade 2, 2.22 %). No severe complications required reinterventions

  14. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Enhanced Melamine (ML) Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) funded a proposal to achieve initial basic acoustic characterization of ML (melamine) foam, which could serve as a starting point for a future, more comprehensive acoustic test program for ML foam. A project plan was developed and implemented to obtain acoustic test data for both normal and enhanced ML foam. This project became known as the NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT). This document contains the outcome of the NEMFAT project.

  15. Position systématique de Nupharanassa bohemica Mlíkovsky, 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile

    1999-07-01

    The species Nupharanassa bohemica Mlíkovsky, 1999, described as a Jacanidae (Aves: Charadriiformes) is very different from the recent and fossil Jacanidae and corresponds to a Coraciidae (Aves: Coraciiformes). It is here placed in the extinct genus Geranopterus and becomes Geranopterus bohemicus ( Mlíkovsky, 1999).

  16. Reproducible and flexible simulation experiments with ML-Rules and SESSL.

    PubMed

    Warnke, T; Helms, T; Uhrmacher, A M

    2017-11-23

    The modeling language ML-Rules allows specifying and simulating complex systems biology models at multiple levels of organization. The development of such simulation models involves a wide variety of simulation experiments and the replicability of generated simulation results requires suitable means for documenting simulation experiments. Embedded domain-specific languages, such as SESSL, cater both requirements. With SESSL, the user can integrate diverse simulation experimentation methods and third-party software components into an executable, readable simulation experiment specification. A newly developed SESSL binding for ML-Rules exploits these features of SESSL, opening up new possibilities for executing and documenting simulation experiments with ML-Rules models. ML-Rules is implemented in Java, SESSL and its bindings are implemented in Scala. The source code is available under open-source licenses: ML-Rulesgit.informatik.uni-rostock.de/mosi/mlrules2ML-Rules Quickstart (Graphical Editor)git.informatik.uni-rostock.de/mosi/mlrules2-quickstartSESSLgit.informatik.uni-rostock.de/mosi/sessl and sessl.orgSESSL Quickstart (Experiment Template)git.informatik.uni-rostock.de/mosi/sessl-quickstart Furthermore, Maven-compatible compiled packages of ML-Rules, SESSL, and the SESSL bindings are available from the Maven Central Repository at maven.org (org.sessl:* and org.jamesii:mlrules). The supplementary material contains a more complex case study that exemplifies the usage of the SESSL binding for ML-Rules. tom.warnke@uni-rostock.de.

  17. The performance review of EEWS(Earthquake Early Warning System) about Gyeongju earthquakes with Ml 5.1 and Ml 5.8 in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Ho; Chi, Heon-Cheol; Lim, In-Seub; Seong, Yun-Jeong; Park, Jihwan

    2017-04-01

    EEW(Earthquake Early Warning) service to the public has been officially operated by KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) from 2015 in Korea. For the KMA's official EEW service, KIGAM has adopted ElarmS from UC Berkeley BSL and modified local magnitude relation, 1-D travel time curves and association procedures with real time waveform from about 201 seismic stations of KMA, KIGAM, KINS and KEPRI. There were two moderate size earthquakes with magnitude Ml 5.1 and Ml 5.8 close to Gyeongju city located at the southeastern part of Korea on Sep. 12. 2016. We have checked the performance of EEWS(Earthquake Early Warning System) named as TrigDB by KIGAM reviewing of these two Gyeongju earthquakes. The nearest station to epicenters of two earthquakes Ml 5.1(35.7697 N, 129.1904 E) and Ml 5.8(35.7632 N, 129.1898 E) was MKL which detected P phases in about 2.1 and 3.6 seconds after the origin times respectively. The first events were issued in 6.3 and 7.0 seconds from each origin time. Because of the unstable results on the early steps due to very few stations and unexpected automated analysis, KMA has the policy to wait for more 20 seconds for confirming the reliability. For these events KMA published EEW alarms in about 26 seconds after origin times with M 5.3 and M 5.9 respectively.

  18. Ropivacaine 7.5 mg/ml versus bupivacaine 5 mg/ml for interscalene brachial plexus block--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Kiefer, K; Herbrich, C; Seebauer, A; Schwender, D; Peter, K

    2002-06-01

    We investigated ropivacaine 75 mg/ml in comparison with bupivacaine 5 mg/ml in patients receiving interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) and general anaesthesia. In this randomized, double-blind, prospective clinical trial, each patient received an ISB block according to the technique originally described by Winnie and a catheter technique as per Meier. The rapidity of onset and the quality of sensory and motor block were determined. After general anaesthesia had been induced further parameters evaluated were consumption of local anaesthetic, opioid and neuromuscular blocking drug. After arrival in the recovery room, the patients were assessed for intensity of pain using a visual analog scale (VAS). One hundred and twenty patients were included in the study. The onset and development of sensory block was similar in both groups. Development and quality of motor block was also nearly identical for both local anaesthetics. Consumption of neuromuscular blocking drug and opioid did not differ between ropivacaine and bupivacaine. In the recovery room the mean pain score was less than 25 in both groups. There were no significant differences in terms of onset and quality of sensory or motor block during the intraoperative and early postoperative period. In addition we did not identify any side-effects related to the administration of the local anaesthetics. Ropivacaine 7.5 mg/ml and bupivacaine 5mg/ml proved to be nearly indistinguishable when administered for interscalene brachial plexus block.

  19. Polymorphic New World monkeys with more than three M/L cone types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Gerald H.; Deegan, Jess F.

    2005-10-01

    Most New World (platyrrhine) monkeys have M/L cone photopigment polymorphisms that map directly into individual variations in visual sensitivity and color vision. We used electroretinogram flicker photometry to examine M/L cone photopigments in the New World monkey Callicebus moloch (the dusky Titi). Like other New World monkeys, this species has an M/L cone photopigment polymorphism that reflects the presence of X-chromosome opsin gene alleles. However, unlike other platyrrhines in which three M/L photopigments are typical, Callicebus has a total of five M/L cone photopigments. The peak sensitivity values for these pigments extend across the range from 530 to 562 nm. The result is an enhanced array of potential color vision phenotypes in this species.

  20. More Effective Distributed ML via a Stale Synchronous Parallel Parameter Server

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Qirong; Cipar, James; Cui, Henggang; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Seunghak; Gibbons, Phillip B.; Gibson, Garth A.; Ganger, Gregory R.; Xing, Eric P.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a parameter server system for distributed ML, which follows a Stale Synchronous Parallel (SSP) model of computation that maximizes the time computational workers spend doing useful work on ML algorithms, while still providing correctness guarantees. The parameter server provides an easy-to-use shared interface for read/write access to an ML model’s values (parameters and variables), and the SSP model allows distributed workers to read older, stale versions of these values from a local cache, instead of waiting to get them from a central storage. This significantly increases the proportion of time workers spend computing, as opposed to waiting. Furthermore, the SSP model ensures ML algorithm correctness by limiting the maximum age of the stale values. We provide a proof of correctness under SSP, as well as empirical results demonstrating that the SSP model achieves faster algorithm convergence on several different ML problems, compared to fully-synchronous and asynchronous schemes. PMID:25400488

  1. Comparison of craniofacial linear measurements of 20-40 year-old males and females using digital lateral cephalometric radiography in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurizanti, D.; Suryonegoro, H.; Priaminiarti, M.

    2017-08-01

    Craniofacial characteristics are one of the sex determination parameters of age after puberty. The aim of this study is to obtain linear measurements using lateral cephalometric radiography of adults aged 20-40 years based on sex in Indonesia. Ten linear craniofacial parameters on 100 digital lateral cephalometric radiographs were measured. Inter-intra observer reliability was tested using Technical Error Measurement. The independent t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to evaluate the significance of the findings. There are significant differences between males and females on 10 of the linear measurements using lateral cephalometric radiography. Lateral cephalometric radiography showed that the linear measurements of 10 cephalometic parameters were higher in males than females, so it can be used to determine sex.

  2. RiverML: Standardizing the Communication of River Model Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, S.; Maidment, D. R.; Arctur, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    RiverML is a proposed language for conveying a description of river channel and floodplain geometry and flow characteristics through the internet in a standardized way. A key goal of the RiverML project is to allow interoperability between all hydraulic and hydrologic models, whether they are industry standard software packages or custom-built research tools. By providing a common transfer format for common model inputs and outputs, RiverML can shorten the development time and enhance the immediate utility of innovative river modeling tools. RiverML will provide descriptions of cross sections and multiple flow lines, allowing the construction of wireframe representations. In addition, RiverML will support descriptions of network connectivity, properties such as roughness coefficients, and time series observations such as water surface elevation and flow rate. The language is constructed in a modular fashion such that the geometry information, network information, and time series observations can be communicated independently of each other, allowing an arbitrary suite of software packages to contribute to a coherently modeled scenario. Funding for the development of RiverML is provided through an NSF grant to CUAHSI HydroShare project, a web-based collaborative environment for sharing data & models. While RiverML is geared toward the transfer of data, HydroShare will serve as a repository for storing water-related data and models of any format, while providing enhanced functionality for standardized formats such as RiverML, WaterML, and shapefiles. RiverML is a joint effort between the CUAHSI HydroShare development team, the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Hydrology Domain Working Group, and an international community of data providers, data users, and software developers.

  3. The Institutional Cost of Acquiring 100 mL of Human Milk for Very Low Birth Weight Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Jegier, Briana J.; Johnson, Tricia J.; Engstrom, Janet L.; Patel, Aloka L.; Loera, Fabiola; Meier, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Background Human milk from the biologic mother (HM) reduces disease burden and associated costs of care during and after neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization for very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight < 1500 g) infants, when compared to feedings of donor human milk (DHM) or commercial formula (CF). However, compared to DHM and CF, little is known about the institutional cost to acquire HM from the biologic mother. Objective This study aimed to determine the institutional cost of acquiring HM for VLBW infant feedings during the NICU hospitalization. Methods This analysis examined 157 maternal pumping records from a prospective cohort study evaluating health outcomes and cost of HM feedings for VLBW infants. The costs for the breast pump rental fee, 1-time pump kit purchase, and disposable food-grade containers for storing expressed HM were evaluated using standard cost analysis techniques. Results The median cost of acquiring 100 mL of HM varied from $0.51 when mothers pumped ≥ 700 mL daily to $7.93 for those who pumped < 100 mL daily. Mothers who pumped ≥ 100 mL daily had lower acquisition cost compared to both DHM ($14.84/100 mL) and CF ($3.18/100 mL). For mothers who pumped > 100 mL daily, the exact day of pumping where the cost of HM was less expensive than DHM or CF was 4 to 7 days and 6 to 19 days, respectively. Conclusion Human milk from the biologic mother has lower acquisition cost than DHM and CF when mothers provided ≥ 100 mL daily and pumped for a sufficient number of days (range, 4-19). Neonatal intensive care units should prioritize resources to ensure that mothers achieve this daily milk volume. PMID:23776080

  4. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and other abnormalities of glucose tolerance in young adults aged 20-40 years in North India (Kashmir Valley).

    PubMed

    Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Wani, Abdul Ahad; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Masoodi, Shariq Rashid; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Bashir, Mir Iftikhar; Dar, Farooq Ahmad

    2008-11-01

    To assess the burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other abnormalities of glucose tolerance in young-adult (20-40 years) men and non-pregnant women. Prevalence of diagnosed T2DM, undiagnosed T2DM and other abnormalities of glucose tolerance studied in 3032 subjects from Kashmir Valley of India. The study included a questionnaire, anthropological measurements, blood sampling, and a standard OGTT. Eight (0.3%) of surveyed subjects were previously diagnosed to have diabetes. Of 3024 subjects screened, prevalence of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glycemia [IFG, World Health Organization, Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications. Part 1. Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1999], IFG [American Diabetes Association, Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Care 27 (Suppl. 1) (2004) S5-S10] was 2.5%, 2.0%, 11.9% and 26.7%, respectively. Overall, age-adjusted prevalence of T2DM (known plus unknown), IGT, IFG (WHO) and IFG (ADA) was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.9-3.0), 1.6% (95% CI: 1.3-2.2), 11.1% (95% CI: 10.0-12.3), and 25.2% (95% CI: 23.7-26.8), respectively. The difference in diabetes prevalence was significant by age, habitat, family history of diabetes and BMI. The ratio of known-to-unknown diabetes was 1:10. This is the first large scale study from North India on prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the younger age group of 20-40 years. Abnormal glucose tolerance including undiagnosed T2DM is common in young adults.

  5. Reducing polycystic liver volume in ADPKD: effects of somatostatin analogue octreotide.

    PubMed

    Caroli, Anna; Antiga, Luca; Cafaro, Mariateresa; Fasolini, Giorgio; Remuzzi, Andrea; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ruggenenti, Piero

    2010-05-01

    No medical treatment is available for polycystic liver disease, a frequent manifestation of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 6 months of octreotide (40 mg every 28 days) therapy limited kidney volume growth more effectively than placebo in 12 patients with ADPKD. In this secondary, post hoc analysis of the above study, octreotide-induced changes in liver volumes compared with placebo and the relationship between concomitant changes in liver and kidney volumes were evaluated. Those analyzing liver and kidney volumes were blinded to treatment. Liver volumes significantly decreased from 1595 +/- 478 ml to 1524 +/- 453 ml with octreotide whereas they did not appreciably change with placebo. Changes in liver volumes were significantly different between the two treatment periods (-71 +/- 57 ml versus +14 +/- 85 ml). Octreotide-induced liver volume reduction was fully explained by a reduction in parenchyma volume from 1506 +/- 431 ml to 1432 +/- 403 ml. Changes in liver volumes were significantly correlated with concomitant changes in kidney volumes (r = 0.67) during octreotide but not during placebo treatment. Liver and kidney volume changes significantly differed with both treatments (octreotide: -71 +/- 57 ml versus +71 +/- 107; placebo: +14 +/- 85 ml versus +162 +/- 114), but net reductions in liver (-85 +/- 103 ml) and kidney (-91 +/- 125 ml) volume growth on octreotide versus placebo were similar. Octreotide therapy reduces liver volumes in patients with ADPKD and is safe.

  6. Evaluation of Lassa virus vaccine immunogenicity in a CBA/J-ML29 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Goicochea, Marco A; Zapata, Juan C; Bryant, Joseph; Davis, Harry; Salvato, Maria S; Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-02-14

    Lassa fever (LF) is one of the most prevalent viral hemorrhagic fevers in West Africa responsible for thousands of deaths annually. The BSL-4 containment requirement and lack of small animal model to evaluate Lassa virus (LASV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) complicate development of effective LF vaccines. Here we have described a CBA/J-ML29 model allowing evaluation of LASV-specific CMI responses in mice. This model is based on Mopeia virus reassortant clone ML29, an attractive immunogenic surrogate for LASV. A single intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunization of CBA/J mice with ML29 protected animals against a lethal homologous intracerebral (i.c.) challenge with 588 LD(50). The ML29-immunized mice displayed negligible levels of LASV-specific antibody titers, but LASV-specific CMI responses were detectable early and peaked on day 8-10 after immunization. A T cell cytotoxicity assay in vivo showed a correlation between LASV-specific cytotoxicity and the timing of protection induced by the ML29 immunization. Notably, CBA/J mice that received CD8+ T cell-depleted splenocytes from ML29-immunized donors all succumbed to a lethal i.c. challenge, demonstrating that CD8+ T cells are critical in protection. The CBA/J-ML29 model can be useful immunological tool for the preliminary evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates against LASV outside of BSL-4 containment facilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. qcML: An Exchange Format for Quality Control Metrics from Mass Spectrometry Experiments*

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W. P.; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A.; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Heck, Albert J. R.; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. PMID:24760958

  8. qcML: an exchange format for quality control metrics from mass spectrometry experiments.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W P; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S; Olsen, Jesper V; Heck, Albert J R; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-08-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Post-void residual urine under 150 ml does not exclude voiding dysfunction in women.

    PubMed

    Khayyami, Yasmine; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-03-01

    It has been claimed that post-void residual urine (PVR) below 150 ml rules out voiding dysfunction in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and provides license to perform sling surgery. The cut-off of 150 ml seems arbitrary, not evidence-based, and so we sought to investigate the ability of PVR < 150 ml to exclude voiding dysfunction. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients who underwent invasive urodynamics from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2013. Voiding dysfunction was diagnosed if both the invasive urodynamic and the free flow showed abnormal results. We registered the PVR in patients with voiding dysfunction and divided them into groups with PVR < 150 ml and PVR ≥ 150 ml. Patients were then analyzed for bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor underactivity. Of the 205 patients undergoing invasive urodynamics in 2013, a total of 20 had voiding dysfunction, 2 with PVR ≥ 150 ml. Eighteen patients had PVR < 150 ml (range 0-50 ml); 9 had bladder outlet obstruction while 7 had detrusor underactivity. Two patients were uncategorized. Out of the 20 patients, 7 had no symptoms or complaints indicating voiding dysfunction. Patients with voiding dysfunction often have normal PVR and so PVR < 150 ml cannot exclude voiding dysfunction. All patients should be evaluated using free flow measurements along with PVR to obtain a reliable, objective measurement of their voiding pattern, before anti-incontinence surgery.

  10. Rare A2ML1 variants confer susceptibility to otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Chiong, Charlotte M.; Reyes-Quintos, Ma. Rina T.; Tantoco, Ma. Leah C.; Wang, Xin; Acharya, Anushree; Abbe, Izoduwa; Giese, Arnaud P.; Smith, Joshua D.; Allen, E. Kaitlynn; Li, Biao; Cutiongco-de la Paz, Eva Maria; Garcia, Marieflor Cristy; Llanes, Erasmo Gonzalo D.V.; Labra, Patrick John; Gloria-Cruz, Teresa Luisa I.; Chan, Abner L.; Wang, Gao T.; Daly, Kathleen A.; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Patel, Janak A.; Riazuddin, Saima; Sale, Michele M.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Abes, Generoso T.; Leal, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    A duplication variant within middle-ear-specific gene A2ML1 co-segregates with otitis media in an indigenous Filipino pedigree (LOD score=7.5 at reduced penetrance) and lies within a founder haplotype that is also shared by three otitis-prone European- and Hispanic-American children, but is absent in non-otitis-prone children and >62,000 next-generation sequences. Seven additional A2ML1 variants were identified in six otitis-prone children. Collectively our studies support a role for A2ML1 in the pathophysiology of otitis media. PMID:26121085

  11. pymzML--Python module for high-throughput bioinformatics on mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Bald, Till; Barth, Johannes; Niehues, Anna; Specht, Michael; Hippler, Michael; Fufezan, Christian

    2012-04-01

    pymzML is an extension to Python that offers (i) an easy access to mass spectrometry (MS) data that allows the rapid development of tools, (ii) a very fast parser for mzML data, the standard data format in MS and (iii) a set of functions to compare or handle spectra. pymzML requires Python2.6.5+ and is fully compatible with Python3. The module is freely available on http://pymzml.github.com or pypi, is published under LGPL license and requires no additional modules to be installed. christian@fufezan.net.

  12. cluML: A markup language for clustering and cluster validity assessment of microarray data.

    PubMed

    Bolshakova, Nadia; Cunningham, Pádraig

    2005-01-01

    cluML is a new markup language for microarray data clustering and cluster validity assessment. The XML-based format has been designed to address some of the limitations observed in traditional formats, such as inability to store multiple clustering (including biclustering) and validation results within a dataset. cluML is an effective tool to support biomedical knowledge representation in gene expression data analysis. Although cluML was developed for DNA microarray analysis applications, it can be effectively used for the representation of clustering and for the validation of other biomedical and physical data that has no limitations.

  13. Validation of a SysML based design for wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrachedi, Amel; Rahim, Messaoud; Ioualalen, Malika; Hammad, Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    When developing complex systems, the requirement for the verification of the systems' design is one of the main challenges. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are examples of such systems. We address the problem of how WSNs must be designed to fulfil the system requirements. Using the SysML Language, we propose a Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) specification and verification methodology for designing WSNs. This methodology uses SysML to describe the WSNs requirements, structure and behaviour. Then, it translates the SysML elements to an analytic model, specifically, to a Deterministic Stochastic Petri Net. The proposed approach allows to design WSNs and study their behaviors and their energy performances.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and clinical effect during continuous epidural infusion with ropivacaine 2.5 mg/ml or bupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml for labour pain relief.

    PubMed

    Irestedt, L; Ekblom, A; Olofsson, C; Dahlström, A C; Emanuelsson, B M

    1998-09-01

    Ropivacaine has shown less systemic toxicity than bupivacaine, and comparatively low muscle-blocking properties could constitute another advantage when used epidurally for obstetric pain relief. We aimed primarily to compare maternal and foetal drug disposition following continuous epidural infusion of ropivacaine or bupivacaine. Twenty-four full-term, nulliparous women were randomized to continuous epidural infusion (10 ml/h) of ropivacaine 2.5 mg/ml or bupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml for labour pain relief in a double-blind, parallel-group design. Maternal blood samples were collected up to 24 h after the end of infusion as well as taken from the umbilical cord at the time of delivery. Sensory and motor block as well as analgesia were assessed. All the women were monitored by cardiotocography and neonatal assessment was performed. The sensory block was adequate for both drugs. Higher plasma levels (total and free) were seen with ropivacaine, although the infusion with bupivacaine continued on average for about 2 hours longer. However, the ratios between maternal and umbilical blood concentrations were similar for both drugs. Normal neonatal Apgar and neonatal adaptive capacity scores (NACS) were found in both groups. A continuous epidural infusion of 25 mg/h ropivacaine or bupivacaine both produced good labour pain relief. Higher total and free plasma concentrations were seen for ropivacaine. The ratios between maternal and umbilical plasma levels were similar for both drugs.

  15. SED-ED, a workflow editor for computational biology experiments written in SED-ML.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard R

    2012-04-15

    The simulation experiment description markup language (SED-ML) is a new community data standard to encode computational biology experiments in a computer-readable XML format. Its widespread adoption will require the development of software support to work with SED-ML files. Here, we describe a software tool, SED-ED, to view, edit, validate and annotate SED-ML documents while shielding end-users from the underlying XML representation. SED-ED supports modellers who wish to create, understand and further develop a simulation description provided in SED-ML format. SED-ED is available as a standalone Java application, as an Eclipse plug-in and as an SBSI (www.sbsi.ed.ac.uk) plug-in, all under an MIT open-source license. Source code is at https://sed-ed-sedmleditor.googlecode.com/svn. The application itself is available from https://sourceforge.net/projects/jlibsedml/files/SED-ED/.

  16. 98. ARAIII. ML1 reactor pressure vessel is lowered into reactor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. ARA-III. ML-1 reactor pressure vessel is lowered into reactor pit by hoist. July 13, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-4049. Photographer: Lowin. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. ML-o-Scope: A Diagnostic Visualization System for Deep Machine Learning Pipelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-16

    images scraped from the web . Despite its small size, CIFAR- 10’s origins make it a rich and challenging data set for object classification. ML-o-scope... Web Services, Google, SAP, The Thomas and Stacey Siebel Foundation, Apple, Inc., Cisco, Cloudera, EMC, Ericsson, Facebook, GameOnTalis, Guavus, HP...exploratory analysis ap- plied to convolutional neural network pipeline optimiza- tion. ML-o-scope is a light-weight web application that allows users

  18. Isoxazole compound ML327 blocks MYC expression and tumor formation in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Rellinger, Eric J; Padmanabhan, Chandrasekhar; Qiao, Jingbo; Craig, Brian T; An, Hanbing; Zhu, Jing; Correa, Hernán; Waterson, Alex G; Lindsley, Craig W; Beauchamp, R Daniel; Chung, Dai H

    2017-10-31

    Neuroblastomas are the most common extracranial solid tumors in children and arise from the embryonic neural crest. MYCN-amplification is a feature of ∼30% of neuroblastoma tumors and portends a poor prognosis. Neural crest precursors undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to gain migratory potential and populate the sympathoadrenal axis. Neuroblastomas are posited to arise due to a blockade of neural crest differentiation. We have recently reported effects of a novel MET inducing compound ML327 (N-(3-(2-hydroxynicotinamido) propyl)-5-phenylisoxazole-3-carboxamide) in colon cancer cells. Herein, we hypothesized that forced epithelial differentiation using ML327 would promote neuroblastoma differentiation. In this study, we demonstrate that ML327 in neuroblastoma cells induces a gene signature consistent with both epithelial and neuronal differentiation features with adaptation of an elongated phenotype. These features accompany induction of cell death and G1 cell cycle arrest with blockage of anchorage-independent growth and neurosphere formation. Furthermore, pretreatment with ML327 results in persistent defects in proliferative potential and tumor-initiating capacity, validating the pro-differentiating effects of our compound. Intriguingly, we have identified destabilization of MYC signaling as an early and consistent feature of ML327 treatment that is observed in both MYCN-amplified and MYCN-single copy neuroblastoma cell lines. Moreover, ML327 blocked MYCN mRNA levels and tumor progression in established MYCN-amplified xenografts. As such, ML327 may have potential efficacy, alone or in conjunction with existing therapeutic strategies against neuroblastoma. Future identification of the specific intracellular target of ML327 may inform future drug discovery efforts and enhance our understanding of MYC regulation.

  19. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML - The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. Results In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. Conclusions With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s) used, experiments covering models from

  20. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML--the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language.

    PubMed

    Waltemath, Dagmar; Adams, Richard; Bergmann, Frank T; Hucka, Michael; Kolpakov, Fedor; Miller, Andrew K; Moraru, Ion I; Nickerson, David; Sahle, Sven; Snoep, Jacky L; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2011-12-15

    The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s) used, experiments covering models from different fields of research

  1. CytometryML: a data standard which has been designed to interface with other standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.

    2007-02-01

    Because of the differences in the requirements, needs, and past histories including existing standards of the creating organizations, a single encompassing cytology-pathology standard will not, in the near future, replace the multiple existing or under development standards. Except for DICOM and FCS, these standardization efforts are all based on XML. CytometryML is a collection of XML schemas, which are based on the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) datatypes. The CytometryML schemas contain attributes that link them to the DICOM standard and FCS. Interoperability with DICOM has been facilitated by, wherever reasonable, limiting the difference between CytometryML and the previous standards to syntax. In order to permit the Resource Description Framework, RDF, to reference the CytometryML datatypes, id attributes have been added to many CytometryML elements. The Laboratory Digital Imaging Project (LDIP) Data Exchange Specification and the Flowcyt standards development effort employ RDF syntax. Documentation from DICOM has been reused in CytometryML. The unity of analytical cytology was demonstrated by deriving a microscope type and a flow cytometer type from a generic cytometry instrument type. The feasibility of incorporating the Flowcyt gating schemas into CytometryML has been demonstrated. CytometryML is being extended to include many of the new DICOM Working Group 26 datatypes, which describe patients, specimens, and analytes. In situations where multiple standards are being created, interoperability can be facilitated by employing datatypes based on a common set of semantics and building in links to standards that employ different syntax.

  2. The ML-EM Algorithm is Not Optimal for Poisson Noise.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Gengsheng L

    2015-01-01

    The ML-EM (maximum likelihood expectation maximization) algorithm is the most popular image reconstruction method when the measurement noise is Poisson distributed. This short paper considers the problem that for a given noisy projection data set, whether the ML-EM algorithm is able to provide an approximate solution that is close to the true solution. It is well-known that the ML-EM algorithm at early iterations converges towards the true solution and then in later iterations diverges away from the true solution. Therefore a potential good approximate solution can only be obtained by early termination. This short paper argues that the ML-EM algorithm is not optimal in providing such an approximate solution. In order to show that the ML-EM algorithm is not optimal, it is only necessary to provide a different algorithm that performs better. An alternative algorithm is suggested in this paper and this alternative algorithm is able to outperform the ML-EM algorithm.

  3. VarioML framework for comprehensive variation data representation and exchange.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Myles; Fokkema, Ivo Fac; Lancaster, Owen; Adamusiak, Tomasz; Ahonen-Bishopp, Anni; Atlan, David; Béroud, Christophe; Cornell, Michael; Dalgleish, Raymond; Devereau, Andrew; Patrinos, George P; Swertz, Morris A; Taschner, Peter Em; Thorisson, Gudmundur A; Vihinen, Mauno; Brookes, Anthony J; Muilu, Juha

    2012-10-03

    Sharing of data about variation and the associated phenotypes is a critical need, yet variant information can be arbitrarily complex, making a single standard vocabulary elusive and re-formatting difficult. Complex standards have proven too time-consuming to implement. The GEN2PHEN project addressed these difficulties by developing a comprehensive data model for capturing biomedical observations, Observ-OM, and building the VarioML format around it. VarioML pairs a simplified open specification for describing variants, with a toolkit for adapting the specification into one's own research workflow. Straightforward variant data can be captured, federated, and exchanged with no overhead; more complex data can be described, without loss of compatibility. The open specification enables push-button submission to gene variant databases (LSDBs) e.g., the Leiden Open Variation Database, using the Cafe Variome data publishing service, while VarioML bidirectionally transforms data between XML and web-application code formats, opening up new possibilities for open source web applications building on shared data. A Java implementation toolkit makes VarioML easily integrated into biomedical applications. VarioML is designed primarily for LSDB data submission and transfer scenarios, but can also be used as a standard variation data format for JSON and XML document databases and user interface components. VarioML is a set of tools and practices improving the availability, quality, and comprehensibility of human variation information. It enables researchers, diagnostic laboratories, and clinics to share that information with ease, clarity, and without ambiguity.

  4. Spectra, chromatograms, Metadata: mzML-the standard data format for mass spectrometer output.

    PubMed

    Turewicz, Michael; Deutsch, Eric W

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes Mass Spectrometry Markup Language (mzML), an XML-based and vendor-neutral standard data format for storage and exchange of mass spectrometer output like raw spectra and peak lists. It is intended to replace its two precursor data formats (mzData and mzXML), which had been developed independently a few years earlier. Hence, with the release of mzML, the problem of having two different formats for the same purposes is solved, and with it the duplicated effort of maintaining and supporting two data formats. The new format has been developed by a broad-based consortium of major instrument vendors, software vendors, and academic researchers under the aegis of the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO), Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI), with full participation of the main developers of the precursor formats. This comprehensive approach helped mzML to become a generally accepted standard. Furthermore, the collaborative development insured that mzML has adopted the best features of its precursor formats. In this chapter, we discuss mzML's development history, its design principles and use cases, as well as its main building components. We also present the available documentation, an example file, and validation software for mzML.

  5. An Ontology for State Analysis: Formalizing the Mapping to SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, David A.; Bennett, Matthew B.; Karban, Robert; Rouquette, Nicolas; Jenkins, Steven; Ingham, Michel

    2012-01-01

    State Analysis is a methodology developed over the last decade for architecting, designing and documenting complex control systems. Although it was originally conceived for designing robotic spacecraft, recent applications include the design of control systems for large ground-based telescopes. The European Southern Observatory (ESO) began a project to design the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), which will require coordinated control of over a thousand articulated mirror segments. The designers are using State Analysis as a methodology and the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) as a modeling and documentation language in this task. To effectively apply the State Analysis methodology in this context it became necessary to provide ontological definitions of the concepts and relations in State Analysis and greater flexibility through a mapping of State Analysis into a practical extension of SysML. The ontology provides the formal basis for verifying compliance with State Analysis semantics including architectural constraints. The SysML extension provides the practical basis for applying the State Analysis methodology with SysML tools. This paper will discuss the method used to develop these formalisms (the ontology), the formalisms themselves, the mapping to SysML and approach to using these formalisms to specify a control system and enforce architectural constraints in a SysML model.

  6. Optimum Design Parameters of Box Window DSF Office at Different Glazing Types under Sub Interval of Intermediate Sky Conditions (20-40 klux)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elayeb, O. K.; Alghoul, M. A.; Sopian, K.; Khrita, N. G.

    2017-11-01

    Despite Double skin façade (DSF) buildings are widely deployed worldwide, daylighting strategy is not commonly incorporated in these buildings compare to other strategies. Therefore, further theoretical and experimental studies would lead to adopting daylighting strategy in DSF office buildings. The aim of this study is to investigate the daylighting performance of office building at different design parameters of box window DSF using different glazing types under sub interval of intermediate sky conditions (20-40) klux using the (IES VE) simulation tool from Integrated Environmental Solutions - Virtual Environment. The implemented design parameters are window wall ratio (WWR) of internal façade (10-100) %, cavity depth (CD) of DSF (1-2.5) m and different glazing types. The glazing types were selected from the list available in the (IES VE) simulation tool. After series of evaluations, bronze tinted coating (STOPSOL) is implemented for the exterior façade while clear float, clear reflective coating (STOPSOL), grey and brown tinted coating (Anti-sun float) and blue coating tinted (SUNCOOL float) are implemented for the interior façade. In this paper, several evaluation parameters are used to quantify the optimum design parameters that would balance the daylighting requirements of a box window DSF office versus sky conditions range (20-40) klux. The optimum design parameters of DSF office building obtained under different glazing types are highlighted as follows. When using bronze tinted coating (STOPSOL) for the exterior façade, the glazing types of interior façade that showed superior daylighting performance of DSF office at (CD of 1.0m with WWR of 70%), (CD of 1.5m with WWR of 70%), (CD of 2.0m with WWR of 70%) and (CD of 2.0m with WWR of 70%) are grey tinted coating (Anti-sun float), clear reflective coating (STOPSOL), brown tinted coating (Anti-sun float), and clear float glazing respectively. Blue Coating tinted (SUNCOOL float) of interior façade glazing

  7. Interoperability of unattended ground sensors with an open architecture controller using SensorML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Jon; Fairgrieve, Scott

    2010-04-01

    Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) from a wide range of manufacturers have difficulty interoperating with each other and common control and dissemination points. Typically, sensor data is transmitted via RF or wired connections to a central location where the data can be fused together and transmitted further via satellite to a Processing, Exploitation and Dissemination (PED) system. These PED's are charged with analyzing the data to create real time actionable intelligence for the war fighter. However, when several disparate sensors from different manufacturers are used, interoperability problems arise. Therefore, a central UGS controller that accepts data from a wide range of sensors and helps them interoperate is essential. This paper addresses benefits derived from using the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Sensor Model Language (SensorML) sensor descriptions for an UGS controller. SensorML 1.0 is an approved OGC standard and is one of the major components within the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite of standards. SensorML provides standard models and an XML encoding for describing any process, including the process of measurement by sensors. By incorporating SensorML, an UGS controller can accept data from various sensors from different manufacturers, and interpret that data with the SensorML descriptions to allow the controller to take programmed actions and interoperate between sensors. Furthermore, SensorML can be used to translate the native sensor formats once the original data has been transmitted to the PED. Therefore, this makes a SensorML enabled UGS controller an extremely powerful tool that provides situational awareness by combining multiple sensors to form a single common operational picture (COP).

  8. HepML, an XML-based format for describing simulated data in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, S.; Dudko, L.; Kekelidze, D.; Sherstnev, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we describe a HepML format and a corresponding C++ library developed for keeping complete description of parton level events in a unified and flexible form. HepML tags contain enough information to understand what kind of physics the simulated events describe and how the events have been prepared. A HepML block can be included into event files in the LHEF format. The structure of the HepML block is described by means of several XML Schemas. The Schemas define necessary information for the HepML block and how this information should be located within the block. The library libhepml is a C++ library intended for parsing and serialization of HepML tags, and representing the HepML block in computer memory. The library is an API for external software. For example, Matrix Element Monte Carlo event generators can use the library for preparing and writing a header of an LHEF file in the form of HepML tags. In turn, Showering and Hadronization event generators can parse the HepML header and get the information in the form of C++ classes. libhepml can be used in C++, C, and Fortran programs. All necessary parts of HepML have been prepared and we present the project to the HEP community. Program summaryProgram title: libhepml Catalogue identifier: AEGL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138 866 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 613 122 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, C Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Scientific Linux CERN 4/5, Ubuntu 9.10 RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes (1 Gb) Classification: 6.2, 11.1, 11.2 External routines: Xerces XML library ( http://xerces.apache.org/xerces-c/), Expat XML Parser ( http://expat.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation in high

  9. Skeletal muscle mass indices in healthy young Mexican adults aged 20-40 years: implications for diagnoses of sarcopenia in the elderly population.

    PubMed

    Alemán-Mateo, H; Ruiz Valenzuela, Roxana E

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle and skeletal muscle indices in young adults from developing countries are sparse. Indices and the corresponding cut-off points can be a reference for diagnoses of sarcopenia. This study assessed skeletal muscle using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy male and female subjects aged 20-40 years and compared their appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and total-body skeletal muscle (TBSM) indices using certain cut-off points published in the literature. A sample of 216 healthy adults men and women from northwest Mexico was included. Body composition was assessed by DXA and several published DXA-derived skeletal muscle indices were compared. Both, ASM and TBSM were higher in men compared to the women group (23.0 ± 3.4 versus 15.9 ± 1.6 kg; P < 0.05 and 26.5 ± 4.1 versus 16.9 ± 1.9 kg; P < 0.05, resp.). These differences were also valid for both indices. When derived cut-off points were compared with the most reported indices, significant differences were found. Published cut-off points from Caucasians are higher than cut-off point derived in this sample of Mexican subjects. The new DXA-derived cut-off points for ASM proposed herein may improve diagnoses of sarcopenia in the geriatric Mexican population.

  10. ISAC's Gating-ML 2.0 data exchange standard for gating description

    PubMed Central

    Spidlen, Josef; Moore, Wayne; Brinkman, Ryan R.

    2016-01-01

    The lack of software interoperability with respect to gating has traditionally been a bottleneck preventing the use of multiple analytical tools and reproducibility of flow cytometry data analysis by independent parties. To address this issue, ISAC developed Gating-ML, a computer file format to encode and interchange gates. Gating-ML 1.5 was adopted and published as an ISAC Candidate Recommendation in 2008. Feedback during the probationary period from implementors, including major commercial software companies, instrument vendors and the wider community, has led to a streamlined Gating-ML 2.0. Gating-ML has been significantly simplified and therefore easier to support by software tools. To aid developers, free, open source reference implementations, compliance tests and detailed examples are provided to stimulate further commercial adoption. ISAC has approved Gating-ML as a standard ready for deployment in the public domain and encourages its support within the community as it is at a mature stage of development having undergone extensive review and testing, under both theoretical and practical conditions. PMID:25976062

  11. ISAC's Gating-ML 2.0 data exchange standard for gating description.

    PubMed

    Spidlen, Josef; Moore, Wayne; Brinkman, Ryan R

    2015-07-01

    The lack of software interoperability with respect to gating has traditionally been a bottleneck preventing the use of multiple analytical tools and reproducibility of flow cytometry data analysis by independent parties. To address this issue, ISAC developed Gating-ML, a computer file format to encode and interchange gates. Gating-ML 1.5 was adopted and published as an ISAC Candidate Recommendation in 2008. Feedback during the probationary period from implementors, including major commercial software companies, instrument vendors, and the wider community, has led to a streamlined Gating-ML 2.0. Gating-ML has been significantly simplified and therefore easier to support by software tools. To aid developers, free, open source reference implementations, compliance tests, and detailed examples are provided to stimulate further commercial adoption. ISAC has approved Gating-ML as a standard ready for deployment in the public domain and encourages its support within the community as it is at a mature stage of development having undergone extensive review and testing, under both theoretical and practical conditions. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  12. Identification of ML-9 as a lysosomotropic agent targeting autophagy and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kondratskyi, A; Yassine, M; Slomianny, C; Kondratska, K; Gordienko, D; Dewailly, E; Lehen'kyi, V; Skryma, R; Prevarskaya, N

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of studies suggested that inhibition of autophagy enhances the efficacy of Akt kinase inhibitors in cancer therapy. Here, we provide evidence that ML-9, a widely used inhibitor of Akt kinase, myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), represents the ‘two-in-one' compound that stimulates autophagosome formation (by downregulating Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway) and inhibits their degradation (by acting like a lysosomotropic agent and increasing lysosomal pH). We show that ML-9 as a monotherapy effectively induces prostate cancer cell death associated with the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. Further, ML-9 enhances the anticancer activity of docetaxel, suggesting its potential application as an adjuvant to existing anticancer chemotherapy. Altogether, our results revealed the complex effect of ML-9 on autophagy and indentified ML-9 as an attractive tool for targeting autophagy in cancer therapy through dual inhibition of both the Akt pathway and the autophagy. PMID:24763050

  13. Eradication of Staphylococcus aureus Catheter-Related Biofilm Infections Using ML:8 and Citrox.

    PubMed

    Hogan, S; Zapotoczna, M; Stevens, N T; Humphreys, H; O'Gara, J P; O'Neill, E

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococci are a leading cause of catheter-related infections (CRIs) due to biofilm formation. CRIs are typically managed by either device removal or systemic antibiotics, often in combination with catheter lock solutions (CLSs). CLSs provide high concentrations of the antimicrobial agent at the site of infection. However, the most effective CLSs against staphylococcal biofilm-associated infections have yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and suitability of two newly described antimicrobial agents, ML:8 and Citrox, as CLSs against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. ML:8 (1% [vol/vol]) and Citrox (1% [vol/vol]), containing caprylic acid and flavonoids, respectively, were used to treat S. aureus biofilms grown in vitro using newly described static and flow biofilm assays. Both agents reduced biofilm viability >97% after 24 h of treatment. Using a rat model of CRI, ML:8 was shown to inactivate early-stage S. aureus biofilms in vivo, while Citrox inactivated established, mature in vivo biofilms. Cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity of ML:8 and Citrox were equivalent to those of other commercially available CLSs. Neither ML:8 nor Citrox induced a cytokine response in human whole blood, and exposure of S. aureus to either agent for 90 days was not associated with any increase in resistance. Taken together, these data reveal the therapeutic potential of these agents for the treatment of S. aureus catheter-related biofilm infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. The evolution of the CUAHSI Water Markup Language (WaterML)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D.; Maidment, D.; Tarboton, D. G.; Whiteaker, T.; Hooper, R.; Kirschtel, D.; Rodriguez, M.

    2009-04-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS, his.cuahsi.org) uses web services as the core data exchange mechanism which provides programmatic connection between many heterogeneous sources of hydrologic data and a variety of online and desktop client applications. The service message schema follows the CUAHSI Water Markup Language (WaterML) 1.x specification (see OGC Discussion Paper 07-041r1). Data sources that can be queried via WaterML-compliant water data services include national and international repositories such as USGS NWIS (National Water Information System), USEPA STORET (Storage & Retrieval), USDA SNOTEL (Snowpack Telemetry), NCDC ISH and ISD(Integrated Surface Hourly and Daily Data), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), and DAYMET (Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries). Besides government data sources, CUAHSI HIS provides access to a growing number of academic hydrologic observation networks. These networks are registered by researchers associated with 11 hydrologic observatory testbeds around the US, and other research, government and commercial groups wishing to join the emerging CUAHSI Water Data Federation. The Hydrologic Information Server (HIS Server) software stack deployed at NSF-supported hydrologic observatory sites and other universities around the country, supports a hydrologic data publication workflow which includes the following steps: (1) observational data are loaded from static files or streamed from sensors into a local instance of an Observations Data Model (ODM) database; (2) a generic web service template is configured for the new ODM instance to expose the data as a WaterML-compliant water data service, and (3) the new water data service is registered at the HISCentral registry (hiscentral.cuahsi.org), its metadata are harvested and semantically tagged using concepts from a hydrologic ontology. As a result, the new service is indexed in the CUAHSI central metadata catalog, and becomes

  15. Preclinical evaluation of 18F-ML-10 to determine timing of apoptotic response to chemotherapy in solid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Demirci, Emre; Ahmed, Rafay; Ocak, Meltem; Latoche, Joseph; Radelet, April; DeBlasio, Nicole; Mason, N. Scott; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Mountz, James M.

    2017-01-10

    Here, we investigated 2-(5-fluoro-pentyl)-2-methyl-malonic acid (18F-ML-10) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of apoptosis posttherapy to determine optimal timing for predicting chemotherapy response in a mouse head/neck xenograft cancer model. BALB/c nude mice (4-8 weeks old) were implanted with UM-SCC-22B tumors. The treatment group received 2 doses of doxorubicin (10 mg/kg, days 0, 2). Small animal 18F-ML-10 PET/computed tomography was performed before and on days 1, 3, and 7 postchemotherapy. Using regions of interest around tumors, 18F-ML-10 uptake change was measured as %ID/g and uptake relative to liver. Terminal Uridine Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) immunohistochemistry assay was performed using tumor samples of baseline and on days 1, 3, and 7 posttreatment. As a result, treated mice demonstrated increased 18F-ML-10 uptake compared to baseline and controls, and 10 of 13 mice showed tumor volume decreases. All control mice showed tumor volume increases. Tumor-to-liver (T/L) ratios from the control group mice did not show significant change from baseline (P > .05); however, T/L ratios of the treatment group showed significant 18F-ML-10 uptake differences from baseline compared to days 3 and 7 posttreatment (P < .05), but no significant difference at 1 day posttreatment. In conclusion, 2-(5-Fluoro-pentyl)-2-methyl-malonic acid PET imaging has the potential for early assessment of treatment-induced apoptosis. Timing and image analysis strategies may require optimization, depending on the type of tumor and cancer treatment.

  16. Development of ML390: A Human DHODH Inhibitor That Induces Differentiation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Timothy A; Sykes, David B; Law, Jason M; Muñoz, Benito; Rustiguel, Joane K; Nonato, Maria Cristina; Scadden, David T; Schreiber, Stuart L

    2016-12-08

    Homeobox transcription factor A9 (HoxA9) is overexpressed in 70% of patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), whereas only a small subset of AML patients respond to current differentiation therapies. A cell line overexpressing HoxA9 was derived from the bone marrow of a lysozyme-GFP mouse. In this fashion, GFP served as an endogenous reporter of differentiation, permitting a high-throughput phenotypic screen against the MLPCN library. Two chemical scaffolds were optimized for activity yielding compound ML390, and genetic resistance and sequencing efforts identified dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) as the target enzyme. The DHODH inhibitor brequinar works against these leukemic cells as well. The X-ray crystal structure of ML390 bound to DHODH elucidates ML390s binding interactions.

  17. Multiple event relocation of the 22 April 2013, ML=4.8 Tenk, Hungary earthquake aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czecze, Barbara; Süle, Bálint; Bondár, István

    2017-04-01

    The Tenk, Hungary earthquake (ML= 4.8) occurred on 22 April 2013. The mainshock was preceded by two minor foreshocks (ML=3.6, 2.5) was followed by 27 aftershocks with magnitudes between ML 0.7-2.9. The routinely picked arrival times in the Hungarian Earthquake Bulletin were manually repicked to increase the consistency and accuracy of the P and S arrivals. Waveform cross-correlation was used to obtain differential times. We applied the double-difference method with different datasets to investigate the influence of repicked P and S arrival times, initial hypocenters and different velocity models on the relocation process. The results improved with in every step, compared to the original, routinely determinated locations. The results show that the multiple event location procedure significantly enhances the picture of seismicity even in this earthquake sequence.

  18. Gating-ML: XML-based gating descriptions in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Spidlen, Josef; Leif, Robert C; Moore, Wayne; Roederer, Mario; Brinkman, Ryan R

    2008-12-01

    The lack of software interoperability with respect to gating due to lack of a standardized mechanism for data exchange has traditionally been a bottleneck, preventing reproducibility of flow cytometry (FCM) data analysis and the usage of multiple analytical tools. To facilitate interoperability among FCM data analysis tools, members of the International Society for the Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) Data Standards Task Force (DSTF) have developed an XML-based mechanism to formally describe gates (Gating-ML). Gating-ML, an open specification for encoding gating, data transformations and compensation, has been adopted by the ISAC DSTF as a Candidate Recommendation. Gating-ML can facilitate exchange of gating descriptions the same way that FCS facilitated for exchange of raw FCM data. Its adoption will open new collaborative opportunities as well as possibilities for advanced analyses and methods development. The ISAC DSTF is satisfied that the standard addresses the requirements for a gating exchange standard.

  19. VarioML framework for comprehensive variation data representation and exchange

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sharing of data about variation and the associated phenotypes is a critical need, yet variant information can be arbitrarily complex, making a single standard vocabulary elusive and re-formatting difficult. Complex standards have proven too time-consuming to implement. Results The GEN2PHEN project addressed these difficulties by developing a comprehensive data model for capturing biomedical observations, Observ-OM, and building the VarioML format around it. VarioML pairs a simplified open specification for describing variants, with a toolkit for adapting the specification into one's own research workflow. Straightforward variant data can be captured, federated, and exchanged with no overhead; more complex data can be described, without loss of compatibility. The open specification enables push-button submission to gene variant databases (LSDBs) e.g., the Leiden Open Variation Database, using the Cafe Variome data publishing service, while VarioML bidirectionally transforms data between XML and web-application code formats, opening up new possibilities for open source web applications building on shared data. A Java implementation toolkit makes VarioML easily integrated into biomedical applications. VarioML is designed primarily for LSDB data submission and transfer scenarios, but can also be used as a standard variation data format for JSON and XML document databases and user interface components. Conclusions VarioML is a set of tools and practices improving the availability, quality, and comprehensibility of human variation information. It enables researchers, diagnostic laboratories, and clinics to share that information with ease, clarity, and without ambiguity. PMID:23031277

  20. Mapping viscoelastic properties by multi-line (ML) acoustic radiation force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomyo, Mikako; Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-01

    In these days ultrasound studies of non-invasive diagnostic methods using the elastic property of tissue have showed very promising results. Biological soft tissues are viscoelastic in nature; therefore several recent studies have shown the feasibility of shear wave dispersion in order to express viscosity which is considered to be valid for early diagnoses. Shear wave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV) has been conducted under ex vivo and in vivo conditions, which could estimate the value of shear elasticity and viscosity from a 40 x 40 mm2 area. In this study, our proposed Multi-line (ML) acoustic radiation force method could map shear elasticity and viscosity at 0.2 x 0.2 mm2 pixel in 25.6 mm width and 29.6 mm depth area. ML uses seven focus points in depth to create much planar shear wave than ever, and twenty pushing line to obtain data such a broader area than ever. These sequences contribute to express precise values of shear elasticity and viscosity at each pixel. A 10% gelatin phantom with a 10% gelatin and 1% xanthan gum mixture inclusion was prepared for ML experiment, and one homogenous phantom made of the same concentrations as the background of ML experiments was for ML and SDUV experiments three times to validate. The ML measurement resulted μ1 = 1.129±0.118 kPa, μ2 = 0.893±0.090 Pa・s in the 10% gelatin background; their corresponding SDUV measurement were μ1 = 1.250±0.129 kPa, μ2 = 0.833±0.098 Pa・s in 10% gelatin phantom. Though further evaluations such as frequency and rheological model are required, the results could show the effectiveness of this proposed method in mapping viscoelasticity and the feasibility of in vivo and ex vivo experiments.

  1. An overview of the CellML API and its implementation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background CellML is an XML based language for representing mathematical models, in a machine-independent form which is suitable for their exchange between different authors, and for archival in a model repository. Allowing for the exchange and archival of models in a computer readable form is a key strategic goal in bioinformatics, because of the associated improvements in scientific record accuracy, the faster iterative process of scientific development, and the ability to combine models into large integrative models. However, for CellML models to be useful, tools which can process them correctly are needed. Due to some of the more complex features present in CellML models, such as imports, developing code ab initio to correctly process models can be an onerous task. For this reason, there is a clear and pressing need for an application programming interface (API), and a good implementation of that API, upon which tools can base their support for CellML. Results We developed an API which allows the information in CellML models to be retrieved and/or modified. We also developed a series of optional extension APIs, for tasks such as simplifying the handling of connections between variables, dealing with physical units, validating models, and translating models into different procedural languages. We have also provided a Free/Open Source implementation of this application programming interface, optimised to achieve good performance. Conclusions Tools have been developed using the API which are mature enough for widespread use. The API has the potential to accelerate the development of additional tools capable of processing CellML, and ultimately lead to an increased level of sharing of mathematical model descriptions. PMID:20377909

  2. TumorML: Concept and requirements of an in silico cancer modelling markup language.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David; Cooper, Jonathan; McKeever, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the initial groundwork carried out as part of the European Commission funded Transatlantic Tumor Model Repositories project, to develop a new markup language for computational cancer modelling, TumorML. In this paper we describe the motivations for such a language, arguing that current state-of-the-art biomodelling languages are not suited to the cancer modelling domain. We go on to describe the work that needs to be done to develop TumorML, the conceptual design, and a description of what existing markup languages will be used to compose the language specification.

  3. Practical direct plaque assay for coliphages in 100-ml samples of drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Grabow, W O; Coubrough, P

    1986-01-01

    A practical single-agar-layer plaque assay for the direct detection of coliphages in 100-ml samples of water was designed and evaluated. With this assay a 100-ml sample of water, an agar medium containing divalent cations, and the host Escherichia coli C (ATCC 13706) were mixed in a single container, and the mixture was plated on 10 14-cm-diameter petri dishes. It was more sensitive, reliable, and accurate than various other methods and proved rapid, simple, and economic. PMID:3532952

  4. ANZSoilML: An Australian - New Zealand standard for exchange of soil data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Ritchie, Alistair; Cox, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The Australian-New Zealand soil information exchange standard (ANZSoilML) is a GML-based standard designed to allow the discovery, query and delivery of soil and landscape data via standard Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Services. ANZSoilML modifies the Australian soil exchange standard (OzSoilML), which is based on the Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) database design and exchange protocols, to meet the New Zealand National Soils Database requirements. The most significant change was the removal of the lists of CodeList terms in OzSoilML, which were based on the field methods specified in the 'Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook'. These were replaced with empty CodeLists as placeholders to external vocabularies to allow the use of New Zealand vocabularies without violating the data model. Testing of the use of these separately governed Australian and New Zealand vocabularies has commenced. ANZSoilML attempts to accommodate the proposed International Organization for Standardization ISO/DIS 28258 standard for soil quality. For the most part, ANZSoilML is consistent with the ISO model, although major differences arise as a result of: • The need to specify the properties appropriate for each feature type; • The inclusion of soil-related 'Landscape' features; • Allowing the mapping of soil surfaces, bodies, layers and horizons, independent of the soil profile; • Allowing specifying the relationships between the various soil features; • Specifying soil horizons as specialisations of soil layers; • Removing duplication of features provided by the ISO Observation & Measurements standard. The International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) Working Group on Soil Information Standards (WG-SIS) aims to develop, promote and maintain a standard to facilitate the exchange of soils data and information. Developing an international exchange standard that is compatible with existing and emerging national and

  5. The analysis results of EEWS(Earthquake Early Warning System) about Iksan(Ml4.3) and Ulsan(Ml5.0) earthquakes in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Chi, H. C.; Lim, I. S.; Seong, Y. J.; Pak, J.

    2016-12-01

    EEW(Earthquake Early Warning) service to the public has been officially operated by KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) from 2015 in Korea. For the KMA's official EEW service, KIGAM has adopted ElarmS from UC Berkeley BSL and modified local magnitude relation, 1-D travel time curves and association procedures with real time waveforms from about 160 seismic stations of KMA and KIGAM. We have checked the performance of EEWS(Earthquake Early Warning System) reviewing two moderate size earthquakes: one is Iksan Eq.(Ml4.3) inside of networks and the other is Ulsan Eq.(Ml5.0) happened at the southern east sea of Korea outside of networks. The first trigger time at NPR station of the Iksan Eq. took 2.3 sec and BUY and JEO2 stations were associated to produce the first event version in 10.07 sec from the origin time respectively. Because the epicentral distance of JEO2 station is about 30 km and the estimated travel time is 6.2 sec, the delay time including transmission and processing is estimated as 3.87 sec with assumption that P wave velocity is 5 km/sec and the focal depth is 8 km. The first magnitude was M4.9 which was a little bigger than Ml4.3 by KIGAM. After adding 3 more triggers of stations (CHO, KMSA, PORA), the estimated magnitude became to M4.6 and the final was settled down to M4.3 with 10 stations. In the case of Ulsan the first trigger time took 11.04 sec and the first alert time with 3 stations in 14.8 sec from the origin time (OT) respectively. The first magnitude was M5.2, however, the difference between the first EEW epicenter and the manual final result was about 63 km due to the poor azimuth coverage outside of seismic network. After 16.2 sec from OT the fourth station YSB was used to update the location near to the manual results within 6 km with magnitude 5.0 and location and magnitude were stable with more stations. Ulsan Eq. was the first case announced to the public by EEWS and the process and result were successful, however, we have to

  6. Prevalence of Undiagnosed Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults Aged 20 - 40: A Cross-Sectional Study in 2016 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alharthi, Faisal Saed; Alrahimi, Jamilah Saad; Alotaibi, Abdulrahman Ali; Alhamdi, Daniah Ahmed; Ibrahim, Bashair Mohammed; Badeeb, Yasmina Aymen

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the first leading cause of death worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, CVDs are the major killers with a mortality rate of 46%. CVD risk factors are not exclusive to old populations. Thus, the purpose of this study was to approximately find the prevalence of these risk factors, particularly high blood pressure (HBP), high blood glucose (HBG), obesity, and smoking. This cross-sectional was conducted in May 2016 and took place in the Ambulatory Care Center of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah. We used a non-probability convenience sampling technique where only individuals aged 20 - 40 who were free of medical illnesses were included. We excluded pregnant women and people on medications that might interfere with our measurements. We obtained a brief history and measured blood pressure, blood glucose, height and weight. Data analysis was done in form of frequencies. Chi-square test was utilized to compare qualitative variables. P < 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. A total of 507 participants were included (76.3% males and 23.7% females). All participants were between 20 and 40 with a mean age of 31.6 ± 6.06 SD. We found the prevalence of undiagnosed HBP to be 8.3% and males showed a significantly higher percentage (P < 0.001) when compared to females. HBG prevalence was only 0.6%. Regarding body mass index, the prevalence of overweight and obesity together was 66.3% and males showed significantly higher percentage in falling in this category (P < 0.001). Smoking prevalence was 37.9% with a significantly higher percentage among males (P < 0.001). CVD risk factors are apparently quite common in young adults. Efforts must be made to increase the public awareness regarding these risk factors. CVDs are not exclusive to old people. Thus, the public should appreciate this fact in order to prevent these risk factors by establishing healthy life-styles.

  7. The mzQuantML data standard for mass spectrometry-based quantitative studies in proteomics.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Mathias; Qi, Da; Mayer, Gerhard; Uszkoreit, Julian; Eisenacher, Martin; Sachsenberg, Timo; Gonzalez-Galarza, Faviel F; Fan, Jun; Bessant, Conrad; Deutsch, Eric W; Reisinger, Florian; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Jones, Andrew R

    2013-08-01

    The range of heterogeneous approaches available for quantifying protein abundance via mass spectrometry (MS)(1) leads to considerable challenges in modeling, archiving, exchanging, or submitting experimental data sets as supplemental material to journals. To date, there has been no widely accepted format for capturing the evidence trail of how quantitative analysis has been performed by software, for transferring data between software packages, or for submitting to public databases. In the context of the Proteomics Standards Initiative, we have developed the mzQuantML data standard. The standard can represent quantitative data about regions in two-dimensional retention time versus mass/charge space (called features), peptides, and proteins and protein groups (where there is ambiguity regarding peptide-to-protein inference), and it offers limited support for small molecule (metabolomic) data. The format has structures for representing replicate MS runs, grouping of replicates (for example, as study variables), and capturing the parameters used by software packages to arrive at these values. The format has the capability to reference other standards such as mzML and mzIdentML, and thus the evidence trail for the MS workflow as a whole can now be described. Several software implementations are available, and we encourage other bioinformatics groups to use mzQuantML as an input, internal, or output format for quantitative software and for structuring local repositories. All project resources are available in the public domain from the HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative http://www.psidev.info/mzquantml.

  8. DiscML: an R package for estimating evolutionary rates of discrete characters using maximum likelihood.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tane; Hao, Weilong

    2014-09-27

    The study of discrete characters is crucial for the understanding of evolutionary processes. Even though great advances have been made in the analysis of nucleotide sequences, computer programs for non-DNA discrete characters are often dedicated to specific analyses and lack flexibility. Discrete characters often have different transition rate matrices, variable rates among sites and sometimes contain unobservable states. To obtain the ability to accurately estimate a variety of discrete characters, programs with sophisticated methodologies and flexible settings are desired. DiscML performs maximum likelihood estimation for evolutionary rates of discrete characters on a provided phylogeny with the options that correct for unobservable data, rate variations, and unknown prior root probabilities from the empirical data. It gives users options to customize the instantaneous transition rate matrices, or to choose pre-determined matrices from models such as birth-and-death (BD), birth-death-and-innovation (BDI), equal rates (ER), symmetric (SYM), general time-reversible (GTR) and all rates different (ARD). Moreover, we show application examples of DiscML on gene family data and on intron presence/absence data. DiscML was developed as a unified R program for estimating evolutionary rates of discrete characters with no restriction on the number of character states, and with flexibility to use different transition models. DiscML is ideal for the analyses of binary (1s/0s) patterns, multi-gene families, and multistate discrete morphological characteristics.

  9. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 2.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Le Novère, Nicolas; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-09-04

    The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines. This document presents Level 1 Version 2 of the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), a computer-readable format for encoding simulation and analysis experiments to apply to computational models. SED-ML files are encoded in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and can be used in conjunction with any XML-based model encoding format, such as CellML or SBML. A SED-ML file includes details of which models to use, how to modify them prior to executing a simulation, which simulation and analysis procedures to apply, which results to extract and how to present them. Level 1 Version 2 extends the format by allowing the encoding of repeated and chained procedures.

  10. 170. ARAIV Blast bunker installed after ML1 buildings were removed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    170. ARA-IV Blast bunker installed after ML-1 buildings were removed. Isometric detail and section. EG&G Company. Date: June 1985. Ineel index code no. 066-0600-60-220-166261. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Measurement and Structural Model Class Separation in Mixture CFA: ML/EM versus MCMC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaoli, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Parameter recovery was assessed within mixture confirmatory factor analysis across multiple estimator conditions under different simulated levels of mixture class separation. Mixture class separation was defined in the measurement model (through factor loadings) and the structural model (through factor variances). Maximum likelihood (ML) via the…

  12. Preclinical pharmacology of novel indolecarboxamide ML-970, an investigative anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, Elizabeth; Wang, Wei; Li, Mao; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Hongxia; Li, Haibo; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Jia, Lee; Covey, Joseph; Lee, Moses; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2012-06-01

    ML-970 (AS-I-145; NSC 716970) is an indolecarboxamide synthesized as a less toxic analog of CC-1065 and duocarmycin, a natural product that binds the A-T-rich DNA minor groove and alkylates DNA. The NCI60 screening showed that ML-970 had potent cytotoxic activity, with an average GI(50) of 34 nM. The aim of this study is to define the pharmacological properties of this novel anticancer agent. We established an HPLC method for the compound, examined its stability, protein binding, and metabolism by S9 enzymes, and conducted pharmacokinetic studies of the compound in two strains of mice using two different formulations. ML-970 was relatively stable in plasma, being largely intact after an 8-h incubation in mouse plasma at 37°C. The compound was extensively bound to plasma proteins. ML-970 was only minimally metabolized by the enzymes present in S9 preparation and was not appreciably excreted in the urine or feces. The solution formulation provided higher C(max), AUC, F values, and greater bioavailability, although the suspension formulation resulted in a later T(max) and a slightly longer T(1/2). To determine the fate of the compound, we accomplished in-depth studies of tissue distribution; the results indicated that the compound undergoes extensive enterohepatic circulation. The results obtained from this study will be relevant to the further development of the compound and may explain the lower myelotoxicity of this analog compared to CC-1065.

  13. E[superscript 2]ML: A Visual Language for the Design of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botturi, Luca

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has brought about a major change in higher education. Course design has developed from a craftsmanship-like process to a structured production, which involves interdisciplinary teams and requires more complex communication skills. This conceptual article introduces E[superscript 2]ML--Educational Environment Modeling Language--a…

  14. 97. ARAIII. ML1 reactor has been moved into GCRE reactor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. ARA-III. ML-1 reactor has been moved into GCRE reactor building (ARA-608) for examination of corrosion on its underside and repair. May 24, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-3485. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Cdc42 inhibitor ML141 enhances G-CSF-induced hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell mobilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Song, Xuguang; Ma, Sha; Wang, Xue; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Huanxin; Wu, Qingyun; Zhao, Kai; Cao, Jiang; Qiao, Jianlin; Sun, Xiaoshen; Li, Depeng; Zeng, Lingyu; Li, Zhengyu; Xu, Kailin

    2015-01-01

    G-CSF is the most often used agent in clinical hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization. However, in about 10 % of patients, G-CSF does not efficiently mobilize HSPC in clinically sufficient amounts. Cdc42 activity is involved in HSPC mobilization. In the present study, we explore the impact of Cdc42 inhibitor ML141 on G-CSF-mediated HSPC mobilization in mice. We found that the use of ML141 alone only triggered modest HSPC mobilization effect in mice. However, combination of G-CSF and ML141 significantly promoted HPSC counts and colony forming units in peripheral blood, as compared to mice treated with G-CSF alone. ML141 did not significantly alter the levels of SDF-1 and MMP-9 in the bone marrow, when used alone or in combination with G-CSF. We also found that G-CSF administration significantly increases the level of GTP-bound Cdc42, but does not alter the expression of Cdc42 in the bone marrow. Our data indicate that the Cdc42 signal is a negative regulator in G-CSF-mediated HSPC mobilization, and that inhibition of the Cdc42 signal efficiently improves mobilization efficiency. These findings may provide a new strategy for efficient HSPC mobilization, especially in patients with poor G-CSF response.

  16. WaterML, an Information Standard for the Exchange of in-situ hydrological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, D.; Taylor, P.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2012-04-01

    The WaterML 2.0 Standards Working Group (SWG), working within the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and in cooperation with the joint OGC-World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG), has developed an open standard for the exchange of water observation data; WaterML 2.0. The focus of the standard is time-series data, commonly generated from in-situ style monitoring. This is high value data for hydrological applications such as flood forecasting, environmental reporting and supporting hydrological infrastructure (e.g. dams, supply systems), which is commonly exchanged, but a lack of standards inhibits efficient reuse and automation. The process of developing WaterML required doing a harmonization analysis of existing standards to identify overlapping concepts and come to agreement on a harmonized definition. Generally the formats captured similar requirements, all with subtle differences, such as how time-series point metadata was handled. The in-progress standard WaterML 2.0 incorporates the semantics of the hydrologic information: location, procedure, and observations, and is implemented as an application schema of the Geography Markup Language version 3.2.1, making use of the OGC Observations & Measurements standards. WaterML2.0 is designed as an extensible schema to allow encoding of data to be used in a variety of exchange scenarios. Example areas of usage are: exchange of data for operational hydrological monitoring programs; supporting operation of infrastructure (e.g. dams, supply systems); cross-border exchange of observational data; release of data for public dissemination; enhancing disaster management through data exchange; and exchange in support of national reporting The first phase of WaterML2.0 focused on structural definitions allowing for the transfer of time-series, with less work on harmonization of vocabulary items such as quality codes. Vocabularies from various organizations tend to be specific and take time to

  17. An Inexpensive, Accurate, Volume Measuring Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britten, B. T.; Ininns, B.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the construction and use of an apparatus which applies liquid displacement to the problem of volume determination, giving accurate and repeatable results within 0.1 ml of actual volume measured. The apparatus is easily made from two jar parts, two bottle parts, and a burette. (Author/MA)

  18. Long-term Treatment with Finasteride Resulted in a Significant Improvement Relative to Placebo in Clinical Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in Men with Enlarged Prostates (≥30 mL), But Not in Those with Smaller Prostates (<30 mL): Data from the Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Steven A.; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Meehan, Alan G.; Kusek, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This post hoc analysis of the Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) trial examined the effect of finasteride alone compared to placebo on clinical progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men with baseline prostate volume (PV) <30 mL and ≥30 mL. Materials and Methods Men were randomized to placebo (n=737), doxazosin alone (4 to 8 mg) (n=756), finasteride alone (5 mg) (n=768), or doxazosin plus finasteride (n=786) (average duration of follow-up was 4.5 yrs); ~50% of patients had a baseline PV ≥30 mL. The present analysis was based on the finasteride alone and placebo arms only and included patients for whom baseline and end of study data were available. We examined the effect of treatment on the cumulative percentage of men who did not experience clinical progression of BPH by study end. Results In men with baseline PV ≥30 mL, treatment with finasteride produced a significant (p<0.001) increase relative to placebo in the cumulative percentage of patients who did not experience clinical progression of BPH (finasteride, 88.1%, versus placebo, 77.8%). There was no significant (p=0.441) between-group difference in men with baseline PV <30 mL (91.4% versus 89.1%, respectively). Conclusions Long-term treatment with finasteride led to a significant beneficial effect compared to placebo on clinical progression of BPH in LUTS patients with enlarged prostates (baseline PV ≥30 mL). Finasteride had no significant effect, compared to placebo on clinical progression of BPH in LUTS patients with smaller prostates (baseline PV <30 mL). PMID:21334655

  19. Prevalence of Undiagnosed Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults Aged 20 - 40: A Cross-Sectional Study in 2016 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alharthi, Faisal Saed; Alrahimi, Jamilah Saad; Alotaibi, Abdulrahman Ali; Alhamdi, Daniah Ahmed; Ibrahim, Bashair Mohammed; Badeeb, Yasmina Aymen

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the first leading cause of death worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, CVDs are the major killers with a mortality rate of 46%. CVD risk factors are not exclusive to old populations. Thus, the purpose of this study was to approximately find the prevalence of these risk factors, particularly high blood pressure (HBP), high blood glucose (HBG), obesity, and smoking. Methods This cross-sectional was conducted in May 2016 and took place in the Ambulatory Care Center of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah. We used a non-probability convenience sampling technique where only individuals aged 20 - 40 who were free of medical illnesses were included. We excluded pregnant women and people on medications that might interfere with our measurements. We obtained a brief history and measured blood pressure, blood glucose, height and weight. Data analysis was done in form of frequencies. Chi-square test was utilized to compare qualitative variables. P < 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results A total of 507 participants were included (76.3% males and 23.7% females). All participants were between 20 and 40 with a mean age of 31.6 ± 6.06 SD. We found the prevalence of undiagnosed HBP to be 8.3% and males showed a significantly higher percentage (P < 0.001) when compared to females. HBG prevalence was only 0.6%. Regarding body mass index, the prevalence of overweight and obesity together was 66.3% and males showed significantly higher percentage in falling in this category (P < 0.001). Smoking prevalence was 37.9% with a significantly higher percentage among males (P < 0.001). Conclusion CVD risk factors are apparently quite common in young adults. Efforts must be made to increase the public awareness regarding these risk factors. CVDs are not exclusive to old people. Thus, the public should appreciate this fact in order to prevent these risk factors by establishing healthy life-styles. PMID:28725327

  20. Leak Detection and Location of Water Pipes Using Vibration Sensors and Modified ML Prefilter

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Joonho; Song, Choonggeun; Han, Suyong; Park, Doo Il

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new leak detection and location method based on vibration sensors and generalised cross-correlation techniques. Considering the estimation errors of the power spectral densities (PSDs) and the cross-spectral density (CSD), the proposed method employs a modified maximum-likelihood (ML) prefilter with a regularisation factor. We derive a theoretical variance of the time difference estimation error through summation in the discrete-frequency domain, and find the optimal regularisation factor that minimises the theoretical variance in practical water pipe channels. The proposed method is compared with conventional correlation-based techniques via numerical simulations using a water pipe channel model, and it is shown through field measurement that the proposed modified ML prefilter outperforms conventional prefilters for the generalised cross-correlation. In addition, we provide a formula to calculate the leak location using the time difference estimate when different types of pipes are connected. PMID:28902154

  1. Representing the ClaML-based ICD10 in LexGrid terminology model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoqian; Peterson, Kevin J; Johnson, Thomas M; Celik, Can; Jakob, Robert; Chute, Christopher G

    2008-11-06

    As part of the International Classification of Disease (ICD) revision platform development tasks, the representation of the ICD10 in a formal terminology model is required. The ICD10 is originally rendered by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Classification Markup Language (CLaML) format which is a European Standard for representing the content of medical classification systems. In this study, we explored representing the CLaML-based ICD10 in the LexGrid terminology model, a community based proposal for standard storage of controlled vocabularies and ontologies. The decision we made for mapping between two models and the merits for utilizing the LexGrid terminology model and service are discussed.

  2. Mission options for rendezvous with the most accessible Near-Earth Asteroid - 1989 ML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcadams, Jim V.

    1992-01-01

    The recent discovery of the Amor-class 1989 ML, the most accessible known asteroid for minimum-energy rendezvous missions, has expedited the search for frequent, low-cost Near-Earth Asteroid rendezvous and round-trip missions. This paper identifies trajectory characteristics and assesses mass performance for low Delta V ballistic rendezvous opportunities to 1989 ML during the period 1996-2010. This asteroid also offers occasional unique extended mission opportunities, such as the lowest known Delta V requirement for any asteroid sample return mission as well as pre-rendezvous asteroid flyby and post-rendezvous comet flyby opportunities requiring less than 5.25 km/sec total Delta V. This paper also briefly comments concerning mission opportunities for asteroid 1991 JW, which recently replaced other known asteroids as the most accessible Near-Earth Asteroid for fast rendezvous and round-trip missions.

  3. Determination of Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Aluminum-Lithium Alloy ML377

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valek, Bryan C.

    1995-01-01

    The use of aluminum-lithium alloys for aerospace applications is currently being studied at NASA Langley Research Center's Metallic Materials Branch. The alloys in question will operate under stress in a corrosive environment. These conditions are ideal for the phenomena of Stress-Corrosion Cracking (SCC) to occur. The test procedure for SCC calls for alternate immersion and breaking load tests. These tests were optimized for the lab equipment and materials available in the Light Alloy lab. Al-Li alloy ML377 specimens were then subjected to alternate immersion and breaking load tests to determine residual strength and resistance to SCC. Corrosion morphology and microstructure were examined under magnification. Data shows that ML377 is highly resistant to stress-corrosion cracking.

  4. The mzIdentML Data Standard Version 1.2, Supporting Advances in Proteome Informatics.

    PubMed

    Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Mayer, Gerhard; Perkins, Simon; Barsnes, Harald; Vaudel, Marc; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Ternent, Tobias; Uszkoreit, Julian; Eisenacher, Martin; Fischer, Lutz; Rappsilber, Juri; Netz, Eugen; Walzer, Mathias; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Leitner, Alexander; Chalkley, Robert J; Ghali, Fawaz; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Deutsch, Eric W; Jones, Andrew R

    2017-07-01

    The first stable version of the Proteomics Standards Initiative mzIdentML open data standard (version 1.1) was published in 2012-capturing the outputs of peptide and protein identification software. In the intervening years, the standard has become well-supported in both commercial and open software, as well as a submission and download format for public repositories. Here we report a new release of mzIdentML (version 1.2) that is required to keep pace with emerging practice in proteome informatics. New features have been added to support: (1) scores associated with localization of modifications on peptides; (2) statistics performed at the level of peptides; (3) identification of cross-linked peptides; and (4) support for proteogenomics approaches. In addition, there is now improved support for the encoding of de novo sequencing of peptides, spectral library searches, and protein inference. As a key point, the underlying XML schema has only undergone very minor modifications to simplify as much as possible the transition from version 1.1 to version 1.2 for implementers, but there have been several notable updates to the format specification, implementation guidelines, controlled vocabularies and validation software. mzIdentML 1.2 can be described as backwards compatible, in that reading software designed for mzIdentML 1.1 should function in most cases without adaptation. We anticipate that these developments will provide a continued stable base for software teams working to implement the standard. All the related documentation is accessible at http://www.psidev.info/mzidentml. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. The mzIdentML Data Standard Version 1.2, Supporting Advances in Proteome Informatics*

    PubMed Central

    Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Mayer, Gerhard; Perkins, Simon; Barsnes, Harald; Vaudel, Marc; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Ternent, Tobias; Uszkoreit, Julian; Eisenacher, Martin; Fischer, Lutz; Rappsilber, Juri; Netz, Eugen; Walzer, Mathias; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Leitner, Alexander; Chalkley, Robert J.; Ghali, Fawaz; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Deutsch, Eric W.; Jones, Andrew R.

    2017-01-01

    The first stable version of the Proteomics Standards Initiative mzIdentML open data standard (version 1.1) was published in 2012—capturing the outputs of peptide and protein identification software. In the intervening years, the standard has become well-supported in both commercial and open software, as well as a submission and download format for public repositories. Here we report a new release of mzIdentML (version 1.2) that is required to keep pace with emerging practice in proteome informatics. New features have been added to support: (1) scores associated with localization of modifications on peptides; (2) statistics performed at the level of peptides; (3) identification of cross-linked peptides; and (4) support for proteogenomics approaches. In addition, there is now improved support for the encoding of de novo sequencing of peptides, spectral library searches, and protein inference. As a key point, the underlying XML schema has only undergone very minor modifications to simplify as much as possible the transition from version 1.1 to version 1.2 for implementers, but there have been several notable updates to the format specification, implementation guidelines, controlled vocabularies and validation software. mzIdentML 1.2 can be described as backwards compatible, in that reading software designed for mzIdentML 1.1 should function in most cases without adaptation. We anticipate that these developments will provide a continued stable base for software teams working to implement the standard. All the related documentation is accessible at http://www.psidev.info/mzidentml. PMID:28515314

  6. TrExML: a maximum-likelihood approach for extensive tree-space exploration.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M J; Easteal, S; Kahn, M; McKay, B D; Jermiin, L S

    2000-04-01

    Maximum-likelihood analysis of nucleotide and amino acid sequences is a powerful approach for inferring phylogenetic relationships and for comparing evolutionary hypotheses. Because it is a computationally demanding and time-consuming process, most algorithms explore only a minute portion of tree-space, with the emphasis on finding the most likely tree while ignoring the less likely, but not significantly worse, trees. However, when such trees exist, it is equally important to identify them to give due consideration to the phylogenetic uncertainty. Consequently, it is necessary to change the focus of these algorithms such that near optimal trees are also identified. This paper presents the Advanced Stepwise Addition Algorithm for exploring tree-space and two algorithms for generating all binary trees on a set of sequences. The Advanced Stepwise Addition Algorithm has been implemented in TrExML, a phylogenetic program for maximum-likelihood analysis of nucleotide sequences. TrExML is shown to be more effective at finding near optimal trees than a similar program, fastDNAml, implying that TrExML offers a better approach to account for phylogenetic uncertainty than has previously been possible. A program, TreeGen, is also described; it generates binary trees on a set of sequences allowing for extensive exploration of tree-space using other programs. TreeGen, TrExML, and the sequence data used to test the programs are available from the following two WWW sites: http://whitetail.bemidji.msus. edu/trexml/and http://jcsmr.anu.edu.au/dmm/humgen.+ ++html.

  7. Formal Verification of Complex Systems based on SysML Functional Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    are the most critical in ensuring that the designed system satisfies its safety requirements ( Tumer , Stone, & Bell, 2003; Stone, Tumer , & Stock, 2005...Kurtoglu & Tumer , 2008; Tumer & Smidts, 2011), this paper aims at addressing this challenge using the system-oriented SysML- based modeling approach...Journal of Engineering Design, 20(1), 83–104. Kurtoglu, T., & Tumer , I. Y. (2008). A graph-based fault iden- tification and propagation framework for

  8. A standardized framing for reporting protein identifications in mzIdentML 1.2

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Sean L.; Farrah, Terry; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Chalkley, Robert J.; Cottrell, John S.; Searle, Brian C.; Tabb, David L.; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Prieto, Gorka; Uszkoreit, Julian; Eisenacher, Martin; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Ghali, Fawaz; Jones, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Inferring which protein species have been detected in bottom-up proteomics experiments has been a challenging problem for which solutions have been maturing over the past decade. While many inference approaches now function well in isolation, comparing and reconciling the results generated across different tools remains difficult. It presently stands as one of the greatest barriers in collaborative efforts such as the Human Proteome Project and public repositories like the PRoteomics IDEntifications (PRIDE) database. Here we present a framework for reporting protein identifications that seeks to improve capabilities for comparing results generated by different inference tools. This framework standardizes the terminology for describing protein identification results, associated with the HUPO-Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) mzIdentML standard, while still allowing for differing methodologies to reach that final state. It is proposed that developers of software for reporting identification results will adopt this terminology in their outputs. While the new terminology does not require any changes to the core mzIdentML model, it represents a significant change in practice, and, as such, the rules will be released via a new version of the mzIdentML specification (version 1.2) so that consumers of files are able to determine whether the new guidelines have been adopted by export software. PMID:25092112

  9. The DaveMLTranslator: An Interface for DAVE-ML Aerodynamic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Melissa A.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    It can take weeks or months to incorporate a new aerodynamic model into a vehicle simulation and validate the performance of the model. The Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language (DAVE-ML) has been proposed as a means to reduce the time required to accomplish this task by defining a standard format for typical components of a flight dynamic model. The purpose of this paper is to describe an object-oriented C++ implementation of a class that interfaces a vehicle subsystem model specified in DAVE-ML and a vehicle simulation. Using the DaveMLTranslator class, aerodynamic or other subsystem models can be automatically imported and verified at run-time, significantly reducing the elapsed time between receipt of a DAVE-ML model and its integration into a simulation environment. The translator performs variable initializations, data table lookups, and mathematical calculations for the aerodynamic build-up, and executes any embedded static check-cases for verification. The implementation is efficient, enabling real-time execution. Simple interface code for the model inputs and outputs is the only requirement to integrate the DaveMLTranslator as a vehicle aerodynamic model. The translator makes use of existing table-lookup utilities from the Langley Standard Real-Time Simulation in C++ (LaSRS++). The design and operation of the translator class is described and comparisons with existing, conventional, C++ aerodynamic models of the same vehicle are given.

  10. Serology with ML Flow test in health professionals from three different states of Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Karla Lucena Sampaio; Magnanini, Mônica Maria Ferreira; de Moura, Rodrigo Scaliante; Gallo, Maria Eugenia Noviski; Bührer-Sékula, Samira; de Oliveira, Maria Leide Wand-Del-Rey

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In highly endemic countries, transmission and sub-clinical infection of leprosy are likely and the disease manifests itself in individuals without any known close contact with a leprosy patient. Health workers are social contacts belonging to the same network (the Health System) and some of them share the same social environment (nursing assistants) as patients with known patients and / or carriers. OBJECTIVE To identify ML Flow seropositivity among health professionals. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study using a serological survey with the ML Flow test in 450 health professionals (doctors, nurses and nursing assistants), in order to detect seropositivity in areas of high and low endemicity in municipalities from three Brazilian states (RJ, MS and RS). RESULTS The results showed general 16% seropositivity, higher in low endemic areas, regardless of whether there was direct care for leprosy patients. Paradoxically, a statistical association was observed between the area studied and seropositivity, as the place with the lowest endemicity (CA) had the highest seropositivity rate (p = 0.033). CONCLUSION The authors suggest these results are associated with a presence of an unspecified link to bovine serum albumin (BSA), carrier of PGL-1 in the ML Flow test, and recommend expanded seroepidemiological research utilizing tests with human and bovine albumin. PMID:24474100

  11. Multi-locus (ML)-FISH is a reliable tool for nondisjunction studies in human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Eckel, H; Kleinstein, J; Wieacker, P; Stumm, M

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, we developed a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) strategy, which allows a reliable determination of the chromatid number of specific chromosomes in mature human oocytes. 168 unfertilized oocytes were analyzed by dual-color FISH with two direct-labeled locus-specific DNA probes for chromosome 13 and 21. To exclude FISH failures, metaphases with abnormal signal patterns were reanalyzed by multi-locus-FISH (ML-FISH) for chromosome 13 and 21. Following dual-color FISH, abnormal signal patterns were detected in 21 out of 108 metaphases (19.4%). 17 of these metaphases were reanalyzed by ML-FISH. In contrast to the first FISH, seven metaphases showed normal signal patterns after rehybridization, whereas ten metaphases remained abnormal. Out of these real aneuploid metaphases, five showed gain or loss of a single signal (= chromatid), two showed missing double signals (= chromosome) and three showed both. In conclusion, locus-specific FISH probes facilitate differentiation between first meiotic nondisjunction of whole chromosomes and prematurely divided chromatids. Moreover, simultaneous hybridization with a second locus-specific probe on the same chromatid (ML-FISH) helps to differentiate between FISH failures and real meiotic division errors and therefore, allows a more reliable analysis of aneuploidies in human oocytes. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Blood volume, plasma volume and circulation time in a high-energy-demand teleost, the yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)

    PubMed

    Brill; Cousins; Jones; p

    1998-06-01

    We measured red cell space with 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, and dextran space with 500 kDa fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran), in two groups of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Red cell space was 13.8+/-0.7 ml kg-1 (mean +/- s.e.m.) Assuming a whole-body hematocrit equal to the hematocrit measured at the ventral aortic sampling site and no significant sequestering of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells by the spleen, blood volume was 46. 7+/-2.2 ml kg-1. This is within the range reported for most other teleosts (30-70 ml kg-1), but well below that previously reported for albacore (Thunnus alalunga, 82-197 ml kg-1). Plasma volume within the primary circulatory system (calculated from the 51Cr-labeled red blood cell data) was 32.9+/-2.3 ml kg-1. Dextran space was 37.0+/-3.7 ml kg-1. Because 500 kDa FITC-dextran appeared to remain within the vascular space, these data imply that the volume of the secondary circulatory system of yellowfin tuna is small, and its exact volume is not measurable by our methods. Although blood volume is not exceptional, circulation time (blood volume/cardiac output) is clearly shorter in yellowfin tuna than in other active teleosts. In a 1 kg yellowfin tuna, circulation time is approximately 0.4 min (47 ml kg-1/115 ml min-1 kg-1) compared with 1. 3 min (46 ml kg-1/35 ml min-1 kg-1) in yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) and 1.9 min (35 ml kg-1/18 ml min-1 kg-1) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In air-breathing vertebrates, high metabolic rates are necessarily correlated with short circulation times. Our data are the first to imply that a similar relationship occurs in fishes.

  13. Comparative Effects of Anesthetics on the Viability and Integrity of Escherichia coli ML30

    PubMed Central

    Prior, B. A.; Fennema, O.; Marth, E. H.

    1975-01-01

    Cells of Escherichia coli ML30 in a mineral salts medium were exposed to dichlorodifluoromethane (f-12), cyclopropane, halothane, or Ethrane at concentrations of 1.25, 0.2, 0.04, and 0.008× saturation for times up to 1,200 min, and at temperatures in the range of 2 to 37 C. When any of these anesthetics were applied for 300 min at 1.25× saturation, a substantial decrease in number of survivors occurred. Halothane was most bactericidal, cyclopropane and Ethrane were moderately bactericidal, and f-12 was least bactericidal. At saturation values of less than 1.0, none of the four anesthetics had an appreciable effect on viability of E. coli. Greatest increases in cell permeability occurred when anesthetics were used at saturation values of 1.25, and permeability changes generally decreased as the concentrations of the chemicals were reduced. In many instances, anesthetics in the vapor state caused significant increases in cell permeability but little or no loss of viability. This indicated that a close relationship did not exist between loss of viability and increased permeability. All four anesthetics caused E. coli to lose substantial and similar amounts of compounds absorbing at 260 nm. Release of compounds absorbing at 260 nm generally increased as the saturation value of a given chemical was increased. Halothane, Ethrane, and cyclopropane but not f-12 caused lysis of E. coli ML30. Considering all results, E. coli ML30 was damaged more by halothane or cyclopropane than by f-12 or Ethrane. When f-12 was applied at a saturation value of 1.25, the bactericidal effect on E. coli was much greater at 37 or 22 C than at 12 or 2 C. PMID:1099986

  14. A CellML simulation compiler and code generator using ODE solving schemes.

    PubMed

    Punzalan, Florencio Rusty; Yamashita, Yoshiharu; Soejima, Naoki; Kawabata, Masanari; Shimayoshi, Takao; Kuwabara, Hiroaki; Kunieda, Yoshitoshi; Amano, Akira

    2012-10-19

    : Models written in description languages such as CellML are becoming a popular solution to the handling of complex cellular physiological models in biological function simulations. However, in order to fully simulate a model, boundary conditions and ordinary differential equation (ODE) solving schemes have to be combined with it. Though boundary conditions can be described in CellML, it is difficult to explicitly specify ODE solving schemes using existing tools. In this study, we define an ODE solving scheme description language-based on XML and propose a code generation system for biological function simulations. In the proposed system, biological simulation programs using various ODE solving schemes can be easily generated. We designed a two-stage approach where the system generates the equation set associating the physiological model variable values at a certain time t with values at t + Δt in the first stage. The second stage generates the simulation code for the model. This approach enables the flexible construction of code generation modules that can support complex sets of formulas. We evaluate the relationship between models and their calculation accuracies by simulating complex biological models using various ODE solving schemes. Using the FHN model simulation, results showed good qualitative and quantitative correspondence with the theoretical predictions. Results for the Luo-Rudy 1991 model showed that only first order precision was achieved. In addition, running the generated code in parallel on a GPU made it possible to speed up the calculation time by a factor of 50. The CellML Compiler source code is available for download at http://sourceforge.net/projects/cellmlcompiler.

  15. CytometryML, an XML format based on DICOM and FCS for analytical cytology data.

    PubMed

    Leif, Robert C; Leif, Suzanne B; Leif, Stephanie H

    2003-07-01

    Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) was initially created to standardize the software researchers use to analyze, transmit, and store data produced by flow cytometers and sorters. Because of the clinical utility of flow cytometry, it is necessary to have a standard consistent with the requirements of medical regulatory agencies. We extended the existing mapping of FCS to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard to include list-mode data produced by flow cytometry, laser scanning cytometry, and microscopic image cytometry. FCS list-mode was mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. We created a collection of Extensible Markup Language (XML) schemas to express the DICOM analytical cytologic text-based data types except for large binary objects. We also developed a cytometry markup language, CytometryML, in an open environment subject to continuous peer review. The feasibility of expressing the data contained in FCS, including list-mode in DICOM, was demonstrated; and a preliminary mapping for list-mode data in the form of XML schemas and documents was completed. DICOM permitted the creation of indices that can be used to rapidly locate in a list-mode file the cells that are members of a subset. DICOM and its coding schemes for other medical standards can be represented by XML schemas, which can be combined with other relevant XML applications, such as Mathematical Markup Language (MathML). The use of XML format based on DICOM for analytical cytology met most of the previously specified requirements and appears capable of meeting the others; therefore, the present FCS should be retired and replaced by an open, XML-based, standard CytometryML. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. EnzML: multi-label prediction of enzyme classes using InterPro signatures.

    PubMed

    De Ferrari, Luna; Aitken, Stuart; van Hemert, Jano; Goryanin, Igor

    2012-04-25

    Manual annotation of enzymatic functions cannot keep up with automatic genome sequencing. In this work we explore the capacity of InterPro sequence signatures to automatically predict enzymatic function. We present EnzML, a multi-label classification method that can efficiently account also for proteins with multiple enzymatic functions: 50,000 in UniProt. EnzML was evaluated using a standard set of 300,747 proteins for which the manually curated Swiss-Prot and KEGG databases have agreeing Enzyme Commission (EC) annotations. EnzML achieved more than 98% subset accuracy (exact match of all correct Enzyme Commission classes of a protein) for the entire dataset and between 87 and 97% subset accuracy in reannotating eight entire proteomes: human, mouse, rat, mouse-ear cress, fruit fly, the S. pombe yeast, the E. coli bacterium and the M. jannaschii archaebacterium. To understand the role played by the dataset size, we compared the cross-evaluation results of smaller datasets, either constructed at random or from specific taxonomic domains such as archaea, bacteria, fungi, invertebrates, plants and vertebrates. The results were confirmed even when the redundancy in the dataset was reduced using UniRef100, UniRef90 or UniRef50 clusters. InterPro signatures are a compact and powerful attribute space for the prediction of enzymatic function. This representation makes multi-label machine learning feasible in reasonable time (30 minutes to train on 300,747 instances with 10,852 attributes and 2,201 class values) using the Mulan Binary Relevance Nearest Neighbours algorithm implementation (BR-kNN).

  17. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Swat, MJ; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, SM; Kristensen, NR; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, MK; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, AC; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, JN; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, HB; Parra-Guillen, ZP; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, IF; Yvon, F; Milligan, PA; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps. PMID:26225259

  18. PharmML in Action: an Interoperable Language for Modeling and Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Bizzotto, R; Smith, G; Yvon, F; Kristensen, NR; Swat, MJ

    2017-01-01

    PharmML1 is an XML‐based exchange format2, 3, 4 created with a focus on nonlinear mixed‐effect (NLME) models used in pharmacometrics,5, 6 but providing a very general framework that also allows describing mathematical and statistical models such as single‐subject or nonlinear and multivariate regression models. This tutorial provides an overview of the structure of this language, brief suggestions on how to work with it, and use cases demonstrating its power and flexibility. PMID:28575551

  19. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Swat, M J; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, S M; Kristensen, N R; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, M K; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, A C; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, J N; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, H B; Parra-Guillen, Z P; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, I F; Yvon, F; Milligan, P A; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-06-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps.

  20. The carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML): an XML description of carbohydrate structures.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Norihiro; Kameyama, Akihiko; Nakaya, Shuuichi; Ito, Hiromi; Sato, Takashi; Shikanai, Toshihide; Takahashi, Yoriko; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2005-04-15

    Bioinformatics resources for glycomics are very poor as compared with those for genomics and proteomics. The complexity of carbohydrate sequences makes it difficult to define a common language to represent them, and the development of bioinformatics tools for glycomics has not progressed. In this study, we developed a carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML), an XML description of carbohydrate structures. The language definition (XML Schema) and an experimental database of carbohydrate structures using an XML database management system are available at http://www.phoenix.hydra.mki.co.jp/CabosDemo.html kikuchi@hydra.mki.co.jp.

  1. Quantification of cerebral ventricular volume in English bulldogs.

    PubMed

    Vite, C H; Insko, E K; Schotland, H M; Panckeri, K; Hendricks, J C

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of cerebral ventricle volume of eight English bulldogs was performed using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The mean ventricular volume was 14.8 ml. with a range of 8.6 ml.-38.1 ml. The mean ventricular volume of two beagles was 2.2 ml with a range of 0.7 ml.-3.7 ml. The percent of intracranial volume occupied by ventricle was found to be significantly larger in bulldogs (14.0%; S.D. = 7.9%) than in beagles (Range = 1.0-4.8%). The relationship between the percent of intracranial volume occupied by ventricle and measurements of body weight, age, sex, and various measures of skull anatomy of the bulldog was also determined. The relationship between ventricular volume and neurologic dysfunction was examined. There was a possible trend between high percent of intracranial volume occupied by ventricle and low body weight. This study will serve as a pilot study for examining the relationship between ventricular volume and neurologic disease in bulldogs.

  2. PepArML: A Meta-Search Peptide Identification Platform for Tandem Mass Spectra.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Nathan J

    2013-12-01

    The PepArML meta-search peptide identification platform for tandem mass spectra provides a unified search interface to seven search engines; a robust cluster, grid, and cloud computing scheduler for large-scale searches; and an unsupervised, model-free, machine-learning-based result combiner, which selects the best peptide identification for each spectrum, estimates false-discovery rates, and outputs pepXML format identifications. The meta-search platform supports Mascot; Tandem with native, k-score and s-score scoring; OMSSA; MyriMatch; and InsPecT with MS-GF spectral probability scores—reformatting spectral data and constructing search configurations for each search engine on the fly. The combiner selects the best peptide identification for each spectrum based on search engine results and features that model enzymatic digestion, retention time, precursor isotope clusters, mass accuracy, and proteotypic peptide properties, requiring no prior knowledge of feature utility or weighting. The PepArML meta-search peptide identification platform often identifies two to three times more spectra than individual search engines at 10% FDR.

  3. mlCAF: Multi-Level Cross-Domain Semantic Context Fusioning for Behavior Identification

    PubMed Central

    Villalonga, Claudia; Lee, Sungyoung; Akhtar, Usman; Ali, Maqbool; Kim, Eun-Soo; Khattak, Asad Masood; Seung, Hyonwoo; Hur, Taeho; Kim, Dohyeong; Ali Khan, Wajahat

    2017-01-01

    The emerging research on automatic identification of user’s contexts from the cross-domain environment in ubiquitous and pervasive computing systems has proved to be successful. Monitoring the diversified user’s contexts and behaviors can help in controlling lifestyle associated to chronic diseases using context-aware applications. However, availability of cross-domain heterogeneous contexts provides a challenging opportunity for their fusion to obtain abstract information for further analysis. This work demonstrates extension of our previous work from a single domain (i.e., physical activity) to multiple domains (physical activity, nutrition and clinical) for context-awareness. We propose multi-level Context-aware Framework (mlCAF), which fuses the multi-level cross-domain contexts in order to arbitrate richer behavioral contexts. This work explicitly focuses on key challenges linked to multi-level context modeling, reasoning and fusioning based on the mlCAF open-source ontology. More specifically, it addresses the interpretation of contexts from three different domains, their fusioning conforming to richer contextual information. This paper contributes in terms of ontology evolution with additional domains, context definitions, rules and inclusion of semantic queries. For the framework evaluation, multi-level cross-domain contexts collected from 20 users were used to ascertain abstract contexts, which served as basis for behavior modeling and lifestyle identification. The experimental results indicate a context recognition average accuracy of around 92.65% for the collected cross-domain contexts. PMID:29064459

  4. Passive microrheology of normal and cancer cells after ML7 treatment by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapunova, Elena; Nikituk, Alexander; Bayandin, Yuriy; Naimark, Oleg; Rianna, Carmela; Radmacher, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical properties of living cancer and normal thyroidal cells were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell mechanics was compared before and after treatment with ML7, which is known to reduce myosin activity and induce softening of cell structures. We recorded force curves with extended dwell time of 6 seconds in contact at maximum forces from 500 pN to 1 nN. Data were analyzed within different frameworks: Hertz fit was applied in order to evaluate differences in Young's moduli among cell types and conditions, while the fluctuations of the cantilever in contact with cells were analyzed with both conventional algorithms (probability density function and power spectral density) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We found that cancer cells were softer than normal cells and ML7 had a substantial softening effect on normal cells, but only a marginal one on cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that all recorded signals for normal and cancer cells were monofractal with small differences between their scaling parameters. Finally, the applicability of wavelet-based methods of data analysis for the discrimination of different cell types is discussed.

  5. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  6. Passive microrheology of normal and cancer cells after ML7 treatment by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lyapunova, Elena, E-mail: lyapunova@icmm.ru; Ural Federal University, Kuibyishev Str. 48, Ekaterinburg, 620000; Nikituk, Alexander, E-mail: nas@icmm.ru

    2016-08-02

    Mechanical properties of living cancer and normal thyroidal cells were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell mechanics was compared before and after treatment with ML7, which is known to reduce myosin activity and induce softening of cell structures. We recorded force curves with extended dwell time of 6 seconds in contact at maximum forces from 500 pN to 1 nN. Data were analyzed within different frameworks: Hertz fit was applied in order to evaluate differences in Young’s moduli among cell types and conditions, while the fluctuations of the cantilever in contact with cells were analyzed with both conventional algorithmsmore » (probability density function and power spectral density) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We found that cancer cells were softer than normal cells and ML7 had a substantial softening effect on normal cells, but only a marginal one on cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that all recorded signals for normal and cancer cells were monofractal with small differences between their scaling parameters. Finally, the applicability of wavelet-based methods of data analysis for the discrimination of different cell types is discussed.« less

  7. Using SysML for MBSE analysis of the LSST system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claver, Charles F.; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Delgado, Francisco; Hascall, Pat; Marshall, Stuart; Nordby, Martin; Schalk, Terry; Schumacher, German; Sebag, Jacques

    2010-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope is a complex hardware - software system of systems, making up a highly automated observatory in the form of an 8.4m wide-field telescope, a 3.2 billion pixel camera, and a peta-scale data processing and archiving system. As a project, the LSST is using model based systems engineering (MBSE) methodology for developing the overall system architecture coded with the Systems Modeling Language (SysML). With SysML we use a recursive process to establish three-fold relationships between requirements, logical & physical structural component definitions, and overall behavior (activities and sequences) at successively deeper levels of abstraction and detail. Using this process we have analyzed and refined the LSST system design, ensuring the consistency and completeness of the full set of requirements and their match to associated system structure and behavior. As the recursion process proceeds to deeper levels we derive more detailed requirements and specifications, and ensure their traceability. We also expose, define, and specify critical system interfaces, physical and information flows, and clarify the logic and control flows governing system behavior. The resulting integrated model database is used to generate documentation and specifications and will evolve to support activities from construction through final integration, test, and commissioning, serving as a living representation of the LSST as designed and built. We discuss the methodology and present several examples of its application to specific systems engineering challenges in the LSST design.

  8. Passive microrheology of normal and cancer cells after ML7 treatment by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lyapunova, Elena; Nikituk, Alexander Bayandin, Yuriy; Naimark, Oleg; Rianna, Carmela Radmacher, Manfred

    2016-08-02

    Mechanical properties of living cancer and normal thyroidal cells were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell mechanics was compared before and after treatment with ML7, which is known to reduce myosin activity and induce softening of cell structures. We recorded force curves with extended dwell time of 6 seconds in contact at maximum forces from 500 pN to 1 nN. Data were analyzed within different frameworks: Hertz fit was applied in order to evaluate differences in Young’s moduli among cell types and conditions, while the fluctuations of the cantilever in contact with cells were analyzed with both conventional algorithms (probability density function and power spectral density) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We found that cancer cells were softer than normal cells and ML7 had a substantial softening effect on normal cells, but only a marginal one on cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that all recorded signals for normal and cancer cells were monofractal with small differences between their scaling parameters. Finally, the applicability of wavelet-based methods of data analysis for the discrimination of different cell types is discussed.

  9. PepArML: A Meta-Search Peptide Identification Platform

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Nathan J.

    2014-01-01

    The PepArML meta-search peptide identification platform provides a unified search interface to seven search engines; a robust cluster, grid, and cloud computing scheduler for large-scale searches; and an unsupervised, model-free, machine-learning-based result combiner, which selects the best peptide identification for each spectrum, estimates false-discovery rates, and outputs pepXML format identifications. The meta-search platform supports Mascot; Tandem with native, k-score, and s-score scoring; OMSSA; MyriMatch; and InsPecT with MS-GF spectral probability scores — reformatting spectral data and constructing search configurations for each search engine on the fly. The combiner selects the best peptide identification for each spectrum based on search engine results and features that model enzymatic digestion, retention time, precursor isotope clusters, mass accuracy, and proteotypic peptide properties, requiring no prior knowledge of feature utility or weighting. The PepArML meta-search peptide identification platform often identifies 2–3 times more spectra than individual search engines at 10% FDR. PMID:25663956

  10. Specifications of insilicoML 1.0: a multilevel biophysical model description language.

    PubMed

    Asai, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kido, Yoshiyuki; Oka, Hideki; Heien, Eric; Nakanishi, Masao; Urai, Takahito; Hagihara, Kenichi; Kurachi, Yoshihisa; Nomura, Taishin

    2008-12-01

    An extensible markup language format, insilicoML (ISML), version 0.1, describing multi-level biophysical models has been developed and available in the public domain. ISML is fully compatible with CellML 1.0, a model description standard developed by the IUPS Physiome Project, for enhancing knowledge integration and model sharing. This article illustrates the new specifications of ISML 1.0 that largely extend the capability of ISML 0.1. ISML 1.0 can describe various types of mathematical models, including ordinary/partial differential/difference equations representing the dynamics of physiological functions and the geometry of living organisms underlying the functions. ISML 1.0 describes a model using a set of functional elements (modules) each of which can specify mathematical expressions of the functions. Structural and logical relationships between any two modules are specified by edges, which allow modular, hierarchical, and/or network representations of the model. The role of edge-relationships is enriched by key words in order for use in constructing a physiological ontology. The ontology is further improved by the traceability of history of the model's development and by linking between different ISML models stored in the model's database using meta-information. ISML 1.0 is designed to operate with a model database and integrated environments for model development and simulations for knowledge integration and discovery.

  11. Electronic structures of 1-ML C84/Ag(111): Energy level alignment and work function variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Zhao, Li-Li; Zhang, Jin-Juan; Li, Wen-Jie; Liu, Wei-Hui; Chen, Da; Sheng, Chun-Qi; Wang, Jia-Ou; Qian, Hai-Jie; Ibrahim, Kurash; Li, Hong-Nian

    2017-12-01

    The electronic structures of fullerene/metal interface are critical to the performance of devices based on fullerene in molecular electronics and organic electronics. Herein, we investigate the electronic structures at the interface between C84 and Ag(111) by photoelectron spectroscopy and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques. It is observed that C84 monolayer on Ag(111) surface (1-ML C84/Ag(111)) has metallic nature. A charge transfer from substrate to the unoccupied states of C84 is determined to be 1.3 electrons per molecule. However, the work function of 1-ML C84 (4.72 eV) is observed slightly larger than that of the clean Ag(111) substrate (4.50 eV). A bidirectional charge transfer model is introduced to understand the work function variation of the fullerene/metal system. In addition to the charge transfer from substrate to the adsorbate's unoccupied states, there exists non-negligible back charge transfer from fullerene occupied molecular orbital to the metal substrate through interfacial hybridization. The Fermi level will be pinned at ∼4.72 eV for C84 monolayer on coinage metal substrate.

  12. Reducing Polycystic Liver Volume in ADPKD: Effects of Somatostatin Analogue Octreotide

    PubMed Central

    Caroli, Anna; Antiga, Luca; Cafaro, Mariateresa; Fasolini, Giorgio; Remuzzi, Andrea; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: No medical treatment is available for polycystic liver disease, a frequent manifestation of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 6 months of octreotide (40 mg every 28 days) therapy limited kidney volume growth more effectively than placebo in 12 patients with ADPKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: In this secondary, post hoc analysis of the above study, octreotide-induced changes in liver volumes compared with placebo and the relationship between concomitant changes in liver and kidney volumes were evaluated. Those analyzing liver and kidney volumes were blinded to treatment. Results: Liver volumes significantly decreased from 1595 ± 478 ml to 1524 ± 453 ml with octreotide whereas they did not appreciably change with placebo. Changes in liver volumes were significantly different between the two treatment periods (−71 ± 57 ml versus +14 ± 85 ml). Octreotide-induced liver volume reduction was fully explained by a reduction in parenchyma volume from 1506 ± 431 ml to 1432 ± 403 ml. Changes in liver volumes were significantly correlated with concomitant changes in kidney volumes (r = 0.67) during octreotide but not during placebo treatment. Liver and kidney volume changes significantly differed with both treatments (octreotide: −71 ± 57 ml versus +71 ± 107; placebo: +14 ± 85 ml versus +162 ± 114), but net reductions in liver (−85 ± 103 ml) and kidney (−91 ± 125 ml) volume growth on octreotide versus placebo were similar. Conclusions: Octreotide therapy reduces liver volumes in patients with ADPKD and is safe. PMID:20185596

  13. Magnetic Nickel iron Electroformed Trap (MagNET): a master/replica fabrication strategy for ultra-high throughput (>100 mL h−1) immunomagnetic sorting†

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jina; Yelleswarapu, Venkata; Singh, Anup; Shah, Nishal

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices can sort immunomagnetically labeled cells with sensitivity and specificity much greater than that of conventional methods, primarily because the size of microfluidic channels and micro-scale magnets can be matched to that of individual cells. However, these small feature sizes come at the expense of limited throughput (ϕ < 5 mL h−1) and susceptibility to clogging, which have hindered current microfluidic technology from processing relevant volumes of clinical samples, e.g. V > 10 mL whole blood. Here, we report a new approach to micromagnetic sorting that can achieve highly specific cell separation in unprocessed complex samples at a throughput (ϕ > 100 mL h−1) 100× greater than that of conventional microfluidics. To achieve this goal, we have devised a new approach to micromagnetic sorting, the magnetic nickel iron electroformed trap (MagNET), which enables high flow rates by having millions of micromagnetic traps operate in parallel. Our design rotates the conventional microfluidic approach by 90° to form magnetic traps at the edges of pores instead of in channels, enabling millions of the magnetic traps to be incorporated into a centimeter sized device. Unlike previous work, where magnetic structures were defined using conventional microfabrication, we take inspiration from soft lithography and create a master from which many replica electroformed magnetic micropore devices can be economically manufactured. These free-standing 12 µm thick permalloy (Ni80Fe20) films contain micropores of arbitrary shape and position, allowing the device to be tailored for maximal capture efficiency and throughput. We demonstrate MagNET's capabilities by fabricating devices with both circular and rectangular pores and use these devices to rapidly (ϕ = 180 mL h−1) and specifically sort rare tumor cells from white blood cells. PMID:27170379

  14. WaterML2.0: Harmonising standards for water observations data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Peter; Walker, Gavin; Valentine, David; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    Our ability to share and understand water information from various sources is currently limited by the use of incompatible information management and publication technologies. Water resource managers, hydro-power generators, meteorologists and other interested stakeholders all monitor water resources and store their data using a wide array of technologies. Standards are multi-party agreements that provide a common ground on which people can share information by minimising ambiguity and sharing definitions for domain concepts. They are most effective when surrounded by an active community who, along with taking part in defining such concepts, develop supporting tools that allow for easy transmission and interpretation of data sets. Existing standards for water observations only exist within organisations or countries; there are no internationally agreed upon standards for encoding such data. Groups such as the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrological Sciences, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and others, have developed standards for national exchange of water information, such as WaterML1.1 and the Water Data Transfer Format; other standards such as Xhydro have been developed at the sub national level. An initial analysis of existing standards (including WaterML1.1, WDTF, XHydro and the UK EA format) found sufficient commonality to suggest a role for an international standard. Such a standard would reduce the load on organisations developing their own standards. The commonalities exist in the way in which measurements and observations are made and described, such as time series data produced from automated sensors commonly used for hydrological monitoring. The Observations and Measurements (O&M) standard, developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), is capable of describing measurements made by sensors and humans in a common way, involving both remote and in-situ sensing. O&M is generic, in that it does not define the concepts for a

  15. Real-time combining of residual carrier array signals using ML weight estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Rodemich, Eugene R.; Dolinar, Samuel J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A real-time digital signal combining system for use with array feeds is proposed. The combining system attempts to compensate for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss resulting from antenna deformations induced by gravitational and atmospheric effects. The combining weights are obtained directly from the observed residual carrier samples in each channel using a 'sliding-window' implementation of a maximum-likelihood (ML) parameter estimator. It is shown that with averaging times of about 0.1 s, combining loss for a seven-element array can be limited to about 0.1 dB in a realistic operational environment. This result suggests that the real-time combining system proposed here is capable of recovering virtually all of the signal power captured by the array feed, even in the presence of severe wind gusts and similar disturbances.

  16. Software support for SBGN maps: SBGN-ML and LibSBGN

    PubMed Central

    van Iersel, Martijn P.; Villéger, Alice C.; Czauderna, Tobias; Boyd, Sarah E.; Bergmann, Frank T.; Luna, Augustin; Demir, Emek; Sorokin, Anatoly; Dogrusoz, Ugur; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Funahashi, Akira; Aladjem, Mirit I.; Mi, Huaiyu; Moodie, Stuart L.; Kitano, Hiroaki; Le Novère, Nicolas; Schreiber, Falk

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: LibSBGN is a software library for reading, writing and manipulating Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN) maps stored using the recently developed SBGN-ML file format. The library (available in C++ and Java) makes it easy for developers to add SBGN support to their tools, whereas the file format facilitates the exchange of maps between compatible software applications. The library also supports validation of maps, which simplifies the task of ensuring compliance with the detailed SBGN specifications. With this effort we hope to increase the adoption of SBGN in bioinformatics tools, ultimately enabling more researchers to visualize biological knowledge in a precise and unambiguous manner. Availability and implementation: Milestone 2 was released in December 2011. Source code, example files and binaries are freely available under the terms of either the LGPL v2.1+ or Apache v2.0 open source licenses from http://libsbgn.sourceforge.net. Contact: sbgn-libsbgn@lists.sourceforge.net PMID:22581176

  17. Sensor metadata blueprints and computer-aided editing for disciplined SensorML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliolato, Paolo; Oggioni, Alessandro; Fugazza, Cristiano; Pepe, Monica; Carrara, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The need for continuous, accurate, and comprehensive environmental knowledge has led to an increase in sensor observation systems and networks. The Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative has been promoted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to foster interoperability among sensor systems. The provision of metadata according to the prescribed SensorML schema is a key component for achieving this and nevertheless availability of correct and exhaustive metadata cannot be taken for granted. On the one hand, it is awkward for users to provide sensor metadata because of the lack in user-oriented, dedicated tools. On the other, the specification of invariant information for a given sensor category or model (e.g., observed properties and units of measurement, manufacturer information, etc.), can be labor- and timeconsuming. Moreover, the provision of these details is error prone and subjective, i.e., may differ greatly across distinct descriptions for the same system. We provide a user-friendly, template-driven metadata authoring tool composed of a backend web service and an HTML5/javascript client. This results in a form-based user interface that conceals the high complexity of the underlying format. This tool also allows for plugging in external data sources providing authoritative definitions for the aforementioned invariant information. Leveraging these functionalities, we compiled a set of SensorML profiles, that is, sensor metadata blueprints allowing end users to focus only on the metadata items that are related to their specific deployment. The natural extension of this scenario is the involvement of end users and sensor manufacturers in the crowd-sourced evolution of this collection of prototypes. We describe the components and workflow of our framework for computer-aided management of sensor metadata.

  18. [Evaluation of median filtering after reconstruction with maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) by real space and frequency space].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Keiichi; Fujita, Toru; Oogari, Koji

    2002-05-01

    Maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) image quality is sensitive to the number of iterations, because a large number of iterations leads to images with checkerboard noise. The use of median filtering in the reconstruction process allows both noise reduction and edge preservation. We examined the value of median filtering after reconstruction with ML-EM by comparing filtered back projection (FBP) with a ramp filter or ML-EM without filtering. SPECT images were obtained with a dual-head gamma camera. The acquisition time was changed from 10 to 200 (seconds/frame) to examine the effect of the count statistics on the quality of the reconstructed images. First, images were reconstructed with ML-EM by changing the number of iterations from 1 to 150 in each study. Additionally, median filtering was applied following reconstruction with ML-EM. The quality of the reconstructed images was evaluated in terms of normalized mean square error (NMSE) values and two-dimensional power spectrum analysis. Median filtering after reconstruction by the ML-EM method provided stable NMSE values even when the number of iterations was increased. The signal element of the image was close to the reference image for any repetition number of iterations. Median filtering after reconstruction with ML-EM was useful in reducing noise, with a similar resolution achieved by reconstruction with FBP and a ramp filter. Especially in images with poor count statistics, median filtering after reconstruction with ML-EM is effective as a simple, widely available method.

  19. CT volumetric analysis of pleural effusions: a comparison with thoracentesis volumes.

    PubMed

    Chiao, David; Hanley, Michael; Olazagasti, Juan M

    2015-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare computed tomography (CT) volumetric analysis of pleural effusions with thoracentesis volumes. The secondary objective of this study was to compare subjective grading of pleural effusion size with thoracentesis volumes. This was a retrospective study of 67 patients with free-flowing pleural effusions who underwent therapeutic thoracentesis. CT volumetric analysis was performed on all patients; the CT volumes were compared with the thoracentesis volumes. In addition, the subjective grading of pleural effusion size was compared with the thoracentesis volumes. The average difference between CT volume and thoracentesis volume was 9.4 mL (1.3%) ± 290 mL (30%); these volumes were not statistically different (P = .79, paired two-tailed Student's t-test). The thoracentesis volume of a "small," "moderate," and "large" pleural effusion, as graded on chest CT, was found to be approximately 410 ± 260 cc, 770 ± 270 mL and 1370 ± 650 mL, respectively; the thoracentesis volume of a "small," "moderate," and "large" pleural effusion, as graded on chest radiograph, was found to be approximately 610 ± 320 mL, 1040 ± 460 mL, and 1530 ± 830 mL, respectively. CT volumetric analysis is an accessible tool that can be used to accurately quantify the size of pleural effusions. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine procedural and declarative modeling approaches in computational neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Michael; Cannon, Robert C.; Crook, Sharon; Davison, Andrew P.; Ganapathy, Gautham; Robinson, Hugh P. C.; Silver, R. Angus; Gleeson, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell, and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) written in Python (http://www.python.org), which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment. PMID:24795618

  1. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine procedural and declarative modeling approaches in computational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Vella, Michael; Cannon, Robert C; Crook, Sharon; Davison, Andrew P; Ganapathy, Gautham; Robinson, Hugh P C; Silver, R Angus; Gleeson, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell, and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) written in Python (http://www.python.org), which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment.

  2. Distribution, production, and ecophysiology of Picocystis strain ML in Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roesler, Collin S.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Goericke, Ralf; Kiene, Ronald P.; Miller, Laurence G.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2002-01-01

    A recently described unicellular chlorophytic alga isolated from meromictic Mono Lake, California, occupies a niche that spans two environments: the upper oxic mixolimnion and the deeper anoxic and highly reducing monimolimnion. This organism, Picocystis sp. strain ML, accounts for nearly 25% of the primary production during the winter bloom and more than 50% at other times of the year. In incubations, it is heavily grazed by the brine shrimp, Artemia monica. We assessed growth and photosynthetic parameters over broad ranges of irradiance, salinity, and pH and under oxic and anoxic conditions. Picocystis appears to be particularly adapted to low irradiance; we observed an order of magnitude increase in the cellular pigment concentrations, as well as marked increases in cellspecific photosynthetic parameters for cells acclimated to low-growth irradiance. Growth rates of 0.3–1.5 d21 were observed over a salinity range of 0–260‰ and a pH range of 4–12, with maximal growth at ;50 mmol photons m22 s21 , 40‰, and pH 6–10. Growth and oxygenic photosynthesis were observed under anoxic conditions at rates comparable to those measured under oxic conditions. The ability of the organism to acclimate and grow under such a broad range of environmental conditions makes it an important component of the Mono Lake ecosystem and likely contributes to its dominance of the monimolimnion/mixolimnion interface.

  3. The aftershock sequence of the 5 August 2014 Orkney earthquake (ML 5.5), South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzunzu, B.; Midzi, V.; Mangongolo, A.; Essrich, F.

    2017-11-01

    More than 1000 aftershocks were recorded within a month after the occurrence of the ML 5.5, 5 August 2014 Orkney earthquake. The events were relocated using the double difference method as part of an effort to identify the fault which might be the source of the events. A north-south trend of seismicity was revealed by the relocated events, with a diffuse cluster to the north of the main event. A depth profile shows these two clusters: one at a depth of about 2 km to the north of the main event and the other at depth between 3 and 6 km south of the main event. Focal mechanism solutions of 18 aftershocks were determined using first motion polarities from seismic stations of the Council for Geoscience cluster networks. Stress inversion analysis results from the focal mechanism solutions show a dominant extensional stress field in the region; the main event had a strike-slip fault plane solution. This is consistent with the regional stress field which is predominantly related to the East African rift system. It is possible that the occurrence of the main event triggered seismicity on shallower faults within the mining horizons oriented in a different direction to the fault on which the main event occurred. The area has a complex heterogeneous faulting structure as indicated by the observed low p values and complex focal mechanism solutions.

  4. Architecting the Human Space Flight Program with Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Maddalena M.; Fernandez, Michela Munoz; McVittie, Thomas I.; Sindiy, Oleg V.

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of missions in NASA's Human Space Flight program focuses on the development and deployment of highly complex systems (e.g., Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, Space Launch System, 21st Century Ground System) that will enable astronauts to venture beyond low Earth orbit and explore the moon, near-Earth asteroids, and beyond. Architecting these highly complex system-of-systems requires formal systems engineering techniques for managing the evolution of the technical features in the information exchange domain (e.g., data exchanges, communication networks, ground software) and also, formal correlation of the technical architecture to stakeholders' programmatic concerns (e.g., budget, schedule, risk) and design development (e.g., assumptions, constraints, trades, tracking of unknowns). This paper will describe how the authors have applied System Modeling Language (SysML) to implement model-based systems engineering for managing the description of the End-to-End Information System (EEIS) architecture and associated development activities and ultimately enables stakeholders to understand, reason, and answer questions about the EEIS under design for proposed lunar Exploration Missions 1 and 2 (EM-1 and EM-2).

  5. Specification and Design of Electrical Flight System Architectures with SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKelvin, Mark L., Jr.; Jimenez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Modern space flight systems are required to perform more complex functions than previous generations to support space missions. This demand is driving the trend to deploy more electronics to realize system functionality. The traditional approach for the specification, design, and deployment of electrical system architectures in space flight systems includes the use of informal definitions and descriptions that are often embedded within loosely coupled but highly interdependent design documents. Traditional methods become inefficient to cope with increasing system complexity, evolving requirements, and the ability to meet project budget and time constraints. Thus, there is a need for more rigorous methods to capture the relevant information about the electrical system architecture as the design evolves. In this work, we propose a model-centric approach to support the specification and design of electrical flight system architectures using the System Modeling Language (SysML). In our approach, we develop a domain specific language for specifying electrical system architectures, and we propose a design flow for the specification and design of electrical interfaces. Our approach is applied to a practical flight system.

  6. Fast nearly ML estimation of Doppler frequency in GNSS signal acquisition process.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinhua; Falletti, Emanuela; Lo Presti, Letizia

    2013-04-29

    It is known that signal acquisition in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) field provides a rough maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate based on a peak search in a two-dimensional grid. In this paper, the theoretical mathematical expression of the cross-ambiguity function (CAF) is exploited to analyze the grid and improve the accuracy of the frequency estimate. Based on the simple equation derived from this mathematical expression of the CAF, a family of novel algorithms is proposed to refine the Doppler frequency estimate with respect to that provided by a conventional acquisition method. In an ideal scenario where there is no noise and other nuisances, the frequency estimation error can be theoretically reduced to zero. On the other hand, in the presence of noise, the new algorithm almost reaches the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) which is derived as benchmark. For comparison, a least-square (LS) method is proposed. It is shown that the proposed solution achieves the same performance of LS, but requires a dramatically reduced computational burden. An averaging method is proposed to mitigate the influence of noise, especially when signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low. Finally, the influence of the grid resolution in the search space is analyzed in both time and frequency domains.

  7. A water-renewal system that accurately delivers small volumes of water to exposure chambers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zumwalt, D. C.; Dwyer, F.J.; Greer, I.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a system that can accurately deliver small volumes of water (50 ml per cycle) to eight 300-ml beakers. The system is inexpensive <$100), easy to build (<8 h), and easy to calibrate (<15 min), and accurately delivers small volumes of water (<5% variability).

  8. GeoSciML v3.0 - a significant upgrade of the CGI-IUGS geoscience data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, O.; Duclaux, G.; Boisvert, E.; Cipolloni, C.; Cox, S.; Laxton, J.; Letourneau, F.; Richard, S.; Ritchie, A.; Sen, M.; Serrano, J.-J.; Simons, B.; Vuollo, J.

    2012-04-01

    GeoSciML version 3.0 (http://www.geosciml.org), released in late 2011, is the latest version of the CGI-IUGS* Interoperability Working Group geoscience data interchange standard. The new version is a significant upgrade and refactoring of GeoSciML v2 which was released in 2008. GeoSciML v3 has already been adopted by several major international interoperability initiatives, including OneGeology, the EU INSPIRE program, and the US Geoscience Information Network, as their standard data exchange format for geoscience data. GeoSciML v3 makes use of recently upgraded versions of several Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO data transfer standards, including GML v3.2, SWE Common v2.0, and Observations and Measurements v2 (ISO 19156). The GeoSciML v3 data model has been refactored from a single large application schema with many packages, into a number of smaller, but related, application schema modules with individual namespaces. This refactoring allows the use and future development of modules of GeoSciML (eg; GeologicUnit, GeologicStructure, GeologicAge, Borehole) in smaller, more manageable units. As a result of this refactoring and the integration with new OGC and ISO standards, GeoSciML v3 is not backwardly compatible with previous GeoSciML versions. The scope of GeoSciML has been extended in version 3.0 to include new models for geomorphological data (a Geomorphology application schema), and for geological specimens, geochronological interpretations, and metadata for geochemical and geochronological analyses (a LaboratoryAnalysis-Specimen application schema). In addition, there is better support for borehole data, and the PhysicalProperties model now supports a wider range of petrophysical measurements. The previously used CGI_Value data type has been superseded in favour of externally governed data types provided by OGC's SWE Common v2 and GML v3.2 data standards. The GeoSciML v3 release includes worked examples of best practice in delivering geochemical

  9. Implementation of a Goal-Based Systems Engineering Process Using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Building upon the purpose, theoretical approach, and use of a Goal-Function Tree (GFT) being presented by Dr. Stephen B. Johnson, described in a related Infotech 2013 ISHM abstract titled "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management", this paper will describe the core framework used to implement the GFTbased systems engineering process using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML). These two papers are ideally accepted and presented together in the same Infotech session. Statement of problem: SysML, as a tool, is currently not capable of implementing the theoretical approach described within the "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management" paper cited above. More generally, SysML's current capabilities to model functional decompositions in the rigorous manner required in the GFT approach are limited. The GFT is a new Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach to the development of goals and requirements, functions, and its linkage to design. As a growing standard for systems engineering, it is important to develop methods to implement GFT in SysML. Proposed Method of Solution: Many of the central concepts of the SysML language are needed to implement a GFT for large complex systems. In the implementation of those central concepts, the following will be described in detail: changes to the nominal SysML process, model view definitions and examples, diagram definitions and examples, and detailed SysML construct and stereotype definitions.

  10. Respiratory-swallowing coordination in normal subjects: Lung volume at swallowing initiation

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, DH; Martin-Harris, B; Fortin, AJ; Humphries, K; Hill, E; Armeson, K

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the significance of bolus types and volumes, delivery methods and swallowing instructions on lung volume at swallowing initiation in normal subjects in a single experiment using a multifactorial approach. Our broad range goal was to determine optimal lung volume range associated with swallowing initiation to provide training targets for dysphagic patients with disordered respiratory-swallow coordination. Our hypothesis was that swallows would be initiated within a limited range of quiet breathing lung volumes regardless of bolus volume, consistency or task. Results confirmed this hypothesis and revealed that swallows were initiated at mean lung volume = 244 ml). Cued swallows were initiated at lower quiet breathing volumes than un-cued swallows (cued = 201 ml; un-cued = 367 ml). Water boluses were initiated at slightly higher quiet breathing volumes than solids. Data suggest that swallows occur within a restricted range of lung volumes with variation due to instructions, bolus type and other experimental variables. PMID:27612587

  11. An Innovative Needle-free Injection System: Comparison to 1 ml Standard Subcutaneous Injection.

    PubMed

    Kojic, Nikola; Goyal, Pragun; Lou, Cheryl Hamer; Corwin, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    A needle-free delivery system may lead to improved satisfaction and compliance, as well as reduced anxiety among patients requiring frequent or ongoing injections. This report describes a first-in-man assessment comparing Portal Instruments' innovative needle-free injection system with subcutaneous injections using a 27G needle. Forty healthy volunteer participants each received a total of four injections of 1.0 mL sterile saline solution, two with a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle, and two using the Portal injection system. Perception of pain was measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Injection site reactions were assessed at 2 min and at 20-30 min after each injection. Follow-up contact was made 24-48 h after the injections. Subject preference regarding injection type was also assessed. VAS pain scores at Portal injection sites met the criteria to be considered non-inferior to the pain reported at 27G needle injection sites (i.e., upper 95% confidence bound less than +5 mm). Based on a mixed effects model, at time 0, accounting for potential confounding variables, the adjusted difference in VAS scores indicated that Portal injections were 6.5 mm lower than the 27G needle injections (95% CI -10.5, -2.5). No clinically important adverse events were noted. Portal injections were preferred by 24 (60%) of the subjects (P = 0.0015). As an early step in the development of this new needle-free delivery system, the current study has shown that a 1.0-mL saline injection can be given with less pain reported than a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle.

  12. Macroseismic survey of the ML5.5, 2014 Orkney earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, V.; Zulu, B.; Manzunzu, B.; Mulabisana, T.; Pule, T.; Myendeki, S.; Gubela, W.

    2015-07-01

    On 5 August 2014 at 1222 hours (local time), an earthquake of local magnitude ML = 5.5 occurred in the Orkney area in the North West Province, South Africa. The earthquake shaking was felt widely in South Africa as far as Cape Town as well as in Maputo, Mozambique, and Gaborone in Botswana. One person was killed when a wall collapsed on him, and more than 600 houses were damaged. Following the earthquake, many people submitted reports to the Council for Geoscience (CGS) through an online questionnaire which recorded their experience, whilst others reported the event and its effects on social networks like Twitter and in newspapers. The CGS also sent out a team of scientists to further assess the effects of the event in the community by interviewing members of the public and completing additional questionnaires. A total of 866 observations were collected. Analysis of the collected macroseismic data produced 170 intensity data points which showed that a maximum intensity of VII was experienced in communities located in the epicentral area. The observed attenuation of intensity values was comparable to that observed on the French stable continental region especially in the area of 600-km radius from the epicentre. Airborne geophysical data were used to try and identify the fault along which the earthquake occurred. This was necessary as there was no surface expression of the earthquake and no previously identified fault near the epicentre. The interpretation of the data showed a fault located about 500 m from the epicentre appearing to form a boundary to the east of located aftershocks.

  13. Volumes of the spinal canal and caudal space in children zero to three years of age assessed by magnetic resonance imaging: implications for volume dosage of caudal blockade.

    PubMed

    Forestier, J; Castillo, P; Finnbogason, T; Lundblad, M; Eksborg, S; Lönnqvist, P A

    2017-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to objectively assess the different spinal and caudal volumes that are of interest for caudal block volume dosing. Three directly assessed (volume of spinal canal/caudal space, volume of the dural sac and volume of spinal cord) and two derived volumes (volume of the epidural space and cerebrospinal fluid volume) were determined from magnetic resonance images (MRI) in 20 children (zero - three yr of age). The assessed volumes were correlated to age, height and weight. Furthermore, the volumes of the epidural space from caudal canal to three different clinically relevant target levels (L 1, Th 10 and Th 6) and the epidural volume of each individual spinal segment at the caudal, lumbar and thoracic levels were calculated. All volumes correlated in a linear manner to length and weight (R2 0.614 - 0.867) whereas a curvilinear correlation was associated with best curve fit for age (R2 0.696 - 0.883). The median volumes of the epidural space from caudal canal to L 1, Th 10 and Th 6 were 1.30 ml kg-1 (95%CI 1.08-1.51), 1.57 ml kg-1 (95%CI 1.29-1.81) and 1.78 ml kg-1 (95%CI 1.52-2.08), respectively. The median volumes of the epidural space per vertebral segment were Thoracic: 0.60 ml (95%CI 0.38-0.75); Lumbar: 1.18 ml (95%CI 0.94-1.43) and Caudal: 0.85 ml (95%CI 0.56-1.18). The spinal volumes of interest show a linear correlation to height and weight whereas a curvilinear correlation was found for age. The volume of the epidural space per segment was found to be significantly higher at the lumbar level compared with the caudal and thoracic levels.

  14. High-intensity diode laser in combination with bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate: a new strategy for the treatment of large prostates (>80 ml).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Hsu; Chiang, Po-Hui; Lee, Wei-Chia; Chuang, Yao-Chi; Kang, Chih-Hsiung; Hsu, Chun-Chien; Lee, Wei-Ching; Chen, Yen-Ta; Cheng, Yuan-Tso

    2012-11-01

    The ideal treatment of large prostates with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) remains controversial. We compare the efficacy and safety of monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with high-intensity diode laser in combination with bipolar TURP (DL + b-TURP) in the treatment of large prostates. We retrospectively analyzed all patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to BPH with prostates larger than 80 ml, undergoing monopolar TURP (n = 36) or DL + b-TURP (n = 37) between January 2008 and March 2010. The preoperative and follow-up functional parameters including International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), post-void residual urine (PVR), maximum flow rate (Q(max) ), quality of life score (QoLs), prostate size, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were assessed. The operative data, peri- and post-operative complications were also recorded. The demographic data were comparable between the two groups. Preoperative prostate volume was 110.8 ± 28.9 ml in the DL + b-TURP group and 103.7 ± 31.2 ml in the TURP group. TURP group had significantly shorter operative time; however, the catheterization time and hospital stay were in favor of the DL + b-TURP group (P < 0.001). The decrease in hemoglobin was statistically significantly greater in the TURP group. Late complications were also comparable. Both groups could achieve significant improvements in functional outcomes during the follow-up of 24 months. With regard to the operative safety and functional results, high-intensity diode laser combined with bipolar TURP is feasible for BPH treatment with large prostates. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. ART-ML: a new markup language for modelling and representation of biological processes in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Karvounis, E C; Exarchos, T P; Fotiou, E; Sakellarios, A I; Iliopoulou, D; Koutsouris, D; Fotiadis, D I

    2013-01-01

    With an ever increasing number of biological models available on the internet, a standardized modelling framework is required to allow information to be accessed and visualized. In this paper we propose a novel Extensible Markup Language (XML) based format called ART-ML that aims at supporting the interoperability and the reuse of models of geometry, blood flow, plaque progression and stent modelling, exported by any cardiovascular disease modelling software. ART-ML has been developed and tested using ARTool. ARTool is a platform for the automatic processing of various image modalities of coronary and carotid arteries. The images and their content are fused to develop morphological models of the arteries in 3D representations. All the above described procedures integrate disparate data formats, protocols and tools. ART-ML proposes a representation way, expanding ARTool, for interpretability of the individual resources, creating a standard unified model for the description of data and, consequently, a format for their exchange and representation that is machine independent. More specifically, ARTool platform incorporates efficient algorithms which are able to perform blood flow simulations and atherosclerotic plaque evolution modelling. Integration of data layers between different modules within ARTool are based upon the interchange of information included in the ART-ML model repository. ART-ML provides a markup representation that enables the representation and management of embedded models within the cardiovascular disease modelling platform, the storage and interchange of well-defined information. The corresponding ART-ML model incorporates all relevant information regarding geometry, blood flow, plaque progression and stent modelling procedures. All created models are stored in a model repository database which is accessible to the research community using efficient web interfaces, enabling the interoperability of any cardiovascular disease modelling software

  16. nmrML: A Community Supported Open Data Standard for the Description, Storage, and Exchange of NMR Data.

    PubMed

    Schober, Daniel; Jacob, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cruz, Joseph A; Marcu, Ana; Grant, Jason R; Moing, Annick; Deborde, Catherine; de Figueiredo, Luis F; Haug, Kenneth; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Easton, John; Ebbels, Timothy M D; Hao, Jie; Ludwig, Christian; Günther, Ulrich L; Rosato, Antonio; Klein, Matthias S; Lewis, Ian A; Luchinat, Claudio; Jones, Andrew R; Grauslys, Arturas; Larralde, Martin; Yokochi, Masashi; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Porzel, Andrea; Griffin, Julian L; Viant, Mark R; Wishart, David S; Steinbeck, Christoph; Salek, Reza M; Neumann, Steffen

    2018-01-02

    NMR is a widely used analytical technique with a growing number of repositories available. As a result, demands for a vendor-agnostic, open data format for long-term archiving of NMR data have emerged with the aim to ease and encourage sharing, comparison, and reuse of NMR data. Here we present nmrML, an open XML-based exchange and storage format for NMR spectral data. The nmrML format is intended to be fully compatible with existing NMR data for chemical, biochemical, and metabolomics experiments. nmrML can capture raw NMR data, spectral data acquisition parameters, and where available spectral metadata, such as chemical structures associated with spectral assignments. The nmrML format is compatible with pure-compound NMR data for reference spectral libraries as well as NMR data from complex biomixtures, i.e., metabolomics experiments. To facilitate format conversions, we provide nmrML converters for Bruker, JEOL and Agilent/Varian vendor formats. In addition, easy-to-use Web-based spectral viewing, processing, and spectral assignment tools that read and write nmrML have been developed. Software libraries and Web services for data validation are available for tool developers and end-users. The nmrML format has already been adopted for capturing and disseminating NMR data for small molecules by several open source data processing tools and metabolomics reference spectral libraries, e.g., serving as storage format for the MetaboLights data repository. The nmrML open access data standard has been endorsed by the Metabolomics Standards Initiative (MSI), and we here encourage user participation and feedback to increase usability and make it a successful standard.

  17. Aftershock sequence of ML6.1 earthquake in Sakhalin: recovery with waveform cross correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitov, Ivan; Konovalov, Alexey; Stepnov, Andrey; Turuntaev, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    The Sakhalin Island is characterized by relatively high seismic activity. The largest measured earthquake of Mw=7.0 occurred in 1995 near the town of Neftegorsk. It was followed by a long-lasting aftershock sequence. Based on the results of our previous analysis of this aftershock sequence with the method of waveform cross correlation (WCC), we have recovered an aftershock sequence of the ML 6.1 earthquake occurred on August 14, 2016 at 11:15:13.1 (UTC). The epicentre of this earthquake estimated by near-regional data has geographic coordinates 50.351N i 142.395E, with the focal depth of 9 km. The aftershock catalogue compiled by the eqaler.ru resource includes 133 events within 20 days from the main shock. We used P- and S-wave signals from the main shock and a few largest aftershocks from the catalogue as waveform templates. Cross correlation of continuous waveforms with these templates was carried out at six closest seismic stations of the regional network, with four stations to northeast and two stations to southwest of the epicentre. For detection, we used standard STA/LTA method with thresholds depending on seismic phase and station. The accuracy of onset time estimation by the STA/LTA detector based on the obtained CC-traces is close to a few samples, with the sampling rate of 40 Hz at all stations. Arrival times of all detected signals were reduced to origin times using the observed travel times from the master-events to six stations. For a given master event, clusters of origin times are considered as event hypotheses in a local association procedure. When several master events find the same physical signal, we resolve conflict using the number of associated stations and then the RMS origin time residual. In total, more than 190 aftershocks were found with three and more associated stations and five and more associated phases. This is by 40% more than the number of aftershocks in the original catalogue. Their magnitudes vary between 1.5 and 4.5. We also

  18. Seismogenic structures of the 2006 ML4.0 Dangan Island earthquake offshore Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Shaohong; Cao, Jinghe; Sun, Jinlong; Lv, Jinshui; Xu, Huilong; Zhang, Xiang; Wan, Kuiyuan; Fan, Chaoyan; Zhou, Pengxiang

    2018-02-01

    The northern margin of the South China Sea, as a typical extensional continental margin, has relatively strong intraplate seismicity. Compared with the active zones of Nanao Island, Yangjiang, and Heyuan, seismicity in the Pearl River Estuary is relatively low. However, a ML4.0 earthquake in 2006 occurred near Dangan Island (DI) offshore Hong Kong, and this site was adjacent to the source of the historical M5.8 earthquake in 1874. To reveal the seismogenic mechanism of intraplate earthquakes in DI, we systematically analyzed the structural characteristics in the source area of the 2006 DI earthquake using integrated 24-channel seismic profiles, onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic tomography, and natural earthquake parameters. We ascertained the locations of NW- and NE-trending faults in the DI sea and found that the NE-trending DI fault mainly dipped southeast at a high angle and cut through the crust with an obvious low-velocity anomaly. The NW-trending fault dipped southwest with a similar high angle. The 2006 DI earthquake was adjacent to the intersection of the NE- and NW-trending faults, which suggested that the intersection of the two faults with different strikes could provide a favorable condition for the generation and triggering of intraplate earthquakes. Crustal velocity model showed that the high-velocity anomaly was imaged in the west of DI, but a distinct entity with low-velocity anomaly in the upper crust and high-velocity anomaly in the lower crust was found in the south of DI. Both the 1874 and 2006 DI earthquakes occurred along the edge of the distinct entity. Two vertical cross-sections nearly perpendicular to the strikes of the intersecting faults revealed good spatial correlations between the 2006 DI earthquake and the low to high speed transition in the distinct entity. This result indicated that the transitional zone might be a weakly structural body that can store strain energy and release it as a brittle failure, resulting in an earthquake

  19. Prostate biopsy in response to a change in nadir prostate specific antigen of 0.4 ng/ml after treatment with 5α-reductase inhibitors markedly enhances the detection rate of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Steven A; Lee, Richard K; Chung, Doreen E; Te, Alexis E; Scherr, Douglas S; Tewari, Ash; Vaughan, E Darracott

    2012-09-01

    We examined the effect of 5α-reductase inhibitor therapy on prostate cancer detection in men with persistently increased or fluctuating prostate specific antigen and prior negative prostate cancer biopsy. A total of 276 men with prostate specific antigen greater than 4 ng/ml (208) or a prostate specific antigen velocity change of 0.75 ng/ml (68) and a normal digital rectal examination who had previously undergone biopsy a minimum of 2 times with prostate cancer not detected were given 5 mg finasteride (154) or dutasteride (122) daily. In phase 1, 97 patients had prostate specific antigen measured at 6 and 12 months with repeat transrectal ultrasonography and biopsy (12 cores) performed at 1 year. In phase 2, 179 patients underwent biopsy triggered by a change in nadir prostate specific antigen of more than 0.4 ng/ml. In phase 1 at 1 year prostate specific antigen had decreased by 2.4 ng/ml (-46.7%), and prostate volume had decreased 7.1 ml (-17.9%). Prostate cancer was detected in 27 of 97 (27.8%) patients and the mean minimum prostate specific antigen velocity from a nadir of 0.4 ng/ml was 0.6 ng/ml. In phase 2, 48 of 179 (26.8%) men underwent repeat biopsy at a mean of 14.6 months. Of these 48 men 26 (54.1%) were found to have prostate cancer. Of the 26 men in whom prostate cancer was detected 20 (76.9%) were found to have Gleason score 7 or greater disease. The magnitude of change in serum prostate specific antigen after 5α-reductase inhibitor therapy may be useful in diagnosing prostate cancer in patients with persistently increased or fluctuating prostate specific antigen and prior negative prostate biopsy. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Contrail Cirrus Forecasts for the ML-CIRRUS Experiment and Some Comparison Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Graf, Kaspar; Bugliaro, Luca; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Giez, Andreas; Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Krämer, Martina; Minikin, Andreas; Schäfler, Andreas; Voigt, Christiane; Wirth, Martin; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    Model simulations with the contrail cirrus prediction model CoCiP driven by numerical weather prediction (NWP) data provided from the European Centre for Medium Range Forecasts (ECMWF) and global aircraft waypoint data show a mean computed cover (for optical depth larger than 0.1) of 0.23% globally, and 5.4% over mid Europe (Schumann and Graf, JGR, 2013). The computed mean longwave radiative forcing (RF) reaches 3 W m-2 over mid Europe (10°W-20°E and 40°N-55°N), and 0.13 W m-2 globally. The global net RF is about 40-60% smaller because of compensating shortwave cooling induced by contrails during daytime. The results depend on several model details such as the number of ice particles forming from aircraft soot emissions, the contrail plume dispersion, ice particle sedimentation etc., all influencing contrail life time and their optical properties. The quantitative results depend also strongly on ambient relative humidity, vertical motion and on ice water content of other cirrus predicted by the NWP model. In order to test and possibly improve this and other contrail models, high-quality observations are needed to which multi-parameter model output can be compared. The Mid-Latitude Cirrus Experiment ML-CIRRUS was performed (see C. Voigt et al., this conference) with a suite of in-situ and Lidar instruments for airborne measurements on the research aircraft HALO. Before and during the mission, CoCiP was run daily to provide 3-days forecasts of contrail cover using operational ECMWF forecasts and historical traffic data. CoCiP forecast output was made available in an internet tool twice a day for experiment planning. The one-day and two-day contrail forecasts often showed only small differences. Still, most recent forecasts and detailed satellite observations results were transmitted via satellite link to the crew for onboard campaign optimization. After the campaign, a data base of realistic air traffic data has been setup from various sources, and CoCiP was

  1. ML327 induces apoptosis and sensitizes Ewing sarcoma cells to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.

    PubMed

    Rellinger, Eric J; Padmanabhan, Chandrasekhar; Qiao, Jingbo; Appert, Andrew; Waterson, Alex G; Lindsley, Craig W; Beauchamp, R Daniel; Chung, Dai H

    2017-09-16

    Ewing sarcomas are rare mesenchymal-derived bone and soft tissue tumors in children. Afflicted children with distant metastases have poor survival despite aggressive therapeutics. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in epithelial carcinomas is associated with loss of E-cadherin and resistance to apoptosis. ML327 is a novel small molecule that we have previously shown to reverse epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition features in both epithelial and neural crest-derived cancers. Herein, we sought to evaluate the effects of ML327 on mesenchymal-derived Ewing sarcoma cells, hypothesizing that ML327 initiates growth arrest and sensitizes to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. ML327 induced protein expression changes, increased E-cadherin and decreased vimentin, consistent with partial induction of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in multiple Ewing Sarcoma cell lines (SK-N-MC, TC71, and ES-5838). Induction of epithelial features was associated with apoptosis, as demonstrated by PARP and Caspase 3 cleavage by immunoblotting. Cell cycle analysis validated these findings by marked induction of the subG0 cell population. In vitro combination treatment with TRAIL demonstrated additive induction of apoptotic markers. Taken together, these findings establish a rationale for further in vivo trials of ML327 in cells of mesenchymal origin both alone and in combination with TRAIL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [The safety of nebulization with 3 to 5 ml of adrenaline (1:1000) in children: an evidence based review].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linjie; Sanguebsche, Lucas Soares

    2005-01-01

    To present the evidence regarding the safety of nebulization with 3-5 ml of adrenaline (1:1000) for the treatment of children with acute inflammatory airway obstruction. An electronic search was undertaken, using mainly Medline databases (January of 1949-July of 2004). The study inclusion criteria for this review were: 1) randomized clinical trial; 2) Patients (up to 12 yrs) with diagnosis of bronchiolitis or laryngotracheobronchitis; 3) use of adrenaline (1:1000) by nebulization. The principal data extracted from the trials included adrenaline dosages and their effects on heart rate and blood pressure and any other side-effects. Seven clinical trials with a total of 238 patients were included for this review. Two of the five trials in which larger dosages (> or = 3 ml) of adrenaline were used demonstrated a significant increase in heart rate. The mean increase in heart rate varied from seven to 21 beats per minute, up to 60 minutes after treatment. The highest incidence of pallor was observed in one trial with 21 children treated by nebulization with 3 ml of adrenaline (47.6% in the adrenaline group vs. 14.3% in the salbutamol group, 30 minutes after treatment). Two clinical trials failed to observe a significant effect on blood pressure from nebulization with adrenaline (4 and 5 ml). Evidence shows that nebulization with 3 to 5 ml of adrenaline (1:1000) is a safe therapy, with minor side-effects, for children with acute inflammatory airway obstruction.

  3. QuakeML: Recent Development and First Applications of the Community-Created Seismological Data Exchange Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Kästli, P.; Quakeml Group, T

    2008-12-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based exchange format for seismological data which is being developed using a community-driven approach. It covers basic event description, including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Contributions have been made from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, and ISTI. The current release (Version 1.1, Proposed Recommendation) reflects the results of a public Request for Comments process which has been documented online at http://quakeml.org/RFC_BED_1.0. QuakeML has recently been adopted as a distribution format for earthquake catalogs by GNS Science, New Zealand, and the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC). These institutions provide prototype QuakeML web services. Furthermore, integration of the QuakeML data model in the CSEP (Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability, http://www.cseptesting.org) testing center software developed by SCEC is under way. QuakePy is a Python- based seismicity analysis toolkit which is based on the QuakeML data model. Recently, QuakePy has been used to implement the PMC method for calculating network recording completeness (Schorlemmer and Woessner 2008, in press). Completeness results for seismic networks in Southern California and Japan can be retrieved through the CompletenessWeb (http://completenessweb.org). Future QuakeML development will include an extension for macroseismic information. Furthermore, development on seismic inventory information, resource identifiers, and resource metadata is under way. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

  4. Fine Physical and Genetic Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene MlIW172 Originating from Wild Emmer (Triticum dicoccoides)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun; Zhao, Xiaojie; Cui, Yu; Song, Wei; Huo, Naxin; Liang, Yong; Xie, Jingzhong; Wang, Zhenzhong; Wu, Qiuhong; Chen, Yong-Xing; Lu, Ping; Zhang, De-Yun; Wang, Lili; Sun, Hua; Yang, Tsomin; Keeble-Gagnere, Gabriel; Appels, Rudi; Doležel, Jaroslav; Ling, Hong-Qing; Luo, Mingcheng; Gu, Yongqiang; Sun, Qixin; Liu, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in the world. In this study, a single dominant powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 was identified in the IW172 wild emmer accession and mapped to the distal region of chromosome arm 7AL (bin7AL-16-0.86-0.90) via molecular marker analysis. MlIW172 was closely linked with the RFLP probe Xpsr680-derived STS marker Xmag2185 and the EST markers BE405531 and BE637476. This suggested that MlIW172 might be allelic to the Pm1 locus or a new locus closely linked to Pm1. By screening genomic BAC library of durum wheat cv. Langdon and 7AL-specific BAC library of hexaploid wheat cv. Chinese Spring, and after analyzing genome scaffolds of Triticum urartu containing the marker sequences, additional markers were developed to construct a fine genetic linkage map on the MlIW172 locus region and to delineate the resistance gene within a 0.48 cM interval. Comparative genetics analyses using ESTs and RFLP probe sequences flanking the MlIW172 region against other grass species revealed a general co-linearity in this region with the orthologous genomic regions of rice chromosome 6, Brachypodium chromosome 1, and sorghum chromosome 10. However, orthologous resistance gene-like RGA sequences were only present in wheat and Brachypodium. The BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds that we have developed provide a framework for the physical mapping and map-based cloning of MlIW172. PMID:24955773

  5. Transformation of Arden Syntax's medical logic modules into ArdenML for a business rules management system.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chai Young; Choi, Jong-Ye; Jeong, Seong Jik; Cho, Kyunghee; Koo, Yong Duk; Bae, Jin Hee; Kim, Sukil

    2016-05-16

    Arden Syntax is a Health Level Seven International (HL7) standard language that is used for representing medical knowledge as logic statements. Arden Syntax Markup Language (ArdenML) is a new representation of Arden Syntax based on XML. Compilers are required to execute medical logic modules (MLMs) in the hospital environment. However, ArdenML may also replace the compiler. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that MLMs, encoded in ArdenML, can be transformed into a commercial rule engine format through an XSLT stylesheet and made executable in a target system. The target rule engine selected was Blaze Advisor. We developed an XSLT stylesheet to transform MLMs in ArdenML into Structured Rules Language (SRL) in Blaze Advisor, through a comparison of syntax between the two languages. The stylesheet was then refined recursively, by building and applying rules collected from the billing and coding guidelines of the Korean health insurance service. Two nurse coders collected and verified the rules and two information technology (IT) specialists encoded the MLMs and built the XSLT stylesheet. Finally, the stylesheet was validated by importing the MLMs into Blaze Advisor and applying them to claims data. The language comparison revealed that Blaze Advisor requires the declaration of variables with explicit types. We used both integer and real numbers for numeric types in ArdenML. "IF∼THEN" statements and assignment statements in ArdenML become rules in Blaze Advisor. We designed an XSLT stylesheet to solve this issue. In addition, we maintained the order of rule execution in the transformed rules, and added two small programs to support variable declarations and action statements. A total of 1489 rules were reviewed during this study, of which 324 rules were collected. We removed duplicate rules and encoded 241 unique MLMs in ArdenML, which were successfully transformed into SRL and imported to Blaze Advisor via the XSLT stylesheet. When applied to 73

  6. Implementation of a Goal-Based Systems Engineering Process Using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, Jonathan T.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the core framework used to implement a Goal-Function Tree (GFT) based systems engineering process using the Systems Modeling Language. It defines a set of principles built upon by the theoretical approach described in the InfoTech 2013 ISHM paper titled "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management" presented by Dr. Stephen B. Johnson. Using the SysML language, the principles in this paper describe the expansion of the SysML language as a baseline in order to: hierarchically describe a system, describe that system functionally within success space, and allocate detection mechanisms to success functions for system protection.

  7. Evaluating the long-term efficacy of short-duration 0.1 mg/ml and 0.2 mg/ml MMC in primary trabeculectomy for primary adult glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Sihota, Ramanjit; Angmo, Dewang; Chandra, Anuradha; Gupta, Viney; Sharma, Ajay; Pandey, R M

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate safety and efficacy of 0.1 mg/ml versus 0.2 mg/ml mitomycin-C (MMC), applied for 1 min subconjunctivally, during trabeculectomy for primary adult glaucoma in previously un-operated eyes. This is a randomised controlled, non-inferior, clinical trial consisting of 50 consecutive POAG or CPACG patients uncontrolled on maximal hypotensive therapy, meeting all inclusion criteria. Patients were randomized into two groups and underwent a standard limbus-based trabeculectomy with MMC: Group I, 0.1 mg/ml and Group II, 0.2 mg/ml. The pre-operative and post-operative intraocular pressure (IOP), bleb morphology, and visual acuity were recorded every 6 months for 2 years. Complete success (primary outcome) was defined as IOP ≤ 15 mmHg without any additional medications at the end of 2 years. The average age of patients was 62.6 ± 9.8 years and 61.2 ± 8.1 years in Group 1 and 2, respectively; p = 0.57. The mean preoperative IOP was 22.5 ± 1.4 mmHg and 23.3 ± 1.8 mmHg; p = 0.10. The mean IOP at 2 years was 11.1 ± 1.6 mmHg and 10.8 ± 2.8 mmHg, a mean reduction in IOP of 50.6 ± 1.23 %, and 53.7 ± 2.25 % in Group I and II, respectively. The complete success was 92.0 % and 91.7 % in the two groups, respectively (p = 0.99), and there was one failure (Group II, post trauma). A wider bleb extent and larger areas of thin, transparent conjunctiva over the bleb were seen with the 0.2 mg/ml MMC group (p < 0.001) and in PACG eyes; p < 0.04. A 1-min subconjunctival application of low dose 0.1 mg/ml MMC is non-inferior to 0.2 mg/ml and is probably a safer alternative, as thinning of the bleb is significantly less frequent in the long term.

  8. Renormalized Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  9. Heritability of brain volume change and its relation to intelligence.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Hedman, Anna M; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Schnack, Hugo G; Brans, Rachel G H; Smit, Dirk J A; Kahn, Rene S; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2014-10-15

    Human brain volumes change throughout life, are highly heritable, and have been associated with general cognitive functioning. Cross-sectionally, this association between volume and cognition can largely be attributed to the same genes influencing both traits. We address the question whether longitudinal changes in brain volume or in surface area in young adults are under genetic control and whether these changes are also related to general cognitive functioning. We measured change in brain volume and surface area over a 5-year interval in 176 monozygotic and dizygotic twins and their non-twin siblings aged 19 to 56, using magnetic resonance imaging. Results show that changes in volumes of total brain (mean = -6.4 ml; 0.5% loss), cerebellum (1.4 ml, 1.0% increase), cerebral white matter (4.4 ml, 0.9% increase), lateral ventricles (0.6 ml; 4.8% increase) and in surface area (-19.7 cm(2),1.1% contraction) are heritable (h(2) = 43%; 52%; 29%; 31%; and 33%, respectively). An association between IQ (available for 91 participants) and brain volume change was observed, which was attributed to genes involved in both the variation in change in brain volume and in intelligence. Thus, dynamic changes in brain structure are heritable and may have cognitive significance in adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. mlRho - a program for estimating the population mutation and recombination rates from shotgun-sequenced diploid genomes.

    PubMed

    Haubold, Bernhard; Pfaffelhuber, Peter; Lynch, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Improvements in sequencing technology over the past 5 years are leading to routine application of shotgun sequencing in the fields of ecology and evolution. However, the theory to estimate evolutionary parameters from these data is still being worked out. Here we present an extension and implementation of part of this theory, mlRho. This program can efficiently compute the following three maximum likelihood estimators based on shotgun sequence data obtained from single diploid individuals: the population mutation rate (4N(e)mu), the sequencing error rate, and the population recombination rate (4N(e)c). We demonstrate the accuracy of mlRho by applying it to simulated data sets. In addition, we analyse the genomes of the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis and the water flea Daphnia pulex. Ciona intestinalis is an obligate outcrosser, while D. pulex is a cyclic parthenogen, and we discuss how these contrasting life histories are reflected in our parameter estimates. The program mlRho is freely available from http://guanine.evolbio.mpg.de/mlRho.

  11. mlRho – a program for estimating the population mutation and recombination rates from shotgun-sequenced diploid genomes

    PubMed Central

    HAUBOLD, BERNHARD; PFAFFELHUBER, PETER; LYNCH, MICHAEL

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in sequencing technology over the past 5 years are leading to routine application of shotgun sequencing in the fields of ecology and evolution. However, the theory to estimate evolutionary parameters from these data is still being worked out. Here we present an extension and implementation of part of this theory, mlRho. This program can efficiently compute the following three maximum likelihood estimators based on shotgun sequence data obtained from single diploid individuals: the population mutation rate (4Neμ), the sequencing error rate, and the population recombination rate (4Nec). We demonstrate the accuracy of mlRho by applying it to simulated data sets. In addition, we analyse the genomes of the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis and the water flea Daphnia pulex. Ciona intestinalis is an obligate outcrosser, while D. pulex is a cyclic parthenogen, and we discuss how these contrasting life histories are reflected in our parameter estimates. The program mlRho is freely available from http://guanine.evolbio.mpg.de/mlRho. PMID:20331786

  12. SEM with Missing Data and Unknown Population Distributions Using Two-Stage ML: Theory and Its Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Lu, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This article provides the theory and application of the 2-stage maximum likelihood (ML) procedure for structural equation modeling (SEM) with missing data. The validity of this procedure does not require the assumption of a normally distributed population. When the population is normally distributed and all missing data are missing at random…

  13. Plane-dependent ML scatter scaling: 3D extension of the 2D simulated single scatter (SSS) estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Ahmadreza; Salvo, Koen; Vahle, Thomas; Panin, Vladimir; Casey, Michael; Boada, Fernando; Defrise, Michel; Nuyts, Johan

    2017-08-01

    Scatter correction is typically done using a simulation of the single scatter, which is then scaled to account for multiple scatters and other possible model mismatches. This scaling factor is determined by fitting the simulated scatter sinogram to the measured sinogram, using only counts measured along LORs that do not intersect the patient body, i.e. ‘scatter-tails’. Extending previous work, we propose to scale the scatter with a plane dependent factor, which is determined as an additional unknown in the maximum likelihood (ML) reconstructions, using counts in the entire sinogram rather than only the ‘scatter-tails’. The ML-scaled scatter estimates are validated using a Monte-Carlo simulation of a NEMA-like phantom, a phantom scan with typical contrast ratios of a 68Ga-PSMA scan, and 23 whole-body 18F-FDG patient scans. On average, we observe a 12.2% change in the total amount of tracer activity of the MLEM reconstructions of our whole-body patient database when the proposed ML scatter scales are used. Furthermore, reconstructions using the ML-scaled scatter estimates are found to eliminate the typical ‘halo’ artifacts that are often observed in the vicinity of high focal uptake regions.

  14. Surgical and oncological outcomes in patients with preoperative PSA >20 ng/ml undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Zugor, Vahudin; Witt, Jorn H; Heidenreich, Axel; Porres, Daniel; Labanaris, Apostolos P

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the surgical and the oncological outcomes in patients with a preoperative prostate specific antigen (PSA) value >20 ng/ml, undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for prostate cancer. The records of 2000 men who underwent RARP from February 2006 to April 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 147 (7.3%) patients with a preoperative PSA value >20 ng/ml were identified. A comparison was performed between the overall patient cohort and the patients with PSA >20 ng/ml. The analyzed parameters included: minor and major postoperative complications, postoperative Gleason score, pathological stage, positive margins and lymph node status, as well as biochemical progression and disease-specific mortality during the follow-up period. The following results reflect the comparison of the overall cohort of patients vs. the cohort of patients who had a preoperative PSA >20 ng/ml. A statistical difference of the analyzed parameters was observed for median PSA value 10.3 ng/ml vs. 34.8 ng/ml (p<0.05), for bilateral neurovascular bundle preservation 65.7% vs. 19.7% (p<0.001), for a Gleason score <7, 42.8% vs. 12.9% (p<0.05) and for a Gleason score >7 in 9.5% vs. 19.7% (p<0.05). Organ-confined disease was noted in 73.5% vs. 31.9% (p<0.05) and extraprostatic extension in 25.2% vs. 86.1% (p<0.05). The percentage of cancer found in the prostate specimen was 16.1% vs. 38.1% (p<0.05) and a positive surgical margin (PSM) status was encountered in 8.9% vs. 33.3% (p<0.05) of patients. Positive lymph nodes were encountered in 3.2% vs. 17.1% of patients (p<0.05). After a median follow-up of 19.6 months (range 3-56 months), 118 patients (80.2%) were free of biochemical progression and no disease-specific mortality was evident. Although RARP in patients with preoperative PSA >20 ng/ml is a safe surgical procedure with limited complications, the risk of positive lymph nodes, as well as the PSM status are found to be significantly

  15. Extracellular distribution volumes of hydrophilic solutes used to measure the glomerular filtration rate: comparison between chromium-51-EDTA and iohexol.

    PubMed

    Bird, Nicholas J; Peters, Christina; Michell, A Robert; Peters, A Michael

    2007-02-01

    Extracellular fluid volume (ECV) is larger when measured with Tc-99m-DTPA ( approximately 500 Da) than inulin (6 kDa). As part of an assessment of the suitability of the non-radioactive marker, iohexol, against the gold standard tracer, Cr-51-EDTA, for measurement of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based on a postal service, we took the opportunity to determine if this volume dependence is present for diffusible markers less disparate in size than inulin and Tc-99m-DTPA. Cr-51-EDTA ( approximately 400 Da) and iohexol ( approximately 900 Da) were administered into the opposite arms of 20 normal volunteers (fasting and non-fasting) and 60 patients (non-fasting), including 36 diabetics, 10 cancer patients and 13 dermatology patients. Blood was obtained from both arms 20, 40, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after injection and assayed for a marker injected contra-laterally. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and mean indicator transit time, T, were measured from the bi-exponential clearance curves. ECV, the product of GFR and T, was subdivided into V(1) (administered indicator divided by the sum of zero-time intercepts of the two exponentials) and V(2) (the difference between V(1) and ECV). Variables were scaled to 1.73 m(2). For all 100 studies, the mean GFR from Cr-51-EDTA was 3 ml min(-1) higher than iohexol (p < 0.01). ECV was 0.41 L higher (p < 0.02) and V(1) 0.65 L higher (p < 0.001) from Cr-51-EDTA but V(2) was 0.33 L lower (p < 0.02). V(1)/ECV was 0.031 higher from Cr-51-EDTA (p < 0.01). ECV and V(2) from Cr-51-EDTA were both higher in diabetics (15.1 [1.7] and 5.0 [0.095] L, respectively) compared with normal non-fasting subjects (13.7 [1.5] and 4.3 [1.0]; p < 0.01). ECV and the volumes of its sub-compartments are different between markers that are less than an order of magnitude different in size.

  16. Human Relaxin Receptor Is Fully Functional in Humanized Mice and Is Activated by Small Molecule Agonist ML290.

    PubMed

    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Soula, Mariluz; Myhr, Courtney; Ho, Brian A; Moore, Stefanie N; Yoo, Changwon; Cervantes, Briana; How, Javier; Marugan, Juan; Agoulnik, Irina U; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2017-06-01

    Relaxin, a small peptide hormone of the insulin/relaxin family, demonstrated antifibrotic, organ protective, vasodilatory, and proangiogenic properties in clinical trials and several animal models of human diseases. Relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) is the relaxin cognate G protein-coupled receptor. We have identified a series of small molecule agonists of human RXFP1. The lead compound ML290 demonstrated preferred absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion profiles, is easy to synthesize, and has high stability in vivo . However, ML290 does not activate rodent RXFP1s and therefore cannot be tested in common preclinical animal models. Here we describe the production and analysis of a mouse transgenic model, a knock-out/knock-in of the human RXFP1 ( hRXFP1 ) complementary DNA into the mouse Rxfp1 ( mRxfp1 ) gene. Insertion of the vector into the mRxfp1 locus caused disruption of mRxfp1 and expression of hRXFP1 . The transcriptional expression pattern of the hRXFP1 allele was similar to mRxfp1 . Female mice homozygous for hRXFP1 showed relaxation of the pubic symphysis at parturition and normal development of mammary nipples and vaginal epithelium, indicating full complementation of mRxfp1 gene ablation. Intravenous injection of relaxin led to an increase in heart rate in humanized and wild-type females but not in Rxfp1 -deficient mice, whereas ML290 increased heart rate in humanized but not wild-type animals, suggesting specific target engagement by ML290. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of ML290 caused a decrease in blood osmolality. Taken together, our data show humanized RXFP1 mice can be used for testing relaxin receptor modulators in various preclinical studies.

  17. Heterozygous germline mutations in A2ML1 are associated with a disorder clinically related to Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Bonetti, Monica; Paardekooper Overman, Jeroen; Nillesen, Willy M; Frints, Suzanna G M; de Ligt, Joep; Zampino, Giuseppe; Justino, Ana; Machado, José C; Schepens, Marga; Brunner, Han G; Veltman, Joris A; Scheffer, Hans; Gros, Piet; Costa, José L; Tartaglia, Marco; van der Burgt, Ineke; Yntema, Helger G; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2015-03-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a developmental disorder characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphisms and congenital heart defects. To date, all mutations known to cause NS are dominant, activating mutations in signal transducers of the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In 25% of cases, however, the genetic cause of NS remains elusive, suggesting that factors other than those involved in the canonical RAS/MAPK pathway may also have a role. Here, we used family-based whole exome sequencing of a case-parent trio and identified a de novo mutation, p.(Arg802His), in A2ML1, which encodes the secreted protease inhibitor α-2-macroglobulin (A2M)-like-1. Subsequent resequencing of A2ML1 in 155 cases with a clinical diagnosis of NS led to the identification of additional mutations in two families, p.(Arg802Leu) and p.(Arg592Leu). Functional characterization of these human A2ML1 mutations in zebrafish showed NS-like developmental defects, including a broad head, blunted face and cardiac malformations. Using the crystal structure of A2M, which is highly homologous to A2ML1, we identified the intramolecular interaction partner of p.Arg802. Mutation of this residue, p.Glu906, induced similar developmental defects in zebrafish, strengthening our conclusion that mutations in A2ML1 cause a disorder clinically related to NS. This is the first report of the involvement of an extracellular factor in a disorder clinically related to RASopathies, providing potential new leads for better understanding of the molecular basis of this family of developmental diseases.

  18. Human Relaxin Receptor Is Fully Functional in Humanized Mice and Is Activated by Small Molecule Agonist ML290

    PubMed Central

    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M.; Soula, Mariluz; Myhr, Courtney; Ho, Brian A.; Moore, Stefanie N.; Yoo, Changwon; Cervantes, Briana; How, Javier; Marugan, Juan; Agoulnik, Irina U.

    2017-01-01

    Relaxin, a small peptide hormone of the insulin/relaxin family, demonstrated antifibrotic, organ protective, vasodilatory, and proangiogenic properties in clinical trials and several animal models of human diseases. Relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) is the relaxin cognate G protein-coupled receptor. We have identified a series of small molecule agonists of human RXFP1. The lead compound ML290 demonstrated preferred absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion profiles, is easy to synthesize, and has high stability in vivo. However, ML290 does not activate rodent RXFP1s and therefore cannot be tested in common preclinical animal models. Here we describe the production and analysis of a mouse transgenic model, a knock-out/knock-in of the human RXFP1 (hRXFP1) complementary DNA into the mouse Rxfp1 (mRxfp1) gene. Insertion of the vector into the mRxfp1 locus caused disruption of mRxfp1 and expression of hRXFP1. The transcriptional expression pattern of the hRXFP1 allele was similar to mRxfp1. Female mice homozygous for hRXFP1 showed relaxation of the pubic symphysis at parturition and normal development of mammary nipples and vaginal epithelium, indicating full complementation of mRxfp1 gene ablation. Intravenous injection of relaxin led to an increase in heart rate in humanized and wild-type females but not in Rxfp1-deficient mice, whereas ML290 increased heart rate in humanized but not wild-type animals, suggesting specific target engagement by ML290. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of ML290 caused a decrease in blood osmolality. Taken together, our data show humanized RXFP1 mice can be used for testing relaxin receptor modulators in various preclinical studies. PMID:28825052

  19. Thoracoabdominal blood volume change and its effect on lung and chest wall volumes.

    PubMed

    Kimball, W R; Kelly, K B; Mead, J

    1986-09-01

    The effects of changing blood volume within the thoracoabdominal cavity (Vtab) have been studied in four male subjects trained in respiratory maneuvers. Subjects were studied lying supine in a pressure plethysmograph with inflatable fracture splints placed around both arms and legs. Changes in Vtab were produced by inflating the splints to 30 cmH2O. Thoracic gas volume (Vtg) measured by Boyle's law, and the change in chest wall volume (delta Vw), measured by anteroposterior magnetometers on rib cage and abdomen, were measured almost simultaneously and at two respiratory system volumes. The quantity of blood moved by splint inflation was estimated for each subject at both respiratory system volumes and varied between 215 and 752 ml. The chest wall increased 64 +/- 11.8% (mean +/- SD) of the increase in Vtab. Thus increases in thoracoabdominal blood volume increase Vw about twice the decrease in Vtg.

  20. Estimation of regional gas and tissue volumes of the lung in supine man using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Denison, D M; Morgan, M D; Millar, A B

    1986-08-01

    This study was intended to discover how well computed tomography could recover the volume and weight of lung like foams in a body like shell, and then how well it could recover the volume and weight of the lungs in supine man. Model thoraces were made with various loaves of bread submerged in water. Computed tomography scans recovered the volume of the model lungs (true volume range 250-12,500 ml) within +0.2 (SD 68) ml and their weights (true range 72-3125 g) within +30 (78) g. Scans also recovered successive injections of 50 ml of water, within +/- 5 ml. Scans in 12 healthy supine men recovered their vital capacities, total lung capacities (TLC), and predicted tissue volumes with comparable accuracy. At total lung capacity the mean tissue volume of single lungs was 431 (64) ml and at residual volume (RV) it was 427 (63) ml. Tissue volume was then used to match inspiratory and expiratory slices and calculate regional ventilation. Throughout the mid 90% of lung the RV/TLC ratio was fairly constant--mean 21% (5%). New methods of presenting such regional data graphically and automatically are also described.

  1. Recommended summer sunlight exposure levels can produce sufficient (> or =20 ng ml(-1)) but not the proposed optimal (> or =32 ng ml(-1)) 25(OH)D levels at UK latitudes.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Lesley E; Webb, Ann R; Fraser, Heather I; Kift, Richard; Durkin, Marie T; Allan, Donald; O'Brien, Sarah J; Vail, Andy; Berry, Jacqueline L

    2010-05-01

    Recommendations on limitation of summer sunlight exposure to prevent skin cancer may conflict with requirements to protect bone health through adequate vitamin D levels, the principal source being UVB in summer sunlight. We determined whether sufficient (> or =20 ng ml(-1)) and proposed optimal (> or =32 ng ml(-1)) 25(OH)D levels are attained by following UK guidance advising casual short exposures to UVB in summer sunlight, and performed the study under known conditions to enhance the specificity of future recommendations. During wintertime, when ambient UVB is negligible, 120 white Caucasians, aged 20-60 years, from Greater Manchester, UK (53.5 degrees N) received a simulated summer's sunlight exposures, specifically 1.3 standard erythemal dose, three times weekly for 6 weeks, while wearing T-shirt and shorts. The baseline winter data predict that 5% (confidence interval (CI): 2.7-8.6) of Greater Manchester white Caucasians have deficient (<5 ng ml(-1)) 25(OH)D, 62.5% (CI: 55.2-69.4) have insufficient, and only 2.9% (CI: 1.4-5.6) have proposed optimal levels. After the simulated summer exposures, 90 (CI: 84.9-93.7) and 26.2% (CI: 20.1-33.2) reached 20 and 32 ng ml(-1) 25(OH)D, respectively. Assuming midday UVB levels, sufficient but suboptimal vitamin D status is attained after a summer's short (13 minutes) sunlight exposures to 35% skin surface area; these findings will assist future public health guidance on vitamin D acquisition.

  2. Determining Optimal Waste Volume From an Intravenous Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Rachel B.; Summer, Suzanne S.; Lawrence, Michelle; Shova, Amy; McGraw, Catherine A.; Khoury, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Waste is blood drawn from an intravenous (IV) catheter to remove saline before obtaining a blood sample. This study examines the minimum waste volume resulting in an undiluted sample. A repeated measures design was used. Investigators placed an IV catheter in 60 healthy adults and obtained samples at baseline and following waste volume ranging from 0.5 mL to 3 mL. A random effects mixed model was used to determine the stabilizing point. For sodium and glucose measurements, this stabilizing point was 1 mL of waste. Knowing that only 1 mL of waste is needed will prevent clinicians from obtaining extra waste and discarding blood needlessly. PMID:23455970

  3. Subcutaneous Injection Volume of Biopharmaceuticals-Pushing the Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Koulov, Atanas; Joerg, Susanne; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2016-08-01

    Administration into the subcutaneous (SC) tissue is a typical route of delivery for therapeutic proteins, especially for frequent treatments, long-term regimens, or self-administration. It is currently believed that the maximum volume for SC injections is approximately 1.5 mL. Larger SC injection volumes are considered to be associated with injection pain and adverse events at the injection site. However, no controlled clinical studies and actual evidence exist to support this assumption. In this review, we discuss current and publically available data related to SC administration volumes. We conclude that injection volumes higher than 3.5 mL are worth exploring if required for the development of efficacious drug treatments. Studying tissue back pressure, injection site leakage, local tolerability, and injection-related adverse events, such as injection pain, should be considered for the development of higher SC injection volumes. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ART-ML - a novel XML format for the biological procedures modeling and the representation of blood flow simulation.

    PubMed

    Karvounis, E C; Tsakanikas, V D; Fotiou, E; Fotiadis, D I

    2010-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel Extensible Markup Language (XML) based format called ART-ML that aims at supporting the interoperability and the reuse of models of blood flow, mass transport and plaque formation, exported by ARTool. ARTool is a platform for the automatic processing of various image modalities of coronary and carotid arteries. The images and their content are fused to develop morphological models of the arteries in easy to handle 3D representations. The platform incorporates efficient algorithms which are able to perform blood flow simulation. In addition atherosclerotic plaque development is estimated taking into account morphological, flow and genetic factors. ART-ML provides a XML format that enables the representation and management of embedded models within the ARTool platform and the storage and interchange of well-defined information. This approach influences in the model creation, model exchange, model reuse and result evaluation.

  5. ACM SIGPLAN Workshop on ML and Its Applications Held in San Francisco, California on June 20-21, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Approach to Concrete Syntax Objects within ML Mikael Petterson and Peter Fritzson (Link6ping University, Sweden) ............... 17 Session 2: 11:15 a.m...proof development system, or code optimizers). For the sake of concreteness , we set our example in the context of a generalized A-calculus. A term is... concrete . Our implementation of abstract constructors can also be applied to solve an outstand- ing problem with datatype representation and abstraction. In

  6. BioCompoundML: A General Biofuel Property Screening Tool for Biological Molecules Using Random Forest Classifiers

    DOE PAGES

    Whitmore, Leanne S.; Davis, Ryan W.; McCormick, Robert L.; ...

    2016-09-15

    Screening a large number of biologically derived molecules for potential fuel compounds without recourse to experimental testing is important in identifying understudied yet valuable molecules. Experimental testing, although a valuable standard for measuring fuel properties, has several major limitations, including the requirement of testably high quantities, considerable expense, and a large amount of time. This paper discusses the development of a general-purpose fuel property tool, using machine learning, whose outcome is to screen molecules for desirable fuel properties. BioCompoundML adopts a general methodology, requiring as input only a list of training compounds (with identifiers and measured values) and a listmore » of testing compounds (with identifiers). For the training data, BioCompoundML collects open data from the National Center for Biotechnology Information, incorporates user-provided features, imputes missing values, performs feature reduction, builds a classifier, and clusters compounds. BioCompoundML then collects data for the testing compounds, predicts class membership, and determines whether compounds are found in the range of variability of the training data set. We demonstrate this tool using three different fuel properties: research octane number (RON), threshold soot index (TSI), and melting point (MP). Here we provide measures of its success with these properties using randomized train/test measurements: average accuracy is 88% in RON, 85% in TSI, and 94% in MP; average precision is 88% in RON, 88% in TSI, and 95% in MP; and average recall is 88% in RON, 82% in TSI, and 97% in MP. The receiver operator characteristics (area under the curve) were estimated at 0.88 in RON, 0.86 in TSI, and 0.87 in MP. We also measured the success of BioCompoundML by sending 16 compounds for direct RON determination. Finally, we provide a screen of 1977 hydrocarbons/oxygenates within the 8696 compounds in MetaCyc, identifying compounds with high

  7. ElVisML: an open data format for the exchange and storage of electrophysiological data in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Torsten; Peters, Tobias; Jägle, Herbert; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2018-02-01

    The ISCEV standards and recommendations for electrophysiological recordings in ophthalmology define a set of protocols with stimulus parameters, acquisition settings, and recording conditions, to unify the data and enable comparability of results across centers. Up to now, however, there are no standards to define the storage and exchange of such electrophysiological recordings. The aim of this study was to develop an open standard data format for the exchange and storage of visual electrophysiological data (ElVisML). We first surveyed existing data formats for biomedical signals and examined their suitability for electrophysiological data in ophthalmology. We then compared the suitability of text-based and binary formats, as well as encoding in Extensible Markup Language (XML) and character/comma-separated values. The results of the methodological consideration led to the development of ElVisML with an XML-encoded text-based format. This allows referential integrity, extensibility, the storing of accompanying units, as well as ensuring confidentiality and integrity of the data. A visualization of ElVisML documents (ElVisWeb) has additionally been developed, which facilitates the exchange of recordings on mailing lists and allows open access to data along with published articles. The open data format ElVisML ensures the quality, validity, and integrity of electrophysiological data transmission and storage as well as providing manufacturer-independent access and long-term archiving in a future-proof format. Standardization of the format of such neurophysiology data would promote the development of new techniques and open software for the use of neurophysiological data in both clinic and research.

  8. Skeletal muscle volume following dehydration induced by exercise in heat.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Kyle J; Cook, Summer B; Fairchild, Timothy J; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L

    2012-09-04

    Intracellular skeletal muscle water is redistributed into the extracellular compartment during periods of dehydration, suggesting an associated decline in muscle volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal muscle volume in active (knee extensors (KE)) and less active (biceps/triceps brachii, deltoid) musculature following dehydration induced by exercise in heat. Twelve participants (seven men, five women) cycled in the heat under two conditions: (1) dehydration (DHYD) resulting in 3% and 5% losses of estimated total body water (ETBW), which was assessed by changes in body mass, and (2) fluid replacement (FR) where 3% and 5% losses of ETBW were counteracted by intermittent (20 to 30 min) fluid ingestion via a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage. During both conditions, serum osmolality and skeletal muscle volume (assessed by magnetic resonance imaging) were measured at baseline and at the 3% and 5% ETBW loss measurement points. In DHYD, serum osmolality increased at 3% (p = 0.005) and 5% (p < 0.001) ETBW losses, while FR decreased serum osmolality at the 5% loss of ETBW time point (p = 0.009). In DHYD, KE muscle volume declined from 1,464 ± 446 ml to 1,406 ± 425 ml (3.9%, p < 0.001) at 3% ETBW loss and to 1,378 ± 421 ml (5.9%, p < 0.001) at 5% ETBW loss. The largest decline in KE volume in DYHD occurred in the mid-belly (31 ml, p = 0.001) and proximal (24 ml, p = 0.001) regions of the grouped vasti muscles. There were no changes in volume for the biceps/triceps (p = 0.35) or deltoid (p = 0.92) during DHYD. FR prevented the loss of KE muscle volume at 3% (1,430 ± 435 ml, p = 0.074) and 5% (1,431 ± 439 ml, p = 0.156) ETBW loss time points compared to baseline (1,445 ± 436 ml). Following exercise in the heat, the actively contracting muscles lost volume, while replacing lost fluids intermittently during exercise in heat prevented this decline. These results support the use of muscle

  9. Skeletal muscle volume following dehydration induced by exercise in heat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intracellular skeletal muscle water is redistributed into the extracellular compartment during periods of dehydration, suggesting an associated decline in muscle volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal muscle volume in active (knee extensors (KE)) and less active (biceps/triceps brachii, deltoid) musculature following dehydration induced by exercise in heat. Methods Twelve participants (seven men, five women) cycled in the heat under two conditions: (1) dehydration (DHYD) resulting in 3% and 5% losses of estimated total body water (ETBW), which was assessed by changes in body mass, and (2) fluid replacement (FR) where 3% and 5% losses of ETBW were counteracted by intermittent (20 to 30 min) fluid ingestion via a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage. During both conditions, serum osmolality and skeletal muscle volume (assessed by magnetic resonance imaging) were measured at baseline and at the 3% and 5% ETBW loss measurement points. Results In DHYD, serum osmolality increased at 3% (p = 0.005) and 5% (p < 0.001) ETBW losses, while FR decreased serum osmolality at the 5% loss of ETBW time point (p = 0.009). In DHYD, KE muscle volume declined from 1,464 ± 446 ml to 1,406 ± 425 ml (3.9%, p < 0.001) at 3% ETBW loss and to 1,378 ± 421 ml (5.9%, p < 0.001) at 5% ETBW loss. The largest decline in KE volume in DYHD occurred in the mid-belly (31 ml, p = 0.001) and proximal (24 ml, p = 0.001) regions of the grouped vasti muscles. There were no changes in volume for the biceps/triceps (p = 0.35) or deltoid (p = 0.92) during DHYD. FR prevented the loss of KE muscle volume at 3% (1,430 ± 435 ml, p = 0.074) and 5% (1,431 ± 439 ml, p = 0.156) ETBW loss time points compared to baseline (1,445 ± 436 ml). Conclusions Following exercise in the heat, the actively contracting muscles lost volume, while replacing lost fluids intermittently during exercise in heat prevented this decline

  10. Aedes aegypti ML and Niemann-Pick type C family members are agonists of dengue virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    Upon exposure to dengue virus, the Aedes aegypti mosquito vector mounts an anti-viral immune defense by activating the Toll, JAK/STAT, and RNAi pathways, thereby limiting infection. While these pathways and several other factors have been identified as dengue virus antagonists, our knowledge of factors that facilitate dengue virus infection is limited. Previous dengue virus infection-responsive transcriptome analyses have revealed an increased mRNA abundance of members of the myeloid differentiation 2-related lipid recognition protein (ML) and the Niemann Pick-type C1 (NPC1) families upon dengue virus infection. These genes encode lipid-binding proteins that have been shown to play a role in host-pathogen interactions in other organisms. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of a ML and a NPC1 gene family member in both laboratory strain and field-derived Ae. aegypti mosquitoes resulted in significantly elevated resistance to dengue virus in mosquito midguts, suggesting that these genes play roles as dengue virus agonists. In addition to their possible roles in virus cell entry and replication, gene expression analyses suggested that ML and NPC1 family members also facilitate viral infection by modulating the mosquito’s immune competence. Our study suggests that the dengue virus influences the expression of these genes to facilitate its infection of the mosquito host. PMID:24135719

  11. Blind and semi-blind ML detection for space-time block-coded OFDM wireless systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaib, Alam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the joint maximum likelihood (ML) data detection and channel estimation problem for Alamouti space-time block-coded (STBC) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless systems. The joint ML estimation and data detection is generally considered a hard combinatorial optimization problem. We propose an efficient low-complexity algorithm based on branch-estimate-bound strategy that renders exact joint ML solution. However, the computational complexity of blind algorithm becomes critical at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the number of OFDM carriers and constellation size are increased especially in multiple-antenna systems. To overcome this problem, a semi-blind algorithm based on a new framework for reducing the complexity is proposed by relying on subcarrier reordering and decoding the carriers with different levels of confidence using a suitable reliability criterion. In addition, it is shown that by utilizing the inherent structure of Alamouti coding, the estimation performance improvement or the complexity reduction can be achieved. The proposed algorithms can reliably track the wireless Rayleigh fading channel without requiring any channel statistics. Simulation results presented against the perfect coherent detection demonstrate the effectiveness of blind and semi-blind algorithms over frequency-selective channels with different fading characteristics.

  12. Influence of infusion volume on the ocular hemodynamic effects of peribulbar anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Lung, Solveig; Luksch, Alexandra; Weigert, Günther; Georgopoulos, Michael; Menapace, Rupert; Polska, Elzbieta; Garhofer, Gerhard; Findl, Oliver; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2006-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that ocular blood-flow response to peribulbar anesthesia can be reduced by using a smaller volume of anesthetic mixture. Departments of Ophthalmology and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Twenty patients scheduled for bilateral age-related cataract surgery were enrolled in a prospective randomized balanced observer-masked crossover study. Two study days with a 2 mL injection volume or 5 mL injection volume used for peribulbar anesthesia were scheduled. On 1 study day, patients received the 1-dose regimen and on the other study day, when the contralateral eye had surgery, patients received the other injection volume. On both study days, the anesthetic mixture consisted of an equal amount of lidocaine, bupivacaine, and hyaluronidase independently of the injection volume. Intraocular pressure (IOP), blood pressure, and pulse rate were measured noninvasively. Ocular fundus pulsation amplitude (FPA) and peak systolic and end diastolic flow velocities in the central retinal artery were measured with laser interferometry and color Doppler imaging, respectively. The results were recorded as means +/- SD. Peribulbar anesthesia increased IOP and reduced FPA and flow velocities in the central retinal artery. The effects on IOP (5 mL, 35.1% +/- 16.0%; 2 mL, 14.1% +/- 14.1%; P<.001) and ocular hemodynamic parameters (FPA: 5 mL, -17.5% +/- 7.8%/2 mL, -7.3% +/- 7.2%, P<.001; peak systolic velocity: 5 mL, -19.5% +/- 10.7%/2 mL, -10.6% +/- 9.8%, P = .013; end diastolic velocity: 5 mL, -16.7% +/- 6.2%/2 mL, -8.4% +/- 7.3%, P = .005) were more pronounced with the 5 mL injection volume than with the 2 mL injection volume. An injection volume of 2 mL instead of 5 mL reduced the ocular blood-flow response to peribulbar anesthesia. This procedure may be used in patients with ocular vascular disease to reduce the incidence of anesthesia-induced ischemia and loss of vision.

  13. Developing SoilML as a global standard for the collation and transfer of soil data and information.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, Luca; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; McBratney, Alex; Ahamed, Sonya; McMillan, Bob; Jacquier, David; Fortner, Jim

    2010-05-01

    There is an increasing need to collect, collate and share soil data and information within countries, across regions and globally. Timely access to consistent and authoritative data and information is critical to issues related to food production, climate change, water management, energy production and biodiversityl. Soil data and information is managed by numerous agencies and organisations using a plethora of processes, scales and standards. A number of national and international activities and projects are currently dealing with the issues associated with collation of disparate data sets. Standards are being developed for data storage, transfer and collation like, for example, in the GobalSoilMap.net project, e-SOTER and the EU Inspire GS-SOIL. Individually these will not provide a single internationally recognised and adopted standard for soil data and information exchange. A recent GlobalSoilMap.net meeting held in Wageningen, The Netherlands, discussed the needs of a harmonized information model for collation of a global 90 metre grid of key soil attributes (organic carbon, soil texture, pH, depth to bedrock/impeding layer, and predictions of bulk density and available water capacity) at six specified depth increments. The meeting considered a number of existing data base implementations (such as ASRIS, NASIS, WISE, SOTER) as well as emerging abstract information models that are being expressed in UML (such as e-SOTER). It examined related information models, such as GeoSciML and the lessons learnt in developing and implementing such community agreed models, features and vocabularies. There is a need to develop a global soil information standard, to be called SoilML, that would allow access and use of data across a broad range of international initiatives (such as GEOSS and INSPIRE) as well as supporting national, regional and local data interoperability and integration. The meeting agreed to adopt the interoperability approaches of formalising the

  14. Clinical Experience With 11,460 mL of a 20-mg/mL, Smooth, Highly Cohesive, Viscous Hyaluronic Acid Filler.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Shannon; Carruthers, Jean; Carruthers, Alastair

    2015-09-01

    A 3-dimensional approach to facial rejuvenation restores volume lost over time. Hyaluronic acid (HA) filling agents provide long-lasting correction with minimal side effects and a high level of patient satisfaction. The newest HA formulation is a 20-mg/mL smooth cohesive filler (Juvéderm Voluma [HA-V]) that combines both low- and high-molecular-weight HA for more efficient cross-linking and greater lift capabilities. To document the clinical experience with HA-V over the course of 68 months. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who received HA-V for facial augmentation between February 1, 2009, and October 1, 2014. Clinical results were assessed 2 weeks after initial treatment, with touch-ups performed as necessary. Color photographs were taken before and after treatment, and adverse events were documented. Over 68 months, the authors treated 2,342 patients with 11,460 mL of HA-V. Aesthetic results lasted upwards of 12 months, and most side effects were transient and mild. Three patients developed signs of vascular compromise that was promptly treated and resolved within 2 months. Twenty-one patients (<0.5%) experienced late-onset, temporary, nontender nodules that were successfully managed with conservative measures. Easy to use and well tolerated, HA-V is ideally formulated for soft-tissue augmentation in the face, with clinical effects lasting 12 months or longer.

  15. Is the Ellipsoid Formula the New Standard for 3-Tesla MRI Prostate Volume Calculation without Endorectal Coil?

    PubMed

    Haas, Matthias; Günzel, Karsten; Miller, Kurt; Hamm, Bernd; Cash, Hannes; Asbach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Prostate volume in multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is of clinical importance. For 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil, there is no distinctive standard for volume calculation. We tested the accuracy of the ellipsoid formula with planimetric volume measurements as reference and investigated the correlation of gland volume and cancer detection rate on MRI/ultrasound (MRI/US) fusion-guided biopsy. One hundred forty-three patients with findings on 3-Tesla mpMRI suspicious of cancer and subsequent MRI/US fusion-guided targeted biopsy and additional systematic biopsy were analyzed. T2-weighted images were used for measuring the prostate diameters and for planimetric volume measurement by a segmentation software. Planimetric and calculated prostate volumes were compared with clinical data. The median prostate volume was 48.1 ml (interquartile range (IQR) 36.9-62.1 ml). Volume calculated by the ellipsoid formula showed a strong concordance with planimetric volume, with a tendency to underestimate prostate volume (median volume 43.1 ml (IQR 31.2-58.8 ml); r = 0.903, p < 0.001). There was a moderate, significant inverse correlation of prostate volume to a positive biopsy result (r = -0.24, p = 0.004). The ellipsoid formula gives sufficient approximation of prostate volume on 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil. It allows a fast, valid volume calculation in prostate MRI datasets. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The effectiveness of patient-controlled epidural analgesia with ropivacaine 0.165% with fentanyl 2.0 miroc g/ml or levobupivacaine 0.125% with fentanyl 2.0 micro g/ml as a method of postoperative analgesia after major orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Misiran, Karis Bin; Yahaya, Lenie Suryani Binti

    2013-02-01

    This prospective randomized single-blinded study was conducted to determine whether there were differences in consumption, demand dosing and postoperative analgesia quality between PCEA using ropivacaine and levobupivacaine. Seventy patients with ASA classification I and II aged 18 to 80 years old scheduled for elective total knee replacement or total hip replacement were studied. All patients received CSE and then were randomly allocated to receive either ropivacaine 0.165% (Group A) or levobupivacaine 0.125% (Group B) both added with fentanyl 2.0 mcro g/ml via epidural route. PCEA regime was offered for 48 hours with additional standard orthopaedic practice of oral analgesia (etoricoxib 120 mg OD and paracetamol 1.0 gm QID) on the second postoperative day. Basal infusion of PCEA was at 3.0 ml/hour and discontinued after 24 hours following started of PCEA. The consumption of local anaesthetics used within the first 24 hours (basal + demand) and 48 hours (total basal + total demand) were recorded. The VAS pain score, sedation score, side effects and vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate) were also recorded every four hours for 48 hours. This study showed that the total volume of drug used was significantly higher in Group A (163.31+/- 29.01 ml) than Group B (142.69 +/- 30.93ml) (p<0. 01). The mean dose of Group A for the first 48 hours after surgery was 251.43 +/- 70.02mg and was significantly greater than the mean dose of Group B (178.91 +/-42.33 mg) (p<0.01). The numbers of PCEA boluses delivered (D) and PCEA attempts (A) were higher in the Group A (22.37 +/-7.32 and 27.66 +/- 9.12) in contrast to Group B (17.63 +/- 7.71 and 24.40 +/- 11.51) but the differences were not statistically significant. The ratio D/A showed significantly higher in Group A (0.83 +/- 0.13) than Group B (0.74 +/- 0.15) (p<0. 02). The VAS pain score was similar for both groups. One patient in Group B had vomiting and there was no sedation, hypotension, pruritus or

  17. Quantitation of mandibular symphysis volume as a source of bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, Fernando; Simonian, Krikor; Smith McDonald, Roberto; Nowzari, Hessam

    2010-06-01

    Autogenous intramembranous bone graft present several advantages such as minimal resorption and high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins. A method for measuring the amount of bone that can be harvested from the symphysis area has not been reported in real patients. The aim of the present study was to intrasurgically quantitate the volume of the symphysis bone graft that can be safely harvested in live patients and compare it with AutoCAD (version 16.0, Autodesk, Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA) tomographic calculations. AutoCAD software program quantitated symphysis bone graft in 40 patients using computerized tomographies. Direct intrasurgical measurements were recorded thereafter and compared with AutoCAD data. The bone volume was measured at the recipient sites of a subgroup of 10 patients, 6 months post sinus augmentation. The volume of bone graft measured by AutoCAD averaged 1.4 mL (SD 0.6 mL, range: 0.5-2.7 mL). The volume of bone graft measured intrasurgically averaged 2.3 mL (SD 0.4 mL, range 1.7-2.8 mL). The statistical difference between the two measurement methods was significant. The bone volume measured at the recipient sites 6 months post sinus augmentation averaged 1.9 mL (SD 0.3 mL, range 1.3-2.6 mL) with a mean loss of 0.4 mL. AutoCAD did not overestimate the volume of bone that can be safely harvested from the mandibular symphysis. The use of the design software program may improve surgical treatment planning prior to sinus augmentation.

  18. Nonlinear phase noise tolerance for coherent optical systems using soft-decision-aided ML carrier phase estimation enhanced with constellation partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Wu, Mingwei; Du, Xinwei; Xu, Zhuoran; Gurusamy, Mohan; Yu, Changyuan; Kam, Pooi-Yuen

    2018-02-01

    A novel soft-decision-aided maximum likelihood (SDA-ML) carrier phase estimation method and its simplified version, the decision-aided and soft-decision-aided maximum likelihood (DA-SDA-ML) methods are tested in a nonlinear phase noise-dominant channel. The numerical performance results show that both the SDA-ML and DA-SDA-ML methods outperform the conventional DA-ML in systems with constant-amplitude modulation formats. In addition, modified algorithms based on constellation partitioning are proposed. With partitioning, the modified SDA-ML and DA-SDA-ML are shown to be useful for compensating the nonlinear phase noise in multi-level modulation systems.

  19. Small Volume Resuscitation of Hypovolemic Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS Unclassif ied 2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITr’ 3 . DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF REPORT 2b. DECLASSIFICATION /DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE...volume expansion. These differential responses were apparent immediately post resuscitation and became larger during the first 2- 3 hours post...2- 3 40 ml injections were required to maintain cardiovascular function at baseline levels. Higher concentrations of salt (28% NaCl) with 24% dextran

  20. A PILOT STUDY TO DETERMINE THE WATER VOLUME INJESTED BY RECREATIONAL SWIMMERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume of water ingested by recreational swimmers is unknown. Previous estimates by a number of investigators range from 10mL to 100mL. These estimates, however, are unsupported by empirical data. Many outdoor swimming pools are disinfected using cyanuric acid stabilized c...

  1. The volume of the human knee joint.

    PubMed

    Matziolis, Georg; Roehner, Eric; Windisch, Christoph; Wagner, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Despite its clinical relevance, particularly in septic knee surgery, the volume of the human knee joint has not been established to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine knee joint volume and whether or not it is dependent on sex or body height. Sixty-one consecutive patients (joints) who were due to undergo endoprosthetic joint replacement were enrolled in this prospective study. During the operation, the joint volume was determined by injecting saline solution until a pressure of 200 mmHg was achieved in the joint. The average volume of all knee joints was 131 ± 53 (40-290) ml. The volume was not found to be dependent on sex, but it was dependent on the patients' height (R = 0.312, p = 0.014). This enabled an estimation of the joint volume according to V = 1.6 height - 135. The considerable inter-individual variance of the knee joint volume would suggest that it should be determined or at least estimated according to body height if the joint volume has consequences for the diagnostics or therapy of knee disorders.

  2. Removal of Radioactively Marked Calcium Hydroxide from the Root Canal: Influence of Volume of Irrigation and Activation.

    PubMed

    Zorzin, José; Wießner, Jessica; Wießner, Thomas; Lohbauer, Ulrich; Petschelt, Anselm; Ebert, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) removed by irrigation with different volumes and activation methods. One hundred thirty extracted straight, single-rooted human teeth were instrumented to size 45/.04. One hundred twenty teeth were filled with radioactively marked Ca(OH)2 and a gutta-percha point; 10 teeth with only gutta-percha served as a negative control. All specimens were stored in saline solution (7 days at 35°C). After storage, teeth were randomly divided into 12 groups (n = 10). The gutta-percha was taken out, and Ca(OH)2 was removed either by irrigation with different volumes (0 mL, 0.5 mL, 1 mL, 2 mL, 4 mL, or 8 mL) or mechanical activation with a 2- or 4-mL volume using a file (Instr) (FlexMaster size 45/.04; VDW, Munich, Germany), a brush (CanalBrush [CB]; Coltène/Whaledent, Langenau, Germany), or passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI, smooth wire). Irrigation was performed by alternating 40% citric acid and 3% sodium hypochlorite. Residual Ca(OH)2 was measured by scintillation and expressed as a percentage of the original Ca(OH)2. Increasing the irrigation volume led to a significant decrease (P < .05) of residual Ca(OH)2 (0 mL [98.5%], 0.5 mL [21.7%], 1 mL [16.5%], 2 mL [12.9%], 4 mL [8.7%], 8 mL [5.0%], and negative control [0.0%]). Activation led to less residual Ca(OH)2 (2 mL Instr [12.0%], 2 mL CB [11.7%], 2 mL PUI [9.1%], 4 mL Instr [8.5%], 4 mL CB [7.4%], and 4 mL PUI [6.2%]), with significant differences according to the PUI (P < .05). No irrigation procedure was able to remove Ca(OH)2 completely. PUI was the most effective activation method. However, irrigation with an 8-mL volume was the most effective. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exsanguinated blood volume estimation using fractal analysis of digital images.

    PubMed

    Sant, Sonia P; Fairgrieve, Scott I

    2012-05-01

    The estimation of bloodstain volume using fractal analysis of digital images of passive blood stains is presented. Binary digital photos of bloodstains of known volumes (ranging from 1 to 7 mL), dispersed in a defined area, were subjected to image analysis using FracLac V. 2.0 for ImageJ. The box-counting method was used to generate a fractal dimension for each trial. A positive correlation between the generated fractal number and the volume of blood was found (R(2) = 0.99). Regression equations were produced to estimate the volume of blood in blind trials. An error rate ranging from 78% for 1 mL to 7% for 6 mL demonstrated that as the volume increases so does the accuracy of the volume estimation. This method used in the preliminary study proved that bloodstain patterns may be deconstructed into mathematical parameters, thus removing the subjective element inherent in other methods of volume estimation. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Potency enhancement of the κ-opioid receptor antagonist probe ML140 through sulfonamide constraint utilizing a tetrahydroisoquinoline motif

    PubMed Central

    Frankowski, Kevin J.; Slauson, Stephen R.; Lovell, Kimberly M.; Phillips, Angela M.; Streicher, John M.; Zhou, Lei; Whipple, David A.; Schoenen, Frank J.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Bohn, Laura M.; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of the sulfonamide-based kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist probe molecule ML140 through constraint of the sulfonamide nitrogen within a tetrahydroisoquinoline moiety afforded a marked increase in potency. This strategy, when combined with additional structure-activity relationship exploration, has led to a compound only six-fold less potent than norBNI, a widely utilized KOR antagonist tool compound, but significantly more synthetically accessible. The new optimized probe is suitably potent for use as an in vivo tool to investigate the therapeutic potential of KOR antagonists. PMID:25593096

  5. Effect of Neodymium and Zirconium on the Structure of Castable Magnesium Alloy ML10 (NZ30K)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltygin, A. V.; Bazhenov, V. E.; Nikitina, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Alloys of the Mg - Zn - Zr - Nd system with composition matching that of ML10 (NZ30K) and different contents of the main alloying components within the standardized range are studied. Four-component Mg - Zn -Zr - Nd phase diagrams are simulated, and the stages of crystallization of the alloys are considered. The structure of the alloys is determined in cast condition and after a T6 heat treatment. Fracture surfaces are analyzed. The distribution of the alloying elements in the structure is studied. The changes in the content of zirconium within the standardized range are shown to affect the grain size in the cast and heat treated states.

  6. The accuracy of breast volume measurement methods: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Choppin, S B; Wheat, J S; Gee, M; Goyal, A

    2016-08-01

    Breast volume is a key metric in breast surgery and there are a number of different methods which measure it. However, a lack of knowledge regarding a method's accuracy and comparability has made it difficult to establish a clinical standard. We have performed a systematic review of the literature to examine the various techniques for measurement of breast volume and to assess their accuracy and usefulness in clinical practice. Each of the fifteen studies we identified had more than ten live participants and assessed volume measurement accuracy using a gold-standard based on the volume, or mass, of a mastectomy specimen. Many of the studies from this review report large (>200 ml) uncertainty in breast volume and many fail to assess measurement accuracy using appropriate statistical tools. Of the methods assessed, MRI scanning consistently demonstrated the highest accuracy with three studies reporting errors lower than 10% for small (250 ml), medium (500 ml) and large (1000 ml) breasts. However, as a high-cost, non-routine assessment other methods may be more appropriate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measuring pedestrian volumes and conflicts. Volume 1, Pedestrian volume sampling

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1987-12-01

    This final report presents the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the study conducted to develop a model to predict pedestrian volumes using small sampling schemes. This research produced four pedestrian volume prediction models (i.e., 1-,...

  8. Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning (NLP/ML): Applying Advances in Biomedicine to the Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, R.; Myers, S.; Palmer, M.; Jenkins, C. J.; Thessen, A.; Martin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Semantics underlie many of the tools and services available from and on the web. From improving search results to enabling data mashups and other forms of interoperability, semantic technologies have proven themselves. But creating semantic resources, especially re-usable semantic resources, is extremely time consuming and labor intensive. Why? Because it is not just a matter of technology but also of obtaining rough consensus if not full agreement amongst community members on the meaning and order of things. One way to develop these resources in a more automated way would be to use NLP/ML techniques to extract the required resources from large corpora of subject-specific text such as peer-reviewed papers where presumably a rough consensus has been achieved at least about the basics of the particular discipline involved. While not generally applied to Earth Sciences, considerable resources have been spent in other fields such as medicine on these types of techniques with some success. The NSF-funded ClearEarth project is applying the techniques developed for biomedicine to the cryosphere, geology, and biology in order to spur faster development of the semantic resources needed in these fields. The first area being addressed by the project is the cryosphere, specifically sea ice nomenclature where an existing set of sea ice ontologies are being used as the "Gold Standard" against which to test and validate the NLP/ML techniques. The processes being used, lessons learned and early results will be described.

  9. ToxML, a data exchange standard with content controlled vocabulary used to build better (Q)SAR models.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Patel, M; Wilkinson, D; Judson, P; Cross, K; Bower, D

    2013-01-01

    Development of accurate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models requires the availability of high quality validated data. International regulations such as REACH in Europe will now accept (Q)SAR-based evaluations for risk assessment. The number of toxicity datasets available for those wishing to share knowledge, or to use for data mining and modelling, is continually expanding. The challenge is the current use of a multitude of different data formats. The issues of comparing or combining disparate data apply both to public and proprietary sources. The ToxML project addresses the need for a common data exchange standard that allows the representation and communication of these data in a well-structured electronic format. It is an open standard based on Extensible Markup Language (XML). Supporting information for overall toxicity endpoint data can be included within ToxML files. This makes it possible to assess the quality and detail of the data used in a model. The data file model allows the aggregation of experimental data to the compound level in the detail needed to support (Q)SAR work. The standard is published on a website together with tools to view, edit and download it.

  10. Intraarticular volume and clearance in human synovial effusions

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, W.J.; Simkin, P.A.; Nelp, W.B.; Foster, D.M.

    1985-04-01

    Intraarticular volumes were measured by radiolabeled albumin (RISA) distribution in chronic knee effusions from 11 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 9 osteoarthritis patients. Volumes of synovial fluid obtained at joint aspiration were substantially less than those found by RISA dilution. Up to 24 hours was needed for full distribution of RISA throughout the intraarticular compartment. Measured 123I and RISA radioactivity over the knee described monoexponential rate constants, lambda (minute-1). The clearance of 123I and RISA from synovial effusions was derived by the formulation volume (ml) X lambda (minute-1) = clearance (ml/minute). RISA clearance in rheumatoid effusions was significantly greater than that found in osteoarthritis effusions. Intraarticular volume and isotope clearance were easily quantified and provide measures for further evaluating the microvascular physiology of synovial effusions.

  11. The presence of positive surgical margins in patients with organ-confined prostate cancer results in biochemical recurrence at a similar rate to that in patients with extracapsular extension and PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml.

    PubMed

    Eminaga, Okyaz; Hinkelammert, Reemt; Titze, Ulf; Abbas, Mahmoud; Eltze, Elke; Bettendorf, Olaf; Semjonow, Axel

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether patients with organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa) and positive surgical margins (SMs) had a similar biochemical recurrence (BCR) risk compared with patients with pT3a and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels ≤ 10ng/ml. Furthermore, we examined the effects of incorporating SM status, Gleason score (Gls), and preoperative PSA level into the discrimination accuracy of the current tumor node metastasis-staging system. We analyzed 863 PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy from 1999 to 2008. Only individuals with pT2N0 or pT3N0, without neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy, were included. We performed chi-square automatic interaction detection analysis to generate a classification model for predicting BCR by analyzing interactions between age at surgery, SM status, Gls, PSA, and tumor stage, tumor volume and relative tumor volume. Cox regression analyses tested the relationship between SM status and BCR rate after stratification according to T-stage and the novel classification. The predictive and discrimination accuracy of the current T-stage and of the classification model was quantified with time-dependent receiver operating characteristics and integrated discrimination improvement. The topographical association between extracapsular extension of PCa and positive SM was analyzed in patients with pT3aR1 using a computational reconstruction diagram of the prostate. The chi-square automatic interaction detection analysis found interactions among pT Stage, SM status, PSA and Gls and generated a classification model for BCR prediction: pT2R0, pT2R1, pT3a PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml, pT3a PSA>10 ng/ml and pT3b. Men with pT2R1 had a shorter time to BCR compared with men with pT3a-PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml (P<0.0001). Gls≥7a was correlated with a poorer BCR rate than Gls≤7a in men with pT2R1 or pT3a PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml (P = 0.012). The rank order (highest to lowest) for the risk of developing BCR was pT3b>pT2R1/pT3a-PSA>10 ng/ml>pT2R1/pT3a PSA

  12. Rupture Speed and Dynamic Frictional Processes for the 1995 ML4.1 Shacheng, Hebei, China, Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Shi, B.

    2010-12-01

    An earthquake with ML4.1 occurred at Shacheng, Hebei, China, on July 20, 1995, followed by 28 aftershocks with 0.9≤ML≤4.0 (Chen et al, 2005). According to ZÚÑIGA (1993), for the 1995 ML4.1 Shacheng earthquake sequence, the main shock is corresponding to undershoot, while aftershocks should match overshoot. With the suggestion that the dynamic rupture processes of the overshoot aftershocks could be related to the crack (sub-fault) extension inside the main fault. After main shock, the local stresses concentration inside the fault may play a dominant role in sustain the crack extending. Therefore, the main energy dissipation mechanism should be the aftershocks fracturing process associated with the crack extending. We derived minimum radiation energy criterion (MREC) following variational principle (Kanamori and Rivera, 2004)(ES/M0')min≧[3M0/(ɛπμR3)](v/β)3, where ES and M0' are radiated energy and seismic moment gained from observation, μ is the modulus of fault rigidity, ɛ is the parameter of ɛ=M0'/M0,M0 is seismic moment and R is rupture size on the fault, v and β are rupture speed and S-wave speed. From II and III crack extending model, we attempt to reconcile a uniform expression for calculate seismic radiation efficiency ηG, which can be used to restrict the upper limit efficiency and avoid the non-physics phenomenon that radiation efficiency is larger than 1. In ML 4.1 Shacheng earthquake sequence, the rupture speed of the main shock was about 0.86 of S-wave speed β according to MREC, closing to the Rayleigh wave speed, while the rupture speeds of the remained 28 aftershocks ranged from 0.05β to 0.55β. The rupture speed was 0.9β, and most of the aftershocks are no more than 0.35β using II and III crack extending model. In addition, the seismic radiation efficiencies for this earthquake sequence were: for the most aftershocks, the radiation efficiencies were less than 10%, inferring a low seismic efficiency, whereas the radiation efficiency

  13. Assisted editing od SensorML with EDI. A bottom-up scenario towards the definition of sensor profiles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oggioni, Alessandro; Tagliolato, Paolo; Fugazza, Cristiano; Bastianini, Mauro; Pavesi, Fabio; Pepe, Monica; Menegon, Stefano; Basoni, Anna; Carrara, Paola

    2015-04-01

    Sensor observation systems for environmental data have become increasingly important in the last years. The EGU's Informatics in Oceanography and Ocean Science track stressed the importance of management tools and solutions for marine infrastructures. We think that full interoperability among sensor systems is still an open issue and that the solution to this involves providing appropriate metadata. Several open source applications implement the SWE specification and, particularly, the Sensor Observation Services (SOS) standard. These applications allow for the exchange of data and metadata in XML format between computer systems. However, there is a lack of metadata editing tools supporting end users in this activity. Generally speaking, it is hard for users to provide sensor metadata in the SensorML format without dedicated tools. In particular, such a tool should ease metadata editing by providing, for standard sensors, all the invariant information to be included in sensor metadata, thus allowing the user to concentrate on the metadata items that are related to the specific deployment. RITMARE, the Italian flagship project on marine research, envisages a subproject, SP7, for the set-up of the project's spatial data infrastructure. SP7 developed EDI, a general purpose, template-driven metadata editor that is composed of a backend web service and an HTML5/javascript client. EDI can be customized for managing the creation of generic metadata encoded as XML. Once tailored to a specific metadata format, EDI presents the users a web form with advanced auto completion and validation capabilities. In the case of sensor metadata (SensorML versions 1.0.1 and 2.0), the EDI client is instructed to send an "insert sensor" request to an SOS endpoint in order to save the metadata in an SOS server. In the first phase of project RITMARE, EDI has been used to simplify the creation from scratch of SensorML metadata by the involved researchers and data managers. An interesting by

  14. Medium-Range Predictability of Contrail-Cirrus Demonstrated during Experiments Ml-Cirrus and Access-Ii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, U.

    2015-12-01

    The Contrail Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP (doi:10.5194/gmd-5-543-2012) has been applied quasi operationally to predict contrails for flight planning of ML-CIRRUS (C. Voigt, DLR, et al.) in Europe and for ACCESS II in California (B. Anderson, NASA, et al.) in March-May 2014. The model uses NWP data from ECMWF and past airtraffic data (actual traffic data are used for analysis). The forecasts provided a sequence of hourly forecast maps of contrail cirrus optical depth for 3.5 days, every 12 h. CoCiP has been compared to observations before, e.g. within a global climate-aerosol-contrail model (Schumann, Penner et al., ACPD, 2015, doi:10.5194/acpd-15-19553-2015). Good predictions would allow for climate optimal routing (see, e.g., US patent by Mannstein and Schumann, US 2012/0173147 A1). The predictions are tested by: 1) Local eyewitness reports and photos, 2) satellite observed cloudiness, 3) autocorrelation analysis of predictions for various forecast periods, 4) comparisons of computed with observed optical depth from COCS (doi:10.5194/amt-7-3233-2014, 2014) by IR METEOSAT-SEVIRI observations over Europe. The results demonstrate medium-range predictability of contrail cirrus to a useful degree for given traffic, soot emissions, and high-quality NWP data. A growing set of satellite, Lidar, and in-situ data from ML-CIRRUS and ACCENT are becoming available and will be used to further test the forecast quality. The autocorrelation of optical depth predictions is near 70% for 3-d forecasts for Europe (outside times with high Sahara dust loads), and only slightly smaller for continental USA. Contrail cirrus is abundant over Europe and USA. More than 1/3 of all cirrus measured with the research aircraft HALO during ML-CIRRUS was impacted by contrails. The radiative forcing (RF) is strongly daytime and ambience dependent. The net annual mean RF, based on our global studies, may reach up to 0.08 W/m2 globally, and may well exceed 1 W/m2 regionally, with maximum over Europe

  15. Does Glass Size and Shape Influence Judgements of the Volume of Wine?

    PubMed

    Pechey, Rachel; Attwood, Angela S; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Munafò, Marcus R; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Woods, Andy; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Judgements of volume may influence the rate of consumption of alcohol and, in turn, the amount consumed. The aim of the current study was to examine the impact of the size and shape of wine glasses on perceptions of wine volume. Online experiment: Participants (n = 360; recruited via Mechanical Turk) were asked to match the volume of wine in two wine glasses, specifically: 1. the Reference glass holding a fixed reference volume, and 2. the Comparison glass, for which the volume could be altered until participants perceived it matched the reference volume. One of three comparison glasses was shown in each trial: 'wider' (20% wider but same capacity); 'larger' (same width but 25% greater capacity); or 'wider-and-larger' (20% wider and 25% greater capacity). Reference volumes were 125 ml, 175 ml and 250 ml, in a fully factorial within-subjects design: 3 (comparison glass) x 3 (reference volume). Non-zero differences between the volumes with which participants filled comparison glasses and the corresponding reference volumes were identified using sign-rank tests. Participants under-filled the wider glass relative to the reference glass for larger reference volumes, and over-filled the larger glass relative to the reference glass for all reference volumes. Results for the wider-and-larger glass showed a mixed pattern across reference volume. For all comparison glasses, in trials with larger reference volumes participants tended to fill the comparison glass less, relative to trials with smaller reference volumes for the same comparison glass. These results are broadly consistent with people using the relative fullness of glasses to judge volume, and suggest both the shape and capacity of wine glasses may influence perceived volume. Perceptions that smaller glasses contain more than larger ones (despite containing the same volume), could slow drinking speed and overall consumption by serving standard portions in smaller glasses. This hypothesis awaits testing.

  16. Does Glass Size and Shape Influence Judgements of the Volume of Wine?

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Attwood, Angela S.; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Munafò, Marcus R.; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Woods, Andy; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Judgements of volume may influence the rate of consumption of alcohol and, in turn, the amount consumed. The aim of the current study was to examine the impact of the size and shape of wine glasses on perceptions of wine volume. Methods Online experiment: Participants (n = 360; recruited via Mechanical Turk) were asked to match the volume of wine in two wine glasses, specifically: 1. the Reference glass holding a fixed reference volume, and 2. the Comparison glass, for which the volume could be altered until participants perceived it matched the reference volume. One of three comparison glasses was shown in each trial: ‘wider’ (20% wider but same capacity); ‘larger’ (same width but 25% greater capacity); or ‘wider-and-larger’ (20% wider and 25% greater capacity). Reference volumes were 125ml, 175ml and 250ml, in a fully factorial within-subjects design: 3 (comparison glass) x 3 (reference volume). Non-zero differences between the volumes with which participants filled comparison glasses and the corresponding reference volumes were identified using sign-rank tests. Results Participants under-filled the wider glass relative to the reference glass for larger reference volumes, and over-filled the larger glass relative to the reference glass for all reference volumes. Results for the wider-and-larger glass showed a mixed pattern across reference volume. For all comparison glasses, in trials with larger reference volumes participants tended to fill the comparison glass less, relative to trials with smaller reference volumes for the same comparison glass. Conclusions These results are broadly consistent with people using the relative fullness of glasses to judge volume, and suggest both the shape and capacity of wine glasses may influence perceived volume. Perceptions that smaller glasses contain more than larger ones (despite containing the same volume), could slow drinking speed and overall consumption by serving standard portions in smaller

  17. Primary standards for measuring flow rates from 100 nl/min to 1 ml/min - gravimetric principle.

    PubMed

    Bissig, Hugo; Petter, Harm Tido; Lucas, Peter; Batista, Elsa; Filipe, Eduarda; Almeida, Nelson; Ribeiro, Luis Filipe; Gala, João; Martins, Rui; Savanier, Benoit; Ogheard, Florestan; Niemann, Anders Koustrup; Lötters, Joost; Sparreboom, Wouter

    2015-08-01

    Microflow and nanoflow rate calibrations are important in several applications such as liquid chromatography, (scaled-down) process technology, and special health-care applications. However, traceability in the microflow and nanoflow range does not go below 16 μl/min in Europe. Furthermore, the European metrology organization EURAMET did not yet validate this traceability by means of an intercomparison between different National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). The NMIs METAS, Centre Technique des Industries Aérauliques et Thermiques, IPQ, Danish Technological Institute, and VSL have therefore developed and validated primary standards to cover the flow rate range from 0.1 μl/min to at least 1 ml/min. In this article, we describe the different designs and methods of the primary standards of the gravimetric principle and the results obtained at the intercomparison for the upper flow rate range for the various NMIs and Bronkhorst High-Tech, the manufacturer of the transfer standards used.

  18. Discovery of a New Molecular Probe ML228: An Activator of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Jimmy R.; Felts, Andrew S.; Bates, Brittney S.; Perez, Jose R.; Palmer, Michelle; Gilbert, Shawn R.; Dawson, Eric S.; Engers, Julie L.; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia and ischemia are linked to several serious public health problems that affect most major organ systems. Specific examples include diseases of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, neurologic, and musculoskeletal systems. The most significant pathway for cellular response to hypoxia is the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway. HIFs are transcription factors responsible for the activation of genes which encode proteins that mediate adaptive responses to reduced oxygen availability. A high-throughput cell-based HIF-mediated gene reporter screen was carried out using the NIH’s Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository to identify activators of the HIF pathway. This communication describes the subsequent medicinal chemistry optimization of a triazine scaffold that led to the identification of the new molecular probe ML228. A discussion of HIF activation SAR within this chemotype as well as detailed in vitro characterization of the probe molecule is presented here. PMID:22172704

  19. Effect of intravenous contrast agent volume on colorectal cancer vascular parameters as measured by perfusion computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Goh, V; Bartram, C; Halligan, S

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of two different contrast agent volumes on quantitative and semi-quantitative vascular parameters as measured by perfusion computed tomography (CT) in colorectal cancer. Following ethical approval and informed consent, eight prospectively recruited patients with proven colorectal adenocarcinoma underwent two separate perfusion CT studies on the same day after (a) 100 ml and (b) 50 ml of a 340 mg/ml iodinated contrast medium, respectively. Quantitative (blood volume, blood flow, permeability surface area product) and semi-quantitative (peak enhancement, time to peak enhancement) tumour vascular parameters were determined using commercial software based on distributed parameter analysis and compared using t-testing. Tumour blood volume, blood flow, and permeability surface area product were not substantially different following the injection of 100ml and 50 ml contrast medium: 6.12 versus 6.23 ml/100 g tissue; 73.4 versus 71.3 ml/min/100 g tissue; 15.6 versus 15.3 ml/min/100 g tissue for 100 and 50 ml, respectively; p>0.05. Tumour peak enhancement and time to peak were significantly greater following the injection of 100ml versus 50 ml contrast medium: 41.2 versus 28.5 HU; 16.1 versus 11.8 s for 100ml and 50 ml, respectively; p=0.002; p=0.0003. Quantitative parameters do not appear to change substantially with a higher contrast agent volume suggesting a combined diagnostic staging-perfusion CT study following a single injection is feasible for colorectal cancer.

  20. Measuring Stroke Volume: Impedance Cardiography vs Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Borzage, Matthew; Heidari, Kimia; Chavez, Thomas; Seri, Istvan; Wood, John C; Blüml, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Determination of cardiac output requires measurement of both heart rate and stroke volume. Techniques for measuring heart rate are widespread, and 1 technique for bedside monitoring of stroke volume is electrical impedance cardiography. To determine the accuracy and precision of stroke volume measured via impedance cardiography and whether the technique can be used to detect trends. Eleven healthy research participants (22-52 years old) were examined with simultaneous impedance cardiography and phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging at rest and during exercise. Bland-Altman analysis with repeated-measures correction was used to compare stroke volumes determined with the 2 methods. The suitability of impedance cardiography for detecting trends in stroke volume was analyzed by using the Critchley radial limits of agreement method. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging indicated a mean stroke volume of 87 (SD, 16) mL at rest; in 9 volunteers, it changed during exercise (P = .04 to P < .001); in 2 volunteers, it did not (P = .32, P = .06). For the range of stroke-volume measurements (60-122 mL), impedance cardiography yielded underestimates of stroke volumes at the low end (bias, -17 mL) and overestimates at the high end (bias, +17 mL; P < .001). Corresponding 95% limits of agreement were 64 mL, a 73% overestimate or underestimate of stroke volume at rest. Critchley radial limits of agreement indicated poor concordance of stroke-volume trends. Impedance cardiography had low accuracy and precision in measuring absolute stroke volume and was a poor detector of stroke-volume trends. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  1. New echocardiographic and angiographic methods for right atrial volume determination: in vitro validation and in vivo results.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, H; Flachskampf, F A; Heiliger, R; Krebs, W; Behrens, B; Schmitz, E

    1989-01-01

    Until now, right atrial (RA) volume calculation by means of two-dimensional echocardiography (2-DE) has only been attempted in a single plane: the apical four-chamber view. Our study reports a new method for RA volume calculation using two intersecting 2-DE views. For this purpose, silicone rubber casts of 19 human necropsy hearts were obtained and thin-walled natural rubber moulds of the RA casts were prepared. Totally filled with and immersed in water, the moulds could be visualized in the apical four-chamber view and an additional 2-DE plane, the latter corresponding to the subcostal view in vivo. In this view the vertical extension of RA could be estimated. Areas and lengths of RA were determined in the respective planes, and RA volume was calculated by applying the formula, area x length, to two intersecting planes. Finally, volume of the silicone casts was determined angiocardiographically (Angio) using a biplane method (30 degrees RAO, 40 degrees LAO-40 degrees hepatoclavicular). The true RA volume was 106 +/- 23 ml (mean +/- 1 SD) as determined by water displacement. Using Angio an excellent correlation was found: the calculated volume amounted to 106 +/- 23 ml; the difference was 5.5 +/- 4.8 ml (n.s.); Angio vol = 0.93 true vol + 7.77; r = 0.95; SEE = 7.4 ml. Volume determination from the apical four-chamber view of 2-DE using a monoplane disk method resulted in a mean volume of 62 +/- 17 ml. The mean difference to the true RA volume was 44 +/- 16 ml (p less than 0.001). When volume calculations were made using the biplane method, a value of 105 +/- 22 ml resulted. The mean difference to true volumes was 7.4 +/- 4.8 ml: y = 0.84x + 15.88; r = 0.91; SEE = 9.4 ml. In an in vivo study endsystolic RA volumes were calculated in a normal adult population (n = 40) from the same intersecting planes as in vitro. A normal value of 38 +/- 6 ml/m2 was found. In vivo validation using Angio showed a slightly higher normal value of 43 = 7 ml/m2. Thus, 2-DE is highly

  2. Biological properties of a new volumizing hyaluronic acid filler: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ho, Derek; Jagdeo, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) dermal fillers are effective and safe for correction of facial rhytides. A new volumizing HA filler, 20 mg/ml HA dermal filler (Juvéderm® Voluma®, Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA), is the only HA filler with a FDA indication for facial volumization due to age-related facial volume loss. Evaluate the biological properties, including biochemical, biophysical and rheological, of this new 20 mg/ml HA dermal filler and discuss the importance of these properties in clinical applications. A systematic search of the computerized bibliographic databases Medline, Embase, Embal, Biosis, SciSearch, Pascal, HCAPlus, IPA, and Dissertation Abstracts with key term "Voluma." Four articles on the biological properties of this new 20 mg/ ml HA dermal filler were suitable for inclusion in this review. Biological analysis of elasticity and viscosity values of this new 20 mg/ml HA dermal filler demonstrated intermediate properties in three studies and high in one study compared to other HA dermal fillers. This 20 mg/ml HA dermal filler retained the highest elasticity and viscosity values at temperature of 37°C. Histology demonstrated that this 20 mg/ml HA dermal filler has an intermediate pattern of distribution within the superficial and deep reticular dermis. This 20 mg/ml HA dermal filler demonstrated volumizing ability, and maintaining viscosity and free-flowing characteristics for easy injection, tissue lifting, and molding. We hope future research incorporates biological properties analysis of this HA dermal filler in clinical trials.

  3. New insulin glargine 300 U/ml compared with glargine 100 U/ml in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes on oral glucose-lowering drugs: a randomized controlled trial (EDITION 3).

    PubMed

    Bolli, G B; Riddle, M C; Bergenstal, R M; Ziemen, M; Sestakauskas, K; Goyeau, H; Home, P D

    2015-04-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of new insulin glargine 300 U/ml (Gla-300) with that of glargine 100 U/ml (Gla-100) in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes using oral glucose-lowering drugs. The EDITION 3 study was a multicentre, open-label, parallel-group study. Participants were randomized to Gla-300 or Gla-100 once daily for 6 months, discontinuing sulphonylureas and glinides, with a dose titration aimed at achieving pre-breakfast plasma glucose concentrations of 4.4-5.6 mmol/l (80-100 mg/dl). The primary endpoint was change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline to month 6. The main secondary endpoint was percentage of participants with ≥1 nocturnal confirmed [≤3.9 mmol/l (≤70 mg/dl)] or severe hypoglycaemia from week 9 to month 6. Other measures of glycaemia and hypoglycaemia, weight change and insulin dose were assessed. Randomized participants (n = 878) had a mean (standard deviation) age of 57.7 (10.1) years, diabetes duration 9.8 (6.4) years, body mass index 33.0 (6.7) kg/m(2) and HbA1c 8.54 (1.06) % [69.8 (11.6) mmol/mol]. HbA1c levels decreased by equivalent amounts with the two treatments; the least squares mean difference in change from baseline was 0.04 [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.09 to 0.17] % or 0.4 (-1.0 to 1.9) mmol/mol. Numerically fewer participants reported ≥1 nocturnal confirmed (≤3.9 mmol/l) or severe hypoglycaemia from week 9 to month 6 [relative risk (RR) 0.89 (95% CI 0.66 to 1.20)] with Gla-300 versus Gla-100; a significantly lower risk of hypoglycaemia with this definition was found over the 6-month treatment period [RR 0.76 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.99)]. No between-treatment differences in adverse events were identified. Gla-300 is as effective as Gla-100 in reducing HbA1c in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes, with lower hypoglycaemia risk. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Developing a Valid Version of an Inventory to Measure Anger in Mexican Adolescents of Middle School Level: The ML-STAXI-MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcázar-Olán, Raúl J.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Escamilla-Tecalco, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    The goals were to develop a valid version of the Multicultural Latin American Inventory of Anger Expression and Hostility (ML-STAXI) for middle school Mexican youth (ML-STAXI-MS) and to test a new Questionnaire about Anger Expression with Physical Aggression (QAEPA). Five hundred and four adolescents (258 males, 246 females); (M[subscript age] =…

  5. Effects of clear liquids on gastric volume and pH in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Shevde, K; Trivedi, N; Gross, M

    1991-04-01

    The effects of clear liquids on gastric volume and pH were examined in 30 healthy ASA physical status I volunteers. After overnight fasting, a Salem-sump nasogastric tube was inserted and gastric contents were removed for measurement of volume and pH. Gastric contents were then reinserted through the nasogastric tube into the stomach. The volunteers were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 10) received 240 mL water, group 2 (n = 10) received 240 mL coffee, and group 3 (n = 10) received 240 mL pulp-free orange juice. All liquids were administered orally. Gastric contents were then again aspirated, measured for volume and pH, and reinserted through the nasogastric tube every half hour until gastric volume was less than 25 mL. All volunteers had gastric volumes less than 25 mL with a slight decrease in pH within 2 h of orally taking one of the three 240-mL liquids. These data suggest that if patients have ingested a moderate amount of clear liquids it is safe to conduct general anesthesia after a 2-h fast in healthy surgical patients.

  6. Right ventricular volume measurement with single-plane Simpson's method based on a new half-circle model.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Anno, Hirofumi; Kondo, Takeshi; Guo, Yuyin; Sato, Takahisa; Sarai, Masayoshi; Shinozaki, Hitoshi; Kakizawa, Satoshi; Sugiura, Kouji; Oshima, Keita; Katada, Kazuhiro; Hishida, Hitoshi

    2004-04-01

    The complexity of right ventricular (RV) shape makes it more difficult for measuring its volume. However, the short-axis view of the right ventricle usually is crescent and might be assumed as half of a circle. This hypothesis can be applied to calculate RV volume by using the single-plane Simpson's method, but the final RV volume should be about half of the original calculated value. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of RV volume measurement based on this new assumption in human RV casts. Fifteen human RV casts were scanned with multislice helical CT and RV sagittal image that corresponds to right anterior oblique view were reconstructed. Single-plane Simpson's method was used to calculate RV volumes. The calculated RV volume was defined as the original calculated value divided by 2. The true RV cast volume was determined by water displacement. The true RV volume was 64.23+/-24.51 ml; the calculated volume was 53.18+/-26.22 ml. The calculated RV correlated closely with true volume with a regression equation of RV actual volume=21.04 0.406 x RV calculated volume (r=0.869, P<0.001), but significantly underestimated the actual volume by 11.05+/-13.09 ml (P<0.006). Right ventricular volume could be calculated with single-plane Simpson's method based on the new proposed half-circle model.

  7. Detection of apoptosis by PET/CT with the diethyl ester of [¹⁸F]ML-10 and fluorescence imaging with a dansyl analogue.

    PubMed

    Kadirvel, Manikandan; Fairclough, Michael; Cawthorne, Christopher; Rowling, Emily J; Babur, Muhammad; McMahon, Adam; Birkket, Paul; Smigova, Alison; Freeman, Sally; Williams, Kaye J; Brown, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The diethyl ester of [(18)F]ML-10 is a small molecule apoptotic PET probe for cancer studies. Here we report a novel multi-step synthesis of the diethyl ester of ML-10 in excellent yields via fluorination using Xtal-Fluor-E. In addition, a one-pot radiosynthesis of the diethyl ester of [(18)F]ML-10 from nucleophilic [(18)F]fluoride was completed in 23% radiochemical yield (decay corrected). The radiochemical purity of the product was ≥99%. The diethyl ester of [(18)F]ML-10 was used in vivo to detect apoptosis in the testes of mice. In parallel studies, the dansyl-ML-10 diethyl ester was prepared and used to detect apoptotic cells in an in vitro cell based assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ontological Encoding of GeoSciML and INSPIRE geological standard vocabularies and schemas: application to geological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Encoding of geologic knowledge in formal languages is an ambitious task, aiming at the interoperability and organic representation of geological data, and semantic characterization of geologic maps. Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4, 2015[1]) and INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013[2]), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG[3]) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. There have also been limited attempts to encode the knowledge in a machine-readable format, especially in the lithology domain (see e.g. the CGI_Lithology ontology[4]), but a comprehensive ontological model that connect the several knowledge sources is still lacking. This presentation concerns the "OntoGeonous" initiative, which aims at encoding the geologic knowledge, as expressed through the standard vocabularies, schemas and data models mentioned above, through a number of interlinked computational ontologies, based on the languages of the Semantic Web and the paradigm of Linked Open Data. The initiative proceeds in parallel with a concrete case study, concerning the setting up of a synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap" (developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, CNR IGG, Torino), where the description and classification of GeologicUnits has been supported by the modeling and implementation of the ontologies. We have devised a tripartite ontological model called OntoGeonous that consists of: 1) an ontology of the geologic features (in particular, GeologicUnit, GeomorphologicFeature, and GeologicStructure[5], modeled from the definitions and UML schemata of CGI vocabularies[6], GeoScienceML and INSPIRE, and aligned with the Planetary realm of NASA SWEET ontology[7]), 2) an ontology of the Earth materials (as defined by the

  9. Enhanced Geothermal Systems in Urban Areas - Lessons Learned from the 2006 Basel ML3.4 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, T.; Mai, P. M.; Wiemer, S.; Deichmann, N.; Ripperger, J.; Kästli, P.; Bachmann, C. E.; Fäh, D.; Woessner, J.; Giardini, D.

    2009-12-01

    We report on a recent deep-heat mining experiment carried out in 2006/2007 in the city of Basel (Switzerland). This pilot project was designed to produce renewable geothermal energy using the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) methodology. For developing the geothermal reservoir, a deep borehole was brought down to 5 km depth. Then, in December 2006, the deep-heat-mining project entered the first critical phase when the water injections started for generating micro-fracturing of the rock. These fractures increase the permeability of the host rock, needed for efficient heat exchange between the rock and the cold water; however, these fracture are also source of micro-seismicity - small earthquakes that are continuously recorded and monitored by dedicated local seismic networks. In this stimulation phase, the seismic activity increased rapidly above the usual background seismicity, and culminated in a widely felt ML 3.4 earthquake, which caused some damage in the city of Basel. Due to the higher-than-expected seismic activity, and the reaction of the population, the media, and the politicians, the experiment was stalled only 6 days after the stimulations began. Although the injected water was allowed to escape immediately after the mainshock and pressure at the wellhead dropped rapidly, the seismic activity declined only slowly, with three ML > 3 events occurring one to two months later. Although the EGS technology has been applied and studied at various sites since the 1970s, the physical processes and parameters that control injection-induced seismicity - in terms of earthquake rate, size distribution and maximum magnitude - are still poorly understood. Consequently, the seismic hazard and risk associated with the creation and operation of EGS are difficult to estimate. The very well monitored Basel seismic sequence provides an excellent opportunity to advance the understanding of the physics of EGS. The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) is investigating the Basel

  10. Long-term testicular volume after orchiopexy at diagnosis of acquired undescended testis.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Evelyn M; Zijp, Gerda W; Froeling, Frank M J A; van der Voort-Doedens, Laszla M; Meij-de Vries, Annebeth; Goede, Joery; Hack, Wilfried W M

    2013-07-01

    We studied long-term outcomes of orchiopexy at diagnosis of acquired undescended testes using ultrasound to determine testicular volume. Patients who had undergone orchiopexy for acquired undescended testis at diagnosis were recruited to assess testicular volume. Testis volume was measured by ultrasound and compared with recently developed normative values for testicular size. For young adults (older than 18 years) volumes were grouped and compared to normative values reported in the literature. In all unilateral cases testicular volume was compared with its counterpart. A total of 155 patients 5.1 to 26.6 years old (181 acquired undescended testes) were included in the study. Mean ± SD followup was 6.6 ± 3.8 years (range 1.4 to 15.5). For all patients 18 years old or younger (125 patients, 143 testes) operated testis volume was 0.1 to 12.7 ml (mean ± SD 2.5 ± 2.9), which was significantly smaller than the normative values (50th percentile) for the same age (p <0.001). Mean ± SD testis volume in young adults (38 testes) was 8.1 ± 3.7 ml, compared to a mean volume of 13.4 ml reported in the literature (p <0.001). In unilateral cases the mean volume of the testes fixed by orchiopexy differed significantly from their counterparts (3.4 ± 3.3 ml vs 4.6 ± 4.6 ml, p <0.001). The long-term volumes at diagnosis of acquired undescended testes after orchiopexy were significantly less than the normative values at all ages. In unilateral cases the volumes were also significantly less compared to the contralateral testes. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitation of mandibular ramus volume as a source of bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, Fernando; Simonian, Krikor; Smith McDonald, Roberto; Nowzari, Hessam

    2009-10-01

    When alveolar atrophy impairs dental implant placement, ridge augmentation using mandibular ramus graft may be considered. In live patients, however, an accurate calculation of the amount of bone that can be safely harvested from the ramus has not been reported. The use of a software program to perform these calculations can aid in preventing surgical complications. The aim of the present study was to intra-surgically quantify the volume of the ramus bone graft that can be safely harvested in live patients, and compare it to presurgical computerized tomographic calculations. The AutoCAD software program quantified ramus bone graft in 40 consecutive patients from computerized tomographies. Direct intra-surgical measurements were recorded thereafter and compared to software data (n = 10). In these 10 patients, the bone volume was also measured at the recipient sites 6 months post-sinus augmentation. The mandibular second and third molar areas provided the thickest cortical graft averaging 2.8 +/- 0.6 mm. The thinnest bone was immediately posterior to the third molar (1.9 +/- 0.3 mm). The volume of ramus bone graft measured by AutoCAD averaged 0.8 mL (standard deviation [SD] 0.2 mL, range: 0.4-1.2 mL). The volume of bone graft measured intra-surgically averaged 2.5 mL (SD 0.4 mL, range: 1.8-3.0 mL). The difference between the two measurement methods was significant (p < 0.001). The bone volume measured 6 months post-sinus augmentation averaged 2.2 mL (SD 0.4 mL, range: 1.6-2.8 mL) with a mean loss of 0.3 mL in volume. The mandibular second molar area provided the thickest cortical graft. A cortical plate of 2.8 mm in average at combined second and third molar areas provided 2.5 mL particulated volume. The use of a design software program can improve surgical treatment planning prior to ramus bone grafting. The AutoCAD software program did not overestimate the volume of bone that can be safely harvested from the mandibular ramus.

  12. Ovarian volume and PCOS: a controversial issue.

    PubMed

    Giampaolino, Pierluigi; Della Corte, Luigi; De Rosa, Nicoletta; Mercorio, Antonio; Bruzzese, Dario; Bifulco, Giuseppe

    2018-03-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy. The Rotterdam criteria indicate four distinct phenotypes. In phenotypes with the typical ovarian morphology (ovarian volume ≥10 ml) the sensibility to clomiphene citrate (CC) ovulation therapy was demonstrated inversely proportional to the ovarian volume. In this retrospective study we evaluated the influence of ovarian volume on the success rate of CC ovulation induction in women with anovulatory phenotype 2 characterized only by the presence of hyperandrogenism and anovulation (ANOV + HA). Statistical analysis was conducted by stratifying patients both on the basis of CC dose (Group 1: n = 37, 50 mg; Group 2: n = 9, 100 mg; and Group 3: n = 12, 150 mg) and on the basis of response to therapy. Eighty women were evaluated but overall only 58 women (72.5%) reached ovulation. In the phenotype studied, we didn't find any correlations between ovarian volume and the chance of ovulation with the gradient increase in CC; furthermore, ovarian volume was comparable in CC responders and non-responders. Our study has shown that in the phenotype 2 examined, ovarian volume did not have any predictive value of the dosage required to induce ovulation. The significance of this result is discussed.

  13. A technique for fast and accurate measurement of hand volumes using Archimedes' principle.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S; Lau, J

    2008-03-01

    A new technique for measuring hand volumes using Archimedes principle is described. The technique involves the immersion of a hand in a water container placed on an electronic balance. The volume is given by the change in weight divided by the density of water. This technique was compared with the more conventional technique of immersing an object in a container with an overflow spout and collecting and weighing the volume of overflow water. The hand volume of two subjects was measured. Hand volumes were 494 +/- 6 ml and 312 +/- 7 ml for the immersion method and 476 +/- 14 ml and 302 +/- 8 ml for the overflow method for the two subjects respectively. Using plastic test objects, the mean difference between the actual and measured volume was -0.3% and 2.0% for the immersion and overflow techniques respectively. This study shows that hand volumes can be obtained more quickly than the overflow method. The technique could find an application in clinics where frequent hand volumes are required.

  14. In plastico: laboratory material newness affects growth and reproduction of Daphnia magna reared in 50-ml polypropylene tubes

    PubMed Central

    Cuhra, Marek; Bøhn, Thomas; Cuhra, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Plastic laboratory materials are found to affect vital parameters of the waterflea Daphnia magna. The main responsible factor is defined as “newness” of the materials. Juvenile D. magna were raised individually in; a) new laboratory-standard 50 ml polypropylene tubes, and; b) identical tubes which had been washed and aerated for several weeks. Newness had significant effects on growth and fecundity of D. magna. New tubes caused delayed maturation, reduced reproduction and reduced growth when compared to washed and re-used tubes of the same commercial brand. The findings indicate that newness of tubes has inhibiting or toxic effects on D. magna. Often laboratory plastics are intended for single-use due to sterility demands. Newness might be an important confounding factor in research results and should not be disregarded. Disposable plastic utensils may come with a seemingly ignored cost and induce adverse effects in biological test-organisms and systems. The presented findings accentuate continued need for general awareness concerning confounding factors stemming from material laboratory environment. Based on the present findings the authors suggest that plastics intended for use in sensitive research may need to be washed and aerated prior to use. PMID:28425469

  15. In plastico: laboratory material newness affects growth and reproduction of Daphnia magna reared in 50-ml polypropylene tubes.

    PubMed

    Cuhra, Marek; Bøhn, Thomas; Cuhra, Petr

    2017-04-20

    Plastic laboratory materials are found to affect vital parameters of the waterflea Daphnia magna. The main responsible factor is defined as "newness" of the materials. Juvenile D. magna were raised individually in; a) new laboratory-standard 50 ml polypropylene tubes, and; b) identical tubes which had been washed and aerated for several weeks. Newness had significant effects on growth and fecundity of D. magna. New tubes caused delayed maturation, reduced reproduction and reduced growth when compared to washed and re-used tubes of the same commercial brand. The findings indicate that newness of tubes has inhibiting or toxic effects on D. magna. Often laboratory plastics are intended for single-use due to sterility demands. Newness might be an important confounding factor in research results and should not be disregarded. Disposable plastic utensils may come with a seemingly ignored cost and induce adverse effects in biological test-organisms and systems. The presented findings accentuate continued need for general awareness concerning confounding factors stemming from material laboratory environment. Based on the present findings the authors suggest that plastics intended for use in sensitive research may need to be washed and aerated prior to use.

  16. Analysis of the possibility of SysML and BPMN application in formal data acquisition system description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwikła, G.; Gwiazda, A.; Banaś, W.; Monica, Z.; Foit, K.

    2017-08-01

    The article presents the study of possible application of selected methods of complex description, that can be used as a support of the Manufacturing Information Acquisition System (MIAS) methodology, describing how to design a data acquisition system, allowing for collecting and processing real-time data on the functioning of a production system, necessary for management of a company. MIAS can allow conversion into Cyber-Physical Production System. MIAS is gathering and pre-processing data on the state of production system, including e.g. realisation of production orders, state of machines, materials and human resources. Systematised approach and model-based development is proposed for improving the quality of the design of MIAS methodology-based complex systems supporting data acquisition in various types of companies. Graphical specification can be the baseline for any model-based development in specified areas. The possibility of application of SysML and BPMN, both being UML-based languages, representing different approaches to modelling of requirements, architecture and implementation of the data acquisition system, as a tools supporting description of required features of MIAS, were considered.

  17. Pre-seismic Change of Groundwater Level Prior to the 2000 ML6.7 Earthquake in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Chia, Y.; Ho, W.; Lin, Y.; Kuan, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Groundwater-level changes may reflect co-seismic tectonic stress redistribution and crustal strain. Earthquake- related groundwater level changes have been monitored by more than 600 wells in Taiwan. The Pingding (PD) well is one of the monitoring wells, located at the northern tip of the Douliu Hill, and was installed in an aquifer consisting of semi-consolidated deposits. The site is right on the axis of an anticline extending from north to south. The 206 m deep well has been monitored since 1997, and the water-level is recorded at one hour-interval with a resolution of 1 cm. According to the monitoring data, the well water-level is quite complete, and usually changes very slowly, even during the rainfall. We analyzed the response of water-level in the PD well to earthquakes of magnitude greater than 5.5 in the Richter scale from 1997 to 2005. Co-seismic water-level changes were observed in 19 of 78 earthquakes; about half of the changes are water-level rises. An abnormal water-level change was found approximately one hour immediately before the co-seismic change during the 2000 ML6.7 earthquake. The phenomena imply that the well water-level in PD not only reflects the change of tectonic stress induced by earthquakes, but also responds to the pre-earthquake crustal deformation.

  18. Towards Automated Benchmarking of Atomistic Forcefields: Neat Liquid Densities and Static Dielectric Constants from the ThermoML Data Archive

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Kyle A.; Behr, Julie M.; Rustenburg, Ariën S.; Bayly, Christopher I.; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Chodera, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Atomistic molecular simulations are a powerful way to make quantitative predictions, but the accuracy of these predictions depends entirely on the quality of the forcefield employed. While experimental measurements of fundamental physical properties offer a straightforward approach for evaluating forcefield quality, the bulk of this information has been tied up in formats that are not machine-readable. Compiling benchmark datasets of physical properties from non-machine-readable sources requires substantial human effort and is prone to the accumulation of human errors, hindering the development of reproducible benchmarks of forcefield accuracy. Here, we examine the feasibility of benchmarking atomistic forcefields against the NIST ThermoML data archive of physicochemical measurements, which aggregates thousands of experimental measurements in a portable, machine-readable, self-annotating IUPAC-standard format. As a proof of concept, we present a detailed benchmark of the generalized Amber small molecule forcefield (GAFF) using the AM1-BCC charge model against experimental measurements (specifically bulk liquid densities and static dielectric constants at ambient pressure) automatically extracted from the archive, and discuss the extent of data available for use in larger scale (or continuously performed) benchmarks. The results of even this limited initial benchmark highlight a general problem with fixed-charge forcefields in the representation low dielectric environments such as those seen in binding cavities or biological membranes. PMID:26339862

  19. Root restriction: A tool for improving volume utilization efficiency in bioregenerative life-support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Thomas; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate root restriction as a tool to increase volume utilization efficiency in spaceflight crop production systems. Bell pepper plants (Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder) were grown under restricted rooting volume conditions in controlled environment chambers. The rooting volume was restricted to 500 ml and 60 ml in a preliminary trial, and 1500 ml (large), 500 ml (medium), and 250 ml (small) for a full fruiting trial. To reduce the possible confounding effects of water and nutrient restrictions, care was taken to ensure an even and consistent soil moisture throughout the study, with plants being watered/fertilized several times daily with a low concentration soluble fertilizer solution. Root restriction resulted in a general reduction in biomass production, height, leaf area, and transpiration rate; however, the fruit production was not significantly reduced in the root restricted plants under the employed environmental and horticultural conditions. There was a 21% reduction in total height and a 23% reduction in overall crown diameter between the large and small pot size in the fruiting study. Data from the fruiting trial were used to estimate potential volume utilization efficiency improvements for edible biomass in a fixed production volume. For fixed lighting and rooting hardware situations, the majority of improvement from root restriction was in the reduction of canopy area per plant, while height reductions could also improve volume utilization efficiency in high stacked or vertical agricultural systems.

  20. Root restriction: A tool for improving volume utilization efficiency in bioregenerative life-support systems.

    PubMed

    Graham, Thomas; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate root restriction as a tool to increase volume utilization efficiency in spaceflight crop production systems. Bell pepper plants (Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder) were grown under restricted rooting volume conditions in controlled environment chambers. The rooting volume was restricted to 500ml and 60ml in a preliminary trial, and 1500ml (large), 500ml (medium), and 250ml (small) for a full fruiting trial. To reduce the possible confounding effects of water and nutrient restrictions, care was taken to ensure an even and consistent soil moisture throughout the study, with plants being watered/fertilized several times daily with a low concentration soluble fertilizer solution. Root restriction resulted in a general reduction in biomass production, height, leaf area, and transpiration rate; however, the fruit production was not significantly reduced in the root restricted plants under the employed environmental and horticultural conditions. There was a 21% reduction in total height and a 23% reduction in overall crown diameter between the large and small pot size in the fruiting study. Data from the fruiting trial were used to estimate potential volume utilization efficiency improvements for edible biomass in a fixed production volume. For fixed lighting and rooting hardware situations, the majority of improvement from root restriction was in the reduction of canopy area per plant, while height reductions could also improve volume utilization efficiency in high stacked or vertical agricultural systems. Copyright © 2016 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasonographic guided axillary plexus blocks with low volumes of local anaesthetics: a crossover volunteer study.

    PubMed

    Marhofer, P; Eichenberger, U; Stöckli, S; Huber, G; Kapral, S; Curatolo, M; Kettner, S

    2010-03-01

    Our study group recently evaluated an ED(95) local anaesthetic volume of 0.11 ml.mm(-2) cross-sectional nerve area for the ulnar nerve. This prospective, randomised, double-blind crossover study investigated whether this volume is sufficient for brachial plexus blocks at the axillary level. Ten volunteers received an ultrasonographic guided axillary brachial plexus block either with 0.11 ('low' volume) or 0.4 ('high' volume) ml.mm(-2) cross-sectional nerve area with mepivacaine 1%. The mean (SD) volume was in the low volume group 4.0 (1.0) and 14.8 (3.8) ml in the high volume group. The success rate for the individual nerve blocks was 27 out of 30 in the low volume group (90%) and 30 out of 30 in the high volume group (100%), resulting in 8 out of 10 (80%) vs 10 out of 10 (100%) complete blocks in the low vs the high volume groups, respectively (NS). The mean (SD) sensory onset time was 25.0 (14.8) min in the low volume group and 15.8 (6.8) min in the high volume group (p < 0.01). The mean (SD) duration of sensory block was 125 (38) min in the low volume group and 152 (70) min in the high volume group (NS). This study confirms our previous published ED(95) volume for mepivacaine 1% to block peripheral nerves. The volume of local anaesthetic has some influence on the sensory onset time.

  2. Functional analysis of the extended N-terminal region in PLC-δ1 (MlPLC-δ1) from the mud loach, Misgurnus mizolepis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Young; Ahn, Sang Jung; Kim, Moo-Sang; Seo, Jung Soo; Jung, Se Hwan; Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Hyung Ho; Chung, Joon Ki

    2014-01-01

    Mud loach phospholipase C-δ1 (MlPLC-δ1) contains all the characteristic domains found in mammalian PLC-δ isozymes (pleckstrin homology domain, EF-hands, X–Y catalytic region, and C2 domain) as well as an extended 26-amino acid (aa)-long N-terminal region that is an alternative splice form of PLC-δ1 and is novel to vertebrate PLC-δ. In the present structure-function analysis, deletion of the extended N-terminal region caused complete loss of phosphatidylinositol (PI)- and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-hydrolyzing activity in MlPLC-δ1. Additionally, recombinant full-length MlPLC-δ1 PLC activity was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by coincubation with the 26-aa protein fragment. Using a protein-lipid overlay assay, both full-length MlPLC-δ1 and the 26-aa protein fragment had substantial affinity for PIP2, whereas deletion of the 26-aa region from MlPLC-δ1 (MlPLC-δ1-deletion) resulted in lower affinity for PIP2. These results suggest that the novel N-terminal exon of MlPLC-δ1 could play an important role in the regulation of PLC-δ1.

  3. Lack of Antiparkinsonian Effects of Systemic Injections of the Specific T-Type Calcium Channel Blocker ML218 in MPTP-Treated Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Adriana; Devergnas, Annaelle; Pittard, Damien; Masilamoni, Gunasingh; Vuong, Jocelyn; Daniels, J Scott; Morrison, Ryan D; Lindsley, Craig W; Wichmann, Thomas

    2016-11-16

    Dopaminergic medications ameliorate many of the motor impairments of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, parkinsonism is often only partially reversed by these drugs, and they can have significant side effects. Therefore, a need remains for novel treatments of parkinsonism. Studies in rodents and preliminary clinical evidence have shown that T-type calcium channel (TTCC) antagonists have antiparkinsonian effects. However, most of the available studies utilized nonselective agents. We now evaluated whether systemic injections of the specific TTCC blocker ML218 have antiparkinsonian effects in MPTP-treated parkinsonian Rhesus monkeys. The animals were treated chronically with MPTP until they reached stable parkinsonism. In pharmacokinetic studies, we found that ML218 reaches a peak CSF concentration 1-2 h after s.c. administration. In electrocardiographic studies, we found no effects of ML218 on cardiac rhythmicity. As expected, systemic injections of the dopamine precursor L-DOPA dose-dependently increased the movements in our parkinsonian animals. We then tested the behavioral effects of systemic injections of ML218 (1, 10, or 30 mg/kg) or its vehicle, but did not detect specific antiparkinsonian effects. ML218 (3 or 10 mg/kg) was also not synergistic with L-DOPA. Using recordings of electrocorticogram signals (in one animal), we found that ML218 increased sleep. We conclude that ML218 does not have antiparkinsonian effects in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys, due at least in part, to the agent's sedative effects.

  4. ccML, a new mark-up language to improve ISO/EN 13606-based electronic health record extracts practical edition.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Cáceres, Jesús; Somolinos, Roberto; Pascual, Mario; Martínez, Ignacio; Salvador, Carlos H; Monteagudo, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a new language called ccML, designed to provide convenient pragmatic information to applications using the ISO/EN13606 reference model (RM), such as electronic health record (EHR) extracts editors. EHR extracts are presently built using the syntactic and semantic information provided in the RM and constrained by archetypes. The ccML extra information enables the automation of the medico-legal context information edition, which is over 70% of the total in an extract, without modifying the RM information. ccML is defined using a W3C XML schema file. Valid ccML files complement the RM with additional pragmatics information. The ccML language grammar is defined using formal language theory as a single-type tree grammar. The new language is tested using an EHR extracts editor application as proof-of-concept system. Seven ccML PVCodes (predefined value codes) are introduced in this grammar to cope with different realistic EHR edition situations. These seven PVCodes have different interpretation strategies, from direct look up in the ccML file itself, to more complex searches in archetypes or system precomputation. The possibility to declare generic types in ccML gives rise to ambiguity during interpretation. The criterion used to overcome ambiguity is that specificity should prevail over generality. The opposite would make the individual specific element declarations useless. A new mark-up language ccML is introduced that opens up the possibility of providing applications using the ISO/EN13606 RM with the necessary pragmatics information to be practical and realistic.

  5. ccML, a new mark-up language to improve ISO/EN 13606-based electronic health record extracts practical edition

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Cáceres, Jesús; Somolinos, Roberto; Pascual, Mario; Martínez, Ignacio; Salvador, Carlos H; Monteagudo, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this paper is to introduce a new language called ccML, designed to provide convenient pragmatic information to applications using the ISO/EN13606 reference model (RM), such as electronic health record (EHR) extracts editors. EHR extracts are presently built using the syntactic and semantic information provided in the RM and constrained by archetypes. The ccML extra information enables the automation of the medico-legal context information edition, which is over 70% of the total in an extract, without modifying the RM information. Materials and Methods ccML is defined using a W3C XML schema file. Valid ccML files complement the RM with additional pragmatics information. The ccML language grammar is defined using formal language theory as a single-type tree grammar. The new language is tested using an EHR extracts editor application as proof-of-concept system. Results Seven ccML PVCodes (predefined value codes) are introduced in this grammar to cope with different realistic EHR edition situations. These seven PVCodes have different interpretation strategies, from direct look up in the ccML file itself, to more complex searches in archetypes or system precomputation. Discussion The possibility to declare generic types in ccML gives rise to ambiguity during interpretation. The criterion used to overcome ambiguity is that specificity should prevail over generality. The opposite would make the individual specific element declarations useless. Conclusion A new mark-up language ccML is introduced that opens up the possibility of providing applications using the ISO/EN13606 RM with the necessary pragmatics information to be practical and realistic. PMID:23019241

  6. [Measurement of minimum disposable volume in the extraction of an analysis through an arterial catheter].

    PubMed

    Arias Rivera, Susana; Conde Alonso, Pilar; Sánchez Izquierdo, Raquel; García Granell, Carmen; Martín de la Torre Pérez-Cejuela, José Antonio; Ortega Castro, M Elena; Berlanga, M Luz; Pascual Durán, Tomás; Oña Compari, Francisca; de la Cal, Miguel Angel

    2004-01-01

    Arterial catheters are used to extract blood samples. To maintain its permeability we use heparin solution, which may contaminate and alter the desired results. Our aim was to determine the volume of the minimum discards during blood extractions to avoid results that might be altered in the analysis of biochemistry. A prospective study was carried out in 18 beds intensive care unit. Patients with arterial catheter (Seldicath) were included, maintaining 500 UI of heparin in saline of 500 ml, at a pressure of 300 mmHg through pressurizer (Tycos). The dead space (DS) in the radial arterial system is 0.8 ml and 1 ml in the femoral. We analyzed the reliability of different discards comparing the following: 3 ml + DS, 7.5 ml + DS, 12 ml + DS and 16.5 ml + DS. The statistical analysis was carried out through ANOVA and t Student. In biochemistry, significant differences were not found except for potasium (p< 0.001) with 3 ml+DS during control, although it is not clinically relevant [difference through = 0.1 mEq/l (DS 0.2)]. Significant differences in prothrombina (p = 0.004) were found in coagulation, comparing 3 ml+DS and 16.5 ml + DS and in cefaline, comparing 7.5 ml + DS (p< 0.0001) and 16.5 ml + DS. There were not significant differences in the studies of gases. Our study shows that to reach a reliable analytical results, it is not necessary to discard more than 3 ml+DS in biochemistry and in blood gases, and to determine cefalina time would necessary to discard a minimum of 7.5 ml+DS.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and model-free estimates of brain volume determined using the Cavalieri principle.

    PubMed Central

    Mayhew, T M; Olsen, D R

    1991-01-01

    A complete set of parallel (coronal) slices through a fixed human forebrain was generated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the Cavalieri principle, combined with point counting, was used to estimate brain volume. Alternative sampling schemes for estimating volume were then assessed by taking systematic and simple random selections of slices. Later, the brain was weighed and its fixed volume determined by fluid displacement. For the complete set of n = 28 MRI slices, the volume (1025 ml) was estimated with a coefficient of error (CE) of less than 1%. Decreasing the number of slices by systematic sampling increased the CE but this was still only 5% when just 5-6 slices were analysed. Estimated volumes varied from 947 ml to 1098 ml. Simple random sampling was less efficient (estimated volumes for 5-6 slices were 644-1187 ml). The forebrain actually weighed 1090 g and displaced 1060 ml of fluid. A set of 14 other brains was physically sliced in order to assess sampling errors in the context of observed brain-to-brain variation. It was found that 5-6 slices per brain is enough to yield efficient estimates of mean brain volume. The findings demonstrate the practicability of using MRI to estimate brain volumes unbiasedly and efficiently. The methods have great potential for noninvasive, longitudinal studies on in vivo brains and other organs. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1810922

  8. Brain Volume Determination in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Using Rats.

    PubMed

    Lekic, Tim; Hardy, Maurice; Fujii, Mutsumi; McBride, Devin W; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    Brain edema is routinely measured using the wet-dry method. Volume, however, is the sum total of all cerebral tissues, including water. Therefore, volumetric change following injury may not be adequately quantified using percentage of edema. We thus tested the hypothesis that dried brains can be reconstituted with water and then re-measured to determine the actual volume. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was induced by endovascular perforation in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30). Animals were euthanized at 24 and 72 h after evaluation of neurobehavior for determination of brain water content. Dried brains were thereafter reconstituted with equal parts of water (lost from brain edema) and centrifuged to remove air bubbles. The total volume was quantified using hydrostatic (underwater) physics principles that 1 ml water (mass) = 1 cm(3) (volume). The amount of additional water needed to reach a preset level marked on 2-ml test tubes was added to that lost from brain edema, and from the brain itself, to determine the final volume. SAH significantly increased both brain water and volume while worsening neurological function in affected rats. Volumetric measurements demonstrated significant brain swelling after SAH, in addition to the brain edema approach. This modification of the "wet-dry" method permits brain volume determination using valuable post hoc dried brain tissue.

  9. Volumizing Hyaluronic Acid Filler for Midface Volume Deficit: Results After Repeat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Leslie; Narins, Rhoda S; Beer, Kenneth; Swift, Arthur; Butterwick, Kimberly J; Few, Julius; Drinkwater, Adrienne; Murphy, Diane K

    2015-12-01

    Juvéderm Voluma XC (VYC-20L; hyaluronic acid gel) is approved in the United States for correction of age-related midface volume deficit (MVD). Assess safety and effectiveness of VYC-20L after repeat treatment. Subjects with MVD underwent optional repeat treatment 12 to 24 months after initial treatment if correction was lost or at 24 months regardless of loss of correction (n = 167). Investigators rated outcomes on the Mid-Face Volume Deficit Scale (MFVDS) and the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS). Subject-rated outcomes were the GAIS, overall satisfaction with facial appearance, achievement of treatment goal, and Self-Perception of Age questionnaire. Subjects recorded treatment-site responses in 30-day diaries. Mean injection volume for repeat treatment (3.13 mL) was approximately half the mean total injection volume for initial/touch-up treatment (6.8 mL). After repeat treatment, effectiveness was demonstrated on all investigator-rated and subject-rated measures, consistent with results observed after initial treatment. The percentage of subjects improving by ≥1 point on the MFVDS was 82.8% and 91.1% at 6 and 12 months after repeat treatment, respectively. The incidence, severity, and duration of common treatment-site responses were lower after repeat versus initial treatment. Repeat treatment with VYC-20L was well tolerated and resulted in high levels of effectiveness and subject satisfaction.

  10. Clinical significance of optimal red cell mass and plasma volume estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Todorović-Tirnanić, Mila V; Pavlović, Smiljana V; Obradović, Vladimir B; Elezović, Ivo V; Marisavljević, Dragomir Z; Miljić, Peda S; Milosević, Rajko A; Bogdanović, Andrija D; Bosnjaković, Vladimir B

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present and compare the results of proposed methods for optimal red cell mass and plasma volume (RCM&PV) estimation, and their influence on the interpretation of obtained results. In 120/280 patients with polycythaemia rubra vera, subjected to RCM&PV determination with autologous erythrocytes in vitro labelled with 51Cr-sodium chromate, optimal volumes were determined using: 1. traditional ml/kg of: --the real body weight method (ml/kg RBW); --the optimal body weight method (ml/kg OBW). 2. the body weight, height, and sex based method (Retzlaff's tables), 3. the method recommended by the International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH), based on body surface area. Different interpretation of the same results of 120 RCM&PV measurements was registered in 48/120 patients (40%). The greatest disagreement existed between ml/kg RBW and ml/kg OBW methods (in 39/120 subjects, 32.5%). In underweight patients the ml/kg RBW method, and in overweight patients the ml/kg OBW method, offered better agreement with ICSH&Retzlaff's methods. The ml/kg RBW method disagreed with ICSH&Retzlaff's methods and ml/kg OBW in 25% and 19.2% of patients respectively. ICSH and Retzlaff's methods disagreed in 10/120 patients (8.3%). The ICSH method yielded significantly lower optimal volumes than Retzlaff's. Three methods for optimal RCM&PV estimation lead to different interpretations of the same results of RCM&PV measurements with 51Cr-erythrocytes in 40% of patients. Two ml/kg body weight methods show greater disagreement in comparison with ICSH and Retzlaff's methods, which differ significantly. The ICSH method yields lower optimal values compared to Retzlaff's.

  11. The 2006 November, ML = 5.0 earthquake near Lourdes (France): new evidence for NS extension across the Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvander, Matthieu; Souriau, Annie; Rigo, Alexis; Tocheport, Audrey; Toutain, Jean-Paul; Ponsolles, Christian; Benahmed, Sébastien

    2008-11-01

    A widely felt, ML = 5.0 earthquake occurred in the central French Pyrenees on 2006 November 17, close to the pilgrimage city of Lourdes, in a region where strong historical earthquakes produced severe damage and casualties in the 17th and 18th centuries. Seismic recordings performed by dense permanent networks and temporary stations allowed an exhaustive study of this event and its aftershock sequence, revealing a great coherency of all the parameters which characterize the rupture. More than 250 aftershock hypocentres, located in a 3-D tomographic model, are remarkably distributed on a 10 km2 quasi-planar surface which extends at depth between 6 and 10 km. This surface coincides with one of the main shock nodal planes, as inferred from P-wave polarities and body waveform modelling. The tectonic structure responsible for the earthquake is identified as an E-W oriented normal fault, dipping 56° north, a few kilometres south of the North Pyrenean Fault, recognized as the former boundary between the Iberian and Eurasian Plates. The mechanisms of the strongest aftershocks are also clearly extensional (Tables 1 and 2). Moment tensors and other source parameters (corner frequency, stress drop and source radius) are determined from body wave modelling for the strongest events of the sequence (Table 3). For the main shock, a seismic moment of 5.32 × 1015 N m is found, and the source size (9.4 km2) is consistent with the aftershock distribution. Stress drops are about four times smaller for the aftershocks than for the main shock, except for a late event (2006 December 16) located 10 km to the west. We show that it could have been triggered by the main shock through viscoelastic stress transfer in the lower crust. Hydrological manifestations such as water level changes in hydrothermal wells are also discussed. The rupture occurred on a segment of an E-W trending normal fault. It is the clearest active structure identified in the whole Pyrenean range, and might be the

  12. Dynamics of H2 dissociation on the 1/2 ML c(2 × 2)-Ti/Al(100) surface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Cheng; Ramos, Maxi; Arasa, Carina; Juanes-Marcos, Juan Carlos; Somers, Mark F; Martínez, Alejandra E; Díaz, Cristina; Olsen, Roar A; Kroes, Geert-Jan

    2012-03-07

    The dissociation of H(2) on Ti-covered Al surfaces is relevant to the rehydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the NaAlH(4) hydrogen storage material. The energetically most stable structure for a 1/2 monolayer of Ti deposited on the Al(100) surface has the Ti atoms in the second layer with a c(2 × 2) structure, as has been confirmed by both low-energy electron diffraction and low-energy ion scattering experiments and density functional theory studies. In this work, we investigate the dynamics of H(2) dissociation on a slab model of this Ti/Al(100) surface. Two six-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been built for this H(2) + Ti/Al(100) system, based on the density functional theory PW91 and RPBE exchange-correlation functionals. In the PW91 (RPBE) PES, the lowest H(2) dissociation barrier is found to be 0.65 (0.84) eV, with the minimum energy path occurring for H(2) dissociating above the bridge to top sites. Using both PESs, H(2) dissociation probabilities are calculated using the classical trajectory (CT), the quasi-classical trajectory (QCT), and the time-dependent wave-packet methods. We find that the QCT H(2) dissociation probabilities are in good agreement with the quantum dynamics results in the collision energy range studied up to 1.0 eV. We have also performed molecular beam simulations and present predictions for molecular beam experiments. Our molecular beam simulations show that H(2) dissociation on the 1/2 ML Ti/Al(100) surface is an activated process, and the reaction probability is found to be 6.9% for the PW91 functional and 1.8% for the RPBE at a nozzle temperature of 1700 K. Finally, we have also calculated H(2) dissociation rate constants by applying transition state theory and the QCT method, which could be relevant to modeling Ti-catalyzed rehydrogenation and dehydrogenation of NaAlH(4).

  13. Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with volume supplementation.

    PubMed

    Mueller, C

    2006-04-01

    Volume supplementation remains the cornerstone for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Current evidence suggests that the combination of intravenous and oral volume supplementation effectively prevents CIN in low- and moderate-risk patients. Normal isotonic (0.9%) saline should be started 12 h before (or at least in the morning of) the contrast procedure with an infusion rate of 1 ml/kg of body weight per hour and be continued for 24 h. In addition, patients should be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids (tea, mineral water). The use of bicarbonate infusion may allow shorter volume supplementation periods. Combined intravenous and oral volume supplementation protocols feasible for outpatients who limit the intravenous infusion to the contrast procedure are under investigation. Future studies are necessary to define further details regarding the optimal use of volume supplementation.

  14. Repeatability of automatic left ventricular cavity volume measurements from myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    PubMed

    Germano, G; Kavanagh, P B; Kavanagh, J T; Wishner, S H; Berman, D S; Kavanagh, G J

    1998-01-01

    This study sought to assess the repeatability of automatic quantitative measurements of left ventricular (LV) cavity volumes in a large patient population (N = 926), to correlate those measurements to similarly obtained LV ejection fraction (LVEF) measurements, and to investigate the relationship between ungated and gated volumes. All 926 patients underwent ungated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) immediately followed by 8-frame gated SPECT. LV cavity volumes were automatically measured from ungated (V), summed gated (SUMV), end-systolic (ESV) and end-diastolic (EDV) images, and LVEFs derived from the latter 2. Repeatability (SUMV vs V) was very good overall (6.4%+/-6.6%), further improving for volumes >25 mL (5.7%+/-5.5%) and >40 mL (5.2%+/-5.0%). Exponential regression between ESV and LVEF (r = 0.925, SEE = 15.0 mL), EDV and LVEF (r = 0.802, SEE = 24.2 mL), and SUMV and LVEF (r = 0.867, SEE = 19.7 mL) was also very good. Summed gated volumes were closer to ESV than to EDV (43.3%+/-8.8% of EDV-ESV range). SUMV <50 mL and SUMV >110 mL were good substitutes for LVEF >50% and LVEF <40% (93.4% and 97.1%, respectively). Automatic quantitative measurements of gated and ungated volumes with our algorithm are repeatable, correlate well with other global myocardial parameters, and may contribute important additional information to that conventionally provided by myocardial perfusion SPECT studies.

  15. Superficial Enhanced Fluid Fat Injection (SEFFI) to Correct Volume Defects and Skin Aging of the Face and Periocular Region.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Francesco P; Gennai, Alessandro; Izzo, Luigi; Zambelli, Alessandra; Repaci, Erica; Baldelli, Ilaria; Fraternali-Orcioni, G; Hartstein, Morris E; Santi, Pier Luigi; Quarto, Rodolfo

    2015-07-01

    Although recent research on micro fat has shown the potential advantages of superficial implantation and high stem cell content, clinical applications thus far have been limited. The authors report their experience with superficial enhanced fluid fat injection (SEFFI) for the correction of volume loss and skin aging of the face in general and in the periocular region. The finer SEFFI preparation (0.5 mL) was injected into the orbicularis in the periorbital and perioral areas, and the 0.8-mL preparation was injected subdermally elsewhere in the face. The records of 98 consecutive patients were reviewed. Average follow-up time was 6 months, and average volume of implanted fat was 20 mL and 51.4 mL for the 0.5-mL and 0.8-mL preparations, respectively. Good or excellent results were achieved for volume restoration and skin improvement in all patients. Complications were minor and included an oil cyst in 3 patients. The smaller SEFFI quantity (0.5 mL) was well suited to correct volume loss in the eyelids, especially the deep upper sulcus and tear trough, whereas the larger SEFFI content was effective for larger volume deficits in other areas of the face, including the brow, temporal fossa, zygomatic-malar region, nasolabial folds, marionette lines, chin, and lips. The fat administered by SEFFI is easily harvested via small side-port cannulae, yielding micro fat that is rich in viable adipocytes and stem cells. Both volumes of fat (0.5 mL and 0.8 mL) were effective for treating age-related lipoatrophy, reducing facial rhytids, and improving skin quality. 4 Therapeutic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Immediate postvoid residual volumes in women with symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Haylen, Bernard T; Lee, Joseph; Logan, Vanessa; Husselbee, Sue; Zhou, Jialun; Law, Matthew

    2008-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence and clinical and urodynamic associations of postvoid residual volumes (PVRs), measured immediately after micturition, in women with symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction. The patients were 1,140 women presenting consecutively for their initial urogynecological assessment, including urodynamics. They were studied prospectively. Measurement of PVRs was by transvaginal ultrasonography within 60 seconds of micturition. After the estimation of prevalence of the different levels of PVR, an appropriate upper limit of normal PVR was estimated and associations then were sought for PVRs with a wide range of clinical and urodynamic parameters. The overall prevalence of PVRs was 76% at 0-10 mL, 5% at 11-30 mL, 5% at 31-50 mL, 8% at 51-100 mL, and 6% at more than 100 mL. Thus, using transvaginal ultrasonography, 81% of immediate PVRs were 30 mL or less. Higher than 30 mL, a significantly increased prevalence of women presenting with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) was noted (P<.001). The level of 30 mL was deemed to be an appropriate upper limit of normal PVR. The prevalence of PVRs higher than 30 mL increased significantly with age (P<.001) and higher grades of prolapse (P<.001). There was a significant inverse relation of PVRs higher than 30 mL to the symptom of stress incontinence (P=.018) and the diagnosis of urodynamic stress incontinence (P<.001). Eighty-one percent of immediate PVRs (95% confidence interval 79-84%) in symptomatic women are 30 mL or less. Postvoid residual volumes higher than this level are significantly associated with increasing age, higher grades of prolapse, and an increased prevalence of recurrent UTIs. II.

  17. CT-based renal volume and graft function after living-donor kidney transplantation: Is there a volume threshold to avoid?

    PubMed

    Dias, Jorge; Malheiro, Jorge; Almeida, Manuela; Dias, Leonídio; Silva-Ramos, Miguel; Martins, La Salete; Xambre, Luís; Castro-Henriques, António

    2015-05-01

    Donated kidney volume influences post-transplant outcomes and graft survival. We evaluated the relationship between living-donor kidney volume and recipient graft function at 12 months post-transplantation, exploring a volume threshold for a suboptimal graft function, and compared two different formulas of volume estimation. A retrospective analysis of 82 pairs of living-donor kidney transplants was conducted. Donor renal volumes were estimated from computerized tomography scans using the ellipsoid formula and the voxel counting technique. Linear and restricted cubic regression spline was used to analyze the association of volume with graft function. Additionally, we determined the correlation between the two volume estimation formulas and established a correction factor for the ellipsoid formula. Renal volume (adjusted to recipient BSA) had the strongest independent effect (B = 1.65 per 10 ml/m(2) increase, p value <0.001) on graft function at 12 months. The eGFR at 12 months was 52.5, 63.6 and 67.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2) for the low, medium and high volume ratio terciles, respectively (p value <0.001). The odds of a GFR <50 ml/min became significantly reduced with volumes above 145 cc/1.73 m(2). A strong positive correlation between the two formulas was identified (R(2) = 0.705), but the optimal correction factor for our cohort was 0.566. In a Caucasian population, higher donor kidney volumes estimated from preoperative CT scans are associated with higher recipient eGFRs at 12 months after live-donor transplantation. Using this criterion, transplant teams can potentially improve selection of living donors if multiple donors are available. However, the need for precise estimation of donor kidney volumes should not be overlooked.

  18. Functional genetic analysis of the GarML gene cluster in Lactococcus garvieae DCC43 gives new insights into circular bacteriocin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Christina; Brede, Dag A; Salehian, Zhian; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2014-03-01

    Garvicin ML (GarML) is a circular bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus garvieae DCC43. The recently published draft genome of this strain allowed determination of the genetic background for bacteriocin production. Bioinformatic analysis identified a gene cluster consisting of nine open reading frames likely involved in the production of and immunity to GarML. The garA gene encodes the bacteriocin precursor, garX a large transmembrane protein, garBCDE a putative immunity protein (garB) followed by an ATPase and two transmembrane proteins, and garFGH a putative ABC transporter complex. Functional genetic analysis revealed that deletion of garFGH had no effect on sensitivity to or production of GarML. In contrast, deletion of garBCDE or inactivation of garX resulted in high-level sensitivity to GarML and completely abolished production of active bacteriocin. Mass spectrometry of culture supernatants revealed that wild-type cultures contained the mature circular form as well as the linear forms of the bacteriocin, both with and without the three-amino-acid leader sequence, while bacteriocin-negative mutants contained only the linear forms. These results indicate that cleavage of the leader peptide precedes circularization and is likely performed by a functional entity separate from the GarML gene cluster. To our knowledge, this is the first conclusive evidence for these processes being separated in time. Loss of immunity and antimicrobial activity in addition to our inability to detect the circular bacteriocin in the ΔgarBCDE and garX::pCG47 mutants demonstrate that both these units are indispensable for GarML biosynthesis as well as immunity. Furthermore, the results indicate that these genes are implicated in the circularization of the bacteriocin and that their functions are probably interlinked.

  19. A Nomogram for Calculation of Maximum Recommended Dose by Volume of Local Anesthetic in Pediatric Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Williams, David; Splaver, Theodore; Walker, Jason

    2017-03-15

    Calculation of maximum recommended doses for local anesthetic agents and added vasopressors is complex and error-prone with potentially fatal consequences. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a nomogram to calculate the maximum recommended doses, expressed as volumes (number of cartridges or ml) of local anesthetic for healthy U.S. pediatric dental patients based on body weight, and test its accuracy and reproducibility. Standard mathematical techniques were used to draft the nomogram. Validation was performed using simulated patient data, and Bland-Altman analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of the nomogram. The nomogram was found to have a bias of 0.01 ml, with limits of agreement -0.04ml to 0.06ml and, thus, was considered to be within an acceptable range for clinical use. Our nomogram rapidly calculated the maximum recommended doses by volume of local anesthetic agents in common use to a high degree of accuracy and repeatability.

  20. Navajo History. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazzie, Ethelou, Ed.

    This volume, an account of the prerecorded history of the Navajos, is the first of a series of two volumes. (Volume 2 will take up recorded history.) From the knowledge of verbal literature supplied by Navajos themselves, this composite was completed to help alleviate the lack of materials on Navajo culture. Consensus, the authors point out, was…

  1. Pneumothorax volume expansion in helicopter emergency medical services transport.

    PubMed

    Knotts, Derek; Arthur, Annette O; Holder, Peyton; Herrington, Tim; Thomas, Stephen H

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Boyle's law (as barometric pressure decreases, gas volume increases), thoracostomy is often recommended for patients with pneumothoraces before helicopter EMS (HEMS) transport. We sought to characterize altitude-related volume changes in a pneumothorax model, aiming to improve clinical decisions for preflight thoracostomy in HEMS patients. This prospective study used 3 devices to measure air expansion at HEMS altitudes. The main device was an artificial pneumothorax model that mimicked a human pulmonary system with a 40 mL pneumothorax. In addition, volume changes were calculated in 2 spherical balloons (6 L and 25 L) by measuring equatorial circumferences. Measurements were recorded at 500-foot altitude increments from 1000 to 5000 feet above ground level. The 3 models exhibited volume increases of 12.7%-16.2% at 5000 feet compared to ground level. Univariate linear regression yielded similar increases, 1.27%-1.52%, in volume per 500-foot altitude increase for all 3 models. Bivariate indexed linear regression identified no association between volume increase and assessment model (P values .19 and .29). Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (lowess) plots indicated linearity of the altitude-volume relationship. This study demonstrated predictable pneumothorax volume changes at typical HEMS altitudes. Increased understanding of altitude-related volume changes will aid decision making before transport. Copyright © 2013 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An evaluation of tympanometric estimates of ear canal volume.

    PubMed

    Shanks, J E; Lilly, D J

    1981-12-01

    The accuracy of tympanometric estimates of ear canal volume was evaluated by testing the following two assumptions on which the procedure is based: (a) ear canal volume does not change when ear canal pressure is varied, and (b) an ear canal pressure of 200 daPa drives the impedance of the middle ear transmission system to infinity so the immittance measured at 200 daPa can be attributed to the ear canal volume alone. The first assumption was tested by measuring the changes in ear canal volume in eight normal subjects for ear canal pressures between +/- 400 daPa using a manometric procedure based on Boyle's gas law. The data did not support the first assumption. Ear canal volume changed by a mean of .113 ml over the +/- 400 daPa pressure range with slightly larger volume changes occurring for negative ear canal pressures than for positive ear canal pressures. Most of the volume change was attributed to movement of the probe and to movement of the cartilaginous walls of the ear canal. The second assumption was tested by comparing estimates of ear canal volume from susceptance tympanograms with a direct measurement of ear canal volume adjusted for changes in volume due to changes in ear canal pressure between +/- 400 daPa. These data failed to support the second assumption. All tympanometric estimates of ear canal volume were larger than the measured volumes. The largest error (39%) occurred for an ear canal pressure of 200 daPa at 220 Hz, whereas the smallest error (10%) occurred for an ear canal pressure of -400 daPa at 660 Hz. This latter susceptance value (-400 daPa at 660 Hz) divided by three is suggested to correct the 220-Hz tympanogram to the plane of the tympanic membrane. Finally, the effects of errors in estimating ear canal volume on static immittance and on tympanometry are discussed.

  3. Changes in molar volume and heat capacity of actin upon polymerization.

    PubMed Central

    Quirion, F; Gicquaud, C

    1993-01-01

    We have used densimetry and microcalorimetry to measure the changes in molar volume and heat capacity of the actin molecule during Mg(2+)-induced polymerization. Molar volume is decreased by 720 ml/mol. This result is in contradiction with previous measurements by Ikkai and Ooi [(1966) Science 152, 1756-1757], and by Swezey and Somero [(1985) Biochemistry 24, 852-860]: both of these groups reported increases in actin volume during polymerization, of 391 ml/mol and 63 ml/mol respectively. We also observed a decrease in heat capacity of about 69.5 kJ.K-1.mol-1 during polymerization. This is in agreement with the concept of conformational fluctuation of proteins proposed by Lumry and Gregory [(1989) J.Mol. Liq. 42, 113-144]whereby either ligand binding by a protein or monomer-monomer interaction decreases the protein's conformational flexibility. PMID:8240275

  4. Pathological Outcome following Radical Prostatectomy in Men with Prostate Specific Antigen Greater than 10 ng/ml and Histologically Favorable Risk Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiwoong; Kwon, Young Suk; Kim, Sinae; Han, Christopher Sejong; Farber, Nicholas; Kim, Jongmyung; Byun, Seok Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Jeon, Seong Soo; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2016-05-01

    Active surveillance is now the treatment of choice in men with low risk prostate cancer. Although there is no consensus on which patients are eligible for active surveillance, prostate specific antigen above 10 ng/ml is generally excluded. In an attempt to determine the validity of using a prostate specific antigen cutoff of 10 ng/ml to counsel men considering active surveillance we analyzed a multi-institution database to determine the pathological outcome in men with prostate specific antigen greater than 10 ng/ml but histologically favorable risk prostate cancer. We queried a prospectively maintained database of men with histologically favorable risk prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2003 and 2015. The cohort was categorized into 3 groups based on prostate specific antigen level, including low-less than 10 ng/ml, intermediate-10 or greater to less than 20 and high-20 or greater. Associations of prostate specific antigen group with adverse pathological and oncologic outcomes were analyzed. Of 2,125 patients 1,327 were categorized with histologically favorable risk disease. However on multivariate analyses the rates of up staging and upgrading were similar between the intermediate and low prostate specific antigen groups. In contrast compared to the intermediate prostate specific antigen group the high group had higher incidences of up staging (p = 0.02) and upgrading to 4 + 3 or greater disease (p = 0.046). Biochemical recurrence-free survival rates revealed no pairwise intergroup differences except between the low and high groups. Patients with preoperatively elevated prostate specific antigen between 10 and less than 20 ng/ml who otherwise had histologically favorable risk prostate cancer were not at higher risk for adverse pathological outcomes than men with prostate specific antigen less than 10 ng/ml. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. NeuroML: A Language for Describing Data Driven Models of Neurons and Networks with a High Degree of Biological Detail

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, Padraig; Crook, Sharon; Cannon, Robert C.; Hines, Michael L.; Billings, Guy O.; Farinella, Matteo; Morse, Thomas M.; Davison, Andrew P.; Ray, Subhasis; Bhalla, Upinder S.; Barnes, Simon R.; Dimitrova, Yoana D.; Silver, R. Angus

    2010-01-01

    Biologically detailed single neuron and network models are important for understanding how ion channels, synapses and anatomical connectivity underlie the complex electrical behavior of the brain. While neuronal simulators such as NEURON, GENESIS, MOOSE, NEST, and PSICS facilitate the development of these data-driven neuronal models, the specialized languages they employ are generally not interoperable, limiting model accessibility and preventing reuse of model components and cross-simulator validation. To overcome these problems we have used an Open Source software approach to develop NeuroML, a neuronal model description language based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). This enables these detailed models and their components to be defined in a standalone form, allowing them to be used across multiple simulators and archived in a standardized format. Here we describe the structure of NeuroML and demonstrate its scope by converting into NeuroML models of a number of different voltage- and ligand-gated conductances, models of electrical coupling, synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity, together with morphologically detailed models of individual neurons. We have also used these NeuroML-based components to develop an highly detailed cortical network model. NeuroML-based model descriptions were validated by demonstrating similar model behavior across five independently developed simulators. Although our results confirm that simulations run on different simulators converge, they reveal limits to model interoperability, by showing that for some models convergence only occurs at high levels of spatial and temporal discretisation, when the computational overhead is high. Our development of NeuroML as a common description language for biophysically detailed neuronal and network models enables interoperability across multiple simulation environments, thereby improving model transparency, accessibility and reuse in computational neuroscience. PMID:20585541

  6. The effect of fluid density and volume on the accuracy of test weighing in a simulated oral feeding situation.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Donna A; Madigan, Elizabeth; Siripul, Pulsuk

    2004-06-01

    For preterm infants and infants who have difficulty with oral feeding, excessive drooling during oral feedings can result in inaccurate assessment of intake. The drooled volume is typically estimated by visual and tactile assessment of the bib. Research, however, has demonstrated that visual assessment is inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of a scale that was used for the test weighing of milk that was drooled during a study of oral feeding for preterm infants. Additionally, the effect of weighing solutions with different densities on the accuracy of test weights was examined. Descriptive, comparative design. A simulated feeding situation was performed using 3 fluids (water, Enfamil(20), and Enfamil(24)) and 3 volume ranges (1 mL to 10 mL, 11 mL to 20 mL, and 21 mL to 30 mL). Data collection sessions were conducted for each of the 3 fluids using each range of volumes, for a total of 180 test weights. The research assistant performing the test weights was blinded to the preweight of the bib and the amount of fluid being applied to the bib. Differences between the actual volume applied to the bib and the volume estimated by the scale were very small, with 51% of the differences equaling 0 mL and 48% of the differences between -1 mL and 1 mL. There were significant differences in errors related to both the type of fluid (F = 25.7; df = 2; P < 0.001) and volume range (F = 12.7; df = 2; P < 0.001), as well as for the interaction between the 2 factors (F = 7.02; df = 4; P < 0.001). Water had significantly less mean error than either formula, and large volumes had significantly greater mean error than either small or medium volumes. Test weighing is an accurate method for measuring fluids of different densities and volumes in a simulation of drooling during oral feeding. The increased error with larger volumes of higher density solutions was not clinically significant. The study supports the need to consider both the accuracy of the scale

  7. In elderly men and women treated for osteoporosis a low creatinine clearance of <65 ml/min is a risk factor for falls and fractures.

    PubMed

    Dukas, Laurent; Schacht, Erich; Stähelin, Hannes B

    2005-12-01

    Recently, a low creatinine clearance (CrCl) of < 65 ml/min was described as a new significant and independent risk factor for the number of fallers and falls in a community-dwelling elderly population. In this study we investigated if a low creatinine clearance of < 65 ml/min is also a risk factor for falls and fractures in elderly men and women treated for osteoporosis. In a cross-sectional study with the help of questionnaires we assessed the prevalence of having experienced falls within the last 12 months according to renal function in 5,313 German men and women receiving treatment for osteoporosis. The CrCl was calculated using the established Cockcroft-Gault formula. The prevalence of falls and fractures was assessed in multivariate-controlled logistic regression models according to a CrCl cut off of 65 ml/min. The P-values were two-sided. In this study of elderly men and women treated for osteoporosis (n=5,313), 60.9% (n=3,238) had a CrCl of < 65 ml/min, which was associated in multivariate controlled analyses, compared to a CrCl of > or = 65 ml/min (n=2,075), with a significant increased risk of experiencing falls (1,775/3,238 vs. 773/2,075, OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.50-1.91, P<0.0001) and an increased risk for multiple falls (37.1 vs. 22.6%, OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.42-1.87, P<0.0001). Furthermore, compared to a creatinine clearance of > or = 65 ml/min, a creatinine clearance of < 65 ml/min was also associated with a significant increased multivariate controlled risk for hip fractures (OR 1.57, 95%CI 1.18-2.09, P=0.002), for radial fractures (OR 1.79, 95%CI 1.39-2.31, P=<0.0001), for total vertebral fractures (OR 1.31, 95%CI 1.19-1.55, P=0.003) and for fall-associated vertebral fractures (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.54, P=0.031). Similar to community-dwelling elderly, in elderly men and women treated for osteoporosis a CrCl of less than 65 ml/min is a significant and independent risk factor for falls. Furthermore, we could show for the first time that a low creatinine

  8. Red blood cell volume in preterm neonates

    SciTech Connect

    Quaife, M.A.; Dirksen, J.W.; Paxson, C.L. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    In the high-risk neonate, the direct determination of the red cell volume by radionuclide dilution technique appears to be the singularly definitive method of defining treatment efficacy, and is thus a useful evaluation and management tool for the pediatrician. For effective patient management, the red blood cell(RBC) volume of 69 preterm and term neonates was determined. The method utilized, Tc-99m-labeled RBCs, provided a fast and accurate answer with a large reduction in the absorbed radiation dose. In the population studied within a high-risk newborn ICU, the mean RBC volumes between the preterm and term neonates were without significant difference. Groupingmore » and analysis of the RBC volume data with respect to birth weight, gestational ages, and 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores revealed on statistical difference. The mean value found in our population, 32.2 +/- 9.2 ml/kg, however, does differ from those previously reported in which the determinations were made using an indirect estimation from the plasma compartment.« less

  9. Thyroid gland volume of schoolchildren in the North of Iran: Comparison with other studies

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Saeed; Moghadam, Masrur Vahabi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have shown the limitation of the World Health Organization (WHO)/ International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency (ICCIDD)-adopted thyroid gland volume references as universal normative values for thyroid gland volume. So we decided to measure thyroid gland volume by sonography in schoolchildren in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran — Rasht is a metropolitan city on the Caspian Sea coast — and compare them to WHO normative values. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 2,522 schoolchildren, aged 6-13 years, in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran were selected by multistage random sampling. Data were collected on their age, sex, weight, height, body surface area (BSA), and thyroid gland size by palpation and sonography. The terminal phalange of thumb finger volume was calculated with the same formula used in sonography, for the thyroid gland in 1,085 of these cases. Results: Goiter prevalence was 64% (1613 cases) by palpation, 76.1% (1228 subjects) grade I and 23.9% (385 cases) grade II. The mean thyroid gland volume in girls was more than boys (3.67 ± 1.89 mL vs 3.41 ± 1.58 mL, P < 0.0001). According to the 1997 WHO thyroid gland volume reference, none of the children had goiter based on BSA and age even in those with grade II goiters (23.9%). In contrast, the median thyroid gland volume in our cases was larger than the 2004 WHO reference. The best single predictor of thyroid gland volume was age (R2 = 0.391, P < 0.0001) followed by BSA (R2 = 0.151, P < 0.0001). There was also a significant difference between thyroid gland and finger volume in all grades of goiter and grade II goiters (3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.59 ± 2.4 mL; P < 0.0001. 4.3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.3 ± 2.5 mL; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The WHO standards for thyroid gland volume by sonography may underestimate or overestimate the goiter prevalence in many areas and populations. Finger volume was much larger than thyroid gland volume in even visible goiters. PMID:26941811

  10. Thyroid gland volume of schoolchildren in the North of Iran: Comparison with other studies.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Saeed; Moghadam, Masrur Vahabi

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have shown the limitation of the World Health Organization (WHO)/ International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency (ICCIDD)-adopted thyroid gland volume references as universal normative values for thyroid gland volume. So we decided to measure thyroid gland volume by sonography in schoolchildren in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran - Rasht is a metropolitan city on the Caspian Sea coast - and compare them to WHO normative values. In a cross-sectional study, 2,522 schoolchildren, aged 6-13 years, in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran were selected by multistage random sampling. Data were collected on their age, sex, weight, height, body surface area (BSA), and thyroid gland size by palpation and sonography. The terminal phalange of thumb finger volume was calculated with the same formula used in sonography, for the thyroid gland in 1,085 of these cases. Goiter prevalence was 64% (1613 cases) by palpation, 76.1% (1228 subjects) grade I and 23.9% (385 cases) grade II. The mean thyroid gland volume in girls was more than boys (3.67 ± 1.89 mL vs 3.41 ± 1.58 mL, P < 0.0001). According to the 1997 WHO thyroid gland volume reference, none of the children had goiter based on BSA and age even in those with grade II goiters (23.9%). In contrast, the median thyroid gland volume in our cases was larger than the 2004 WHO reference. The best single predictor of thyroid gland volume was age (R (2) = 0.391, P < 0.0001) followed by BSA (R (2) = 0.151, P < 0.0001). There was also a significant difference between thyroid gland and finger volume in all grades of goiter and grade II goiters (3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.59 ± 2.4 mL; P < 0.0001. 4.3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.3 ± 2.5 mL; P < 0.0001). The WHO standards for thyroid gland volume by sonography may underestimate or overestimate the goiter prevalence in many areas and populations. Finger volume was much larger than thyroid gland volume in even visible goiters.

  11. Correlation between gall bladder fasting volume and postprandial emptying in patients with gall stones and healthy controls.

    PubMed Central

    Pauletzki, J; Cicala, M; Holl, J; Sauerbruch, T; Schafmayer, A; Paumgartner, G

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate whether the extent of postprandial gall bladder emptying is correlated with gall bladder fasting volume, gall bladder motility was studied in 56 patients with cholesterol gall stone and 19 control patients. Gall bladder volumes were determined sonographically, while cholecystokinin plasma values were measured radioimmunologically. Twenty three per cent of gall stone patients were classified as pathological contractors (residual fraction > mean +2SD of controls) and 77% as normal contractors. Normal but not pathological contractor patients exhibited larger gall bladder fasting volumes (mean (SEM)) (24.7 (1.7) ml) than controls (15.3 (1.2) ml, p < 0.001). In normal contractor patients and controls fasting volume was closely related with ejection volume (r = 0.97, p < 0.001) and residual volume (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). Although ejection volume was enlarged in normal contractor patients it did not compensate the increase in fasting volume. Thus, residual volumes were considerably increased not only in pathological contractors (12.7 (2.5) ml, p < 0.001) but also in normal contractor patients (7.0 (0.5) v 4.6 (0.6) ml, p < 0.001). Postprandial cholecystokinin secretion did not differ between patients and controls. It is concluded, that in normal contractor patients gall bladder fasting volume is closely correlated with ejection and residual volume. Thus, fasting volume may be an essential factor affecting postprandial gall bladder emptying. Large fasting volumes in cholesterol gall stone disease could thereby contribute to bile retention, which facilitates gall stone growth. PMID:8244118

  12. Continuous monitoring of blood volume changes in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Use of on-line high-precision mass densitometry for the continuous monitoring of blood volume changes in humans was demonstrated by recording short-term blood volume alterations produced by changes in body position. The mass density of antecubital venous blood was measured continuously for 80 min per session with 0.1 g/l precision at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. Additional discrete plasma density and hematocrit measurements gave linear relations between all possible combinations of blood density, plasma density, and hematocrit. Transient filtration phenomena were revealed that are not amenable to discontinuous measurements.

  13. [Association of lung volume with shunt size in Starnes' procedure in neonates with severe Ebstein's anomaly].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hajime; Abe, Tomonobu; Sakurai, Takahisa; Sugiura, Junya; Terada, Takafumi; Taneichi, Tetsuyoshi; Ohashi, Naoki; Matsushima, Masaki; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Kubota, Kinya; Yoshida, Shuichiro; Imai, Yuki

    2013-09-01

    Our modification of Starnes' procedure reduces right ventricular volume using only "suture plication" to improve surgical outcomes. However, shunt size in the procedure varies widely between patients. As this may be related to small lung volume, we estimated lung volume in each patient using computed tomography (CT).Since 2007, we have performed Starnes' procedure in 4 patients. Preoperative cardiothoracic ratio was 89±4.5%. Age and body weight at operation were 4.3±2.6 days and 2.6±0.2 kg, respectively. Anatomic slices 3 mm thick were acquired in transverse planes by CT. Total lung volume was calculated by accumulating those slices. Total lung volume and lung volume/body weight were 97.2±34.1 ml, 36.8±11.5 ml/kg, respectively. In one patient, a 3 mm prosthetic graft was needed to place a clip to regulate blood flow. Another patient required an additional shunt. The patient with the smallest lung volume required treatment with an extracorporeal lung-assistance device. Chest X-rays of neonates with severe Ebstein's anomaly usually show a "wall-to-wall" heart. However, lung volume varies widely between patients. Estimation of lung volume using CT is useful. In patients with smaller lung volume, a larger shunt than usual may be required to obtain the necessary pulmonary blood flow.

  14. Expanding Audio Access to Mathematics Expressions by Students with Visual Impairments via MathML. Research Report. ETS RR-17-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Lois; Brownstein, Beth; Soiffer, Neil

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the pilot conducted in the final phase of a project, Expanding Audio Access to Mathematics Expressions by Students With Visual Impairments via MathML, to provide easy-to-use tools for authoring and rendering secondary-school algebra-level math expressions in synthesized speech that is useful for students with blindness or low…

  15. Dynamic evolution of resistance gene analogs in the orthologous genomic regions of powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW170 in Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops tauschii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat is one of the most important staple grain crops in the world. Powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici can result in significant losses in both grain yield and quality in wheat. In this study, the wheat powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW170 locus located on the short ...

  16. Middle ear microbiome differences in indigenous Filipinos with chronic otitis media due to a duplication in the A2ML1 gene.

    PubMed

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Hutchinson, Diane S; Ajami, Nadim J; Reyes-Quintos, Ma Rina T; Tantoco, Ma Leah C; Labra, Patrick John; Lagrana, Sheryl Mae; Pedro, Melquiadesa; Llanes, Erasmo Gonzalo D V; Gloria-Cruz, Teresa Luisa; Chan, Abner L; Cutiongco-de la Paz, Eva Maria; Belmont, John W; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Abes, Generoso T; Petrosino, Joseph F; Leal, Suzanne M; Chiong, Charlotte M

    2016-11-01

    Previously rare A2ML1 variants were identified to confer otitis media susceptibility in an indigenous Filipino community and in otitis-prone US children. The goal of this study is to describe differences in the middle ear microbiome between carriers and non-carriers of an A2ML1 duplication variant that increases risk for chronic otitis media among indigenous Filipinos with poor health care access. Ear swabs were obtained from 16 indigenous Filipino individuals with chronic otitis media, of whom 11 carry the A2ML1 duplication variant. Ear swabs were submitted for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Genotype-based differences in microbial richness, structure, and composition were identified, but were not statistically significant. Taxonomic analysis revealed that the relative abundance of the phyla Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and genus Fusobacterium were nominally increased in carriers compared to non-carriers, but were non-significant after correction for multiple testing. We also detected rare bacteria including Oligella that was reported only once in the middle ear. These findings suggest that A2ML1-related otitis media susceptibility may be mediated by changes in the middle ear microbiome. Knowledge of middle ear microbial profiles according to genetic background can be potentially useful for therapeutic and prophylactic interventions for otitis media and can guide public health interventions towards decreasing otitis media prevalence within the indigenous Filipino community.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to Lassa virus and to the attenuated Mopeia/Lassa reassortant 29 (ML29), a vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Juan Carlos; Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L; Crasta, Oswald; Zhang, Yan; Mani, Sachin; Jett, Marti; Poonia, Bhawna; Djavani, Mahmoud; White, David M; Lukashevich, Igor S; Salvato, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa Fever and is responsible for several hundred thousand infections and thousands of deaths annually in West Africa. LASV and the non-pathogenic Mopeia virus (MOPV) are both rodent-borne African arenaviruses. A live attenuated reassortant of MOPV and LASV, designated ML29, protects rodents and primates from LASV challenge and appears to be more attenuated than MOPV. To gain better insight into LASV-induced pathology and mechanism of attenuation we performed gene expression profiling in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exposed to LASV and the vaccine candidate ML29. PBMC from healthy human subjects were exposed to either LASV or ML29. Although most PBMC are non-permissive for virus replication, they remain susceptible to signal transduction by virus particles. Total RNA was extracted and global gene expression was evaluated during the first 24 hours using high-density microarrays. Results were validated using RT-PCR, flow cytometry and ELISA. LASV and ML29 elicited differential expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG), as well as genes involved in apoptosis, NF-kB signaling and the coagulation pathways. These genes could eventually serve as biomarkers to predict disease outcomes. The remarkable differential expression of thrombomodulin, a key regulator of inflammation and coagulation, suggests its involvement with vascular abnormalities and mortality in Lassa fever disease.

  18. Differential Activation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Kv7.4, Kv7.5, and Kv7.4/7.5 Channels by ML213 and ICA-069673

    PubMed Central

    Brueggemann, Lyubov I.; Haick, Jennifer M.; Cribbs, Leanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that smooth muscle cells express Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 voltage-activated potassium channels, which contribute to maintenance of their resting membrane voltage. New pharmacologic activators of Kv7 channels, ML213 (N-mesitybicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxamide) and ICA-069673 N-(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)-3,4-difluorobenzamide), have been reported to discriminate among channels formed from different Kv7 subtypes. We compared the effects of ML213 and ICA-069673 on homomeric human Kv7.4, Kv7.5, and heteromeric Kv7.4/7.5 channels exogenously expressed in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. We found that, despite its previous description as a selective activator of Kv7.2 and Kv7.4, ML213 significantly increased the maximum conductance of homomeric Kv7.4 and Kv7.5, as well as heteromeric Kv7.4/7.5 channels, and induced a negative shift of their activation curves. Current deactivation rates decreased in the presence of the ML213 (10 μM) for all three channel combinations. Mutants of Kv7.4 (W242L) and Kv7.5 (W235L), previously found to be insensitive to another Kv7 channel activator, retigabine, were also insensitive to ML213 (10 μM). In contrast to ML213, ICA-069673 robustly activated Kv7.4 channels but was significantly less effective on homomeric Kv7.5 channels. Heteromeric Kv7.4/7.5 channels displayed intermediate responses to ICA-069673. In each case, ICA-069673 induced a negative shift of the activation curves without significantly increasing maximal conductance. Current deactivation rates decreased in the presence of ICA-069673 in a subunit-specific manner. Kv7.4 W242L responded to ICA-069673-like wild-type Kv7.4, but a Kv7.4 F143A mutant was much less sensitive to ICA-069673. Based on these results, ML213 and ICA-069673 likely bind to different sites and are differentially selective among Kv7.4, Kv7.5, and Kv7.4/7.5 channel subtypes. PMID:24944189

  19. Differential activation of vascular smooth muscle Kv7.4, Kv7.5, and Kv7.4/7.5 channels by ML213 and ICA-069673.

    PubMed

    Brueggemann, Lyubov I; Haick, Jennifer M; Cribbs, Leanne L; Byron, Kenneth L

    2014-09-01

    Recent research suggests that smooth muscle cells express Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 voltage-activated potassium channels, which contribute to maintenance of their resting membrane voltage. New pharmacologic activators of Kv7 channels, ML213 (N-mesitybicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxamide) and ICA-069673 N-(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)-3,4-difluorobenzamide), have been reported to discriminate among channels formed from different Kv7 subtypes. We compared the effects of ML213 and ICA-069673 on homomeric human Kv7.4, Kv7.5, and heteromeric Kv7.4/7.5 channels exogenously expressed in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. We found that, despite its previous description as a selective activator of Kv7.2 and Kv7.4, ML213 significantly increased the maximum conductance of homomeric Kv7.4 and Kv7.5, as well as heteromeric Kv7.4/7.5 channels, and induced a negative shift of their activation curves. Current deactivation rates decreased in the presence of the ML213 (10 μM) for all three channel combinations. Mutants of Kv7.4 (W242L) and Kv7.5 (W235L), previously found to be insensitive to another Kv7 channel activator, retigabine, were also insensitive to ML213 (10 μM). In contrast to ML213, ICA-069673 robustly activated Kv7.4 channels but was significantly less effective on homomeric Kv7.5 channels. Heteromeric Kv7.4/7.5 channels displayed intermediate responses to ICA-069673. In each case, ICA-069673 induced a negative shift of the activation curves without significantly increasing maximal conductance. Current deactivation rates decreased in the presence of ICA-069673 in a subunit-specific manner. Kv7.4 W242L responded to ICA-069673-like wild-type Kv7.4, but a Kv7.4 F143A mutant was much less sensitive to ICA-069673. Based on these results, ML213 and ICA-069673 likely bind to different sites and are differentially selective among Kv7.4, Kv7.5, and Kv7.4/7.5 channel subtypes. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. The effect of adding two target-controlled concentrations (1-3 ng mL -1 ) of remifentanil on MAC BAR of desflurane.

    PubMed

    Albertin, A; Dedola, E; Bergonzi, P C; Lombardo, F; Fusco, T; Torri, G

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to determine the effects of adding two different target-controlled concentrations of remifentanil (1 and 3 ng mL(-1)) on the desflurane requirement for blunting sympathetic responses after surgical incision (minimum anaesthetic concentration (MAC(BAR)). 67 patients, aged 20-50 yr, ASA I, undergoing general anaesthesia for elective abdominal surgery were enrolled and randomly allocated to receive no remifentanil infusion (n = 21) or a target-controlled effect-site concentration of 1 ng mL(-1) (n = 24) or 3 ng mL(-1) remifentanil (n = 22). All patients were anaesthetized with propofol, cisatracurium and desflurane with a mixture of 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen. Sympathetic responses to surgical incision were determined after a 20-min period of stable end-tidal desflurane and target-controlled remifentanil concentrations. Predetermined end-tidal desflurane concentrations and the MAC(BAR) for each group were determined using an up-and-down sequential-allocation technique. The MAC(BAR) of desflurane was higher in the group receiving no remifentanil (6.25% [95% confidence interval: 5.9-6.5%]) as compared with patients of the groups receiving 1 ng mL(-1) (2.7% [2.6-2.8%]; P < 0.001) and 3 ng mL(-1) remifentanil (2% [1.9-2.2%]; P < 0.01). When considering a MAC value in this age population and the contribution of 60% nitrous oxide (0.55 MAC), the combined MAC(BAR) values, expressed as multiples of the MAC, were 1.9, 0.8 and 0.6 MAC, in the three groups, respectively. A target-controlled concentration of 1 ng mL(-1) remifentanil results in a 57% decrease in the MAC(BAR) of desflurane combined with 60% nitrous oxide. Increasing the target concentration of remifentanil to 3 ng mL(-1) produces a further 26% decrease in the MAC(BAR) values of desflurane.

  1. Extreme-Risk Prostate Adenocarcinoma Presenting With Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) >40 ng/ml: Prognostic Significance of the Preradiation PSA Nadir

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Abraham S.; University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia; Mydin, Aminudin

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of patient, disease, and treatment characteristics on survival outcomes in patients treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and radical external-beam radiotherapy (RT) for clinically localized, extreme-risk prostate adenocarcinoma with a presenting prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of >40 ng/ml. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 64 patients treated at a single institution between 1991 and 2000 with ADT and RT for prostate cancer with a presenting PSA level of >40 ng/ml. The effects of patient age, tumor (presenting PSA level, Gleason score, and T stage), and treatment (total ADT duration andmore » pre-RT PSA level) characteristics on rates of biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS), and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: Median follow-up time was 6.45 years (range, 0.09-15.19 years). Actuarial bDFS, PCSS, and OS rates at 5 years were 39%, 87%, and 78%, respectively, and 17%, 64%, and 45%, respectively, at 10 years. On multivariate analysis, the pre-RT PSA level ({<=}0.1 versus >0.1 ng/ml) was the single most significant prognostic factor for bDFS (p = 0.033) and OS (p = 0.018) rates, whereas age, T stage, Gleason score, and ADT duration ({<=}6 versus >6 months) were not predictive of outcomes. Conclusion: In prostate cancer patients with high presenting PSA levels, >40 ng/ml, treated with combined modality, neoadjuvant ADT, and RT, the pre-RT PSA nadir, rather than ADT duration, was significantly associated with improved survival. This observation supports the use of neoadjuvant ADT to drive PSA levels to below 0.1 ng/ml before initiation of RT, to optimize outcomes for patients with extreme-risk disease.« less

  2. Achieving incremental volume increases.

    PubMed

    Belt, J E

    1997-04-01

    Despite provider assumptions that managed care contracts will yield incremental increases in patient volume, there are no guarantees that volume increases will be realized. Providers can improve the likelihood that incremental volume increases will be achieved, however, by including certain provisions in managed care contracts related to volume-based discounts, limitations on network size and composition, access to physicians, provider directory listings, patient financial incentives, service scope/carve-outs, and participation in all service products offered by the managed care organization. Negotiating such provisions may be difficult, but providers and managed care organizations that reach agreement on these provisions gain mutual understanding and frequently can form more successful relationships.

  3. Front matter: Volume 10385

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assoufid, Lahsen; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Asundi, Anand K.

    2017-09-01

    This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 10385, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  4. Effects of volume control, pressure control, and pressure-regulated volume control on cardiopulmonary parameters in a normal rat lung.

    PubMed

    Pierce, J D; Gilliland, E; Smith-Blair, N; Clancy, R L

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in diaphragm shortening and cardiopulmonary parameters at varying tidal volumes during volume control (VC), pressure control (PC), and pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC). A miniaturized ultrasonic sensor attached to the inferior surface of the upper costal surface of the right hemidiaphragm of 16 Sprague-Dawley rats provided a direct assessment of diaphragm shortening. Within each control mode of mechanical ventilation, the tidal volume was increased from 3 to 12 ml in increments of 3 ml. There were no differences in cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, peak inspiratory pressure, or end-tidal CO2 among the three modes of mechanical ventilation. At equivalent tidal volumes, diaphragm shortening was less during PRVC than during VC or PC. This finding suggests that differences in diaphragm shortening may be caused by shorter resting (end-expiratory) diaphragm muscle length. The cardiopulmonary data obtained in this study provide new information for clinicians to consider when using various modes of ventilation, particularly PRVC.

  5. Space Shuttle inflight and postflight fluid shifts measured by leg volume changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas P.; Thornton, William E.

    1987-01-01

    This is a study of the inflight and postflight leg volume changes associated with spaceflight on Space Shuttle missions. The results show an inflight volume loss of 2 l from the lower extremities, 1 l from each leg, representing an 11.6 percent volume change. The vast majority of this change appears to be a shift in body fluids, both intravascular and extravascular. The fluid shift occurs mostly on Mission Day One and is essentially complete by 6 to 10 hr. The regional origin of shift and leg volume changes shows a far greater absolute volume (708 ml vs. 318 ml) and percentage (69 percent vs. 31 percent) of the total change coming from the higher as compared to the lower leg. Postflight, the return of fluid to the lower extremities occurs rapidly with the majority of volume return complete within 1.5 hr postlanding. At 1 week postflight, there is a residual leg volume decrement of 283 ml or 3.2 percent that is probably due to tissue loss secondary to atrophic deconditioning and weight loss.

  6. Effects of Age and Bolus Volume on Velocity of Hyolaryngeal Excursion in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Barikroo, Ali; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Reduced movement velocity has been identified as a risk marker for movement impairment in older adults. Hyolaryngeal excursion is a key movement feature of normal swallowing function which is known to change with age and other extrinsic variables such as bolus volume. However, velocity of hyolaryngeal excursion has received limited attention in the literature on normal or abnormal swallowing. This study evaluated the effects of age and bolus volume on the velocity of hyoid and laryngeal excursion during swallowing in healthy adults. Forty-four healthy volunteers were grouped into three age bands (young: 20-35 years, middle age: 36-55 years, older: 56 ≥ years). All subjects swallowed 5 and 20 mL of thin liquid during fluoroscopic recording. Fluoroscopic images were extracted for each swallow representing the onset and maximum excursion positions of the hyoid and larynx. Superior and anterior excursion distance (excursion magnitude) and the time difference between rest and maximum excursion (excursion duration) were calculated. Velocity was calculated as a ratio of distance over time. Superior hyoid excursion magnitude was significantly increased for the 20 mL volume. Anterior laryngeal excursion magnitude was also significantly increased for the 20 mL volume. No kinematic duration measure demonstrated significant change across age or bolus conditions. Superior hyoid excursion velocity was significantly faster for the 20 mL volume. Superior and anterior laryngeal excursion velocity were significantly faster for the 20 mL volume only in the older group. Results of this study indicate that magnitude and velocity of hyoid and laryngeal excursion vary with age and volume. Comprising both excursion magnitude and duration, kinematic velocity may be a more complete metric to evaluate age-related swallowing performance.

  7. Assessment of breast volume changes during human pregnancy using a three-dimensional surface assessment technique in the prospective CGATE study.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Christian M; Bani, Mayada R; Schneider, Michael; Dammer, Ulf; Raabe, Eva; Haeberle, Lothar; Faschingbauer, Florian; Schneeberger, Sabine; Renner, Stefan P; Fischer, Dorothea; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Jud, Sebastian M

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancies and breastfeeding are two important protective factors concerning breast cancer risk. Breast volume and breast volume changes might be a breast phenotype that could be monitored during pregnancy and breastfeeding without ionizing radiation or expensive equipment. The aim of the present study was to document changes in breast volume during pregnancy prospectively. In the prospective Clinical Gravidity Association Trial and Evaluation programme, pregnant women were followed up prospectively from gestational week 12 to birth. Three-dimensional breast surface imaging and subsequent volume assessments were performed. Factors influencing breast volume at the end of the pregnancy were assessed using linear regression models. Breast volumes averaged 420 ml at the start of pregnancy and 516 ml at the end of pregnancy. The first, second and third quartiles of the volume increase were 41, 95 and 135 ml, respectively. Breast size increased on average by 96 ml, regardless of the initial breast volume. Breast volume increases during pregnancy, but not all womens' breasts respond to pregnancy in the same way. Breast volume changes during pregnancy are an interesting phenotype that can be easily assessed in further studies to examine breast cancer risk.

  8. The calcium paradox phenomenon: a flow rate and volume response study of calcium-free perfusion.

    PubMed

    Oksendal, A N; Jynge, P; Sellevold, O F; Rotevatn, S; Saetersdal, T

    1985-10-01

    A dose-response study concerning the importance of the flow rate (0.5 to 12 ml/min) and volume (2.5 to 60 ml) of calcium-free coronary perfusion (duration 5 min) in the induction of a calcium paradox on reperfusion (duration 15 min) with calcium-containing medium has been performed in the isolated rat heart (37 degrees C). On the basis of enzymatic, physiological, and metabolic assessments three different levels of tissue injury were identified: a minimal paradox at 1.0 ml/min or 5 ml, a subtotal paradox at 2 ml/min or 10 ml and a total paradox at 9 ml/min or 45 ml. Ultrastructural examination revealed that cellular injury following calcium repletion was always severe, and that an increase in the flow rate and volume of calcium-free perfusion increased the number of severely injured cells. During calcium-free perfusion the external lamina largely remained intact over the surface coat of the sarcolemma, but variable degrees of separation of intercalated discs were observed. It is concluded that the calcium paradox model of myocardial injury presents a rather sharp threshold related to the flow rate or volume of calcium-free coronary perfusion and that on trespassing this threshold there is a narrow zone characterized by a decreasing number of viable cells. Furthermore, the study indicates that a separation of the external lamina from the surface coat of the sarcolemma is not a prerequisite for the induction of a calcium paradox, and that cell injury may occur in the presence of intact intercalated discs.

  9. Surgical and oncological outcomes in patients with a preoperative PSA value <4 ng/ml undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Zugor, Vahudin; Labanaris, Apostolos P; Bauer, Ricarda M; Witt, Jorn H

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the surgical and oncological outcomes in patients with a preoperative prostate specific antigen (PSA) value <4 ng/ml undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for prostate cancer. The records of 2000 men who underwent RARP from February 2006 to April 2010, were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 169 (8.4%) patients with a preoperative PSA value <4 ng/ml were identified. A comparison was performed between the overall patient cohort and the aforementioned patients. The analyzed parameters included: minor and major postoperative complications, postoperative Gleason score, pathological stage, positive margin status as well as presence of biochemical progression and of disease-specific mortality during the follow-up period. The following results reflect the comparison of the overall cohort of patients vs. the cohort of patients who had a preoperative PSA value <4 ng/ml. A statistical difference of the analyzed parameters was observed in the median PSA value; 10.3 ng/ml (0.3-220 ng/ml) vs. 2.8 ng/ml (0.3-3.9 ng/ml) (p<0.001), in bilateral NVB; 65.7% vs. 85.2% (p<0.001), in Gleason score <7; 42.8% vs. 59.1% (p<0.05), in Gleason score 7; 47.7% vs. 36.6% (p<0.05) and in Gleason score >7 in 9.5% vs. 3.5% (p<0.001). Organ-confined disease was noted in 73.5% vs. 86.3% (p<0.05), extraprostatic extension in 25.2% vs. 13.7% (p<0.05). The percentage of cancer found in the prostate specimen was 16.1% (1-99%) vs. 7.3% (1-96%) (p<0.05) and a positive surgical margin status was encountered in 8.9% vs. 4.7% (p<0.05) of patients. Pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in 1623 patients (81.2%) of the overall cohort out of whom 64 cases (3.2%) were positive for metastasis. In the patient cohort of PSA value <4 ng/ml, pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in 114 patients (67.4%), out of which one case (0.5%) was positive for metastasis (p<0.05). After a median follow-up of 24.2 months (range 3-56 months), 162 patients (95

  10. Fuzzy Volume Rendering.

    PubMed

    Fout, N; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2012-12-01

    In order to assess the reliability of volume rendering, it is necessary to consider the uncertainty associated with the volume data and how it is propagated through the volume rendering algorithm, as well as the contribution to uncertainty from the rendering algorithm itself. In this work, we show how to apply concepts from the field of reliable computing in order to build a framework for management of uncertainty in volume rendering, with the result being a self-validating computational model to compute a posteriori uncertainty bounds. We begin by adopting a coherent, unifying possibility-based representation of uncertainty that is able to capture the various forms of uncertainty that appear in visualization, including variability, imprecision, and fuzziness. Next, we extend the concept of the fuzzy transform in order to derive rules for accumulation and propagation of uncertainty. This representation and propagation of uncertainty together constitute an automated framework for management of uncertainty in visualization, which we then apply to volume rendering. The result, which we call fuzzy volume rendering, is an uncertainty-aware rendering algorithm able to produce more complete depictions of the volume data, thereby allowing more reliable conclusions and informed decisions. Finally, we compare approaches for self-validated computation in volume rendering, demonstrating that our chosen method has the ability to handle complex uncertainty while maintaining efficiency.

  11. BEGINNING INDONESIAN, VOLUME 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 3 OF A 4 VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS LESSONS 13-18 OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF THE PASSIVE VOICE, PRONUNCIATION TECHNIQUES, ORTHOGRAPHY, FINAL VOWELS, AND FINAL SYLLABLES. LANGUAGE DRILLS ARE ALSO PROVIDED CONCERNING THE MONTHS OF THE YEAR AND…

  12. BEGINNING INDONESIAN. VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 2 OF A 4-VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS LESSONS 7-12 OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF DIFFICULT VERBS, THE ACTIVE VOICE, INVERTED NARRATIVE CLAUSES, INTERROGATIVE WORDS, AND COUNTING METHODS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 456 THROUGH ED 010 459. (GD)

  13. BEGINNING INDONESIAN. VOLUME 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 1 OF A 4-VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS THE FIRST 6 LESSONS OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF TERMS OF ADDRESS, POLITE FORMULAS AND RESPONSES, AUXILIARIES, COMMANDS, AND ABSOLUTE EXPRESSIONS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 456 THROUGH ED 010 459. (GD)…

  14. Variable volume combustor

    DOEpatents

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  15. Lung volumes during sustained microgravity on Spacelab SLS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Ann R.; Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; West, John B.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity is known to influence the mechanical behavior of the lung and chest wall. However, the effect of sustained microgravity (microgravity) on lung volumes has not been reported. Pulmonary function tests were performed by four subjects before, during, and after 9 days of microgravity exposure. Ground measurements were made in standing and supine postures. Tests were performed using a bag-in-box-and-flowmeter system and a respiratory mass spectrometer. Measurements included functional residual capacity (FRC), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), residual volume (RV), inspiratory and expiratory vital capacities (IVC and EVC), and tidal volume (V9sub T)). Total lung capacity (TLC) was derived from the measured EVC and RV values. With preflight standing values as a comparison, FRC was significantly reduced by 15% (approximately 500 ml) in microgravity and 32% in the supine posture. ERV was reduced by 10 - 20% in microgravity and decreased by 64% in the supine posture. RV was significantly reduced by 18% (310 ml) in microgravity but did not significantly change in the supine posture compared with standing. IVC and EVC were slightly reduced during the first 24 h of microgravity but returned to 1-G standing values within 72 h of microgravity exposure. IVC and EVC in the supine posture were significantly reduced by 12% compared with standing. During microgravity, V(sub T) decreased by 15% (approximately 90 ml), but supine V(sub T) was unchanged compared with preflight standing values. TLC decreased by approximately 8% during microgravity and in the supine posture compared with preflight standing. The reductions in FRC, ERV, and RV during microgravity are probably due to the cranial shift of the diaphragm, an increase in intrathoracic blood volume, and more uniform alveolar expansion.

  16. Capacitance effects and blood reservoir function in the splanchnic vascular bed during non-hypotensive haemorrhage and blood volume expansion in anaesthetized cats

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, C. V.; Lister, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    1. These experiments were designed to measure how much blood is mobilized from or pooled in the liver, spleen and gastro-intestinal tract to compensate for a haemorrhage or infusion of blood. 2. Hepatic volume, splenic weight and intestinal volume were recorded in cats anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone. Whole blood was removed or infused at rates of 0·5-0·6 ml. kg-1.min-1 until 10 ml./kg (19% blood volume) had been removed or 18 ml./kg (34% blood volume) had been infused. These blood volume changes produced only small changes in arterial and portal pressures except after removal of 8 ml./kg (15% blood volume) when arterial pressure began to decrease rapidly. 3. With small haemorrhages of up to 4% blood volume, the liver contributed 16%, the gastro-intestinal tract 23% and the spleen a negligible proportion of the blood volume removed. With haemorrhages of 15% blood volume, the liver contributed 21%, the gastro-intestinal tract 22% and the spleen 19% of the volume removed; a total splanchnic contribution of 62%. 4. During infusions of 5-18 ml./kg (10-34% blood volume), the liver pooled 20%, the gastro-intestinal tract 40% and the spleen 6% of the volume infused; a total splanchnic contribution of 66%. 5. It is concluded that the splanchnic bed mobilizes or pools up to 65% of the volume of blood removed from or infused into the cats. The mechanisms responsible for this blood reservoir function are discussed. While several factors may be involved, it seems likely that a reflex regulation involving atrial receptors and the sympathetic innervation of the splanchnic capacitance vessels is of predominant importance. PMID:4825450

  17. The decrease of cardiac chamber volumes and output during positive-pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kyhl, Kasper; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov; Iversen, Kasper; Thomsen, Carsten; Vejlstrup, Niels; Engstrøm, Thomas; Madsen, Per Lav

    2013-10-01

    Positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) is widely used for treatment of acute cardiorespiratory failure, occasionally at the expense of compromised cardiac function and arterial blood pressure. The explanation why has largely rested on interpretation of intracardiac pressure changes. We evaluated the effect of PPV on the central circulation by studying cardiac chamber volumes with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). We hypothesized that PPV lowers cardiac output (CO) mainly via the Frank-Starling relationship. In 18 healthy volunteers, cardiac chamber volumes and flow in aorta and the pulmonary artery were measured by CMR during PPV levels of 0, 10, and 20 cmH2O applied via a respirator and a face mask. All cardiac chamber volumes decreased in proportion to the level of PPV. Following 20-cmH2O PPV, the total diastolic and systolic cardiac volumes (±SE) decreased from 605 (±29) ml to 446 (±29) ml (P < 0.001) and from 265 (±17) ml to 212 (±16) ml (P < 0.001). Left ventricular stroke volume decreased by 27 (±4) ml/beat; heart rate increased by 7 (±2) beats/min; and CO decreased by 1.0 (±0.4) l/min (P < 0.001). From 0 to 20 cmH2O, right and left ventricular peak filling rates decreased by -146 (±32) and -187 (±64) ml/s (P < 0.05) but maximal emptying rates were unchanged. Cardiac filling and output decrease with increasing PPV in healthy volunteers. The decrease is seen even at low levels of PPV and should be taken into account when submitting patients to mechanical ventilation with positive pressures. The decrease in CO is fully explained by the Frank-Starling mechanism.

  18. Relative blood volume changes underestimate total blood volume changes during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Dasselaar, Judith J; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Pruim, Jan; Nijnuis, Hugo; Wiersum, Anneke; de Jong, Paul E; Huisman, Roel M; Franssen, Casper F M

    2007-07-01

    Measurements of relative blood volume changes (DeltaRBV) during hemodialysis (HD) are based on hemoconcentration and assume uniform mixing of erythrocytes and plasma throughout the circulation. However, whole-body hematocrit (Ht) is lower than systemic Ht. During HD, a change in the ratio between whole-body to systemic Ht (F cell ratio) is likely to occur as a result of a net shift of low Ht blood from the microcirculation to the macrocirculation. Hence, DeltaRBV may differ significantly from total blood volume changes (DeltaTBV). Therefore, this study compared DeltaRBV and DeltaTBV during HD. Plasma and erythrocyte volumes were measured using (125)I- and (123)I-radioiodinated albumin and (51)Cr-labeled erythrocytes, respectively. After validation of the standardized method in two patients on a nondialysis day, seven patients completed the protocol during HD. (125)I-albumin and (51)Cr-labeled erythrocytes were administered 20 min before the start of HD. (123)I-albumin was administered at 160 min into the HD session to quantify and correct for (125)I-albumin leakage. DeltaRBV was measured continuously throughout HD. The F cell ratio was derived from whole-body and systemic Ht. Total ultrafiltration volume was 2450 +/- 770 ml. TBV declined from 5905 +/- 824 to 4877 +/- 722 ml during HD. Thus, TBV declined 17.3 +/- 4.4%, whereas the RBV decline was only 8.2 +/- 3.7% (P = 0.001). The F cell ratio increased from 0.896 +/- 0.036 to 0.993 +/- 0.049 during HD (P = 0.002). DeltaRBV significantly underestimates DeltaTBV during HD. The rise in F cell ratio strongly suggests that during HD, blood translocates from the microcirculation to the macrocirculation, probably as a cardiovascular compensatory mechanism in response to hypovolemia.

  19. Correction of Age-Related Midface Volume Loss With Low-Volume Hyaluronic Acid Filler.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Monique Vanaman; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Greene, Ryan

    2017-03-01

    The pivotal approval trial for a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid filler demonstrated sustained aesthetic improvement, with a mean injection volume of 6.65 mL. In daily practice, however, it is not often practical or necessary to use large injection volumes to achieve the desired cosmetic outcome. To assess the efficacy, longevity, and patient satisfaction associated with correction of age-related midface volume loss using the low volumes of hyaluronic acid filler more commonly used in day-to-day practice. A 2-center, retrospective cohort study examined medical records of 61 healthy patients who underwent treatment for facial volume loss with hyaluronic acid filler from November 1, 2013, through April 31, 2014. Follow-up visits were conducted at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Data were pooled from a private facial plastic surgery practice in Weston, Florida, and a private cosmetic dermatology practice in San Diego, California. Patients were treated with hyaluronic acid filler according to the investigator's usual practices. The main outcome measure was patient-graded Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale scores at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Scores range from 1 to 5; 1 indicates very much improved and 5, worse. A total of 61 consecutive, healthy adult patients (mean [SD] age, 57.4 [12.8] years) with mild to severe facial volume loss were enrolled in the study. A total of 46 patients (75%) were white, 3 (5%) were black/African American, 9 (15%) were Hispanic/Latino, 1 (2%) was Asian/Pacific Islander, and 2 (3%) were other. Three patients (5%) were male, and 58 (95%) were female. Mean initial treatment volume was 1.6 mL. At follow-up, 29 patients (48%) elected to have a touch-up treatment; mean total touch-up volume was 1.4 mL. The patient-graded Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale scores at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment demonstrated that 73% (41 of 56) to 89% (24 of 27) of the study patients reported being very

  20. Automated segmentation of MR imaging to determine normative central nervous system cerebrospinal fluid volumes in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chazen, J Levi; Dyke, Jonathan P; Holt, Robert W; Horky, Laura; Pauplis, Rachel A; Hesterman, Jacob Y; Mozley, David P; Verma, Ajay

    An accurate non-invasive method to determine total body cerebrospinal fluid volume has a number of potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Herein we describe a technique for automated segmentation of total body MRI data to determine cranial and spinal CSF volume in 15 healthy adults. These in vivo estimates of CSF volume exceed the standard reported volume of 150mL in human adults and provide normative data for diagnosis of disease states such as hydrocephalus and therapy including pharmacologic dosimetry. No correlation was observed between patient height or weight and total body CSF volume. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. APOL1 renal-risk variants associate with reduced cerebral white matter lesion volume and increased gray matter volume.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Barry I; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Bryan, R Nick; Palmer, Nicholette D; Hicks, Pamela J; Ma, Lijun; Rocco, Michael V; Smith, S Carrie; Xu, Jianzhao; Whitlow, Christopher T; Wagner, Benjamin C; Langefeld, Carl D; Hawfield, Amret T; Bates, Jeffrey T; Lerner, Alan J; Raj, Dominic S; Sadaghiani, Mohammad S; Toto, Robert D; Wright, Jackson T; Bowden, Donald W; Williamson, Jeff D; Sink, Kaycee M; Maldjian, Joseph A; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Divers, Jasmin

    2016-08-01

    To assess apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) renal-risk-variant effects on the brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based cerebral volumes and cognitive function were assessed in 517 African American-Diabetes Heart Study (AA-DHS) Memory IN Diabetes (MIND) and 2568 hypertensive African American Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) participants without diabetes. Within these cohorts, 483 and 197 had cerebral MRI, respectively. AA-DHS participants were characterized as follows: 60.9% female, mean age of 58.6 years, diabetes duration 13.1 years, estimated glomerular filtration rate of 88.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and a median spot urine albumin to creatinine ratio of 10.0 mg/g. In additive genetic models adjusting for age, sex, ancestry, scanner, intracranial volume, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, statins, nephropathy, smoking, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, APOL1 renal-risk-variants were positively associated with gray matter volume (β = 3.4 × 10(-3)) and negatively associated with white matter lesion volume (β = -0.303) (an indicator of cerebral small vessel disease) and cerebrospinal fluid volume (β= -30707) (all significant), but not with white matter volume or cognitive function. Significant associations corresponding to adjusted effect sizes (β/SE) were observed with gray matter volume (0.16) and white matter lesion volume (-0.208), but not with cerebrospinal fluid volume (-0.251). Meta-analysis results with SPRINT Memory and Cognition in Decreased Hypertension (MIND) participants who had cerebral MRI were confirmatory. Thus, APOL1 renal-risk-variants are associated with larger gray matter volume and lower white matter lesion volume suggesting lower intracranial small vessel disease. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of genetic variation rs266882 to prostate-specific antigen levels in healthy controls with serum PSA below 2.0 ng/ml.

    PubMed

    Song, Jaeman; Park, Heeyoon; Lee, Gilho

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the impact of genetic variation in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene (rs266882) on serum PSA levels in healthy men as well as risk factors for benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer. The study population comprised 91 men with PSA levels below 2.0 ng/ml as healthy controls, 78 men with PSA 2-10 ng/ml as a BPH group, and 128 prostate cancer patients, all in Korea. DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the product was sequenced. We found that PSA levels were associated with a G/A polymorphism only in healthy controls. The transition, however, was not associated with PSA levels of BPH and cancer patients, nor was it a risk factor. In conclusion, this genetic factor is important for determining serum PSA levels in the naive group, whereas the disruption of prostatic architecture in BPH or prostate cancer may be a major determining factor for PSA levels.

  3. The Enigma ML FluAB-RSV assay: a fully automated molecular test for the rapid detection of influenza A, B and respiratory syncytial viruses in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Simon D; Edgeworth, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    The Enigma(®) ML FluAB-RSV assay (Enigma Diagnostics, Porton Down, Salisbury, UK) is a CE-IVD marked multiplex molecular panel for the detection of influenza A, B and respiratory syncytial viruses in nasopharyngeal swabs. The assay runs on the fully automated Enigma ML platform without further specimen manipulation and provides a sample-to-answer result within 95 min. The reported sensitivity and specificity for influenza A are 100% (95% CI: 98.2-100) and 98.3% (95% CI: 95.5-99.4), respectively, for influenza B are 100% (95% CI: 98.2-100) and 98.7% (95% CI: 96-99.6), respectively, and for respiratory syncytial virus are 100% (95% CI: 98.2-100) and 99.4% (95% CI: 97.2-99.9), respectively.

  4. Percent free prostate specific antigen in the total prostate specific antigen 2 to 4 ng./ml. range does not substantially increase the number of biopsies needed to detect clinically significant prostate cancer compared to the 4 to 10 ng./ml. range.

    PubMed

    Haese, Alexander; Dworschack, Robert T; Partin, Alan W

    2002-08-01

    Percent free prostate specific antigen (PSA) is useful to select patients for prostate biopsy with total PSA 4 to 10 ng./ml. However, 20% of men with PSA between 2.6 and 4 ng./ml. harbor significant prostate cancer and percent free PSA has been suggested to aid in the decision to biopsy in this total PSA range as well. Concerns exist that the number of biopsies needed to detect 1 cancer in this range may be inappropriately high. In a prospective referral population we evaluated sensitivity and specificity of various percent free PSA cutoffs and determined the biopsy-per-cancer ratio in the PSA 2 to 4 ng./ml. range in men with a benign digital rectal examination, and report on the biological nature of the detected cancers based on Gleason score. Results were compared to those obtained from a reference group of patients (PSA 4 to 10 ng./ml., benign digital rectal examination) from the same prospective referral cohort. Total PSA and free PSA were measured and percent free PSA was calculated. Of the initial 1,602 men 756 had a benign digital rectal examination and PSA 4 to 10 ng./ml., and 219 had a benign digital rectal examination and PSA 2 to 4 ng./ml. Sensitivity, specificity, the number of true positive (evidence of cancer) and false-positive (no evidence of cancer) biopsies were determined. The ratio of true positive biopsies-to-all biopsies performed was used to determine the biopsy-per-cancer ratio. Gleason score of the detected cancers was evaluated. The procedure was repeated for the PSA 4 to 10 ng./ml. range. In the PSA 4 to 10 ng./ml. range a sensitivity of 63.7% to 92.5% with a specificity of 57.5% to 18.7% was found when percent free PSA was 18% to 25%. On average 3 biopsies were needed to detect 1 cancer. When PSA was 2 to 4 ng./ml. sensitivity was 46.3% to 75.6% and specificity was 73.6% to 37.6% when the same percent free PSA cutoff was examined. Calculation of the biopsy-per-cancer ratio for various percent free PSA cutoffs revealed that 3 to 5

  5. A possible cellular explanation for the NMR-visible mobile lipid (ML) changes in cultured C6 glioma cells with growth.

    PubMed

    Quintero, MariaRosa; Cabañas, Miquel E; Arús, Carles

    2007-01-01

    The NMR-visible mobile lipid (ML) signals of C6 glioma cells have been monitored at 9.4 and 11.7 T (single pulse and 136 ms echo time) from cell pellets by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A reproducible behavior with growth has been found. ML signals increase from log phase (4 days of culture) to postconfluence (7 days of culture). This ML behavior is paralleled by the percentage of cells containing epifluorescence detectable Nile Red stained cytosolic droplets (range 23%-60% of cells). The number of positive cells increases after seeding (days 0-1), decreases at log phase (days 2-4), increases again at confluence (day 5) and even further at post-confluence (day 7). C6 cells proliferation arrest induced by growth factors deprivation induces an even higher accumulation of cytosolic droplets (up to 100% of cells) and a large ML increase (up to 21-fold with respect to 4-day log phase cells). When neutral lipid content is quantified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on total lipid extracts of C6 cells, no statistically significant change can be detected (in microg/10(8) cells) with growth or growth arrest in major neutral lipid containing species (triacylglycerol, TAG, diacylglycerol, DAG, cholesteryl esters, ChoEst) except for DAG, which decreased in post-confluent, 7-day cells. The apparent discrepancy between NMR, optical microscopy and TLC results can be reconciled if possible biophysical changes in the neutral lipid pool with growth are taken into account. A cellular explanation for the observed results is proposed: the TAG-droplet-size-change hypothesis.

  6. Dynamic evolution of resistance gene analogs in the orthologous genomic regions of powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW170 in Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yong; Zhang, De-Yun; Ouyang, Shuhong; Xie, Jingzhong; Wu, Qiuhong; Wang, Zhenzhong; Cui, Yu; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Dong; Liu, Zi-Ji; Zhu, Jie; Chen, Yong-Xing; Zhang, Yan; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Dvorak, Jan; Huo, Naxin; Sun, Qixin; Gu, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Zhiyong

    2015-08-01

    Rapid evolution of powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW170 orthologous genomic regions in wheat subgenomes. Wheat is one of the most important staple grain crops in the world and also an excellent model for plant ploidy evolution research with different ploidy levels from diploid to hexaploid. Powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici can result in significant loss in both grain yield and quality in wheat. In this study, the wheat powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW170 locus located at the Triticum dicoccoides chromosome 2B short arm was further characterized by constructing and sequencing a BAC-based physical map contig covering a 0.3 cM genetic distance region (880 kb) and developing additional markers to delineate the resistance gene within a 0.16 cM genetic interval (372 kb). Comparative analyses of the T. dicoccoides 2BS region with the orthologous Aegilops tauschii 2DS region showed great gene colinearity, including the structure organization of both types of RGA1/2-like and RPS2-like resistance genes. Comparative analyses with the orthologous regions from Brachypodium and rice genomes revealed considerable dynamic evolutionary changes that have re-shaped this MlIW170 region in the wheat genome, resulting in a high number of non-syntenic genes including resistance-related genes. This result might reflect the rapid evolution in R-gene regions. Phylogenetic analysis on these resistance-related gene sequences indicated the duplication of these genes in the MlIW170 region, occurred before the separation of the wheat B and D genomes.

  7. Social and structural factors associated with greater time with a plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load above log10(1500) copies/ml among illicit drug users.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Mary C; Kerr, Thomas H; Wood, Evan; Shoveller, Jeannie A; Montaner, Julio S G; Milloy, M-J

    2018-02-08

    Although previous cross-sectional studies have identified correlates of detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) among HIV-positive people who use drugs (PWUD), longitudinal factors associated with heightened HIV transmission potential have not been well described. Therefore, we longitudinally examined factors associated with amount of person-time spent above log10(1500) copies/ml plasma among HIV-positive PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Data were derived from a long-running prospective cohort of HIV-positive PWUD linked to comprehensive clinical records including systematic VL monitoring. We used generalized estimating equations modeling to longitudinally examine factors associated with person-time (in days) with a VL more than log10(1500) copies/ml plasma in the previous 180 days. Between December 2005 and May 2014, 845 PWUD were eligible and included in the study. Participants spent an average of 26.8% of observation time with a VL more than log10(1500) c/ml. In multivariable analyses, homelessness (Adjusted Rate Ratio [ARR] = 1.45) and lack of social support (ARR = 1.27) were positively associated with person-time with a VL more than log10(1500) c/ml. Older age (ARR = 0.97) and enrolment in addiction treatment (ARR = 0.75) were negatively associated with the outcome in multivariable analyses (all P < 0.05). Social and structural factors, including periods of homelessness or lacking in social support, were independently associated with greater amount of time with heightened HIV transmission potential. These findings suggest the need for targeted efforts to address modifiable contextual factors that contribute to increased risk of onward HIV transmission among PWUD.

  8. Caloric effect of a 16-ounce (473-mL) portion-size cap on sugar-sweetened beverages served in restaurants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Claire; Vine, Seanna M

    2013-08-01

    New York City recently proposed a restriction to cap the portion size of all sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) sold in food-service establishments at 16 oz (473 mL). One critical question is whether such a policy may disproportionally affect low-income or overweight individuals. The objective was to determine the demographic characteristics of US individuals potentially affected by a 16-oz portion-size cap on SSBs and the potential effect on caloric intake. We analyzed dietary records from the NHANES 2007-2010. We estimated the proportion of individuals who consumed at least one SSB >16 fluid oz (473 mL) in restaurants by age, household income, and weight status. Of all SSBs >16 oz (473 mL) purchased from food-service establishments, 64.7% were purchased from fast food restaurants, 28.2% from other restaurants, and 4.6% from sports, recreation, and entertainment facilities. On a given day, the policy would affect 7.2% of children and 7.6% of adults. Overweight individuals are more likely to consume these beverages, whereas there was no significant difference between income groups. If 80% of affected consumers choose a 16-oz (473-mL) beverage, the policy would result in a change of -57.6 kcal in each affected consumer aged 2-19 y (95% CI: -65.0, -50.1) and -62.6 kcal in those aged ≥20 y (95% CI: -67.9, -57.4). A policy to cap portion size is likely to result in a modest reduction in excess calories from SSBs, especially among young adults and children who are overweight.

  9. Serum levels of unconjugated bisphenol A are below 0.2ng/ml in Swedish nursing women when contamination is minimized.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Tröger, Rikard; Glynn, Anders; Rosén, Johan; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik; Lignell, Sanna

    2014-03-01

    In this study serum levels of bisphenol A (BPA) were investigated in primiparous women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled 3weeks after delivery 1996-2011, in both yearly pools of serum (n=39, temporal trend study) and in 208 individual samples also present in the pools. Possible contamination risks of BPA from blood sampling equipment and sample tubes, as well as from handling of the samples were evaluated. The unconjugated form of BPA was analyzed using a UPLC-MS/MS method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.2ng/ml. The results show that the levels of unconjugated BPA generally were <0.2ng/ml. The sampling equipment used when taking blood samples from the women and the tubes used for storage and processing of samples did not show any detectable BPA leakage. In the first analysis of the serum samples, unconjugated BPA levels ≥0.2ng/ml were found in 12% of the individual samples and in 21% of the trend samples. However, in reanalyses of individual serum samples from the same aliquot or from new aliquots, samples with BPA levels ≥0.2ng/ml in the first analysis did not have quantifiable BPA levels. Moreover, 11% of BPA spiked calibration samples (over 200) had higher levels than could be explained by the random error of the method. Thus BPA contamination of the biobanked samples probably occurred randomly during sample handling, pooling and processing. Equipment used for sampling of children and repeated blood sampling were leaking BPA. The results show the difficulties in analyzing compounds where samples are easily contaminated from exogenous sources. It also points out that it is questionable to use biobanked samples unless absence of BPA contamination from the sampling and storage materials, and during handling of the samples, can be proven. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Screening of Potential Small Volume Resuscitation Products Using a Severe Hemorrhage Sedated Swine Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-30

    small volume resuscitation products at the concentrations and delivery rates used because of early deaths. Considering that these drugs are FDA approved...artery for hemorrhage and blood samples and the right femoral vein for blood samples and infusion of the drugs . The catheters were tunneled...blood volume (65 ml/kg) exponentially over 1 hr using a computer con- trolled withdrawal system [25,27]. Drug administration Immediately

  11. Ultrasound assessment of cranial spread during caudal blockade in children: Effect of different volumes of local anesthetic.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Chandni; Kumar, Amarjeet; Sharma, Shalini; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Majumdar, Somak; Kumar, Ajeet; Sahay, Nishant; Kumar, Bindey; Bhadani, U K

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided caudal block injection is a simple, safe, and effective method of anesthesia/analgesia in pediatric patients. The volume of caudal drug required has always been a matter of debate. This present prospective, randomized, double-blinded study aimed to measure extent of the cranial spread of caudally administered levobupivacaine in Indian children by means of real-time ultrasonography. Ninety American Society of Anesthesiologists I/II children scheduled for urogenital surgeries were enrolled in this trial. Anesthesia and caudal analgesia were administered in a standardized manner in the patients. The patients received 0.5 ml/kg or 1 ml/kg or 1.25 ml/kg of 0.125% levobupivacaine according to the group allocated. Cranial spread of local anesthetic was noted using ultrasound. There was no difference in the spread when related to age, sex, weight, or body mass index. A significant difference of ultrasound-assessed cranial spread of the local anesthetic was found between Group 1 (0.5 ml/kg) with both Group 2 (1 ml/kg) ( P = 0.001) and with Group 3 (1.125 ml/kg) ( P < 0.001) but there is no significant difference between Group 2 and Group 3 ( P = 0.451) revealing that spinal level spread is only different between 0.5 ml/kg and 1 ml/kg of local anesthetic. In conclusion, the ultrasound assessment of local anesthetic spread after a caudal block showed that cranial spread of the block is dependent on the volume injected into the caudal space. Since there was no difference between 1 ml/kg and 1.25 ml/kg, to achieve a dermatomal blockade up to thoracic level, we might have to increase the dose beyond 1.25 ml/kg, keeping the toxic dose in mind.

  12. An event-specific method for the detection and quantification of ML01, a genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain, using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Vaudano, Enrico; Costantini, Antonella; Garcia-Moruno, Emilia

    2016-10-03

    The availability of genetically modified (GM) yeasts for winemaking and, in particular, transgenic strains based on the integration of genetic constructs deriving from other organisms into the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been a reality for several years. Despite this, their use is only authorized in a few countries and limited to two strains: ML01, able to convert malic acid into lactic acid during alcoholic fermentation, and ECMo01 suitable for reducing the risk of carbamate production. In this work we propose a quali-quantitative culture-independent method for the detection of GM yeast ML01 in commercial preparations of ADY (Active Dry Yeast) consisting of efficient extraction of DNA and qPCR (quantitative PCR) analysis based on event-specific assay targeting MLC (malolactic cassette), and a taxon-specific S. cerevisiae assay detecting the MRP2 gene. The ADY DNA extraction methodology has been shown to provide good purity DNA suitable for subsequent qPCR. The MLC and MRP2 qPCR assay showed characteristics of specificity, dynamic range, limit of quantification (LOQ) limit of detection (LOD), precision and trueness, which were fully compliant with international reference guidelines. The method has been shown to reliably detect 0.005% (mass/mass) of GM ML01 S. cerevisiae in commercial preparations of ADY. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison analysis of orbital shape and volume in unilateral fractured orbits.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Johanna; Nysjö, Johan; Carlsson, Anders-Petter; Thor, Andreas

    2017-12-21

    Facial fractures often result in changes of the orbital volume. These changes can be measured in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) scans for preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation. The aim of this study was to analyze the orbital volume and shape before and after surgical treatment of unilateral orbital fractures using semi-automatic image segmentation and registration techniques. The orbital volume in 21 patients was assessed by a semi-automatic model-based segmentation method. The fractured orbit was compared relative to the contralateral orbit. The same procedure was performed for the postoperative evaluation. Two observers performed the segmentation procedure, and the inter- and intraobserver variability was evaluated. The interobserver variability (mean volume difference ± 1.96 SD) was -0.6 ± 1.0 ml in the first trial and 0.7 ± 0.8 ml in the second trial. The intra-observer variability was -0.2 ± 0.7 ml for the first observer and 1.1 ± 0.9 ml for the second observer. The average volume overlap (Dice similarity coefficient) between the fractured and contralateral side increased after surgery, while the mean and maximum surface distance decreased, indicating that the surgery contributed to a re-establishment of size and shape. In conclusion, our study shows that the semi-automatic segmentation method has precision for detecting volume differences down to 1.0 ml. The combination of semi-automatic segmentation and 3D shape analysis provides a powerful tool for planning and evaluating treatment of orbital fractures. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcutaneous fluorescence dilution cardiac output and circulating blood volume during hemorrhagic hypovolemia.

    PubMed

    Maarek, Jean-Michel I; Holschneider, Daniel P; Yang, Jun; Pniak, Sarah N; Rubinstein, Eduardo H

    2005-04-01

    Cardiac output and circulating blood volume are important parameters for assessing cardiac function in the intensive care setting and during major surgeries. The authors tested in an animal model of hemorrhagic hypovolemia the feasibility of measuring these parameters simultaneously by transcutaneous fluorescence monitoring of an intravenous bolus injection of indocyanine green. Fluorescence dilution cardiac output was measured in seven anesthetized rabbits and compared to thermodilution cardiac output. The optical probe used to excite the indocyanine green fluorescence was in contact with the skin above the ear artery. Local heating enhanced blood perfusion of the measurement site. Cardiac output was measured during baseline conditions, during hemorrhagic hypovolemia, and after partial restoration of the blood volume with reinfused blood. Estimates of the circulating blood volume were simultaneously obtained from the analysis of the fluorescence dilution traces. Cardiac output measured by fluorescence dilution (thermodilution) averaged 455 +/- 16 (450 +/- 13) ml/min in baseline conditions and 323 +/- 15 (330 +/- 13) ml/min during hypovolemia. Fluorescence dilution cardiac output was linearly related to thermodilution cardiac output (slope = 1.13 +/- 0.05, ordinate = -50 +/- 19 ml/min, R = 0.92). Interanimal differences explained most of the variance between cardiac output estimates obtained with the two techniques. Circulating blood volume decreased from 204 +/- 5 ml in baseline conditions to 174 +/- 8 ml after bleeding and reflected blood volume changes in this acute bleeding-reinfusion model. The study extends the applicability of the fluorescence dilution technique for cardiac output measurement to hypovolemic conditions and demonstrates its ability to produce accurate estimates of the circulating blood volume in experimental animals.

  15. Measurement of gastric meal and secretion volumes using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoad, C. L.; Parker, H.; Hudders, N.; Costigan, C.; Cox, E. F.; Perkins, A. C.; Blackshaw, P. E.; Marciani, L.; Spiller, R. C.; Fox, M. R.; Gowland, P. A.

    2015-02-01

    MRI can assess multiple gastric functions without ionizing radiation. However, time consuming image acquisition and analysis of gastric volume data, plus confounding of gastric emptying measurements by gastric secretions mixed with the test meal have limited its use to research centres. This study presents an MRI acquisition protocol and analysis algorithm suitable for the clinical measurement of gastric volume and secretion volume. Reproducibility of gastric volume measurements was assessed using data from 10 healthy volunteers following a liquid test meal with rapid MRI acquisition within one breath-hold and semi-automated analysis. Dilution of the ingested meal with gastric secretion was estimated using a respiratory-triggered T1 mapping protocol. Accuracy of the secretion volume measurements was assessed using data from 24 healthy volunteers following a mixed (liquid/solid) test meal with MRI meal volumes compared to data acquired using gamma scintigraphy (GS) on the same subjects studied on a separate study day. The mean ± SD coefficient of variance between 3 observers for both total gastric contents (including meal, secretions and air) and just the gastric contents (meal and secretion only) was 3  ±  2% at large gastric volumes (>200 ml). Mean ± SD secretion volumes post meal ingestion were 64  ±  51 ml and 110  ±  40 ml at 15 and 75 min, respectively. Comparison with GS meal volumes, showed that MRI meal only volume (after correction for secretion volume) were similar to GS, with a linear regression gradient ± std err of 1.06  ±  0.10 and intercept -11  ±  24 ml. In conclusion, (i) rapid volume acquisition and respiratory triggered T1 mapping removed the requirement to image during prolonged breath-holds (ii) semi-automatic analysis greatly reduced the time required to derive measurements and (iii) correction for secretion volumes provided accurate assessment of gastric meal volumes and emptying. Together these features

  16. Posttreatment Infarct Volumes when Compared with 24-Hour and 90-Day Clinical Outcomes: Insights from the REVASCAT Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Al-Ajlan, F S; Al Sultan, A S; Minhas, P; Assis, Z; de Miquel, M A; Millán, M; San Román, L; Tomassello, A; Demchuk, A M; Jovin, T G; Cuadras, P; Dávalos, A; Goyal, M; Menon, B K

    2018-01-01

    Endovascular therapy has become the standard of care for patients with disabling anterior circulation ischemic stroke due to proximal intracranial thrombi. Our aim was to determine whether the beneficial effect of endovascular treatment on functional outcome could be explained by a reduction in posttreatment infarct volume in the Endovascular Revascularization With Solitaire Device Versus Best Medical Therapy in Anterior Circulation Stroke Within 8 Hours (REVASCAT) trial. The REVASCAT trial was a multicenter randomized open-label trial with blinded outcome evaluation. Among 206 enrolled subjects (endovascular treatment, n = 103; control, n = 103), posttreatment infarct volume was measured in 204 subjects. Posttreatment infarct volumes were compared with treatment assignment and recanalization status. Appropriate statistical models were used to assess the relationship among baseline clinical and imaging variables, posttreatment infarct volume, the 24-hour NIHSS score, and functional status with the 90-day modified Rankin Scale score. The median posttreatment infarct volume in all subjects was 23.7 mL (interquartile range = 68.9 mL) and 16.3 mL (interquartile range = 50.2 mL) in the endovascular treatment arm and 38.6 mL (interquartile range = 74.9 mL) in the control arm (P = .02 for endovascular treatment versus control subjects). Baseline NIHSS (P < .01), site of occlusion (P < .03), baseline NCCT ASPECTS (P < .01), and recanalization status (P = .02) were independently associated with posttreatment infarct volume. Baseline NIHSS (P < .01), time from symptom onset to randomization (P = .02), treatment type (P = .04), and recanalization status (P < .01) were independently associated with the 24-hour NIHSS scores. The 24-hour NIHSS score strongly mediated the relationship between treatment type and 90-day mRS (P < .01 for indirect effect when adjusted for age), while posttreatment infarct volume did not (P = .26). Endovascular treatment saves brain and improves 90

  17. Effect of leg exercise training on vascular volumes during 30 days of 6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Vernikos, J.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma and red cell volumes, body density, and water balance were measured in 19 men (32-42 yr) confined to bed rest (BR). One group (n = 5) had no exercise training (NOE), another near-maximal variable-intensity isotonic exercise for 60 min/day (ITE; n = 7), and the third near-maximal intermittent isokinetic exercise for 60 min/day (IKE; n = 7). Caloric intake was 2,678-2,840 kcal/day; mean body weight (n = 19) decreased by 0.58 +/- 0.35 (SE) kg during BR due to a negative fluid balance (diuresis) on day 1. Mean energy costs for the NOE, and IKE, and ITE regimens were 83 (3.6 +/- 0.2 ml O2.min-1.kg-1), 214 (8.9 +/- 0.5 ml.min-1.kg-1), and 446 kcal/h (18.8 +/- 1.6 ml.min-1.kg-1), respectively. Body densities within groups and mean urine volumes (1,752-1,846 ml/day) between groups were unchanged during BR. Resting changes in plasma volume (ml/kg) after BR were -1.5 +/- 2.3% (NS) in ITE, -14.7 +/- 2.8% (P less than 0.05) in NOE, and -16.8 +/- 2.9% (P less than 0.05) in IKE, and mean water balances during BR were +295, -106, and +169 ml/24 h, respectively. Changes in red cell volume followed changes in plasma volume. The significant chronic decreases in plasma volume in the IKE and NOE groups and its maintenance in the ITE group could not be accounted for by water balance or by responses of the plasma osmotic, protein, vasopressin, or aldosterone concentrations or plasma renin activity. There was close coupling between resting plasma volume and plasma protein and osmotic content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  18. Intranasal Localizability of Odorants: Influence of Stimulus Volume

    PubMed Central

    Frasnelli, J.; Berg, J.; Huang, G.; Doty, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    When an odorant is presented to one side of the nose and air to the other, the ability to localize which side received the odorant depends upon trigeminal nerve stimulation. It has been shown that performance on this lateralization task increases as stimulus concentration increases. In this study, we determined the influences of stimulus volume and sex on the ability to localize each of 8 odorants presented at neat concentrations: anethole, geraniol, limonene, linalool, menthol, methyl salicyclate, phenyl ethanol, and vanillin. At a low stimulus volume (11 mL), only menthol was localized at an above-chance level. At a high stimulus volume (21 mL), above-chance localization occurred for all odorants except vanillin. Women were significantly better than men in localizing menthol. Stimuli rated as most intense were those that were most readily localized. The detection performance measures, as well as rated intensity values, significantly correlated with earlier findings of the trigeminal detectability of odorants presented to anosmic and normosmic subjects. This study suggests that differences in stimulus volume may explain some discrepant findings within the trigeminal chemosensory literature and supports the concept that vanillin may be a “relatively pure” olfactory stimulus. PMID:21310764

  19. Breast volume and milk production during extended lactation in women.

    PubMed

    Kent, J C; Mitoulas, L; Cox, D B; Owens, R A; Hartmann, P E

    1999-03-01

    Quantitative measurements were made of relative breast volume and milk production from 1 month of lactation until 3 months after weaning, and the storage capacity of the breasts was calculated. The increase in breast tissue volume from before conception until 1 month of lactation was maintained for the first 6 months of lactation (means+/-S.E.M.) (190.3+/-13.1 ml, number of breasts, nb = 46). During this period of exclusive breast-feeding, 24 h milk production from each breast remained relatively constant (453.6+/-201 g, nb = 48), and storage capacity was 209.9+/-11.0 ml (nb = 46). After 6 months, breast volume, milk production and storage capacity all decreased. There was a relationship between 24 h milk production and the storage capacity of the breasts, and these both appeared to be responding to infant demand for milk. At 15 months of lactation, the 24 h milk production of each breast was substantial (208.0+/-56.7 g, nb = 6), even though the breasts had returned to preconception size. This was associated with an apparent increased efficiency of the breast (milk production per unit breast tissue) after 6 months, which may have been due to redistribution of tissues within the breast. The possible causes of the decrease in breast volume are discussed.

  20. Selective inhibition of the Kir2 family of inward rectifier potassium channels by a small molecule probe: the discovery, SAR and pharmacological characterization of ML133

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao-Ran; Wu, Meng; Yu, Haibo; Long, Shunyou; Stevens, Amy; Engers, Darren W.; Sackin, Henry; Daniels, J. Scott; Dawson, Eric S.; Hopkins, Corey R.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Li, Min; McManus, Owen B

    2011-01-01

    The Kir inward rectifying potassium channels have a broad tissue distribution and are implicated in a variety of functional roles. At least seven classes (Kir1 – Kir7) of structurally related inward rectifier potassium channels are known, and there are no selective small molecule tools to study their function. In an effort to develop selective Kir2.1 inhibitors, we performed a high-throughput screen (HTS) of more than 300,000 small molecules within the MLPCN for modulators of Kir2.1 function. Here we report one potent Kir2.1 inhibitor, ML133, which inhibits Kir2.1 with IC50 of 1.8 μM at pH 7.4 and 290 nM at pH 8.5, but exhibits little selectivity against other members of Kir2.x family channels. However, ML133 has no effect on Kir1.1 (IC50 > 300 μM), and displays weak activity for Kir4.1 (76 μM) and Kir7.1 (33 μM), making ML133 the most selective small molecule inhibitor of the Kir family reported to date. Due to the high homology within the Kir family, the channels share a common design of a pore region flanked by two transmembrane domains, identification of site(s) critical for isoform specificity would be an important basis for future development of more specific and potent Kir inhibitors. Using chimeric channels between Kir2.1 and Kir1.1 and site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified D172 and I176 within M2 segment of Kir2.1 as molecular determinants critical for the potency of ML133 mediated inhibition. Double mutation of the corresponding residues of Kir1.1 to those of Kir2.1 (N171D and C175I) transplants ML133 inhibition to Kir1.1. Together, the combination of a potent, Kir2 family selective inhibitor and identification of molecular determinants for the specificity provides both a tool and a model system to enable further mechanistic studies of modulation of Kir2 inward rectifier potassium channels. PMID:21615117

  1. Beat by beat stroke volume assessment by PDE in upright and supine exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A 3.0 MHz pulse Doppler echocardiograph was used to estimate instantaneous stroke volume and cardiac output in 8 men during steady state supine and upright exercise at 300 kpm/min which were compared with other studies utilizing invasive procedures. The mean transients in heart rate and stroke volume and cardiac output for the first 20 sec of exercise in each posture were then determined. Centerline blood velocities were obtained in the ascending aorta with the transducer positioned manually in the suprasternal notch. Mean supine values for stroke volume and cardiac output at rest and exercise were 111 (6.4) and 112 ml (9.7 L/min), respectively, for supine. The corresponding results for upright were 76 (5.6) and 92 ml (8.4 L/min). These values compare favorably with prior studies. The transient response of cardiac output following the onset of upright was about twice as fast as in S because of the rapid and almost immediate upsurge in stroke volume. In supine, only heart rate served to augment cardiac output as stroke volume initially fell. The faster initial aortic flow in upright must represent the rapid mobilization of pooled venous blood from the leg veins which more than accounts for the additional volume (184 ml) of blood passing through the aorta during upright compared with supine in the first 20 sec.

  2. SU-F-T-113: Inherent Functional Dependence of Spinal Cord Doses of Variable Irradiated Volumes in Spine SBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, L; Braunstein, S; Chiu, J

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Spinal cord tolerance for SBRT has been recommended for the maximum point dose level or at irradiated volumes such as 0.35 mL or 10% of contoured volumes. In this study, we investigated an inherent functional relationship that associates these dose surrogates for irradiated spinal cord volumes of up to 3.0 mL. Methods: A hidden variable termed as Effective Dose Radius (EDR) was formulated based on a dose fall-off model to correlate dose at irradiated spinal cord volumes ranging from 0 mL (point maximum) to 3.0 mL. A cohort of 15 spine SBRT cases was randomly selected to derive anmore » EDR-parameterized formula. The mean prescription dose for the studied cases was 21.0±8.0 Gy (range, 10–40Gy) delivered in 3±1 fractions with target volumes of 39.1 ± 70.6 mL. Linear regression and variance analysis were performed for the fitting parameters of variable EDR values. Results: No direct correlation was found between the dose at maximum point and doses at variable spinal cord volumes. For example, Pearson R{sup 2} = 0.643 and R{sup 2}= 0.491 were obtained when correlating the point maximum dose with the spinal cord dose at 1 mL and 3 mL, respectively. However, near perfect correlation (R{sup 2} ≥0.99) was obtained when corresponding parameterized EDRs. Specifically, Pearson R{sup 2}= 0.996 and R{sup 2} = 0.990 were obtained when correlating EDR (maximum point dose) with EDR (dose at 1 mL) and EDR(dose at 3 mL), respectively. As a result, high confidence level look-up tables were established to correlate spinal cord doses at the maximum point to any finite irradiated volumes. Conclusion: An inherent functional relationship was demonstrated for spine SBRT. Such a relationship unifies dose surrogates at variable cord volumes and proves that a single dose surrogate (e.g. point maximum dose) is mathematically sufficient in constraining the overall spinal cord dose tolerance for SBRT.« less

  3. Reference values for frequency volume chart and uroflowmetry parameters in adolescent and adult enuresis patients.

    PubMed

    Hofmeester, Ilse; Brinker, Astrid E; Steffens, Martijn G; Mulder, Zwaan; van Capelle, Jan Willem; Feitz, Wout F J; Blanker, Marco H

    2017-02-01

    Reference values of Frequency Volume Chart (FVC) and uroflowmetry parameters for adolescent and adult enuresis patients are lacking. In this study, we aim to describe those parameters, in order to interpret findings from FVCs and uroflowmetries in those patients. Retrospective, descriptive cohort study, concerning 907 patients aged 11 years and older, suffering from enuresis of at least one wet night per fortnight, treated in a secondary/tertiary centre, between 2003 and 2013. The main FVC parameters of interest were: maximum voided volume (MVV), 24 hr urine production and nocturnal urine volume (NUV) including first morning void (FMV). Nocturnal polyuria (NP) was defined based on both International Children's Continence Society (ICCS, 2014) and International Continence Society (ICS, 2002) definitions. Data of all patients were collected from the medical files. Age had an impact on diurnal and nocturnal FVC parameters. Median MVV excluding FMV was 250 ml in the youngest, 11-year-old males and 363 ml in the eldest, ≥18-yr-old males. For females, these values were 230 ml and 310 ml. Median 24 hr urine production increased from 1,025 ml to 1,502 ml (males) and from 1,007 ml to 1,557 ml (females). Median NUV showed an increase from 387 ml to 519 ml (males) and from 393 ml to 525 (females). Forty-two percent of men and 30% of women had a small MVV (for age). Prevalence of NP differed when assessed by the ICS or the ICCS definition: following ICS guidelines, NP was present in 96% of our male and 93% of our female population, compared to 27% and 41%, respectively, following ICCS guidelines. Both small MVV and NP were found frequently in our adolescent and adult enuresis patients, which is in line with the current thoughts on causal factors. NP prevalence is quite different when using ICS or ICCS definitions, respectively. We would like to encourage the development of an unambiguous definition of NP to use both in pediatric and adult urology

  4. Fluidization technology. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Keairns, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Forty papers were presented at the conference and are included in Volume 2. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 17 papers. The remaining papers were not in scope for the DOE Energy Data Base. (RCK)

  5. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  6. Stereometric body volume measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The following studies are reported: (1) effects of extended space flight on body form of Skylab astronauts using biostereometrics; (2) comparison of body volume determinations using hydrostatic weighing and biostereometrics; and (3) training of technicians in biostereometric principles and procedures.

  7. Variable-Volume Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colling, A. K.; Nallette, T. A.; Sansevero, F.

    1989-01-01

    Container holds bed of beads securely while accommodating sizable changes in volume and allowing gases to flow through bed. Developed for air-purifying system in which carbon dioxide is removed by solid amine beads.

  8. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a day, such as: Creatinine Sodium Potassium Nitrogen Protein This test may also be done if you have polyuria (abnormally large volumes of urine), such as is seen in people with diabetes insipidus .

  9. Changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second over time in COPD.

    PubMed

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Edwards, Lisa D; Scanlon, Paul D; Yates, Julie C; Agusti, Alvar; Bakke, Per; Calverley, Peter M A; Celli, Bartolome; Coxson, Harvey O; Crim, Courtney; Lomas, David A; MacNee, William; Miller, Bruce E; Silverman, Edwin K; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Wouters, Emiel; Rennard, Stephen I

    2011-09-29

    A key feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an accelerated rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)), but data on the variability and determinants of this change in patients who have established disease are scarce. We analyzed the changes in FEV(1) after administration of a bronchodilator over a 3-year period in 2163 patients. A random-coefficient model was used to evaluate possible predictors of both FEV(1) levels and their changes over time. The mean (±SE) rate of change in FEV(1) was a decline of 33±2 ml per year, with significant variation among the patients studied. The between-patient standard deviation for the rate of decline was 59 ml per year. Over the 3-year study period, 38% of patients had an estimated decline in FEV(1) of more than 40 ml per year, 31% had a decline of 21 to 40 ml per year, 23% had a change in FEV(1) that ranged from a decrease of 20 ml per year to an increase of 20 ml per year, and 8% had an increase of more than 20 ml per year. The mean rate of decline in FEV(1) was 21±4 ml per year greater in current smokers than in current nonsmokers, 13±4 ml per year greater in patients with emphysema than in those without emphysema, and 17±4 ml per year greater in patients with bronchodilator reversibility than in those without reversibility. The rate of change in FEV(1) among patients with COPD is highly variable, with increased rates of decline among current smokers, patients with bronchodilator reversibility, and patients with emphysema.

  10. Breast Volume Measurement by Recycling the Data Obtained From 2 Routine Modalities, Mammography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Itsukage, Shizu; Goto, Mariko; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Numajiri, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Preoperative prediction of breast volume is important in the planning of breast reconstructive surgery. In this study, we prospectively estimated the accuracy of measurement of breast volume using data from 2 routine modalities, mammography and magnetic resonance imaging, by comparison with volumes of mastectomy specimens. Methods: The subjects were 22 patients (24 breasts) who were scheduled to undergo total mastectomy for breast cancer. Preoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging volume measurement was performed using a medical imaging system and the mammographic volume was calculated using a previously proposed formula. Volumes of mastectomy specimens were measured intraoperatively using a method based on Archimedes’ principle and Newton's third law. Results: The average breast volumes measured on magnetic resonance imaging and mammography were 318.47 ± 199.4 mL and 325.26 ± 217.36 mL, respectively. The correlation coefficients with mastectomy specimen volumes were 0.982 for magnetic resonance imaging and 0.911 for mammography. Conclusions: Breast volume measurement using magnetic resonance imaging was highly accurate but requires data analysis software. In contrast, breast volume measurement with mammography requires only a simple formula and is sufficiently accurate, although the accuracy was lower than that obtained with magnetic resonance imaging. These results indicate that mammography could be an alternative modality for breast volume measurement as a substitute for magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:29308107

  11. Breast Volume Measurement by Recycling the Data Obtained From 2 Routine Modalities, Mammography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Itsukage, Shizu; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Goto, Mariko; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Numajiri, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Preoperative prediction of breast volume is important in the planning of breast reconstructive surgery. In this study, we prospectively estimated the accuracy of measurement of breast volume using data from 2 routine modalities, mammography and magnetic resonance imaging, by comparison with volumes of mastectomy specimens. Methods: The subjects were 22 patients (24 breasts) who were scheduled to undergo total mastectomy for breast cancer. Preoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging volume measurement was performed using a medical imaging system and the mammographic volume was calculated using a previously proposed formula. Volumes of mastectomy specimens were measured intraoperatively using a method based on Archimedes' principle and Newton's third law. Results: The average breast volumes measured on magnetic resonance imaging and mammography were 318.47 ± 199.4 mL and 325.26 ± 217.36 mL, respectively. The correlation coefficients with mastectomy specimen volumes were 0.982 for magnetic resonance imaging and 0.911 for mammography. Conclusions: Breast volume measurement using magnetic resonance imaging was highly accurate but requires data analysis software. In contrast, breast volume measurement with mammography requires only a simple formula and is sufficiently accurate, although the accuracy was lower than that obtained with magnetic resonance imaging. These results indicate that mammography could be an alternative modality for breast volume measurement as a substitute for magnetic resonance imaging.

  12. High tidal volume ventilation induces NOS2 and impairs cAMP- dependent air space fluid clearance.

    PubMed

    Frank, James A; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Lee, Hyon; Godzich, Micaela; Matthay, Michael A

    2003-05-01

    Tidal volume reduction during mechanical ventilation reduces mortality in patients with acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. To determine the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of low tidal volume ventilation, we studied the time course and reversibility of ventilator-induced changes in permeability and distal air space edema fluid clearance in a rat model of ventilator-induced lung injury. Anesthetized rats were ventilated with a high tidal volume (30 ml/kg) or with a high tidal volume followed by ventilation with a low tidal volume of 6 ml/kg. Endothelial and epithelial protein permeability were significantly increased after high tidal volume ventilation but returned to baseline levels when tidal volume was reduced. The basal distal air space fluid clearance (AFC) rate decreased by 43% (P < 0.05) after 1 h of high tidal volume but returned to the preventilation rate 2 h after tidal volume was reduced. Not all of the effects of high tidal volume ventilation were reversible. The cAMP-dependent AFC rate after 1 h of 30 ml/kg ventilation was significantly reduced and was not restored when tidal volume was reduced. High tidal volume ventilation also increased lung inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) expression and air space total nitrite at 3 h. Inhibition of NOS2 activity preserved cAMP-dependent AFC. Because air space edema fluid inactivates surfactant and reduces ventilated lung volume, the reduction of cAMP-dependent AFC by reactive nitrogen species may be an important mechanism of clinical ventilator-associated lung injury.

  13. The effects of different syringe volume, needle size and sample volume on blood gas analysis in syringes washed with heparin

    PubMed Central

    Küme, Tuncay; Şişman, Ali Rıza; Solak, Ahmet; Tuğlu, Birsen; Çinkooğlu, Burcu; Çoker, Canan

    2012-01-01

    Introductıon: We evaluated the effect of different syringe volume, needle size and sample volume on blood gas analysis in syringes washed with heparin. Materials and methods: In this multi-step experimental study, percent dilution ratios (PDRs) and final heparin concentrations (FHCs) were calculated by gravimetric method for determining the effect of syringe volume (1, 2, 5 and 10 mL), needle size (20, 21, 22, 25 and 26 G) and sample volume (0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 mL). The effect of different PDRs and FHCs on blood gas and electrolyte parameters were determined. The erroneous results from nonstandardized sampling were evaluated according to RiliBAK’s TEa. Results: The increase of PDRs and FHCs was associated with the decrease of syringe volume, the increase of needle size and the decrease of sample volume: from 2.0% and 100 IU/mL in 10 mL-syringe to 7.0% and 351 IU/mL in 1 mL-syringe; from 4.9% and 245 IU/mL in 26G to 7.6% and 380 IU/mL in 20 G with combined 1 mL syringe; from 2.0% and 100 IU/mL in full-filled sample to 34% and 1675 IU/mL in 0.5 mL suctioned sample into 10 mL-syringe. There was no statistical difference in pH; but the percent decreasing in pCO2, K+, iCa2+, iMg2+; the percent increasing in pO2 and Na+ were statistical significance compared to samples full-filled in syringes. The all changes in pH and pO2 were acceptable; but the changes in pCO2, Na+, K+ and iCa2+ were unacceptable according to TEa limits except fullfilled-syringes. Conclusions: The changes in PDRs and FHCs due nonstandardized sampling in syringe washed with liquid heparin give rise to erroneous test results for pCO2 and electrolytes. PMID:22838185

  14. The effects of different syringe volume, needle size and sample volume on blood gas analysis in syringes washed with heparin.

    PubMed

    Küme, Tuncay; Sişman, Ali Riza; Solak, Ahmet; Tuğlu, Birsen; Cinkooğlu, Burcu; Coker, Canan

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of different syringe volume, needle size and sample volume on blood gas analysis in syringes washed with heparin. In this multi-step experimental study, percent dilution ratios (PDRs) and final heparin concentrations (FHCs) were calculated by gravimetric method for determining the effect of syringe volume (1, 2, 5 and 10 mL), needle size (20, 21, 22, 25 and 26 G) and sample volume (0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 mL). The effect of different PDRs and FHCs on blood gas and electrolyte parameters were determined. The erroneous results from nonstandardized sampling were evaluated according to RiliBAK's TEa. The increase of PDRs and FHCs was associated with the decrease of syringe volume, the increase of needle size and the decrease of sample volume: from 2.0% and 100 IU/mL in 10 mL-syringe to 7.0% and 351 IU/mL in 1 mL-syringe; from 4.9% and 245 IU/mL in 26G to 7.6% and 380 IU/mL in 20 G with combined 1 mL syringe; from 2.0% and 100 IU/mL in full-filled sample to 34% and 1675 IU/mL in 0.5 mL suctioned sample into 10 mL-syringe. There was no statistical difference in pH; but the percent decreasing in pCO2,, K+, iCa2+, iMg2+; the percent increasing in pO2 and Na+ were statistical significance compared to samples full-filled in syringes. The all changes in pH and pO2 were acceptable; but the changes in pCO2, Na+, K+ and iCa2+ were unacceptable according to TEa limits except fullfilled-syringes. The changes in PDRs and FHCs due nonstandardized sampling in syringe washed with liquid heparin give rise to erroneous test results for pCO2 and electrolytes.

  15. Pressure-volume relation around zero transmural pressure in excised cross-circulated dog left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Suga, H; Yasumura, Y; Nozawa, T; Futaki, S; Tanaka, N

    1988-08-01

    Left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume (PV) relations of quasi-isobaric contractions around zero transmural pressure were studied with a new volumetric method. Left ventricles of isolated cross-circulated dog hearts were connected to a large air tank through the mitral annulus. The volume of the air space was changed with a volume servo pump to oscillate the transmural pressure (P) around zero. Instantaneous LV volume (V) was computed from P by Boyle's law (P.V = constant) to draw the PV trajectories of the isobaric contractions. The end-systolic PV relation (ESPVR) and end-diastolic PV relation (EDPVR) curves intercepted the volume axis at two different volumes (Vo and Vu, respectively). The slopes of both ESPVR and EDPVR curves as well as Vo and Vu were variably influenced by positive and negative inotropic states, heart rate changes, arrhythmias, ischemia, and rigor. In control before any interventions, LV stroke and suction volume (delta V = Vu - Vo) at zero P was 7.5 +/- 2.5 (SD) ml/100 g left ventricle, which changed with the changes in Vo and Vu. delta V decreased with decreases in P from zero and virtually vanished at a pressure (Pn) of -9.5 +/- 2.0 mm Hg. Directly measured LV dead volume (Vd) at Pn was 4.1 +/- 1.3 ml/100 g. The results seem essential for evaluation of LV filling and suction during diastole.

  16. Multi-views Fusion CNN for Left Ventricular Volumes Estimation on Cardiac MR Images.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gongning; Dong, Suyu; Wang, Kuanquan; Zuo, Wangmeng; Cao, Shaodong; Zhang, Henggui

    2017-10-13

    Left ventricular (LV) volumes estimation is a critical procedure for cardiac disease diagnosis. The objective of this paper is to address direct LV volumes prediction task. In this paper, we propose a direct volumes prediction method based on the end-to-end deep convolutional neural networks (CNN). We study the end-to-end LV volumes prediction method in items of the data preprocessing, networks structure, and multi-views fusion strategy. The main contributions of this paper are the following aspects. First, we propose a new data preprocessing method on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Second, we propose a new networks structure for end-to-end LV volumes estimation. Third, we explore the representational capacity of different slices, and propose a fusion strategy to improve the prediction accuracy. The evaluation results show that the proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art LV volumes estimation methods on the open accessible benchmark datasets. The clinical indexes derived from the predicted volumes agree well with the ground truth (EDV: R=0.974, RMSE=9.6ml; ESV: R=0.976, RMSE=7.1ml; EF: R=0.828, RMSE =4.71%). Experimental results prove that the proposed method has high accuracy and efficiency on LV volumes prediction task. The proposed method not only has application potential for cardiac diseases screening for large-scale CMR data, but also can be extended to other medical image research fields.

  17. Small volumes of n-propanol (60%) applied for 3 minutes may be ineffective for surgical hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Ostermeyer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    There is a trend in some countries to recommend the use of surgical hand disinfectants at volumes as low as 4 ml per application. To determine whether the volume applied and hand size influence the efficacy of surgical hand disinfection. Thirteen experiments, according to EN 12791, resulting in 269 datasets from 75 subjects were analyzed. Hands were first washed for one minute with soap. The pre-values were obtained by rubbing the finger tips in tryptic soy broth for one minute. Each subject treated his/her hands with n-propanol (60%, v/v), with as many portions as necessary to keep the hands wet for three minutes (6-12 ml). Bacterial post-values were taken from one hand (immediate effect); the other hand was gloved for three hours (sizes 7-9). The second post-value was taken when the glove was removed (3 h effect). The mean immediate log10 reduction of CFU was 2.56 ± 1.12. The glove size had no significant effect on the efficacy of disinfection (p = 0.182; ANOVA). However, a volume of 6 ml was significantly less effective than 9 ml for glove sizes of 7.5-8 (p < 0.05; Tukey post hoc analysis). The mean log10 reduction after 3 h was 2.12 ± 1.24. A volume of 6 ml was again significantly less effective than 12 ml for glove size 7 and than 9 ml for glove sizes 7.5-8 (p < 0.05). The application of small volumes of surgical hand disinfectant when using the EN 12791 reference procedure is likely to yield poor efficacy results, regardless of hand size.

  18. Small volumes of n-propanol (60%) applied for 3 minutes may be ineffective for surgical hand disinfection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a trend in some countries to recommend the use of surgical hand disinfectants at volumes as low as 4 ml per application. Aim To determine whether the volume applied and hand size influence the efficacy of surgical hand disinfection. Methods Thirteen experiments, according to EN 12791, resulting in 269 datasets from 75 subjects were analyzed. Hands were first washed for one minute with soap. The pre-values were obtained by rubbing the finger tips in tryptic soy broth for one minute. Each subject treated his/her hands with n-propanol (60%, v/v), with as many portions as necessary to keep the hands wet for three minutes (6–12 ml). Bacterial post-values were taken from one hand (immediate effect); the other hand was gloved for three hours (sizes 7–9). The second post-value was taken when the glove was removed (3 h effect). Results The mean immediate log10 reduction of CFU was 2.56 ± 1.12. The glove size had no significant effect on the efficacy of disinfection (p = 0.182; ANOVA). However, a volume of 6 ml was significantly less effective than 9 ml for glove sizes of 7.5–8 (p < 0.05; Tukey post hoc analysis). The mean log10 reduction after 3 h was 2.12 ± 1.24. A volume of 6 ml was again significantly less effective than 12 ml for glove size 7 and than 9 ml for glove sizes 7.5–8 (p < 0.05). Conclusions The application of small volumes of surgical hand disinfectant when using the EN 12791 reference procedure is likely to yield poor efficacy results, regardless of hand size. PMID:24822090

  19. Low contrast media volume in pre-TAVI CT examinations.

    PubMed

    Kok, Madeleine; Turek, Jakub; Mihl, Casper; Reinartz, Sebastian D; Gohmann, Robin F; Nijssen, Estelle C; Kats, Suzanne; van Ommen, Vincent G; Kietselaer, Bas L J H; Wildberger, Joachim E; Das, Marco

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate image quality using reduced contrast media (CM) volume in pre-TAVI assessment. Forty-seven consecutive patients referred for pre-TAVI examination were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 BMI < 28 kg/m(2) (n = 29); and group 2 BMI > 28 kg/m(2) (n = 18). Patients received a combined scan protocol: retrospective ECG-gated helical CTA of the aortic root (80kVp) followed by a high-pitch spiral CTA (group 1: 70 kV; group 2: 80 kVp) from aortic arch to femoral arteries. All patients received one bolus of CM (300 mgI/ml): group 1: volume = 40 ml; flow rate = 3 ml/s, group 2: volume = 53 ml; flow rate = 4 ml/s. Attenuation values (HU) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured at the levels of the aortic root (helical) and peripheral arteries (high-pitch). Diagnostic image quality was considered sufficient at attenuation values > 250HU and CNR > 10. Diagnostic image quality for TAVI measurements was obtained in 46 patients. Mean attenuation values and CNR (HU ± SD) at the aortic root (helical) were: group 1: 381 ± 65HU and 13 ± 8; group 2: 442 ± 68HU and 10 ± 5. At the peripheral arteries (high-pitch), mean values were: group 1: 430 ± 117HU and 11 ± 6; group 2: 389 ± 102HU and 13 ± 6. CM volume can be substantially reduced using low kVp protocols, while maintaining sufficient image quality for the evaluation of aortic root and peripheral access sites. • Image quality could be maintained using low kVp scan protocols. • Low kVp protocols reduce contrast media volume by 34-67 %. • Less contrast media volume lowers the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy.

  20. Relationship between ultrasonographically determined kidney volume and progression of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vegar Zubović, Sandra; Kristić, Spomenka; Sefić Pašić, Irmina

    2016-08-01

    Aim To investigate a correlation between calculated creatinine clearance as a measure of kidney's functional abilities and ultrasonographically determined kidney volume, which represents actual size of the kidney, in fact residual renal mass in chronic kidney disease, in order to determine possibilities of ultrasound as a diagnostic method in diagnosing and follow up of chronic renal disease. Methods Prospective study included 150 patients with registered demographic and anthropometric data, and also with relevant laboratory tests of renal function. Longitudinal diameter, thickness and width of the kidney and renal volume calculated according to the Dinkel's formula were measured by ultrasound. A correlation between the measured volume of the kidneys and calculated creatinine clearance was done by the Spearman method, with statistical significance of p<0.05. Results Statistically significant correlation between the estimated creatinine clearance values and the average of the calculated values of kidney volume was found (p<0.01). Average value of the kidneys' volume showed a linear decrease with the progression of chronic kidney disease: the kidney volume in the control healthy group was 171.7 ± 32.6 mL (95.22- 229.59 mL), and in the subjects classified in stage IV it was 74.7 ± 24.6 mL (43.22-165.65 mL). Conclusion Calculated volume of kidney well correlated with creatinine clearance as a measure of functional ability of the kidneys and with the stage of chronic renal disease. It can be used in clinical practice for monitoring of chronic kidney disease in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory parameters. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  1. Test evaluates high-volume ESP application offshore Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Almazo, S.G.; Riling, G.

    1998-02-16

    An electric submersible pump (ESP) test, although shorter than hoped for, indicated that artificial lift with ESPs had potential for replacing gas-lift operations, offshore Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) recently preformed this test of a high-volume (10,000 b/d) ESP in the Akal reservoir of the Cantarell field, northeast Marina Region in the Gulf of Mexico. In the Marine Region, gas lift is the main artificial lift method; however, to maintain production on gas lift, sweetened gas requirements for the Akal reservoir would have to increase by about 30 MMscfd. The ESP design was complex because the pump would have to handlemore » 20--40% of free gas at its intake. Installed in September 1996, the ESP had to be pulled from the well in November 1997 because of an electrical short. Actual operating time was about 7 months. The paper describes test objectives, pump environment, pump design, downhole equipment, surface equipment, operating history, production history, and an analysis.« less

  2. Long term intensive exercise training leads to a higher plasma malate/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio and increased level of lipid mobilization in horses.

    PubMed

    Li, Gebin; Lee, Peter; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Continuous high intensity training may induce alterations to enzyme activities related to glucose and lipid metabolism in horses. In our study, five Thoroughbred race horses (3 male and 2 female, avg age=5 yrs old) were compared against five riding horses (1 male, 1 female, 3 gelding, avg age=13 yrs old) in terms of energy metabolism, by examining plasma malate (MDH) and lactate (LDH) dehydrogenase activities and M/L ratio. MDH is involved in NADH and ATP generation, whereas LDH can convert NADH back into NAD(+) for ATP generation. An increase in plasma M/L ratio can reflect heightened energy metabolism in the liver and skeletal muscle of horses adapted to continuous intensive exercise. Moreover, plasma lipid metabolism analytes (adiponectin, NEFA, total cholesterol (T-Cho), and triglycerides (TG)) can reflect changes to lipolysis rate, which can also indicate a change in energy metabolism. Overall, race horses demonstrated increased MDH and LDH activity in plasma (4x and 2x greater, respectively), in addition to a plasma M/L ratio twice as high as that of riding horses (2.0 vs 1.0). In addition, race horses also demonstrated significantly higher levels of plasma NEFA (50% greater), TG (2x greater), and T-Cho (20% greater) as compared to riding horses. Therefore, race horse muscles may have adapted to prolonged high intensity endurance exercise by gaining a higher oxidative capacity and an increased capacity for fat utilization as an energy source, resulting in heightened energy metabolism and increased rate of lipid mobilization.

  3. Mouse genetics and proteomic analyses demonstrate a critical role for complement in a model of DHRD/ML, an inherited macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Donita L.; Fernandez-Godino, Rosario; Kaur, Inderjeet; Speicher, Kaye D.; Harnly, James M.; Lambris, John D.; Speicher, David W.; Pierce, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Macular degenerations, inherited and age related, are important causes of vision loss. Human genetic studies have suggested perturbation of the complement system is important in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. The mechanisms underlying the involvement of the complement system are not understood, although complement and inflammation have been implicated in drusen formation. Drusen are an early clinical hallmark of inherited and age-related forms of macular degeneration. We studied one of the earliest stages of macular degeneration which precedes and leads to the formation of drusen, i.e. the formation of basal deposits. The studies were done using a mouse model of the inherited macular dystrophy Doyne Honeycomb Retinal Dystrophy/Malattia Leventinese (DHRD/ML) which is caused by a p.Arg345Trp mutation in EFEMP1. The hallmark of DHRD/ML is the formation of drusen at an early age, and gene targeted Efemp1R345W/R345W mice develop extensive basal deposits. Proteomic analyses of Bruch's membrane/choroid and Bruch's membrane in the Efemp1R345W/R345W mice indicate that the basal deposits comprise normal extracellular matrix (ECM) components present in abnormal amounts. The proteomic analyses also identified significant changes in proteins with immune-related function, including complement components, in the diseased tissue samples. Genetic ablation of the complement response via generation of Efemp1R345W/R345W:C3−/− double-mutant mice inhibited the formation of basal deposits. The results demonstrate a critical role for the complement system in basal deposit formation, and suggest that complement-mediated recognition of abnormal ECM may participate in basal deposit formation in DHRD/ML and perhaps other macular degenerations. PMID:23943789

  4. Contribution of11C-Choline PET/CT in prostate carcinoma biochemical relapse with serum PSA level below 1 ng/ml.

    PubMed

    Gómez-de la Fuente, F J; Martínez-Rodríguez, I; de Arcocha-Torres, M; Quirce, R; Jiménez-Bonilla, J; Martínez-Amador, N; Banzo, I

    2017-11-11

    11 C-choline PET/CT has demonstrated good results in the restaging of prostate cancer (PCa) with high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), but its use in patients with low serum PSA is controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the contribution of 11 C-choline PET/CT in patients with PCa, biochemical relapse and PSA <1 ng/ml. Fifty consecutive patients (mean age: 65.9±5.6 years) with biochemical relapse of PCa and serum PSA <1ng/ml were evaluated retrospectively. PET/CT was performed 20min after intravenous administration of 555-740 MBq of 11 C-choline. Minimum follow up time was 30 months. Twenty-one out of 50 patients (42%) had an abnormal 11 C-choline PET/CT. In 7 out of 21 patients (14%) tumor was confirmed (4 in prostatic bed, 4 in pelvic lymph nodes, 2 in mediastinal lymph nodes and one synchronous sigmoid carcinoma), and in all cases the initial therapeutic planning was modified. In 2 patients (4%) subsequent tests diagnosed a benign disease (one sarcoidosis, one tuberculosis sequelae) and in 3 patients (6%) they ruled out pathology. The other 9 patients (18%) had no further assessment (7 mediastinal and 4 pelvic lymph nodes). Twenty-nine out of 50 patients (58%) had a normal PET/CT. At 30 months, follow up recurrence was confirmed only in 2 of these patients. 11 C-choline PET/CT proved its usefulness in demonstrating tumor in 14% of patients with BR of PCa and serum PSA <1ng/ml, with therapeutic implications. In 4% of patients a benign condition was detected. A normal 11 C-choline PET/CT was associated with a very low rate of recurrence at 30 months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  5. Bupivacaine 0.01% and/or epinephrine 0.5 microg/ml improve epidural fentanyl analgesia after cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S; Lowenwirt, I; Pantuck, C B; Amar, D; Pantuck, E J

    1998-12-01

    The authors studied the addition of bupivacaine and epinephrine, separately and together, to epidural fentanyl to determine whether this improved postcesarean analgesia and reduced the incidence of side effects. After elective cesarean section, 100 parturient patients who received fentanyl (3 microg/ml) epidurally for 48 h were allocated randomly in a double-blinded manner to four groups to receive, in addition to the study solution, 0.01% bupivacaine, 0.5 microg/ml epinephrine, both, or neither. A neurologic assessment of breast-fed neonates was made at 2 and 48 h of life. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were determined in a subset of patients at intervals after treatment. Patients receiving fentanyl alone made more attempts at patient-controlled analgesia (P < 0.01), required a greater total dose of fentanyl (P < 0.01), reported more pain (P < 0.003) and less satisfaction (P < 0.003), and had more nausea and urinary retention (P < 0.05) than all other groups. Patients who received bupivacaine with or without epinephrine had better overall satisfaction scores than those who did not receive bupivacaine (P < 0.001), and they required less fentanyl (P < 0.02) than patients who received fentanyl with only epinephrine. Motor blockade or orthostatic hypotension did not develop in any patient, and all patients could ambulate without difficulty. Neurobehavioral scores, which were similar among all neonates, were within the normal range. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl increased after epinephrine-containing solutions were discontinued. During the conditions of this study, the addition of epinephrine and bupivacaine to a 3-microg/ml epidural fentanyl solution for postcesarean section pain relief provided superior analgesia compared with fentanyl alone or fentanyl with epinephrine. Whether increasing the concentration of fentanyl alone might improve the efficacy of fentanyl remains unclear.

  6. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Sofosbuvir and simeprevir in hepatitis C genotype 1-patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis or GFR <30 ml/min.

    PubMed

    Nazario, Hector E; Ndungu, Milka; Modi, Apurva A

    2016-06-01

    Treating chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has suboptimal tolerability and cure rates. Safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir plus simeprevir regimen in CHC-infected patients with ESRD on haemodialysis (HD) or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <30 ml/min is unknown. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir and simeprevir in this special patient population. All (n = 17) patients in the analysis had ESRD on HD or GFR <30 ml/min. All received sofosbuvir 400 mg daily and simeprevir 150 mg daily, without ribavirin for 12 weeks. Safety and efficacy data were collected; including SVR4 and SVR12 data for all patients after completing therapy. In this 17 patient cohort, eight (47%) were cirrhotic, four (24%) had stage three liver fibrosis and 13 (76%) were genotype 1A. All 17 have completed 12 weeks of therapy. Treatment was overall well tolerated with no treatment discontinuations reported. Four (24%) patients reported mild adverse events (AE). These AEs were insomnia (n = 2), headache (n = 1), nausea (n = 1) and worsening anaemia requiring blood transfusion (n = 1). All 17 patients reached post-treatment week-12 follow-up, and achieved SVR12 or virological cure (100% SVR12). Daily, full dose of sofosbuvir plus simeprevir for 12 weeks of therapy appears to be well tolerated in patients with ESRD on HD or GFR <30 ml/min. Most common AEs resembled those of healthier CHC patients without significant renal impairment. The cure rates obtained in this cohort treated with sofosbuvir and simeprevir are dramatically superior to any previous treatment regimen studied & published in this special patient population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Temporal Evolution and Dose-Volume Histogram Predictors of Visual Acuity After Proton Beam Radiation Therapy of Uveal Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Polishchuk, Alexei L.; Mishra, Kavita K.; Weinberg, Vivian; Daftari, Inder K.; Nguyen, Jacqueline M.; Cole, Tia B.; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Phillips, Theodore L.; Char, Devron H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To perform an in-depth temporal analysis of visual acuity (VA) outcomes after proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) in a large, uniformly treated cohort of uveal melanoma (UM) patients, to determine trends in VA evolution depending on pretreatment and temporally defined posttreatment VA measurements; and to investigate the relevance of specific patient, tumor and dose-volume parameters to posttreatment vision loss. Methods and Materials: Uveal melanoma patients receiving PBRT were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Included patients (n=645) received 56 GyE in 4 fractions, had pretreatment best corrected VA (BCVA) in the affected eye of count fingers (CF) or better, with posttreatment VA assessment at specified post-PBRT time point(s). Patients were grouped according to the pretreatment BCVA into favorable (≥20/40) or unfavorable (20/50-20/400) and poor (CF) strata. Temporal analysis of BCVA changes was described, and univariate and forward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors for VA loss. Results: Median VA follow-up was 53 months (range, 3-213 months). At 60-month follow up, among evaluable treated eyes with favorable pretreatment BCVA, 45% retained BCVA ≥20/40, whereas among evaluable treated eyes with initially unfavorable/poor BCVA, 21% had vision ≥20/100. Among those with a favorable initial BCVA, attaining BCVA of ≥20/40 at any posttreatment time point was associated with subsequent maintenance of excellent BCVA. Multivariate analysis identified volume of the macula receiving 28GyE (P<.0001) and optic nerve (P=.0004) as independent dose-volume histogram predictors of 48-month post-PBRT vision loss among initially favorable treated eyes. Conclusions: Approximately half of PBRT-treated UM eyes with excellent pretreatment BCVA assessed at 5 years after treatment will retain excellent long-term vision. 28GyE macula and optic nerve dose-volume histogram parameters allow for

  9. Temporal Evolution and Dose-Volume Histogram Predictors of Visual Acuity After Proton Beam Radiation Therapy of Uveal Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Polishchuk, Alexei L.; Mishra, Kavita K., E-mail: Kavita.Mishra@ucsf.edu; Weinberg, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To perform an in-depth temporal analysis of visual acuity (VA) outcomes after proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) in a large, uniformly treated cohort of uveal melanoma (UM) patients, to determine trends in VA evolution depending on pretreatment and temporally defined posttreatment VA measurements; and to investigate the relevance of specific patient, tumor and dose-volume parameters to posttreatment vision loss. Methods and Materials: Uveal melanoma patients receiving PBRT were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Included patients (n=645) received 56 GyE in 4 fractions, had pretreatment best corrected VA (BCVA) in the affected eye of count fingers (CF) or better, withmore » posttreatment VA assessment at specified post-PBRT time point(s). Patients were grouped according to the pretreatment BCVA into favorable (≥20/40) or unfavorable (20/50-20/400) and poor (CF) strata. Temporal analysis of BCVA changes was described, and univariate and forward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors for VA loss. Results: Median VA follow-up was 53 months (range, 3-213 months). At 60-month follow up, among evaluable treated eyes with favorable pretreatment BCVA, 45% retained BCVA ≥20/40, whereas among evaluable treated eyes with initially unfavorable/poor BCVA, 21% had vision ≥20/100. Among those with a favorable initial BCVA, attaining BCVA of ≥20/40 at any posttreatment time point was associated with subsequent maintenance of excellent BCVA. Multivariate analysis identified volume of the macula receiving 28GyE (P<.0001) and optic nerve (P=.0004) as independent dose-volume histogram predictors of 48-month post-PBRT vision loss among initially favorable treated eyes. Conclusions: Approximately half of PBRT-treated UM eyes with excellent pretreatment BCVA assessed at 5 years after treatment will retain excellent long-term vision. 28GyE macula and optic nerve dose-volume histogram parameters

  10. Comparison of the Cortínez and the Schnider models with a targeted effect-site TCI of 3 mcg/ml in biophase in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Frederico Avendaño, C; Cortínez, L I; Ramírez-Paesano, C R

    2016-12-01

    To compare the Cortínez and Schnider models in effect-site TCI mode (3 mcg/ml) in healthy volunteers. Ten healthy volunteers were prospectively studied on 2 occasions. Propofol was administered with the Cortínez or the Schnider models, as randomly assigned. Times and predicted concentrations at the time of loss and recovery of consciousness (LOC and ROC), mass of drug administered, BIS, and haemodynamic variables were compared. Statistical analysis was with paired Wilcoxon test. A P<.05 was considered significant. The propofol bolo was higher (1.4 [1.3-1.6] versus 0.9 [0.7-1.3] mg/kg, P=.005) and the LOC occurred earlier (1.33 [0.67-6.83] versus 3.87 [1.66-11.08] minutes, P=.02) with the Cortínez model compared to the Schnider model. With the Cortínez model, LOC occurred at an effect site concentrations of 2.6 (1.65-3.0) mcg/ml. With the Schnider model, LOC occurred at 3.87 min (1.66-11.8) after reaching the target of 3 mcg/ml. (P=.001). BIS values, infusion rates, and haemodynamic variables were similar between models after 20minutes of infusion (P>.5). Recovery (ROC) was longer with the Cortínez model (11.6 [8.1-16.2] vs. 8.5 [4.7-15.5] min, P=.003). The Cortínez model is a good alternative to the Schnider model for use in effect-site TCI mode in normal weight subjects. With the target used in this study (3 mcg/ml), the slower Ke0 incorporated into the Cortínez model better discriminated the LOC time. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. The DMRT-ML Model: Numerical Simulations of the Microwave Emission of Snowpacks Based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brucker, Ludovic; Picard, Ghislain; Roy, Alexandre; Dupont, Florent; Fily, Michel; Royer, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Microwave radiometer observations have been used to retrieve snow depth and snow water equivalent on both land and sea ice, snow accumulation on ice sheets, melt events, snow temperature, and snow grain size. Modeling the microwave emission from snow and ice physical properties is crucial to improve the quality of these retrievals. It also is crucial to improve our understanding of the radiative transfer processes within the snow cover, and the snow properties most relevant in microwave remote sensing. Our objective is to present a recent microwave emission model and its validation. The model is named DMRT-ML (DMRT Multi-Layer), and is available at http:lgge.osug.frpicarddmrtml.

  12. The DMRT-ML Model: Numerical Simulations of the Microwave Emission of Snowpacks Based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picard, Ghislain; Brucker, Ludovic; Roy, Alexandre; DuPont, FLorent; Champollion, Nicolas; Morin, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Microwave radiometer observations have been used to retrieve snow depth and snow water equivalent on both land and sea ice, snow accumulation on ice sheets, melt events, snow temperature, and snow grain size. Modeling the microwave emission from snow and ice physical properties is crucial to improve the quality of these retrievals. It also is crucial to improve our understanding of the radiative transfer processes within the snow cover, and the snow properties most relevant in microwave remote sensing. Our objective is to present a recent microwave emission model and its validation. The model is named DMRT-ML (DMRT Multi-Layer).

  13. Ventilatory protective strategies during thoracic surgery: effects of alveolar recruitment maneuver and low-tidal volume ventilation on lung density distribution.

    PubMed

    Kozian, Alf; Schilling, Thomas; Schütze, Hartmut; Senturk, Mert; Hachenberg, Thomas; Hedenstierna, Göran

    2011-05-01

    The increased tidal volume (V(T)) applied to the ventilated lung during one-lung ventilation (OLV) enhances cyclic alveolar recruitment and mechanical stress. It is unknown whether alveolar recruitment maneuvers (ARMs) and reduced V(T) may influence tidal recruitment and lung density. Therefore, the effects of ARM and OLV with different V(T) on pulmonary gas/tissue distribution are examined. Eight anesthetized piglets were mechanically ventilated (V(T) = 10 ml/kg). A defined ARM was applied to the whole lung (40 cm H(2)O for 10 s). Spiral computed tomographic lung scans were acquired before and after ARM. Thereafter, the lungs were separated with an endobronchial blocker. The pigs were randomized to receive OLV in the dependent lung with a V(T) of either 5 or 10 ml/kg. Computed tomography was repeated during and after OLV. The voxels were categorized by density intervals (i.e., atelectasis, poorly aerated, normally aerated, or overaerated). Tidal recruitment was defined as the addition of gas to collapsed lung regions. The dependent lung contained atelectatic (56 ± 10 ml), poorly aerated (183 ± 10 ml), and normally aerated (187 ± 29 ml) regions before ARM. After ARM, lung volume and aeration increased (426 ± 35 vs. 526 ± 69 ml). Respiratory compliance enhanced, and tidal recruitment decreased (95% vs. 79% of the whole end-expiratory lung volume). OLV with 10 ml/kg further increased aeration (atelectasis, 15 ± 2 ml; poorly aerated, 94 ± 24 ml; normally aerated, 580 ± 98 ml) and tidal recruitment (81% of the dependent lung). OLV with 5 ml/kg did not affect tidal recruitment or lung density distribution. (Data are given as mean ± SD.) The ARM improves aeration and respiratory mechanics. In contrast to OLV with high V(T), OLV with reduced V(T) does not reinforce tidal recruitment, indicating decreased mechanical stress.

  14. Lung volume reproducibility under ABC control and self-sustained breath-holding.

    PubMed

    Kaza, Evangelia; Dunlop, Alex; Panek, Rafal; Collins, David J; Orton, Matthew; Symonds-Tayler, Richard; McQuaid, Dualta; Scurr, Erica; Hansen, Vibeke; Leach, Martin O

    2017-03-01

    An Active Breathing Coordinator (ABC) can be employed to induce breath-holds during CT imaging and radiotherapy of lung, breast and liver cancer, and recently during lung cancer MRI. The apparatus measures and controls respiratory volume, hence subject lung volume reproducibility is its principal measure of effectiveness. To assess ABC control quality, the intra-session reproducibility of ABC-induced lung volumes was evaluated and compared with that reached by applying the clinical standard of operator-guided self-sustained breath-holds on healthy volunteers during MRI. Inter-session reproducibility was investigated by repeating ABC-controlled breath-holds on a second visit. Additionally, lung volume agreement with ABC devices used with different imaging modalities in the same institution (MR, CT), or for a breast trial treatment, was assessed. Lung volumes were derived from three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted MRI datasets by three observers employing semiautomatic lung delineation on a radiotherapy treatment planning system. Inter-observer variability was less than 6% of the delineated lung volumes. Lung volume agreement between the different conditions over all subjects was investigated using descriptive statistics. The ABC equipment dedicated for MR application exhibited good intra-session and inter-session lung volume reproducibility (1.8% and 3% lung volume variability on average, respectively). MR-assessed lung volumes were similar using different ABC equipment dedicated to MR, CT, or breast radiotherapy. Overall, lung volumes controlled by the same or different ABC devices agreed better than with self-controlled breath-holds, as suggested by the average ABC variation of 1.8% of the measured lung volumes (99 mL), compared to the 4.1% (226 mL) variability observed on average with self-sustained breath-holding. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in

  15. Tidal volume and alveolar clearance of insoluble particles.

    PubMed

    John, J; Wollmer, P; Dahlbäck, M; Luts, A; Jonson, B

    1994-02-01

    We studied the effect of 3 h of large tidal volume ventilation on alveolar clearance of 0.63-micron fluorescent latex particles in rabbits during pentobarbital anesthesia. After particle deposition, six animals were killed as controls, six were subjected to large tidal volume ventilation with a peak pressure of 27 cmH2O, and six were subjected to conventional ventilation with a peak pressure of 11 cmH2O. Mean tidal volumes were 30.2 +/- 6.1 and 8.4 +/- 1.6 ml/kg in the large tidal volume and conventional groups, respectively. End-expiratory pressure was 2 cmH2O in all groups. Compliance decreased only after large tidal ventilation (P = 0.0036). Compared with controls the conventional ventilation group showed no alveolar clearance, but more particles were clustered within macrophages (P = 0.01). Compared with other groups the large tidal volume group had fewer alveolar particles (P = 0.0005), most of which were single particles. Accordingly, large tidal volumes enhance alveolar particle clearance, which is possibly related to distension-related evacuation of surfactant to proximal airways. Clearance may be due to accelerated motion of the particle-loaded macrophage in response to the fast film motion. Alternatively, single particles embedded in the surfactant film may be dragged by the fast-moving film toward the airways.

  16. Impact of Larger Sputum Volume on Xpert®MTB/RIF Assay Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Smear-Negative Individuals with Suspected Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Firnhaber, Cynthia; Kendall, Michelle A; Wu, Xingye; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Escada, Rodrigo Otavio da Silva; Fernandez, Michel; Hogg, Evelyn; Sanne, Ian; Johnson, Pamela; Alland, David; Mazurek, Gerald H; Benator, Debra A; Luetkemeyer, Anne F

    2017-08-07

    As a strategy to improve the sensitivity of nucleic acid-based testing in acid-fast bacilli (AFB) negative samples, larger volumes of sputum (5-10 mL) were tested with Xpert ® MTB/RIF from 176 individuals with smear-negative sputum undergoing tuberculosis evaluation. Despite larger volumes, this strategy had a suboptimal sensitivity of 50% (4/8).

  17. A METHOD FOR AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF 10 ML WATER SAMPLES CONTAINING ACIDIC, BASIC, AND NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILE COMPOUNDS LISTED IN USEPA METHOD 8270 BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data is presented showing the progress made towards the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the single run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of acid, base and neutral compounds...

  18. Estimation of Pleural Fluid Volumes on Chest Radiography Using Computed Tomography Volumetric Analysis: An Update of the Visual Prediction Rule.

    PubMed

    Mammarappallil, Joseph G; Anderson, Sarah A; Danelson, Kerry A; Stitzel, Joel A; Chiles, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the volumes of pleural fluid (PF) required to produce visible menisci in the lateral and posterior costophrenic angles (CPA) and obscure the hemidiaphragms (HD) on upright frontal and lateral chest radiographs (CXRs), using volumetric analysis of chest computed tomography (CT). A total of 98 patients with small pleural effusions on chest CT, in whom CXRs were obtained within a 24-hour interval, were selected for retrospective analysis. PF within each hemithorax was quantified using a semiautomatic method of image segmentation. A cardiothoracic radiologist scored each hemithorax on each CXR from 0 to 3 (0-normal CPA, 1--fluid meniscus below the HD, 2--fluid meniscus at the level of the HD, 3--fluid opacity obscures the HD). Each CXR category was correlated with CT-determined PF volumes. A mean of 20 mL of PF was present on CT without a visible correlate on CXR. A meniscus below the HD on CXR correlated with roughly 100 mL; a meniscus occurring at the HD correlated with roughly 250 mL; a meniscus obscuring the HD correlated with a mean of approximately 650 mL. There were large standard deviations for all PF volumes. We provide guidelines for estimating PF volumes on upright frontal and lateral CXRs. We also confirm that the lateral radiograph is more sensitive for detection of small pleural effusions, with blunting of the posterior CPA only correlating with a mean of 26 mL of PF.

  19. Simulation of the Microwave Emission of Multi-layered Snowpacks Using the Dense Media Radiative Transfer Theory: the DMRT-ML Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picard, G.; Brucker, Ludovic; Roy, A.; Dupont, F.; Fily, M.; Royer, A.; Harlow, C.

    2013-01-01

    DMRT-ML is a physically based numerical model designed to compute the thermal microwave emission of a given snowpack. Its main application is the simulation of brightness temperatures at frequencies in the range 1-200 GHz similar to those acquired routinely by spacebased microwave radiometers. The model is based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer (DMRT) theory for the computation of the snow scattering and extinction coefficients and on the Discrete Ordinate Method (DISORT) to numerically solve the radiative transfer equation. The snowpack is modeled as a stack of multiple horizontal snow layers and an optional underlying interface representing the soil or the bottom ice. The model handles both dry and wet snow conditions. Such a general design allows the model to account for a wide range of snow conditions. Hitherto, the model has been used to simulate the thermal emission of the deep firn on ice sheets, shallow snowpacks overlying soil in Arctic and Alpine regions, and overlying ice on the large icesheet margins and glaciers. DMRT-ML has thus been validated in three very different conditions: Antarctica, Barnes Ice Cap (Canada) and Canadian tundra. It has been recently used in conjunction with inverse methods to retrieve snow grain size from remote sensing data. The model is written in Fortran90 and available to the snow remote sensing community as an open-source software. A convenient user interface is provided in Python.

  20. The Effectiveness and Safety of Transurethral (Bipolar) Plasmakinetic Resection of Prostate Combined with Thulium Laser for Large Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (>80ml).

    PubMed

    Xie, Tiancheng; Lai, Peng; Luo, Ming; Xu, Yunfei

    2016-12-08

    To evaluate the clinical curative effect and safety of transurethral (bipolar) plasmakinetic resection of theprostate (PKRP) combined with thulium laser in the treatment of large prostates (> 80mL). From January 2014 to December 2015, 61 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia(BPH) were treated with PKRP combined with thulium laser (n = 25) or PKRP only (n = 36). We retrospectivelyanalyzed the perioperative status of patients status during 3-month follow-up. There was no significant difference between the two groups before treatment (P > .05). PKRP combinedwith thulium laser was significantly superior to PKRP in terms of surgical duration, intraoperative blood loss,postoperative bladder washing time, postoperative complications and time of hospital stay (P < .05). There were nosignificant improvements at international prostatic symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL), maximum flowrate (Qmax), and post-void residual (PVR) urine between two groups after 3 months (P > .05). PKRP combined with thulium laser is superior than PKRP only for better surgical duration, lessbleeding, higher efficiency and much quicker recovery. It may be a better choice for the treatment of BPH withlarge prostate (> 80mL).

  1. Flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using ≈4 mL min(-1) gas flows.

    PubMed

    Franchina, Flavio A; Maimone, Mariarosa; Tranchida, Peter Q; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-04-08

    The main objective of the herein described research was focused on performing satisfactory flow modulation (FM), in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS), using an MS-compatible second-dimension gas flow of approx. 4 mL min(-1). The FM model used was based on that initially proposed by Seeley et al. [3]. The use of limited gas flows was enabled through fine tuning of the FM parameters, in particular the duration of the re-injection (or flushing) process. Specifically, the application of a long re-injection period (i.e., 700 ms) enabled efficient accumulation-loop flushing with gas flows of about 4 mL min(-1). It was possible to apply such extended re-injection periods by using different restrictor lengths in the connections linking the modulator to the auxiliary pressure source. FM GC×GC-MS applications were performed on a mixture containing C9-10 alkanes, and on a sample of essential oil. GC×GC-MS sensitivity was compared with that attained by using conventional GC-MS analysis, in essential oil applications. It was observed that signal intensities were, in general, considerably higher in the FM GC×GC-MS experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of left and right atrial volume in patients undergoing ablation for atrial arrhythmias: comparison of a manual versus semiautomatic algorithm of real time 3D echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hajo; Reverdin, Stéphane; Burri, Haran; Shah, Dipen; Lerch, René

    2014-04-01

    Real time full-volume 3D echocardiography (3DE) allows rapid and noninvasive measurement of left (LA) and right atrial (RA) volume without geometric assumptions. Different algorithms from different commercial providers are available. Older software requires manual tracing of endocardial contours. Recently, software with semiautomatic endocardial contour-finding algorithms has become available, which considerably speeds up the procedure. Our aim was to compare, in the same dataset, both LA and RA volumes determined by an algorithm involving manual tracing to the corresponding volumes obtained by an algorithm with semiautomatic contour detection. Maximal atrial volumes were measured in 88 patients using a multiplane interpolation method algorithm based on manual planimetry of 8 slices. These volumes were compared with volumes determined by the QLAB 8.1 software using semiautomatic border detection. Linear regression showed excellent correlation between volumes determined by manual and by semiautomatic software for both LA and RA (r(2) = 0.90 and 0.89, respectively, P < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis of manual versus semiautomatic volume determination showed narrow 95% limits of agreement (-15.9 to +12.0 mL for LA volume and -13.9 to +12.2 mL for RA volume) with a minimal bias of -1.9 ± 7.0 mL and -0.8 ± 6.5 mL, respectively, by the semiautomatic method. The semiautomatic border detection method shows excellent correlation for maximal LA and RA volume determination compared to the more time-consuming, multiplane interpolation method, with only slight underestimation. The results indicate that values of LA and RA volumes obtained by either algorithm can be compared, for example, during follow-up examinations. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Expression of aquaporins 1 and 5 in a model of ventilator-induced lung injury and its relation to tidal volume.

    PubMed

    Fabregat, Gustavo; García-de-la-Asunción, José; Sarriá, Benjamín; Mata, Manuel; Cortijo, Julio; de Andrés, José; Gallego, Lucía; Belda, Francisco Javier

    2016-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Although different studies have attempted to find factors that influence the expression of aquaporins (AQPs) in the lung in different situations, to date no research group has explored the expression of AQP1 and AQP5 jointly in rats mechanically ventilated with different tidal volumes in a model of ventilator-induced lung injury. What is the main finding? Mechanical ventilation with a high tidal volume causes lung injury and oedema, increasing lung permeability. In rats ventilated with a high tidal volume, the pulmonary expression of AQP1 decreases. We analysed the expression of aquaporins 1 and 5 and its relation with tidal volume in a model of ventilator-induced lung injury. Forty-two rats were used. Six non-ventilated animals were killed (control group). The remaining rats were ventilated for 2 h with different tidal volumes (group 7ML with 7 ml kg-1 and group 20ML with 20 ml kg-1 ) and a respiratory rate of 90 breaths min-1 . Lung oedema was measured, and the expression of AQP1 and AQP5 was determined by Western immunoblotting and measurement of mRNA. Lung oedema and alveolar-capillary membrane permeability were significantly increased in the animals of group 20ML compared with the control group. Expression of AQP1 was decreased in groups 7ML and 20ML compared with the control group. In conclusion, mechanical ventilation with a high tidal volume causes lung injury and oedema, increasing lung permeability. In rats ventilated with a high tidal volume, the pulmonary expression of AQP1 decreases. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  4. Uncertainty associated with assessing semen volume: are volumetric and gravimetric methods that different?

    PubMed

    Woodward, Bryan; Gossen, Nicole; Meadows, Jessica; Tomlinson, Mathew

    2016-12-01

    The World Health Organization laboratory manual for the examination of human semen suggests that an indirect measurement of semen volume by weighing (gravimetric method) is more accurate than a direct measure using a serological pipette. A series of experiments were performed to determine the level of discrepancy between the two methods using pipettes and a balance which had been calibrated to a traceable standard. The median weights of 1.0ml and 5.0ml of semen were 1.03 g (range 1.02-1.05 g) and 5.11 g (range 4.95-5.16 g), respectively, suggesting a density for semen between 1.03g and 1.04 g/ml. When the containers were re-weighed after the removal of 5.0 ml semen using a serological pipette, the mean residual loss was 0.12 ml (120 μl) or 0.12 g (median 100 μl, range 70-300 μl). Direct comparison of the volumetric and gravimetric methods in a total of 40 samples showed a mean difference of 0.25ml (median 0.32 ± 0.67ml) representing an error of 8.5%. Residual semen left in the container by weight was on average 0.11 g (median 0.10 g, range 0.05-0.19 g). Assuming a density of 1 g/ml then the average error between volumetric and gravimetric methods was approximately 8% (p < 0.001). If, however, the WHO value for density is assumed (1.04 g/ml) then the difference is reduced to 4.2%. At least 2.4-3.5% of this difference is also explained by the residual semen remaining in the container. This study suggests that by assuming the density of semen as 1 g/ml, there is significant uncertainty associated with the average gravimetric measurement of semen volume. Laboratories may therefore prefer to provide in-house quality assurance data in order to be satisfied that 'estimating' semen volume is 'fit for purpose' as opposed to assuming a lower uncertainty associated with the WHO recommended method.

  5. Impact of volume expansion on the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of liposome bupivacaine.

    PubMed

    Hadzic, Admir; Abikhaled, John A; Harmon, William J

    2015-01-01

    Liposome bupivacaine is a prolonged-release liposomal formulation of bupivacaine indicated for single-dose infiltration into the surgical site to produce postsurgical analgesia of longer duration than traditional local anesthetics. This review summarizes the available data on how volume expansion may impact the analgesic efficacy of liposome bupivacaine. The Phase II and III clinical studies that involved surgical site administration of liposome bupivacaine at various concentrations in different surgical settings revealed no apparent concentration-efficacy relationship. A single-center, prospective study comparing the efficacy of transversus abdominis plane infiltration with liposome bupivacaine administered in a lower (266 mg/40 mL) vs a higher (266 mg/20 mL) dose concentration in subjects undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy also reported similar postsurgical pain intensity scores and opioid usage in both treatment groups. The pharmacokinetic profile of liposome bupivacaine following subcutaneous injections in rats was unaltered by differences in drug concentration, dose, or injection volume within the ranges tested. Volume expansion of liposome bupivacaine to a total volume of 300 mL or less does not appear to impact its clinical efficacy or pharmacokinetic profile, thus allowing flexibility to administer the formulation across a wide range of diluent volumes.

  6. Growth and flowering responses of cut chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume to irrigation frequency.

    PubMed

    Taweesak, Viyachai; Lee Abdullah, Thohirah; Hassan, Siti Aishah; Kamarulzaman, Nitty Hirawaty; Wan Yusoff, Wan Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium "Reagan White") were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm(3). Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL), 6 (400 mL), and 8 (533 mL) times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm(3) substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm(3) substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm(3) substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  7. Volume MLS ray casting.

    PubMed

    Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2008-01-01

    The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data.

  8. GREEK BASIC COURSE, VOLUME I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OBOLENSKY, SERGE; AND OTHERS

    THE GREEK LANGUAGE DESCRIBED IN VOLUME I OF THIS INTRODUCTORY COURSE FOR ADULTS IS THE "KATHOMILUMENI" VARIETY, THAT OF THE STANDARD SPEECH OF EDUCATED GREEKS. (VOLUME III OF THE COURSE INTRODUCES THE MORE FORMAL KATHAREVUSA VARIETY.) EACH VOLUME OF THE COURSE CONTAINS 25 UNITS PLUS FIVE REVIEW SECTIONS. A TYPICAL UNIT IN VOLUME I…

  9. The Sortie-Generation Model System. Volume VI. Spares Subsystem,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    M SLAY MOA903-81-C-0166 UNCLASSIFIED LMI- ML 102-VOL-6 NL 12 f f f f f f f f f f f f THE SORTIE-GENERATION MODEL SYSTEM VOLUME VI SPARES SUBSYSTEM...JCL/DM/SET4IP 100##N,R(XL) 110$: IDENT: &IDENT. 120$: NOTE: SET4UP RUIN FOR &NAME. 1:305: OPTION: FORTRAN 140$: SELECT: LA6 1 AlSTARS /OB.JEC:T / ElM...vz ocC c L. 07g 9.U c0 cac 4 i r aawo=aL 00 00 in M00 0 0 Nu 00 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 000 00 a. L,0 C 4 :-mo Cwa mO ml c !C c- - wn Mao O

  10. Three-dimensional remodeling of young Asian women's faces using 20-mg/ml smooth, highly cohesive, viscous hyaluronic acid fillers: a retrospective study of 320 patients.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung Min; Lee, Dong Won

    2013-09-01

    Because Asian faces are generally flatter than Caucasian faces, Asian women are increasingly requesting facial volume enhancement. To clarify the effectiveness and safety of a volumizing treatment using 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous hyaluronic acid fillers in young Asian women. We retrospectively reviewed 320 patients who had been treated with this filler from March 2010 to February 2012. The filler was injected in the shape of a diamond to the glabella, both malar eminences, and chin. Overall, 4 to 6 mL of filler was sufficient to enhance the volume of a face in young Asian women. Both the physicians and patients rated effectiveness on the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale at week 4. Need for touch-up and any adverse events were also evaluated. Most patients were very satisfied with this volumizing procedure, and there were no major complications. The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous hyaluronic acid filler is an effective, well-tolerated treatment option in young Asian women wishing for a more-three-dimensional profile. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  12. 46 CFR 2.20-40 - Chief engineer's reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (c) When fusible plugs in boilers are renewed at a time other than the inspection for certification... renewal of the fusible plugs by letter to the OCMI who issued the certificate of inspection. This letter... renewal of fusible plugs. (3) Number and location of fusible plugs renewed in each boiler. (4...

  13. 46 CFR 2.20-40 - Chief engineer's reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (c) When fusible plugs in boilers are renewed at a time other than the inspection for certification... renewal of the fusible plugs by letter to the OCMI who issued the certificate of inspection. This letter... renewal of fusible plugs. (3) Number and location of fusible plugs renewed in each boiler. (4...

  14. 46 CFR 2.20-40 - Chief engineer's reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (c) When fusible plugs in boilers are renewed at a time other than the inspection for certification... renewal of the fusible plugs by letter to the OCMI who issued the certificate of inspection. This letter... renewal of fusible plugs. (3) Number and location of fusible plugs renewed in each boiler. (4...

  15. 46 CFR 2.20-40 - Chief engineer's reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (c) When fusible plugs in boilers are renewed at a time other than the inspection for certification... renewal of the fusible plugs by letter to the OCMI who issued the certificate of inspection. This letter... renewal of fusible plugs. (3) Number and location of fusible plugs renewed in each boiler. (4...

  16. 46 CFR 2.20-40 - Chief engineer's reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (c) When fusible plugs in boilers are renewed at a time other than the inspection for certification... renewal of the fusible plugs by letter to the OCMI who issued the certificate of inspection. This letter... renewal of fusible plugs. (3) Number and location of fusible plugs renewed in each boiler. (4...

  17. Three-Dimensional Eyeball and Orbit Volume Modification After LeFort III Midface Distraction.

    PubMed

    Smektala, Tomasz; Nysjö, Johan; Thor, Andreas; Homik, Aleksandra; Sporniak-Tutak, Katarzyna; Safranow, Krzysztof; Dowgierd, Krzysztof; Olszewski, Raphael

    2015-07-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate orbital volume modification with LeFort III midface distraction in patients with craniosynostosis and its influence on eyeball volume and axial diameter modification. Orbital volume was assessed by the semiautomatic segmentation method based on deformable surface models and on 3-dimensional (3D) interaction with haptics. The eyeball volumes and diameters were automatically calculated after manual segmentation of computed tomographic scans with 3D slicer software. The mean, minimal, and maximal differences as well as the standard deviation and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for intraobserver and interobserver measurements reliability were calculated. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare measured values before and after surgery. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Intraobserver and interobserver ICC for haptic-aided semiautomatic orbital volume measurements were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. The intraobserver and interobserver ICC values for manual segmentation of the eyeball volume were 0.87 and 0.86, respectively. The orbital volume increased significantly after surgery: 30.32% (mean, 5.96  mL) for the left orbit and 31.04% (mean, 6.31  mL) for the right orbit. The mean increase in eyeball volume was 12.3%. The mean increases in the eyeball axial dimensions were 7.3%, 9.3%, and 4.4% for the X-, Y-, and Z-axes, respectively. The Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that preoperative and postoperative eyeball volumes, as well as the diameters along the X- and Y-axes, were statistically significant. Midface distraction in patients with syndromic craniostenosis results in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the orbit and eyeball volumes. The 2 methods (haptic-aided semiautomatic segmentation and manual 3D slicer segmentation) are reproducible techniques for orbit and eyeball volume measurements.

  18. A SensorML-based Metadata Model and Registry for Ocean Observatories: a Contribution from European Projects NeXOS and FixO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delory, E.; Jirka, S.

    2016-02-01

    Discovering sensors and observation data is important when enabling the exchange of oceanographic data between observatories and scientists that need the data sets for their work. To better support this discovery process, one task of the European project FixO3 (Fixed-point Open Ocean Observatories) is dealing with the question which elements are needed for developing a better registry for sensors. This has resulted in four items which are addressed by the FixO3 project in cooperation with further European projects such as NeXOS (http://www.nexosproject.eu/). 1.) Metadata description format: To store and retrieve information about sensors and platforms it is necessary to have a common approach how to provide and encode the metadata. For this purpose, the OGC Sensor Model Language (SensorML) 2.0 standard was selected. Especially the opportunity to distinguish between sensor types and instances offers new chances for a more efficient provision and maintenance of sensor metadata. 2.) Conversion of existing metadata into a SensorML 2.0 representation: In order to ensure a sustainable re-use of already provided metadata content (e.g. from ESONET-FixO3 yellow pages), it is important to provide a mechanism which is capable of transforming these already available metadata sets into the new SensorML 2.0 structure. 3.) Metadata editor: To create descriptions of sensors and platforms, it is not possible to expect users to manually edit XML-based description files. Thus, a visual interface is necessary to help during the metadata creation. We will outline a prototype of this editor, building upon the development of the ESONET sensor registry interface. 4.) Sensor Metadata Store: A server is needed that for storing and querying the created sensor descriptions. For this purpose different options exist which will be discussed. In summary, we will present a set of different elements enabling sensor discovery ranging from metadata formats, metadata conversion and editing to metadata

  19. Evaluation of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer in Patients with Prostate-specific Antigen <20 ng/ml.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Wang, Jian-Ye; Li, Chun-Mei; Zhang, Ya-Qun; Wang, Jian-Long; Wan, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Min; Li, Sa-Ying; Wan, Gang; Liu, Ming

    2016-06-20

    The European Society of Urogenital Radiology has built the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) for standardizing the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). This study evaluated the PI-RADS diagnosis method in patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <20 ng/ml. A total of 133 patients with PSA <20 ng/ml were prospectively recruited. T2-weighted (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance images of the prostate were acquired before a 12-core transrectal prostate biopsy. Each patient's peripheral zone was divided into six regions on the images; each region corresponded to two of the 12 biopsy cores. T2WI, DWI, and T2WI + DWI scores were computed according to PI-RADS. The diagnostic accuracy of the PI-RADS score was evaluated using histopathology of prostate biopsies as the reference standard. PCa was histologically diagnosed in 169 (21.2%) regions. Increased PI-RADS score correlated positively with increased cancer detection rate. The cancer detection rate for scores 1 to 5 was 2.8%, 15.0%, 34.6%, 52.6%, and 88.9%, respectively, using T2WI and 12.0%, 20.2%, 48.0%, 85.7%, and 93.3%, respectively, using DWI. For T2WI + DWI, the cancer detection rate was 1.5% (score 2), 13.5% (scores 3-4), 41.3% (scores 5-6), 75.9% (scores 7-8), and 92.3% (scores 9-10). The area under the curve for cancer detection was 0.700 (T2WI), 0.735 (DWI) and 0.749 (T2WI + DWI). The sensitivity and specificity were 53.8% and 89.2%, respectively, when using scores 5-6 as the cutoff value for T2WI + DWI. The PI-RADS score correlates with the PCa detection rate in patients with PSA <20 ng/ml. The summed score of T2WI + DWI has the highest accuracy in detection of PCa. However, the sensitivity should be further improved.

  20. The investigation of effects of fluorosis on thyroid volume in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Kutlucan, Ali; Kale Koroglu, Banu; Numan Tamer, Mehmet; Aydin, Yusuf; Baltaci, Davut; Akdogan, Mehmet; Ozturk, Mustafa; Vural, Huseyin; Ermis, Fatih

    2013-02-01

    To compare the urine iodine, fluoride, and to measure thyroid volumes in 10-15-year-old children using ultrasonography, a gold standard in evaluating thyroid volume. A total of 261 children were enrolled into the study group from the 4-8th grades of 3 different primary schools, which were in the zone with high fluoride levels. The control group was formed by enrolling 298 children from the 4-8th grades of only one primary school. Age, gender, height, and weight values were recorded for the children. The urine iodine, fluoride, and thyroid volumes were measured with ultrasonography in 10-15-year-old children with fluorosis and controls and compared between two groups. The mean urine fluoride level was 0.48±0.24 mg/L in the study group and 0.22±0.17 mg/L in the control group (p < 0.001). The mean urine iodine level did not differ between two groups. The mean total thyroid volume was 8.60±3.11 mL and 8.73± 2.75 mL in the study and control group, respectively. The groups were also compared according to the echobody index, and the score was 6.94±2.14 ml/m² in the study group and 6.48±1.53 ml/m² in the control group (p=0.003). Mean thyroid volumes did not differ between two groups. However, the echobody index in the study group was higher than in the control group. A relation between fluoride concentration and thyroid gland with ultrasonographic examination was firstly evaluated, and it was concluded that fluoride affected thyroid gland although it was weakly significant. After puberty, echobody index in subjects with fluorosis was markedly high. Based on our results, we thought that fluorosis increases thyroid volume in children with fluorosis after puberty.

  1. Impact of chronic lisinopril therapy on left atrial volume versus dimension in chronic organic mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Graham C; Marcotte, Francois; Rudski, Lawrence G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic mitral regurgitation imparts a volume load on the left atrium (LA). Because this chamber may dilate asymmetrically, changes in left atrial size may be underestimated using standard two-dimensional or M-mode techniques. METHODS The effect of lisinopril therapy in the setting of chronic organic mitral regurgitation on LA dimension was studied using standard M-mode techniques and LA volumes using the biplane Simpson’s method. RESULTS Mitral regurgitant fraction was reduced at one year in the lisinopril group versus the placebo group (−6.7%±3.5% versus 3.5%±3.2%, respectively; P<0.05). Significant reductions in both maximum and minimum LA volumes were seen in the lisinopril group (88±33 mL to 75±23 mL and 46±20 mL to 38±16 mL, respectively; P<0.01). This change in LA size was not appreciated when measurements were performed using standard M-mode techniques (from 44.3±6.9 mm to 44.1±7.4 mm; P=not significant). There was no significant relationship between change in LA volume and change in regurgitant fraction or systolic blood pressure. Change in LA volume was moderately correlated with change in left ventricular mass. CONCLUSIONS Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy reduces LA volume in the setting of chronic mitral regurgitation. This change in LA size is not apparent when standard M-mode techniques are used. Therefore, a volumetric assessment of atrial size in the setting of chronic mitral regurgitation proved to be superior to standard two-dimensional techniques. PMID:16485047

  2. Evaluation of reduced sediment volume procedures for acute toxicity tests using the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jacob K; Kennedy, Alan J; Farrar, J Daniel; Mount, David R; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2010-12-01

    The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost because of sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs associated with organism recovery at the conclusion of the exposure. The objective of the current study was to evaluate reduced sediment volume versions of the standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 10-d acute Leptocheirus plumulosus method that uses a beaker size of 1,000 ml and 20 organisms. The test design used evaluated the effects of beaker size (250 and 100 ml) and associated sediment volume (75 and 30 ml, respectively) as well as organism loading density (10 and 20 organisms) on test endpoint responsiveness relative to the standard 10-d test method. These comparisons were completed with three different types of contaminated sediments: a field-collected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment, a lead-spiked control sediment, and a control sediment spiked with mineral oil. Assessment criteria included test endpoint sensitivity, endpoint consistency, statistical power, water quality, and logistical assessments. Results indicate that the current U.S. EPA method is preferable to the reduced sediment volume methods we assessed, but that a 250-ml beaker/10 organism experimental design is of comparable utility and may be advantageous when reduced sediment volumes are desirable because of high contaminant (spiking studies) or sediment disposal costs. In addition, the results of the current study provide toxicity reference values for PAHs, lead, and an oil surrogate for petroleum hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  3. Optimal Volume of Administration of Intranasal Midazolam in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Tsze, Daniel S; Ieni, Maria; Fenster, Daniel B; Babineau, John; Kriger, Joshua; Levin, Bruce; Dayan, Peter S

    2017-05-01

    The optimal intranasal volume of administration for achieving timely and effective sedation in children is unclear. We aimed to compare clinical outcomes relevant to procedural sedation associated with using escalating volumes of administration to administer intranasal midazolam. We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, 3-arm, superiority clinical trial. Children aged 1 to 7 years and undergoing laceration repair requiring 0.5 mg/kg intranasal midazolam (5 mg/mL) were block-randomized to receive midazolam using 1 of 3 volumes of administration: 0.2, 0.5, or 1 mL. Procedures were videotaped, with outcome assessors blinded to volume of administration. Primary outcome was time to onset of minimal sedation (ie, score of 1 on the University of Michigan Sedation Scale). Secondary outcomes included procedural distress, time to procedure start, deepest level of sedation achieved, adverse events, and clinician and caregiver satisfaction. Ninety-nine children were enrolled; 96 were analyzed for the primary outcome and secondary outcomes, except for the outcome of procedural distress, for which only 90 were analyzed. Time to onset of minimal sedation for each escalating volume of administration was 4.7 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8 to 5.4 minutes), 4.3 minutes (95% CI 3.9 to 4.9 minutes), and 5.2 minutes (95% CI 4.6 to 7.0 minutes), respectively. There were no differences in secondary outcomes except for clinician satisfaction with ease of administration: fewer clinicians were satisfied when using a volume of administration of 0.2 mL. There was a slightly shorter time to onset of minimal sedation when a volume of administration of 0.5 mL was used compared with 1 mL, but all 3 volumes of administration produced comparable clinical outcomes. Fewer clinicians were satisfied with ease of administration with a volume of administration of 0.2 mL. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Living donor right liver lobes: preoperative CT volumetric measurement for calculation of intraoperative weight and volume.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Arne-Jörn; Brinkmann, Martin Julius; Schott, Thomas; Niehues, Stefan Markus; Settmacher, Utz; Neuhaus, Peter; Felix, Roland

    2006-09-01

    To prospectively develop equations for the calculation of expected intraoperative weight and volume of a living donor's right liver lobe by using preoperative computed tomography (CT) for volumetric measurement. After medical ethics committee and state medical board approval, informed consent was obtained from eight female and eight male living donors (age range, 18-63 years) for participation in preoperative CT volumetric measurement of the right liver lobes by using the summation-of-area method. Intraoperatively, the graft was weighed, and the volume of the graft was determined by means of water displacement. Distributions of pre- and intraoperative data were depicted as Tukey box-and-whisker diagrams. Then, linear regressions were calculated, and the results were depicted as scatterplots. On the basis of intraoperative data, physical density of the parenchyma was calculated by dividing weight by volume of the graft. Preoperative measurement of grafts resulted in a mean volume of 929 mL +/- 176 (standard deviation); intraoperative mean weight and volume of the grafts were 774 g +/- 138 and 697 mL +/- 139, respectively. All corresponding pre- and intraoperative data correlated significantly (P < .001) with each other. Intraoperatively expected volume (V(intraop)) in millilliters and weight (W(intraop)) in grams can be calculated with the equations V(intra)(op) = (0.656 . V(preop)) + 87.629 mL and W(intra)(op) = (0.678 g/mL . V(preop)) + 143.704 g, respectively, where preoperative volume is V(preop) in milliliters. Physical density of transplanted liver lobes was 1.1172 g/mL +/- 0.1015. By using two equations developed from the data obtained in this study, expected intraoperative weight and volume can properly be determined from CT volumetric measurements. (c) RSNA, 2006.

  5. Validation of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography for quantifying left ventricular volumes in the presence of a left ventricular aneurysm: in vitro and in vivo studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Greenberg, N. L.; Tsujino, H.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Gupta, P. C.; Zetts, A. D.; Xu, Y.; Ping Sun, J.; hide

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To validate the accuracy of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) for quantifying aneurysmal left ventricular (LV) volumes. BACKGROUND: Conventional two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) has limitations when applied for quantification of LV volumes in patients with LV aneurysms. METHODS: Seven aneurysmal balloons, 15 sheep (5 with chronic LV aneurysms and 10 without LV aneurysms) during 60 different hemodynamic conditions and 29 patients (13 with chronic LV aneurysms and 16 with normal LV) underwent RT3DE and 2DE. Electromagnetic flow meters and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) served as reference standards in the animals and in the patients, respectively. Rotated apical six-plane method with multiplanar Simpson's rule and apical biplane Simpson's rule were used to determine LV volumes by RT3DE and 2DE, respectively. RESULTS: Both RT3DE and 2DE correlated well with actual volumes for aneurysmal balloons. However, a significantly smaller mean difference (MD) was found between RT3DE and actual volumes (-7 ml for RT3DE vs. 22 ml for 2DE, p = 0.0002). Excellent correlation and agreement between RT3DE and electromagnetic flow meters for LV stroke volumes for animals with aneurysms were observed, while 2DE showed lesser correlation and agreement (r = 0.97, MD = -1.0 ml vs. r = 0.76, MD = 4.4 ml). In patients with LV aneurysms, better correlation and agreement between RT3DE and MRI for LV volumes were obtained (r = 0.99, MD = -28 ml) than between 2DE and MRI (r = 0.91, MD = -49 ml). CONCLUSIONS: For geometrically asymmetric LVs associated with ventricular aneurysms, RT3DE can accurately quantify LV volumes.

  6. Ultrasonographic gastric antral area and gastric contents volume in children.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Achim; Thomas, Schraner; Melanie, Fruehauf; Rabia, Liamlahi; Klaghofer, Richard; Weiss, Markus; Kellenberger, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Cross-sectional gastric antral area (GAA) measurements by ultrasonography (US) have been proposed for preoperative assessment of gastric volume in adults but not been validated in children. This study investigates whether in children gastric volumes can be predicted by US performed in different patient positions. Gastric fluid and air volumes were examined by magnetic resonance imaging before or up to 120 min after ingestion of 7 ml·kg(-1) diluted raspberry syrup in healthy volunteers who had fasted overnight. GAA was measured with US three times each in supine (SUP), elevated 45° degree supine (E45) and right decubital (RDC) position using imaging planes defined by vascular landmarks. Correlation coefficients (Pearson) between GAA and gastric volumes were calculated and Bland-Altman analysis performed. Sixteen children aged from 6.4 to 12.8 (9.2) years were included in 23 examinations: 6 after overnight fasting, 3 directly after, and 14 with a delay of 74 ± 35 min after fluid intake. GAA was 221 ± 116, 218 ± 112, and 347 ± 188 mm(2) for SUP, E45, and RDC position, respectively. The best correlation between body weight corrected total gastric/gastric fluid volume (TGV(w)/GFV(w)) with GAA was found for RDC position (R = 0.79; P < 0.01/R = 0.78; P < 0.01). Bias and precision of calculated and measured GFV(w) was 0 ± 2.8 ml·kg(-1). Correlations between GAA and TGV(w) or GFV(w) in children are best in the RDC position, but not sufficient to predict GFV(w) with a given GAA. Interpretation of isolated GAA values may be misleading. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Beat-by-beat stroke volume assessment by pulsed Doppler in upright and supine exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Greene, E. R.; Hoekenga, D. E.; Caprihan, A.; Luft, U. C.

    1981-01-01

    The instantaneous stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (Q) in eight male subjects during steady-state supine (S) and upright (U) exercises at 300 kpm/min is assessed by a 3.0-MHz pulsed Doppler echocardiograph. The mean transients in heart rate (HR), SV, and Q for each posture were determined and the center-line blood velocities obtained in the ascending aorta. Results show that the mean supine values for SV and Q at rest and exercise were 111 ml and 6.4 l/min and 112 ml and 9.7 l/min, respectively. The corresponding results for U were 76 ml and 5.6 l/min and 92 ml and 8.4 l/min, respectively. The values compare favorably with previous studies utilizing invasive procedures. The transient response of Q following the onset of exercise in U was about twice as fast as in S because of the rapid and almost immediate upsurge in SV. The faster rise in aortic flow in U with exercise represented and additional volume (184 ml) of blood passing through the aorta compared with S in the first 20 exercises. It is suggested that the rapid mobilization of pooled venous blood from the leg veins during U was responsible for the increased blood flow.

  8. Navajo Biographies. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Virginia

    The life stories of eight Navajo ("Dine", their term for themselves) leaders are presented in volume one of this collection of biographies. Interspersed with portraits, drawings, and maps, the narrative chronologically covers the time period from 1766 when the Navajos lived on land under the rule of Spain into the twentieth century and…

  9. Deafness Annual, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Arthur G., Ed.

    Presented is the second of two volumes on deafness which contains 12 papers and a review of programs or grants sponsored by the federal government and other groups. Larry Stewart identifies the deaf in "A Truly Silent Minority". In the "Seven-Faces of Deafness", G. Loyd tells what deafness means to seven people. E. Mindel maintains that parents…

  10. Northwest Education, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lee, Ed.; Kneidek, Tony, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Volume 3 of "Northwest Education" contains four issues. Each issue has a theme title and typically consists of an opening review article on current trends and research related to the theme, followed by articles on exemplary schools or programs in the Northwest, promising practices, outstanding teachers, or suggestions for program…

  11. Another year, another volume

    Treesearch

    Bill Block

    2012-01-01

    This issue represents the final one in volume 76 of Journal of Wildlife Management. As this one is pretty much in the books, one cannot help but wonder what the future holds for the journal. Lenny Brennan is putting together a piece for Wildlife Society Bulletin to examine how The Wildlife Society publications have changed through time. He solicited input from past and...

  12. Postmenopausal hormone therapy, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and brain volumes.

    PubMed

    Espeland, Mark A; Brinton, Roberta Diaz; Manson, JoAnn E; Yaffe, Kristine; Hugenschmidt, Christina; Vaughan, Leslie; Craft, Suzanne; Edwards, Beatrice J; Casanova, Ramon; Masaki, Kamal; Resnick, Susan M

    2015-09-29

    To examine whether the effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on brain volumes in women aged 65-79 years differs depending on type 2 diabetes status during postintervention follow-up of a randomized controlled clinical trial. The Women's Health Initiative randomized clinical trials assigned women to HT (0.625 mg/day conjugated equine estrogens with or without 2.5 mg/day medroxyprogesterone acetate) or placebo for an average of 5.6 years. A total of 1,402 trial participants underwent brain MRI 2.4 years after the trials; these were repeated in 699 women 4.7 years later. General linear models were used to assess the interaction between diabetes status and HT assignment on brain volumes. Women with diabetes at baseline or during follow-up who had been assigned to HT compared to placebo had mean decrement in total brain volume of -18.6 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] -29.6, -7.6). For women without diabetes, this mean decrement was -0.4 (95% CI -3.8, 3.0) (interaction p=0.002). This interaction was evident for total gray matter (p<0.001) and hippocampal (p=0.006) volumes. It was not evident for changes in brain volumes over follow-up or for ischemic lesion volumes and was not influenced by diabetes duration or oral medications. For women aged 65 years or older who are at increased risk for brain atrophy due to type 2 diabetes, prescription of postmenopausal HT is associated with lower gray matter (total and hippocampal) volumes. Interactions with diabetes and insulin resistance may explain divergent findings on how estrogen influences brain volume among older women. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. M2Lite: An Open-source, Light-weight, Pluggable and Fast Proteome Discoverer MSF to mzIdentML Tool

    PubMed Central

    Aiyetan, Paul; Zhang, Bai; Chen, Lily; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Proteome Discoverer is one of many tools used for protein database search and peptide to spectrum assignment in mass spectrometry-based proteomics. However, the inadequacy of conversion tools makes it challenging to compare and integrate its results to those of other analytical tools. Here we present M2Lite, an open-source, light-weight, easily pluggable and fast conversion tool. M2Lite converts proteome discoverer derived MSF files to the proteomics community defined standard – the mzIdentML file format. M2Lite’s source code is available as open-source at https://bitbucket.org/paiyetan/m2lite/src and its compiled binaries and documentation can be freely downloaded at https://bitbucket.org/paiyetan/m2lite/downloads. PMID:25346941

  14. Feasibility of Peripheral Artery CT Angiography under 70 kV with 50 ml Contrast Medium on the Third-generation Dual-source CT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daming; Xie, Yanting; Xue, Huadan; Wang, Xuan; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-02-20

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of peripheral artery CT angiography (CTA)under 70 kV with 50 ml contrast medium on the third-generation dual-source CT. Methods Totally 82 patients who were equally randomized into two groups:70 kV group:the scan was performed under 70 kV tube voltage+50 ml iopromide on the third-generation dual-source CT;and 100 kV group:the scan was performed under 100 kV tube voltage+90 ml iopromide on the second-generation dual-source CT. The CT number of abdominal aorta,bilateral common iliac arteries,common femoral arteries,superficial femoral arteries,popliteal arteries and arteries of the calf were measured and contrast to noise ratio(CNR),signal to noise ratio(SNR)were calculated. The image quality was compared between these two groups. Results The dose-length product was (195.8±46.9)mGy·cm in 70 kV group,which was significantly lower than that in 100 kV group (461.6±57.9)mGy·cm,and was decreased by 57% (t=-22.848,P=0.000). Compared with the 100 kV group,the CT number of the proximal abdominal aorta in 70 kV group was significantly lower(t=-2.502,P=0.014),while the CT number of superficial femoral arteries (t=3.053,P=0.003)and popliteal arteries (t=4.013,P=0.000)was much higher in 70 kV group. SNR and CNR of proximal abdominal aorta,distal abdominal aorta,bilateral common iliac arteries,common femoral arteries,superficial femoral arteries,popliteal arteries and arteries of the calf were significantly lower in 70 kV group than those in 100 kV group (all P<0.05). The artifacts in abdominal aorta (t=2.893,P=0.000)and feet arteries (t=3.776,P=0.000)were higher in 70 kV group than those in 100 kV group,the enhancement of abdominal aorta (t=-1.000,P=0.002)and feet arteries (t=2.893,P=0.010)were lower in 70 kV group,the enhancement of femoral-popliteal arteries (t=-1.000,P=0.000)and arteries of calf (t=4.261,P=0.000)were higher in 70 kV group. Compared with the 100 kV group,the image noise in aorta (t=2.048,P=0.044),femoral

  15. WellnessRules: A Web 3.0 Case Study in RuleML-Based Prolog-N3 Profile Interoperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boley, Harold; Osmun, Taylor Michael; Craig, Benjamin Larry

    An interoperation study, WellnessRules, is described, where rules about wellness opportunities are created by participants in rule languages such as Prolog and N3, and translated within a wellness community using RuleML/XML. The wellness rules are centered around participants, as profiles, encoding knowledge about their activities conditional on the season, the time-of-day, the weather, etc. This distributed knowledge base extends FOAF profiles with a vocabulary and rules about wellness group networking. The communication between participants is organized through Rule Responder, permitting wellness-profile translation and distributed querying across engines. WellnessRules interoperates between rules and queries in the relational (Datalog) paradigm of the pure-Prolog subset of POSL and in the frame (F-logic) paradigm of N3. An evaluation of Rule Responder instantiated for WellnessRules revealed acceptable Web response times.

  16. Daclatasvir and reduced-dose sofosbuvir: an effective and pangenotypic treatment for hepatitis C in patients with eGFR <30 ml/min.

    PubMed

    Goel, Amit; Bhadauria, Dharmendra Singh; Kaul, Anupma; Verma, Prashant; Mehrotra, Mayank; Gupta, Amit; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Rai, Praveer; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2018-01-12

    Sofosbuvir is a key agent for HCV treatment. It is not recommended for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min. We report real-life experience of treating a cohort of CKD patients with eGFR <30 mL/min using daclatasvir and half-daily dose of sofosbuvir. Adults patients who (i) had eGFR<30 ml/min and detectable HCV RNA and (ii) were treated with interferon and ribavirin free, DAA based regimens were included. All patients were treated with daily doses of daclatasvir 60 mg and sofosbuvir 200 mg. The planned duration of treatment was 12 weeks, except for 24 weeks in those with either clinical evidence of cirrhosis or on immunosuppressive drugs. The end-points of the study were: (i) 12 weeks of follow-up after treatment completion, (ii) treatment discontinuation, or (iii) death or loss to follow-up. Thirty-six (88%) among 41 included patients (median [range] age: 48 [19-75] years; 25 [61%] male; genotype 1/3/4 were 17/ 22/2; cirrhosis 5) completed the treatment, two discontinued and three died during treatment. On an intention-to-treat basis, HCV RNA were undetectable at 4 weeks of treatment, treatment completion and after 12 weeks of follow-up in 40/41 (97.6%), 37/41 (90.2%) and 37/41 (90.2%), respectively. None of the patients had a relapse. Daclatasvir and half-daily dose of sofosbuvir was effective against genotype 1 and 3 HCV infection in patients with eGFR <30 ml/min. This combination was could be a pangenotypic treatment option for such patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. LEMS: a language for expressing complex biological models in concise and hierarchical form and its use in underpinning NeuroML 2

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Robert C.; Gleeson, Padraig; Crook, Sharon; Ganapathy, Gautham; Marin, Boris; Piasini, Eugenio; Silver, R. Angus

    2014-01-01

    Computational models are increasingly important for studying complex neurophysiological systems. As scientific tools, it is essential that such models can be reproduced and critically evaluated by a range of scientists. However, published models are currently implemented using a diverse set of modeling approaches, simulation tools, and computer languages making them inaccessible and difficult to reproduce. Models also typically contain concepts that are tightly linked to domain-specific simulators, or depend on knowledge that is described exclusively in text-based documentation. To address these issues we have developed a compact, hierarchical, XML-based language called LEMS (Low Entropy Model Specification), that can define the structure and dynamics of a wide range of biological models in a fully machine readable format. We describe how LEMS underpins the latest version of NeuroML and show that this framework can define models of ion channels, synapses, neurons and networks. Unit handling, often a source of error when reusing models, is built into the core of the language by specifying physical quantities in models in terms of the base dimensions. We show how LEMS, together with the open source Java and Python based libraries we have developed, facilitates the generation of scripts for multiple neuronal simulators and provides a route for simulator free code generation. We establish that LEMS can be used to define models from systems biology and map them to neuroscience-domain specific simulators, enabling models to be shared between these traditionally separate disciplines. LEMS and NeuroML 2 provide a new, comprehensive framework for defining computational models of neuronal and other biological systems in a machine readable format, making them more reproducible and increasing the transparency and accessibility of their underlying structure and properties. PMID:25309419

  18. Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Density and Free to Total PSA Ratio in Diagnosing Prostate Cancer with Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels of 4.0 ng/ml or Less.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Tang, Jie; Fei, Xiang; Li, Qiu-Yang

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to value the usefulness of free to total prostate-specific antigen and Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density for prostate cancer in the patients with PSA levels of 4.0 ng/