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Sample records for waardenburg anophthalmia syndrome

  1. Anophthalmia-Waardenburg syndrome: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Suyugül, Z; Seven, M; Hacihanefioğlu, S; Kartal, A; Suyugül, N; Cenani, A

    1996-04-24

    We report on 2 Turkish families with children who had bilateral anophthalmia, upper and lower limb abnormalities, mental retardation and consanguineous parents. We have evaluated the 2 cases in the first family and the only case in the second as anophthalmia-Waardenburg syndrome. This is an extremely rare autosomal recessive syndrome.

  2. A novel homozygous variant in the SMOC1 gene underlying Waardenburg anophthalmia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Asmat; Umair, Muhammad; Ahmad, Farooq; Muhammad, Dost; Basit, Sulman; Ahmad, Wasim

    2017-01-01

    Waardenburg anophthalmia syndrome (WAS), also known as ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome or anophthalmia-syndactyly, is a rare congenital disorder that segregates in an autosomal recessive pattern. Clinical features of the syndrome include malformation of the eyes and the skeleton. Mostly, WAS is caused by mutations in the SMOC-1 gene. The present report describes a large consanguineous family of Pakistani origin segregating Waardenburg anophthalmia syndrome in an autosomal recessive pattern. Genotyping followed by Sanger sequencing was performed to search for a candidate gene. SNP genotyping using AffymetrixGeneChip Human Mapping 250K Nsp array established a single homozygous region among affected members on chromosome 14q23.1-q24.3 harboring the SMOC1 gene. Sequencing of the gene revealed a novel homozygous missense mutation (c.812G>A; p.Cys271Tyr) in the family. This is the first report of Waardenburg anophthalmia syndrome caused by a SMOC1 variant in a Pakistani population. The mutation identified in the present investigation extends the body of evidence implicating the gene SMOC-1 in causing WAS.

  3. Mutations in the SPARC-related modular calcium-binding protein 1 gene, SMOC1, cause waardenburg anophthalmia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Hana; Boisset, Gaëlle; Favez, Tatiana; Youssef, Mohamed; Marzouk, Iman; Shakankiry, Nihal; Bayoumi, Nader; Descombes, Patrick; Agosti, Céline; Munier, Francis L; Schorderet, Daniel F

    2011-01-07

    Waardenburg anophthalmia syndrome, also known as microphthalmia with limb anomalies, ophthalmoacromelic syndrome, and anophthalmia-syndactyly, is a rare autosomal-recessive developmental disorder that has been mapped to 10p11.23. Here we show that this disease is heterogeneous by reporting on a consanguineous family, not linked to the 10p11.23 locus, whose two affected children have a homozygous mutation in SMOC1. Knockdown experiments of the zebrafish smoc1 revealed that smoc1 is important in eye development and that it is expressed in many organs, including brain and somites.

  4. A novel mutation in SMOC1 and variable phenotypic expression in two patients with Waardenburg anophthalmia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Javad; Abdollahi, Shokoufeh; Ghaedi, Hamid; Alehabib, Elham; Tafakhori, Abbas; Alinaghi, Somayeh; Chapi, Marjan; Johari, Amir Hossein; Darvish, Hossein

    2017-11-01

    Waardenburg anophthalmia syndrome (WAS) is a rare disorder that mostly affects the eyes and distal limbs. In the current study we reported two Iranian patients with WAS. The first case was a 26-year-old girl with unilateral anophthalmia, bilateral camptodactyly and clinodactyly in her hands, oligodactly in her left foot and syndactyly of the second to fifth toes in her right foot. She also had severe hearing loss in both ears. The second case was a 12-year-old boy with bilateral anophthalmia, camptodactyly in his right hand, oligodactyly in his foot, clubfoot, and cryptorchidism. Both patients were mentally normal. To detect the causative mutation all exons and exon-intron boundaries of SMOC1 gene were sequenced in patients and other normal family members. We found a homozygous missense mutation (NM_001034852.2(SMOC1):c.367T > C) in exon 3 of SMOC1 gene in both patients. As the mutation segregated with the disease in the family, it should be the causative mutation. Our study extended the mutation spectrum of SMOC1 gene related to WAS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Loss of the BMP Antagonist, SMOC-1, Causes Ophthalmo-Acromelic (Waardenburg Anophthalmia) Syndrome in Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rainger, Joe; van Beusekom, Ellen; Ramsay, Jacqueline K.; McKie, Lisa; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Pallotta, Rosanna; Saponari, Anita; Branney, Peter; Fisher, Malcolm; Morrison, Harris; Bicknell, Louise; Gautier, Philippe; Perry, Paul; Sokhi, Kishan; Sexton, David; Bardakjian, Tanya M.; Schneider, Adele S.; Elcioglu, Nursel; Ozkinay, Ferda; Koenig, Rainer; Mégarbané, Andre; Semerci, C. Nur; Khan, Ayesha; Zafar, Saemah; Hennekam, Raoul; Sousa, Sérgio B.; Ramos, Lina; Garavelli, Livia; Furga, Andrea Superti; Wischmeijer, Anita; Jackson, Ian J.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Brunner, Han G.; Wieczorek, Dagmar; van Bokhoven, Hans; FitzPatrick, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome (OAS), also known as Waardenburg Anophthalmia syndrome, is defined by the combination of eye malformations, most commonly bilateral anophthalmia, with post-axial oligosyndactyly. Homozygosity mapping and subsequent targeted mutation analysis of a locus on 14q24.2 identified homozygous mutations in SMOC1 (SPARC-related modular calcium binding 1) in eight unrelated families. Four of these mutations are nonsense, two frame-shift, and two missense. The missense mutations are both in the second Thyroglobulin Type-1 (Tg1) domain of the protein. The orthologous gene in the mouse, Smoc1, shows site- and stage-specific expression during eye, limb, craniofacial, and somite development. We also report a targeted pre-conditional gene-trap mutation of Smoc1 (Smoc1tm1a) that reduces mRNA to ∼10% of wild-type levels. This gene-trap results in highly penetrant hindlimb post-axial oligosyndactyly in homozygous mutant animals (Smoc1tm1a/tm1a). Eye malformations, most commonly coloboma, and cleft palate occur in a significant proportion of Smoc1tm1a/tm1a embryos and pups. Thus partial loss of Smoc-1 results in a convincing phenocopy of the human disease. SMOC-1 is one of the two mammalian paralogs of Drosophila Pentagone, an inhibitor of decapentaplegic. The orthologous gene in Xenopus laevis, Smoc-1, also functions as a Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) antagonist in early embryogenesis. Loss of BMP antagonism during mammalian development provides a plausible explanation for both the limb and eye phenotype in humans and mice. PMID:21750680

  6. Loss of the BMP antagonist, SMOC-1, causes Ophthalmo-acromelic (Waardenburg Anophthalmia) syndrome in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Rainger, Joe; van Beusekom, Ellen; Ramsay, Jacqueline K; McKie, Lisa; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Pallotta, Rosanna; Saponari, Anita; Branney, Peter; Fisher, Malcolm; Morrison, Harris; Bicknell, Louise; Gautier, Philippe; Perry, Paul; Sokhi, Kishan; Sexton, David; Bardakjian, Tanya M; Schneider, Adele S; Elcioglu, Nursel; Ozkinay, Ferda; Koenig, Rainer; Mégarbané, Andre; Semerci, C Nur; Khan, Ayesha; Zafar, Saemah; Hennekam, Raoul; Sousa, Sérgio B; Ramos, Lina; Garavelli, Livia; Furga, Andrea Superti; Wischmeijer, Anita; Jackson, Ian J; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Brunner, Han G; Wieczorek, Dagmar; van Bokhoven, Hans; Fitzpatrick, David R

    2011-07-01

    Ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome (OAS), also known as Waardenburg Anophthalmia syndrome, is defined by the combination of eye malformations, most commonly bilateral anophthalmia, with post-axial oligosyndactyly. Homozygosity mapping and subsequent targeted mutation analysis of a locus on 14q24.2 identified homozygous mutations in SMOC1 (SPARC-related modular calcium binding 1) in eight unrelated families. Four of these mutations are nonsense, two frame-shift, and two missense. The missense mutations are both in the second Thyroglobulin Type-1 (Tg1) domain of the protein. The orthologous gene in the mouse, Smoc1, shows site- and stage-specific expression during eye, limb, craniofacial, and somite development. We also report a targeted pre-conditional gene-trap mutation of Smoc1 (Smoc1(tm1a)) that reduces mRNA to ∼10% of wild-type levels. This gene-trap results in highly penetrant hindlimb post-axial oligosyndactyly in homozygous mutant animals (Smoc1(tm1a/tm1a)). Eye malformations, most commonly coloboma, and cleft palate occur in a significant proportion of Smoc1(tm1a/tm1a) embryos and pups. Thus partial loss of Smoc-1 results in a convincing phenocopy of the human disease. SMOC-1 is one of the two mammalian paralogs of Drosophila Pentagone, an inhibitor of decapentaplegic. The orthologous gene in Xenopus laevis, Smoc-1, also functions as a Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) antagonist in early embryogenesis. Loss of BMP antagonism during mammalian development provides a plausible explanation for both the limb and eye phenotype in humans and mice.

  7. Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tagra, Sunita; Talwar, Amrita Kaur; Walia, Rattan Lal Singh; Sidhu, Puneet

    2006-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare inherited and genetically heterogenous disorder of neural crest cell development. Four distinct subtypes showing marked interfamilial and intrafamilial variability have been described. We report a girl showing constellation of congenital hearing impairment with 110 dB and 105 dB loss in right and left ear respectively, hypoplastic blue iridis, white forelock, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal root. Other affected relatives of the family, with variable features of the syndrome, have been depicted in the pedigree.

  8. Shah-Waardenburg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Abdelhalim; Rami, Mohamed; Khattala, Khalid; Elmadi, Aziz; Afifi, My Abderrahmane; Youssef, Bouabdallah

    2013-01-01

    Shah-Waardenburg syndrome (SWS) is a neurocristopathy and is characterized by Hirschsprung's disease (HD), deafness, and depigmentation of hairs, skin, and iris. Is a very rare congenital disorder with variable clinical expression. This report describes a 4-day-old male newborn with Waardenburg's syndrome associated with aganglionosis of the colon and terminal ileum, and review the relevant literature for draws attention to the causal relationship between these two entities. PMID:23565307

  9. Shah-Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Abdelhalim; Rami, Mohamed; Khattala, Khalid; Elmadi, Aziz; Afifi, My Abderrahmane; Youssef, Bouabdallah

    2013-01-01

    Shah-Waardenburg syndrome (SWS) is a neurocristopathy and is characterized by Hirschsprung's disease (HD), deafness, and depigmentation of hairs, skin, and iris. Is a very rare congenital disorder with variable clinical expression. This report describes a 4-day-old male newborn with Waardenburg's syndrome associated with aganglionosis of the colon and terminal ileum, and review the relevant literature for draws attention to the causal relationship between these two entities.

  10. [Waardenburg's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gimñenez, F; Carbonell, R; Pérez, F; Lozano, I

    1994-01-01

    Reporting one case of this condition type-2 with heterochromia iridis and cochlear deafness. The AA. review the syndrome's components and it nomenclature as well. They discuss about the convenience of including this deviation in the chapter of "diseases of the embryonic neural crest". The specific place of the gene responsibly in the chromosome-2 and the possibilities of genetic counselling are considered.

  11. Heterogeneity in Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, M J; Delleman, J W

    1977-01-01

    Heterogeneity of Waardenburg syndrome is demonstrated in a review of 1,285 patients from the literature and 34 previously unreported patients in five families in the Netherlands. The syndrome seems to consist of two genetically distinct entities that can be differentiated clinically: type I, Waardenburg syndrome with dystopia canthorum; and type II, Waardenburg syndrome without dystopia canthorum. Both types have an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The incidence of bilateral deafness in the two types of the syndrome was found in one-fourth with type I and about half of the patients with type II. This difference has important consequences for genetic counseling. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:331943

  12. Case report: waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dumayas, Grace Lea; Capó-Aponte, José E

    2015-03-01

    A case of Waardenburg syndrome type 1 is described and relevant literature is reviewed to raise awareness about this rare syndrome, including the classification of each subtype and the differentiating clinical manifestations. A 44-year-old African-American female presented for a routine evaluation with hearing loss, dystopia canthorum (W index = 2.74), and almost complete gray hair. In addition, she presented with heterochromia irides, different fundus pigmentation between eyes. The patient did not have any upper limbs defect, cranial skeletal abnormalities, or intestinal disorders. Facial abnormalities and a white forelock are prominent features difficult to overlook during a routine ophthalmological examination. A careful medical history in patients with suspected Waardenburg syndrome is important to accurately classify this rare condition and to identify potential systemic implications associated to each subtype. The associated systemic complications can be addressed and managed through referral to the appropriate subspecialties. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. [Visual diagnosis: Waardenburg syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hager, T; Walter, H-S; Seitz, B; Käsmann-Kellner, B

    2010-07-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare disease characterized by a sensorineural hearing loss and pigment anomalies of the iris, skin and hair due to mutations in PAX3. WS can be subdivided into four groups according to major and minor clinical signs. We report the case of a 2 1/2-year-old coloured patient who presented in our department of paediatric ophthalmology for a syndrome search. The patient presented with hearing loss, brilliant blue iris colour and dystopia canthorum. The patient was slightly hypermetropic. Visual acuity was within normal limits according to the Cardiff acuity test. The ocular fundus examination revealed no abnormalities. According to the major and minor criteria defined by the Waardenburg consortium our patient showed the major criteria of WS1, i.e. hearing loss, hypopigmentation of the pigment epithelium of the iris and dystopic canthi. Diagnosis of WS is usually based on the clinical presentation. An additional molecular genetic analysis is possible.

  14. Waardenburg syndrome presenting with constipation since birth.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Sharma, S B; Mathur, P; Agrawal, L D

    2014-12-01

    Shah-Waardenburg syndrome is Waardenburg syndrome associated with Hirschsprung's disease. A 10-day-old full-term male neonate of Waardenburg syndrome presented with constipation since birth along with features of small bowel obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy revealed distended proximal jejunal and ileal loops along with microcolon; an ileostomy was performed. Postoperatively patient developed sepsis and died. Histopathology confirmed total colonic aganglionosis. Suspect familial Shah-Waardenburg syndrome in a neonate of Waardenburg syndrome presenting with constipation since birth or intestinal obstruction.

  15. Possible Waardenburg syndrome with gastrointestinal anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Nutman, J; Steinherz, R; Sivan, Y; Goodman, R M

    1986-01-01

    We describe a patient with possible Waardenburg syndrome associated with anal atresia and oesophageal atresia with tracheooesophageal fistula. Three other published cases with atretic gastrointestinal anomalies associated with the Waardenburg syndrome are reviewed. We conclude that the association between atretic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and the Waardenburg syndrome may be a significant one. Images PMID:3712396

  16. Cochlear implants in Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Robert D; Zdanski, Carlton; Roush, Patricia; Brown, Carolyn; Teagle, Holly; Pillsbury, Harold C; Buchman, Craig

    2006-07-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is an autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by dystopia canthorum, hyperplasia of the eyebrows, heterochromia irides, a white forelock, and sensorineural hearing loss in 20% to 55% of patients. This patient population accounts for approximately 2% of congenitally deaf children. The purpose of this retrospective case review was to describe the outcomes for those children with Waardenburg syndrome who have undergone cochlear implantation. Pediatric cochlear implant recipients with documented evidence of Waardenburg syndrome underwent retrospective case review. All patients received their cochlear implants at the study institution followed by outpatient auditory habilitation. Charts were reviewed for etiology and duration of deafness, age at time of cochlear implantation, perioperative complications, duration of use, and performance outcomes. Results of standard tests batteries for speech perception and production administered as a part of the patients' auditory habilitation were reviewed. Seven patients with Waardenburg syndrome and cochlear implants were identified. The average age at implantation was 37 months (range, 18-64 months) and the average duration of use was 69 months (range, 12-143 months). All of these patients are active users of their devices and perform very well after implantation. There were no major complications in this small group of patients. Children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss without other comorbidities (e.g., developmental delay, inner ear malformations) perform well when they receive cochlear implantation and auditory habilitation. Patients with Waardenburg syndrome can be expected to have above-average performance after cochlear implantation.

  17. Worldwide distribution of Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Chetan S; Isaacson, Glenn

    2003-09-01

    To clarify the multiracial occurrence of Waardenburg syndrome, we present a case series and literature review. A computerized review of the English-language literature was conducted to assess the distribution of reported occurrences of Waardenburg syndrome in populations around the world. We detail the clinical features of 2 family cohorts: one of Western European origin and the other from South Asia. A computerized literature review found sporadic cases of the syndrome in many ethnic groups, including Japanese, Taiwanese, and Middle Eastern families. The highest reported incidence is among Kenyan Africans. Waardenburg syndrome accounts for between 2% and 5% of cases of congenital deafness. It was first described in Northern European cohorts and is widely identified in fair-skinned populations. We hope to raise awareness of the worldwide distribution of this important cause of hearing loss.

  18. SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome and dental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Camacho, Oscar Francisco; Fuerte-Flores, Bertha Irene; Ricardez-Marcial, Edgar F; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome is an uncommon autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the SOX2 gene and clinically characterized by severe eye malformations (anophthalmia/microphthalmia) and extraocular anomalies mainly involving brain, esophagus, and genitalia. In this work, a patient with the SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome and exhibiting a novel dental anomaly is described. SOX2 genotyping in this patient revealed an apparently de novo c.70del20 deletion, a commonly reported SOX2 mutation. A review of the phenotypic variation observed in patients carrying the recurrent SOX2 c.70del20 mutation is presented. Although dental anomalies are uncommonly reported in the SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome, we suggest that a dental examination should be performed in patients with SOX2 mutations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Because You Asked about Waardenburg Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to provide information about Waardenburg syndrome, an inherited disorder often characterized by varying degrees of hearing loss and changes in skin and hair pigmentation. The pamphlet covers: causes of Waardenburg syndrome. characteristics, types, research being done, ways to help in research…

  20. Waardenburg syndrome and myelomeningocele in a family.

    PubMed Central

    Chatkupt, S; Chatkupt, S; Johnson, W G

    1993-01-01

    We report the first family with Waardenburg syndrome type 1 and myelomeningocele in which more than one subject was affected with both disorders. The possible association is discussed. Prenatal screening for myelomeningocele is suggested for a family with Waardenburg syndrome type 1. Images PMID:8423616

  1. Waardenburg syndrome type 2: an orthodontic perspective.

    PubMed

    Şuhani, Raluca Diana; Şuhani, Mihai Flaviu; Muntean, Alexandrina; Mesaroş, Michaela Florica; Badea, Mîndra Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare form of neurocristopathy. It is a disorder in the development of neural crest cells, caused by an altered cellular migration during the embryonic phase. That alteration causes an association of different abnormalities such as pigmentary disturbances of the hair, iris, skin, stria vascularis of the cochlea, dystopia canthorum and sensorineural hearing loss. We report a case of a 14-year-old Romanian male, with a family history of Waardenburg syndrome (mother) and Usher syndrome (father - congenitally sensorineural hearing loss and retinal degeneration). The case particularities are: the correlation between malocclusion and Waardenburg syndrome due to hypoplastic alae nasi and also factors that produced hearing loss, which could be Waardenburg syndrome, Usher syndrome or the presence of the connexin 26 (W24X) gene mutation.

  2. Fryns anophthalmia-plus syndrome: two rare cases.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, O; Bidev, D; Sari, F N; Dizdar, E A; Ulu, H O; Uras, N; Oguz, S S; Canpolat, F E; Dilmen, U

    2014-01-01

    Fryns anophthalmia-plus syndrome is a rare syndrome with clinical diversity primarily including anophthalmia/microphthalmia, facial clefts, cleft lip/palate, ear and nasal deformities. Here we present two different cases of APS with anopthalmia/microphthalmia, cleft palate, low set ears, ventriculomegaly and one of which had intestinal non-fixation anomaly not described in the literature before.

  3. Waardenburg syndrome in four Mexican patients.

    PubMed

    Aguilar Caso, Sandra I; Ortiz Nieva, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a hereditary auditory-pigmentary syndrome. The major features include pigmentary disturbances and congenital deafness. Clinical findings are extremely variable, not only at the authors' institution but also in the literature. The authors describe four patients who presented with various clinical features and different genetic pedigree penetration.

  4. A vestibular phenotype for Waardenburg syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Pesznecker, S. C.; Allen, K.; Gianna, C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate vestibular abnormalities in subjects with Waardenburg syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective record review. SETTING: Tertiary referral neurotology clinic. SUBJECTS: Twenty-two adult white subjects with clinical diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome (10 type I and 12 type II). INTERVENTIONS: Evaluation for Waardenburg phenotype, history of vestibular and auditory symptoms, tests of vestibular and auditory function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of phenotyping, results of vestibular and auditory symptom review (history), results of vestibular and auditory function testing. RESULTS: Seventeen subjects were women, and 5 were men. Their ages ranged from 21 to 58 years (mean, 38 years). Sixteen of the 22 subjects sought treatment for vertigo, dizziness, or imbalance. For subjects with vestibular symptoms, the results of vestibuloocular tests (calorics, vestibular autorotation, and/or pseudorandom rotation) were abnormal in 77%, and the results of vestibulospinal function tests (computerized dynamic posturography, EquiTest) were abnormal in 57%, but there were no specific patterns of abnormality. Six had objective sensorineural hearing loss. Thirteen had an elevated summating/action potential (>0.40) on electrocochleography. All subjects except those with severe hearing loss (n = 3) had normal auditory brainstem response results. CONCLUSION: Patients with Waardenburg syndrome may experience primarily vestibular symptoms without hearing loss. Electrocochleography and vestibular function tests appear to be the most sensitive measures of otologic abnormalities in such patients.

  5. Waardenburg syndrome--a case report.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Yuvika; Jain, Parul; Goyal, Gaurav; Singh, Malvika; Mishra, Chittranjan

    2013-02-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by varying degree of deafness associated with pigmentary anomaly and defects of neural crest cell derived structures. Four subtypes (I-IV) with variable penetrance and gene expression of different clinical features have been described. We report a patient showing constellation of complete heterochromia, dystopia canthorum, white forelock, and synophrys. Other affected family relatives with heterochromia have been depicted in pedigree. Copyright © 2012 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrodiagnostic findings in a patient with Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aiesha; Simmons, Zachary

    2009-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is associated with a variety of clinical features, which may include polyneuropathy. We describe a patient with Waardenburg syndrome type 2 and provide detailed electrodiagnostic findings, thus complementing the biopsy data and brief descriptions of nerve conduction studies found in the literature.

  7. [Atypical manifestations in familial type 1 Waardenburg syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sans, B; Calvas, P; Bazex, J

    1998-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder. Four clinical types are recognized. Three responsible genes have been identified (PAX 3: for type I syndrome, MITF and EDN3 for types II and IV respectively). We report the case of a patient with Waardenburg type I morphotype who had atypical neurological manifestations. Decisive elements for diagnosis were the presence of Waardenburg syndrome in the family and, in affected kin, a mutation causing a shift in PAX 3 gene reading. This case confirms the variability of Waardenburg signs within one family. The association of unusual neurological manifestations in the proband suggested that Vogt Koyanagi Harada disease may have been associated and may show some relationship with familial Waardenburg syndrome.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... and sequence variants in the SOX2 and CHX10 genes in patients with anophthalmia/microphthalmia. Mol Vis. 2008 Mar 24;14:583-92. ... are genome editing and CRISPR-Cas9? What is precision medicine? What ...

  9. Waardenburg syndrome in the Turkish deaf population.

    PubMed

    Silan, F; Zafer, C; Onder, I

    2006-01-01

    Waardenburg Syndrome (WS) is an autosomal, dominantly inherited disorder that accounts for more than 2% cases of congenital deafness. The aim of this study is to determine the WS incidence among deaf pupils. Dysmorphological examination was performed on 720 children who were attending 7 special schools in Turkey and who had hearing disabilities. All subjects in the study were examined for WS diagnostic criteria. We detected 49 patients (6.8%) with WS among the 720 children examined. Six patients had WS type 1 (12.2%) and 43 had type 2 (87.8%). We observed 2 to 5 major diagnostic criteria for WS. Out of all the subjects in the study, only two patients have deaf first degree relatives. All subjects had been previously examined by physicians for deafness but none of them had been then diagnosed to have Waardenburg Syndrome. Instead, they were all misdiagnosed as to have nonsyndromic deafness. Awareness of WS diagnostic criteria by the physicans will provide accurate diagnosis for many deaf pupils and their first degree relatives who are able-to-hear WS patients and whose children are at risk for deafness.

  10. Waardenburg syndrome with familial unilateral renal agenesis: a new syndrome variant?

    PubMed

    Webb, Katie M; Smith, Alisha J; Dansby, Linda M; Diskin, Charles J

    2015-06-01

    A 64-year-old man with Waardenburg syndrome presented with anuria and was subsequently discovered by renal ultrasound to have unilateral renal agenesis. The patient is one of three generations with incidental finding of renal agenesis also marked by the presence of Waardenburg syndrome. To our knowledge, there has been no mention elsewhere in the scientific literature of a variant of Waardenburg syndrome with associated renal agenesis. © 2014 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2014 International Society for Apheresis.

  11. CHOROIDAL MELANOMA IN A PATIENT WITH WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Itty, Sujit; Richter, Elizabeth R; McCannel, Tara A

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of choroidal malignant melanoma in a patient with Waardenburg syndrome and bilateral choroidal pigmentary abnormalities. Clinical examination and multimodal imaging of the case. A 45-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic flat choroidal pigmentation abnormalities in both eyes. A choroidal lesion was identified in the inferotemporal periphery of the left eye arising from an area of hyperpigmentation; ultrasonography findings were consistent with a choroidal melanoma. The patient endorsed a personal and family history of premature graying of hair and was identified to have dystopia canthorum consistent with the diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome. The authors present the first reported case of concurrent Waardenburg syndrome and choroidal malignant melanoma. This cooccurrence may suggest that the relative hyperpigmented regions in affected fundi may be abnormal and should be monitored closely for the development of choroidal melanoma.

  12. The Hearing Outcomes of Cochlear Implantation in Waardenburg Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Hajime; Kashio, Akinori; Sakata, Aki; Tsutsumiuchi, Katsuhiro; Matsumoto, Yu; Karino, Shotaro; Kakigi, Akinobu; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of cochlear implantation for sensorineural hearing loss in patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Method. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent cochlear implantation at the University of Tokyo Hospital. Clinical classification, genetic mutation, clinical course, preoperative hearing threshold, high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone, and postoperative hearing outcome were assessed. Result. Five children with Waardenburg syndrome underwent cochlear implantation. The average age at implantation was 2 years 11 months (ranging from 1 year 9 months to 6 years 3 months). Four patients had congenital profound hearing loss and one patient had progressive hearing loss. Two patients had an inner ear malformation of cochlear incomplete partition type 2. No surgical complication or difficulty was seen in any patient. All patients showed good hearing outcome postoperatively. Conclusion. Cochlear implantation could be a good treatment option for Waardenburg syndrome.

  13. The Hearing Outcomes of Cochlear Implantation in Waardenburg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Hajime; Kashio, Akinori; Sakata, Aki; Tsutsumiuchi, Katsuhiro; Matsumoto, Yu; Karino, Shotaro; Kakigi, Akinobu; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of cochlear implantation for sensorineural hearing loss in patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Method. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent cochlear implantation at the University of Tokyo Hospital. Clinical classification, genetic mutation, clinical course, preoperative hearing threshold, high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone, and postoperative hearing outcome were assessed. Result. Five children with Waardenburg syndrome underwent cochlear implantation. The average age at implantation was 2 years 11 months (ranging from 1 year 9 months to 6 years 3 months). Four patients had congenital profound hearing loss and one patient had progressive hearing loss. Two patients had an inner ear malformation of cochlear incomplete partition type 2. No surgical complication or difficulty was seen in any patient. All patients showed good hearing outcome postoperatively. Conclusion. Cochlear implantation could be a good treatment option for Waardenburg syndrome. PMID:27376080

  14. Waardenburg syndrome with extended aganglionosis: report of 3 new cases.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Irfan; Turk, Erdal; Ortac, Ragip; Kandirici, Aliye

    2009-06-01

    The Waardenburg-Shah syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease with varied penetration where Hirschsprung's disease and the Waardenburg syndrome are seen together. Although the length of the involved intestinal segment varies in this syndrome, most patients had total colonic aganglionosis with or without small bowel involvement. We present in this study 2 siblings and one first-degree relative for a total of 3 male patients with Waardenburg syndrome and total colonic aganglionosis with or without small bowel involvement, together with their clinical characteristics and treatment methods. The patients who presented with intestinal obstruction findings within the first 48 hours after birth were operated on with 2 patients under elective conditions and 1 as an emergency. The ganglionic segment lengths were 6, 8, and 20 cm, respectively. Aganglionic enterostomy was performed, and the Ziegler operation was used for these patients. The enterostomies started to function on the third postoperative week, and they started to gain weight. However, all died because of sepsis on the 5th to 12th month. Waardenburg-Shah syndrome patients have a higher incidence of total colonic aganglionosis with or without small bowel involvement. The Ziegler operation may be used in patients with inadequate ganglionic bowel length to gain some time for the child to grow and to decrease total parenteral nutrition complications.

  15. Tetraphocomelia with the Waardenburg syndrome and multiple malformations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hue-Tsi; Wainwright, Helen; Beighton, Peter

    2009-04-01

    A male infant delivered spontaneously at the 29th week of pregnancy had gross tetraphocomelia and features of the Waardenburg syndrome. There were no relevant factors in the pregnancy nor family history. It is possible that microdeletions or contiguous gene defects are involved in the pathogenesis of these malformations.

  16. Waardenburg Syndrome: A Case Study of Two Patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Karan; Arora, Archana

    2015-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with an incidence of 1 in 40,000 that manifests with sensorineural deafness, pigmentation defects of the skin, hair and iris and various defects of neural crest-derived tissues. This genetically heterogeneous disease accounts for >2 % of the congenitally deaf population. Mutations in the EDN3, EDNRB, MITF, PAX3, SNAI2, and SOX10 genes can cause Waardenburg syndrome. We here report a case of 12 year old female who presented with chief complaint of decreased hearing in both ears and had clinical features consistent with Waardenburg syndrome. She had a distinct white forelock of hair in the midline along with striking bilateral blue iris. Also a white depigmented patch was present on the right forearm. Both eyes had bright red fundal reflex with choroidal depigmentation. Her younger brother, the second case in this study, had similar blue eyes, white forelock of hair, depigmented skin patch and choroidal depigmentation but with normal hearing. Their father had a history of premature graying of hair. All the primary care physicians coming across a child with blue eyes and white forelock of hair should get the child's hearing tested at the first instance, if not already tested. An early diagnosis and improvement of hearing impairment with timely intervention are the most important for psychological and intellectual development of children with Waardenburg syndrome.

  17. Anaesthesia Management in a Patient with Waardenburg Syndrome and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Peker, Kevser; Ergil, Julide; Öztürk, İbrahim

    2015-10-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease that may cause hearing loss, pigmentary abnormalities, neurocristopathy and partial albinism. Incidence is estimated as 2%-3% among the cases of congenital deafness and 1/42,000 of the general population. Children with Waardenburg syndrome usually require anaesthesia for the cochlear implant operation in early age. The features of the syndrome that may bear importance for anaesthetic management are laryngomalacia, multiple muscle contractures, limited neck movements, cyanotic cardiopathy and electrolyte imbalance. Patients with Waardenburg syndrome stand for difficult airway. We aimed to report anaesthetic management of a child with Waardenburg syndrome who underwent surgery for cochlear implantation.

  18. Anaesthesia Management in a Patient with Waardenburg Syndrome and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Peker, Kevser; Ergil, Julide; Öztürk, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease that may cause hearing loss, pigmentary abnormalities, neurocristopathy and partial albinism. Incidence is estimated as 2%–3% among the cases of congenital deafness and 1/42,000 of the general population. Children with Waardenburg syndrome usually require anaesthesia for the cochlear implant operation in early age. The features of the syndrome that may bear importance for anaesthetic management are laryngomalacia, multiple muscle contractures, limited neck movements, cyanotic cardiopathy and electrolyte imbalance. Patients with Waardenburg syndrome stand for difficult airway. We aimed to report anaesthetic management of a child with Waardenburg syndrome who underwent surgery for cochlear implantation. PMID:27366529

  19. Audiological outcomes of cochlear implantation in Waardenburg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana Tereza de Matos; Samuel, Paola Angélica; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valeria Schimdt; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Brito, Rubens; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The most relevant clinical symptom in Waardenburg syndrome is profound bilateral sensorioneural hearing loss. Aim: To characterize and describe hearing outcomes after cochlear implantation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome to improve preoperative expectations. Method: This was an observational and retrospective study of a series of cases. Children who were diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome and who received a multichannel cochlear implant between March 1999 and July 2012 were included in the study. Intraoperative neural response telemetry, hearing evaluation, speech perception, and speech production data before and after surgery were assessed. Results: During this period, 806 patients received a cochlear implant and 10 of these (1.2%) were diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome. Eight of the children received a Nucleus 24® implant and 1 child and 1 adult received a DigiSonic SP implant. The mean age at implantation was 44 months among the children. The average duration of use of a cochlear implant at the time of the study was 43 months. Intraoperative neural responses were present in all cases. Patients who could use the speech processor effectively had a pure tone average of 31 dB in free-field conditions. In addition, the MUSS and MAIS questionnaires revealed improvements in speech perception and production. Four patients did not have a good outcome, which might have been associated with ineffective use of the speech processor. Conclusion: Despite the heterogeneity of the group, patients with Waardenburg syndrome who received cochlear implants were found to have hearing thresholds that allowed access to speech sounds. However, patients who received early intervention and rehabilitation showed better evolution of auditory perception. PMID:25992025

  20. Audiological outcomes of cochlear implantation in Waardenburg Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ana Tereza de Matos; Samuel, Paola Angélica; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valeria Schimdt; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Brito, Rubens; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2013-07-01

     The most relevant clinical symptom in Waardenburg syndrome is profound bilateral sensorioneural hearing loss.  To characterize and describe hearing outcomes after cochlear implantation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome to improve preoperative expectations.  This was an observational and retrospective study of a series of cases. Children who were diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome and who received a multichannel cochlear implant between March 1999 and July 2012 were included in the study. Intraoperative neural response telemetry, hearing evaluation, speech perception, and speech production data before and after surgery were assessed.  During this period, 806 patients received a cochlear implant and 10 of these (1.2%) were diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome. Eight of the children received a Nucleus 24(®) implant and 1 child and 1 adult received a DigiSonic SP implant. The mean age at implantation was 44 months among the children. The average duration of use of a cochlear implant at the time of the study was 43 months. Intraoperative neural responses were present in all cases. Patients who could use the speech processor effectively had a pure tone average of 31 dB in free-field conditions. In addition, the MUSS and MAIS questionnaires revealed improvements in speech perception and production. Four patients did not have a good outcome, which might have been associated with ineffective use of the speech processor.  Despite the heterogeneity of the group, patients with Waardenburg syndrome who received cochlear implants were found to have hearing thresholds that allowed access to speech sounds. However, patients who received early intervention and rehabilitation showed better evolution of auditory perception.

  1. [A case report on Waardenburg syndrome with cleft lip].

    PubMed

    Traoré, H; Traoré, D; Ouane, O; Simpara, B; Ongoiba, N

    2011-01-01

    The syndrome of Waardenburg is a congenital plurimal formatif unit rare described and individualized for the first time by Waardenburg in 1951. It associates in its form most typical dystopie canthale intern, a widening of the base of the nose, disorders of the pigmentation. We wanted brought back this case because of its scarcity. It was about a 18 month old infant without particular antecedents, which was drawn up to us for correction of congenital malformation. The interrogation did not make it possible to find signs functional notable. With the examination it had a general good state. t presented a bilateral iridal hypochromy, a dystopie canthale, a canitie, a bilateral labial slit. The diagnosis of presumption was the Syndrome of Waardenburg because of the description of at least 2 major signs: dystopie canthale and disorders of the pigmentation. The complementary examinations carried out were those of the preoperative assessment which returned normal. The biological diagnosis which rests on the search for change of gene was not made for reasons of technical order and financier. The surgery is centered on the treatment of the labial slit. A chéiloplastie according to Millard was carried out. The continuations were simple. The Syndrome of Waardenburg is a rare, hereditary entity. A neurosensory deafness, musculo-skeletal anomalies, thus qu' a disease of Hirschsprung will have to be systematically required. The surgery of the slit or the télécanthus allows an social integration of the subjects reached.

  2. Supernumerary impacted teeth in a patient with SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Numakura, Chikahiko; Kitanaka, Sachiko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Ishikawa, Shigeo; Hamamoto, Yoshioki; Katsushima, Yuriko; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi

    2010-09-01

    SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome characteristically presents as anophthalmia or microphthalmia, with various extraocular symptoms, such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, brain anomaly, and esophageal abnormalities. In this report, we describe a patient with SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome complicated with a dental anomaly, multiple supernumerary impacted teeth, and persistence of deciduous teeth. Multiple supernumerary teeth are usually not solitary symptoms, but indicate systemic syndrome such as cleidocranial dysplasia. In odontogenesis, many transcriptional factors, such as BMPs, FGFs, and Wnts, play significant roles and SOX2 is known to interact with some of them. The role of SOX2 in dental development remains unknown, however, multiple supernumerary teeth can be considered as extraocular symptoms of SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome, rather than the coincidence of two rare diseases.

  3. Creation of miniature pig model of human Waardenburg syndrome type 2A by ENU mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Hai, Tang; Guo, Weiwei; Yao, Jing; Cao, Chunwei; Luo, Ailing; Qi, Meng; Wang, Xianlong; Wang, Xiao; Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Hongyong; Wang, Dayu; Shang, Haitao; Hong, Qianlong; Zhang, Rui; Jia, Qitao; Zheng, Qiantao; Qin, Guosong; Li, Yongshun; Zhang, Tao; Jin, Weiwu; Chen, Zheng-Yi; Wang, Hongmei; Zhou, Qi; Meng, Anming; Wei, Hong; Yang, Shiming; Zhao, Jianguo

    2017-11-01

    Human Waardenburg syndrome 2A (WS2A) is a dominant hearing loss (HL) syndrome caused by mutations in the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene. In mouse models with MITF mutations, WS2A is transmitted in a recessive pattern, which limits the study of hearing loss (HL) pathology. In the current study, we performed ENU (ethylnitrosourea) mutagenesis that resulted in substituting a conserved lysine with a serine (p. L247S) in the DNA-binding domain of the MITF gene to generate a novel miniature pig model of WS2A. The heterozygous mutant pig (MITF +/L247S ) exhibits a dominant form of profound HL and hypopigmentation in skin, hair, and iris, accompanied by degeneration of stria vascularis (SV), fused hair cells, and the absence of endocochlear potential, which indicate the pathology of human WS2A. Besides hypopigmentation and bilateral HL, the homozygous mutant pig (MITF L247S/L247S ) and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated MITF bi-allelic knockout pigs both exhibited anophthalmia. Three WS2 patients carrying MITF mutations adjacent to the corresponding region were also identified. The pig models resemble the clinical symptom and molecular pathology of human WS2A patients perfectly, which will provide new clues for better understanding the etiology and development of novel treatment strategies for human HL.

  4. Kabuki syndrome: expanding the phenotype to include microphthalmia and anophthalmia.

    PubMed

    McVeigh, Terri P; Banka, Siddharth; Reardon, William

    2015-10-01

    Kabuki syndrome is a rare genetic malformation syndrome that is characterized by distinct facies, structural defects and intellectual disability. Kabuki syndrome may be caused by mutations in one of two histone methyltransferase genes: KMT2D and KDM6A. We describe a male child of nonconsanguineous Irish parents presenting with multiple malformations, including bilateral extreme microphthalmia; cleft palate; congenital diaphragmatic hernia; duplex kidney; as well as facial features of Kabuki syndrome, including interrupted eyebrows and lower lid ectropion. A de-novo germline mutation in KMT2D was identified. Whole-exome sequencing failed to reveal mutations in any of the known microphthalmia/anopthalmia genes. We also identified four other patients with Kabuki syndrome and microphthalmia. We postulate that Kabuki syndrome may produce this type of ocular phenotype as a result of extensive interaction between KMT2D, WAR complex proteins and PAXIP1. Children presenting with microphthalmia/anophthalmia should be examined closely for other signs of Kabuki syndrome, especially at an age where the facial gestalt might be less readily appreciable.

  5. Multimodal Ultrawide-Field Imaging Features in Waardenburg Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Netan; Rao, Rajesh C

    2015-06-01

    A 45-year-old woman was referred for bilateral irregular fundus pigmentation. Dilated fundus examination revealed irregular hypopigmentation posterior to the equator in both eyes, confirmed by fundus autofluorescence. A thickened choroid was seen on enhanced-depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI SD-OCT). Systemic evaluation revealed sensorineural deafness, telecanthus, and a white forelock. Further investigation revealed a first-degree relative with Waardenburg syndrome. Waardenburg syndrome is characterized by a group of features including telecanthus, a broad nasal root, synophrys of the eyebrows, piedbaldism, heterochromia irides, and deafness. Choroidal hypopigmentation is a unique feature that can be visualized with ultrawide-field fundus autofluorescence. The choroid may also be thickened and its thickness measured with EDI SD-OCT. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Anesthetic management of Shah–Waardenburg syndrome: Experience of two cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ambi, Uday S.; Adarsh, E. S.; Hatti, Ramesh; Samalad, Vijaymahantesh

    2012-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomally inherited and genetically heterogeneous disorder of neural crest cell development. Literature regarding the anesthetic management of these cases is limited. We present 2 cases of Shah–Waardenburg syndrome and discuss them in the context of review of previously published cases. PMID:22754447

  7. [Cochlear implantation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome type II].

    PubMed

    Wan, Liangcai; Guo, Menghe; Chen, Shuaijun; Liu, Shuangriu; Chen, Hao; Gong, Jian

    2010-05-01

    To describe the multi-channel cochlear implantation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome including surgeries, pre and postoperative hearing assessments as well as outcomes of speech recognition. Multi-channel cochlear implantation surgeries have been performed in 12 cases with Waardenburg syndrome type II in our department from 2000 to 2008. All the patients received multi-channel cochlear implantation through transmastoid facial recess approach. The postoperative outcomes of 12 cases were compared with 12 cases with no inner ear malformation as a control group. The electrodes were totally inserted into the cochlear successfully, there was no facial paralysis and cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred after operation. The hearing threshold in this series were similar to that of the normal cochlear implantation. After more than half a year of speech rehabilitation, the abilities of speech discrimination and spoken language of all the patients were improved compared with that of preoperation. Multi-channel cochlear implantation could be performed in the cases with Waardenburg syndrome, preoperative hearing and images assessments should be done.

  8. Trauma due to Self-aggression in Patient with Waardenburg Syndrome associated with Congenital Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Marta, Sara Nader; Kawakami, Roberto Yoshio; Sgavioli, Claudia Almeida Prado Piccino; Correa, Ana Eliza; D'Árk de Oliveira El Kadre, Guaniara; Carvalho, Ricardo Sandri

    2016-08-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an inherited autosomal dominant genetic disorder presenting variable penetrance and expressivity, with an estimated prevalence of 1:42,000. Clinical characteristics of WS include lateral displacement of the internal eye canthus, hyperplasia of the medial portion of the eyebrows, prominent and broad nasal base, congenital deafness, pigmentation of the iris and skin, and white forelock. A 24-year-old male patient, previously diagnosed with WS, was referred to the Special Needs Dental Clinic of Sacred Heart University, Bauru, Brazil. Parents reported that the patient was experiencing self-mutilation, particularly in the oral region. He presented multiple congenital anomalies, including anophthalmia, mental retardation, low-set ears, and leg deformities. Clinical oral examination revealed hypodontia, abnormalities in dental morphology, extensive dental caries, periodontal disease, and fistulae. Extensive scars on the tongue, lips, and hands caused by self-mutilation were also observed. In accordance with his family and neurologist, full-mouth extraction under general anesthesia was performed, especially considering his severe self-aggressive behavior and the necessity to be fed with soft-food diet due to his inability to chew. After the surgical procedure, a significant reduction in the patient's irritability and gain of weight were reported in the follow-ups of 30, 60, and 180 days.

  9. Cochlear implant rehabilitation outcomes in Waardenburg syndrome children.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Andrade, Susana Margarida; Monteiro, Ana Rita Tomé; Martins, Jorge Humberto Ferreira; Alves, Marisa Costa; Santos Silva, Luis Filipe; Quadros, Jorge Manuel Cardoso; Ribeiro, Carlos Alberto Reis

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of children with documented Waardenburg syndrome implanted in the ENT Department of Centro Hospitalar de Coimbra, concerning postoperative speech perception and production, in comparison to the rest of non-syndromic implanted children. A retrospective chart review was performed for children congenitally deaf who had undergone cochlear implantation with multichannel implants, diagnosed as having Waardenburg syndrome, between 1992 and 2011. Postoperative performance outcomes were assessed and confronted with results obtained by children with non-syndromic congenital deafness also implanted in our department. Open-set auditory perception skills were evaluated by using European Portuguese speech discrimination tests (vowels test, monosyllabic word test, number word test and words in sentence test). Meaningful auditory integration scales (MAIS) and categories of auditory performance (CAP) were also measured. Speech production was further assessed and included results on meaningful use of speech Scale (MUSS) and speech intelligibility rating (SIR). To date, 6 implanted children were clinically identified as having WS type I, and one met the diagnosis of type II. All WS children received multichannel cochlear implants, with a mean age at implantation of 30.6±9.7months (ranging from 19 to 42months). Postoperative outcomes in WS children were similar to other nonsyndromic children. In addition, in number word and vowels discrimination test WS group showed slightly better performances, as well as in MUSS and MAIS assessment. Our study has shown that cochlear implantation should be considered a rehabilitative option for Waardenburg syndrome children with profound deafness, enabling the development and improvement of speech perception and production abilities in this group of patients, reinforcing their candidacy for this audio-oral rehabilitation method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Germinal mosaicism of PAX3 mutation caused Waardenburg syndrome type I.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kaitian; Zhan, Yuan; Wu, Xuan; Zong, Ling; Jiang, Hongyan

    2018-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome mutations are most often recurrent or de novo. The rate of familial recurrence is low and families with several affected children are extremely rare. In this study, we aimed to clarify the underlying hereditary cause of Waardenburg syndrome type I in two siblings in a Chinese family, with a mother affected by prelingual mild hearing loss and a father who was negative for clinical symptoms of Waardenburg syndrome and had a normal hearing threshold. Complete characteristic features of the family members were recorded and genetic sequencing and parent-child relationship analyses were performed. The two probands were found to share double mutations in the PAX3/GJB2 genes that caused concurrent hearing loss in Waardenburg syndrome type I. Their mother carried the GJB2 c.109G > A homozygous mutation; however, neither the novel PAX3 c.592delG mutation, nor the Waardenburg syndrome phenotype, was observed in either parent. These previously unreported digenic mutations in PAX3/GJB2 resulted in deafness associated with Waardenburg syndrome type I in this family. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing germinal mosaicism in Waardenburg syndrome. This concept is important because it complicates genetic counseling of this family regarding the risk of recurrence of the mutations in subsequent pregnancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Asymmetric severity of diabetic retinopathy in Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Tomoyuki; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    A 30-year-old female patient was referred to our institution due to vitreous hemorrhage. Best corrected visual acuity of her right and left eyes at her initial visit was 10/20 and 20/20, respectively. Although hypochromic iris was observed in the superior iris between the 10 and 2 o'clock positions in her right eye, her entire left eye exhibited hypochromic iris. Hypopigmentation of the fundus was seen in the superior part of her right eye. This eye also had a huge neovascularization on the optic disc that was 7 discs in diameter. Conversely, her left fundi showed hypopigmentation of the fundus in the entire region of the left eye, and dot hemorrhages were observed all over the left fundi, although no neovascularization could be seen microscopically. Fluorescein angiography showed a huge neovascularization in the right eye and a tiny neovascularization in the left eye. Gene analysis revealed the presence of the PAX3 gene homeobox domain mutation, which led to her being diagnosed as Waardenburg syndrome type 1. Magnetic resonance angiography showed there was no obstructive region at either of the internal carotid arteries and ophthalmic arteries. The severity of the diabetic retinopathy appeared to be correlated with the degree of hypopigmentation in the posterior fundus. We speculate that hypopigmentation of the fundus in Waardenburg syndrome may be responsible for the reduction in retinal metabolism, which led to a reduction in oxygen consumption and prevented further aggravation of the diabetic retinopathy. Only laser treatments using short wavelengths was effective in this case. While the extinction coefficient for hemoglobin when using green light is higher than when using yellow light, the differences between these wavelengths tend to disappear when oxygenated hemoglobin is present. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with Waardenburg syndrome and diabetic retinopathy.

  12. Congenital stapes malformation: Rare conductive hearing loss in a patient with Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Jonathan M; Eliason, Michael; Conley, George S

    2016-04-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a known autosomal dominant cause of congenital hearing loss. It is characterized by a distinctive phenotypic appearance and often involves sensorineural hearing loss. Temporal bone abnormalities and inner ear dysmorphisms have been described in association with the disease. However, middle ear abnormalities as causes of conductive hearing loss are not typically seen in Waardenburg syndrome. We discuss a case of an 8-year-old female who meets diagnostic criteria for Waardenburg syndrome type 3 and who presented with a bilateral conductive hearing loss associated with congenital stapes fixation. We discuss management strategy in this previously unreported phenotype. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Fryns anophthalmia-plus syndrome with hypoplastic adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Ozalp, O; Ozcimen, E E; Yilmaz, Z; Yanik, F; Sahin, F I

    2008-01-01

    We report a family with two consequent sibs with anophthalmia and cleft lip and palate. A 27 year old woman married to her first cousin was counseled for anophthalmia and cleft lip and palate detected during routine fetal ultrasonographic examination on the 23rd week of the pregnancy. Her obstetric history revealed a healthy girl aged 7 years and a boy with anophthalmia and cleft lip and palate who lived for 20 days in the neonatal intensive care unit. The current pregnancy was terminated after the diagnosis, and post mortem examination of the fetus revealed pre-maxilla agenesis, anophthalmia, cerebral ventricular dilatation, adrenal hypoplasia and single umbilical artery. Chromosome analysis resulted in normal karyotypes of the fetus and both parents. The inheritance pattern was regarded as autosomal recessive and the family was informed about the condition and risks during genetic counseling.

  14. Fryns anophthalmia-plus syndrome in an 18-week-old fetus.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Caren; Gembruch, Ulrich; Kuchelmeister, Klaus; Körber, Friederike; Müller, Annette M

    2012-01-01

    Fryns anophthalmia-plus syndrome is a very rare condition initially described by Fryns and colleagues in 1995 in a pair of siblings of nonconsanguineous parents. Since that time, only a few cases have been reported, most of them in newborns and young children. Clinical presentation is variable and includes anophthalmia/microphthalmia, cleft lip/palate, and other facial deformities. Furthermore, skeletal, central nervous system, and endocrine anomalies have been described. We report the case of a male fetus of 18 weeks of gestation with normal karyotype and findings matching Fryns anophthalmia-plus syndrome. Pregnancy was terminated because of sonographically proven facial midline defects and a marked cerebral ventriculomegaly. Macroscopic and histological findings obtained at autopsy showed extreme bilateral microphthalmia, unilateral cleft palate, unilateral nasal deformity, and low-set ears. Skeletal anomalies included 13 pairs of ribs, premature ossification of the calcaneus, and talipes.

  15. [Mutation analysis of seven patients with Waardenburg syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hao, Ziqi; Zhou, Yongan; Li, Pengli; Zhang, Quanbin; Li, Jiao; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Xiangshao; Feng, Yong

    2016-06-01

    To perform genetic analysis for 7 patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Potential mutation of MITF, PAX3, SOX10 and SNAI2 genes was screened by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Functions of non-synonymous polymorphisms were predicted with PolyPhen2 software. Seven mutations, including c.649-651delAGA (p.R217del), c.72delG (p.G24fs), c.185T>C (p.M62T), c.118C>T (p.Q40X), c.422T>C (p.L141P), c.640C>T (p.R214X) and c.28G>T(p.G43V), were detected in the patients. Among these, four mutations of the PAX3 gene (c.72delG, c.185T>C, c.118C>T and c.128G>T) and one SOX10 gene mutation (c.422T>C) were not reported previously. Three non-synonymous SNPs (c.185T>C, c.128G>T and c.422T>C) were predicted as harmful. Genetic mutations have been detected in all patients with Waardenburg syndrome.

  16. Familial recurrence of SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome: phenotypically normal mother with two affected daughters.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Adele; Bardakjian, Tanya M; Zhou, Jie; Hughes, Nkecha; Keep, Rosanne; Dorsainville, Darnelle; Kherani, Femida; Katowitz, James; Schimmenti, Lisa A; Hummel, Marybeth; Fitzpatrick, David R; Young, Terri L

    2008-11-01

    The SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome is emerging as a clinically recognizable disorder that has been identified in 10-15% of individuals with bilateral anophthalmia. Extra-ocular anomalies are common. The majority of SOX2 mutations identified appear to arise de novo in probands ascertained through the presence of anophthalmia or microphthalmia. In this report, we describe two sisters with bilateral anophthalmia/microphthalmia, brain anomalies and a novel heterozygous SOX2 gene single-base pair nucleotide deletion, c.551delC, which predicts p.Pro184ArgfsX19. The hypothetical protein product is predicted to lead to haploinsufficient SOX2 function. Mosaicism for this mutation in the SOX2 gene was also identified in their clinically unaffected mother in peripheral blood DNA. Thus it cannot be assumed that all SOX2 mutations in individuals with anophthalmia/microphthalmia are de novo. Testing of parents is indicated when a SOX2 mutation is identified in a proband. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Familial Recurrence of SOX2 Anophthalmia Syndrome: Phenotypically Normal Mother with Two Affected Daughters

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Adele; Bardakjian, Tanya M.; Zhou, Jie; Hughes, Nkecha; Keep, Rosanne; Dorsainville, Darnelle; Kherani, Femida; Katowitz, James; Schimmenti, Lisa A.; Hummel, Marybeth; FitzPatrick, David R; Young, Terri L.

    2013-01-01

    The SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome is emerging as a clinically recognizable disorder that has been identified in 10–15% of individuals with bilateral anophthalmia. Extra-ocular anomalies are common. The majority of SOX2 mutations identified appear to arise de novo in probands ascertained through the presence of anophthalmia or microphthalmia. In this report, we describe two sisters with bilateral anophthalmia/microphthalmia, brain anomalies and a novel heterozygous SOX2 gene single-base pair nucleotide deletion, c.551delC, which predicts p.Pro184ArgfsX19. The hypothetical protein product is predicted to lead to haploinsufficient SOX2 function. Mosaicism for this mutation in the SOX2 gene was also identified in their clinically unaffected mother in peripheral blood DNA. Thus it cannot be assumed that all SOX2 mutations in individuals with anophthalmia /microphthalmia are de novo. Testing of parents is indicated when a SOX2 mutation is identified in a proband. PMID:18831064

  18. Review and update of mutations causing Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pingault, Véronique; Ente, Dorothée; Dastot-Le Moal, Florence; Goossens, Michel; Marlin, Sandrine; Bondurand, Nadège

    2010-04-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is characterized by the association of pigmentation abnormalities, including depigmented patches of the skin and hair, vivid blue eyes or heterochromia irides, and sensorineural hearing loss. However, other features such as dystopia canthorum, musculoskeletal abnormalities of the limbs, Hirschsprung disease, or neurological defects are found in subsets of patients and used for the clinical classification of WS. Six genes are involved in this syndrome: PAX3 (encoding the paired box 3 transcription factor), MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), EDN3 (endothelin 3), EDNRB (endothelin receptor type B), SOX10 (encoding the Sry bOX10 transcription factor), and SNAI2 (snail homolog 2), with different frequencies. In this review we provide an update on all WS genes and set up mutation databases, summarize molecular and functional data available for each of them, and discuss the applications in diagnostics and genetic counseling. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Hearing loss in Waardenburg syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Song, J; Feng, Y; Acke, F R; Coucke, P; Vleminckx, K; Dhooge, I J

    2015-06-22

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by hearing loss (HL) and pigment disturbances of hair, skin and iris. Classifications exist based on phenotype and genotype. The auditory phenotype is inconsistently reported among the different Waardenburg types and causal genes, urging the need for an up-to-date literature overview on this particular topic. We performed a systematic review in search for articles describing auditory features in WS patients along with the associated genotype. Prevalences of HL were calculated and correlated with the different types and genes of WS. Seventy-three articles were included, describing 417 individual patients. HL was found in 71.0% and was predominantly bilateral and sensorineural. Prevalence of HL among the different clinical types significantly differed (WS1: 52.3%, WS2: 91.6%, WS3: 57.1%, WS4: 83.5%). Mutations in SOX10 (96.5%), MITF (89.6%) and SNAI2 (100%) are more frequently associated with hearing impairment than other mutations. Of interest, the distinct disease-causing genes are able to better predict the auditory phenotype compared with different clinical types of WS. Consequently, it is important to confirm the clinical diagnosis of WS with molecular analysis in order to optimally inform patients about the risk of HL. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Waardenburg syndrome. A heterogenic disorder with variable penetrance].

    PubMed

    Apaydin, F; Bereketoglu, M; Turan, O; Hribar, K; Maassen, M M; Günhan, O; Zenner, H-P; Pfister, M

    2004-06-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by pigmentary anomalies of the skin, hairs, eyes and various defects of other neural crest derived tissues. It accounts for over 2% of congenital hearing impairment. At least four types are recognized on the basis of clinical and genetic criteria. Based on a screening of congenitally hearing impaired children, 12 families with WS type II were detected. Of special interest was the phenotype of these families, in particular the reduced penetrance of hearing impairment within the families. In all cases a high variability of the disease phenotype was detected and the penetrance of the clinical traits varied accordingly. Therefore, it is not possible to predict the clinical phenotype even in a single family. Based on these studies, we plan to identify the pathogenetic cause of the disease in order to perform a detailed genotype/phenotype analysis.

  1. Anisometropic amblyopia in a case of type 2 Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akal, Ali; Göncü, Tugba; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Yılmaz, Ömer Faruk

    2013-12-18

    This study presents a case of an 8-year-old boy with iris heterochromia and anisometropic amblyopia who was diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type 2. An ophthalmic examination revealed iris heterochromia and anisometropic amblyopia in our patient. In the systemic examination, a white forelock and vitiligo on the arms and body were observed and neurosensory hearing loss was revealed, for which the patient used hearing aids. Identification and typing of patients with WS is crucial to address neurosensory hearing loss, glaucoma and fundus changes. While it might be challenging to communicate with a patient with speech and hearing problems, visual acuity should be examined carefully and probable amblyopia should be identified. Anterior segment changes and signs of glaucoma should also be evaluated in detail.

  2. Anisometropic amblyopia in a case of type 2 Waardenburg syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Akal, Ali; Göncü, Tugba; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Yılmaz, Ömer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a case of an 8-year-old boy with iris heterochromia and anisometropic amblyopia who was diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type 2. An ophthalmic examination revealed iris heterochromia and anisometropic amblyopia in our patient. In the systemic examination, a white forelock and vitiligo on the arms and body were observed and neurosensory hearing loss was revealed, for which the patient used hearing aids. Identification and typing of patients with WS is crucial to address neurosensory hearing loss, glaucoma and fundus changes. While it might be challenging to communicate with a patient with speech and hearing problems, visual acuity should be examined carefully and probable amblyopia should be identified. Anterior segment changes and signs of glaucoma should also be evaluated in detail. PMID:24351514

  3. Anophthalmia, cleft lip/palate, absent vomer bone, nystagmus, and mental-motor retardation: a new syndrome or Fryns "anophthalmia-plus" syndrome?

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, Derya; Sağlam, Ibrahim; SIlan, Fatma; Sezen, Gülbin; Unveren, Toygar

    2008-05-01

    We report that a 4-year-old boy presented with right unilateral complete cleft lip and palate, right anophthalmos, left congenital nystagmus, absence of the vomer bone, mental-motor retardation, and normal lymphocyte karyotype (46, XY). For reconstruction of the deformities, we performed cleft lip repair by Millard's rotation-advancement technique and planned cleft palate repair. This combination of cleft lip and palate, anophthalmos, congenital nystagmus, absent vomer bone, and mental-motor retardation has not, to our knowledge, previously been described. We suggest that this represents either another case of the rare Fryns "anophthalmia-plus" syndrome or a new syndrome.

  4. Waardenburg syndrome type 3 (Klein-Waardenburg syndrome) segregating with a heterozygous deletion in the paired box domain of PAX3: a simple variant or a true syndrome?

    PubMed

    Tekin, M; Bodurtha, J N; Nance, W E; Pandya, A

    2001-10-01

    Klein-Waardenburg syndrome or Waardenburg syndrome type 3 (WS-III; MIM 148820) is characterized by the presence of musculoskeletal abnormalities in association with clinical features of Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS-I). Since the description of the first patient in 1947 (D. Klein, Arch Klaus Stift Vererb Forsch 1947: 22: 336-342), a few cases have been reported. Only occasional families have demonstrated autosomal-dominant inheritance of WS-III. In a previous report, a missense mutation in the paired domain of the PAX3 gene has been described in a family with dominant segregation of WS-III. In this report, we present a second family (mother and son) with typical clinical findings of WS-III segregating with a heterozygous 13-bp deletion in the paired domain of the PAX3 gene. Although homozygosity or compound heterozygosity has also been documented in patients with severe limb involvement, a consistent genotype-phenotype correlation for limb abnormalities associated with heterozygous PAX3 mutations has not previously been apparent. Heterozygous mutations could either reflect a unique dominant-negative effect or possibly the contribution of other unlinked genetic modifiers in determining the phenotype.

  5. Mouse models for four types of Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Matsushima, Yoshibumi

    2003-10-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome caused by a deficiency of melanocytes and other neural crest-derived cells. Depending on a variety of symptoms associated with the auditory-pigmentary symptoms, WS is classified into four types: WS type 1 (WS1), WS2, WS3, and WS4. Six genes contributing to this syndrome--PAX3, SOX10, MITF, SLUG, EDN3 and EDNRB--have been cloned so far, all of them necessary for normal development of melanocytes. Mutant mice with coat color anomalies were helpful in identifying these genes, although the phenotypes of these mice did not necessarily perfectly match those of the four types of WS. Here we describe mice with mutations of murine homologs of WS genes and verify their suitability as models for WS with special interest in the cochlear disorder. The mice include splotch (Sp), microphthalmia (mi), Slugh-/-, WS4, JF1, lethal-spotting (ls), and Dominant megacolon (Dom). The influence of genetic background on the phenotypes of mice mutated in homologs of WS genes is also addressed. Finally, possible interactions among the six WS gene products are discussed.

  6. Parent-of-origin effects in SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Robert J; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Ragge, Nicola K

    2011-01-01

    Sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 (SOX2) anophthalmia syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder manifesting as severe developmental eye malformations associated with brain, esophageal, genital, and kidney abnormalities. The syndrome is usually caused by de novo mutations or deletions in the transcription factor SOX2. To investigate any potential parental susceptibility factors, we set out to determine the parent of origin of the mutations or deletions, and following this, to determine if birth order or parental age were significant factors, as well as whether mutation susceptibility was related to any sequence variants in cis with the mutant allele. We analyzed 23 cases of de novo disease to determine the parental origin of SOX2 mutations and deletions using informative single nucleotide polymorphisms and a molecular haplotyping approach. We examined parental ages for SOX2 mutation and deletion cases, compared these with the general population, and adjusted for birth order. Although the majority of subjects had mutations or deletions that arose in the paternal germline (5/7 mutation and 5/8 deletion cases), there was no significant paternal bias for new mutations (binomial test, p=0.16) or deletions (binomial test, p=0.22). For both mutation and deletion cases, there was no significant association between any single nucleotide polymorphism allele and the mutant chromosome (p>0.05). Parents of the subjects with mutations were on average older at the birth of the affected child than the general population by 3.8 years (p=0.05) for mothers and 3.3 years (p=0.66) for fathers. Parents of the subjects with deletions were on average younger than the general population by 3.0 years (p=0.17) for mothers and 2.1 years (p=0.19) for fathers. Combining these data, the difference in pattern of parental age between the subjects with deletions and mutations was evident, with a difference of 6.5 years for mothers (p=0.05) and 5.0 years for fathers (p=0.22), with the mothers and

  7. Parent-of-origin effects in SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Robert J.; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 (SOX2) anophthalmia syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder manifesting as severe developmental eye malformations associated with brain, esophageal, genital, and kidney abnormalities. The syndrome is usually caused by de novo mutations or deletions in the transcription factor SOX2. To investigate any potential parental susceptibility factors, we set out to determine the parent of origin of the mutations or deletions, and following this, to determine if birth order or parental age were significant factors, as well as whether mutation susceptibility was related to any sequence variants in cis with the mutant allele. Methods We analyzed 23 cases of de novo disease to determine the parental origin of SOX2 mutations and deletions using informative single nucleotide polymorphisms and a molecular haplotyping approach. We examined parental ages for SOX2 mutation and deletion cases, compared these with the general population, and adjusted for birth order. Results Although the majority of subjects had mutations or deletions that arose in the paternal germline (5/7 mutation and 5/8 deletion cases), there was no significant paternal bias for new mutations (binomial test, p=0.16) or deletions (binomial test, p=0.22). For both mutation and deletion cases, there was no significant association between any single nucleotide polymorphism allele and the mutant chromosome (p>0.05). Parents of the subjects with mutations were on average older at the birth of the affected child than the general population by 3.8 years (p=0.05) for mothers and 3.3 years (p=0.66) for fathers. Parents of the subjects with deletions were on average younger than the general population by 3.0 years (p=0.17) for mothers and 2.1 years (p=0.19) for fathers. Combining these data, the difference in pattern of parental age between the subjects with deletions and mutations was evident, with a difference of 6.5 years for mothers (p=0.05) and 5.0 years for fathers (p=0

  8. Anophthalmia-plus syndrome with unusual findings. A clinical report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cayir, A; Tasdemir, S; Eroz, R; Yuce, I; Orbak, Z; Tatar, A

    2013-01-01

    We present a male child at 3 years old with Anophthalmia-Plus Syndrome (APS). He has asymmetry of the face and head, left choanal atresia, a sunken facial appearance, microphthalmia in the right eye, severe microphthalmia in the left eye, bilateral low-set ears, scarring from cleft palate surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sections revealed decreased right globe volume, an undeveloped left globe, decreased left optical nerve thickness, Chiari type 2 malformation, left choanal atresia and cleft palate. Echocardiography and abdominal ultrasonography were normal. The patient has a 45 dB conductive hearing loss in the left ear. Repeated thyroid function tests were evaluated as compatible with central hypothyroidism. We report a Fryns Anophthalmia-Plus Syndrome in a child with unusual findings including central hypothyroidism, chiari type 2 malformation, conductive hearing loss and developmental regression. Summary of the features reported in the present case and all 14 previous cases that might be defined as APS.

  9. Locus heterogeneity for Waardenburg syndrome is predictive of clinical subtypes.

    PubMed

    Farrer, L A; Arnos, K S; Asher, J H; Baldwin, C T; Diehl, S R; Friedman, T B; Greenberg, J; Grundfast, K M; Hoth, C; Lalwani, A K

    1994-10-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a dominantly inherited and clinically variable syndrome of deafness, pigmentary changes, and distinctive facial features. Clinically, WS type I (WS1) is differentiated from WS type II (WS2) by the high frequency of dystopia canthorum in the family. In some families, WS is caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene on chromosome 2q. We have typed microsatellite markers within and flanking PAX3 in 41 WS1 kindreds and 26 WS2 kindreds in order to estimate the proportion of families with probable mutations in PAX3 and to study the relationship between phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. Evaluation of heterogeneity in location scores obtained by multilocus analysis indicated that WS is linked to PAX3 in 60% of all WS families and in 100% of WS1 families. None of the WS2 families were linked. In those families in which equivocal lod scores (between -2 and +1) were found, PAX3 mutations have been identified in 5 of the 15 WS1 families but in none of the 4 WS2 families. Although preliminary studies do not suggest any association between the phenotype and the molecular pathology in 20 families with known PAX3 mutations and in four patients with chromosomal abnormalities in the vicinity of PAX3, the presence of dystopia in multiple family members is a reliable indicator for identifying families likely to have a defect in PAX3.

  10. Paediatric Cochlear Implantation in Patients with Waardenburg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    van Nierop, Josephine W.I.; Snabel, Rebecca R.; Langereis, Margreet; Pennings, Ronald J.E.; Admiraal, Ronald J.C.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A.M.; Kunst, Henricus P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the benefit of cochlear implantation in young deaf children with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) compared to a reference group of young deaf children without additional disabilities. Method A retrospective study was conducted on children with WS who underwent cochlear implantation at the age of 2 years or younger. The post-operative results for speech perception (phonetically balanced standard Dutch consonant-vocal-consonant word lists) and language comprehension (the Reynell Developmental Language Scales, RDLS), expressed as a language quotient (LQ), were compared between the WS group and the reference group by using multiple linear regression analysis. Results A total of 14 children were diagnosed with WS, and 6 of them had additional disabilities. The WS children were implanted at a mean age of 1.6 years and the 48 children of the reference group at a mean age of 1.3 years. The WS children had a mean phoneme score of 80% and a mean LQ of 0.74 at 3 years post-implantation, and these results were comparable to those of the reference group. Only the factor additional disabilities had a significant negative influence on auditory perception and language comprehension. Conclusions Children with WS performed similarly to the reference group in the present study, and these outcomes are in line with the previous literature. Although good counselling about additional disabilities concomitant to the syndrome is relevant, cochlear implantation is a good rehabilitation method for children with WS. PMID:27245679

  11. Paediatric Cochlear Implantation in Patients with Waardenburg Syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Nierop, Josephine W I; Snabel, Rebecca R; Langereis, Margreet; Pennings, Ronald J E; Admiraal, Ronald J C; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; Kunst, Henricus P M

    2016-01-01

    To analyse the benefit of cochlear implantation in young deaf children with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) compared to a reference group of young deaf children without additional disabilities. A retrospective study was conducted on children with WS who underwent cochlear implantation at the age of 2 years or younger. The post-operative results for speech perception (phonetically balanced standard Dutch consonant-vocal-consonant word lists) and language comprehension (the Reynell Developmental Language Scales, RDLS), expressed as a language quotient (LQ), were compared between the WS group and the reference group by using multiple linear regression analysis. A total of 14 children were diagnosed with WS, and 6 of them had additional disabilities. The WS children were implanted at a mean age of 1.6 years and the 48 children of the reference group at a mean age of 1.3 years. The WS children had a mean phoneme score of 80% and a mean LQ of 0.74 at 3 years post-implantation, and these results were comparable to those of the reference group. Only the factor additional disabilities had a significant negative influence on auditory perception and language comprehension. Children with WS performed similarly to the reference group in the present study, and these outcomes are in line with the previous literature. Although good counselling about additional disabilities concomitant to the syndrome is relevant, cochlear implantation is a good rehabilitation method for children with WS. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. [Waardenburg syndrome--ophthalmic findings and criteria for diagnosis: case reports].

    PubMed

    Nasser, Luciano Sólia; Paranaíba, Lívia Maris Ribeiro; Frota, Ana Cláudia; Gomes, Andreia; Versiani, Gisele; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    2012-10-01

    To describe the clinical and imaginological features of two families with Waardenburg syndrome: type I and II, with emphasis on ophthalmic manifestations, as well as the pattern of genetic inheritance. We conducted a clinical study involving two families affected by Waardenburg syndrome, and through the pedigree, determined the present pattern of genetic inheritance. Analyses were performed including the measurement of visual acuity, the presence of dystopia cantorum (telecanthus), evaluation of iris color and retinal mapping, as well as dermatological and otological examinations. The pedigree of the family affected by the Waardenburg syndrome type I showed an autosomal dominant mode of transmission. The syndrome was present at 85.71% of patients. The dystopia cantorum was the most frequent feature, followed by the white streak on the skin of the forehead, hypopigmentation of the iris and retina and deafness. The Waardenburg syndrome family type II had 33.33% of family members affected by the syndrome. No member had dystopia cantorum and hypopigmentation of the iris. Three patients had sensorineural hearing loss (12.5%), associated with white forelock and achromatic spots confluent by the body. This study shows the importance of the ophthalmologist in aiding the diagnosis of this rare genetic condition, since it includes ocular disorders such as telecanthus, hypopigmentation of the iris and retina. The cantorum dystopia is the main diagnostic criterion to differentiate type I and II syndrome and should be done by a trained ophthalmologist. The families are in medical monitoring, receiving genetic guidelines and care related to eye protection.

  13. Outcomes and special considerations of cochlear implantation in waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kontorinis, Georgios; Lenarz, Thomas; Giourgas, Alexandros; Durisin, Martin; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was a state-of-the-art analysis of cochlear implantation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome (WS). Twenty-five patients with WS treated with cochlear implants in our department from 1990 to 2010. The 25 patients with WS underwent 35 cochlear implantations. Hearing outcome was evaluated using HSM sentence test in 65 dB in quiet, Freiburg Monosyllabic Test, and categories of auditory performance for children and compared with that of a control group. Anatomic abnormalities of the inner ear were examined using magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the temporal bones. The mean follow-up time was 8.3 years (range, 0.3-18.3 yr). The majority achieved favorable postimplantation performance with mean HSM scores of 75.3% (range, 22.6%-99%) and Freiburg Monosyllabic Test scores of 67.8% (range, 14%-95%). However, in 4 cases, the results were less satisfactory. The comparison with the control group did not reveal any statistical significance (p = 0.56). In 6 patients (24%), behavioral disorders caused temporary difficulties during the rehabilitation procedure. Except of isolated large vestibule in 1 patient, the radiological assessment of the 50 temporal bones did not reveal any temporal bone abnormalities. Most patients with WS performed well with cochlear implants. However, WS is related to behavioral disorders that may cause temporary rehabilitation difficulties. Finally, temporal bone malformations that could affect cochlear implantation are notcharacteristic of WS.

  14. Cochlear implantation in Waardenburg syndrome: The Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Deka, Ramesh Chandra; Sikka, Kapil; Chaturvedy, Gaurav; Singh, Chirom Amit; Venkat Karthikeyan, C; Kumar, Rakesh; Agarwal, Shivani

    2010-10-01

    Children with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) exhibiting normal inner ear anatomy, like those included in our cohort, derive significant benefit from cochlear implantation and results are comparable to those reported for the general population of implanted children. The patient population of WS accounts for approximately 2% of congenitally deaf children. The purpose of this retrospective case review was to describe the outcomes for those children with WS who have undergone cochlear implantation. On retrospective chart review, there were four cases with WS who underwent cochlear implantation. These cases were assessed for age at implantation, clinical and radiological features, operative and perioperative course, and performance outcomes. Auditory perception and speech production ability were evaluated using categories of auditory performance (CAP), meaningful auditory integration scales (MAIS), and speech intelligibility rating (SIR) during the follow-up period. In this group of children with WS, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months, the CAP score ranged from 3 to 5, MAIS from 25 to 30, and SIR was 3. These scores are comparable with those of other cochlear implantees.

  15. [Clinical features of a Chinese pedigree with Waardenburg syndrome type 2].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-zhi; Yuan, Hui-jun; Bai, Lin-na; Cao, Ju-yang; Xu, Ye; Shen, Wei-dong; Ji, Fei; Yang, Wei-yan

    2005-10-12

    To investigate detailed clinical features of a Chinese pedigree with Waardenburg syndrome type 2. Members of this pedigree were interviewed to identify personal or family medical histories of hearing loss, the use of aminoglycosides, and other clinical abnormalities by filling questionnaire. The audiological and other clinical evaluations of the proband and other members of this family were conducted, including pure-tone audiometry, immittance and auditory brain-stem response and ophthalmological, dermatologic, hair, temporal bone CT examinations. This family is categorized as Waardenburg syndrome type 2 according to its clinical features. It's an autosomal dominant disorder with incomplete penetrance. The clinical features varied greatly among family members and characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, heterochromia irides, freckle on the face and premature gray hair. Hearing loss can be unilateral or bilateral, congenital or late onset in this family. This Chinese family has some unique clinical features comparing with the international diagnostic criteria for Waardenburg syndrome. This study may provide some evidences to amend the diagnostic criteria for Waardenburg syndrome in Chinese population.

  16. Spectrum of temporal bone abnormalities in patients with Waardenburg syndrome and SOX10 mutations.

    PubMed

    Elmaleh-Bergès, M; Baumann, C; Noël-Pétroff, N; Sekkal, A; Couloigner, V; Devriendt, K; Wilson, M; Marlin, S; Sebag, G; Pingault, V

    2013-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome, characterized by deafness and pigmentation abnormalities, is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, consisting of 4 distinct subtypes and involving several genes. SOX10 mutations have been found both in types 2 and 4 Waardenburg syndrome and neurologic variants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the full spectrum and relative frequencies of inner ear malformations in these patients. Fifteen patients with Waardenburg syndrome and different SOX10 mutations were studied retrospectively. Imaging was performed between February 2000 and March 2010 for cochlear implant work-up, diagnosis of hearing loss, and/or evaluation of neurologic impairment. Eleven patients had both CT and MR imaging examinations, 3 had MR imaging only, and 1 had CT only. Temporal bone abnormalities were bilateral. The most frequent pattern associated agenesis or hypoplasia of ≥1 semicircular canal, an enlarged vestibule, and a cochlea with a reduced size and occasionally an abnormal shape, but with normal partition in the 13/15 cases that could be analyzed. Three patients lacked a cochlear nerve, bilaterally in 2 patients. In addition, associated abnormalities were found when adequate MR imaging sequences were available: agenesis of the olfactory bulbs (7/8), hypoplastic or absent lacrimal glands (11/14), hypoplastic parotid glands (12/14), and white matter signal anomalies (7/13). In the appropriate clinical context, bilateral agenesis or hypoplasia of the semicircular canals or both, associated with an enlarged vestibule and a cochlear deformity, strongly suggests a diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome linked to a SOX10 mutation.

  17. Shah-Waardenburg syndrome: a case highlighting the importance of a holistic approach to assessing a child.

    PubMed

    Patil, Amogh; Prathyusha, Lanka; Patil, Muganagowda

    2017-12-22

    We present the case of a 45-day-old child with the chief complaint of failure to pass stools for 10 days. After initial investigation, the patient was found to have Hirschsprung's disease. However, with further examination and analysis, the extremely rare diagnosis of type 4 Waardenburg syndrome was made (also known as Shah-Waardenburg syndrome or Waardenburg-Hirschsprung's disease). © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Waardenburg syndrome: clinical differentiation between types I and II.

    PubMed

    Pardono, Eliete; van Bever, Yolande; van den Ende, Jenneke; Havrenne, Poti C; Iughetti, Paula; Maestrelli, Sylvia R P; Costa F, Orozimbo; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Frota-Pessoa, Oswaldo; Otto, Paulo A

    2003-03-15

    Here we present the results of a study performed on 59 patients affected by Waardenburg syndrome (WS), 30 with the I variant, 21 having the type II, and 8 of them being isolated cases without telecanthus. These patients belong to 37 families; the main contributions and conclusions are based on the detailed study of 25 of these families, examined using standard procedures. All patients were examined as to the presence of eight cardinal signs important for the diagnosis of the condition; from each patient, from many of his/her normal relatives, and from a control sample of 300 normal individuals stratified by age and sex, 23 different craniofacial measurements were obtained. We also estimated, using our own data as well those collected from the literature, the frequencies of the cardinal signs, based on a total sample of 461 affected individuals with WSI and 121 with WSII. In order to originate discriminant functions to separate individuals affected by one of the two variants, both metric (from craniofacial measurements) as well as categoric data (based on the frequencies of the cardinal signs or symptoms) were used. Discriminant analysis based on the frequency of the eight cardinal signs can improve the separation of WSI patients without telecanthus from those presenting the variant II. We present also a Table with the conditional probabilities favoring the diagnosis of WSI for suspect subjects without telecanthus and any combination of the other seven signs/symptoms. The discriminant function based on the four ocular measurements (inner and outer intercanthal, interpupillary, and inferior lacrymal distances), on the other side, perfectly classifies patients affected by one of the variants of WS, the same taking place when the average values of the W index of all affected individuals per family are used. The discriminant function based solely in the individual W index values of patients correctly classifies 93% of WSII subjects, but only 60% of the patients with the

  19. Waardenburg syndrome: Novel mutations in a large Brazilian sample.

    PubMed

    Bocángel, Magnolia Astrid Pretell; Melo, Uirá Souto; Alves, Leandro Ucela; Pardono, Eliete; Lourenço, Naila Cristina Vilaça; Marcolino, Humberto Vicente Cezar; Otto, Paulo Alberto; Mingroni-Netto, Regina Célia

    2018-06-01

    This paper deals with the molecular investigation of Waardenburg syndrome (WS) in a sample of 49 clinically diagnosed probands (most from southeastern Brazil), 24 of them having the type 1 (WS1) variant (10 familial and 14 isolated cases) and 25 being affected by the type 2 (WS2) variant (five familial and 20 isolated cases). Sequential Sanger sequencing of all coding exons of PAX3, MITF, EDN3, EDNRB, SOX10 and SNAI2 genes, followed by CNV detection by MLPA of PAX3, MITF and SOX10 genes in selected cases revealed many novel pathogenic variants. Molecular screening, performed in all patients, revealed 19 causative variants (19/49 = 38.8%), six of them being large whole-exon deletions detected by MLPA, seven (four missense and three nonsense substitutions) resulting from single nucleotide substitutions (SNV), and six representing small indels. A pair of dizygotic affected female twins presented the c.430delC variant in SOX10, but the mutation, imputed to gonadal mosaicism, was not found in their unaffected parents. At least 10 novel causative mutations, described in this paper, were found in this Brazilian sample. Copy-number-variation detected by MLPA identified the causative mutation in 12.2% of our cases, corresponding to 31.6% of all causative mutations. In the majority of cases, the deletions were sporadic, since they were not present in the parents of isolated cases. Our results, as a whole, reinforce the fact that the screening of copy-number-variants by MLPA is a powerful tool to identify the molecular cause in WS patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Waardenburg syndrome: iris and choroidal hypopigmentation: findings on anterior and posterior segment imaging.

    PubMed

    Shields, Carol L; Nickerson, Stephanie J; Al-Dahmash, Saad; Shields, Jerry A

    2013-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome typically manifests with congenital iris pigmentary abnormalities, but careful inspection can reveal additional posterior uveal pigmentary abnormalities. To demonstrate iris and choroidal hypopigmentation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Retrospective review of 7 patients referred for evaluation of presumed ocular melanocytosis. To describe the clinical and imaging features of the anterior and posterior uvea. In all patients, the diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome was established. The nonocular features included white forelock in 4 of 7 (57%), tubular nose in 5 of 6 (83%), and small nasal alae in 5 of 6 (83%) patients. In 2 patients, a hearing deficit was documented on audiology testing. Family history of Waardenburg syndrome was elicited in 5 of 7 (71%) patients. Ocular features (7 patients) included telecanthus in 5 (71%), synophrys in 2 (29%), iris hypopigmentation in 5 (71%), and choroidal hypopigmentation in 5 (71%) patients. No patient had muscle contractures or Hirschsprung disease. Visual acuity was 20/20 to 20/50 in all patients. Iris hypopigmentation in 8 eyes was sector in 6 (75%) and diffuse (complete) in 2 (25%). Choroidal hypopigmentation in 9 eyes (100%) showed a sector pattern in 6 (67%) and a diffuse pattern in 3 (33%). Anterior segment optical coherence tomography revealed the hypopigmented iris to be thinner and with shallower crypts than the normal iris. Posterior segment optical coherence tomography showed a normal retina in all patients, but the subfoveal choroid in the hypopigmented region was slightly thinner (mean, 197 μm) compared with the opposite normal choroid (243 μm). Fundus autofluorescence demonstrated mild hyperautofluorescence (scleral unmasking) in hypopigmented choroid and no lipofuscin abnormality. Waardenburg syndrome manifests hypopigmentation of the iris and choroid with imaging features showing a slight reduction in the thickness of the affected tissue.

  1. De novo dominant mutation of SOX10 gene in a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kaitian; Zong, Ling; Liu, Min; Zhan, Yuan; Wu, Xuan; Zou, Wenting; Jiang, Hongyan

    2014-06-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The condition is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigment disturbances of the hair, skin, and iris. The de novo mutation in the SOX10 gene, responsible for Waardenburg syndrome type II, is rarely seen. The present study aimed to identify the genetic causes of Waardenburg syndrome type II in a Chinese family. Clinical and molecular evaluations were conducted in a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type II. A novel SOX10 heterozygous c.259-260delCT mutation was identified. Heterozygosity was not observed in the parents and sister of the proband, indicating that the mutation has arisen de novo. The novel frameshift mutation, located in exon 3 of the SOX10 gene, disrupted normal amino acid coding from Leu87, leading to premature termination at nucleotide 396 (TGA). The high mobility group domain of SOX10 was inferred to be partially impaired. The novel heterozygous c.259-260delCT mutation in the SOX10 gene was considered to be the cause of Waardenburg syndrome in the proband. The clinical and genetic characterization of this family would help elucidate the genetic heterogeneity of SOX10 in Waardenburg syndrome type II. Moreover, the de novo pattern expanded the mutation data of SOX10. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenotypic spectrum of STRA6 mutations: from Matthew-Wood syndrome to non-lethal anophthalmia.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, Nicolas; Golzio, Christelle; Odent, Sylvie; Lequeux, Léopoldine; Vigouroux, Adeline; Martinovic-Bouriel, Jelena; Tiziano, Francesco Danilo; Masini, Lucia; Piro, Francesca; Maragliano, Giovanna; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Attié-Bitach, Tania; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie; Etchevers, Heather C; Calvas, Patrick

    2009-05-01

    Matthew-Wood, Spear, PDAC or MCOPS9 syndrome are alternative names used to refer to combinations of microphthalmia/anophthalmia, malformative cardiac defects, pulmonary dysgenesis, and diaphragmatic hernia. Recently, mutations in STRA6, encoding a membrane receptor for vitamin A-bearing plasma retinol binding protein, have been identified in such patients. We performed STRA6 molecular analysis in three fetuses and one child diagnosed with Matthew-Wood syndrome and in three siblings where two adult living brothers are affected with combinations of clinical anophthalmia, tetralogy of Fallot, and mental retardation. Among these patients, six novel mutations were identified, bringing the current total of known STRA6 mutations to seventeen. We extensively reviewed clinical data pertaining to all twenty-one reported patients with STRA6 mutations (the seven of this report and fourteen described elsewhere) and discuss additional features that may be part of the syndrome. The clinical spectrum associated with STRA6 deficiency is even more variable than initially described. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Multi-Modal Ultra-Widefield Imaging Features in Waardenburg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Netan; Rao, Rajesh C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Waardenburg syndrome is characterized by a group of features including; telecanthus, a broad nasal root, synophrys of the eyebrows, piedbaldism, heterochromia irides, and deaf-mutism. Hypopigmentation of the choroid is a unique feature of this condition examined with multi-modal Ultra-Widefield Imaging in this report. Material/Methods Report of a single case. Results Bilateral symmetric choroidal hypopigmentation was observed with hypoautofluorescence in the region of hypopigmentation. Fluorescein angiography revealed a normal vasculature, however a thickened choroid was seen on Enhanced-Depth Imaging Spectral-Domain OCT (EDI SD-OCT). Conclusion(s) Choroidal hypopigmentation is a unique feature of Waardenburg syndrome, which can be visualized with ultra-widefield fundus autofluorescence. The choroid may also be thickened in this condition and its thickness measured with EDI SD-OCT. PMID:26114849

  4. A de novo SOX10 mutation causing severe type 4 Waardenburg syndrome without Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Sznajer, Yves; Coldéa, Cristina; Meire, Françoise; Delpierre, Isabelle; Sekhara, Tayeb; Touraine, Renaud L

    2008-04-15

    Type 4 Waardenburg syndrome represents a well define entity caused by neural crest derivatives anomalies (melanocytes, intrinsic ganglion cells, central, autonomous and peripheral nervous systems) leading, with variable expressivity, to pigmentary anomalies, deafness, mental retardation, peripheral neuropathy, and Hirschsprung disease. Autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is prevalent when Sox10 gene mutation is identified. We report the natural history of a child who presented with synophrys, vivid blue eye, deafness, bilateral complete semicircular canals agenesis with mental retardation, subtle signs for peripheral neuropathy and lack of Hirschsprung disease. SOX10 gene sequencing identified "de novo" splice site mutation (c.698-2A > C). The present phenotype and the genotype findings underline the wide spectrum of SOX10 gene implication in unusual type 4 Waardenburg syndrome patient. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Waardenburg syndrome: A rare genetic disorder, a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudesh; Rao, Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder. Patients have heterochromia or eyes with iris of different color, increased inter-canthal distance, distopia canthorum, pigmentation anomalies, and varying degree of deafness. It usually follows autosomal dominant pattern. In this report, two cases have been discussed but no familial history of WS has been found. Counseling of the patient is necessary and cases of irreversible deafness have been treated. PMID:23162308

  6. A novel PAX3 mutation in a Japanese boy with Waardenburg syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yu; Doi, Rieko; Adachi, Kaori; Nanba, Eiji; Kodani, Isamu; Ryoke, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hair hypopigmentation, abnormal iris pigmentation, and congenital hearing loss. WS1 is caused by mutations in paired box gene 3 (PAX3). We identified a novel PAX3 mutation (c.1107 C>G, p.Ser369Arg) in a Japanese WS1 patient showing abnormal right iris pigmentation, right-sided congenital hearing loss, synophrys, incomplete left cleft lip, and cryptorchidism. PMID:27081571

  7. Waardenburg syndrome: A rare genetic disorder, a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudesh; Rao, Kiran

    2012-05-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder. Patients have heterochromia or eyes with iris of different color, increased inter-canthal distance, distopia canthorum, pigmentation anomalies, and varying degree of deafness. It usually follows autosomal dominant pattern. In this report, two cases have been discussed but no familial history of WS has been found. Counseling of the patient is necessary and cases of irreversible deafness have been treated.

  8. A novel PAX3 mutation in a Japanese boy with Waardenburg syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yu; Doi, Rieko; Adachi, Kaori; Nanba, Eiji; Kodani, Isamu; Ryoke, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hair hypopigmentation, abnormal iris pigmentation, and congenital hearing loss. WS1 is caused by mutations in paired box gene 3 (PAX3). We identified a novel PAX3 mutation (c.1107 C>G, p.Ser369Arg) in a Japanese WS1 patient showing abnormal right iris pigmentation, right-sided congenital hearing loss, synophrys, incomplete left cleft lip, and cryptorchidism.

  9. Neural tube defects in Waardenburg syndrome: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hart, Joseph; Miriyala, Kalpana

    2017-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition characterized by sensorineural deafness and pigment abnormalities, and is caused by variants in the PAX3 homeodomain. PAX3 variants have been associated with severe neural tube defects in mice and humans, but the frequency and clinical manifestations of this symptom remain largely unexplored in humans. Consequently, the role of PAX3 in human neural tube formation remains a study of interest, for clinical as well as research purposes. Though the association between spina bifida and WS1 is now well-documented, no study has attempted to characterize the range of spina bifida phenotypes seen in WS. Spina bifida encompasses several diagnoses with a wide scope of clinical severity, ranging from spina bifida occulta to myelomeningocele. We present a patient with Waardenburg syndrome type 1 caused by a novel missense variant in PAX3, presenting with myelomeningocele, Arnold-Chiari malformation, and hydrocephalus at birth. Additionally, we review 32 total cases of neural tube defects associated with WS. Including this report, there have been 15 published cases of myelomeningocele, 10 cases of unspecified spina bifida, 3 cases of sacral dimples, 0 cases of meningocele, and 4 cases of miscellaneous other neural tube defects. Though the true frequency of each phenotype cannot be determined from this collection of cases, these results demonstrate that Waardenburg syndrome type 1 carries a notable risk of severe neural tube defects, which has implications in prenatal and genetic counseling. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Anophthalmia with cleft palate and micrognathia: a new syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, S R; Sharma, A K; Agarwal, S S

    1994-01-01

    A 5 day old male with bilateral anophthalmos, hypospadias, bifid scrotum, micrognathia, and cleft palate with normal chromosomes is described. There have been two case reports with similar clinical manifestations but associated with interstitial deletion of 14q (q22q23). We propose that either our patient represents a new syndrome or has a microdeletion which could not be detected on routine cytogenetics. High quality cytogenetics and FISH may show microdeletions in patients presenting with this clinical picture and normal chromosomes. Images PMID:7891380

  11. Whole-exome sequencing analysis of Waardenburg syndrome in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dezhong; Zhao, Na; Wang, Jing; Li, Zhuoyu; Wu, Changxin; Fu, Jie; Xiao, Han

    2017-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a dominantly inherited, genetically heterogeneous auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by non-progressive sensorineural hearing loss and iris discoloration. By whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified a nonsense mutation (c.598C>T) in PAX3 gene, predicted to be disease causing by in silico analysis. This is the first report of genetically diagnosed case of WS PAX3 c.598C>T nonsense mutation in Chinese ethnic origin by WES and in silico functional prediction methods.

  12. Whole-exome sequencing analysis of Waardenburg syndrome in a Chinese family

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dezhong; Zhao, Na; Wang, Jing; Li, Zhuoyu; Wu, Changxin; Fu, Jie; Xiao, Han

    2017-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a dominantly inherited, genetically heterogeneous auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by non-progressive sensorineural hearing loss and iris discoloration. By whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified a nonsense mutation (c.598C>T) in PAX3 gene, predicted to be disease causing by in silico analysis. This is the first report of genetically diagnosed case of WS PAX3 c.598C>T nonsense mutation in Chinese ethnic origin by WES and in silico functional prediction methods. PMID:28690861

  13. Waardenburg syndrome type 4: report of two new cases caused by SOX10 mutations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Raquel M; Núñez-Ramos, Raquel; Enguix-Riego, M Valle; Román-Rodríguez, Francisco José; Galán-Gómez, Enrique; Blesa-Sánchez, Emilio; Antiñolo, Guillermo; Núñez-Núñez, Ramón; Borrego, Salud

    2014-02-01

    Shah-Waardenburg syndrome or Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4) is a neurocristopathy characterized by the association of deafness, depigmentation and Hirschsprung disease. Three disease-causing genes have been identified so far for WS4: EDNRB, EDN3, and SOX10. SOX10 mutations, found in 45-55% of WS4 patients, are inherited in autosomal dominant way. In addition, mutations in SOX10 are also responsible for an extended syndrome involving peripheral and central neurological phenotypes, referred to as PCWH (peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leucodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, Hirschsprung disease). Such mutations are mostly private, and a high intra- and inter-familial variability exists. In this report, we present a patient with WS4 and a second with PCWH due to SOX10 mutations supporting again the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of these syndromes. Interestingly, the WS4 family carries an insertion of 19 nucleotides in exon 5 of SOX10, which results in distinct phenotypes along three different generations: hypopigmentation in the maternal grandmother, hearing loss in the mother, and WS4 in the proband. Since mosaicism cannot explain the three different related-WS features observed in this family, we propose as the most plausible explanation the existence of additional molecular events, acting in an additive or multiplicative fashion, in genes or regulatory regions unidentified so far. On the other hand, the PCWH case was due to a de novo deletion in exon 5 of the gene. Efforts should be devoted to unravel the mechanisms underlying the intrafamilial phenotypic variability observed in the families affected, and to identify new genes responsible for the still unsolved WS4 cases. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Chronic constipation recognized as a sign of a SOX10 mutation in a patient with Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, Yukiko; Namba, Kazunori; Nakano, Atsuko; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

    2014-05-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is characterized by hearing loss, pigmentation abnormalities, dysmorphologic features, and neurological phenotypes. Waardenburg syndrome consists of four distinct subtypes, and SOX10 mutations have been identified in type II and type IV. Type IV differs from type II owing to the presence of Hirschsprung disease. We identified a de novo nonsense mutation in SOX10 (p.G39X) in a female pediatric patient with Waardenburg syndrome with heterochromia iridis, profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, inner ear malformations, and overall hypopigmentation of the hair without dystopia canthorum. This patient has experienced chronic constipation since she was a neonate, but anorectal manometry showed a normal anorectal reflex. Chronic constipation in this patient was likely to be a consequence of a mild intestinal disorder owing to the SOX10 mutation, and this patient was considered to have a clinical phenotype intermediate between type II and type IV of the syndrome. Chronic constipation may be recognized as indicative of a SOX10 mutation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Shah-Waardenburg syndrome and PCWH associated with SOX10 mutations: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Verheij, Johanna B G M; Sival, Deborah A; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Vos, Yvonne J; Meiners, Linda C; Brouwer, Oebele F; van Essen, Anthonie J

    2006-01-01

    Shah-Waardenburg syndrome is a rare congenital disorder with variable clinical expression, characterised by aganglionosis of the rectosigmoïd (Hirschsprung disease), and abnormal melanocyte migration, resulting in pigmentary abnormalities and sensorineural deafness (Waardenburg syndrome). Mutations in the EDN, EDNRB and SOX10 genes can be found in patients with this syndrome. SOX10 mutations are specifically associated with a more severe phenotype called PCWH: peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease. Neuronal expression of SOX10 occurs in neural crest cells during early embryonic development and in glial cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems during late embryonic development and in adults. We present a 4-year-old girl with the PCWH phenotype associated with a de novo nonsense mutation (S384X) in SOX10. Main clinical features were mental retardation, peripheral neuropathy, deafness, Hirschsprung disease, distal arthrogryposis, white hairlock, and growth retardation. She presented with hypotonia, developmental delay, reduced peripheral nerve conduction velocities, and radiologically assessed central hypomyelination. Subsequently, the formation of abnormal myelin within the central and peripheral nervous system was functionally and radiologically assessed. Children presenting with features of Waardenburg syndrome and neurological dysfunction should be tested for mutations in the SOX10 gene to enable diagnosis and counselling.

  16. A PAX3 polymorphism (T315K) in a family exhibiting Waardenburg Syndrome type 2.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Kim, E; Attaie, A; Smith, T N; Wilcox, E R; Lalwani, A K

    1998-02-01

    Waardenburg Syndrome (WS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder phenotypically characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary disturbances. Presence of dystopia canthorum is indicative of WS type 1 and results from defects in the PAX3 gene, whereas normally located medial canthi is characteristic of type 2 WS (WS2) and is associated with defects in the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MIFT) gene. Here a neutral polymorphism is reported in the PAX3 gene (T315K) in a family with WS2. Copyright 1998 Academic Press Limited

  17. Alu-mediated deletion of SOX10 regulatory elements in Waardenburg syndrome type 4

    PubMed Central

    Bondurand, Nadége; Fouquet, Virginie; Baral, Viviane; Lecerf, Laure; Loundon, Natalie; Goossens, Michel; Duriez, Benedicte; Labrune, Philippe; Pingault, Veronique

    2012-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4) is a rare neural crest disorder defined by the combination of Waardenburg syndrome (sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation defects) and Hirschsprung disease (intestinal aganglionosis). Three genes are known to be involved in this syndrome, that is, EDN3 (endothelin-3), EDNRB (endothelin receptor type B), and SOX10. However, 15–35% of WS4 remains unexplained at the molecular level, suggesting that other genes could be involved and/or that mutations within known genes may have escaped previous screenings. Here, we searched for deletions within recently identified SOX10 regulatory sequences and describe the first characterization of a WS4 patient presenting with a large deletion encompassing three of these enhancers. Analysis of the breakpoint region suggests a complex rearrangement involving three Alu sequences that could be mediated by a FosTes/MMBIR replication mechanism. Taken together with recent reports, our results demonstrate that the disruption of highly conserved non-coding elements located within or at a long distance from the coding sequences of key genes can result in several neurocristopathies. This opens up new routes to the molecular dissection of neural crest disorders. PMID:22378281

  18. Alu-mediated deletion of SOX10 regulatory elements in Waardenburg syndrome type 4.

    PubMed

    Bondurand, Nadége; Fouquet, Virginie; Baral, Viviane; Lecerf, Laure; Loundon, Natalie; Goossens, Michel; Duriez, Benedicte; Labrune, Philippe; Pingault, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4) is a rare neural crest disorder defined by the combination of Waardenburg syndrome (sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation defects) and Hirschsprung disease (intestinal aganglionosis). Three genes are known to be involved in this syndrome, that is, EDN3 (endothelin-3), EDNRB (endothelin receptor type B), and SOX10. However, 15-35% of WS4 remains unexplained at the molecular level, suggesting that other genes could be involved and/or that mutations within known genes may have escaped previous screenings. Here, we searched for deletions within recently identified SOX10 regulatory sequences and describe the first characterization of a WS4 patient presenting with a large deletion encompassing three of these enhancers. Analysis of the breakpoint region suggests a complex rearrangement involving three Alu sequences that could be mediated by a FosTes/MMBIR replication mechanism. Taken together with recent reports, our results demonstrate that the disruption of highly conserved non-coding elements located within or at a long distance from the coding sequences of key genes can result in several neurocristopathies. This opens up new routes to the molecular dissection of neural crest disorders.

  19. Anophthalmia-plus syndrome: a clinical report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Makhoul, Imad R; Soudack, Michalle; Kochavi, Orna; Guilburd, Joseph N; Maimon, Shimon; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    We describe a term male infant of healthy non-consanguineous parents, born with congenital malformations, including bilateral cleft palate and lip, mild microphthalmia with iris coloboma and glaucoma of the right eye, and blepharophimosis with severe microphthalmia of the left eye. Spine radiograph and MRI showed first sacral hemivertebra with spina bifida, and agenesis of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th sacral vertebrae and coccyx. Spine MRI showed caudal tethering of spinal cord at L(3) level, filum terminalis lipoma and a syringomyelia. Brain ultrasound and MRI showed hypoplasia of corpus callosum with mild dilatation of the lateral ventricles. Orbital MRI showed bilateral microphthalmia-distorted small left eyeball with posteriorly located lens, and a split vitreous body in the right eye, suggestive of primary hyperplastic vitreous. The karyotype was normal. Summary of the findings in nine cases (our case and eight published cases) support the notion that anophthalmia-plus syndrome (APS) is a distinct syndrome. Gene locus of APS is yet to be identified. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of bilateral anophthalmia by 3D "reverse face" view ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Araujo Júnior, Edward; Kawanami, Tatiana Emy; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Milani, Hérbene José Figuinha; Oliveira, Patrícia Soares; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Primary anophthalmia is a rare congenital malformation that affects 0.6/10,000 liveborn infants. It is usually associated with central nervous system malformations, aneuploidies, cytomegalovirus infection and mental retardation and it can also be part of genetic conditions such as Fraser, Goltz, Goldenhar, Waardenburg and Lenz syndromes. Neonatal prognosis depends on whether anophthalmia is an isolated malformation, or it is associated with other defects or part of a syndrome. A healthy 43-year-old woman, G4 P3 with three previous healthy children, was referred to our clinic for a routine obstetric ultrasound at 28 weeks' gestation. The fetal eye globes and lenses could not be seen on two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound, which led to the diagnosis of bilateral congenital anophthalmia. No other fetal malformations were detected. At 30 weeks' gestation, a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound was performed using the rendering mode and "reverse face" view. Using this technique, the absence of both eye globes could be clearly seen through a "slit". 3D-ultrasound allowed the parents to better understand their child's problem and possible postnatal implications. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was also performed, to study the fetal cortex in more detail. This exam revealed right cerebral hemisphere sulci and gyri hypoplasia. At 41 1/7 weeks, she went into spontaneous labor and delivered vaginally a 3525 g male infant with Apgar scores of 9 and 10. Postnatal exams confirmed bilateral congenital anophthalmia. This is the first case report in the literature of prenatal diagnosis of bilateral anophthalmia using 3D "reverse face" view ultrasound and MRI. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Partial Oculocutaneous Albinism: Two Siblings with Features of both Hermansky Pudlak and Waardenburg's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Mazhar; Niazi, Muhammad Khizar; Khan, Muhammad Saim; Nadeem, Yasser

    2015-04-01

    Albinism is an inherited abnormality of melanin synthesis with incidence of one per 20,000 births. Its clinical manifestations are related to the reduction or absence of pigmentation in the visual system and/or the skin and teguments. The clinical spectrum of Oculocutaneous Albinism (OCA) has four types ranging from OCA 1 - 4, of which OCA 1, A-1 is the most severe form. Partial cutaneous albinism which is a subtype of OCA is associated with systemic immunodeficiency disorders like Chediak Higashi (CHS), Griscelli (GS) and Hermansky-Pudlak (HPS) syndromes. A7 years boy was labeled initially as a case of Hermansky Pudlak syndrome at the age of 01 year. He as well as his 4 years old younger brother when examined in detail along with audiological investigations were diagnosed as a rare presentation of both Hermansky Pudlak and Waardenburg's syndrome.

  2. Second locus for Hirschsprung disease/Waardenburg syndrome in a large Mennonite kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Dow, E.; Cross, S.; Williamson, R.

    1994-10-15

    We have studied a large Mennonite kindred in which 20 members were affected with Hirschburg disease (HSCR), 5 of whom had one or more manifestations of Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type II (WS2). Eleven additional relatives had signs of WS2 without HSCR. Since HSCR and WS2 each represent perturbations of neural crest migration/differentiation, this large pedigree with apparent cosegregation of HSCR and WS2 offered an opportunity to search for linkage between these loci, candidate genes, and random DNA markers, particularly in view of recent discoveries of genes for Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1) and Hirschsprung disease (c-ret). We have examined themore » following possible linked markers in 69 relatives in this family: the c-ret gene (HSCR); the human PAX3 gene (HuP2) on chromosome 2q (WS1) and placental alkaline phosphatase (ALPP) on chromosome 2q (linked to WS1); argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) on chromosome 9q, close to ABO blood groups which have shown weak linkage to WS; and the {beta}1 GABA receptor gene (GABARB1) on chromosome 4q13-11, close to c-kit, deletions of which cause piebaldism. Linkage between any of these loci and HSCR/WS in this kindred was excluded, demonstrating that there is at least one further locus for HSCR other than c-ret. 45 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.« less

  3. Clinical and genetic investigation of families with type II Waardenburg syndrome

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YONG; YANG, FUWEI; ZHENG, HEXIN; ZHOU, JIANDA; ZHU, GANGHUA; HU, PENG; WU, WEIJING

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the molecular pathology of Waardenburg syndrome type II in three families, in order to provide genetic diagnosis and hereditary counseling for family members. Relevant clinical examinations were conducted on the probands of the three pedigrees. Peripheral blood samples of the probands and related family members were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. The coding sequences of paired box 3 (PAX3), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), sex-determining region Y-box 10 (SOX10) and snail family zinc finger 2 (SNAI2) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The heterozygous mutation, c.649_651delAGA in exon 7 of the MITF gene was detected in the proband and all patients of pedigree 1; however, no pathological mutation of the relevant genes (MITF, SNAI2, SOX10 or PAX3) was detected in pedigrees 2 and 3. The heterozygous mutation c.649_651delAGA in exon 7 of the MITF gene is therefore considered the disease-causing mutation in pedigree 1. However, there are novel disease-causing genes in Waardenburg syndrome type II, which require further research. PMID:26781036

  4. Waardenburg syndrome type I: Dental phenotypes and genetic analysis of an extended family

    PubMed Central

    de Aquino, Sibele-Nascimento; Paranaíba, Lívia-Maris-R.; Gomes, Andreia; dos-Santos-Neto, Pedro; Coletta, Ricardo-D.; Cardoso, Aline-Francoise; Frota, Ana-Cláudia; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of inheritance and the clinical features in a large family with Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1), detailing the dental abnormalities and screening for PAX3 mutations. Material and Methods To characterize the pattern of inheritance and clinical features, 29 family members were evaluated by dermatologic, ophthalmologic, otorhinolaryngologic and orofacial examination. Molecular analysis of the PAX3 gene was performed. Results The pedigree of the family,including the last four generations, was constructed and revealed non-consanguineous marriages. Out of 29 descendants, 16 family members showed features of WS1, with 9 members showing two major criteria indicative of WS1. Five patients showed white forelock and iris hypopigmentation, and four showed dystopia canthorum and iris hypopigmentation. Two patients had hearing loss. Dental abnormalities were identified in three family members, including dental agenesis, conical teeth and taurodontism. Sequencing analysis failed to identify mutations in the PAX3 gene. Conclusions These results confirm that WS1 was transmitted in this family in an autosomal dominant pattern with variable expressivity and high penetrance. The presence of dental manifestations, especially tooth agenesis and conical teeth which resulted in considerable aesthetic impact on affected individuals was a major clinical feature. Clinical relevance: This article reveals the presence of well-defined dental changes associated with WS1 and tries to establish a possible association between these two entities showing a new spectrum of WS1. Key words:Waardenburg syndrome, hearing loss, oral manifestations, mutation. PMID:27031059

  5. [Study of gene mutation and pathogenetic mechanism for a family with Waardenburg syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongsheng; Liao, Xinbin; Liu, Yalan; He, Chufeng; Zhang, Hua; Jiang, Lu; Feng, Yong; Mei, Lingyun

    2017-08-10

    To explore the pathogenetic mechanism of a family affected with Waardenburg syndrome. Clinical data of the family was collected. Potential mutation of the MITF, SOX10 and SNAI2 genes were screened. Plasmids for wild type (WT) and mutant MITF proteins were constructed to determine their exogenous expression and subcellular distribution by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay, respectively. A heterozygous c.763C>T (p.R255X) mutation was detected in exon 8 of the MITF gene in the proband and all other patients from the family. No pathological mutation of the SOX10 and SNAI2 genes was detected. The DNA sequences of plasmids of MITF wild and mutant MITF R255X were confirmed. Both proteins were detected with the expected size. WT MITF protein only localized in the nucleus, whereas R255X protein showed aberrant localization in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm. The c.763C>T mutation of the MITF gene probably underlies the disease in this family. The mutation can affect the subcellular distribution of MITF proteins in vitro, which may shed light on the molecular mechanism of Waardenburg syndrome caused by mutations of the MITF gene.

  6. A novel mutation in PAX3 associated with Waardenburg syndrome type I in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yun; Luo, Jianfen; Zhang, Fengguo; Li, Jianfeng; Han, Yuechen; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Mingming; Ma, Yalin; Xu, Lei; Bai, Xiaohui; Wang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    The novel compound heterozygous mutation in PAX3 was the key genetic reason for WS1 in this family, which was useful to the molecular diagnosis of WS1. Screening the pathogenic mutations in a four generation Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1). WS1 was diagnosed in a 4-year-old boy according to the Waardenburg syndrome Consortium criteria. The detailed family history revealed four affected members in the family. Routine clinical, audiological examination, and ophthalmologic evaluation were performed on four affected and 10 healthy members in this family. The genetic analysis was conducted, including the targeted next-generation sequencing of 127 known deafness genes combined with Sanger sequencing, TA clone and bioinformatic analysis. A novel compound heterozygous mutation c.[169_170insC;172_174delAAG] (p.His57ProfsX55) was identified in PAX3, which was co-segregated with WS1 in the Chinese family. This mutation was absent in the unaffected family members and 200 ethnicity-matched controls. The phylogenetic analysis and three-dimensional (3D) modeling of Pax3 protein further confirmed that the novel compound heterozygous mutation was pathogenic.

  7. Clinical and genetic investigation of families with type II Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Yang, Fuwei; Zheng, Hexin; Zhou, Jianda; Zhu, Ganghua; Hu, Peng; Wu, Weijing

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the molecular pathology of Waardenburg syndrome type II in three families, in order to provide genetic diagnosis and hereditary counseling for family members. Relevant clinical examinations were conducted on the probands of the three pedigrees. Peripheral blood samples of the probands and related family members were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. The coding sequences of paired box 3 (PAX3), microphthalmia‑associated transcription factor (MITF), sex‑determining region Y‑box 10 (SOX10) and snail family zinc finger 2 (SNAI2) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The heterozygous mutation, c.649_651delAGA in exon 7 of the MITF gene was detected in the proband and all patients of pedigree 1; however, no pathological mutation of the relevant genes (MITF, SNAI2, SOX10 or PAX3) was detected in pedigrees 2 and 3. The heterozygous mutation c.649_651delAGA in exon 7 of the MITF gene is therefore considered the disease‑causing mutation in pedigree 1. However, there are novel disease‑causing genes in Waardenburg syndrome type II, which require further research.

  8. Identification and functional analysis of SOX10 missense mutations in different subtypes of Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chaoui, Asma; Watanabe, Yuli; Touraine, Renaud; Baral, Viviane; Goossens, Michel; Pingault, Veronique; Bondurand, Nadege

    2011-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare disorder characterized by pigmentation defects and sensorineural deafness, classified into four clinical subtypes, WS1-S4. Whereas the absence of additional features characterizes WS2, association with Hirschsprung disease defines WS4. WS is genetically heterogeneous, with six genes already identified, including SOX10. About 50 heterozygous SOX10 mutations have been described in patients presenting with WS2 or WS4, with or without myelination defects of the peripheral and central nervous system (PCWH, Peripheral demyelinating neuropathy-Central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy-Waardenburg syndrome-Hirschsprung disease, or PCW, PCWH without HD). The majority are truncating mutations that most often remove the main functional domains of the protein. Only three missense mutations have been thus far reported. In the present study, novel SOX10 missense mutations were found in 11 patients and were examined for effects on SOX10 characteristics and functions. The mutations were associated with various phenotypes, ranging from WS2 to PCWH. All tested mutations were found to be deleterious. Some mutants presented with partial cytoplasmic redistribution, some lost their DNA-binding and/or transactivation capabilities on various tissue-specific target genes. Intriguingly, several mutants were redistributed in nuclear foci. Whether this phenomenon is a cause or a consequence of mutation-associated pathogenicity remains to be determined, but this observation could help to identify new SOX10 modes of action. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Deletions at the SOX10 gene locus cause Waardenburg syndrome types 2 and 4.

    PubMed

    Bondurand, Nadege; Dastot-Le Moal, Florence; Stanchina, Laure; Collot, Nathalie; Baral, Viviane; Marlin, Sandrine; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Giurgea, Irina; Skopinski, Laurent; Reardon, William; Toutain, Annick; Sarda, Pierre; Echaieb, Anis; Lackmy-Port-Lis, Marilyn; Touraine, Renaud; Amiel, Jeanne; Goossens, Michel; Pingault, Veronique

    2007-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder that exhibits varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation of the hair and skin. Depending on additional symptoms, WS is classified into four subtypes, WS1-WS4. Absence of additional features characterizes WS2. The association of facial dysmorphic features defines WS1 and WS3, whereas the association with Hirschsprung disease (aganglionic megacolon) characterizes WS4, also called "Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease." Mutations within the genes MITF and SNAI2 have been identified in WS2, whereas mutations of EDN3, EDNRB, and SOX10 have been observed in patients with WS4. However, not all cases are explained at the molecular level, which raises the possibility that other genes are involved or that some mutations within the known genes are not detected by commonly used genotyping methods. We used a combination of semiquantitative fluorescent multiplex polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in situ hybridization to search for SOX10 heterozygous deletions. We describe the first characterization of SOX10 deletions in patients presenting with WS4. We also found SOX10 deletions in WS2 cases, making SOX10 a new gene of WS2. Interestingly, neurological phenotypes reminiscent of that observed in WS4 (PCWH syndrome [peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, WS, and Hirschsprung disease]) were observed in some WS2-affected patients with SOX10 deletions. This study further characterizes the molecular complexity and the close relationship that links the different subtypes of WS.

  10. A homozygous mutation in the endothelin-3 gene associated with a combined Waardenburg type 2 and Hirschsprung phenotype (Shah-Waardenburg syndrome).

    PubMed

    Hofstra, R M; Osinga, J; Tan-Sindhunata, G; Wu, Y; Kamsteeg, E J; Stulp, R P; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C; Majoor-Krakauer, D; Angrist, M; Chakravarti, A; Meijers, C; Buys, C H

    1996-04-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) or colonic aganglionosis is a congenital disorder characterized by an absence of intramural ganglia along variable lengths of the colon resulting in intestinal obstruction. The incidence of HSCR is 1 in 5,000 live births. Mutations in the RET gene, which codes for a receptor tyrosine kinase, and in EDNRB which codes for the endothelin-B receptor, have been shown to be associated with HSCR in humans. The lethal-spotted mouse which has pigment abnormalities, but also colonic aganglionosis, carries a mutation in the gene coding for endothelin 3 (Edn3), the ligand for the receptor protein encoded by EDNRB. Here, we describe a mutation of the human gene for endothelin 3 (EDN3), homozygously present in a patient with a combined Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) and HSCR phenotype (Shah-Waardenburg syndrome). The mutation, Cys159Phe, in exon 3 in the ET-3 like domain of EDN3, presumably affects the proteolytic processing of the preproendothelin to the mature peptide EDN3. The patient's parents were first cousins. A previous child in this family had been diagnosed with a similar combination of HSCR, depigmentation and deafness. Depigmentation and deafness were present in other relatives. Moreover, we present a further indication for the involvement of EDNRB in HSCR by reporting a novel mutation detected in one of 40 unselected HSCR patients.

  11. Novel splice mutation in microthalmia-associated transcription factor in Waardenburg Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Laura; Burke, Kelly; Leduc, Charles A; Guha, Saurav; Guo, Jiancheng; Chung, Wendy K

    2011-01-01

    Waardenburg Syndrome (WS) is a syndromic form of hearing loss associated with mutations in six different genes. We identified a large family with WS that had previously undergone clinical testing, with no reported pathogenic mutation. Using linkage analysis, a region on 3p14.1 with an LOD score of 6.6 was identified. Microthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor, a gene known to cause WS, is located within this region of linkage. Sequencing of Microthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor demonstrated a c.1212 G>A synonymous variant that segregated with the WS in the family and was predicted to cause a novel splicing site that was confirmed with expression analysis of the mRNA. This case illustrates the need to computationally analyze novel synonymous sequence variants for possible effects on splicing to maximize the clinical sensitivity of sequence-based genetic testing.

  12. Functional analysis of a SOX10 gene mutation associated with Waardenburg syndrome II.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Ping; Hao, Zi-Qi; Liu, Ya-Lan; Mei, Ling-Yun; He, Chu-Feng; Niu, Zhi-Jie; Sun, Jie; Zhao, Yu-Lin; Feng, Yong

    2017-11-04

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an autosomal dominant inherited non-syndromic type of hereditary hearing loss characterized by varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation of the hair, skin, and inner ear. WS is classified into four subtypes (WS1-WS4) based on additional symptoms. WS2 is characterized by the absence of additional symptoms. Recently, we identified a SOX10 missense mutation c.422T > C (p.L141P) associated with WS2. We performed functional assays and found the mutant loses DNA-binding capacity, shows aberrant cytoplasmic and nuclear localization, and fails to interact with PAX3. Therefore, the mutant cannot transactivate the MITF promoter effectively, inhibiting melanin synthesis and leading to WS2. Our study confirmed haploinsufficiency as the underlying pathogenesis for WS2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tietz/Waardenburg type 2A syndrome associated with posterior microphthalmos in two unrelated patients with novel MITF gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Cortés-González, Vianney; Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Guzmán-Sánchez, Martín; Giordano-Herrera, Verónica; Guadarrama-Vallejo, Dalia; Ruíz-Quintero, Narlly; Villanueva-Mendoza, Cristina

    2016-12-01

    Tietz syndrome and Waardenburg syndrome type 2A are allelic conditions caused by MITF mutations. Tietz syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and is characterized by congenital deafness and generalized skin, hair, and eye hypopigmentation, while Waardenburg syndrome type 2A typically includes variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss and patches of de-pigmented skin, hair, and irides. In this paper, we report two unrelated families with MITF mutations. The first family showed an autosomal dominant pattern and variable expressivity. The second patient was isolated. MITF gene analysis in the first family demonstrated a c.648A>C heterozygous mutation in exon 8 c.648A>C; p. (R216S), while in the isolated patient, an apparently de novo heterozygous c.1183_1184insG truncating mutation was demonstrated in exon 10. All patients except one had bilateral reduced ocular anteroposterior axial length and a high hyperopic refractive error corresponding to posterior microphthalmos, features that have not been described as part of the disease. Our results suggest that posterior microphthalmos might be part of the clinical characteristics of Tietz/Waardenburg syndrome type 2A and expand both the clinical and molecular spectrum of the disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Three cases of Waardenburg syndrome type 2 in a Korean family.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joong Hyuk; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Lee, Ki Hwang; Lew, Ho Min; Chang, Yoon-Hee

    2004-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentary disturbances of the skin, hair, and iris, and other developmental defects such as lateral displacement of both medial canthi and lacrimal puncta called dystopia canthorum. While mutations of the PAX3 (paired box) gene have been identified in about 99% of WS type 1 cases, WS type 2 is a heterogeneous group, with about 15% of cases caused by mutations in microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF). We have experienced three cases of typical WS type 2 in a Korean family, for whom full ocular examination and genetic studies were performed. The genetic studies revealed no mutation in either PAX3 or MITF genes. The genetic basis, as yet unknown for most cases of WS type 2, might be found with further investigation.

  15. Cytogenetic mapping of a novel locus for type II Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Selicorni, Angelo; Guerneri, Silvana; Ratti, Antonia; Pizzuti, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    An Italian family in which Waardenburg syndrome type II (WS2) segregates together with a der(8) chromosome from a (4p;8p) balanced translocation was studied. Cytogenetic analysis by painting and subtelomeric probe hybridization positioned the chromosome 8 breakpoint at p22-pter. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with yeast artificial chromosomes from a contig spanning the 8p21-pter region refined the breakpoint in an interval of less than 170 kb between markers WI-3823 and D8S1819. The only cloned gene for WS2 is that for microphtalmia (MITF) on chromosome 3p. In this family, MITF mutations were excluded by sequencing the whole coding region. The 8p23 region may represent a third locus for WS2 (WS2C).

  16. Waardenburg syndrome: a rare cause of inherited neuropathy due to SOX10 mutation.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova-Mihaylova, Petya; Alexander, Michael D; Murphy, Raymond P J; Murphy, Sinéad M

    2017-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare disorder comprising sensorineural deafness and pigmentation abnormalities. Four distinct subtypes are defined based on the presence or absence of additional symptoms. Mutations in six genes have been described in WS. SOX10 mutations are usually associated with a more severe phenotype of WS with peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, and Hirschsprung disease. Here we report a 32-year-old man with a novel heterozygous missense variant in SOX10 gene, who presented with congenital deafness, Hirschsprung disease, iris heterochromia, foot deformity, and intermediate conduction velocity length-dependent sensorimotor neuropathy. This case highlights that the presence of other non-neuropathic features in a patient with presumed hereditary neuropathy should alert the clinician to possible atypical rare causes. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  17. Waardenburg-Shah Syndrome: a rare case in an Indian child.

    PubMed

    Pattebahadur, Rajesh; Singhi, Shipra; Maharana, Prafulla Kumar

    2016-09-30

    A 7-year-old male child presented with a history of discolouration of right eye since birth. On examination visual acuity was 6/6 on Snellen's chart in both eyes; anterior segment was within normal limits except for the brilliant blue discolouration of the inferior quadrant and superior quadrant of right iris and left eye iris, respectively. Both eyes had a clear lens and fundus findings were within normal limits. A detailed history from parents revealed that the child had difficulty in hearing and slurring of speech. In addition, the child had repeated episodes of constipation with bilious vomiting during infancy for which a diagnosis of fungal sepsis with Hirschsprung's disease was made and the child had to undergo a mid-sigmoid loop colostomy for that. A diagnosis of Waardenburg--Shah Syndrome was made and the child was referred for hearing and speech rehabilitation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. [Clinical classification and genetic mutation study of two pedigrees with type II Waardenburg syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Yang, Fuwei; Zheng, Hexin; Zhu, Ganghua; Hu, Peng; Wu, Weijing

    2015-12-01

    To explore the molecular etiology of two pedigrees affected with type II Waardenburg syndrome (WS2) and to provide genetic diagnosis and counseling. Blood samples were collected from the proband and his family members. Following extraction of genomic DNA, the coding sequences of PAX3, MITF, SOX10 and SNAI2 genes were amplified with PCR and subjected to DNA sequencing to detect potential mutations. A heterozygous deletional mutation c.649_651delAGA in exon 7 of the MITF gene has been identified in all patients from the first family, while no mutation was found in the other WS2 related genes including PAX3, MITF, SOX10 and SNAI2. The heterozygous deletion mutation c.649_651delAGA in exon 7 of the MITF gene probably underlies the disease in the first family. It is expected that other genes may also underlie WS2.

  19. Eye Development Genes and Known Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Slavotinek, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M) are significant eye defects because they can have profound effects on visual acuity. A/M is associated with non-ocular abnormalities in an estimated 33–95% of cases and around 25% of patients have an underlying genetic syndrome that is diagnosable. Syndrome recognition is important for targeted molecular genetic testing, prognosis and for counseling regarding recurrence risks. This review provides clinical and molecular information for several of the commonest syndromes associated with A/M: Anophthalmia-Esophageal-Genital syndrome, caused by SOX2 mutations, Anophthalmia and pituitary abnormalities caused by OTX2 mutations, Matthew-Wood syndrome caused by STRA6 mutations, Oculocardiafaciodental syndrome and Lenz microphthalmia caused by BCOR mutations, Microphthalmia Linear Skin pigmentation syndrome caused by HCCS mutations, Anophthalmia, pituitary abnormalities, polysyndactyly caused by BMP4 mutations and Waardenburg anophthalmia caused by mutations in SMOC1. In addition, we briefly discuss the ocular and extraocular phenotypes associated with several other important eye developmental genes, including GDF6, VSX2, RAX, SHH, SIX6 and PAX6. PMID:22005280

  20. A spontaneous and novel Pax3 mutant mouse that models Waardenburg syndrome and neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Miura, Ikuo; Ohba, Hisako; Shimamoto, Chie; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2017-04-05

    Genes responsible for reduced pigmentation phenotypes in rodents are associated with human developmental defects, such as Waardenburg syndrome, where patients display congenital deafness along with various abnormalities mostly related to neural crest development deficiency. In this study, we identified a spontaneous mutant mouse line Rwa, which displays variable white spots on mouse bellies and white digits and tail, on a C57BL/6N genetic background. Curly tail and spina bifida were also observed, although at a lower penetrance. These phenotypes were dominantly inherited by offspring. We searched for the genetic mechanism of the observed phenotypes. We harnessed a rapid mouse gene mapping system newly developed in our laboratories to identify a responsible gene. We detected a region within chromosome 1 as a probable locus for the causal mutation. Dense mapping using interval markers narrowed the locus down to a 670-kbp region, containing four genes including Pax3, a gene known to be implicated in the types I and III Waardenburg syndrome. Extensive mutation screening of Pax3 detected an 841-bp deletion, spanning the promoter region and intron 1 of the gene. The defective allele of Pax3, named Pax3 Rwa , lacked the first coding exon and co-segregated perfectly with the phenotypes, confirming its causal nature. The genetic background of Rwa mice is almost identical to that of inbred C57BL/6N. These results highlight Pax3 Rwa mice as a beneficial tool for analyzing biological processes involving Pax3, in particular the development and migration of neural crest cells and melanocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Homozygous EDNRB mutation in a patient with Waardenburg syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Noriko; Mutai, Hideki; Namba, Kazunori; Kaneko, Hiroki; Kosaki, Rika; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

    2018-04-01

    To examine and expand the genetic spectrum of Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1). Clinical features related to Waardenburg syndrome (WS) were examined in a five-year old patient. Mutation analysis of genes related to WS was performed in the proband and her parents. Molecular modeling of EDNRB and the p.R319W mutant was conducted to predict the pathogenicity of the mutation. The proband showed sensorineural hearing loss, heterochromia iridis, and dystopia canthorum, fulfilling the clinical criteria of WS1. Genetic analyses revealed that the proband had no mutation in PAX3 which has been known as the cause of WS1, but had a homozygous missense mutation (p.R319W) in endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) gene. The asymptomatic parents had the mutation in a heterozygote state. This mutation has been previously reported in a heterozygous state in a patient with Hirschsprung's disease unaccompanied by WS, but the patient and her parents did not show any symptoms in gastrointestinal tract. Molecular modeling of EDNRB with the p.R319W mutation demonstrated reduction of the positively charged surface area in this region, which might reduce binding ability of EDNRB to G protein and lead to abnormal signal transduction underlying the WS phenotype. Our findings suggested that autosomal recessive mutation in EDNRB may underlie a part of WS1 with the current diagnostic criteria, and supported that Hirschsprung's disease is a multifactorial genetic disease which requires additional factors. Further molecular analysis is necessary to elucidate the gene interaction and to reappraise the current WS classification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Clinical and genetic investigation of families with Waardenburg syndrome type 2].

    PubMed

    Chen, H S; Liao, X B; Liu, Y L; He, C F; Zhang, H; Jiang, L; Feng, Y; Mei, L Y

    2016-12-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical chacteration and molecular pathology of Waardenburg syndrome type 2 in seven families, and provide genetic diagnosis and hereditary counseling for family members. Method: Clinical data of seven families with WS2(14 patients)were collected. Peripheral blood samples of the probands and related family members were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. The coding sequences of microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF), sex-determining region Y-box 10(SOX10), snail family zinc finger 2 (SNAI2) and endothelin receptor type B(EDNRB)were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Then the raw data was analyzed. Result: The most common manifestations of WS2 are sensorineural hearing loss(10/14,71.4%), freckle(7/14, 50.0%),heterochromia iridis(6/14, 42.9%) and premature greying(5/14,35.7%). All the deafness phenotype is congenital, bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss. Freckles phenotype is different from cutaneous pigment abnormalities of WS in Westerners. The heterozygous mutation, c.328C>T in exon 3 of the MITF gene was detected in the proband and all patients of pedigree 2. However, no pathological mutation of the relevant genes (SOX10,SNAI2 and EDNRB) was detected in other pedigrees. Conclusion: There are obvious variations in clinical features of WS, while freckles may be a special subtype of cutaneous pigment disturbances. The MITF gene mutation, R110X,is therefore considered the disease causing mutation in pedigree WS02.However, there are novel disease causing genes or copy number variations in Waardenburg syndrome type 2, which require further research. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  3. Loading of PAX3 to Mitotic Chromosomes Is Mediated by Arginine Methylation and Associated with Waardenburg Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tsu-Fang; Yao, Ya-Li; Lai, I-Lu; Lai, Chien-Chen; Lin, Pei-Lun; Yang, Wen-Ming

    2015-01-01

    PAX3 is a transcription factor critical to gene regulation in mammalian development. Mutations in PAX3 are associated with Waardenburg syndrome (WS), but the mechanism of how mutant PAX3 proteins cause WS remains unclear. Here, we found that PAX3 loads on mitotic chromosomes using its homeodomain. PAX3 WS mutants with mutations in homeodomain lose the ability to bind mitotic chromosomes. Moreover, loading of PAX3 on mitotic chromosomes requires arginine methylation, which is regulated by methyltransferase PRMT5 and demethylase JMJD6. Mutant PAX3 proteins that lose mitotic chromosome localization block cell proliferation and normal development of zebrafish. These results reveal the molecular mechanism of PAX3s loading on mitotic chromosomes and the importance of this localization pattern in normal development. Our findings suggest that PAX3 WS mutants interfere with the normal functions of PAX3 in a dominant negative manner, which is important to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Waardenburg syndrome. PMID:26149688

  4. Double heterozygous mutations of MITF and PAX3 result in Waardenburg syndrome with increased penetrance in pigmentary defects.

    PubMed

    Yang, T; Li, X; Huang, Q; Li, L; Chai, Y; Sun, L; Wang, X; Zhu, Y; Wang, Z; Huang, Z; Li, Y; Wu, H

    2013-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary defects of the hair, skin, and iris. Heterozygous mutations of MITF and its transactivator gene PAX3 are associated with Waardenburg syndrome type II (WS2) and type I (WS1), respectively. Most patients with MITF or PAX3 mutations, however, show variable penetrance of WS-associated phenotypes even within families segregating the same mutation, possibly mediated by genetic background or specific modifiers. In this study, we reported a rare Waardenburg syndrome simplex family in which a pair of WS parents gave birth to a child with double heterozygous mutations of MITF and PAX3. Compared to his parents who carried a single mutation in either MITF or PAX3, this child showed increased penetrance of pigmentary defects including white forelock, white eyebrows and eyelashes, and patchy facial depigmentation. This observation suggested that the expression level of MITF is closely correlated to the penetrance of WS, and variants in transcription regulator genes of MITF may modify the relevant clinical phenotypes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Screening program for Waardenburg syndrome in Colombia: clinical definition and phenotypic variability.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Marta L; Gelvez, Nancy; Rodriguez, Marcela; Florez, Silvia; Varon, Clara; Medina, David; Bernal, Jaime E

    2008-04-15

    A screening program to detect Waardenburg syndrome (WS) conducted between 2002 and 2005, among 1,763 deaf individuals throughout Columbia identified 95 affected individuals belonging to 95 families, giving a frequency of 5.38% of WS among the institutionalized deaf population. We confirmed the clinical diagnosis of WS in the 95 propositi and, through the family evaluation, we also identified 45 non-institutionalized affected relatives. Audiologic, ophthalmologic, and genetic studies were performed to confirm the diagnosis. Following the classification of the WS consortium, based on the Waardenburg Index (WI), to define the type of WS. We classified 62.1% of the propositi as WS2 and 37.9% as WS1. We present here the results of the study of clinical manifestations, analyzing the presence, severity, and symmetry of clinical findings among this affected population. Overall, among the 95 propositi, in addition to sensorineural deafness in all, the most frequent features were broad nasal root (58.9%), a first degree relative affected (37.9%), heterochromia irides (36.8%), skin hypopigmentation (31.6%), white forelock (28.0%), intense blue iris (27.4%), synophrys (12.6%), premature graying (10.5%), ptosis of the eyelids (9.5%), and hypoplasia alae nasi (1.1%). The majority of individuals had normal psychomotor development (87%), while the remaining 13% had developmental delay. Among the latter, 9.4% corresponded to WS2 and 3.6% to WS1. Our data confirm an interesting inter- and intrafamilial variability in the phenotypic manifestations as well as extremely variable expression. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Novel PAX3 mutations causing Waardenburg syndrome type 1 in Tunisian patients.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Mediha; Nouira, Malek; Maazoul, Faouzi; Kraoua, Lilia; Meddeb, Rim; Ouertani, Ines; Chelly, Imen; Benoit, Valérie; Besbes, Ghazi; Mrad, Ridha

    2017-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an auditory-pigmentary disease characterized by a clinical and genetic variability. WS is classified into four types depending on the presence or absence of additional symptoms: WS1, WS2, WS3 and WS4. Type 1 and 3 are mostly caused by PAX3 mutations, while type 2 and type 4 are genetically heterogeneous. The aims of this study are to confirm the diagnostic of WS1 by the sequencing of PAX3 gene and to evaluate the genotype phenotype correlation. A clinical classification was established for 14 patients WS, as proposed by the Waardenburg Consortium, and noted a predominance of type 1 and type 2 with 6 patients WS1, 7 patients WS2 and 1 patient WS3. A significant inter and intra-familial clinical heterogeneity was also observed. A sequencing of PAX3 gene in the 6 patients WS1 confirmed the diagnosis in 4 of them by revealing three novel mutations that modify two functional domains of the protein: the c.942delC; the c.933_936dupTTAC and the c.164delTCCGCCACA. These three variations are most likely responsible for the phenotype, however their pathogenic effects need to be confirmed by functional studies. The MLPA analysis of the 2 patients who were sequence negative for PAX3 gene revealed, in one of them, a heterozygous deletion of exons 5 to 9 confirming the WS1 diagnosis. Both clinical and molecular approaches led to the conclusion that there is a lack of genotype-phenotype correlation in WS1, an element that must be taken into account in genetic counseling. The absence of PAX3 mutation in one patient WS1 highlights the fact that the clinical classification is sometimes insufficient to distinguish WS1 from other types WS hence the interest of sequencing the other WS genes in this patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic counseling for a three-generation Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type II associated with a rare SOX10 mutation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kaitian; Zong, Ling; Zhan, Yuan; Wu, Xuan; Liu, Min; Jiang, Hongyan

    2015-05-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. The SOX10 mutation related with Waardenburg syndrome type II is rare in Chinese. This study aimed to uncover the genetic causes of Waardenburg syndrome type II in a three-generation family to improve genetic counseling. Complete clinical and molecular evaluations were conducted in a three-generation Han Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type II. Targeted genetic counseling was provided to this family. We identified a rare heterozygous dominant mutation c.621C>A (p.Y207X) in SOX10 gene in this family. The premature termination codon occurs in exon 4, 27 residues downstream of the carboxyl end of the high mobility group box. Bioinformatics prediction suggested this variant to be disease-causing, probably due to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Useful genetic counseling was given to the family for prenatal guidance. Identification of a rare dominant heterozygous SOX10 mutation c.621C>A in this family provided an efficient way to understand the causes of Waardenburg syndrome type II and improved genetic counseling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional analysis of Waardenburg syndrome-associated PAX3 and SOX10 mutations: report of a dominant-negative SOX10 mutation in Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Chen, Hongsheng; Luo, Hunjin; An, Jing; Sun, Lin; Mei, Lingyun; He, Chufeng; Jiang, Lu; Jiang, Wen; Xia, Kun; Li, Jia-Da; Feng, Yong

    2012-03-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder resulting from melanocyte defects, with varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation of the hair, skin, and inner ear. WS is classified into four subtypes (WS1-WS4) based on additional symptoms. PAX3 and SOX10 are two transcription factors that can activate the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a critical transcription factor for melanocyte development. Mutations of PAX3 are associated with WS1 and WS3, while mutations of SOX10 cause WS2 and WS4. Recently, we identified some novel WS-associated mutations in PAX3 and SOX10 in a cohort of Chinese WS patients. Here, we further identified an E248fsX30 SOX10 mutation in a family of WS2. We analyzed the subcellular distribution, expression and in vitro activity of two PAX3 mutations (p.H80D, p.H186fsX5) and four SOX10 mutations (p.E248fsX30, p.G37fsX58, p.G38fsX69 and p.R43X). Except H80D PAX3, which retained partial activity, the other mutants were unable to activate MITF promoter. The H80D PAX3 and E248fsX30 SOX10 were localized in the nucleus as wild type (WT) proteins, whereas the other mutant proteins were distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Furthermore, E248fsX30 SOX10 protein retained the DNA-binding activity and showed dominant-negative effect on WT SOX10. However, E248fsX30 SOX10 protein seems to decay faster than the WT one, which may underlie the mild WS2 phenotype caused by this mutation.

  9. Hearing dysfunction in heterozygous Mitf(Mi-wh) /+ mice, a model for Waardenburg syndrome type 2 and Tietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ni, Christina; Zhang, Deming; Beyer, Lisa A; Halsey, Karin E; Fukui, Hideto; Raphael, Yehoash; Dolan, David F; Hornyak, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    The human deafness-pigmentation syndromes, Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type 2a, and Tietz syndrome are characterized by profound deafness but only partial cutaneous pigmentary abnormalities. Both syndromes are caused by mutations in MITF. To illuminate differences between cutaneous and otic melanocytes in these syndromes, their development and survival in heterozygous Microphthalmia-White (Mitf(Mi-wh) /+) mice were studied and hearing function of these mice characterized. Mitf(Mi-wh) /+ mice have a profound hearing deficit, characterized by elevated auditory brainstem response thresholds, reduced distortion product otoacoustic emissions, absent endocochlear potential, loss of outer hair cells, and stria vascularis abnormalities. Mitf(Mi-wh) /+ embryos have fewer melanoblasts during embryonic development than their wild-type littermates. Although cochlear melanocytes are present at birth, they disappear from the Mitf(Mi-wh) /+ cochlea between P1 and P7. These findings may provide insight into the mechanism of melanocyte and hearing loss in human deafness-pigmentation syndromes such as WS and Tietz syndrome and illustrate differences between otic and follicular melanocytes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Waardenburg syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF. Defects in metabolism of amino acids. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  11. [Phenotypic and genetic analysis of a patient presented with Tietz/Waardenburg type II a syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanhuan; Tang, Lifang; Zhang, Jingmin; Hu, Qin; Chen, Yingwei; Xiao, Bing

    2015-08-01

    To determine the genetic cause for a patient featuring decreased pigmentation of the skin and iris, hearing loss and multiple congenital anomalies. Routine chromosomal banding was performed to analyze the karyotype of the patient and his parents. Single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array) was employed to identify cryptic chromosome aberrations, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the results. Karyotype analysis has revealed no obvious anomaly for the patient and his parents. SNP array analysis of the patient has demonstrated a 3.9 Mb deletion encompassing 3p13p14.1, which caused loss of entire MITF gene. The deletion was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Clinical features of the patient have included severe bilateral hearing loss, decreased pigmentation of the skin and iris and multiple congenital anomalies. The patient, carrying a 3p13p14.1 deletion, has features of Tietz syndrome/Waardenburg syndrome type IIa. This case may provide additional data for the study of genotype-phenotype correlation of this disease.

  12. Clinical manifestations of Waardenburg syndrome in a male adolescent in Mali, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H

    2015-02-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder of which there are four distinct types. These four types are differentiated by the physical defects which they produce. Presented here is the case of a 13-year-old boy with WS Type I who was observed and physically assessed in Mali, West Africa in 1969. His physical findings included a bright blue coloring to the irises of the eyes, profound sensorineural deafness, mutism, dystopia canthorum (lateral displacement of the inner canthi of the eyes), broad nasal root, bushy eyebrows, and scaphoid deformities of the supraorbital portions of the frontal bone. Because family members were not available for interviews or physical examinations, it was not possible to determine if this patient was suffering from a congenital form of the disorder or from a spontaneous mutation. Given the patient's then location in a remote rural area of Mali where electricity was absent, it was not possible to perform additional diagnostic tests. The patient described here is the first with WS in Mali, West Africa to have been medically observed and evaluated and later documented in the medical literature. A second case of the syndrome in Mali was described in the medical literature in 2011 in an 18-month-old infant who did not have sensorineural hearing loss, but who did have a bilateral cleft lip. An historical overview of WS is presented along with details concerning the characteristics of the four types of the disorder.

  13. Sensorineural deafness, distinctive facial features, and abnormal cranial bones: a new variant of Waardenburg syndrome?

    PubMed

    Gad, Alona; Laurino, Mercy; Maravilla, Kenneth R; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H

    2008-07-15

    The Waardenburg syndromes (WS) account for approximately 2% of congenital sensorineural deafness. This heterogeneous group of diseases currently can be categorized into four major subtypes (WS types 1-4) on the basis of characteristic clinical features. Multiple genes have been implicated in WS, and mutations in some genes can cause more than one WS subtype. In addition to eye, hair, and skin pigmentary abnormalities, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal bridge are seen in WS type 1. Mutations in the PAX3 gene are responsible for the condition in the majority of these patients. In addition, mutations in PAX3 have been found in WS type 3 that is distinguished by musculoskeletal abnormalities, and in a family with a rare subtype of WS, craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome (CDHS), characterized by dysmorphic facial features, hand abnormalities, and absent or hypoplastic nasal and wrist bones. Here we describe a woman who shares some, but not all features of WS type 3 and CDHS, and who also has abnormal cranial bones. All sinuses were hypoplastic, and the cochlea were small. No sequence alteration in PAX3 was found. These observations broaden the clinical range of WS and suggest there may be genetic heterogeneity even within the CDHS subtype. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. A family with unusual Waardenburg syndrome type I (WSI), cleft lip (palate), and Hirschsprung disease is not linked to PAX 3.

    PubMed

    Pierpont, J W; St Jacques, D; Seaver, L H; Erickson, R P

    1995-03-01

    An unusual family with Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WSI), cleft lip (palate), and Hirschsprung disease is not linked to the PAX 3 gene since there is an obligate crossover which has occurred between PAX 3 DNA markers and the disorder in this family. This family may also have anticipation of the WSI traits as the proband's grandmother is nonpenetrant, his mother has dystopia canthorum, and severe cleft lip (palate), while the proband has dystopia canthorum, severe cleft lip (palate), and Hirschsprung disease. Thus, a locus other than PAX 3 is implicated in this Waardenburg-like syndrome with Hirschsprung disease and cleft lip (palate).

  15. A novel mutation of PAX3 in a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Shu, Anli; Qian, Xueqing; Gao, Jianjun; Xing, Qinghe; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Yonglan; Li, Xingwang; Li, Sheng; Feng, Guoyin; He, Lin

    2006-08-28

    The molecular characterization of 34 members of a Chinese family, with 22 members in four generations, affected with Waardenburg syndrome (WS1). A detailed family history and clinical data were collected. A genome-wide scan by two-point linkage analysis using more than 400 microsatellite markers in combination with haplotype analysis was performed. Mutation screening was carried out in the candidate gene by sequencing of amplified products. A maximum two-point lod score of 6.53 at theta = 0.00 was obtained with marker D2S2248. Haplotype analysis placed the WS1 locus to a 45.74 cM region between D2S117 and D2S206, in close proximity to the PAX3 gene on chromosome 2q35. Mutation screening in PAX3 identified a 701T > C mutation which converted a highly conserved Leu to Pro. This nucleotide alteration was neither seen in unaffected members of the family nor found in 50 unrelated control subjects. The present study identified a novel 701T > C mutation in PAX3. The mutation observed in this family highlights the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder.

  16. Apparent digenic inheritance of Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) and autosomal recessive ocular albinism (AROA).

    PubMed

    Morell, R; Spritz, R A; Ho, L; Pierpont, J; Guo, W; Friedman, T B; Asher, J H

    1997-05-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease accounting for >2% of the congenitally deaf population. It is characterized by deafness in association with pigmentary anomalies and various defects of neural crest-derived tissues. At least four types are recognized (WS1, WS2, WS3 and WS4) on the basis of clinical and genetic criteria. Two previously described families seemed to delineate a new subtype characterized by WS2 in conjunction with ocular albinism (OA). Since mutations in the MITF gene are responsible for some instances of WS2, we screened for mutations in one of the WS2-OA families and discovered a 1 bp deletion in exon 8 of MITF. OA previously has been associated with compound heterozygosity for a mutant TYR allele and the TYR(R402Q) allele, a functionally significant polymorphism that is associated with moderately reduced tyrosinase catalytic activity. In this family, all of the individuals with the OA phenotype are either homozygous or heterozygous for TYR(R402Q), and heterozyous for the 1 bp deletion in MITF This suggests that the WS2-OA phenotype may result from digenic interaction between a gene for a transcription factor (MITF) and a gene that it regulates (TYR).

  17. EDNRB mutations cause Waardenburg syndrome type II in the heterozygous state.

    PubMed

    Issa, Sarah; Bondurand, Nadege; Faubert, Emmanuelle; Poisson, Sylvain; Lecerf, Laure; Nitschke, Patrick; Deggouj, Naima; Loundon, Natalie; Jonard, Laurence; David, Albert; Sznajer, Yves; Blanchet, Patricia; Marlin, Sandrine; Pingault, Veronique

    2017-05-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation anomalies. The clinical definition of four WS types is based on additional features due to defects in structures mostly arising from the neural crest, with type I and type II being the most frequent. While type I is tightly associated to PAX3 mutations, WS type II (WS2) remains partly enigmatic with mutations in known genes (MITF, SOX10) accounting for only 30% of the cases. We performed exome sequencing in a WS2 index case and identified a heterozygous missense variation in EDNRB. Interestingly, homozygous (and very rare heterozygous) EDNRB mutations are already described in type IV WS (i.e., in association with Hirschsprung disease [HD]) and heterozygous mutations in isolated HD. Screening of a WS2 cohort led to the identification of an overall of six heterozygous EDNRB variations. Clinical phenotypes, pedigrees and molecular segregation investigations unraveled a dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance. In parallel, cellular and functional studies showed that each of the mutations impairs the subcellular localization of the receptor or induces a defective downstream signaling pathway. Based on our results, we now estimate EDNRB mutations to be responsible for 5%-6% of WS2. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Screening of MITF and SOX10 Regulatory Regions in Waardenburg Syndrome Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Viviane; Chaoui, Asma; Watanabe, Yuli; Goossens, Michel; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Marlin, Sandrine; Pingault, Veronique; Bondurand, Nadege

    2012-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare auditory-pigmentary disorder that exhibits varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation defects. Four subtypes are clinically defined based on the presence or absence of additional symptoms. WS type 2 (WS2) can result from mutations within the MITF or SOX10 genes; however, 70% of WS2 cases remain unexplained at the molecular level, suggesting that other genes might be involved and/or that mutations within the known genes escaped previous screenings. The recent identification of a deletion encompassing three of the SOX10 regulatory elements in a patient presenting with another WS subtype, WS4, defined by its association with Hirschsprung disease, led us to search for deletions and point mutations within the MITF and SOX10 regulatory elements in 28 yet unexplained WS2 cases. Two nucleotide variations were identified: one in close proximity to the MITF distal enhancer (MDE) and one within the U1 SOX10 enhancer. Functional analyses argued against a pathogenic effect of these variations, suggesting that mutations within regulatory elements of WS genes are not a major cause of this neurocristopathy. PMID:22848661

  19. Waardenburg syndrome type I: Dental phenotypes and genetic analysis of an extended family.

    PubMed

    Sólia-Nasser, L; de Aquino, S-N; Paranaíba, L-M R; Gomes, A; Dos-Santos-Neto, P; Coletta, R-D; Cardoso, A-F; Frota, A-C; Martelli-Júnior, H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of inheritance and the clinical features in a large family with Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1), detailing the dental abnormalities and screening for PAX3 mutations. To characterize the pattern of inheritance and clinical features, 29 family members were evaluated by dermatologic, ophthalmologic, otorhinolaryngologic and orofacial examination. Molecular analysis of the PAX3 gene was performed. The pedigree of the family,including the last four generations, was constructed and revealed non-consanguineous marriages. Out of 29 descendants, 16 family members showed features of WS1, with 9 members showing two major criteria indicative of WS1. Five patients showed white forelock and iris hypopigmentation, and four showed dystopia canthorum and iris hypopigmentation. Two patients had hearing loss. Dental abnormalities were identified in three family members, including dental agenesis, conical teeth and taurodontism. Sequencing analysis failed to identify mutations in the PAX3 gene. These results confirm that WS1 was transmitted in this family in an autosomal dominant pattern with variable expressivity and high penetrance. The presence of dental manifestations, especially tooth agenesis and conical teeth which resulted in considerable aesthetic impact on affected individuals was a major clinical feature. This article reveals the presence of well-defined dental changes associated with WS1 and tries to establish a possible association between these two entities showing a new spectrum of WS1.

  20. [PAX3 gene mutation analysis for two Waardenburg syndrome type Ⅰ families and their prenatal diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Liu, N; Kong, X D; Yan, J; Qin, Z B; Wang, B

    2016-12-07

    Objective: To analyze the mutations of PAX3 gene in two Waardenburg syndrome type Ⅰ (WS1) pedigrees and make prenatal diagnosis for the high-risk 18-week-old fetus. Methods: PAX3 gene was first analyzed by Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification(MLPA) for detecting pathogenic mutation of the probands of the two pedigrees. The mutations were confirmed by MLPA and Sanger in parents and unrelated healthy individuals.Prenatal genetic diagnosis for the high-risk fetus was performed by amniotic fluid cell after genotyping. Results: A heterozygous PAX3 gene gross deletion (E7 deletion) was identified in all patients from WS1-01 family, and not found in 20 healthy individuals.Prenatal diagnosis in WS1-01 family indicated that the fetus was normal. Molecular studies identified a novel deletion mutation c. 1385_1386delCT within the PAX3 gene in all affected WS1-02 family members, but in none of the unaffected relatives and 200 healthy individuals. Conclusions: PAX3 gene mutation is etiological for two WS1 families. Sanger sequencing plus MLPA is effective and accurate for making gene diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis.

  1. [SOX10 mutation is relevant to inner ear malformation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome].

    PubMed

    Xu, G Y; Hao, Q Q; Zhong, L L; Ren, W; Yan, Y; Liu, R Y; Li, J N; Guo, W W; Zhao, H; Yang, S M

    2016-11-07

    Objective: To determine the relevance between the SOX 10 mutation and Waardenburg syndrome (WS) accompanied with inner ear abnormality by analyzing the inner ear imaging results and molecular and genetic results of the WS patients with the SOX 10 mutation. Methods: This study included 36 WS in patients during 2001 and 2015 in the department of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery, Chinese Peoples's Liberation Army General Hospital. The condition of the inner ear of each patient was assessed by analyzing HRCT scans of the temporal bone and MRI scans of the brain and internal auditory canal. Meanwhile, the possible pathogenic genes of WS, including SOX10, MITF , and PAX 3, were also screened. Patients were divided into two groups according to SOX 10 mutation.The Fisher accuracy test was used to determine statistical difference of inner ear deformation incidence between the two groups. Results: Among all 36 patients, 12 were found to have inner ear abnormality. Most abnormalities were posterior semicircular canal deformations, some accompanied with cochlear deformation and an enlarged vestibule. Among all patients, 9 patients were SOX 10 heterozygous mutation carriers, among which six showed bilateral inner ear abnormality. Fisher accuracy test results suggested a significant correlation between the SOX 10 mutation and inner ear abnormality in WS patients ( P =0.036). Conclusion: This study found that WS patients with the SOX 10 mutation are more likely to have deformed inner ears when compared to WS patients without the SOX 10 mutation.

  2. Inner ear anatomy in Waardenburg syndrome: radiological assessment and comparison with normative data.

    PubMed

    Kontorinis, Georgios; Goetz, Friedrich; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Luytenski, Stefan; Giesemann, Anja M

    2014-08-01

    As patients with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) represent potential candidates for cochlear implantation, their inner ear anatomy is of high significance. There is an ongoing debate whether WS is related to any inner ear dysplasias. Our objective was to evaluate radiologically the inner ear anatomy in patients with WS and identify any temporal bone malformations. A retrospective case review was carried out in a tertiary, referral center. The high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans of the temporal bone from 20 patients (40 ears) with WS who were managed for deafness in a tertiary referral center from 1995 to 2012 were retrospectively examined. Measurements of 15 different inner ear dimensions, involving the cochlea, the vestibule, the semicircular canals and the internal auditory meatus, as well as measurements of the vestibular aqueduct, were performed independently by two neuroradiologists. Finally, we compared the results from the WS group with a control group consisting of 50 normal hearing subjects (100 ears) and with previously reported normative values. Inner ear malformations were not found in any of the patients with WS. All measured inner ear dimensions were within the normative values compiled by our study group as well as by others. Inner ear malformations are not characteristic for all types of WS; however, certain rare subtypes might be related to inner ear deformities. Normative cochleovestibular dimensions that can help in assessing the temporal bone anatomy are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic and Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Chinese Patients with Waardenburg Syndrome Type II

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuzhi; Dai, Pu; Liu, Xin; Kang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xin; Yang, Weiyan; Zhou, Chengyong; Yang, Shiming; Yuan, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    Waardenburg Syndrome (WS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary abnormalities of the eyes, hair, and skin. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene mutations account for about 15% of WS type II (WS2) cases. To date, fewer than 40 different MITF gene mutations have been identified in human WS2 patients, and few of these were of Chinese descent. In this study, we report clinical findings and mutation identification in the MITF gene of 20 Chinese WS2 patients from 14 families. A high level of clinical variability was identified. Sensorineural hearing loss (17/20, 85.0%) and heterochromia iridum (20/20, 100.0%) were the most commonly observed clinical features in Chinese WS2 patients. Five affected individuals (5/20, 25.0%) had numerous brown freckles on the face, trunk, and limb extremities. Mutation screening of the MITF gene identified five mutations: c.20A>G, c.332C>T, c.647_649delGAA, c.649A>G, and c.763C>T. The total mutational frequency of the MITF gene was 21.4% (3/14), which is significantly higher than the 15.0% observed in the fair-skinned WS2 population. Our results indicate that MITF mutations are relatively common among Chinese WS2 patients. PMID:24194866

  4. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in Chinese patients with Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuzhi; Dai, Pu; Liu, Xin; Kang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xin; Yang, Weiyan; Zhou, Chengyong; Yang, Shiming; Yuan, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    Waardenburg Syndrome (WS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary abnormalities of the eyes, hair, and skin. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene mutations account for about 15% of WS type II (WS2) cases. To date, fewer than 40 different MITF gene mutations have been identified in human WS2 patients, and few of these were of Chinese descent. In this study, we report clinical findings and mutation identification in the MITF gene of 20 Chinese WS2 patients from 14 families. A high level of clinical variability was identified. Sensorineural hearing loss (17/20, 85.0%) and heterochromia iridum (20/20, 100.0%) were the most commonly observed clinical features in Chinese WS2 patients. Five affected individuals (5/20, 25.0%) had numerous brown freckles on the face, trunk, and limb extremities. Mutation screening of the MITF gene identified five mutations: c.20A>G, c.332C>T, c.647_649delGAA, c.649A>G, and c.763C>T. The total mutational frequency of the MITF gene was 21.4% (3/14), which is significantly higher than the 15.0% observed in the fair-skinned WS2 population. Our results indicate that MITF mutations are relatively common among Chinese WS2 patients.

  5. Waardenburg Syndrome: An Unusual Indication of Cochlear Implantation Experienced in 11 Patients.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Feda; Çatlı, Tolgahan; Atsal, Görkem; Tokat, Taşkın; Olgun, Levent

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the surgical findings of children with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) and investigate speech development after cochlear implantation in this unique group of patients. A retrospective chart review of the patients diagnosed with WS and implanted between 1998 and 2015 was performed. Categories of auditory performance (CAP) test were used to assess the auditory skills of these patients. CAP is a nonlinear hierarchical scale used to rate a child's developing auditory abilities. Preoperative test results and intraoperative surgical findings of these patients have been presented. In total, 1835 cases were implanted a tour institution, and 1210 of these were children. Among these implantees, 11 were diagnosed with WS (0.59% of all implantees). Four of the 11 patients showed incomplete partition type 2bony labyrinth abnormality (Mondini deformity) and all patients showed intraoperative gusher during cochleostomy, which was subsided through routine interventions. No other complications occurred during surgery, and all patients showed satisfactory CAP results in the late postoperative period. Our experiences with cochlear implantation in patients with WS showed that the procedure is safe and effective in this group of patients. Surgeons should be aware of possible labyrinth malformations and intraoperative problems such as gusher in these patients. In long term, auditory performances may exhibit satisfactory results with optimal postoperative educational and supportive measures.

  6. Genetic analysis of PAX3 for diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome type I.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Tatsuo; Mutai, Hideki; Namba, Kazunori; Morita, Noriko; Masuda, Sawako

    2013-04-01

    PAX3 genetic analysis increased the diagnostic accuracy for Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1). Analysis of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of PAX3 helped verify the pathogenicity of a missense mutation, and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of PAX3 increased the sensitivity of genetic diagnosis in patients with WS1. Clinical diagnosis of WS1 is often difficult in individual patients with isolated, mild, or non-specific symptoms. The objective of the present study was to facilitate the accurate diagnosis of WS1 through genetic analysis of PAX3 and to expand the spectrum of known PAX3 mutations. In two Japanese families with WS1, we conducted a clinical evaluation of symptoms and genetic analysis, which involved direct sequencing, MLPA analysis, quantitative PCR of PAX3, and analysis of the predicted 3D structure of PAX3. The normal-hearing control group comprised 92 subjects who had normal hearing according to pure tone audiometry. In one family, direct sequencing of PAX3 identified a heterozygous mutation, p.I59F. Analysis of PAX3 3D structures indicated that this mutation distorted the DNA-binding site of PAX3. In the other family, MLPA analysis and subsequent quantitative PCR detected a large, heterozygous deletion spanning 1759-2554 kb that eliminated 12-18 genes including a whole PAX3 gene.

  7. Novel mutations of endothelin-B receptor gene in Pakistani patients with Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Raheela; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Ahmad, Jamil; Awan, Ali Raza

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in EDNRB gene have been reported to cause Waardenburg-Shah syndrome (WS4) in humans. We investigated 17 patients with WS4 for identification of mutations in EDNRB gene using PCR and direct sequencing technique. Four genomic mutations were detected in four patients; a G to C transversion in codon 335 (S335C) in exon 5 and a transition of T to C in codon (S361L) in exon 5, a transition of A to G in codon 277 (L277L) in exon 4, a non coding transversion of T to A at -30 nucleotide position of exon 5. None of these mutations were found in controls. One of the patients harbored two novel mutations (S335C, S361L) in exon 5 and one in Intronic region (-30exon5 A>G). All of the mutations were homozygous and novel except the mutation observed in exon 4. In this study, we have identified 3 novel mutations in EDNRB gene associated with WS4 in Pakistani patients.

  8. Screening of MITF and SOX10 regulatory regions in Waardenburg syndrome type 2.

    PubMed

    Baral, Viviane; Chaoui, Asma; Watanabe, Yuli; Goossens, Michel; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Marlin, Sandrine; Pingault, Veronique; Bondurand, Nadege

    2012-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare auditory-pigmentary disorder that exhibits varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation defects. Four subtypes are clinically defined based on the presence or absence of additional symptoms. WS type 2 (WS2) can result from mutations within the MITF or SOX10 genes; however, 70% of WS2 cases remain unexplained at the molecular level, suggesting that other genes might be involved and/or that mutations within the known genes escaped previous screenings. The recent identification of a deletion encompassing three of the SOX10 regulatory elements in a patient presenting with another WS subtype, WS4, defined by its association with Hirschsprung disease, led us to search for deletions and point mutations within the MITF and SOX10 regulatory elements in 28 yet unexplained WS2 cases. Two nucleotide variations were identified: one in close proximity to the MITF distal enhancer (MDE) and one within the U1 SOX10 enhancer. Functional analyses argued against a pathogenic effect of these variations, suggesting that mutations within regulatory elements of WS genes are not a major cause of this neurocristopathy.

  9. Anophthalmia and microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amit S; Fitzpatrick, David R

    2007-11-26

    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia describe, respectively, the absence of an eye and the presence of a small eye within the orbit. The combined birth prevalence of these conditions is up to 30 per 100,000 population, with microphthalmia reported in up to 11% of blind children. High-resolution cranial imaging, post-mortem examination and genetic studies suggest that these conditions represent a phenotypic continuum. Both anophthalmia and microphthalmia may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome, as in one-third of cases. Anophthalmia/microphthalmia have complex aetiology with chromosomal, monogenic and environmental causes identified. Chromosomal duplications, deletions and translocations are implicated. Of monogenic causes only SOX2 has been identified as a major causative gene. Other linked genes include PAX6, OTX2, CHX10 and RAX. SOX2 and PAX6 mutations may act through causing lens induction failure. FOXE3 mutations, associated with lens agenesis, have been observed in a few microphthalmic patients. OTX2, CHX10 and RAX have retinal expression and may result in anophthalmia/microphthalmia through failure of retinal differentiation. Environmental factors also play a contributory role. The strongest evidence appears to be with gestational-acquired infections, but may also include maternal vitamin A deficiency, exposure to X-rays, solvent misuse and thalidomide exposure. Diagnosis can be made pre- and post-natally using a combination of clinical features, imaging (ultrasonography and CT/MR scanning) and genetic analysis. Genetic counselling can be challenging due to the extensive range of genes responsible and wide variation in phenotypic expression. Appropriate counselling is indicated if the mode of inheritance can be identified. Differential diagnoses include cryptophthalmos, cyclopia and synophthalmia, and congenital cystic eye. Patients are often managed within multi-disciplinary teams consisting of ophthalmologists, paediatricians and/or clinical geneticists

  10. Anophthalmia and microphthalmia

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Amit S; FitzPatrick, David R

    2007-01-01

    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia describe, respectively, the absence of an eye and the presence of a small eye within the orbit. The combined birth prevalence of these conditions is up to 30 per 100,000 population, with microphthalmia reported in up to 11% of blind children. High-resolution cranial imaging, post-mortem examination and genetic studies suggest that these conditions represent a phenotypic continuum. Both anophthalmia and microphthalmia may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome, as in one-third of cases. Anophthalmia/microphthalmia have complex aetiology with chromosomal, monogenic and environmental causes identified. Chromosomal duplications, deletions and translocations are implicated. Of monogenic causes only SOX2 has been identified as a major causative gene. Other linked genes include PAX6, OTX2, CHX10 and RAX. SOX2 and PAX6 mutations may act through causing lens induction failure. FOXE3 mutations, associated with lens agenesis, have been observed in a few microphthalmic patients. OTX2, CHX10 and RAX have retinal expression and may result in anophthalmia/microphthalmia through failure of retinal differentiation. Environmental factors also play a contributory role. The strongest evidence appears to be with gestational-acquired infections, but may also include maternal vitamin A deficiency, exposure to X-rays, solvent misuse and thalidomide exposure. Diagnosis can be made pre- and post-natally using a combination of clinical features, imaging (ultrasonography and CT/MR scanning) and genetic analysis. Genetic counselling can be challenging due to the extensive range of genes responsible and wide variation in phenotypic expression. Appropriate counselling is indicated if the mode of inheritance can be identified. Differential diagnoses include cryptophthalmos, cyclopia and synophthalmia, and congenital cystic eye. Patients are often managed within multi-disciplinary teams consisting of ophthalmologists, paediatricians and/or clinical geneticists

  11. Pulmonary hypoplasia-diaphragmatic hernia-anophthalmia-cardiac defect (PDAC) syndrome due to STRA6 mutations--what are the minimal criteria?

    PubMed

    Segel, Reeval; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Pasutto, Francesca; Picard, Elie; Rauch, Anita; Alterescu, Gheona; Schimmel, Michael S

    2009-11-01

    Microphthalmic syndrome 9 (OMIM601186) is a genetically and phenotypically variable condition, comprising anophthalmia, pulmonary hypoplasia, diaphragmatic hernia, and cardiac malformations (PDAC syndrome). Reported cases have all been associated with fetal/neonatal death or developmental delay. Recessive stimulated by retinoic acid gene 6 homolog (STRA6) mutations have recently been identified as the cause of cases of PDAC in which distinct, "bushy" eyebrows have been observed. We describe a patient with clinical anophthalmia, bushy eyebrows, patent ductus arteriosus, and normal development at age 30 months, who is a compound heterozygote for two novel STRA6 missense mutations. This patient's phenotype is consistent with the multisystemic malformations of PDAC syndrome, but is somewhat milder. This is the first living patient with compound heterozygous STRA6 mutations, which may explain her milder phenotype. We conclude that STRA6 analysis should be considered in all patients with clinical anophthalmia. Genetic counseling should be cautious with respect to long-term developmental outcomes. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Evidence suggesting digenic inheritance of Waardenburg syndrome type II with ocular albinism.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Pei-Wen; Spector, Elaine; McGregor, Tracy L

    2009-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a series of auditory-pigmentary disorders inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. In most patients, WS2 results from mutations in the MITF gene. MITF encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that activates transcription of tyrosinase and other melanocyte proteins. The clinical presentation of WS is highly variable, and we believe that Tietz syndrome and WS2 with ocular albinism (OA) are likely two variations of WS2 due to the presence of modifiers. One family with a molecular diagnosis of WS2 co-segregating with OA has previously been reported. A digenic mutation mechanism including both a MITF mutation and the TYR(R402Q) hypomorphic allele was proposed to be the cause of OA in this family. Here, we present a second WS2 family with OA and provide evidence suggesting the TYR(R402Q) allele does not cause OA in this family. We hypothesize the presence of a novel OCA3 mutation together with the MITF del p.R217 mutation account for the OA phenotype in this family. Since MITF is a transcription factor for pigmentation genes, a mutation in MITF plus a heterozygous mutation in OCA3 together provide an adverse effect crossing a quantitative threshold; therefore, WS2 with OA occurs. We have hypothesized previously that the clinical spectrum and mutation mechanism of OCA depend on the pigmentation threshold of an affected individual. This unique family has provided further evidence supporting this hypothesis. We suggest that by studying OCA patients alongside WS patients with various pigmentation profiles we can facilitate further understanding of the pigmentation pathway.

  13. Confirmation of RAX gene involvement in human anophthalmia

    PubMed Central

    Lequeux, L.; Rio, Marlène; Vigouroux, Armelle; Titeux, Matthias; Etchevers, Heather; Malecaze, François; Chassaing, Nicolas; Calvas, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Microphthalmia and anophthalmia are at the severe end of the spectrum of abnormalities in ocular development. Mutations in several genes have been involved in syndromic and non-syndromic anophthalmia. Previously, RAX recessive mutations were implicated in a single patient with right anophthalmia and left microphthalmia and sclerocornea. Here, we report the findings of novel compound heterozygous RAX mutations in a child with bilateral anophthalmia. Both mutations are located in exon 3. c.664delT is a frameshifting deletion predicted to introduce a premature stop codon (p.Ser222ArgfsX62), and c.909 C>G is a nonsense mutation with similar consequences (p.Tyr303X). This is the second report of a patient with anophthalmia caused by RAX mutations. These findings confirm that RAX plays a major role in the early stages of eye development and is involved in human anophthalmia. PMID:18783408

  14. Confirmation of RAX gene involvement in human anophthalmia.

    PubMed

    Lequeux, L; Rio, M; Vigouroux, A; Titeux, M; Etchevers, H; Malecaze, F; Chassaing, N; Calvas, P

    2008-10-01

    Microphthalmia and anophthalmia are at the severe end of the spectrum of abnormalities in ocular development. Mutations in several genes have been involved in syndromic and non-syndromic anophthalmia. Previously, RAX recessive mutations were implicated in a single patient with right anophthalmia, left microphthalmia and sclerocornea. In this study, we report the findings of novel compound heterozygous RAX mutations in a child with bilateral anophthalmia. Both mutations are located in exon 3. c.664delT is a frameshifting deletion predicted to introduce a premature stop codon (p.Ser222ArgfsX62), and c.909C>G is a nonsense mutation with similar consequences (p.Tyr303X). This is the second report of a patient with anophthalmia caused by RAX mutations. These findings confirm that RAX plays a major role in the early stages of eye development and is involved in human anophthalmia.

  15. Genetic analysis of a Chinese family with members affected with Usher syndrome type II and Waardenburg syndrome type IV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueling; Lin, Xiao-Jiang; Tang, Xiangrong; Chai, Yong-Chuan; Yu, De-Hong; Chen, Dong-Ye; Wu, Hao

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic causes of a family presenting with multiple symptoms overlapping Usher syndrome type II (USH2) and Waardenburg syndrome type IV (WS4). Targeted next-generation sequencing including the exon and flanking intron sequences of 79 deafness genes was performed on the proband. Co-segregation of the disease phenotype and the detected variants were confirmed in all family members by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. The affected members of this family had two different recessive disorders, USH2 and WS4. By targeted next-generation sequencing, we identified that USH2 was caused by a novel missense mutation, p.V4907D in GPR98; whereas WS4 due to p.V185M in EDNRB. This is the first report of homozygous p.V185M mutation in EDNRB in patient with WS4. This study reported a Chinese family with multiple independent and overlapping phenotypes. In condition, molecular level analysis was efficient to identify the causative variant p.V4907D in GPR98 and p.V185M in EDNRB, also was helpful to confirm the clinical diagnosis of USH2 and WS4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic analysis of an Indian family with members affected with Waardenburg syndrome and Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Saketh; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Taly, Arun B.; Sinha, Sanjib; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Rani, S. Vasantha; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation defects of the eye, skin, and hair. It is caused by mutations in one of the following genes: PAX3 (paired box 3), MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), EDNRB (endothelin receptor type B), EDN3 (endothelin 3), SNAI2 (snail homolog 2, Drosophila) and SOX10 (SRY-box containing gene 10). Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the DMD gene. The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic causes of WS and DMD in an Indian family with two patients: one affected with WS and DMD, and another one affected with only WS. Methods Blood samples were collected from individuals for genomic DNA isolation. To determine the linkage of this family to the eight known WS loci, microsatellite markers were selected from the candidate regions and used to genotype the family. Exon-specific intronic primers for EDN3 were used to amplify and sequence DNA samples from affected individuals to detect mutations. A mutation in DMD was identified by multiplex PCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method using exon-specific probes. Results Pedigree analysis suggested segregation of WS as an autosomal recessive trait in the family. Haplotype analysis suggested linkage of the family to the WS4B (EDN3) locus. DNA sequencing identified a novel missense mutation p.T98M in EDN3. A deletion mutation was identified in DMD. Conclusions This study reports a novel missense mutation in EDN3 and a deletion mutation in DMD in the same Indian family. The present study will be helpful in genetic diagnosis of this family and increases the mutation spectrum of EDN3. PMID:22876130

  17. Molecular Etiology of Hereditary Single-Side Deafness: Its Association With Pigmentary Disorders and Waardenburg Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin Hye; Kim, Ah Reum; Choi, Hyun Seok; Kim, Min Young; Chun, Eun Hi; Oh, Seung-Ha; Choi, Byung Yoon

    2015-10-01

    Unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL)/single-side deafness (SSD) is a frequently encountered disability in children. The etiology of a substantial portion of USNHL/SSD still remains unknown, and genetic causes have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, the authors evaluated the heritability of USNHL/SSD.The authors sequentially recruited 50 unrelated children with SSD. For an etiologic diagnosis, we performed a rigorous review on the phenotypes of family members of all children and conducted, if necessary, molecular genetic tests including targeted exome sequencing of 129 deafness genes.Among the 50 SSD children cohort, the authors identify 4 (8%) unrelated SSD probands from 4 families (SH136, SB173, SB177, and SB199) with another hearing impaired family members. Notably, all 4 probands in our cohort with a familial history of SSD also have pigmentary abnormalities such as brown freckles or premature gray hair within first degree relatives, which may indicate that genes whose products are involved with pigmentary disorder could be candidates for heritable SSD. Indeed, SH136 and SB199 turned out to segregate a mutation in MITF and PAX3, respectively, leading to a molecular diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome (WS).We report, for the first time in the literature, a significant heritability of pediatric SSD. There is a strong association between the heritability of USNHL/SSD and the pigmentary abnormality, shedding a new light on the understanding of the molecular basis of heritable USNHL/SSD. In case of children with congenital SSD, it would be mandatory to rigorously screen pigmentary abnormalities. WS should also be included in the differential diagnosis of children with USNHL/SSD, especially in a familial form.

  18. Nonsense mutations in the PAX3 gene cause Waardenburg syndrome type I in two Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Zhi; Cao, Ju-Yang; Zhang, Rui-Ning; Liu, Li-Xian; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Xin; Kang, Dong-Yang; Li, Mei; Han, Dong-Yi; Yuan, Hui-Jun; Yang, Wei-Yan

    2007-01-05

    Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, pigmental abnormalities of the eye, hair and skin, and dystopia canthorum. The gene mainly responsible for WS1 is PAX3 which is involved in melanocytic development and survival. Mutations of PAX3 have been reported in familiar or sporadic patients with WS1 in several populations of the world except Chinese. In order to explore the genetic background of Chinese WS1 patients, a mutation screening of PAX3 gene was carried out in four WS1 pedigrees. A questionnaire survey and comprehensive clinical examination were conducted in four Chinese pedigrees of WS1. Genomic DNA from each patient and their family members was extracted and exons of PAX3 were amplified by PCR. PCR fragments were ethanol-purified and sequenced in both directions on an ABI_Prism 3100 DNA sequencer with the BigDye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Reaction Kit. The sequences were obtained and aligned to the wild type sequence of PAX3 with the GeneTool program. Two nonsense PAX3 mutations have been found in the study population. One is heterozygous for a novel nonsense mutation S209X. The other is heterozygous for a previously reported mutation in European population R223X. Both mutations create stop codons leading to truncation of the PAX3 protein. This is the first demonstration of PAX3 mutations in Chinese WS1 patients and one of the few examples of an identical mutation of PAX3 occurred in different populations.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling for Waardenburg syndrome type I and II in Chinese families

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Qin, Litao; Li, Tao; Liu, Hongjian; Ma, Lingcao; Li, Wan; Wu, Dong; Wang, Hongdan; Guo, Qiannan; Guo, Liangjie; Liao, Shixiu

    2018-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder with varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation. The present study aimed to investigate the underlying molecular pathology and provide a method of prenatal diagnosis of WS in Chinese families. A total of 11 patients with WS from five unrelated Chinese families were enrolled. A thorough clinical examination was performed on all participants. Furthermore, patients with WS underwent screening for mutations in the following genes: Paired box 3 (PAX3), melanogenesis associated transcription factor (MITF), SRY-box 10, snail family transcriptional repressor 2 and endothelin receptor type B using polymerase chain reaction sequencing. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization was used for specific patients whose sequence results were normal. Following identification of the genotype of the probands and their parents, prenatal genetic diagnosis was performed for family 01 and 05. According to the diagnostic criteria for WS, five cases were diagnosed as WS1, while the other six cases were WS2. Genetic analysis revealed three mutations, including a nonsense mutation PAX3 c.583C>T in family 01, a splice-site mutation MITF c.909G>A in family 03 and an in-frame deletion MITF c.649_651delGAA in family 05. To the best of the authors' knowledge the mutations (c.583C>T in PAX3 and c.909G>A in MITF) were reported for the first time in Chinese people. Mutations in the gene of interest were not identified in family 02 and 04. The prenatal genetic testing of the two fetuses was carried out and demonstrated that the two babies were normal. The results of the present study expanded the range of known genetic mutations in China. Identification of genetic mutations in these families provided an efficient way to understand the causes of WS and improved genetic counseling. PMID:29115496

  20. PAX3 mutations and clinical characteristics in Chinese patients with Waardenburg syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Li, Shiqiang; Xiao, Xueshan; Wang, Panfeng; Guo, Xiangming

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To detect paired box gene 3 (PAX3) mutations and associated phenotypes in Chinese patients with Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1). Methods Five unrelated families with suspected WS1 were selected from our Genomic DNA Repository for Hereditary Eye Diseases. The coding and adjacent intronic regions of PAX3 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplicons were then analyzed by cycle sequencing. Variations detected were further evaluated in available family members as well as one hundred controls with heteroduplex-single strand conformational polymorphism (heteroduplex-SSCP) analysis and/or clone sequencing. Results Three novel and two known mutations in PAX3 were detected in five patients, respectively: c.567_586+17del (p.Asp189_Gln505delinsGluGlyGlyAlaLeuAlaGly), c.456_459dupTTCC (p.Ile154PhefsX162), c.795_800delCTGGTT (p.Trp266_Phe267del), c.799T>A (p.Phe267Ile), and c.667C>T (p.Arg223X). Two novel mutations proved to be de novo as their parents did not carry the mutations. All five patients with PAX3 mutations had dystopia canthorum and different iris color and fundi between their two eyes. However, none had white forelock, skin hypopigmentation, and deafness. Conclusions Our findings expand the frequency and spectrum of PAX3 mutations and ethnic-related phenotypes in Chinese patients with WS1. De novo mutations in PAX3 have not been reported before. PMID:20664692

  1. [Molecular pathogenesis of Waardenburg syndrome type II resulting from SOX10 gene mutation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Chen, Hongsheng; Feng, Yong; Qian, Minfei; Li, Jiping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Chun

    2016-08-01

    To explore the molecular mechanism of Waardenburg syndrome type II (WS2) resulting from SOX10 gene mutation E248fs through in vitro experiment. 293T cells were transiently transfected with wild type (WT) SOX10 and mutant type (MT) E248fs plasmids. The regulatory effect of WT/MT SOX10 on the transcriptional activity of MITF gene and influence of E248fs on WT SOX10 function were determined with a luciferase activity assay. The DNA binding capacity of the WT/MT SOX10 with the promoter of the MITF gene was determined with a biotinylated double-stranded oligonucleotide probe containing the SOX10 binding sequence cattgtc to precipitate MITF and E248fs, respectively. The stability of SOX10 and E248fs were also analyzed. As a loss-of-function mutation, the E248fs mutant failed to transactivate the MITF promoter as compared with the WT SOX10 (P<0.01), which also showed a dominant-negative effect on WT SOX10. The WT SOX10 and E248fs mutant were also able to bind specifically to the cattgtc motif in the MITF promoter, whereas E248fs had degraded faster than WT SOX10. Despite the fact that the E248fs has a dominant-negative effect on SOX10, its reduced stability may down-regulate the transcription of MITF and decrease the synthesis of melanin, which may result in haploinsufficiency of SOX10 protein and cause the milder WS2 phenotype.

  2. Genetic analysis of an Indian family with members affected with Waardenburg syndrome and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Saketh; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Taly, Arun B; Sinha, Sanjib; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Rani, S Vasantha; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Kumar, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation defects of the eye, skin, and hair. It is caused by mutations in one of the following genes: PAX3 (paired box 3), MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), EDNRB (endothelin receptor type B), EDN3 (endothelin 3), SNAI2 (snail homolog 2, Drosophila) and SOX10 (SRY-box containing gene 10). Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the DMD gene. The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic causes of WS and DMD in an Indian family with two patients: one affected with WS and DMD, and another one affected with only WS. Blood samples were collected from individuals for genomic DNA isolation. To determine the linkage of this family to the eight known WS loci, microsatellite markers were selected from the candidate regions and used to genotype the family. Exon-specific intronic primers for EDN3 were used to amplify and sequence DNA samples from affected individuals to detect mutations. A mutation in DMD was identified by multiplex PCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method using exon-specific probes. Pedigree analysis suggested segregation of WS as an autosomal recessive trait in the family. Haplotype analysis suggested linkage of the family to the WS4B (EDN3) locus. DNA sequencing identified a novel missense mutation p.T98M in EDN3. A deletion mutation was identified in DMD. This study reports a novel missense mutation in EDN3 and a deletion mutation in DMD in the same Indian family. The present study will be helpful in genetic diagnosis of this family and increases the mutation spectrum of EDN3.

  3. PAX3 mutations and clinical characteristics in Chinese patients with Waardenburg syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Li, Shiqiang; Xiao, Xueshan; Wang, Panfeng; Guo, Xiangming; Zhang, Qingjiong

    2010-06-22

    To detect paired box gene 3 (PAX3) mutations and associated phenotypes in Chinese patients with Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1). Five unrelated families with suspected WS1 were selected from our Genomic DNA Repository for Hereditary Eye Diseases. The coding and adjacent intronic regions of PAX3 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplicons were then analyzed by cycle sequencing. Variations detected were further evaluated in available family members as well as one hundred controls with heteroduplex-single strand conformational polymorphism (heteroduplex-SSCP) analysis and/or clone sequencing. Three novel and two known mutations in PAX3 were detected in five patients, respectively: c.567_586+17del (p.Asp189_Gln505delinsGluGlyGlyAlaLeuAlaGly), c.456_459dupTTCC (p.Ile154PhefsX162), c.795_800delCTGGTT (p.Trp266_Phe267del), c.799T>A (p.Phe267Ile), and c.667C>T (p.Arg223X). Two novel mutations proved to be de novo as their parents did not carry the mutations. All five patients with PAX3 mutations had dystopia canthorum and different iris color and fundi between their two eyes. However, none had white forelock, skin hypopigmentation, and deafness. Our findings expand the frequency and spectrum of PAX3 mutations and ethnic-related phenotypes in Chinese patients with WS1. De novo mutations in PAX3 have not been reported before.

  4. A novel missense mutation of the paired box 3 gene in a Turkish family with Waardenburg syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, A.Taylan; Adibelli, Hamit; Unal, Nurettin; Tukun, Ajlan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Screening of mutations in the paired box 3 (PAX3) gene in three generations of a Turkish family with Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1). Methods WS1 was diagnosed in a 13-month-old girl according to the WS Consortium criteria. Detailed family history of the proband revealed eight affected members in three generations. Routine clinical and audiological examination and ophthalmologic evaluation were performed on eight affected and five healthy members of the study family. Dystopia canthorum was detected in all affected patients; however, a brilliant blue iris was present in five patients who also had mild retinal hypopigmentation. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of affected and unaffected individuals in the family as well as 50 unrelated healthy volunteers. All coding exons and adjacent intronic regions of PAX3 were sequenced directly. Results A novel missense heterozygous c.788T>G mutation was identified in eight patients. This nucleotide alteration was not found in unaffected members of the study family or in the 50 unrelated control subjects. The mutation causes V263G amino-acid substitution in the homeodomain of the PAX3 protein, which represents the 45th residue of helix 3. Conclusions We identified a novel missense c.788T>G mutation in PAX3 in a family with Waardenburg syndrome with intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity. PMID:23378733

  5. A novel missense mutation of the paired box 3 gene in a Turkish family with Waardenburg syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Filiz; Ozturk, A Taylan; Adibelli, Hamit; Unal, Nurettin; Tukun, Ajlan

    2013-01-01

    Screening of mutations in the paired box 3 (PAX3) gene in three generations of a Turkish family with Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1). WS1 was diagnosed in a 13-month-old girl according to the WS Consortium criteria. Detailed family history of the proband revealed eight affected members in three generations. Routine clinical and audiological examination and ophthalmologic evaluation were performed on eight affected and five healthy members of the study family. Dystopia canthorum was detected in all affected patients; however, a brilliant blue iris was present in five patients who also had mild retinal hypopigmentation. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of affected and unaffected individuals in the family as well as 50 unrelated healthy volunteers. All coding exons and adjacent intronic regions of PAX3 were sequenced directly. A novel missense heterozygous c.788T>G mutation was identified in eight patients. This nucleotide alteration was not found in unaffected members of the study family or in the 50 unrelated control subjects. The mutation causes V263G amino-acid substitution in the homeodomain of the PAX3 protein, which represents the 45(th) residue of helix 3. We identified a novel missense c.788T>G mutation in PAX3 in a family with Waardenburg syndrome with intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity.

  6. A Novel Mutation in the Endothelin B Receptor Gene in a Moroccan Family with Shah-Waardenburg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Doubaj, Yassamine; Pingault, Véronique; Elalaoui, Siham C.; Ratbi, Ilham; Azouz, Mohamed; Zerhouni, Hicham; Ettayebi, Fouad; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2015-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a neurocristopathy disorder combining sensorineural deafness and pigmentary abnormalities. The presence of additional signs defines the 4 subtypes. WS type IV, also called Shah-Waardenburg syndrome (SWS), is characterized by the association with congenital aganglionic megacolon (Hirschsprung disease). To date, 3 causative genes have been related to this congenital disorder. Mutations in the EDNRB and EDN3 genes are responsible for the autosomal recessive form of SWS, whereas SOX10 mutations are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. We report here the case of a 3-month-old Morrocan girl with WS type IV, born to consanguineous parents. The patient had 3 cousins who died in infancy with the same symptoms. Molecular analysis by Sanger sequencing revealed the presence of a novel homozygous missense mutation c.1133A>G (p.Asn378Ser) in the EDNRB gene. The proband's parents as well as the parents of the deceased cousins are heterozygous carriers of this likely pathogenic mutation. This molecular diagnosis allows us to provide genetic counseling to the family and eventually propose prenatal diagnosis to prevent recurrence of the disease in subsequent pregnancies. PMID:25852447

  7. A novel mutation in the endothelin B receptor gene in a moroccan family with shah-waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Doubaj, Yassamine; Pingault, Véronique; Elalaoui, Siham C; Ratbi, Ilham; Azouz, Mohamed; Zerhouni, Hicham; Ettayebi, Fouad; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2015-02-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a neurocristopathy disorder combining sensorineural deafness and pigmentary abnormalities. The presence of additional signs defines the 4 subtypes. WS type IV, also called Shah-Waardenburg syndrome (SWS), is characterized by the association with congenital aganglionic megacolon (Hirschsprung disease). To date, 3 causative genes have been related to this congenital disorder. Mutations in the EDNRB and EDN3 genes are responsible for the autosomal recessive form of SWS, whereas SOX10 mutations are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. We report here the case of a 3-month-old Morrocan girl with WS type IV, born to consanguineous parents. The patient had 3 cousins who died in infancy with the same symptoms. Molecular analysis by Sanger sequencing revealed the presence of a novel homozygous missense mutation c.1133A>G (p.Asn378Ser) in the EDNRB gene. The proband's parents as well as the parents of the deceased cousins are heterozygous carriers of this likely pathogenic mutation. This molecular diagnosis allows us to provide genetic counseling to the family and eventually propose prenatal diagnosis to prevent recurrence of the disease in subsequent pregnancies.

  8. Heterozygous deletion at the SOX10 gene locus in two patients from a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Wenzhi, He; Ruijin, Wen; Jieliang, Li; Xiaoyan, Ma; Haibo, Liu; Xiaoman, Wang; Jiajia, Xian; Shaoying, Li; Shuanglin, Li; Qing, Li

    2015-10-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare disease characterized by sensorineural deafness and pigment disturbance. To date, almost 100 mutations have been reported, but few reports on cases with SOX10 gene deletion. The inheritance pattern of SOX10 gene deletion is still unclear. Our objective was to identify the genetic causes of Waardenburg syndrome type II in a two-generation Chinese family. Clinical evaluations were conducted in both of the patients. Microarray analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were performed to identify disease-related copy number variants (CNVs). DNA sequencing of the SOX10, MITF and SNAI2 genes was performed to identify the pathogenic mutation responsible for WS2. A 280kb heterozygous deletion at the 22q13.1 chromosome region (including SOX10) was detected in both of the patients. No mutation was found in the patients, unaffected family members and 30 unrelated healthy controls. This report is the first to describe SOX10 heterozygous deletions in Chinese WS2 patients. Our result conform the thesis that heterozygous deletions at SOX10 is an important pathogenicity for WS, and present as autosomal dominant inheritance. Nevertheless, heterozygous deletion of the SOX10 gene would be worth investigating to understand their functions and contributions to neurologic phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A de novo deletion mutation in SOX10 in a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type 4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiong; Zhu, Yaowu; Shen, Na; Peng, Jing; Wang, Chunyu; Liu, Haiyi; Lu, Yanjun

    2017-01-27

    Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4) or Waardenburg-Shah syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with a prevalence of <1/1,000,000 and characterized by the association of congenital sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentary abnormalities, and intestinal aganglionosis. There are three types of WS4 (WS4A-C) caused by mutations in endothelin receptor type B, endothelin 3, and SRY-box 10 (SOX10), respectively. This study investigated a genetic mutation in a Chinese family with one WS4 patient in order to improve genetic counselling. Genomic DNA was extracted, and mutation analysis of the three WS4 related genes was performed using Sanger sequencing. We detected a de novo heterozygous deletion mutation [c.1333delT (p.Ser445Glnfs*57)] in SOX10 in the patient; however, this mutation was absent in the unaffected parents and 40 ethnicity matched healthy controls. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis and three-dimensional modelling of the SOX10 protein confirmed that the c.1333delT heterozygous mutation was pathogenic, indicating that this mutation might constitute a candidate disease-causing mutation.

  10. Loading of PAX3 to Mitotic Chromosomes Is Mediated by Arginine Methylation and Associated with Waardenburg Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsu-Fang; Yao, Ya-Li; Lai, I-Lu; Lai, Chien-Chen; Lin, Pei-Lun; Yang, Wen-Ming

    2015-08-14

    PAX3 is a transcription factor critical to gene regulation in mammalian development. Mutations in PAX3 are associated with Waardenburg syndrome (WS), but the mechanism of how mutant PAX3 proteins cause WS remains unclear. Here, we found that PAX3 loads on mitotic chromosomes using its homeodomain. PAX3 WS mutants with mutations in homeodomain lose the ability to bind mitotic chromosomes. Moreover, loading of PAX3 on mitotic chromosomes requires arginine methylation, which is regulated by methyltransferase PRMT5 and demethylase JMJD6. Mutant PAX3 proteins that lose mitotic chromosome localization block cell proliferation and normal development of zebrafish. These results reveal the molecular mechanism of PAX3s loading on mitotic chromosomes and the importance of this localization pattern in normal development. Our findings suggest that PAX3 WS mutants interfere with the normal functions of PAX3 in a dominant negative manner, which is important to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Waardenburg syndrome. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. A de novo deletion mutation in SOX10 in a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type 4

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiong; Zhu, Yaowu; Shen, Na; Peng, Jing; Wang, Chunyu; Liu, Haiyi; Lu, Yanjun

    2017-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4) or Waardenburg-Shah syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with a prevalence of <1/1,000,000 and characterized by the association of congenital sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentary abnormalities, and intestinal aganglionosis. There are three types of WS4 (WS4A–C) caused by mutations in endothelin receptor type B, endothelin 3, and SRY-box 10 (SOX10), respectively. This study investigated a genetic mutation in a Chinese family with one WS4 patient in order to improve genetic counselling. Genomic DNA was extracted, and mutation analysis of the three WS4 related genes was performed using Sanger sequencing. We detected a de novo heterozygous deletion mutation [c.1333delT (p.Ser445Glnfs*57)] in SOX10 in the patient; however, this mutation was absent in the unaffected parents and 40 ethnicity matched healthy controls. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis and three-dimensional modelling of the SOX10 protein confirmed that the c.1333delT heterozygous mutation was pathogenic, indicating that this mutation might constitute a candidate disease-causing mutation. PMID:28128317

  12. The genetics of anophthalmia and microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Bardakjian, Tanya M; Schneider, Adele

    2011-09-01

    To summarize recent breakthroughs regarding the genes known to play a role in normal ocular development in humans and to elucidate the role mutations in these genes play in anophthalmia and microphthalmia. The main themes discussed within this article are the various documented genetic advances in identifying the various causes of anophthalmia and microphthalmia. In addition, the complex interplay of these genes during critical embryonic development will be addressed. The recent identification of many eye development genes has changed the ability to identify a cause of anophthalmia and microphthalmia in many individuals. Syndrome identification and the availability of genetic testing underscores the desirability of evaluation by a geneticist for all individuals with anophthalmia and microphthalmia in order to provide appropriate management, long-term guidance, and genetic counseling.

  13. Identification of a de novo mutation of SOX10 in a Chinese patient with Waardenburg syndrome type IV.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fenghe; Zhao, Min; Fan, Lynn; Zhang, Hongyan; Shi, Yang; Han, Rui; Qu, Chunyan

    2016-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, characterized by the association of sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation abnormalities. Four subtypes have been classified. The present study aimed to analyze the clinical feature and investigate the genetic cause for a Chinese case of Waardenburg type IV (WS4). The patient and his family members were subjected to mutation detection in the candidate gene SOX10 by Sanger sequencing. The patient has the clinical features of WS4, including sensorineural hearing loss, bright blue irides, premature graying of the hair and Hirschsprung disease. A novel heterozygous frameshift mutation, c.752_753ins7 (p.Gly252Alafs*31) in the exon 5 of SOX10 was detected in the patient, but not found in the unaffected family members and 100 normal controls. This mutation results in a premature stop codon 31 amino acid downstream. The novel mutation c.752_753ins7 (p.Gly252Alafs*31) arose de novo and was considered as the cause of WS4 in the proband. This study further characterized the molecular complexity of WS4 and provided a clinical case for genotype-phenotype correlation studies of different phenotypes caused by SOX10 mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical variability of Waardenburg-Shah syndrome in patients with proximal 13q deletion syndrome including the endothelin-B receptor locus.

    PubMed

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Collin, Anna; Arapoğlu, Müjde; Suyugül, Nezir

    2009-10-01

    Waardenburg-Shah syndrome (Waardenburg syndrome type IV-WS4) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder that combines clinical features of pigmentary abnormalities of the skin, hair and irides, sensorineural hearing loss, and Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). Mutations in the endothelin-B receptor (EDNRB) gene on 13q22 have been found to cause this syndrome. Mutations in both alleles cause the full phenotype, while heterozygous mutations cause isolated HSCR or HSCR with minor pigmentary anomalies and/or sensorineural deafness. We investigated the status of the EDNRB gene, by FISH analysis, in three patients with de novo proximal 13q deletions detected at cytogenetic analysis and examined the clinical variability of WS4 among these patients. Chromosome 13q was screened with locus specific FISH probes and breakpoints were determined at 13q22.1q31.3 in Patients 1 and 3, and at 13q21.1q31.3 in Patient 2. An EDNRB specific FISH probe was deleted in all three patients. All patients had common facial features seen in proximal 13q deletion syndrome and mild mental retardation. However, findings related to WS4 were variable; Patient 1 had hypopigmentation of the irides and HSCR, Patient 2 had prominent bicolored irides and mild bilateral hearing loss, and Patient 3 had only mild unilateral hearing loss. These data contribute new insights into the pathogenesis of WS4.

  15. Wnt signaling pathway involvement in genotypic and phenotypic variations in Waardenburg syndrome type 2 with MITF mutations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Ping; Liu, Ya-Lan; Mei, Ling-Yun; He, Chu-Feng; Niu, Zhi-Jie; Sun, Jie; Zhao, Yu-Lin; Feng, Yong; Zhang, Hua

    2018-05-01

    Mutation in the gene encoding microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) lead to Waardenburg syndrome 2 (WS2), an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome with auditory-pigmentary abnormalities, which is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Haploinsufficiency may be the underlying mechanism for WS2. However, the mechanisms explaining the genotypic and phenotypic variations in WS2 caused by MITF mutations are unclear. A previous study revealed that MITF interacts with LEF-1, an important factor in the Wnt signaling pathway, to regulate its own transcription through LEF-1-binding sites on the MITF promoter. In this study, four different WS2-associated MITF mutations (p.R217I, p.R217G, p.R255X, p.R217del) that are associated with highly variable clinical features were chosen. According to the results, LEF-1 can activate the expression of MITF on its own, but MITF proteins inhibited the activation. This inhibition weakens when the dosage of MITF is reduced. Except for p.R217I, p.R255X, p.R217G, and p.R217del lose the ability to activate TYR completely and do not inhibit the LEF-1-mediated activation of the MITF-M promoter, and the haploinsufficiency created by mutant MITF can be overcome; correspondingly, the mutants' associated phenotypes are less severe than that of p.R217I. The dominant negative of p.R217del made it have a second-most severe phenotype. This study's data imply that MITF has a negative feedback loop of regulation to stabilize MITF gene dosage that involves the Wnt signaling pathway and that the interaction of MITF mutants with this pathway drives the genotypic and phenotypic differences observed in Waardenburg syndrome type 2 associated with MITF mutations.

  16. Two case reports of anophthalmia and congenital heart disease: Adding a new dimension to this association.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jenny; Steelman, Charlotte K; Vincent, Robert; Richburg, Delene; Chang, Tiffany S; Shehata, Bahig M

    2010-01-01

    Anophthalmia is the congenital absence of ocular tissue from the orbit. Many syndromes and malformations (e.g., anophthalmia-esophageal-genital syndrome, Matthew-Wood syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, oculo-facial-cardio-dental-syndome, heterotaxy, and Fraser syndrome) have been associated with anophthalmia. However, its relation with congenital heart disease has not been fully elucidated. In this article, we discuss two cases of patients with anophthalmia and congenital heart defects, and we compare these findings with other syndromes with which anophthalmia has been associated. One of our two patients showed complex congenital heart disease with heterotaxia, polysplenia, and normal lung lobation. These findings may reflect a new dimension of anophthalmia, heterotaxia, and congenital heart disease associations.

  17. Identification and functional analysis of a novel mutation in the PAX3 gene associated with Waardenburg syndrome type I.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhijie; Li, Jiada; Tang, Fen; Sun, Jie; Wang, Xueping; Jiang, Lu; Mei, Lingyun; Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Yalan; Cai, Xinzhang; Feng, Yong; He, Chufeng

    2018-02-05

    Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder of neural crest cells (NCC) characterized by congenital sensorineural hearing loss, dystopia canthorum, and abnormal iris pigmentation. WS1 is due to loss-of-function mutations in paired box gene 3 (PAX3). Here, we identified a novel PAX3 mutation (c.808C>G, p.R270G) in a three-generation Chinese family with WS1, and then analyzed its in vitro activities. The R270G PAX3 retained nuclear distribution and normal DNA-binding ability; however, it failed to activate MITF promoter, suggesting that haploinsufficiency may be the underlying mechanism for the mild WS1 phenotype of the study family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel mutations in the SOX10 gene in the first two Chinese cases of type IV Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu; Chen, Hongsheng; Jiang, Wen; Hu, Zhengmao; Mei, Lingyun; Xue, Jingjie; He, Chufeng; Liu, Yalan; Xia, Kun; Feng, Yong

    2011-05-20

    We analyzed the clinical features and family-related gene mutations for the first two Chinese cases of type IV Waardenburg syndrome (WS4). Two families were analyzed in this study. The analysis included a medical history, clinical analysis, a hearing test and a physical examination. In addition, the EDNRB, EDN3 and SOX10 genes were sequenced in order to identify the pathogenic mutation responsible for the WS4 observed in these patients. The two WS4 cases presented with high phenotypic variability. Two novel heterozygous mutations (c.254G>A and c.698-2A>T) in the SOX10 gene were detected. The mutations identified in the patients were not found in unaffected family members or in 200 unrelated control subjects. This is the first report of WS4 in Chinese patients. In addition, two novel mutations in SOX10 gene have been identified. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A zebrafish model for Waardenburg syndrome type IV reveals diverse roles for Sox10 in the otic vesicle.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Kirsten; Abbas, Leila; Spencer, Joanne; Brannon, Claire; Mowbray, Catriona; Nikaido, Masataka; Kelsh, Robert N; Whitfield, Tanya T

    2009-01-01

    In humans, mutations in the SOX10 gene are a cause of the auditory-pigmentary disorder Waardenburg syndrome type IV (WS4) and related variants. SOX10 encodes an Sry-related HMG box protein essential for the development of the neural crest; deafness in WS4 and other Waardenburg syndromes is usually attributed to loss of neural-crest-derived melanocytes in the stria vascularis of the cochlea. However, SOX10 is strongly expressed in the developing otic vesicle and so direct roles for SOX10 in the otic epithelium might also be important. Here, we examine the otic phenotype of zebrafish sox10 mutants, a model for WS4. As a cochlea is not present in the fish ear, the severe otic phenotype in these mutants cannot be attributed to effects on this tissue. In zebrafish sox10 mutants, we see abnormalities in all otic placodal derivatives. Gene expression studies indicate deregulated expression of several otic genes, including fgf8, in sox10 mutants. Using a combination of mutant and morphant data, we show that the three sox genes belonging to group E (sox9a, sox9b and sox10) provide a link between otic induction pathways and subsequent otic patterning: they act redundantly to maintain sox10 expression throughout otic tissue and to restrict fgf8 expression to anterior macula regions. Single-cell labelling experiments indicate a small and transient neural crest contribution to the zebrafish ear during normal development, but this is unlikely to account for the strong defects seen in the sox10 mutant. We discuss the implication that the deafness in WS4 patients with SOX10 mutations might reflect a haploinsufficiency for SOX10 in the otic epithelium, resulting in patterning and functional abnormalities in the inner ear.

  20. Molecular Study of Three Lebanese and Syrian Patients with Waardenburg Syndrome and Report of Novel Mutations in the EDNRB and MITF Genes

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, N.M.; Ente, D.; Chouery, E.; Jalkh, N.; Mehawej, C.; Khoueir, Z.; Pingault, V.; Mégarbané, A.

    2011-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized primarily by depigmentation of the skin and hair, heterochromia of the irides, sensorineural deafness, and sometimes by dystopia canthorum, and Hirschsprung disease. WS presents a large clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Four different types have been individualized and linked to 5 different genes. We report 2 cases of WS type II and 1 case of WS type IV from Lebanon and Syria. The genetic studies revealed 2 novel mutations in the MITF gene of the WS type II cases and 1 novel homozygous mutation in the EDNRB gene of the WS type IV case. This is the first molecular study of patients from the Arab world. Additional cases will enable a more detailed description of the clinical spectrum of Waardenburg syndrome in this region. PMID:21373256

  1. Molecular Study of Three Lebanese and Syrian Patients with Waardenburg Syndrome and Report of Novel Mutations in the EDNRB and MITF Genes.

    PubMed

    Haddad, N M; Ente, D; Chouery, E; Jalkh, N; Mehawej, C; Khoueir, Z; Pingault, V; Mégarbané, A

    2011-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized primarily by depigmentation of the skin and hair, heterochromia of the irides, sensorineural deafness, and sometimes by dystopia canthorum, and Hirschsprung disease. WS presents a large clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Four different types have been individualized and linked to 5 different genes. We report 2 cases of WS type II and 1 case of WS type IV from Lebanon and Syria. The genetic studies revealed 2 novel mutations in the MITF gene of the WS type II cases and 1 novel homozygous mutation in the EDNRB gene of the WS type IV case. This is the first molecular study of patients from the Arab world. Additional cases will enable a more detailed description of the clinical spectrum of Waardenburg syndrome in this region.

  2. SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome: 12 new cases demonstrating broader phenotype and high frequency of large gene deletions.

    PubMed

    Bakrania, P; Robinson, D O; Bunyan, D J; Salt, A; Martin, A; Crolla, J A; Wyatt, A; Fielder, A; Ainsworth, J; Moore, A; Read, S; Uddin, J; Laws, D; Pascuel-Salcedo, D; Ayuso, C; Allen, L; Collin, J R O; Ragge, N K

    2007-11-01

    Developmental eye anomalies, which include anophthalmia (absent eye) or microphthalmia (small eye) are an important cause of severe visual impairment in infants and young children. Heterozygous mutations in SOX2, a SOX1B-HMG box transcription factor, have been found in up to 10% of individuals with severe microphthalmia or anophthalmia and such mutations could also be associated with a range of non-ocular abnormalities. We performed mutation analysis on a new cohort of 120 patients with congenital eye abnormalities, mainly anophthalmia, microphthalmia and coloboma. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) were used to detect whole gene deletion. We identified four novel intragenic SOX2 mutations (one single base deletion, one single base duplication and two point mutations generating premature translational termination codons) and two further cases with the previously reported c.70del20 mutation. Of 52 patients with severe microphthalmia or anophthalmia analysed by MLPA, 5 were found to be deleted for the whole SOX2 gene and 1 had a partial deletion. In two of these, FISH studies identified sub-microscopic deletions involving a minimum of 328 Kb and 550 Kb. The SOX2 phenotypes include a patient with anophthalmia, oesophageal abnormalities and horseshoe kidney, and a patient with a retinal dystrophy implicating SOX2 in retinal development. Our results provide further evidence that SOX2 haploinsufficiency is a common cause of severe developmental ocular malformations and that background genetic variation determines the varying phenotypes. Given the high incidence of whole gene deletion we recommend that all patients with severe microphthalmia or anophthalmia, including unilateral cases be screened by MLPA and FISH for SOX2 deletions.

  3. A case report of reversible generalized seizures in a patient with Waardenburg syndrome associated with a novel nonsense mutation in the penultimate exon of SOX10.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Noriomi; Mutai, Hideki; Miya, Fuyuki; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Terashima, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Noriko; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

    2018-05-23

    Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1) can be distinguished from Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) by the presence of dystopia canthorum. About 96% of WS1 are due to PAX3 mutations, and SOX10 mutations have been reported in 15% of WS2. This report describes a patient with WS1 who harbored a novel SOX10 nonsense mutation (c.652G > T, p.G218*) in exon 3 which is the penultimate exon. The patient had mild prodromal neurological symptoms that were followed by severe attacks of generalized seizures associated with delayed myelination of the brain. The immature myelination recovered later and the neurological symptoms could be improved. This is the first truncating mutation in exon 3 of SOX10 that is associated with neurological symptoms in Waardenburg syndrome. Previous studies reported that the neurological symptoms that associate with WS are congenital and irreversible. These findings suggest that the reversible neurological phenotype may be associated with the nonsense mutation in exon 3 of SOX10. When patients of WS show mild prodromal neurological symptoms, the clinician should be aware of the possibility that severe attacks of generalized seizures may follow, which may be associated with the truncating mutation in exon 3 of SOX10.

  4. Correlation between Waardenburg syndrome phenotype and genotype in a population of individuals with identified PAX3 mutations.

    PubMed

    DeStefano, A L; Cupples, L A; Arnos, K S; Asher, J H; Baldwin, C T; Blanton, S; Carey, M L; da Silva, E O; Friedman, T B; Greenberg, J; Lalwani, A K; Milunsky, A; Nance, W E; Pandya, A; Ramesar, R S; Read, A P; Tassabejhi, M; Wilcox, E R; Farrer, L A

    1998-05-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentary abnormalities of the eye, hair, and skin, and dystopia canthorum. The phenotype is variable and affected individuals may exhibit only one or a combination of several of the associated features. To assess the relationship between phenotype and gene defect, clinical and genotype data on 48 families (271 WS individuals) collected by members of the Waardenburg Consortium were pooled. Forty-two unique mutations in the PAX3 gene, previously identified in these families, were grouped in five mutation categories: amino acid (AA) substitution in the paired domain, AA substitution in the homeodomain, deletion of the Ser-Thr-Pro-rich region, deletion of the homeodomain and the Ser-Thr-Pro-rich region, and deletion of the entire gene. These mutation classes are based on the structure of the PAX3 gene and were chosen to group mutations predicted to have similar defects in the gene product. Association between mutation class and the presence of hearing loss, eye pigment abnormality, skin hypopigmentation, or white forelock was evaluated using generalized estimating equations, which allowed for incorporation of a correlation structure that accounts for potential similarity among members of the same family. Odds for the presence of eye pigment abnormality, white forelock, and skin hypopigmentation were 2, 8, and 5 times greater, respectively, for individuals with deletions of the homeodomain and the Pro-Ser-Thr-rich region compared to individuals with an AA substitution in the homeodomain. Odds ratios that differ significantly from 1.0 for these traits may indicate that the gene products resulting from different classes of mutations act differently in the expression of WS. Although a suggestive association was detected for hearing loss with an odds ratio of 2.6 for AA substitution in the paired domain compared with AA substitution in the homeodomain, this odds

  5. Molecular and clinical characterization of Waardenburg syndrome type I in an Iranian cohort with two novel PAX3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, Nazanin; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Farhadi, Mohammad; Bahrami, Tayeb; Emamdjomeh, Hesam; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad Reza

    2015-12-15

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a disease of abnormal neural-crest derived melanocyte development characterized by hearing loss and pigmentary disturbances in hair, eyes and skin. WS is subdivided into four major types, WS1-WS4, where WS1 is recognized by the presence of dystopia canthorum, with PAX3 being the only known gene involved. This study aimed at investigating PAX3 mutations and clinical characteristics of WS1 in a group of Iranian patients. A total of 12 WS1 patients from four unrelated Iranian families were enrolled. Waardenburg consortium guidelines were used for WS1 diagnosis. A detailed family history was traced and a thorough clinical examination was performed for all participants. Furthermore, WS1 patients underwent screening for PAX3 mutations using PCR-sequencing. Dystopia canthorum, broad high nasal root and synophrys were observed in all patients. Early graying, hair discoloration, hypoplastic blue eyes (characteristic brilliant blue iris) and hearing loss were the most common features observed, while heterochromia iridis was the least frequently observed sign among the studied Iranian WS1 patients. Genetic analysis of PAX3 revealed four mutations including c.667C>T, c.784C>T, c.951delT and c.451+3A>C. Two of the four mutations reported here (c.951delT and c.451+3A>C) are being reported for the first time in this study. Our data provide insight into genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of WS1 in an Iranian series of patients. Our results expand the spectrum of PAX3 mutations and may have implications for the genetic counseling of WS in Iran. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Unilateral Autosomal Recessive Anophthalmia in a Patient with Cystic Craniopharyngioma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amandeep; Bansal, Ankit; Garg, Ajay; Sharma, Bhawani S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Anophthalmia is a rare ocular malformation. It is a genetically determined disorder and is typically associated with syndromes. However, sporadic nonsyndromic familial as well as non-familial cases of anophthalmia have also been reported. Non-syndromic familial cases are usually bilateral and have been attributed to autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked inheritance patterns. The authors hereby report a rare case of autosomal recessive unilateral anophthalmia in a patient with no other associated congenital anomaly. Patient was operated for craniopharyngioma. The clinical, radiological and intraoperative findings are discussed. PMID:27928292

  7. A novel mutation in the PAX3 gene causes Waardenburg syndrome type I in an Iranian family.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, Nazanin; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Farhadi, Mohammad; Bahrami, Tayyeb; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Sensorineural hearing impairment (HI) is one of the most frequent congenital defects, with a prevalence of 1 in 500 among neonates. Although there are over 400 syndromes involving HI, most cases of HI are nonsyndromic (70%), 20% of which follow autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Waardenburg syndrome (WS) ranks first among autosomal dominant syndromic forms of HI. WS is characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment, pigmentation abnormalities of hair and skin and hypoplastic blue eyes or heterochromia iridis. WS is subdivided into four major types, WS1-WS4. WS1 is diagnosed by the presence of dystopia canthorum and PAX3 is the only gene involved. This study aims to determine the pathogenic mutation in a large Iranian pedigree affected with WS1 in order to further confirm the clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a family segregating HI was ascertained in a genetic counseling center. Upon clinical inspection, white forelock, dystopia canthorum, broad high nasal root and synophrys, characteristic of WS1 were evident. In order to clarify the genetic etiology and confirm the clinical data, primers were designed to amplify exons and exon-intron boundaries of the responsible gene, PAX3 with 10 exons, followed by the Sanger DNA sequencing method. Genetic analysis of PAX3 revealed a novel mutation in PAX3 (c.1024_1040 del AGCACGATTCCTTCCAA). Our data provide genotype-phenotype correlation for the mutation in PAX3 and WS1 in the studied family, with implications for genetic counseling, which necessitates detailed clinical inspection of HI patients to distinguish syndromic HI from the more common non-syndromic cases. Our results reveal the value of phenotype-directed genetic analysis and could further expand the spectrum of PAX3 mutations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling in a case of spina bifida in a family with Waardenburg syndrome type I.

    PubMed

    Kujat, Annegret; Veith, Veit-Peter; Faber, Renaldo; Froster, Ursula G

    2007-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS I) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder with an incidence of 1:45,000 in Europe. Mutations within the PAX3 gene are responsible for the clinical phenotype ranging from mild facial features to severe malformations detectable in prenatal diagnosis. Here, we report a four-generation family with several affected members showing various symptoms of WS I. We diagnosed the syndrome first in a pregnant young woman; she was referred because of a spina bifida in prenatal diagnosis. We performed clinical genetic investigations and molecular genetic analysis in all available family members. The phenotype displays a wide intra-familial clinical variability of pigmentary disturbances, facial anomalies and developmental defects. Molecular studies identified a novel splice site mutation within the PAX3 gene in intron 5 in all affected family members, but in none of the unaffected relatives. This case demonstrates the prenatal diagnosis of spina bifida in a fetus which leads to the initial diagnosis of WS I. Further studies could identify a private splice site mutation within the PAX3 gene responsible for the phenotype in this family.

  9. Waardenburg syndrome type II in a Chinese patient caused by a novel nonsense mutation in the SOX10 gene.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Tie-Song; Lin, Ken; Sun, Hao; Jiang, Hong-Chao; Yang, Yan-Li; Low, Fan; Gao, Ying-Qin; Ruan, Biao

    2016-06-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a congenital genetic disorder. It is the most common type of syndromic hearing impairment with highly genetic heterogeneity and proved to be related by 6 genes as follows: PAX3, MITF, SNAI2, EDN3, EDNRB and SOX10. This article aims to identify the genetic causes of a Chinese WS child patient. A Chinese WS child was collected for clinical data collection by questionnaire survey. DNA samples of proband and his parents were extracted from peripheral blood samples. Six candidate genes were sequenced by the Trusight One sequencing panel on the illumina NextSeq 500 platform. A novel nonsense heterozygous mutation was found in the coding region of exon 2 in the SOX10 gene of proband. The novel nonsense heterozygous mutation could cause the replacement of the 55th lysine codon by stop codon (484T > C, C142R) and further more possibly cause terminating the protein translation in advance. However, both proband's parents had no mutation of genes above mentioned. The gene mutation of SOX10 [NM_006941.3 c.163A > T] is a novel nonsense mutation. No record of this mutation has been found in dbSNP, HGMD, 1000 Genomes Project, ClinVar and ESP6500 databases. It meets the condition of PS2 of strong evidence in 2015 ACMG Standards and Guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Point mutation in the MITF gene causing Waardenburg syndrome type II in a three-generation Indian family.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, A K; Attaie, A; Randolph, F T; Deshmukh, D; Wang, C; Mhatre, A; Wilcox, E

    1998-12-04

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an autosomal-dominant neural crest cell disorder phenotypically characterized by hearing impairment and disturbance of pigmentation. A presence of dystopia canthorum is indicative of WS type 1, caused by loss of function mutation in the PAX3 gene. In contrast, type 2 WS (WS2) is characterized by normally placed medial canthi and is genetically heterogeneous; mutations in MITF (microphthalmia associated transcription factor) associated with WS2 have been identified in some but not all affected families. Here, we report on a three-generation Indian family with a point mutation in the MITF gene causing WS2. This mutation, initially reported in a Northern European family, creates a stop codon in exon 7 and is predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking the HLH-Zip or Zip structure necessary for normal interaction with its target DNA motif. Comparison of the phenotype between the two families demonstrates a significant difference in pigmentary disturbance of the eye. This family, with the first documented case of two unrelated WS2 families harboring identical mutations, provides additional evidence for the importance of genetic background on the clinical phenotype.

  11. Ser298 of MITF, a mutation site in Waardenburg syndrome type 2, is a phosphorylation site with functional significance.

    PubMed

    Takeda, K; Takemoto, C; Kobayashi, I; Watanabe, A; Nobukuni, Y; Fisher, D E; Tachibana, M

    2000-01-01

    MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor) is a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) factor which regulates expression of tyrosinase and other melanocytic genes via a CATGTG promoter sequence, and is involved in melanocyte differentiation. Mutations of MITF in mice or humans with Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) often severely disrupt the bHLHZip domain, suggesting the importance of this structure. Here, we show that Ser298, which locates downstream of the bHLHZip and was previously found to be mutated in individuals with WS2, plays an important role in MITF function. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) was found to phosphorylate Ser298 in vitro, thereby enhancing the binding of MITF to the tyrosinase promoter. The same serine was found to be phosphorylated in vivo, and expression of dominant-negative GSK3beta selectively suppressed the ability of MITF to transactivate the tyrosinase promoter. Moreover, mutation of Ser298, as found in a WS2 family, disabled phos-phorylation of MITF by GSK3beta and impaired MITF function. These findings suggest that the Ser298 is important for MITF function and is phosphorylated probably by GSK3beta.

  12. Molecular etiology and genotype-phenotype correlation of Chinese Han deaf patients with type I and type II Waardenburg Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lianhua; Li, Xiaohua; Shi, Jun; Pang, Xiuhong; Hu, Yechen; Wang, Xiaowen; Wu, Hao; Yang, Tao

    2016-10-19

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary abnormalities is genetically heterogeneous and phenotypically variable. This study investigated the molecular etiology and genotype-phenotype correlation of WS in 36 Chinese Han deaf probands and 16 additional family members that were clinically diagnosed with WS type I (WS1, n = 8) and type II (WS2, n = 42). Mutation screening of six WS-associated genes detected PAX3 mutations in 6 (86%) of the 7 WS1 probands. Among the 29 WS2 probands, 13 (45%) and 10 (34%) were identified with SOX10 and MITF mutations, respectively. Nineteen of the 26 detected mutations were novel. In WS2 probands whose parental DNA samples were available, de novo mutations were frequently seen for SOX10 mutations (7/8) but not for MITF mutations (0/5, P = 0.005). Excessive freckle, a common feature of WS2 in Chinese Hans, was frequent in WS2 probands with MITF mutations (7/10) but not in those with SOX10 mutations (0/13, P = 4.9 × 10 -4 ). Our results showed that mutations in SOX10 and MITF are two major causes for deafness associated with WS2. These two subtypes of WS2 can be distinguished by the high de novo rate of the SOX10 mutations and the excessive freckle phenotype exclusively associated with the MITF mutations.

  13. Molecular etiology and genotype-phenotype correlation of Chinese Han deaf patients with type I and type II Waardenburg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lianhua; Li, Xiaohua; Shi, Jun; Pang, Xiuhong; Hu, Yechen; Wang, Xiaowen; Wu, Hao; Yang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary abnormalities is genetically heterogeneous and phenotypically variable. This study investigated the molecular etiology and genotype-phenotype correlation of WS in 36 Chinese Han deaf probands and 16 additional family members that were clinically diagnosed with WS type I (WS1, n = 8) and type II (WS2, n = 42). Mutation screening of six WS-associated genes detected PAX3 mutations in 6 (86%) of the 7 WS1 probands. Among the 29 WS2 probands, 13 (45%) and 10 (34%) were identified with SOX10 and MITF mutations, respectively. Nineteen of the 26 detected mutations were novel. In WS2 probands whose parental DNA samples were available, de novo mutations were frequently seen for SOX10 mutations (7/8) but not for MITF mutations (0/5, P = 0.005). Excessive freckle, a common feature of WS2 in Chinese Hans, was frequent in WS2 probands with MITF mutations (7/10) but not in those with SOX10 mutations (0/13, P = 4.9 × 10−4). Our results showed that mutations in SOX10 and MITF are two major causes for deafness associated with WS2. These two subtypes of WS2 can be distinguished by the high de novo rate of the SOX10 mutations and the excessive freckle phenotype exclusively associated with the MITF mutations. PMID:27759048

  14. A novel mutation of the MITF gene in a family with Waardenburg syndrome type 2: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SHI, YUNFANG; LI, XIAOZHOU; JU, DUAN; LI, YAN; ZHANG, XIULING; ZHANG, YING

    2016-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with varying degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, and accumulation of pigmentation in hair, skin and iris. There are four types of WS (WS1–4) with differing characteristics. Mutations in six genes [paired box gene 3 (PAX3), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), endothelin 3 (END3), endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 10 (SOX10) and snail homolog 2 (SNAI2)] have been identified to be associated with the various types. This case report describes the investigation of genetic mutations in three patients with WS2 from a single family. Genomic DNA was extracted, and the six WS-related genes were sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology. In addition to mutations in PAX3, EDNRB and SOX10, a novel heterozygous MITF mutation, p.Δ315Arg (c.944_946delGAA) on exon 8 was identified. This is predicted to be a candidate disease-causing mutation that may affect the structure and function of the enzyme. PMID:27073475

  15. Functional analysis of a nonstop mutation in MITF gene identified in a patient with Waardenburg syndrome type 2

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jie; Hao, Ziqi; Luo, Hunjin; He, Chufeng; Mei, Lingyun; Liu, Yalan; Wang, Xueping; Niu, Zhijie; Chen, Hongsheng; Li, Jia-Da; Feng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurogenic disorder with the combination of various degrees of sensorineural deafness and pigmentary abnormalities affecting the skin, hair and eye. The four subtypes of WS were defined on the basis of the presence or absence of additional symptoms. Mutation of human microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene gives rise to WS2. Here, we identified a novel WS-associated mutation at the stop codon of MITF (p.X420Y) in a Chinese WS2 patient. This mutation resulted in an extension of extra 33 amino-acid residues in MITF. The mutant MITF appeared in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, whereas the wild-type MITF was localized in the nucleus exclusively. The mutation led to a reduction in the transcriptional activities, whereas the DNA-binding activity was not altered. We show that the foremost mechanism was haploinsufficiency for the mild phenotypes of WS2 induced in X420Y MITF. PMID:28356565

  16. A novel mutation of the MITF gene in a family with Waardenburg syndrome type 2: A case report.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunfang; Li, Xiaozhou; Ju, Duan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiuling; Zhang, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with varying degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, and accumulation of pigmentation in hair, skin and iris. There are four types of WS (WS1-4) with differing characteristics. Mutations in six genes [paired box gene 3 ( PAX3 ), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor ( MITF ), endothelin 3 ( END3 ), endothelin receptor type B ( EDNRB ), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 10 ( SOX10 ) and snail homolog 2 ( SNAI2 )] have been identified to be associated with the various types. This case report describes the investigation of genetic mutations in three patients with WS2 from a single family. Genomic DNA was extracted, and the six WS-related genes were sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology. In addition to mutations in PAX3, EDNRB and SOX10, a novel heterozygous MITF mutation, p.Δ315Arg (c.944_946delGAA) on exon 8 was identified. This is predicted to be a candidate disease-causing mutation that may affect the structure and function of the enzyme.

  17. Identification and functional analysis of a novel mutation in the SOX10 gene associated with Waardenburg syndrome type IV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Han; Chen, Hong-Sheng; Li, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Hua; Mei, Ling-Yun; He, Chu-Feng; Wang, Xing-Wei; Men, Mei-Chao; Jiang, Lu; Liao, Xin-Bin; Wu, Hong; Feng, Yong

    2014-03-15

    Waardenburg syndrome type IV (WS4) is a rare genetic disorder, characterized by auditory-pigmentary abnormalities and Hirschsprung disease. Mutations of the EDNRB gene, EDN3 gene, or SOX10 gene are responsible for WS4. In the present study, we reported a case of a Chinese patient with clinical features of WS4. In addition, the three genes mentioned above were sequenced in order to identify whether mutations are responsible for the case. We revealed a novel nonsense mutation, c.1063C>T (p.Q355*), in the last coding exon of SOX10. The same mutation was not found in three unaffected family members or 100 unrelated controls. Then, the function and mechanism of the mutation were investigated in vitro. We found both wild-type (WT) and mutant SOX10 p.Q355* were detected at the expected size and their expression levels are equivalent. The mutant protein also localized in the nucleus and retained the DNA-binding activity as WT counterpart; however, it lost its transactivation capability on the MITF promoter and acted as a dominant-negative repressor impairing function of the WT SOX10. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional analysis of a nonstop mutation in MITF gene identified in a patient with Waardenburg syndrome type 2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Hao, Ziqi; Luo, Hunjin; He, Chufeng; Mei, Lingyun; Liu, Yalan; Wang, Xueping; Niu, Zhijie; Chen, Hongsheng; Li, Jia-Da; Feng, Yong

    2017-07-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurogenic disorder with the combination of various degrees of sensorineural deafness and pigmentary abnormalities affecting the skin, hair and eye. The four subtypes of WS were defined on the basis of the presence or absence of additional symptoms. Mutation of human microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene gives rise to WS2. Here, we identified a novel WS-associated mutation at the stop codon of MITF (p.X420Y) in a Chinese WS2 patient. This mutation resulted in an extension of extra 33 amino-acid residues in MITF. The mutant MITF appeared in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, whereas the wild-type MITF was localized in the nucleus exclusively. The mutation led to a reduction in the transcriptional activities, whereas the DNA-binding activity was not altered. We show that the foremost mechanism was haploinsufficiency for the mild phenotypes of WS2 induced in X420Y MITF.

  19. A splice-site mutation affecting the paired box of PAX3 in a three generation family with Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1).

    PubMed

    Attaie, A; Kim, E; Wilcox, E R; Lalwani, A K

    1997-06-01

    Waardenburg syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentary disturbances and other developmental defects, is the most frequent form of congenital deafness in humans. Mutations in the PAX3 gene, a transcription factor expressed during embryonic development, is associated with WS types I and III. Here we report the identification of a novel acceptor splice site mutation (86-2 A-->G) in the paired domain of the human PAX3 gene causing WS type I in a three generation family.

  20. Spectrum of novel mutations found in Waardenburg syndrome types 1 and 2: implications for molecular genetic diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Wildhardt, Gabriele; Zirn, Birgit; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard M; Wechtenbruch, Juliane; Suckfüll, Markus; Buske, Annegret; Bohring, Axel; Kubisch, Christian; Vogt, Stefanie; Strobl-Wildemann, Gertrud; Greally, Marie; Bartsch, Oliver; Steinberger, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Till date, mutations in the genes PAX3 and MITF have been described in Waardenburg syndrome (WS), which is clinically characterised by congenital hearing loss and pigmentation anomalies. Our study intended to determine the frequency of mutations and deletions in these genes, to assess the clinical phenotype in detail and to identify rational priorities for molecular genetic diagnostics procedures. Design Prospective analysis. Patients 19 Caucasian patients with typical features of WS underwent stepwise investigation of PAX3 and MITF. When point mutations and small insertions/deletions were excluded by direct sequencing, copy number analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed to detect larger deletions and duplications. Clinical data and photographs were collected to facilitate genotype–phenotype analyses. Setting All analyses were performed in a large German laboratory specialised in genetic diagnostics. Results 15 novel and 4 previously published heterozygous mutations in PAX3 and MITF were identified. Of these, six were large deletions or duplications that were only detectable by copy number analysis. All patients with PAX3 mutations had typical phenotype of WS with dystopia canthorum (WS1), whereas patients with MITF gene mutations presented without dystopia canthorum (WS2). In addition, one patient with bilateral hearing loss and blue eyes with iris stroma dysplasia had a de novo missense mutation (p.Arg217Ile) in MITF. MITF 3-bp deletions at amino acid position 217 have previously been described in patients with Tietz syndrome (TS), a clinical entity with hearing loss and generalised hypopigmentation. Conclusions On the basis of these findings, we conclude that sequencing and copy number analysis of both PAX3 and MITF have to be recommended in the routine molecular diagnostic setting for patients, WS1 and WS2. Furthermore, our genotype–phenotype analyses indicate that WS2 and TS correspond to a clinical spectrum

  1. Spectrum of novel mutations found in Waardenburg syndrome types 1 and 2: implications for molecular genetic diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Wildhardt, Gabriele; Zirn, Birgit; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard M; Wechtenbruch, Juliane; Suckfüll, Markus; Buske, Annegret; Bohring, Axel; Kubisch, Christian; Vogt, Stefanie; Strobl-Wildemann, Gertrud; Greally, Marie; Bartsch, Oliver; Steinberger, Daniela

    2013-03-18

    Till date, mutations in the genes PAX3 and MITF have been described in Waardenburg syndrome (WS), which is clinically characterised by congenital hearing loss and pigmentation anomalies. Our study intended to determine the frequency of mutations and deletions in these genes, to assess the clinical phenotype in detail and to identify rational priorities for molecular genetic diagnostics procedures. Prospective analysis. 19 Caucasian patients with typical features of WS underwent stepwise investigation of PAX3 and MITF. When point mutations and small insertions/deletions were excluded by direct sequencing, copy number analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed to detect larger deletions and duplications. Clinical data and photographs were collected to facilitate genotype-phenotype analyses. All analyses were performed in a large German laboratory specialised in genetic diagnostics. 15 novel and 4 previously published heterozygous mutations in PAX3 and MITF were identified. Of these, six were large deletions or duplications that were only detectable by copy number analysis. All patients with PAX3 mutations had typical phenotype of WS with dystopia canthorum (WS1), whereas patients with MITF gene mutations presented without dystopia canthorum (WS2). In addition, one patient with bilateral hearing loss and blue eyes with iris stroma dysplasia had a de novo missense mutation (p.Arg217Ile) in MITF. MITF 3-bp deletions at amino acid position 217 have previously been described in patients with Tietz syndrome (TS), a clinical entity with hearing loss and generalised hypopigmentation. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that sequencing and copy number analysis of both PAX3 and MITF have to be recommended in the routine molecular diagnostic setting for patients, WS1 and WS2. Furthermore, our genotype-phenotype analyses indicate that WS2 and TS correspond to a clinical spectrum that is influenced by MITF mutation type and position.

  2. Novel and recurrent non-truncating mutations of the MITF basic domain: genotypic and phenotypic variations in Waardenburg and Tietz syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Léger, Sandy; Balguerie, Xavier; Goldenberg, Alice; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Cabot, Annick; Amstutz-Montadert, Isabelle; Young, Paul; Joly, Pascal; Bodereau, Virginie; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Jamieson, Robyn V; Krause, Amanda; Chen, Hongsheng; Baumann, Clarisse; Nunes, Luis; Dollfus, Hélène; Goossens, Michel; Pingault, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor, which regulates melanocyte development and the biosynthetic melanin pathway. A notable relationship has been described between non-truncating mutations of its basic domain and Tietz syndrome, which is characterized by albinoid-like hypopigmentation of the skin and hair, rather than the patchy depigmentation seen in Waardenburg syndrome, and severe hearing loss. Twelve patients with new or recurrent non-truncating mutations of the MITF basic domain from six families were enrolled in this study. We observed a wide range of phenotypes and some unexpected features. All the patients had blue irides and pigmentation abnormalities that ranged from diffuse hypopigmentation to Waardenburg-like patches. In addition, they showed congenital complete hearing loss, diffuse hypopigmentation of the skin, freckling and ocular abnormalities, more frequently than patients with MITF mutations outside the basic domain. In conclusion, the non-truncating mutations of the basic domain do not always lead to Tietz syndrome but rather to a large range of phenotypes. Sun-exposed freckles are interestingly observed more frequently in Asian populations. This variability argues for the possible interaction with modifier loci. PMID:22258527

  3. 22q11.2q13 duplication including SOX10 causes sex-reversal and peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Falah, Nadia; Posey, Jennifer E; Thorson, Willa; Benke, Paul; Tekin, Mustafa; Tarshish, Brocha; Lupski, James R; Harel, Tamar

    2017-04-01

    Diagnosis of genetic syndromes may be difficult when specific components of a disorder manifest at a later age. We present a follow up of a previous report [Seeherunvong et al., (2004); AJMGA 127: 149-151], of an individual with 22q duplication and sex-reversal syndrome. The subject's phenotype evolved to include peripheral and central demyelination, Waardenburg syndrome type IV, and Hirschsprung disease (PCWH; MIM 609136). DNA microarray analysis defined the duplication at 22q11.2q13, including SOX10. Sequencing of the coding region of SOX10 did not reveal any mutations. Our data suggest that SOX10 duplication can cause disorders of sex development and PCWH, supporting the hypothesis that SOX10 toxic gain of function rather than dominant negative activity underlies PCWH. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 22q11.2q13 Duplication Including SOX10 causes Sex-reversal and Peripheral Demyelinating Neuropathy, Central Dysmyelinating Leukodystrophy, Waardenburg Syndrome and Hirschsprung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Falah, Nadia; Posey, Jennifer E.; Thorson, Willa; Benke, Paul; Tekin, Mustafa; Tarshish, Brocha; Lupski, James R; Harel, Tamar

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of genetic syndromes may be difficult when specific components of a disorder manifest at a later age. We present a follow up of a previous report [Seeherunvong et al., 2004; Ajmga 127: 149–151], of an individual with 22q duplication and sex-reversal syndrome. The subject’s phenotype evolved to include peripheral and central demyelination, Waardenburg syndrome type IV, and Hirschsprung disease (PCWH; MIM 609136). DNA microarray analysis defined the duplication at 22q11.2q13, including SOX10. Sequencing of the coding region of SOX10 did not reveal any mutations. Our data suggest that SOX10 duplication can cause disorders of sex development and PCWH, supporting the hypothesis that SOX10 toxic gain-of-function rather than dominant negative activity underlies PCWH. PMID:28328136

  5. Prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling for Waardenburg syndrome type I and II in Chinese families.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Qin, Litao; Li, Tao; Liu, Hongjian; Ma, Lingcao; Li, Wan; Wu, Dong; Wang, Hongdan; Guo, Qiannan; Guo, Liangjie; Liao, Shixiu

    2018-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an auditory‑pigmentary disorder with varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation. The present study aimed to investigate the underlying molecular pathology and provide a method of prenatal diagnosis of WS in Chinese families. A total of 11 patients with WS from five unrelated Chinese families were enrolled. A thorough clinical examination was performed on all participants. Furthermore, patients with WS underwent screening for mutations in the following genes: Paired box 3 (PAX3), melanogenesis associated transcription factor (MITF), SRY‑box 10, snail family transcriptional repressor 2 and endothelin receptor type B using polymerase chain reaction sequencing. Array‑based comparative genomic hybridization was used for specific patients whose sequence results were normal. Following identification of the genotype of the probands and their parents, prenatal genetic diagnosis was performed for family 01 and 05. According to the diagnostic criteria for WS, five cases were diagnosed as WS1, while the other six cases were WS2. Genetic analysis revealed three mutations, including a nonsense mutation PAX3 c.583C>T in family 01, a splice‑site mutation MITF c.909G>A in family 03 and an in‑frame deletion MITF c.649_651delGAA in family 05. To the best of the authors' knowledge the mutations (c.583C>T in PAX3 and c.909G>A in MITF) were reported for the first time in Chinese people. Mutations in the gene of interest were not identified in family 02 and 04. The prenatal genetic testing of the two fetuses was carried out and demonstrated that the two babies were normal. The results of the present study expanded the range of known genetic mutations in China. Identification of genetic mutations in these families provided an efficient way to understand the causes of WS and improved genetic counseling.

  6. Allelic Mutations of KITLG, Encoding KIT Ligand, Cause Asymmetric and Unilateral Hearing Loss and Waardenburg Syndrome Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Zazo Seco, Celia; Serrão de Castro, Luciana; van Nierop, Josephine W.; Morín, Matías; Jhangiani, Shalini; Verver, Eva J.J.; Schraders, Margit; Maiwald, Nadine; Wesdorp, Mieke; Venselaar, Hanka; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Oostrik, Jaap; Schoots, Jeroen; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Lelieveld, Stefan H.; Huygen, Patrick L.M.; Insenser, María; Admiraal, Ronald J.C.; Pennings, Ronald J.E.; Hoefsloot, Lies H.; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; de Ligt, Joep; Yntema, Helger G.; Jansen, Joop H.; Muzny, Donna M.; Huls, Gerwin; van Rossum, Michelle M.; Lupski, James R.; Moreno-Pelayo, Miguel Angel; Kunst, Henricus P.M.; Kremer, Hannie

    2015-01-01

    Linkage analysis combined with whole-exome sequencing in a large family with congenital and stable non-syndromic unilateral and asymmetric hearing loss (NS-UHL/AHL) revealed a heterozygous truncating mutation, c.286_303delinsT (p.Ser96Ter), in KITLG. This mutation co-segregated with NS-UHL/AHL as a dominant trait with reduced penetrance. By screening a panel of probands with NS-UHL/AHL, we found an additional mutation, c.200_202del (p.His67_Cys68delinsArg). In vitro studies revealed that the p.His67_Cys68delinsArg transmembrane isoform of KITLG is not detectable at the cell membrane, supporting pathogenicity. KITLG encodes a ligand for the KIT receptor. Also, KITLG-KIT signaling and MITF are suggested to mutually interact in melanocyte development. Because mutations in MITF are causative of Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2), we screened KITLG in suspected WS2-affected probands. A heterozygous missense mutation, c.310C>G (p.Leu104Val), that segregated with WS2 was identified in a small family. In vitro studies revealed that the p.Leu104Val transmembrane isoform of KITLG is located at the cell membrane, as is wild-type KITLG. However, in culture media of transfected cells, the p.Leu104Val soluble isoform of KITLG was reduced, and no soluble p.His67_Cys68delinsArg and p.Ser96Ter KITLG could be detected. These data suggest that mutations in KITLG associated with NS-UHL/AHL have a loss-of-function effect. We speculate that the mechanism of the mutation underlying WS2 and leading to membrane incorporation and reduced secretion of KITLG occurs via a dominant-negative or gain-of-function effect. Our study unveils different phenotypes associated with KITLG, previously associated with pigmentation abnormalities, and will thereby improve the genetic counseling given to individuals with KITLG variants. PMID:26522471

  7. Allelic Mutations of KITLG, Encoding KIT Ligand, Cause Asymmetric and Unilateral Hearing Loss and Waardenburg Syndrome Type 2.

    PubMed

    Zazo Seco, Celia; Serrão de Castro, Luciana; van Nierop, Josephine W; Morín, Matías; Jhangiani, Shalini; Verver, Eva J J; Schraders, Margit; Maiwald, Nadine; Wesdorp, Mieke; Venselaar, Hanka; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Oostrik, Jaap; Schoots, Jeroen; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Lelieveld, Stefan H; Huygen, Patrick L M; Insenser, María; Admiraal, Ronald J C; Pennings, Ronald J E; Hoefsloot, Lies H; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; de Ligt, Joep; Yntema, Helger G; Jansen, Joop H; Muzny, Donna M; Huls, Gerwin; van Rossum, Michelle M; Lupski, James R; Moreno-Pelayo, Miguel Angel; Kunst, Henricus P M; Kremer, Hannie

    2015-11-05

    Linkage analysis combined with whole-exome sequencing in a large family with congenital and stable non-syndromic unilateral and asymmetric hearing loss (NS-UHL/AHL) revealed a heterozygous truncating mutation, c.286_303delinsT (p.Ser96Ter), in KITLG. This mutation co-segregated with NS-UHL/AHL as a dominant trait with reduced penetrance. By screening a panel of probands with NS-UHL/AHL, we found an additional mutation, c.200_202del (p.His67_Cys68delinsArg). In vitro studies revealed that the p.His67_Cys68delinsArg transmembrane isoform of KITLG is not detectable at the cell membrane, supporting pathogenicity. KITLG encodes a ligand for the KIT receptor. Also, KITLG-KIT signaling and MITF are suggested to mutually interact in melanocyte development. Because mutations in MITF are causative of Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2), we screened KITLG in suspected WS2-affected probands. A heterozygous missense mutation, c.310C>G (p.Leu104Val), that segregated with WS2 was identified in a small family. In vitro studies revealed that the p.Leu104Val transmembrane isoform of KITLG is located at the cell membrane, as is wild-type KITLG. However, in culture media of transfected cells, the p.Leu104Val soluble isoform of KITLG was reduced, and no soluble p.His67_Cys68delinsArg and p.Ser96Ter KITLG could be detected. These data suggest that mutations in KITLG associated with NS-UHL/AHL have a loss-of-function effect. We speculate that the mechanism of the mutation underlying WS2 and leading to membrane incorporation and reduced secretion of KITLG occurs via a dominant-negative or gain-of-function effect. Our study unveils different phenotypes associated with KITLG, previously associated with pigmentation abnormalities, and will thereby improve the genetic counseling given to individuals with KITLG variants. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A gene for Waardenburg syndrome type 2 maps close to the human homologue of the microphthalmia gene at chromosome 3p12-p14.1.

    PubMed

    Hughes, A E; Newton, V E; Liu, X Z; Read, A P

    1994-08-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS), an autosomal dominant syndrome of hearing loss and pigmentary disturbances, comprises at least two separate conditions. WS type 1 is normally caused by mutations in PAX3 located at chromosome 2q35 and is distinguished clinically by minor facial malformations. We have now located a gene for WS type 2. Two families show linkage to a group of microsatellite markers located on chromosome 3p12-p14.1. D3S1261 gave a maximum lod score of 6.5 at zero recombination in one large Type 2 family. In a second, smaller family the adjacent marker D3S1210 gave a lod of 2.05 at zero recombination. Interestingly, the human homologue (MITF) of the mouse microphthalmia gene, a good candidate at the phenotypic level, has recently been mapped to 3p12.3-p14.4.

  9. A 725 kb deletion at 22q13.1 chromosomal region including SOX10 gene in a boy with a neurologic variant of Waardenburg syndrome type 2.

    PubMed

    Siomou, Elisavet; Manolakos, Emmanouil; Petersen, Michael; Thomaidis, Loretta; Gyftodimou, Yolanda; Orru, Sandro; Papoulidis, Ioannis

    2012-11-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare (1/40,000) autosomal dominant disorder resulting from melanocyte defects, with varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation of the hair, skin, and inner ear. WS is classified into four clinical subtypes (WS1-S4). Six genes have been identified to be associated with the different subtypes of WS, among which SOX10, which is localized within the region 22q13.1. Lately it has been suggested that whole SOX10 gene deletions can be encountered when testing for WS. In this study we report a case of a 13-year-old boy with a unique de novo 725 kb deletion within the 22q13.1 chromosomal region, including the SOX10 gene and presenting clinical features of a neurologic variant of WS2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. A patient with peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and severe hypoganglionosis associated with a novel SOX10 mutation.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Yuko; Shirai, Kentaro; Takei, Akira; Goto, Yudai; Aoyama, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Akimitu; Imamura, Masatoshi; Enokizono, Takashi; Ohto, Tatsuyuki; Hori, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Keiko; Hayashi, Masaharu; Masumoto, Kouji; Inoue, Ken

    2018-05-01

    In this report, we present the case of a female infant with peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease (PCWH) associated with a novel frameshift mutation (c.842dupT) in exon 5, the last exon of SOX10. She had severe hypoganglionosis in the small intestine and entire colon, and suffered from frequent enterocolitis. The persistence of ganglion cells made both the diagnosis and treatment difficult in the neonatal period. She also showed hypopigmentation of the irises, hair and skin, bilateral sensorineural deafness with hypoplastic inner year, severe demyelinating neuropathy with hypotonia, and diffuse brain hypomyelination. The p.Ser282GlnfsTer12 mutation presumably escapes from nonsense-mediated decay and may generate a dominant-negative effect. We suggest that hypoganglionosis can be a variant intestinal manifestation associated with PCWH and that hypoganglionosis and aganglionosis may share the same pathoetiological mechanism mediated by SOX10 mutations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Waardenburg Syndrome Type 4 Gene, SOX10, Is a Novel Tumor-associated Antigen Identified in a Patient with a Dramatic Response to Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Khong, Hung T.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have identified, for the first time, the presence of de novo cellular immune reactivity against the transcription factor SOX10, using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from a patient who experienced a dramatic clinical response to immunotherapy. SOX10 acts as a critical transactivator of tyrosinase-related protein-2 during melanoblast development and a potent transactivator of micropthalmia-associated transcription factor, which is considered to be a master gene that controls the development and postnatal survival of melanocytes. Mutations in SOX10 result in Waardenburg syndrome type 4. The overlapping epitopes AWISKPPGV and SAWISKPPGV, designated SOX10: 332–340 and SOX10: 331–340, respectively, were recognized by tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte clone M37 in an HLA-A2-restricted fashion. PMID:12036907

  12. EPHA4 haploinsufficiency is responsible for the short stature of a patient with 2q35-q36.2 deletion and Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan; Chen, Rongyu; Fan, Xin; Luo, Jingsi; Qian, Jiale; Wang, Jin; Xie, Bobo; Shen, Yiping; Chen, Shaoke

    2015-04-11

    Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1), an auditory-pigmentary genetic disorder, is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in PAX3. Abnormal physical signs such as dystopia canthorum, patchy hypopigmentation and sensorineural hearing loss are common, but short stature is not associated with WS1. We reported a 4-year and 6 month-old boy with a rare combination of WS1 and severe short stature (83.5 cm (-5.8SD)). His facial features include dystopia canthorum, mild synophrys, slightly up-slanted palpebral fissure, posteriorly rotated ears, alae nasi hypoplasia and micrognathia. No heterochromia was noticed. He had a normal intelligence quotient and hearing. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was 52.7 ng/ml, lower than the normal range (55 ~ 452 ng/ml) and the peak growth hormone level was 7.57 ng/ml at 90 minutes after taking moderate levodopa and pyridostigmine bromide. The patient exhibited a good response to human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy, showing a 9.2 cm/year growth rate and an improvement of 1 standard deviation (SD) of height after one year treatment. CMA test of patient's DNA revealed a 4.46 Mb de novo deletion at 2q35-q36.2 (hg19; chr2:221,234,146-225,697,363). PAX3 haploinsufficiency is known to cause Waardenburg syndrome. Examining overlapping deletions in patients led to the conclusion that EPHA4 is a novel short stature gene. The finding is supported by the splotch-retarded and epha4 knockout mouse models which both showed growth retardation. We believe this rare condition is caused by the haploinsufficiency of both PAX3 and EPH4 genes. We further reported a growth response to recombinant human growth hormone treatment in this patient.

  13. Associated malformations among infants with anophthalmia and microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2012-03-01

    Infants with anophthalmia and microphthalmia frequently have other associated congenital anomalies. The reported frequency and types of associated malformations vary among different studies. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the frequency and types of associated malformations among infants with anophthalmia and microphthalmia in a geographically well defined population from 1979 to 2004 of 346,831 consecutive births. Of the 87 infants with anophthalmia and microphthalmia born during this period (prevalence at birth, 2.5 per 10,000), 90% had associated malformations. Infants with associated malformation were divided into recognizable conditions (22 infants [25%] with chromosomal and 15 infants [17%] with nonchromosomal conditions), and nonrecognizable conditions (41 infants [47%] with multiple malformations). Trisomies 13 and 18 were the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities. Amniotic bands sequence, CHARGE syndrome, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, and VACTERL association were most often present in recognizable nonchromosomal conditions. Malformations in the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems were the most common other anomalies in infants with multiple malformations and nonrecognizable conditions. The frequency of associated malformations in infants with anophthalmia or microphthalmia emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of these infants. Routine screening for other malformations-especially musculoskeletal, cardiac, and central nervous system anomalies-may need to be considered in infants with anophthalmia or microphthalmia, and referral of these infants for genetics evaluation and counseling seems warranted. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Mutation screening of MITF gene in patients with Waardenburg syndrome type 2].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Yang, Shu-Zhi; Liu, Jun; Han, Bing; Wang, Guo-Jian; Zhang, Xin; Kang, Dong-Yang; Dai, Pu; Young, Wie-Yen; Yuan, Hui-Jun

    2008-04-01

    Warrgenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) is the most common autosomal dominantly-inherited syndrome with hearing loss. MITF (microphthalmia associated transcription factor)is a basic-helix-loop-helix-luecine zipper (bHLHZip) factor which regulates expression of tyrosinase, and is involved in melanocyte differentiation. Mutations in MITF associated with WS2 have been identified in some but not all affected families. Here, we report a three-generation Chinese family with a point mutation in the MITF gene causing WS2. The proband exhibits congenital severe sensorineural hearing loss, heterochromia iridis and facial freckles. One of family members manifests sensorineural deafness, and the other patients show premature greying or/and freckles. This mutation, heterozygous deletion c.639delA, creates a stop codon in exon 7 and is predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking normal interaction with its target DNA motif. This mutation is a novel mutation and the third case identified in exon 7 of MITF in WS2. Though there is only one base pair distance between this novel mutation and the other two documented cases and similar amino acids change, significant difference is seen in clinical phenotype, which suggests genetic background may play an important role.

  15. [Analysis of SOX10 gene mutation in a family affected with Waardenburg syndrome type II].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Yan, Yousheng; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Qinghua; Feng, Xuan; Hao, Shen

    2018-02-10

    OBJECTIVE To detect potential mutation of SOX10 gene in a pedigree affected with Warrdenburg syndrome type II. METHODS Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the proband and his family members. Exons and flanking sequences of MITF, PAX3, SOX10, SNAI2, END3 and ENDRB genes were analyzed by chip capturing and high throughput sequencing. Suspected mutations were verified with Sanger sequencing. RESULTS A c.127C>T (p.R43X) mutation of the SOX10 gene was detected in the proband, for which both parents showed a wild-type genotype. CONCLUSION The c.127C>T (p.R43X) mutation of SOX10 gene probably underlies the ocular symptoms and hearing loss of the proband.

  16. Upregulation of the Nr2f1-A830082K12Rik gene pair in murine neural crest cells results in a complex phenotype reminiscent of Waardenburg syndrome type 4

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Karl-F.; Nguyen, Chloé M. A.; Cardinal, Tatiana; Charrier, Baptiste; Silversides, David W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Waardenburg syndrome is a neurocristopathy characterized by a combination of skin and hair depigmentation, and inner ear defects. In the type 4 form, these defects show comorbidity with Hirschsprung disease, a disorder marked by an absence of neural ganglia in the distal colon, triggering functional intestinal obstruction. Here, we report that the Spot mouse line – obtained through an insertional mutagenesis screen for genes involved in neural crest cell (NCC) development – is a model for Waardenburg syndrome type 4. We found that the Spot insertional mutation causes overexpression of an overlapping gene pair composed of the transcription-factor-encoding Nr2f1 and the antisense long non-coding RNA A830082K12Rik in NCCs through a mechanism involving relief of repression of these genes. Consistent with the previously described role of Nr2f1 in promoting gliogenesis in the central nervous system, we further found that NCC-derived progenitors of the enteric nervous system fail to fully colonize Spot embryonic guts owing to their premature differentiation in glial cells. Taken together, our data thus identify silencer elements of the Nr2f1-A830082K12Rik gene pair as new candidate loci for Waardenburg syndrome type 4. PMID:27585883

  17. Upregulation of the Nr2f1-A830082K12Rik gene pair in murine neural crest cells results in a complex phenotype reminiscent of Waardenburg syndrome type 4.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Karl-F; Nguyen, Chloé M A; Cardinal, Tatiana; Charrier, Baptiste; Silversides, David W; Pilon, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a neurocristopathy characterized by a combination of skin and hair depigmentation, and inner ear defects. In the type 4 form, these defects show comorbidity with Hirschsprung disease, a disorder marked by an absence of neural ganglia in the distal colon, triggering functional intestinal obstruction. Here, we report that the Spot mouse line - obtained through an insertional mutagenesis screen for genes involved in neural crest cell (NCC) development - is a model for Waardenburg syndrome type 4. We found that the Spot insertional mutation causes overexpression of an overlapping gene pair composed of the transcription-factor-encoding Nr2f1 and the antisense long non-coding RNA A830082K12Rik in NCCs through a mechanism involving relief of repression of these genes. Consistent with the previously described role of Nr2f1 in promoting gliogenesis in the central nervous system, we further found that NCC-derived progenitors of the enteric nervous system fail to fully colonize Spot embryonic guts owing to their premature differentiation in glial cells. Taken together, our data thus identify silencer elements of the Nr2f1-A830082K12Rik gene pair as new candidate loci for Waardenburg syndrome type 4. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. [SOX2 defect and anophthalmia and microphthalmia].

    PubMed

    Ye, Fu-xiang; Fan, Xian-qun

    2012-11-01

    As a severe congenital developmental disorder, anophthalmia and microphthalmia are usually accompanied with vision impairment and hypoevolutism of the orbit in the affected side. Many genes are involved in anophthalmia and microphthalmia, in which, SOX2 is an important one. The defect of SOX2 causes multiple system disorders, including anophthalmia and microphthalmia. We describe the relationship between the SOX2 defect and anophthalmia/microphthalmia, in order to offer some proposals for the differential diagnosis, treatment and research of anophthalmia and microphthalmia.

  19. SOX10 mutation causes Waardenburg syndrome associated with distinctive phenotypic features in an Iranian family: A clue for phenotype-directed genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, Nazanin; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Alimadadi, Hossein; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad Reza

    2017-05-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a neurocristopathy characterized by hearing impairment and pigmentary disturbances in hair, eyes, and skin. WS is clinically heterogeneous and can be subdivided into four major types (WS1-WS4) where WS4 or Shah-Waardenburg is diagnosed when WS2 is accompanied by Hirschsprung disease (HD). Mutations of SOX10, EDN3/EDNRB have been identified in association with WS4. This study was aimed to determine the pathogenic variant in an Iranian pedigree affected with WS4. A two-generation pedigree with three affected members and considerable phenotypic heterogeneity was recruited. The proband was a 15-year-old boy, with severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment, heterochromia iridis, hypoplastic blue eyes and Hirschprung disease. The other two also presented characteristics of WS2 and complained of chronic constipation with normal anorectal reflex. Sequencing of all exons and exon-intron boundaries of SOX10, EDN3/EDNRB revealed a heterozygous variant c.422T > C in exon 3 of SOX10 confirmed by a series of evidence to be pathogenic. It resulted in p.L141P at the protein level. Leucin 141 is located in Nuclear Export signal, HMG box of the protein. This study is the first report of a WS4 family in the Iranian population. The mutation is associated with distinctive phenotypic profile (association of anosmia and chronic constipation with SOX10 mutations) and could further improve diagnosis and counseling of WS in the Iranian population and can contribute to phenotype-directed genetic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rare association of anophthalmia, complex congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension: case report.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Méndez, Raúl Enrique; Lozano Chinga, Michell Marola

    2016-10-07

    Clinical congenital anophthalmia is described as the uni- or bilateral absence of the eyeball that might occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome. It has a very low prevalence and its etiology is heterogeneous. Complex congenital cardiac malformations are also rare. The association of congenital anophthalmia and congenital heart disease is rarer still, and the etiology of those associations is not well understood yet. We report the case of a patient who had the very rare association of bilateral anophthalmia, multiple cardiac malformations and severe pulmonary hypertension.

  1. A novel mutation in the MITF may be digenic with GJB2 mutations in a large Chinese family of Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xukun; Zhang, Tianyu; Wang, Zhengmin; Jiang, Yi; Chen, Yan; Wang, Hongyan; Ma, Duan; Wang, Lei; Li, Huawei

    2011-12-20

    Waardenburg syndrome type II (WS2) is associated with syndromic deafness. A subset of WS2, WS2A, accounting for approximately 15% of patients, is attributed to mutations in the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene. We examined the genetic basis of WS2 in a large Chinese family. All 9 exons of the MITF gene, the single coding exon (exon 2) of the most common hereditary deafness gene GJB2 and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 12S rRNA were sequenced. A novel heterozygous mutation c.[742_743delAAinsT;746_747delCA] in exon 8 of the MITF gene co-segregates with WS2 in the family. The MITF mutation results in a premature termination codon and a truncated MITF protein with only 247 of the 419 wild type amino acids. The deaf proband had this MITF gene heterozygous mutation as well as a c.[109G>A]+[235delC] compound heterozygous pathogenic mutation in the GJB2 gene. No pathogenic mutation was found in mtDNA 12S rRNA in this family. Thus, a novel compound heterozygous mutation, c.[742_743delAAinsT;746_747delCA] in MITF exon 8 was the key genetic reason for WS2 in this family, and a digenic effect of MITF and GJB2 genes may contribute to deafness of the proband. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. A practical guide to the management of anophthalmia and microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Ragge, N K; Subak-Sharpe, I D; Collin, J R O

    2007-10-01

    Congenital anophthalmia and microphthalmia are rare developmental defects of the globe. They often arise in conjunction with other ocular defects such as coloboma and orbital cyst. They may also be part of more generalised syndromes, such as CHARGE syndrome. Anophthalmia, microphthalmia, and coloboma are likely to be caused by disturbances of the morphogenetic pathway that controls eye development, either as a result of primary genetic defect, or external gestational factors, including infection or drugs that can influence the smooth processes of morphogenesis. The ophthalmologist is often the primary carer for children with anophthalmia and microphthalmia, and as such can coordinate the multidisciplinary input needed to offer optimal care for these individuals, including vision and family support services. They are able to assess the vision and maximise the visual potential of the child and they can also ensure that the cosmetic and social impact of anophthalmia or microphthalmia is minimised by starting socket expansion or referring to a specialist oculoplastics and prosthetics unit. A coordinated approach with paediatrics is necessary to manage any associated conditions. Genetic diagnosis and investigations can greatly assist in providing a diagnosis and informed genetic counselling.

  3. Identification of a novel mutation in the paired domain of PAX3 in an Iranian family with waardenburg syndrome type I.

    PubMed

    Sotirova, V N; Rezaie, T M; Khoshsorour, M M; Sarfarazi, M

    2000-03-01

    Waardenburg syndrome Type I (WS1) is an autosomal dominant disorder that has previously been associated with mutations in the PAX3 gene on the 2q35 region. In this study, we used an Iranian WS1 family with seven affected individuals in three generations. The phenotypic characteristics of the family include sensorineural deafness, dystopia canthorum, hypopigmented skin patches of the upper limbs, congenital white forelock, confluent white eyebrows, nonpigmented iris, poliosis, and hypopigmentation of the retina. Herein, we report a previously unidentified single-base substitution in exon II (C-->T at position 218) that results in a change of serine to leucine (S73L) in this family. This change was not observed in 100 chromosomes of healthy unrelated individuals. This mutation is within the PAX3 paired domain region, a structure that is highly conserved and implicated in DNA binding. This is the first identification of a PAX3 mutation for this phenotype in the Iranian population. This also provides additional confirmation for the involvement of this gene in the etiology of WS1.

  4. A Novel Pathogenic Variant in the MITF Gene Segregating with a Unique Spectrum of Ocular Findings in an Extended Iranian Waardenburg Syndrome Kindred

    PubMed Central

    Jalilian, Nazanin; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad A.; Bahrami, Tayyeb; Karbasi, Golaleh; Bahramian, Mohammad H.; Salimpoor, Abdolrahman; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad R.

    2017-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by abnormal pigmentation of the hair, skin, and iris as well as sensorineural hearing loss. WS is subdivided into 4 major types (WS1–4), where WS2 is characterized by the absence of dystopia canthorum. This study was launched to investigate clinical and molecular characteristics of WS in an extended Iranian WS2 family. A comprehensive clinical investigation was performed. Peripheral blood samples were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. Affected members of the family were studied for possible mutations within the SOX10, MITF, and SNAI2 genes. Six WS2 individuals affected from a large Iranian WS2 kindred were enrolled. All affected members carried the novel substitution c.877C>T at exon 9 in the MITF gene, which resulted in p.Arg293* at the protein level. None of the healthy members and also of 50 ethnically matched controls had this variant. In addition, a spectrum of unique ocular findings, including nystagmus, chorioretinal degeneration, optic disc hypoplasia, astigmatism, and myopia, was segregated with the mutant allele in the pedigree. Our data provide insight into the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of WS2 in an Iranian family and could further expand the spectrum of MITF mutations and have implications for genetic counseling on WS in Iran. PMID:28690485

  5. A Novel Pathogenic Variant in the MITF Gene Segregating with a Unique Spectrum of Ocular Findings in an Extended Iranian Waardenburg Syndrome Kindred.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, Nazanin; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad A; Bahrami, Tayyeb; Karbasi, Golaleh; Bahramian, Mohammad H; Salimpoor, Abdolrahman; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad R

    2017-06-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by abnormal pigmentation of the hair, skin, and iris as well as sensorineural hearing loss. WS is subdivided into 4 major types (WS1-4), where WS2 is characterized by the absence of dystopia canthorum. This study was launched to investigate clinical and molecular characteristics of WS in an extended Iranian WS2 family. A comprehensive clinical investigation was performed. Peripheral blood samples were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. Affected members of the family were studied for possible mutations within the SOX10 , MITF , and SNAI2 genes. Six WS2 individuals affected from a large Iranian WS2 kindred were enrolled. All affected members carried the novel substitution c.877C>T at exon 9 in the MITF gene, which resulted in p.Arg293* at the protein level. None of the healthy members and also of 50 ethnically matched controls had this variant. In addition, a spectrum of unique ocular findings, including nystagmus, chorioretinal degeneration, optic disc hypoplasia, astigmatism, and myopia, was segregated with the mutant allele in the pedigree. Our data provide insight into the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of WS2 in an Iranian family and could further expand the spectrum of MITF mutations and have implications for genetic counseling on WS in Iran.

  6. Identification of a Novel De Novo Variant in the PAX3 Gene in Waardenburg Syndrome by Diagnostic Exome Sequencing: The First Molecular Diagnosis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi-Ae; Lee, Taeheon; Lee, Junnam; Cho, Eun-Hae; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2015-05-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous hereditary auditory pigmentary disorder characterized by congenital sensorineural hearing loss and iris discoloration. Many genes have been linked to WS, including PAX3, MITF, SNAI2, EDNRB, EDN3, and SOX10, and many additional genes have been associated with disorders with phenotypic overlap with WS. To screen all possible genes associated with WS and congenital deafness simultaneously, we performed diagnostic exome sequencing (DES) in a male patient with clinical features consistent with WS. Using DES, we identified a novel missense variant (c.220C>G; p.Arg74Gly) in exon 2 of the PAX3 gene in the patient. Further analysis by Sanger sequencing of the patient and his parents revealed a de novo occurrence of the variant. Our findings show that DES can be a useful tool for the identification of pathogenic gene variants in WS patients and for differentiation between WS and similar disorders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of genetically confirmed WS in Korea.

  7. Identification of a Novel De Novo Variant in the PAX3 Gene in Waardenburg Syndrome by Diagnostic Exome Sequencing: The First Molecular Diagnosis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mi-Ae; Lee, Taeheon; Lee, Junnam

    2015-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous hereditary auditory pigmentary disorder characterized by congenital sensorineural hearing loss and iris discoloration. Many genes have been linked to WS, including PAX3, MITF, SNAI2, EDNRB, EDN3, and SOX10, and many additional genes have been associated with disorders with phenotypic overlap with WS. To screen all possible genes associated with WS and congenital deafness simultaneously, we performed diagnostic exome sequencing (DES) in a male patient with clinical features consistent with WS. Using DES, we identified a novel missense variant (c.220C>G; p.Arg74Gly) in exon 2 of the PAX3 gene in the patient. Further analysis by Sanger sequencing of the patient and his parents revealed a de novo occurrence of the variant. Our findings show that DES can be a useful tool for the identification of pathogenic gene variants in WS patients and for differentiation between WS and similar disorders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of genetically confirmed WS in Korea. PMID:25932447

  8. Identification of a Novel De Novo Heterozygous Deletion in the SOX10 Gene in Waardenburg Syndrome Type II Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Haonan; Jin, Peng; Hao, Qian; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Xia; Wang, Ping

    2017-11-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder associated with pigmentation abnormalities and sensorineural hearing loss. In this study, we investigated the genetic cause of WSII in a patient and evaluated the reliability of the targeted next-generation exome sequencing method for the genetic diagnosis of WS. Clinical evaluations were conducted on the patient and targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify the candidate genes responsible for WSII. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were performed to confirm the targeted NGS results. Targeted NGS detected the entire deletion of the coding sequence (CDS) of the SOX10 gene in the WSII patient. MLPA results indicated that all exons of the SOX10 heterozygous deletion were detected; no aberrant copy number in the PAX3 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) genes was found. Real-time qPCR results identified the mutation as a de novo heterozygous deletion. This is the first report of using a targeted NGS method for WS candidate gene sequencing; its accuracy was verified by using the MLPA and qPCR methods. Our research provides a valuable method for the genetic diagnosis of WS.

  9. Phenotypic variability in Waardenburg syndrome resulting from a 22q12.3-q13.1 microdeletion involving SOX10.

    PubMed

    Jelena, Brezo; Christina, Lam; Eric, Vilain; Fabiola, Quintero-Rivera

    2014-06-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a neurocristopathy characterized by pigmentation abnormalities of the skin, hair, and iris, as well as sensorineural hearing loss. Contiguous gene deletions encompassing SOX10 are rare, which limits conclusions about genotype-phenotype correlation regarding patient prognosis and management. This study adds to the existing body of knowledge by characterizing a 2.4 Mb deletion [arr[hg19] 22q12.3-q13.1 (36467502-38878207)x1] encompassing SOX10 and 53 additional RefSeq genes in a 15-year-old female with atypical WS. The patient presented with developmental delay, profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, heterochromia iridis, hypotonia, and bilateral finger contractures. Published genomic and phenotypic profiles of patients with SOX10-encompassing deletions point toward several plausible candidate gene that could account for the considerable clinical heterogeneity. These studies suggest the existence of modifiers among the co-deleted, dosage-sensitive genes (e.g., MYH9) and among genes whose effect may depend on the unmasking of recessive mutations (e.g., PLA2G6). Finally, we highlight evidence illustrating extensive interconnectivity of SOX10-hypothesizing that haploinsufficiency of SOX10 may "unmask" subtler effects on expression or epistasis associated with variants in SOX10 targets (e.g., DHH), in its partners (e.g., PAX3, EGR2), and in genes with functional overlap (e.g., SOX8, SOX9). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Novel mutations of PAX3, MITF, and SOX10 genes in Chinese patients with type I or type II Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongsheng; Jiang, Lu; Xie, Zhiguo; Mei, Lingyun; He, Chufeng; Hu, Zhengmao; Xia, Kun; Feng, Yong

    2010-06-18

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare disorder characterized by distinctive facial features, pigment disturbances, and sensorineural deafness. There are four WS subtypes. WS1 is mostly caused by PAX3 mutations, while MITF, SNAI2, and SOX10 mutations are associated with WS2. More than 100 different disease-causing mutations have been reported in many ethnic groups, but the data from Chinese patients with WS remains poor. Herein we report 18 patients from 15 Chinese WS families, in which five cases were diagnosed as WS1 and the remaining as WS2. Clinical evaluation revealed intense phenotypic variability in Chinese WS patients. Heterochromia iridis and sensorineural hearing loss were the most frequent features (100% and 88.9%, respectively) of the two subtypes. Many brown freckles on normal skin could be a special subtype of cutaneous pigment disturbances in Chinese WS patients. PAX3, MITF, SNAI2, and SOX10 genes mutations were screened for in all the patients. A total of nine mutations in 11 families were identified and seven of them were novel. The SOX10 mutations in WS2 were first discovered in the Chinese population, with an estimated frequency similar to that of MITF mutations, implying SOX10 is an important pathogenic gene in Chinese WS2 cases and should be considered for first-step analysis in WS2, as well as MITF. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... The eyes are often absent or severely underdeveloped (anophthalmia), or they may be abnormally small ( microphthalmia ). Usually ... limbs, and eyes. These changes likely underlie the anophthalmia and skeletal malformations of ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome . It ...

  12. Mutations in the LHX2 gene are not a frequent cause of micro/anophthalmia

    PubMed Central

    Desmaison, Annaïck; Vigouroux, Adeline; Rieubland, Claudine; Peres, Christine; Calvas, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Microphthalmia and anophthalmia are at the severe end of the spectrum of abnormalities in ocular development. A few genes (orthodenticle homeobox 2 [OTX2], retina and anterior neural fold homeobox [RAX], SRY-box 2 [SOX2], CEH10 homeodomain-containing homolog [CHX10], and growth differentiation factor 6 [GDF6]) have been implicated mainly in isolated micro/anophthalmia but causative mutations of these genes explain less than a quarter of these developmental defects. The essential role of the LIM homeobox 2 (LHX2) transcription factor in early eye development has recently been documented. We postulated that mutations in this gene could lead to micro/anophthalmia, and thus performed molecular screening of its sequence in patients having micro/anophthalmia. Methods Seventy patients having non-syndromic forms of colobomatous microphthalmia (n=25), isolated microphthalmia (n=18), or anophthalmia (n=17), and syndromic forms of micro/anophthalmia (n=10) were included in this study after negative molecular screening for OTX2, RAX, SOX2, and CHX10 mutations. Mutation screening of LHX2 was performed by direct sequencing of the coding sequences and intron/exon boundaries. Results Two heterozygous variants of unknown significance (c.128C>G [p.Pro43Arg]; c.776C>A [p.Pro259Gln]) were identified in LHX2 among the 70 patients. These variations were not identified in a panel of 100 control patients of mixed origins. The variation c.776C>A (p.Pro259Gln) was considered as non pathogenic by in silico analysis, while the variation c.128C>G (p.Pro43Arg) considered as deleterious by in silico analysis and was inherited from the asymptomatic father. Conclusions Mutations in LHX2 do not represent a frequent cause of micro/anophthalmia. PMID:21203406

  13. Mutations in the LHX2 gene are not a frequent cause of micro/anophthalmia.

    PubMed

    Desmaison, Annaïck; Vigouroux, Adeline; Rieubland, Claudine; Peres, Christine; Calvas, Patrick; Chassaing, Nicolas

    2010-12-18

    Microphthalmia and anophthalmia are at the severe end of the spectrum of abnormalities in ocular development. A few genes (orthodenticle homeobox 2 [OTX2], retina and anterior neural fold homeobox [RAX], SRY-box 2 [SOX2], CEH10 homeodomain-containing homolog [CHX10], and growth differentiation factor 6 [GDF6]) have been implicated mainly in isolated micro/anophthalmia but causative mutations of these genes explain less than a quarter of these developmental defects. The essential role of the LIM homeobox 2 (LHX2) transcription factor in early eye development has recently been documented. We postulated that mutations in this gene could lead to micro/anophthalmia, and thus performed molecular screening of its sequence in patients having micro/anophthalmia. Seventy patients having non-syndromic forms of colobomatous microphthalmia (n=25), isolated microphthalmia (n=18), or anophthalmia (n=17), and syndromic forms of micro/anophthalmia (n=10) were included in this study after negative molecular screening for OTX2, RAX, SOX2, and CHX10 mutations. Mutation screening of LHX2 was performed by direct sequencing of the coding sequences and intron/exon boundaries. Two heterozygous variants of unknown significance (c.128C>G [p.Pro43Arg]; c.776C>A [p.Pro259Gln]) were identified in LHX2 among the 70 patients. These variations were not identified in a panel of 100 control patients of mixed origins. The variation c.776C>A (p.Pro259Gln) was considered as non pathogenic by in silico analysis, while the variation c.128C>G (p.Pro43Arg) considered as deleterious by in silico analysis and was inherited from the asymptomatic father. Mutations in LHX2 do not represent a frequent cause of micro/anophthalmia.

  14. Familial co-segregation of Coffin-Lowry syndrome inherited from the mother and autosomal dominant Waardenburg type IV syndrome due to deletion of EDNRB inherited from the father.

    PubMed

    Loupe, Jacob; Sampath, Srirangan; Lacassie, Yves

    2014-10-01

    We report an African-American family that was identified after the proposita was referred for diagnostic evaluation at 4½ months with a history of Hirschsprung and dysmorphic features typical of Waardenburg syndrome (WS). Family evaluation revealed that the father had heterochromidia irides and hypertelorism supporting the clinical diagnosis of WS; however, examination of the mother revealed characteristic facial and digital features of Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS). Molecular testing of the mother identified a novel 2 bp deletion (c.865_866delCA) in codon 289 of RPS6KA3 leading to a frame-shift and premature termination of translation 5 codons downstream (NM_004586.2:p.Gln289ValfsX5). This deletion also was identified in the proposita and her three sisters with a clinical suspicion of CLS, all of whom as carriers for this X-linked disorder had very subtle manifestations. The molecular confirmation of WS type 4 (Shah-Waardenburg; WS4) was not as straightforward. To evaluate WS types 1-4, multiple sequential molecular tests were requested, including Sanger sequencing of all exons, and deletion/duplication analysis using MLPA for PAX3, MITF, SOX10, EDN3 and EDNRB. Although sequencing did not identify any disease causing variants, MLPA identified a heterozygous deletion of the entire EDNRB in the father. This deletion was also found in the proposita and the oldest child. Since the heterozygous deletion was the only change identified in EDNRB, this family represents one of the few cases of an autosomal dominant inheritance of WS4 involving the endothelin pathway. Altogether, clinical evaluation of the family revealed one child to be positive for WS4 and two positive for CLS, while two children were positive for both diseases simultaneously (including the proposita) while another pair test negative for either disease. This kinship is an example of the coincidence of two conditions co-segregating in one family, with variable phenotypes requiring molecular testing to

  15. Mutation analysis of the STRA6 gene in isolated and non-isolated anophthalmia/microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, N; Ragge, N; Kariminejad, A; Buffet, A; Ghaderi-Sohi, S; Martinovic, J; Calvas, P

    2013-03-01

    PDAC syndrome [Pulmonary hypoplasia/agenesis, Diaphragmatic hernia/eventration, Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) and Cardiac Defect] is a condition associated with recessive mutations in the STRA6 gene in some of these patients. Recently, cases with isolated anophthalmia have been associated with STRA6 mutations. To determine the minimal findings associated with STRA6 mutations, we performed mutation analysis of the STRA6 gene in 28 cases with anophthalmia. In 7 of the cases the anophthalmia was isolated, in 14 cases it was associated with one of the major features included in PDAC and 7 had other abnormalities. Mutations were identified in two individuals: one with bilateral anophthalmia and some features included in PDAC, who was a compound heterozygote for a missense mutation and a large intragenic deletion, and the second case with all the major features of PDAC and who had a homozygous splicing mutation. This study suggests that STRA6 mutations are more likely to be identified in individuals with A/M and other abnormalities included in the PDAC spectrum, rather than in isolated A/M cases. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. [The genetic background for the eye malformations anophthalmia and microphthalmia].

    PubMed

    Roos, Laura Sønderberg; Grønskov, Karen; Jensen, Hanne; Tümer, Zeynep

    2012-03-12

    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (AO/MO) are rare congenital eye malformations, in which the eyeball is apparently absent or smaller than normal, which causes various degrees of visual impairment. Over 200 different AO/MO-related syndromes have been described, but the genetic background is unknown in many cases. The aim of this article is to give an overview of AO/MO, focusing on the genetic background. It is illustrated that the future identification of new AO/MO related genes will benefit in the genetic counseling of AO/MO patients, and in the understanding of eye development and congenital eye malformations.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Waardenburg syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... more common in particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes Mutations in the EDN3 , EDNRB , MITF , PAX3 , SNAI2 , and ... in the normal function of the inner ear. Mutations in any of these genes disrupt the normal ...

  18. A de novo 2q35-q36.1 deletion incorporating IHH in a Chinese boy (47,XYY) with syndactyly, type III Waardenburg syndrome, and congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Ren, G F; Zhang, H Z; Yi, C Y; Peng, Z J

    2016-12-02

    Reports of terminal and interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 2 are rare in the literature. Here, we present a case report concerning a Chinese boy with a 47,XYY karyotype and a de novo deletion comprising approximately 5 Mb between 2q35 and q36.1, along with syndactyly, type III Waardenburg syndrome, and congenital heart disease. High-resolution chromosome analysis to detect copy number variations was carried out using an Affymetrix microarray platform, and the genes affected by the patient's deletion, including IHH, were determined. However, no copy number changes were observed in his healthy parents. The present case exhibited novel syndactyly features, broadening the spectrum of clinical findings observed in individuals with 2q interstitial deletions. Our data, together with previous observations, suggest that IHH haploinsufficiency is the principal pathogenic factor in the syndactyly phenotype in this study, and that different types of variations at the IHH locus may cause divergent disease phenotypes. This is the first report of the involvement of IHH haploinsufficiency in syndactyly phenotype.

  19. ALDH1A3 Mutations Cause Recessive Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia

    PubMed Central

    Fares-Taie, Lucas; Gerber, Sylvie; Chassaing, Nicolas; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Hanein, Sylvain; Silva, Eduardo; Serey, Margaux; Serre, Valérie; Gérard, Xavier; Baumann, Clarisse; Plessis, Ghislaine; Demeer, Bénédicte; Brétillon, Lionel; Bole, Christine; Nitschke, Patrick; Munnich, Arnold; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Calvas, Patrick; Kaplan, Josseline; Ragge, Nicola; Rozet, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M) are early-eye-development anomalies resulting in absent or small ocular globes, respectively. A/M anomalies occur in syndromic or nonsyndromic forms. They are genetically heterogeneous, some mutations in some genes being responsible for both anophthalmia and microphthalmia. Using a combination of homozygosity mapping, exome sequencing, and Sanger sequencing, we identified homozygosity for one splice-site and two missense mutations in the gene encoding the A3 isoform of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A3) in three consanguineous families segregating A/M with occasional orbital cystic, neurological, and cardiac anomalies. ALDH1A3 is a key enzyme in the formation of a retinoic acid gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during early eye development. Transitory expression of mutant ALDH1A3 open reading frames showed that both missense mutations reduce the accumulation of the enzyme, potentially leading to altered retinoic acid synthesis. Although the role of retinoic acid signaling in eye development is well established, our findings provide genetic evidence of a direct link between retinoic-acid-synthesis dysfunction and early-eye-development anomalies in humans. PMID:23312594

  20. ALDH1A3 mutations cause recessive anophthalmia and microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Fares-Taie, Lucas; Gerber, Sylvie; Chassaing, Nicolas; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Hanein, Sylvain; Silva, Eduardo; Serey, Margaux; Serre, Valérie; Gérard, Xavier; Baumann, Clarisse; Plessis, Ghislaine; Demeer, Bénédicte; Brétillon, Lionel; Bole, Christine; Nitschke, Patrick; Munnich, Arnold; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Calvas, Patrick; Kaplan, Josseline; Ragge, Nicola; Rozet, Jean-Michel

    2013-02-07

    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M) are early-eye-development anomalies resulting in absent or small ocular globes, respectively. A/M anomalies occur in syndromic or nonsyndromic forms. They are genetically heterogeneous, some mutations in some genes being responsible for both anophthalmia and microphthalmia. Using a combination of homozygosity mapping, exome sequencing, and Sanger sequencing, we identified homozygosity for one splice-site and two missense mutations in the gene encoding the A3 isoform of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A3) in three consanguineous families segregating A/M with occasional orbital cystic, neurological, and cardiac anomalies. ALDH1A3 is a key enzyme in the formation of a retinoic acid gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during early eye development. Transitory expression of mutant ALDH1A3 open reading frames showed that both missense mutations reduce the accumulation of the enzyme, potentially leading to altered retinoic acid synthesis. Although the role of retinoic acid signaling in eye development is well established, our findings provide genetic evidence of a direct link between retinoic-acid-synthesis dysfunction and early-eye-development anomalies in humans. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Congenital anophthalmia: current concepts in management.

    PubMed

    Quaranta-Leoni, Francesco M

    2011-09-01

    The introduction of hydrogel socket and orbital expanders has modified the approach towards the rehabilitation of congenital anophthalmia. This study highlights the most recent advances for the treatment of congenital anophthalmia based on personal experience and the review of recent literature. Hydrogel socket expanders may be positioned as an out-patient procedure with topical anaesthesia, using cyanoacrylate glue as opposed to temporary tarsorraphy. Increased orbital volume has been confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following early dermis-fat graft in children with congenital anophthalmia. An orbital tissue expander made of an inflatable silicone globe sliding on a titanium T-plate and secured to the lateral orbital rim appears to be effective to stimulate orbital bone growth and development. Congenital anophthalmia has a complex cause with both genetic and environmental factors involved. The ideal treatment is simultaneous expansion of the eyelids, socket and orbital bones, and it should begin after birth as soon as possible. Socket expansion with self-inflating expanders is a useful technique, although custom-made conformers may produce similar results. Dermis-fat grafts are another reasonable option as an orbital implant, following adequate lid and socket expansion.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Lenz microphthalmia syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyeballs that are abnormally small ( microphthalmia ) or absent (anophthalmia), leading to vision loss or blindness. Other eye ... Lenz dysplasia Lenz syndrome MAA MCOPS1 microphthalmia or anophthalmos with associated anomalies microphthalmia, syndromic 1 Related Information ...

  3. Descriptive epidemiology of anophthalmia and microphthalmia, Hawaii, 1986-2001.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B; Merz, Ruth D

    2006-03-01

    Population-based epidemiologic data on anophthalmia and microphthalmia in the United States are limited and have come mainly from only a few states. The intent of this study was to report on the epidemiology of these eye defects. Cases were derived from a population-based birth defects registry in Hawaii and comprised all infants and fetuses with anophthalmia and microphthalmia who were delivered during 1986-2001. Anophthalmia and microphthalmia rates per 10,000 births were determined for selected factors, and comparisons were made by calculating the rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Ninety-six cases of anophthalmia and microphthalmia were identified, with a rate of 3.21 per 10,000 live births. The eye defects were isolated in 5 cases (5.2%), and 24 cases (25.0%) had confirmed chromosomal abnormalities. The risk of anophthalmia and microphthalmia varied over time and was significantly higher for live-born infants with low birth weights and gestational ages. The anophthalmia and microphthalmia rates also varied by maternal race/ethnicity, sex, and plurality, although these differences were not statistically significant. Anophthalmia and microphthalmia frequently occurred with other birth defects, and the rate was consistent with that found in the literature. The risk of defects differed significantly with time period, birth weight, and gestational age. The impact of many factors on anophthalmia and microphthalmia in Hawaii was frequently consistent with that reported elsewhere. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Compiling a national register of babies born with anophthalmia/microphthalmia in England 1988-94

    PubMed Central

    Busby, A.; Dolk, H.; Collin, R.; Jones, R; Winter, R.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To describe the prevalence of anophthalmia/microphthalmia in babies born in England 1988-94, as well as their overall survival, and the incidence of associated eye and non-eye malformations; to determine the usefulness of different sources of medical and health service information for establishing a retrospective register of anophthalmia/microphthalmia.
METHODS—Multiple sources for initial (retrospective) case ascertainment were surveyed, followed by questionnaires to clinicians to establish severity, associated malformations, and aetiology for England, 1988-94. The population surveyed was all births in England for this time period (4 570 350 births). Cases included live births, stillbirths, or terminations after prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomaly, with anophthalmia/microphthalmia, with or without other malformations and syndromes. Trisomy 13 was subsequently excluded.
RESULTS—The proportion of cases notified by any one information source was not more than 26% (Office for National Statistics Register 22%, paediatricians 26%, district sources 25%). Sixty nine per cent of cases (51% of severe cases) were notified by only one source. A total of 449 cases were reported, prevalence 1.0 per 10 000 births. The prevalence was stable over time, although the proportion notified by clinicians rose in more recent years. Thirty four per cent of affected babies had mild microphthalmia. Of those with severe anophthalmia/microphthalmia, 51% were bilateral, other eye malformations were present in 72%, non-eye malformations in 65%, and a "known aetiology" was attributed in 22%. Three quarters of those severely affected survived infancy.
CONCLUSIONS—Despite high response rates from the sources of information contacted, the lack of duplication between sources indicates the difficulties of retrospective ascertainment and the need for multiple sources when establishing a register. Anophthalmos/microphthalmos is usually associated with other malformations. Most

  5. Whole-genome copy number variation analysis in anophthalmia and microphthalmia

    PubMed Central

    Schilter, Kala F.; Reis, Linda M.; Schneider, Adele; Bardakjian, Tanya M.; Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Kozel, Beth A.; Zimmerman, Holly H.; Broeckel, Ulrich; Semina, Elena V.

    2014-01-01

    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M) represent severe developmental ocular malformations. Currently, mutations in known genes explain less than 40% of A/M cases. We performed whole genome copy number variation analysis in sixty patients affected with isolated or syndromic A/M. Pathogenic deletions of 3q26 (SOX2) were identified in four independent patients with syndromic microphthalmia. Other variants of interest included regions with a known role in human disease (likely pathogenic) as well as novel rearrangements (uncertain significance). A 2.2-Mb duplication of 3q29 in a patient with nonsyndromic anophthalmia and an 877-kb duplication of 11p13 (PAX6) and a 1.4-Mb deletion of 17q11.2 (NF1) in two independent probands with syndromic microphthalmia and other ocular defects were identified; while ocular anomalies have been previously associated with 3q29 duplications, PAX6 duplications, and NF1 mutations in some cases, the ocular phenotypes observed here are more severe than previously reported. Three novel regions of possible interest included a 2q14.2 duplication which cosegregated with microphthalmia/microcornea and congenital cataracts in one family, and 2q21 and 15q26 duplications in two additional cases; each of these regions contains genes that are active during vertebrate ocular development. Overall, this study identified causative copy number mutations and regions with a possible role in ocular disease in 17% of A/M cases. PMID:23701296

  6. Microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma and associated ocular and systemic features: understanding the spectrum.

    PubMed

    Skalicky, Simon E; White, Andrew J R; Grigg, John R; Martin, Frank; Smith, Jeremy; Jones, Michael; Donaldson, Craig; Smith, James E H; Flaherty, Maree; Jamieson, Robyn V

    2013-12-01

    Microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma form an interrelated spectrum of congenital eye abnormalities. To document the ocular and systemic findings and inheritance patterns in patients with microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma disease to gain insight into the underlying developmental etiologies. This retrospective consecutive case series was conducted at a tertiary referral center. Included in the study were 141 patients with microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma disease without a recognized syndromic etiology who attended the Westmead Children's Hospital, Sydney, from 1981-2012. Cases were grouped on the basis of the presence or absence of an optic fissure closure defect (OFCD); those with OFCD were further subdivided into microphthalmic and nonmicrophthalmic cases. Anophthalmic cases were considered as a separate group. Associated ocular and systemic abnormalities and inheritance patterns were assessed. Of 141 cases, 61 (43%) were microphthalmic non-OFCD (NOFCD), 34 (24%) microphthalmic OFCD, 32 (23%) nonmicrophthalmic coloboma (OFCD), 9 (6%) anophthalmic, and 5 (4%) were unclassified. Sixty-three (45%) had bilateral disease. Eighty-four patients (60%) had an associated ocular abnormality; of these, cataract (P < .001) and posterior segment anomalies (P < .001) were most common in the NOFCD group. Forty-eight (34%) had an associated systemic abnormality, most commonly neurological, musculoskeletal and facial, urological and genital, or cardiac. Neurological abnormalities were most common in the anophthalmic group (P = .003), while urological abnormalities were particularly seen in the OFCD groups (P = .009). Familial cases were identified in both the OFCD and NOFCD groups, with a likely autosomal dominant inheritance pattern in 9 of 10 families. This series indicated that the OFCD/NOFCD distinction may be useful in guiding evaluation for ocular and systemic associations, as well as the direction and analysis of genetic investigation.

  7. Report of an unsual case of anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft in a newborn with Toxoplasma gondii congenital infection.

    PubMed

    Arce-Estrada, Gabriel Emmanuel; Gómez-Toscano, Valeria; Cedillo-Peláez, Carlos; Sesman-Bernal, Ana Luisa; Bosch-Canto, Vanessa; Mayorga-Butrón, José Luis; Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Correa, Dolores

    2017-07-03

    We present one unusual case of anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft, probably due to congenital toxoplasmosis only. A two-month-old male had a twin in utero who disappeared between the 7 th and the 14 th week of gestation. At birth, the baby presented anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft, and no sign compatible with genetic or exposition/deficiency problems, like the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome or maternal vitamin A deficiency. Congenital toxoplasmosis was confirmed by the presence of IgM abs and IgG neo-antibodies in western blot, as well as by real time PCR in blood. CMV infection was also discarded by PCR and IgM negative results. Structures suggestive of T. gondii pseudocysts were observed in a biopsy taken during the first functional/esthetic surgery. We conclude that this is a rare case of anophthalmia combined with craniofacial cleft due to congenital toxoplasmosis, that must be considered by physicians. This has not been reported before.

  8. ALDH1A3 loss of function causes bilateral anophthalmia/microphthalmia and hypoplasia of the optic nerve and optic chiasm.

    PubMed

    Yahyavi, Mani; Abouzeid, Hana; Gawdat, Ghada; de Preux, Anne-Sophie; Xiao, Tong; Bardakjian, Tanya; Schneider, Adele; Choi, Alex; Jorgenson, Eric; Baier, Herwig; El Sada, Mohamad; Schorderet, Daniel F; Slavotinek, Anne M

    2013-08-15

    The major active retinoid, all-trans retinoic acid, has long been recognized as critical for the development of several organs, including the eye. Mutations in STRA6, the gene encoding the cellular receptor for vitamin A, in patients with Matthew-Wood syndrome and anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M), have previously demonstrated the importance of retinol metabolism in human eye disease. We used homozygosity mapping combined with next-generation sequencing to interrogate patients with anophthalmia and microphthalmia for new causative genes. We used whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing to study a family with two affected brothers with bilateral A/M and a simplex case with bilateral anophthalmia and hypoplasia of the optic nerve and optic chiasm. Analysis of novel sequence variants revealed homozygosity for two nonsense mutations in ALDH1A3, c.568A>G, predicting p.Lys190*, in the familial cases, and c.1165A>T, predicting p.Lys389*, in the simplex case. Both mutations predict nonsense-mediated decay and complete loss of function. We performed antisense morpholino (MO) studies in Danio rerio to characterize the developmental effects of loss of Aldh1a3 function. MO-injected larvae showed a significant reduction in eye size, and aberrant axonal projections to the tectum were noted. We conclude that ALDH1A3 loss of function causes anophthalmia and aberrant eye development in humans and in animal model systems.

  9. ALDH1A3 loss of function causes bilateral anophthalmia/microphthalmia and hypoplasia of the optic nerve and optic chiasm

    PubMed Central

    Yahyavi, Mani; Abouzeid, Hana; Gawdat, Ghada; de Preux, Anne-Sophie; Xiao, Tong; Bardakjian, Tanya; Schneider, Adele; Choi, Alex; Jorgenson, Eric; Baier, Herwig; El Sada, Mohamad; Schorderet, Daniel F.; Slavotinek, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    The major active retinoid, all-trans retinoic acid, has long been recognized as critical for the development of several organs, including the eye. Mutations in STRA6, the gene encoding the cellular receptor for vitamin A, in patients with Matthew–Wood syndrome and anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M), have previously demonstrated the importance of retinol metabolism in human eye disease. We used homozygosity mapping combined with next-generation sequencing to interrogate patients with anophthalmia and microphthalmia for new causative genes. We used whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing to study a family with two affected brothers with bilateral A/M and a simplex case with bilateral anophthalmia and hypoplasia of the optic nerve and optic chiasm. Analysis of novel sequence variants revealed homozygosity for two nonsense mutations in ALDH1A3, c.568A>G, predicting p.Lys190*, in the familial cases, and c.1165A>T, predicting p.Lys389*, in the simplex case. Both mutations predict nonsense-mediated decay and complete loss of function. We performed antisense morpholino (MO) studies in Danio rerio to characterize the developmental effects of loss of Aldh1a3 function. MO-injected larvae showed a significant reduction in eye size, and aberrant axonal projections to the tectum were noted. We conclude that ALDH1A3 loss of function causes anophthalmia and aberrant eye development in humans and in animal model systems. PMID:23591992

  10. The epidemiology of anophthalmia and microphthalmia in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Källén, Bengt; Tornqvist, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    Infants with a clinical diagnosis of anophthalmia or microphthalmia were identified from four health registers in Sweden, covering different parts of the period 1965-2001. During the observation period, the rate of anophthalmia decreased from the early 1970s from 0.4 to 0.2 per 10,000 births. The registered rate of microphthalmia increased markedly during the observation period to reach a maximum in 1987 of about 1.5 per 10,000. About 10% of the 432 identified children had a chromosome anomaly. There was no geographical variation in prevalence and infants born in urban or rural districts had, if anything, a lower risk than infants born in cities (0.93 and 1.13 per 10,000, respectively). Non-eye malformations were more common at anophthalmia (63%) than at microphthalmia (30%). Sex ratio was normal and no statistically significant variation between sub-groups (anophthalmia, microphthalmia, isolated, associated with non-eye malformations) could be demonstrated. There was a marked risk increase with maternal age but no certain parity effect, no effect of maternal education, but a possible association with subfertility. Maternal smoking in early pregnancy seemed to increase the risk for anophthalmia or microphthalmia in the absence of a coloboma.

  11. Whole-genome copy number variation analysis in anophthalmia and microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Schilter, K F; Reis, L M; Schneider, A; Bardakjian, T M; Abdul-Rahman, O; Kozel, B A; Zimmerman, H H; Broeckel, U; Semina, E V

    2013-11-01

    Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) represent severe developmental ocular malformations. Currently, mutations in known genes explain less than 40% of A/M cases. We performed whole-genome copy number variation analysis in 60 patients affected with isolated or syndromic A/M. Pathogenic deletions of 3q26 (SOX2) were identified in four independent patients with syndromic microphthalmia. Other variants of interest included regions with a known role in human disease (likely pathogenic) as well as novel rearrangements (uncertain significance). A 2.2-Mb duplication of 3q29 in a patient with non-syndromic anophthalmia and an 877-kb duplication of 11p13 (PAX6) and a 1.4-Mb deletion of 17q11.2 (NF1) in two independent probands with syndromic microphthalmia and other ocular defects were identified; while ocular anomalies have been previously associated with 3q29 duplications, PAX6 duplications, and NF1 mutations in some cases, the ocular phenotypes observed here are more severe than previously reported. Three novel regions of possible interest included a 2q14.2 duplication which cosegregated with microphthalmia/microcornea and congenital cataracts in one family, and 2q21 and 15q26 duplications in two additional cases; each of these regions contains genes that are active during vertebrate ocular development. Overall, this study identified causative copy number mutations and regions with a possible role in ocular disease in 17% of A/M cases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Anophthalmia: an uncommon manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Pu, Jia-Li; Zhang, Jian-Min; Hong, Yuan

    2011-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disorder, affecting approximately 1 of 3500 people. Ocular disorders, such as Lisch nodules, optic gliomas, and anterior segment defects, are typical with clinical presentation. Anophthalmia, as a rare eye malformation, has never been reported in patients with NF-1. We report a 27-year-old patient in whom clinical manifestations of café au lait spots, neurofibromas, osseous orbital dysplasia, and anophthalmia were observed. The diagnosis of NF-1 was made, according to clinical course and brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Because the patient refused aggressive management approaches, she was managed conservatively and is well on follow-up. We suggest that patients presenting with anophthalmia need serious evaluation and that NF-1 needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  13. Congenital Microphthalmia, Anophthalmia and Coloboma among Live Births in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Roos, Laura; Jensen, Hanne; Grønskov, Karen; Holst, René; Tümer, Zeynep

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to quantify the occurrence of the congenital eye malformations anophthalmia (AO), microphthalmia (MO) and coloboma among liveborn infants in Denmark, and to estimate the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in this group of patients. A cohort of patients born in 1995-2012 with diagnoses of MO/AO or coloboma was identified from the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR), and their ocular and extra-ocular diagnoses were reviewed. In order to assess the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in the cohort, the data were cross-referenced with the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry (DCCR). We identified 415 patients with MO/AO/coloboma in the DNPR. The total number of live births from 1995-2012 was 1,174,299, and the average birth prevalence of MO/AO/coloboma was 3.6/10,000 live births and of MO/AO was 1.2/10,000 live births. Extra-ocular abnormalities were observed in 32.1% of MO/AO cases and 21.7% of coloboma cases. Chromosome analysis was performed in 36.1% of the cohort, and 14.7% of cases had an abnormal karyotype. In 8.7% of the cohort, a chromosome microarray analysis was performed, and in 44.4% of cases, a possibly pathogenic copy number variation was observed. The birth prevalence of MO/AO/coloboma in Denmark has been steady at 3.6/10,000 live births during the last 17 years. The rate of syndromic cases was lower compared to other studies. A relatively high rate of pathogenic chromosomal aberrations was observed, suggesting an important role for cytogenetic analysis in this group of patients.

  14. Anophthalmia in a Wild Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).

    PubMed

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Hartnett, Elizabeth A; James, Fiona M K; Grahn, Bruce H

    2017-10-01

    We describe bilateral true anophthalmia in a juvenile female eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) with histologic confirmation that orbital contents lacked ocular tissues. Additionally, the optic chiasm of the brain was absent and axon density in the optic tract adjacent to the lateral geniculate nucleus was reduced.

  15. Reconstruction of eyelids with Washio flap in anophthalmia.

    PubMed

    Tvrdek, M; Kozák, J

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a case report of a patient with anophthalmia in whom retroauriculo-temporal flap (Washio flap) was used for reconstruction of eyelids. This flap, which is mostly used for reconstructions of nasal defects, was not used in this way according to available literature.

  16. RAX and anophthalmia in humans: Evidence of brain anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Mohamed A.; Bayoumi, Nader; ElShakankiri, Nihal; Marzouk, Iman; Hauser, Philippe; Schorderet, Daniel F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the clinical and genetic study of two families of Egyptian origin with clinical anophthalmia. To further determine the role of the retina and anterior neural fold homeobox gene (RAX) in anophthalmia and associated cerebral malformations. Methods Three patients with clinical anophthalmia and first-degree relatives from two consanguineous families of Egyptian origin underwent full ophthalmologic, general and neurologic examination, and blood tests. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in the index cases of both families. Genomic DNA was prepared from venous leukocytes, and direct sequencing of all the exons and intron-exon junctions of RAX was performed after PCR amplification. Results Clinical bilateral anophthalmia was observed in all three patients. General and neurologic examinations were normal; obesity and delay in psychomotor development were observed in the isolated case. Orbital MRI showed a hypoplastic orbit with present but rudimentary extraocular muscles and normal lacrimal glands. Cerebral MRI showed agenesis of the optic nerves, optic tracts, and optic chiasma. In the index case of family A, the absence of the frontal and sphenoidal sinuses was also noted. In the index case of family B, only the sphenoidal sinus was absent, and there was significant cortical atrophy. The three patients carried a novel homozygous c.543+3A>G mutation (IVS2+3A>G) in RAX. Parents were healthy heterozygous carriers. No mutations were detected in orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2), ventral anterior homeobox 1 (VAX1), or sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2). Conclusions This is the first report of a homozygous splicing RAX mutation associated with autosomal recessive bilateral anophthalmia. To our knowledge, only two isolated cases of anophthalmia, three null and one missense case affecting nuclear localization or the DNA-binding homeodomain, have been found to be caused by compound heterozygote RAX mutations. A novel missense RAX mutation

  17. RAX and anophthalmia in humans: evidence of brain anomalies.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Hana; Youssef, Mohamed A; Bayoumi, Nader; ElShakankiri, Nihal; Marzouk, Iman; Hauser, Philippe; Schorderet, Daniel F

    2012-01-01

    To report the clinical and genetic study of two families of Egyptian origin with clinical anophthalmia. To further determine the role of the retina and anterior neural fold homeobox gene (RAX) in anophthalmia and associated cerebral malformations. Three patients with clinical anophthalmia and first-degree relatives from two consanguineous families of Egyptian origin underwent full ophthalmologic, general and neurologic examination, and blood tests. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in the index cases of both families. Genomic DNA was prepared from venous leukocytes, and direct sequencing of all the exons and intron-exon junctions of RAX was performed after PCR amplification. Clinical bilateral anophthalmia was observed in all three patients. General and neurologic examinations were normal; obesity and delay in psychomotor development were observed in the isolated case. Orbital MRI showed a hypoplastic orbit with present but rudimentary extraocular muscles and normal lacrimal glands. Cerebral MRI showed agenesis of the optic nerves, optic tracts, and optic chiasma. In the index case of family A, the absence of the frontal and sphenoidal sinuses was also noted. In the index case of family B, only the sphenoidal sinus was absent, and there was significant cortical atrophy. The three patients carried a novel homozygous c.543+3A>G mutation (IVS2+3A>G) in RAX. Parents were healthy heterozygous carriers. No mutations were detected in orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2), ventral anterior homeobox 1 (VAX1), or sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2). This is the first report of a homozygous splicing RAX mutation associated with autosomal recessive bilateral anophthalmia. To our knowledge, only two isolated cases of anophthalmia, three null and one missense case affecting nuclear localization or the DNA-binding homeodomain, have been found to be caused by compound heterozygote RAX mutations. A novel missense RAX mutation was identified in three patients with

  18. [Anophthalmia and microphthalmia requires multidisciplinary care. Many of the children also have other medical problems].

    PubMed

    Jugård, Ylva; Odersjö, Marie; Topa, Alexandra; Lindgren, Gun; Andersson Grönlund, Marita

    2015-07-13

    Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) are rare congenital eye malformations. Early intervention with ocular prosthesis can stimulate orbital growth and prevent facial asymmetry. We reviewed medical records from 18 individuals with A/M (0.8-31 years) treated with ocular prosthesis at Sahlgrenska University Hospital between 2000 and 2012. A majority had other ocular findings. Seven had subnormal visual acuity in the fellow eye, one third were in contact with vision support services and half of the group wore glasses. Eleven individuals had extra-ocular findings such as cardiac defect, hearing impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders, possibly indicating syndromic conditions. We suggest that investigation of A/M children should include ultrasound of the eye, optionally visual evoked potential and magnetic resonance imaging of the CNS. The ophthalmologist should initiate treatment with prosthesis, pediatric assessment, hearing tests and genetic counseling, but should also monitor visual development of the fellow eye.

  19. Syndrome in question*

    PubMed Central

    Peruzzo, Juliano; Nazar, Fernanda Luca; Tubone, Mariana Quirino; Escobar, Gabriela Fortes; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is an inherited disease characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentation changes and minor facial malformations. It has four clinical variants. We report the case of a girl who, like her mother, was affected by this syndrome. The diagnosis was made after detection and treatment of deafness. PMID:26375234

  20. SOX2, OTX2 and PAX6 analysis in subjects with anophthalmia and microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Lucia; Franzoni, Alessandra; Scarcello, Manuela; Sala, Stefano; Garavelli, Livia; Modugno, Alessandra; Grammatico, Paola; Patrosso, Maria Cristina; Piozzi, Elena; Del Longo, Alessandra; Gesu, Giovanni P; Manfredini, Emanuela; Primignani, Paola; Damante, Giuseppe; Penco, Silvana

    2015-02-01

    Anophthalmia (A) and microphthalmia (M) are rare developmental anomalies that have significant effects on visual activity. In fraction of A/M subjects, single genetic defects have been identified as causative. In this study we analysed 65 Italian A/M patients, 21 of whom are syndromic, for mutations in SOX2, OTX2 and PAX6 genes. In syndromic patients the presence of genome imbalances through array CGH was also investigated. No mutations were found for OTX2 and PAX6 genes. Three causative SOX2 mutations were found in subjects with syndromic A. In a subject with syndromic signs and monolateral M, two de novo 6.26 Mb and 1.37 Mb deletions in 4q13.2q13.3 have been identified. A SOX2 missense (p.Ala161Ser) mutation was found in 1 out of 39 a subject with non-syndromic monolateral M. Alanine at position 161 is conserved along phylogeny and the p.Ala161Ser mutation is estimated pathogenic by in silico analysis. However, this mutation was also present in the unaffected patient's daughter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular basis of splotch and Waardenburg Pax-3 mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Chalepakis, G; Goulding, M; Read, A; Strachan, T; Gruss, P

    1994-01-01

    Pax genes control certain aspects of development, as mutations result in (semi)dominant defects apparent during embryogenesis. Pax-3 has been associated with the mouse mutant splotch (Sp) and the human Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1). We have examined the molecular basis of splotch and WS1 by studying the effect of mutations on DNA binding, using a defined target sequence. Pax-3 contains two different types of functional DNA-binding domains, a paired domain and a homeodomain. Mutational analysis of Pax-3 reveals different modes of DNA binding depending on the presence of these domains. A segment of Pax-3 located between the two DNA-binding domains, including a conserved octapeptide, participates in protein homodimerization. Pax-3 mutations found in splotch alleles and WS1 individuals change DNA binding and, in the case of a protein product of the Sp allele, dimerization. These findings were taken as a basis to define the molecular nature of the mutants. Images PMID:7909605

  2. SLUG (SNAI2) deletions in patients with Waardenburg disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, Manuel; Rodríguez-García, Arancha; Pérez-Losada, Jesús; Sagrera, Ana; Read, Andrew P; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2002-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS; deafness with pigmentary abnormalities) is a congenital disorder caused by defective function of the embryonic neural crest. Depending on additional symptoms, WS is classified into four types: WS1, WS2, WS3 and WS4. WS1 and WS3 are caused by mutations in PAX3, whereas WS2 is heterogenous, being caused by mutations in the microphthalmia (MITF) gene in some but not all affected families. The identification of Slugh, a zinc-finger transcription factor expressed in migratory neural crest cells, as the gene responsible for pigmentary disturbances in mice prompted us to analyse the role of its human homologue SLUG in neural crest defects. Here we show that two unrelated patients with WS2 have homozygous deletions in SLUG which result in absence of the SLUG product. We further show that Mitf is present in Slug-deficient cells and transactivates the SLUG promoter, and that Slugh and Kit genetically interact in vivo. Our findings further define the locus heterogeneity of WS2 and point to an essential role of SLUG in the development of neural crest-derived human cell lineages: its absence causes the auditory-pigmentary symptoms in at least some individuals with WS2.

  3. Novel mutations in PAX6, OTX2 and NDP in anophthalmia, microphthalmia and coloboma.

    PubMed

    Deml, Brett; Reis, Linda M; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Clark, Robin D; Kariminejad, Ariana; Semina, Elena V

    2016-04-01

    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M) are developmental ocular malformations defined as the complete absence or reduction in size of the eye. A/M is a highly heterogeneous disorder with SOX2 and FOXE3 playing major roles in dominant and recessive pedigrees, respectively; however, the majority of cases lack a genetic etiology. We analyzed 28 probands affected with A/M spectrum (without mutations in SOX2/FOXE3) by whole-exome sequencing. Analysis of 83 known A/M factors identified pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in PAX6, OTX2 and NDP in three patients. A novel heterozygous likely pathogenic variant in PAX6, c.767T>C, p.(Val256Ala), was identified in two brothers with bilateral microphthalmia, coloboma, primary aphakia, iris hypoplasia, sclerocornea and congenital glaucoma; the unaffected mother appears to be a mosaic carrier. While A/M has been reported as a rare feature, this is the first report of congenital primary aphakia in association with PAX6 and the identified allele represents the first variant in the PAX6 homeodomain to be associated with A/M. A novel pathogenic variant in OTX2, c.651delC, p.(Thr218Hisfs*76), in a patient with syndromic bilateral anophthalmia and a hemizygous pathogenic variant in NDP, c.293 C>T, p.(Pro98Leu), in two brothers with isolated bilateral microphthalmia and sclerocornea were also identified. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were not discovered in the 25 remaining A/M cases. This study underscores the utility of whole-exome sequencing for identification of causative mutations in highly variable ocular phenotypes as well as the extreme genetic heterogeneity of A/M conditions.

  4. Novel mutations in PAX6, OTX2 and NDP in anophthalmia, microphthalmia and coloboma

    PubMed Central

    Deml, Brett; Reis, Linda M; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Clark, Robin D; Kariminejad, Ariana; Semina, Elena V

    2016-01-01

    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M) are developmental ocular malformations defined as the complete absence or reduction in size of the eye. A/M is a highly heterogeneous disorder with SOX2 and FOXE3 playing major roles in dominant and recessive pedigrees, respectively; however, the majority of cases lack a genetic etiology. We analyzed 28 probands affected with A/M spectrum (without mutations in SOX2/FOXE3) by whole-exome sequencing. Analysis of 83 known A/M factors identified pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in PAX6, OTX2 and NDP in three patients. A novel heterozygous likely pathogenic variant in PAX6, c.767T>C, p.(Val256Ala), was identified in two brothers with bilateral microphthalmia, coloboma, primary aphakia, iris hypoplasia, sclerocornea and congenital glaucoma; the unaffected mother appears to be a mosaic carrier. While A/M has been reported as a rare feature, this is the first report of congenital primary aphakia in association with PAX6 and the identified allele represents the first variant in the PAX6 homeodomain to be associated with A/M. A novel pathogenic variant in OTX2, c.651delC, p.(Thr218Hisfs*76), in a patient with syndromic bilateral anophthalmia and a hemizygous pathogenic variant in NDP, c.293 C>T, p.(Pro98Leu), in two brothers with isolated bilateral microphthalmia and sclerocornea were also identified. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were not discovered in the 25 remaining A/M cases. This study underscores the utility of whole-exome sequencing for identification of causative mutations in highly variable ocular phenotypes as well as the extreme genetic heterogeneity of A/M conditions. PMID:26130484

  5. Orbital volume augmentation using expandable hydrogel implants in acquired anophthalmia and phthisis bulbi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Esther Lee; Bernardino, Carlo Rob; Levin, Flora

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe our experience using expandable spherical hydrogel implants and injectable hydrogel pellets for orbital volume augmentation in cases of post-enucleation socket syndrome after acquired anophthalmia or phthisis bulbi. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of all adult patients who received an expandable hydrogel implant for orbital volume loss following enucleation or phthisis bulbi at the Emory Eye Center between 2004 and January 2007 and the Yale Eye Center between 2009 and 2011. The study included 9 women and 5 men with a mean age of 51.2 years old (range 35-76 years old). Follow-up spanned 6 to 71 months (median of 18.5 months). Four patients received spherical hydrogel implants and 10 patients received hydrogel pellet injections. On average, nine pellets (range 5-16) were placed in each patient over an average of 1.7 injections (range 1-3). Most commonly, five pellets were injected per session, as was the case for 13 of the 17 treatment sessions. Post-operative complications included 2 cases of pellet migration, one subcutaneously and one anteriorly due to insufficiently posterior implant placement, and 1 hospital admission for pain after injection of 10 pellets in one visit. All patients experienced an overall subjective improvement in cosmesis. Self-expandable hydrogel implants appear to offer several advantages over other existing options for orbital volume augmentation, as they are easy to place, generally well-tolerated, volume-titratable, and to the extent that our follow-up shows, may be a safe and durable means of treating orbital volume loss in patients with acquired anophthalmia and phthisis bulbi.

  6. Microphthalmia and anophthalmia in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Yomai, A A; Pavlin, B I

    2010-04-01

    Microphthalmia ('small eye') and anophthalmia ('no eye') are rare congenital defects of eye development. Previous studies utilizing a variety of methodologies have estimated their combined incidence at anywhere from 4 to 30 cases per 100,000 live births. In Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia, there have been 42 cases detected since 1988, yielding an estimated incidence of 140 cases per 100,000. A number of putative genetic and environmental causes have previously been associated with microphthalmia and anophthalmia, including vitamin A deficiency. To date, it is unclear which of these factors may play a role in the alarmingly high rates observed in Chuuk. The Chuuk Division of Public Health has proposed a study to explore these potential causes, which will hopefully shed light on the prevention of these rare but debilitating conditions.

  7. [Clinical and anatomical features of congenital microphthalmia and anophthalmia in children and conservative methods of rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Sudovskaya, T V; Filatova, I A; Kiseleva, T N; Bobrovskaya, Yu A; Kokoeva, N Sh

    2016-01-01

    To develop a comprehensive classification system of distinctive clinical and anatomical features of congenital microphthalmia and anophthalmia in children and to specify indications, contraindications, and optimal timing of the primary and subsequent prosthetic treatment. A total of 70 patients with congenital micro- or anophthalmia aged from 1 month to 12 years were examined. Besides the routine ophthalmic examination, all patients underwent eye and orbit ultrasound (axial length measurement and B-scan), computed tomography of the orbits and skull, and immunological tests for infectious diseases (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays). Basing on the examination we have determined the common types of congenital micro- and anophthalmia in children. We have also developed a stepwise prosthetic treatment aimed at better cosmetic rehabilitation. Indications and contraindications for the use of ocular prostheses in children with congenital micro- and anophthalmia have been identified. The proposed method of stepwise prosthetics is the principal option for conservative rehabilitation of children with congenital micro- or anophthalmia.

  8. Molecular findings and clinical data in a cohort of 150 patients with anophthalmia/microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, N; Causse, A; Vigouroux, A; Delahaye, A; Alessandri, J-L; Boespflug-Tanguy, O; Boute-Benejean, O; Dollfus, H; Duban-Bedu, B; Gilbert-Dussardier, B; Giuliano, F; Gonzales, M; Holder-Espinasse, M; Isidor, B; Jacquemont, M-L; Lacombe, D; Martin-Coignard, D; Mathieu-Dramard, M; Odent, S; Picone, O; Pinson, L; Quelin, C; Sigaudy, S; Toutain, A; Thauvin-Robinet, C; Kaplan, Josseline; Calvas, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (AM) are the most severe malformations of the eye, corresponding respectively to reduced size or absent ocular globe. Wide genetic heterogeneity has been reported and different genes have been demonstrated to be causative of syndromic and non-syndromic forms of AM. We screened seven AM genes [GDF6 (growth differentiation factor 6), FOXE3 (forkhead box E3), OTX2 (orthodenticle protein homolog 2), PAX6 (paired box 6), RAX (retina and anterior neural fold homeobox), SOX2 (SRY sex determining region Y-box 2), and VSX2 (visual system homeobox 2 gene)] in a cohort of 150 patients with isolated or syndromic AM. The causative genetic defect was identified in 21% of the patients (32/150). Point mutations were identified by direct sequencing of these genes in 25 patients (13 in SOX2, 4 in RAX, 3 in OTX2, 2 in FOXE3, 1 in VSX2, 1 in PAX6, and 1 in GDF6). In addition eight gene deletions (five SOX2, two OTX2 and one RAX) were identified using a semi-quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [quantitative multiplex PCR amplification of short fluorescent fragments (QMPSF)]. The causative genetic defect was identified in 21% of the patients. This result contributes to our knowledge of the molecular basis of AM, and will facilitate accurate genetic counselling. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. First implication of STRA6 mutations in isolated anophthalmia, microphthalmia and coloboma: a new dimension to the STRA6 phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Jillian; Kawaguchi, Riki; Morrissey, Maria; Sun, Hui; McGettigan, Paul; Nielsen, Jens Erik; Conroy, Judith; Regan, Regina; Kenny, Elaine; Cormican, Paul; Morris, Derek W; Tormey, Peter; Chróinín, Muireann Ní; Kennedy, Breandan N; Lynch, SallyAnn; Green, Andrew; Ennis, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Microphthalmia, anophthalmia and coloboma (MAC) are structural congenital eye malformations that cause a significant proportion of childhood visual impairments. Several disease genes have been identified but do not account for all MAC cases, suggesting that additional risk loci exist. We used SNP homozygosity mapping (HM) and targeted next-generation sequencing to identify the causative mutation for autosomal recessive isolated colobomatous micro-anophthalmia (MCOPCB) in a consanguineous Irish Traveller family. We identified a double nucleotide polymorphism (g.1157G>A and g.1156G>A; p.G304K) in STRA6 that was homozygous in all of the MCOPCB patients. The STRA6 p.G304K mutation was subsequently detected in additional MCOPCB patients, including one individual with Matthew-Wood syndrome (MWS; MCOPS9). STRA6 encodes a transmembrane receptor involved in vitamin A uptake, a process essential to eye development and growth. We have shown that the G304K mutant STRA6 protein is mislocalised and has severely reduced vitamin A uptake activity. Furthermore, we reproduced the MCOPCB phenotype in a zebrafish disease model by inhibiting retinoic acid synthesis, suggesting that diminished retinoic acid levels account for the eye malformations in STRA6 p.G304K patients. The current study demonstrates that STRA6 mutations can cause isolated eye malformations in addition to the congenital anomalies observed in MWS. PMID:21901792

  10. [Bilateral anophthalmia and left-sided orbital tumor : case of an eight-month-old infant].

    PubMed

    Hundertmark, P; Dierks, P; Gottschalk, J; Kreusch, T; Wiegand, W

    2011-08-01

    An 8-month-old infant from Russia with bilateral anophthalmia presented with an expanding orbital tumor. The tumor was extirpated and the histological examination revealed a non-malignant pseudocystic process with residual neuro-ectodermal structures.

  11. Unilateral microphthalmia or anophthalmia in eight pythons (Pythonidae).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Mari-Ann O; Bertelsen, Mads F; Wang, Tobias; Pedersen, Michael; Lauridsen, Henrik; Heegaard, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    To provide morphological descriptions of microphthalmia or anophthalmia in eight pythons using microcomputerized tomography (μCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histopathology. Seven Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus) and one ball python (P. regius) with clinically normal right eyes and an abnormal or missing left eye. At the time of euthanasia, four of the eight snakes underwent necropsy. Hereafter, the heads of two Burmese pythons and one ball python were examined using μCT, and another Burmese python was subjected to MRI. Following these procedures, the heads of these four pythons along with the heads of an additional three Burmese pythons were prepared for histology. All eight snakes had left ocular openings seen as dermal invaginations between 0.2 and 2.0 mm in diameter. They also had varying degrees of malformations of the orbital bones and a limited presence of nervous, glandular, and muscle tissue in the posterior orbit. Two individuals had small but identifiable eyes. Furthermore, remnants of the pigmented embryonic framework of the hyaloid vessels were found in the anophthalmic snakes. Necropsies revealed no other macroscopic anomalies. Eight pythons with unilateral left-sided microphthalmia or anophthalmia had one normal eye and a left orbit with malformed or incompletely developed ocular structures along with remnants of fetal structures. These cases lend further information to a condition that is often seen in snakes, but infrequently described. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  12. The genetic architecture of microphthalmia, anophthalmia and coloboma.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kathleen A; FitzPatrick, David R

    2014-08-01

    Microphthalmia, anophthalmia and coloboma (MAC) are distinct phenotypes that represent a continuum of structural developmental eye defects. In severe bilateral cases (anophthalmia or severe microphthalmia) the genetic cause is now identifiable in approximately 80 percent of cases, with de novo heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in SOX2 or OTX2 being the most common. The genetic cause of other forms of MAC, in particular isolated coloboma, remains unknown in the majority of cases. This review will focus on MAC phenotypes that are associated with mutation of the genes SOX2, OTX2, PAX6, STRA6, ALDH1A3, RARB, VSX2, RAX, FOXE3, BMP4, BMP7, GDF3, GDF6, ABCB6, ATOH7, C12orf57, TENM3 (ODZ3), and VAX1. Recently reported mutation of the SALL2 and YAP1 genes are discussed in brief. Clinical and genetic features were reviewed in a total of 283 unrelated MAC cases or families that were mutation-positive from these 20 genes. Both the relative frequency of mutations in MAC cohort screens and the level of confidence in the assignment of disease-causing status were evaluated for each gene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel nonsense mutation of the endothelin-B receptor gene in a family with Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Syrris, P; Carter, N D; Patton, M A

    1999-11-05

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) comprises sensorineural hearing loss, hypopigmentation of skin and hair, and pigmentary disturbances of the irides. Four types of WS have been classified to date; in WS type IV (WS4), patients additionally have colonic aganglionosis (Hirschsprung disease, HSCR). Mutations in the endothelin-3 (EDN3), endothelin-B receptor (EDNRB), and Sox10 genes have been identified as causative for WS type IV. We screened a family with a combined WS-HSCR phenotype for mutations in the EDNRB locus using standard DNA mutation analysis and sequencing techniques. We have identified a novel nonsense mutation at codon 253 (CGA-->TGA, Arg-->STOP). This mutation leads to a premature end of the translation of EDNRB at exon 3, and it is predicted to produce a truncated and nonfunctional endothelin-B receptor. All affected relatives were heterozygous for the Arg(253)-->STOP mutation, whereas it was not observed in over 50 unrelated individuals used as controls. These data confirm the role of EDNRB in the cause of the Waardenburg-Hirschsprung syndrome and demonstrate that in WS-HSCR there is a lack of correlation between phenotype and genotype and a variable expression of disease even within the same family. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. ABCD syndrome is caused by a homozygous mutation in the EDNRB gene.

    PubMed

    Verheij, Joke B G M; Kunze, Jürgen; Osinga, Jan; van Essen, Anthonie J; Hofstra, Robert M W

    2002-03-15

    ABCD syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by albinism, black lock, cell migration disorder of the neurocytes of the gut (Hirschsprung disease [HSCR]), and deafness. This phenotype clearly overlaps with the features of the Shah-Waardenburg syndrome, comprising sensorineural deafness; hypopigmentation of skin, hair, and irides; and HSCR. Therefore, we screened DNA of the index patient of the ABCD syndrome family for mutations in the endothelin B receptor (EDNRB) gene, a gene known to be involved in Shah-Waardenburg syndrome. A homozygous nonsense mutation in exon 3 (R201X) of the EDNRB gene was found. We therefore suggest that ABCD syndrome is not a separate entity, but an expression of Shah-Waardenburg syndrome.

  15. Genes and Syndromic Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keats, Bronya J. B.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a description of the human genome and patterns of inheritance and discusses genes that are associated with some of the syndromes for which hearing loss is a common finding, including: Waardenburg, Stickler, Jervell and Lange-Neilsen, Usher, Alport, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, and sensorineural hearing loss. (Contains…

  16. Conserved genetic pathways associated with microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Linda M.; Semina, Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    The human eye is a complex organ whose development requires extraordinary coordination of developmental processes. The conservation of ocular developmental steps in vertebrates suggests possible common genetic mechanisms. Genetic diseases involving the eye represent a leading cause of blindness in children and adults. During the last decades, there has been an exponential increase in genetic studies of ocular disorders. In this review, we summarize current success in identification of genes responsible for microphthalmia, anophthalmia and coloboma (MAC) phenotypes, which are associated with early defects in embryonic eye development. Studies in animal models for the orthologous genes identified overlapping phenotypes for most factors confirming the conservation of their function in vertebrate development. These animal models allow for further investigation of the mechanisms of MAC, integration of various identified genes into common developmental pathways and, finally, provide an avenue for the development and testing of therapeutic interventions. PMID:26046913

  17. Conserved genetic pathways associated with microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma.

    PubMed

    Reis, Linda M; Semina, Elena V

    2015-06-01

    The human eye is a complex organ whose development requires extraordinary coordination of developmental processes. The conservation of ocular developmental steps in vertebrates suggests possible common genetic mechanisms. Genetic diseases involving the eye represent a leading cause of blindness in children and adults. During the last decades, there has been an exponential increase in genetic studies of ocular disorders. In this review, we summarize current success in identification of genes responsible for microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma (MAC) phenotypes, which are associated with early defects in embryonic eye development. Studies in animal models for the orthologous genes identified overlapping phenotypes for most factors, confirming the conservation of their function in vertebrate development. These animal models allow for further investigation of the mechanisms of MAC, integration of various identified genes into common developmental pathways and finally, provide an avenue for the development and testing of therapeutic interventions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A novel heterozygous SOX2 mutation causing anophthalmia/microphthalmia with genital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Pedace, Lucia; Castori, Marco; Binni, Francesco; Pingi, Alberto; Grammatico, Barbara; Scommegna, Salvatore; Majore, Silvia; Grammatico, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Anophthalmia/microphthalmia is a rare developmental craniofacial defect, which recognizes a wide range of causes, including chromosomal abnormalities, single-gene mutations as well as environmental factors. Heterozygous mutations in the SOX2 gene are the most common monogenic form of anophthalmia/microphthalmia, as they are reported in up to 10-15% cases. Here, we describe a sporadic patient showing bilateral anophthalmia/microphthalmia and micropenis caused by a novel mutation (c.59_60insGG) in the SOX2 gene. Morphological and endocrinological evaluations excluded any anomaly of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. Our finding supports the hypothesis that SOX2 is particularly prone to slipped-strand mispairing, which results in a high frequency of point deletions/insertions.

  19. A family with X-linked anophthalmia: exclusion of SOX3 as a candidate gene.

    PubMed

    Slavotinek, Anne; Lee, Stephen S; Hamilton, Steven P

    2005-10-01

    We report on a four-generation family with X-linked anophthalmia in four affected males and show that this family has LOD scores consistent with linkage to Xq27, the third family reported to be linked to the ANOP1 locus. We sequenced the SOX3 gene at Xq27 as a candidate gene for the X-linked anophthalmia based on the high homology of this gene to SOX2, a gene previously mutated in bilateral anophthlamia. However, no amino acid sequence alterations were identified in SOX3. We have improved the definition of the phenotype in males with anophthalmia linked to the ANOP1 locus, as microcephaly, ocular colobomas, and severe renal malformations have not been described in families linked to ANOP1. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. [Estimation of the quality of life 8-year-old child with bilateral anophthalmia].

    PubMed

    Sredzińska-Kita, Dorota; Mrugacz, Małgorzata; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of our work was to estimate the physical and psychomotor development and the arrangement to the daily life for a 8-year-old girl with inborn bilateral anophthalmia. The basic ophthalmic, pediatric and neurological examinations were performed with additional genetic and radiological examinations. The ophthalmic and MRI examination find out the absence of the eyeballs, optic nerves, optic chiasm, optic tracts and optic radiation. Anophthalmia limits in a big grade an independent life of the child. However, currently the girl's development indicates for good intellectual abilities what is promising for future independent life and professional work.

  1. Epidemiologic characteristics of anophthalmia and bilateral microphthalmia among 2.5 million births in California, 1989-1997.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gary M; Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Harris, John A; Finnell, Richard H; Lammer, Edward J

    2005-08-15

    There is a paucity of epidemiologic information about the eye malformations anophthalmia and microphthalmia. Using data from a large population-based registry, we explored prevalences and maternal/infant characteristics associated with anophthalmia and bilateral microphthalmia. Data were derived from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, a population-based active surveillance system for collecting information on infants and fetuses with congenital malformations using multiple source ascertainment. Approximately 2.5 million births (liveborn and stillborn) occurred during the ascertainment period, 1989-1997. Information on maternal and infant/fetal characteristics was obtained from California birth certificate and fetal death files. The prevalence per 10,000 livebirths and stillbirths for anophthalmia was 0.18 and for bilateral microphthalmia was 0.22. These estimates reflect prevalences among births without chromosomal anomalies. Relative risks of anophthalmia were modestly higher among women aged 40 or more (relative risk = 2.0, 95% confidence interval 0.5-8.6). Risks were substantially lower for those mothers with >12 years of education, even after adjusting for other study factors, relative risk = 0.6 (0.2-1.7). The risk of anophthalmia was approximately twofold among multiple births compared to singletons. Similar to results for anophthalmia, decreased risks for bilateral microphthalmia were observed for maternal education of 12 years or more and increased risks observed for multiple births. These data show descriptive epidemiologic features of anophthalmia and bilateral microphthalmia. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The fate of the oculomotor system in clinical bilateral anophthalmia.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Holly; Ragge, Nicola; Jenkinson, Ned; Cowey, Alan; Watkins, Kate E

    2012-05-01

    The interdependence of the development of the eye and oculomotor system during embryogenesis is currently unclear. The occurrence of clinical anophthalmia, where the globe fails to develop, permits us to study the effects this has on the development of the complex neuromuscular system controlling eye movements. In this study, we use very high-resolution T2-weighted imaging in five anophthalmic subjects to visualize the extraocular muscles and the cranial nerves that innervate them. The subjects differed in the presence or absence of the optic nerve, the abducens nerve, and the extraocular muscles, reflecting differences in the underlying disruption to the eye's morphogenetic pathway. The oculomotor nerve was present in all anophthalmic subjects and only slightly reduced in size compared to measurements in sighted controls. As might be expected, the presence of rudimentary eye-like structures in the socket appeared to correlate with development and persistence of the extraocular muscles in some cases. Our study supports in part the concept of an initial independence of muscle development, with its maintenance subject to the presence of these eye-like structures.

  3. Antenatal diagnosis of anophthalmia by three-dimensional ultrasound: a novel application of the reverse face view.

    PubMed

    Wong, H S; Parker, S; Tait, J; Pringle, K C

    2008-07-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of anophthalmia can be made on the demonstration of absent eye globe and lens on the affected side(s) on two-dimensional ultrasound examination, but when the fetal head position is unfavorable three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound may reveal additional diagnostic sonographic features, including sunken eyelids and small or hypoplastic orbit on the affected side(s). We present two cases of isolated anophthalmia diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound examination in which 3D ultrasound provided additional diagnostic information. The reverse face view provides valuable information about the orbits and the eyeballs for prenatal diagnosis and assessment of anophthalmia.

  4. Geographical variation in anophthalmia and microphthalmia in England, 1988-94

    PubMed Central

    Dolk, H; Busby, A; Armstrong, B G; Walls, P H

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the geographical variation and clustering of congenital anophthalmia and microphthalmia in England, in response to media reports of clusters. Design: Comparison of pattern of residence at birth of cases of anophthalmia and microphthalmia in England in 1988-94, notified to a special register, with pattern of residence of all births. Three groups studied included all cases, all severe cases, and all severe cases of unknown aetiology. Outcome measures: Prevalence rates of anophthalmia and microphthalmia by region and district, and by ward population density and socioeconomic deprivation index of enumeration district grouped into fifths. Clustering expressed as the tendency for the three nearest neighbours of a case to be more likely to be cases than expected by chance, or for there to be more cases within circles of fixed radius of a case than expected by chance. Results: The overall prevalence of anophthalmia and microphthalmia was 1.0 per 10 000 births. Regional and district variation in prevalence did not reach statistical significance. Prevalence was higher in rural than urban areas: the relative risk in the group of wards of lowest population density compared with the most densely populated group was 1.79 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.81) for all cases and 2.37 (1.38 to 4.08) for severe cases. There was no evidence of a trend in risk with socioeconomic deprivation. There was very little evidence of localised clustering. Conclusions: There is very little evidence to support the presence of strongly localised environmental exposures causing clusters of children to be born with anophthalmia or microphthalmia. The excess risk in rural areas requires further investigation. Key messagesClusters of anophthalmia and microphthalmia in England have been alleged in the media, with hypothesised links to environmental exposure such as pesticidesTo answer concerns about clustering a register has been established of all cases of anophthalmia and

  5. Mutations in the newly identified RAX regulatory sequence are not a frequent cause of micro/anophthalmia.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, Nicolas; Vigouroux, Adeline; Calvas, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    Microphthalmia and anophthalmia are at the severe end of the spectrum of abnormalities in ocular development. A few genes (SOX2, OTX2, RAX, and CHX10) have been implicated in isolated micro/anophthalmia, but causative mutations of these genes explain less than a quarter of these developmental defects. A specifically conserved SOX2/OTX2-mediated RAX expression regulatory sequence has recently been identified. We postulated that mutations in this sequence could lead to micro/anophthalmia, and thus we performed molecular screening of this regulatory element in patients suffering from micro/anophthalmia. Fifty-one patients suffering from nonsyndromic microphthalmia (n = 40) or anophthalmia (n = 11) were included in this study after negative molecular screening for SOX2, OTX2, RAX, and CHX10 mutations. Mutation screening of the RAX regulatory sequence was performed by direct sequencing for these patients. No mutations were identified in the highly conserved RAX regulatory sequence in any of the 51 patients. Mutations in the newly identified RAX regulatory sequence do not represent a frequent cause of nonsyndromic micro/anophthalmia.

  6. First implication of STRA6 mutations in isolated anophthalmia, microphthalmia, and coloboma: a new dimension to the STRA6 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Casey, Jillian; Kawaguchi, Riki; Morrissey, Maria; Sun, Hui; McGettigan, Paul; Nielsen, Jens E; Conroy, Judith; Regan, Regina; Kenny, Elaine; Cormican, Paul; Morris, Derek W; Tormey, Peter; Chróinín, Muireann Ní; Kennedy, Breandan N; Lynch, SallyAnn; Green, Andrew; Ennis, Sean

    2011-12-01

    Microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma (MAC) are structural congenital eye malformations that cause a significant proportion of childhood visual impairments. Several disease genes have been identified but do not account for all MAC cases, suggesting that additional risk loci exist. We used single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) homozygosity mapping (HM) and targeted next-generation sequencing to identify the causative mutation for autosomal recessive isolated colobomatous microanophthalmia (MCOPCB) in a consanguineous Irish Traveller family. We identified a double-nucleotide polymorphism (g.1157G>A and g.1156G>A; p.G304K) in STRA6 that was homozygous in all of the MCOPCB patients. The STRA6 p.G304K mutation was subsequently detected in additional MCOPCB patients, including one individual with Matthew-Wood syndrome (MWS; MCOPS9). STRA6 encodes a transmembrane receptor involved in vitamin A uptake, a process essential to eye development and growth. We have shown that the G304K mutant STRA6 protein is mislocalized and has severely reduced vitamin A uptake activity. Furthermore, we reproduced the MCOPCB phenotype in a zebrafish disease model by inhibiting retinoic acid (RA) synthesis, suggesting that diminished RA levels account for the eye malformations in STRA6 p.G304K patients. The current study demonstrates that STRA6 mutations can cause isolated eye malformations in addition to the congenital anomalies observed in MWS. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with SOX2 mutation and anophthalmia/microphthalmia in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Zornitza; Storen, Rebecca; Bennetts, Bruce; Savarirayan, Ravi; Jamieson, Robyn V

    2011-01-01

    Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a genetically heterogeneous condition in which patients frequently require assisted reproduction to achieve fertility. In patients with IHH who are otherwise well, no particular increased risk of congenital anomalies in the resultant offspring has been highlighted. Heterozygous mutations in SOX2 are the commonest single-gene cause of anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) and sometimes result in pituitary abnormalities. We report a family with a novel frameshift mutation in the SOX2 transactivation domain, p.Gly280AlafsX91, resulting in bilateral anophthalmia and subtle endocrinological abnormalities in a male sibling, and unilateral microphthalmia in a female sibling. The mutation is present in their mother who has IHH, but has no eye disorders or other anomalies. She underwent assisted reproduction to achieve fertility. This report has important implications for the evaluation of patients with IHH, particularly in the setting of planned infertility treatment. PMID:21326281

  8. A novel heterozygous SOX2 mutation causing congenital bilateral anophthalmia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Macchiaroli, Annamaria; Kelberman, Daniel; Auriemma, Renata Simona; Drury, Suzanne; Islam, Lily; Giangiobbe, Sara; Ironi, Gabriele; Lench, Nicholas; Sowden, Jane C; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario; Cavallo, Luciano; Gasperi, Maurizio; Faienza, Maria Felicia

    2014-01-25

    Heterozygous de novo mutations in SOX2 have been reported in approximately 10-20% of patients with unilateral or bilateral anophthalmia or microphthalmia. An additional phenotype of hypopituitarism, with anterior pituitary hypoplasia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, has been reported in patients carrying SOX2 alterations. We report a novel heterozygous mutation in the SOX2 gene in a male affected with congenital bilateral anophthalmia, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and growth hormone deficiency. The mutation we describe is a cytosine deletion in position 905 (c905delC) which causes frameshift and an aberrant C-terminal domain. Our report highlights the fact that subjects affected with eye anomalies and harboring SOX2 mutations are at high risk for gonadotropin deficiency, which has important implications for their clinical management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with SOX2 mutation and anophthalmia/microphthalmia in offspring.

    PubMed

    Stark, Zornitza; Storen, Rebecca; Bennetts, Bruce; Savarirayan, Ravi; Jamieson, Robyn V

    2011-07-01

    Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a genetically heterogeneous condition in which patients frequently require assisted reproduction to achieve fertility. In patients with IHH who are otherwise well, no particular increased risk of congenital anomalies in the resultant offspring has been highlighted. Heterozygous mutations in SOX2 are the commonest single-gene cause of anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) and sometimes result in pituitary abnormalities. We report a family with a novel frameshift mutation in the SOX2 transactivation domain, p.Gly280AlafsX91, resulting in bilateral anophthalmia and subtle endocrinological abnormalities in a male sibling, and unilateral microphthalmia in a female sibling. The mutation is present in their mother who has IHH, but has no eye disorders or other anomalies. She underwent assisted reproduction to achieve fertility. This report has important implications for the evaluation of patients with IHH, particularly in the setting of planned infertility treatment.

  10. Genetic investigation of ocular developmental genes in 52 patients with anophthalmia/microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Vidya, Nair Gopinathan; Rajkumar, Sankaranarayanan; Vasavada, Abhay R

    2018-06-01

    Mutation in eye developmental genes has been reported to cause anophthalmia and microphthalmia. However, in India, especially in the Western Indian population, such reports are scarce. Hence, the present study aims to investigate mutations in 15 ocular developmental genes in patients with anophthalmia and microphthalmia in the western region of India. Genomic DNA was isolated from the blood of 52 individuals affected with microphthalmia and anophthalmia, and 50 healthy normal controls. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out for 15 genes including BMP4, CRYBA4, FOXE3, GDF6, GJA3, GJA8, MITF, OTX2, PAX6, PITX3, RAX, SIX3, SIX6, SOX2, and VSX2 using gene-specific primers spanning the exon-intron boundaries and part of a promoter region. The amplified PCR products were purified and then subjected to Sanger's bi-directional sequencing. Nucleotide variations were examined using a basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). Bi-directional sequencing identified 8 novel and 14 known variations. Out of this, the variations GJA3-c.92T>A; p.Ile31Asn, SOX2-c.542C>A; p.Pro181Gln and SOX2-c.541_542delinsGA; p.Pro181Glu were found to be deleterious by in silico analysis. The GJA3-p.Ile31Asn mutation was identified in a patient with bilateral microphthalmia, microcornea, and membranous cataract. The SOX2-p.Pro181Gln and SOX2-p.Pro181Glu mutations were identified in patients with isolated bilateral microphthalmia and microphthalmia with microcornea, respectively. A novel nondeleterious missense variation was identified in the GJA8 gene in a patient with anophthalmia. These results support the crucial role of GJA3 and SOX2 in eye development and indicate a detailed functional study to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease pathology.

  11. Orbital Expansion for Congenital Anophthalmia May Be Achievable in Infancy But Not in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Brad T; Albright, William B; Neves, Rogerio I; Wilkinson, Michael J; Samson, Thomas D

    2016-10-01

    Congenital anophthalmia is a rare anomaly that results in micro-orbitism and craniofacial microsomia. Treatment with static conformers is labor-intensive and provides minimal stimulation for orbital growth that requires eventual reconstruction with orbital osteotomies after skeletal maturity. A protocol for the treatment of congenital anophthalmia is presented. Patients underwent a preoperative low-dose radiation computed tomography (CT) scan of the facial bones to assess orbital volume. An intraorbital expander was placed and was filled on a monthly basis. Quantitative changes in the affected and unaffected orbits were assessed by a repeat CT scan obtained 1 year postoperatively. Two patients with left unilateral congenital anophthalmia were prospectively followed. In a 4-month-old, the affected orbital width and height increased by 171.6% and 116.7% respectively compared with the unaffected orbit. In a 4-year-old, the affected orbital width increased by 36.1% but the height decreased by 35.3% compared with the unaffected orbit. At 18 months follow-up, no complications, ruptures, infections, or extrusions have been observed. Our results support that accelerated expansion can be achieved in a 4-month-old orbit reversing the effects of anophthalmia. However, in a 4-year-old, minimal growth was observed. The lack of accelerated growth in this study may be explained by synostosis of the orbital sutures. As such, expansion should be initiated at the earliest age possible. Further longitudinal study is ongoing to determine if sustained catch-up growth will obviate or reduce the complexity of a secondary correction.

  12. [Biopsychosocial profile of patients with anophthalmia in the south of Minas Gerais - Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cabral, Luiz Gustavo Megda; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio; Leite, Denise Moura; Sabatini Júnior, David; Freitas, Amanda Beatriz Dahdah Aniceto de; Miranda, Roseli Teixeira; Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira; Barros, Letízia Monteiro de

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the biopsychosocial profile of patients with anophthalmia, with emphasis on the psychological and functional impact of eye loss and the social reintegration of this population. Prospective analyses of 84 patients (50 males and 34 females), rehabilitated or in the rehabilitation process with ocular prostheses were interviewed by means of a questionnaire with dimensions involving the etiology of the ocular defect, degree of adaptation to the ocular prosthesis, and impact on professional, family and social activities. The right eye was affected in 45.2% of the patients, the left eye in 51.2%, and the rest of the patients had bilateral anophthalmia. Difficulty in adapting to monocular vision was reported by 47.6% of the patients. The main causes of anophthalmia in males were eye injuries due to accidents (54%), and, in females, acquired diseases (38.2%). For the total studied population, the eye loss occurred at a mean of 20.5 +/- 18.41 years, and the elapsed time until the first rehabilitation with ocular prosthesis was of 8.6 +/- 13.10 years. Most patients (66.1%) reported satisfaction and good adaptation to the prosthesis. Feelings of sadness, shame and shyness were frequently reported. Anophtalmic patients often exhibit psychic and/or functional disorders which hinder their social, professional and family readaptation, and this is aggravated by both economic factors and lack of public services that provide rehabilitative treatment. Public information campaigns could also be useful to prevent causes that lead to ocular loss.

  13. The psychosocial benefits of secondary hydroxyapatite orbital implant insertion and prosthesis wearing for patients with anophthalmia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junming; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Wei; Li, Guigang

    2012-01-01

    Anophthalmia is associated with a range of psychosocial difficulties and hydroxyapatite orbital implant insertion and prosthesis wearing is the predominant rehabilitation therapy for anophthalmia. However, few articles have compared preoperative and postoperative psychosocial outcomes using standardized questionnaires. This study aimed to investigate the psychosocial benefits of hydroxyapatite orbital implant insertion and prosthesis wearing in this patient population. In all, 36 participants were tested preoperatively and 6-months postoperatively using standardized measures of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), social anxiety and social avoidance (Derriford Appearance Scale-Short Form), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Short Form). Before treatment, levels of depression were comparable with population norms; however, levels of general anxiety were slightly raised, levels of social anxiety, social avoidance, and quality of life were significantly poorer than population norms. Treatment resulted in significant improvement in psychosocial adjustment with improvements in all study variables for the participant group as a whole. Hydroxyapatite orbital implant insertion and prosthesis wearing offers significant improvements in psychological and physical functioning for patients with anophthalmia.

  14. Analysis of SOX10 mutations identified in Waardenburg-Hirschsprung patients: Differential effects on target gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kwok Keung; Wong, Corinne Kung Yen; Lui, Vincent Chi Hang; Tam, Paul Kwong Hang; Sham, Mai Har

    2003-10-15

    SOX10 is a member of the SOX gene family related by homology to the high-mobility group (HMG) box region of the testis-determining gene SRY. Mutations of the transcription factor gene SOX10 lead to Waardenburg-Hirschsprung syndrome (Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, WS4) in humans. A number of SOX10 mutations have been identified in WS4 patients who suffer from different extents of intestinal aganglionosis, pigmentation, and hearing abnormalities. Some patients also exhibit signs of myelination deficiency in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Although the molecular bases for the wide range of symptoms displayed by the patients are still not clearly understood, a few target genes for SOX10 have been identified. We have analyzed the impact of six different SOX10 mutations on the activation of SOX10 target genes by yeast one-hybrid and mammalian cell transfection assays. To investigate the transactivation activities of the mutant proteins, three different SOX target binding sites were introduced into luciferase reporter gene constructs and examined in our series of transfection assays: consensus HMG domain protein binding sites; SOX10 binding sites identified in the RET promoter; and Sox10 binding sites identified in the P0 promoter. We found that the same mutation could have different transactivation activities when tested with different target binding sites and in different cell lines. The differential transactivation activities of the SOX10 mutants appeared to correlate with the intestinal and/or neurological symptoms presented in the patients. Among the six mutant SOX10 proteins tested, much reduced transactivation activities were observed when tested on the SOX10 binding sites from the RET promoter. Of the two similar mutations X467K and 1400del12, only the 1400del12 mutant protein exhibited an increase of transactivation through the P0 promoter. While the lack of normal SOX10 mediated activation of RET transcription may lead to intestinal aganglionosis

  15. Mutations in STRA6 Cause a Broad Spectrum of Malformations Including Anophthalmia, Congenital Heart Defects, Diaphragmatic Hernia, Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia, Lung Hypoplasia, and Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Pasutto, Francesca; Sticht, Heinrich; Hammersen, Gerhard; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; FitzPatrick, David R.; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Brasch, Frank; Schirmer-Zimmermann, Heidemarie; Tolmie, John L.; Chitayat, David; Houge, Gunnar; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena; Keating, Sarah; Mortier, Geert; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; von der Wense, Axel; Slavotinek, Anne; Meinecke, Peter; Bitoun, Pierre; Becker, Christian; Nürnberg, Peter; Reis, André; Rauch, Anita

    2007-01-01

    We observed two unrelated consanguineous families with malformation syndromes sharing anophthalmia and distinct eyebrows as common signs, but differing for alveolar capillary dysplasia or complex congenital heart defect in one and diaphragmatic hernia in the other family. Homozygosity mapping revealed linkage to a common locus on chromosome 15, and pathogenic homozygous mutations were identified in STRA6, a member of a large group of “stimulated by retinoic acid” genes encoding novel transmembrane proteins, transcription factors, and secreted signaling molecules or proteins of largely unknown function. Subsequently, homozygous STRA6 mutations were also demonstrated in 3 of 13 patients chosen on the basis of significant phenotypic overlap to the original cases. While a homozygous deletion generating a premature stop codon (p.G50AfsX22) led to absence of the immunoreactive protein in patient’s fibroblast culture, structural analysis of three missense mutations (P90L, P293L, and T321P) suggested significant effects on the geometry of the loops connecting the transmembrane helices of STRA6. Two further variations in the C-terminus (T644M and R655C) alter specific functional sites, an SH2-binding motif and a phosphorylation site, respectively. STRA6 mutations thus define a pleiotropic malformation syndrome representing the first human phenotype associated with mutations in a gene from the “STRA” group. PMID:17273977

  16. [Questionnaire of the psychosocial profile of the patient with anophthalmia with indication of ocular prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Nicodemo, Denise; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2006-01-01

    The patient with anophthalmia may present feelings of inferiority and rejection. Knowing his/her needs and expectations contribute to a better technical intervention. To elaborate a questionnaire of the psychosocial profile of the patient with anophthalmia with indication of ocular prosthesis. An exploratory research was used to elaborate the questionnaire, by means of a guided interview followed by writing down what was said by the interviewees, who were adult patients of the Bucco-Maxillo-Facial Prosthesis Center of FOSJC - UNESP. The guided interview was made up of 14 items directly related to the future outline of the profile. Each item of the interview resulted in questions of the questionnaire, which was pretested twice before reaching its final version. The patients reported, in the exploratory research, unpleasant feelings with the loss of the eye; relationship shyness; expectations regarding surgery and prosthesis use; a wish to receive explanations and to hold their opinion about the treatment. The questionnaire of the psychosocial profile of the patient with anophthalmia with indication of ocular prosthesis is, therefore, made of 43 questions divided into 5 blocks in order to aid the comprehension of the inquired aspects and to facilitate both the computation of data and discussion, and also to improve the selection of questions according to the objective of the researcher or professional. It was concluded that the questionnaire was viable, can be used in full or by selecting blocks and provide a panorama of the patient's history related to the problem he/she faces, from the loss of the ocular globe to the confection of the prosthesis.

  17. Neurochemical changes in the pericalcarine cortex in congenital blindness attributable to bilateral anophthalmia.

    PubMed

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Emir, Uzay E; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-09-01

    Congenital blindness leads to large-scale functional and structural reorganization in the occipital cortex, but relatively little is known about the neurochemical changes underlying this cross-modal plasticity. To investigate the effect of complete and early visual deafferentation on the concentration of metabolites in the pericalcarine cortex, (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed in 14 sighted subjects and 5 subjects with bilateral anophthalmia, a condition in which both eyes fail to develop. In the pericalcarine cortex, where primary visual cortex is normally located, the proportion of gray matter was significantly greater, and levels of choline, glutamate, glutamine, myo-inositol, and total creatine were elevated in anophthalmic relative to sighted subjects. Anophthalmia had no effect on the structure or neurochemistry of a sensorimotor cortex control region. More gray matter, combined with high levels of choline and myo-inositol, resembles the profile of the cortex at birth and suggests that the lack of visual input from the eyes might have delayed or arrested the maturation of this cortical region. High levels of choline and glutamate/glutamine are consistent with enhanced excitatory circuits in the anophthalmic occipital cortex, which could reflect a shift toward enhanced plasticity or sensitivity that could in turn mediate or unmask cross-modal responses. Finally, it is possible that the change in function of the occipital cortex results in biochemical profiles that resemble those of auditory, language, or somatosensory cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Sequence alterations in RX in patients with microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma

    PubMed Central

    London, Nikolas J.S.; Kessler, Patricia; Williams, Bryan; Pauer, Gayle J.; Hagstrom, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma are ocular malformations with a significant genetic component. Rx is a homeobox gene expressed early in the developing retina and is important in retinal cell fate specification as well as stem cell proliferation. We screened a group of 24 patients with microphthalmia, coloboma, and/or anophthalmia for RX mutations. Methods We used standard PCR and automated sequencing techniques to amplify and sequence each of the three RX exons. Patients’ charts were reviewed for clinical information. The pathologic impact of the identified sequence variant was analyzed by computational methods using PolyPhen and PMut algorithms. Results In addition to the polymorphisms we identified a single patient with coloboma having a heterozygous nucleotide change (g.197G>C) in the first exon that results in a missense mutation of arginine to threonine at amino acid position 66 (R66T). In silico analysis predicted R66T to be a deleterious mutation. Conclusions Sequence variations in RX are uncommon in patients with congenital ocular malformations, but may play a role in disease pathogenesis. We observed a missense mutation in RX in a patient with a small, typical chorioretinal coloboma, and postulate that the mutation is responsible for the patient’s phenotype. PMID:19158959

  19. Neurochemical changes in the pericalcarine cortex in congenital blindness attributable to bilateral anophthalmia

    PubMed Central

    Coullon, Gaelle S. L.; Emir, Uzay E.; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital blindness leads to large-scale functional and structural reorganization in the occipital cortex, but relatively little is known about the neurochemical changes underlying this cross-modal plasticity. To investigate the effect of complete and early visual deafferentation on the concentration of metabolites in the pericalcarine cortex, 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed in 14 sighted subjects and 5 subjects with bilateral anophthalmia, a condition in which both eyes fail to develop. In the pericalcarine cortex, where primary visual cortex is normally located, the proportion of gray matter was significantly greater, and levels of choline, glutamate, glutamine, myo-inositol, and total creatine were elevated in anophthalmic relative to sighted subjects. Anophthalmia had no effect on the structure or neurochemistry of a sensorimotor cortex control region. More gray matter, combined with high levels of choline and myo-inositol, resembles the profile of the cortex at birth and suggests that the lack of visual input from the eyes might have delayed or arrested the maturation of this cortical region. High levels of choline and glutamate/glutamine are consistent with enhanced excitatory circuits in the anophthalmic occipital cortex, which could reflect a shift toward enhanced plasticity or sensitivity that could in turn mediate or unmask cross-modal responses. Finally, it is possible that the change in function of the occipital cortex results in biochemical profiles that resemble those of auditory, language, or somatosensory cortex. PMID:26180125

  20. Phenotypic variability in Patau syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caba, Lavinia; Rusu, Cristina; Butnariu, Lacramioara; Panzaru, Monica; Braha, Elena; Volosciuc, M; Popescu, Roxana; Gramescu, Mihaela; Bujoran, C; Martiniuc, Violeta; Covic, M; Gorduza, E V

    2013-01-01

    Patau syndrome has an incidence of 1/10.000-20.000, the clinical diagnosis being suggested by the triad cleft lip and palate, microphthalmia/anophthalmia and postaxial polydactyly. Most frequent cytogenetic abnormality is free and homogeneous trisomy 13 (80.0%), rarely being detected trisomy mosaics or Robertsonian translocations. The objective of the study was to identify phenotypic features of trisomy 13. The retrospective study was conducted on a trial group of 14 cases diagnosed cytogenetically with trisomy 13 between January 2000 and December 2012 at lasi Medical Genetics Centre. Of the 14 cases, 3 were evaluated pathologically (two aborted foetuses and one stillborn), 8 cases were detected in the neonatal period, and 3 in infancy. Clinical diagnosis was supported by the identification of a model of abnormal development, mainly characterized by: maxillary cleft (lip and palate--5 cases; lip--1 case), ocular abnormalities (microphthalmia/anophthalmia--7 cases; cyclopia--1 case), postaxial polydactyly (7 cases), scalp defects (6 cases), congenital heart anomalies (10 cases, 6 patients with atrial septal defect), complete holoprosencephaly (4 cases), ear abnormalities (11 cases), broad nasal root (10 cases). An important issue in confirming the phenotypic variability of Patau syndrome is that the classic clinical triad was identified only in one case. Patau syndrome is a disease with variable expression and is characterized by a pattern of abnormal prenatal development characterized by facial dysmorphia, polydactyly and severe birth defects (heart, brain) that generate an increased in utero and perinatal mortality.

  1. Language networks in anophthalmia: maintained hierarchy of processing in 'visual' cortex.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Kate E; Cowey, Alan; Alexander, Iona; Filippini, Nicola; Kennedy, James M; Smith, Stephen M; Ragge, Nicola; Bridge, Holly

    2012-05-01

    Imaging studies in blind subjects have consistently shown that sensory and cognitive tasks evoke activity in the occipital cortex, which is normally visual. The precise areas involved and degree of activation are dependent upon the cause and age of onset of blindness. Here, we investigated the cortical language network at rest and during an auditory covert naming task in five bilaterally anophthalmic subjects, who have never received visual input. When listening to auditory definitions and covertly retrieving words, these subjects activated lateral occipital cortex bilaterally in addition to the language areas activated in sighted controls. This activity was significantly greater than that present in a control condition of listening to reversed speech. The lateral occipital cortex was also recruited into a left-lateralized resting-state network that usually comprises anterior and posterior language areas. Levels of activation to the auditory naming and reversed speech conditions did not differ in the calcarine (striate) cortex. This primary 'visual' cortex was not recruited to the left-lateralized resting-state network and showed high interhemispheric correlation of activity at rest, as is typically seen in unimodal cortical areas. In contrast, the interhemispheric correlation of resting activity in extrastriate areas was reduced in anophthalmia to the level of cortical areas that are heteromodal, such as the inferior frontal gyrus. Previous imaging studies in the congenitally blind show that primary visual cortex is activated in higher-order tasks, such as language and memory to a greater extent than during more basic sensory processing, resulting in a reversal of the normal hierarchy of functional organization across 'visual' areas. Our data do not support such a pattern of organization in anophthalmia. Instead, the patterns of activity during task and the functional connectivity at rest are consistent with the known hierarchy of processing in these areas

  2. Syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with neural tube defects (I).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as acrocallosal syndrome, autosomal dominant brachydactyly-clinodactyly syndrome, Manouvrier syndrome, short rib-polydactyly syndrome, Disorganization ( Ds )-like human malformations, isolated hemihyperplasia, X-linked NTDs, meroanencephaly, schisis association, diprosopus, fetal valproate syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, folic acid antagonists, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  3. The association of sphenoidal encephalocele and right anophthalmia with septo-optic dysplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Erol, Fatih Serhat; Ucler, Necati; Kaplan, Metin; Yilmaz, Ilhan

    2012-01-01

    Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is an extremely rare congenital anomaly, characterized with optic nerve hypoplasia and absence of septum pellucidum and/or pituitary dysfunction. In addition to classical findings of SOD, we report for the first time an 11-year-old boy, with encephalocele extending to the right sphenoidal sinus, right anophthalmia and normal pituitary functions. Despite all the major anomalies, the patient's presenting symptoms were very few and during the 11-year period the SDO had caused no complaints in our case. These findings show that the SOD course may be fairly benign. No neurological problem was encountered in the patient's follow-up, except headache. We believe that SOD should be kept in mind because of its rarity and the severity of its combined pathologies.

  4. A case of deletion 14(q22.1-->q22.3) associated with anophthalmia and pituitary abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, J; Maltby, E L; Reynolds, B

    1993-01-01

    An interstitial deletion of the region q22.1-->q22.3 of chromosome 14 is described in a child with bilateral anophthalmia, dysmorphic features including micrognathia, small tongue, and high arched palate, developmental and growth retardation, undescended testes with a micropenis, and hypothyroidism. Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 14 are extremely rare, but this case seems to confirm that the region q22 is specifically concerned with pituitary and eye development. Images PMID:7682620

  5. A novel loss-of-function mutation in OTX2 in a patient with anophthalmia and isolated growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Liat; Lebenthal, Yael; Wyatt, Alexander W; Ragge, Nicola K; Dateki, Sumito; Fukami, Maki; Ogata, Tsutomu; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2010-06-01

    Heterozygous mutations of the gene encoding transcription factor OTX2 were recently shown to be responsible for ocular as well as pituitary abnormalities. Here, we describe a patient with unilateral anophthalmia and short stature. Endocrine evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis revealed isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) with small anterior pituitary gland, invisible stalk, ectopic posterior lobe, and right anophthalmia on brain magnetic resonance imaging. DNA was analyzed for mutations in the HESX1, SOX2, and OTX2 genes. Molecular analysis yielded a novel heterozygous OTX2 mutation (c.270A>T, p.R90S) within the homeodomain. Functional analysis revealed that the mutation inhibited both the DNA binding and transactivation activities of the protein. This novel loss-of-function mutation is associated with anophthalmia and IGHD in a patient of Sephardic Jewish descent. We recommend that patients with GH deficiency and ocular malformation in whom genetic analysis for classic transcription factor genes (PROP1, POU1F1, HESX1, and LHX4) failed to identify alterations should be checked for the presence of mutations in the OTX2 gene.

  6. Exome sequencing in 32 patients with anophthalmia/microphthalmia and developmental eye defects.

    PubMed

    Slavotinek, A M; Garcia, S T; Chandratillake, G; Bardakjian, T; Ullah, E; Wu, D; Umeda, K; Lao, R; Tang, P L-F; Wan, E; Madireddy, L; Lyalina, S; Mendelsohn, B A; Dugan, S; Tirch, J; Tischler, R; Harris, J; Clark, M J; Chervitz, S; Patwardhan, A; West, J M; Ursell, P; de Alba Campomanes, A; Schneider, A; Kwok, P-Y; Baranzini, S; Chen, R O

    2015-11-01

    Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) is a genetically heterogeneous birth defect for which the etiology is unknown in more than 50% of patients. We used exome sequencing with the ACE Exome(TM) (Personalis, Inc; 18 cases) and UCSF Genomics Core (21 cases) to sequence 28 patients with A/M and four patients with varied developmental eye defects. In the 28 patients with A/M, we identified de novo mutations in three patients (OTX2, p.(Gln91His), RARB, p.Arg387Cys and GDF6, p.Ala249Glu) and inherited mutations in STRA6 in two patients. In patients with developmental eye defects, a female with cataracts and cardiomyopathy had a de novo COL4A1 mutation, p.(Gly773Arg), expanding the phenotype associated with COL4A1 to include cardiomyopathy. A male with a chorioretinal defect, microcephaly, seizures and sensorineural deafness had two PNPT1 mutations, p.(Ala507Ser) and c.401-1G>A, and we describe eye defects associated with this gene for the first time. Exome sequencing was efficient for identifying mutations in pathogenic genes for which there is no clinical testing available and for identifying cases that expand phenotypic spectra, such as the PNPT1 and COL4A1-associated disorders described here. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Novel SOX2 mutations and genotype-phenotype correlation in anophthalmia and microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Adele; Bardakjian, Tanya; Reis, Linda M; Tyler, Rebecca C; Semina, Elena V

    2009-12-01

    SOX2 represents a High Mobility Group domain containing transcription factor that is essential for normal development in vertebrates. Mutations in SOX2 are known to result in a spectrum of severe ocular phenotypes in humans, also typically associated with other systemic defects. Ocular phenotypes include anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M), optic nerve hypoplasia, ocular coloboma and other eye anomalies. We screened 51 unrelated individuals with A/M and identified SOX2 mutations in the coding region of the gene in 10 individuals. Seven of the identified mutations are novel alterations, while the remaining three individuals carry the previously reported recurrent 20-nucleotide deletion in SOX2, c.70del20. Among the SOX2-positive cases, seven patients had bilateral A/M and mutations resulting in premature termination of the normal protein sequence (7/38; 18% of all bilateral cases), one patient had bilateral A/M associated with a single amino acid insertion (1/38; 3% of bilateral cases), and the final two patients demonstrated unilateral A/M associated with missense mutations (2/13; 15% of all unilateral cases). These findings and review of previously reported cases suggest a potential genotype/phenotype correlation for SOX2 mutations with missense changes generally leading to less severe ocular defects. In addition, we report a new familial case of affected siblings with maternal mosaicism for the identified SOX2 mutation, which further underscores the importance of parental testing to provide accurate genetic counseling to families.

  8. Novel SOX2 Mutations and Genotype-Phenotype Correlation in Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Adele; Bardakjian, Tanya; Reis, Linda M.; Tyler, Rebecca C.; Semina, Elena V.

    2009-01-01

    SOX2 represents a High Mobility Group domain containing transcription factor that is essential for normal development in vertebrates. Mutations in SOX2 are known to result in a spectrum of severe ocular phenotypes in humans, also typically associated with other systemic defects. Ocular phenotypes include anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M), optic nerve hypoplasia, ocular coloboma and other eye anomalies. We screened 51 unrelated individuals with A/M and indentified SOX2 mutations in the coding region of the gene in 10 individuals. Seven of the identified mutations are novel alterations, while the remaining three individuals carry the previously reported recurrent 20-nucleotide deletion in SOX2, c.70del20. Among the SOX2-positive cases, seven patients had bilateral A/M and mutations resulting in premature termination of the normal protein sequence (7/38; 18% of all bilateral cases), one patient had bilateral A/M associated with a single amino acid insertion (1/38; 3% of bilateral cases), and the final two patients demonstrated unilateral A/M associated with missense mutations (2/13; 15% of all unilateral cases). These findings and review of previously reported cases suggest a potential genotype/phenotype correlation for SOX2 mutations with missense changes generally leading to less severe ocular defects. In addition, we report a new familial case of affected siblings with maternal mosaicism for the identified SOX2 mutation, which further underscores the importance of parental testing to provide accurate genetic counseling to families. PMID:19921648

  9. Exome Sequencing in 32 Patients with Anophthalmia/Microphthalmia and Developmental Eye Defects

    PubMed Central

    Slavotinek, Anne M.; Garcia, Sarah T.; Chandratillake, Gemma; Bardakjian, Tanya; Ullah, Ehsan; Wu, Di; Umeda, Kyle; Lao, Richard; Tang, Paul Ling-Fung; Wan, Eunice; Madireddy, Lohith; Lyalina, Svetlana; Mendelsohn, Bryce A.; Dugan, Sarah; Tirch, Jean; Tischler, Reana; Harris, Jason; Clark, Michael J.; Chervitz, Stephen; Patwardhan, Anil; West, John M.; Ursell, Phillip; de Alba Campomanes, Alejandra; Schneider, Adele; Kwok, Pui-yan; Baranzini, Sergio; Chen, Richard O.

    2014-01-01

    Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) is a genetically heterogeneous birth defect for which the etiology is unknown in more than 50% of patients. We used exome sequencing with the ACE Exome™ (Personalis, Inc; 18 cases) and UCSF Genomics Core (21 cases) to sequence 28 patients with A/M and four patients with varied developmental eye defects. In the 28 patients with A/M, we identified de novo mutations in three patients (OTX2, p.(Gln91His), RARB, p.Arg387Cys and GDF6, p.Ala249Glu) and inherited mutations in STRA6 in two patients. In patients with developmental eye defects, a female with cataracts and cardiomyopathy had a de novo COL4A1 mutation, p.(Gly773Arg), expanding the phenotype associated with COL4A1 to include cardiomyopathy. A male with a chorioretinal defect, microcephaly, seizures and sensorineural deafness had two PNPT1 mutations, p.(Ala507Ser) and c.401-1G>A, and we describe eye defects associated with this gene for the first time. Exome sequencing was efficient for identifying mutations in pathogenic genes for which there is no clinical testing available and for identifying cases that expand phenotypic spectra, such as the PNPT1 and COL4A1-associated disorders described here. PMID:25457163

  10. Trends over time in the incidence of congenital anophthalmia, microphthalmia and orbital malformation in England: database study.

    PubMed

    Dharmasena, Aruna; Keenan, Tiarnan; Goldacre, Raph; Hall, Nick; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    To study trends over time in the incidence of congenital anophthalmia, microphthalmia and orbital malformations in England, along with changes in hospital admission rates for these conditions. Using English National Hospital Episode Statistics (1999-2011), the annual rate of hospital admissions related to anophthalmia, microphthalmia and congenital malformations of orbit/lacrimal apparatus was calculated per 100 000 infants. The records were person-linked, which enabled patients' 'first record' rates to be calculated as proxies for incidence. Similar analyses on pre-1999 datasets were also undertaken for microphthalmia. There was no systematic increase or decrease over time in the incidence of these conditions, but there was some fluctuation from year to year. The incidence of congenital anophthalmia ranged from 2.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 4.0) per 100 000 infants in 1999 to 0.4 (0 to 1.3) in 2011. The annual incidence of congenital microphthalmia was 10.8 (8.2 to 13.5) in 1999 and 10.0 (7.6 to 12.4) in 2011. The annual incidence of congenital orbital/lacrimal malformations was 0.5 (0 to 1.1) in 1999 and 0.7 (0 to 1.4) in 2011. Including multiple admissions per person, admission rates for microphthalmia showed a linear increase over time from 1999. The earlier data for microphthalmia indicated an increase in admission rates, but no change in incidence, from 1971 to 2011. The incidence of these conditions has remained stable in England in recent years. Although the incidence of microphthalmia was stable, hospital admission rates for it increased over time reflecting an increase in multiple admissions per affected person. These data may be useful for planning service provision. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Clinical and mutation analysis of 51 probands with anophthalmia and/or severe microphthalmia from a single center

    PubMed Central

    Gerth-Kahlert, Christina; Williamson, Kathleen; Ansari, Morad; Rainger, Jacqueline K; Hingst, Volker; Zimmermann, Theodor; Tech, Stefani; Guthoff, Rudolf F; van Heyningen, Veronica; FitzPatrick, David R

    2013-01-01

    Clinical evaluation and mutation analysis was performed in 51 consecutive probands with severe eye malformations – anophthalmia and/or severe microphthalmia – seen in a single specialist ophthalmology center. The mutation analysis consisted of bidirectional sequencing of the coding regions of SOX2, OTX2, PAX6 (paired domain), STRA6, BMP4, SMOC1, FOXE3, and RAX, and genome-wide array-based copy number assessment. Fifteen (29.4%) of the 51 probands had likely causative mutations affecting SOX2 (9/51), OTX2 (5/51), and STRA6 (1/51). Of the cases with bilateral anophthalmia, 9/12 (75%) were found to be mutation positive. Three of these mutations were large genomic deletions encompassing SOX2 (one case) or OTX2 (two cases). Familial inheritance of three intragenic, plausibly pathogenic, and heterozygous mutations was observed. An unaffected carrier parent of an affected child with an identified OTX2 mutation confirmed the previously reported nonpenetrance for this disorder. Two families with SOX2 mutations demonstrated a parent and child both with significant but highly variable eye malformations. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in SOX2 and OTX2 are the most common genetic pathology associated with severe eye malformations and bi-allelic loss-of-function in STRA6 is confirmed as an emerging cause of nonsyndromal eye malformations. PMID:24498598

  12. National study of microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma (MAC) in Scotland: investigation of genetic aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, D; FitzPatrick, D; Hanson, I; Williamson, K; van Heyningen, V; Fleck, B; Jones, I; Chalmers, J; Campbell, H

    2002-01-01

    We report an epidemiological and genetic study attempting complete ascertainment of subjects with microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma (MAC) born in Scotland during a 16 year period beginning on 1 January 1981. A total of 198 cases were confirmed giving a minimum live birth prevalence of 19 per 100 000. One hundred and twenty-two MAC cases (61.6%) from 115 different families were clinically examined and detailed pregnancy, medical, and family histories obtained. A simple, rational, and apparently robust classification of the eye phenotype was developed based on the presence or absence of a defect in closure of the optic (choroidal) fissure. A total of 85/122 (69.7%) of cases had optic fissure closure defects (OFCD), 12/122 (9.8%) had non-OFCD, and 25/122 (20.5%) had defects that were unclassifiable owing to the severity of the corneal or anterior chamber abnormality. Segregation analysis assuming single and multiple incomplete ascertainment, respectively, returned a sib recurrence risk of 6% and 10% in the whole group and 8.1% and 13.3% in the OFCD subgroup. Significant recurrence risks were found in both unilateral and bilateral disease. In four families, one parent had an OFCD, two of which were new diagnoses in asymptomatic subjects. All recurrences in first degree relatives occurred in the OFCD group with a single first cousin recurrence seen in the non-OFCD group. A total of 84/122 of the MAC cases were screened for mutations in the coding regions of PAX6, CHX10, and SIX3. No pathogenic mutations were identified in the OFCD cases. A single PAX6 homeodomain missense mutation was identified in a subject with partial aniridia that had been initially misclassified as coloboma. PMID:11826019

  13. Both a frameshift and a missense mutation of the STRA6 gene observed in an infant with the Matthew-Wood syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Samantha; Chassaing, Nicolas; Gaj, Zuzanna; Czichos, Ewa; Wilczynski, Jan; Nowakowska, Dorota

    2017-03-01

    The Matthew-Wood syndrome is associated with mutations of the STRA6 gene. It combines a pulmonary agenesis/hypoplasia; microphthalmia/anophthalmia; congenital cardiac, digestive, and urogenital malformations; and diaphragmatic defects. A 23-year-old nulliparous woman was referred to our center after a fetal ultrasound examination at 26 weeks of pregnancy revealed an abnormal head shape, a heart malformation, multiple cysts in both kidneys, and dilated ureters. A male baby (46, XY; 3600g; Apgar score 1) was delivered at 38 weeks of gestation and died 1 hr later due to respiratory failure. The diagnosis of Matthew-Wood syndrome was suspected given the association of bilateral anophthalmia, agenesis of the left lung, and heart and kidney defects. It was confirmed by the identification of two deleterious mutations of the STRA6 gene. The child was a compound heterozygote for two previously reported mutations, a paternally inherited missense mutation (c.878C>T [p.Pro293Leu] and a maternally inherited frameshift mutation (c.50_52delACTinsCC [p. Asp17Alafs*55]), producing a premature stop codon. The diagnosis of Matthew-Wood syndrome should be considered in all fetuses with microphthalmia/anophthalmia. It requires an extensive ultrasound/MRI examination of the lung, heart, and diaphragm. Birth Defects Research 109:251-253, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mutations in ALDH1A3 represent a frequent cause of microphthalmia/anophthalmia in consanguineous families.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Hana; Favez, Tatiana; Schmid, Angélique; Agosti, Céline; Youssef, Mohammed; Marzouk, Iman; El Shakankiry, Nihal; Bayoumi, Nader; Munier, Francis L; Schorderet, Daniel F

    2014-08-01

    Anophthalmia or microphthalmia (A/M), characterized by absent or small eye, can be unilateral or bilateral and represent developmental anomalies due to the mutations in several genes. Recently, mutations in aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, member A3 (ALDH1A3) also known as retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3, have been reported to cause A/M. Here, we screened a cohort of 75 patients with A/M and showed that mutations in ALDH1A3 occurred in six families. Based on this series, we estimate that mutations in ALDH1A3 represent a major cause of A/M in consanguineous families, and may be responsible for approximately 10% of the cases. Screening of this gene should be performed in a first line of investigation, together with SOX2. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  15. Panel-based whole exome sequencing identifies novel mutations in microphthalmia and anophthalmia patients showing complex Mendelian inheritance patterns.

    PubMed

    Riera, Marina; Wert, Ana; Nieto, Isabel; Pomares, Esther

    2017-11-01

    Microphthalmia and anophthalmia (MA) are congenital eye abnormalities that show an extremely high clinical and genetic complexity. In this study, we evaluated the implementation of whole exome sequencing (WES) for the genetic analysis of MA patients. This approach was used to investigate three unrelated families in which previous single-gene analyses failed to identify the molecular cause. A total of 47 genes previously associated with nonsyndromic MA were included in our panel. WES was performed in one affected patient from each family using the AmpliSeq TM Exome technology and the Ion Proton TM platform. A novel heterozygous OTX2 missense mutation was identified in a patient showing bilateral anophthalmia who inherited the variant from a parent who was a carrier, but showed no sign of the condition. We also describe a new PAX6 missense variant in an autosomal-dominant pedigree affected by mild bilateral microphthalmia showing high intrafamiliar variability, with germline mosaicism determined to be the most plausible molecular cause of the disease. Finally, a heterozygous missense mutation in RBP4 was found to be responsible in an isolated case of bilateral complex microphthalmia. This study highlights that panel-based WES is a reliable and effective strategy for the genetic diagnosis of MA. Furthermore, using this technique, the mutational spectrum of these diseases was broadened, with novel variants identified in each of the OTX2, PAX6, and RBP4 genes. Moreover, we report new cases of reduced penetrance, mosaicism, and variable phenotypic expressivity associated with MA, further demonstrating the heterogeneity of such disorders. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Novel mutation of Endothelin-B receptor gene in Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Sangkhathat, Surasak; Chiengkriwate, Piyawan; Kusafuka, Takeshi; Patrapinyokul, Sakda; Fukuzawa, Masahiro

    2005-12-01

    Homozygous mutations of EDNRB in human have been reported to result in Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease (WS4), while mutated heterozygotes manifested isolated Hirschsprung disease in lower penetrance. We investigated a case of WS4 together with all members of her nuclear family for the alteration of the EDNRB gene by using PCR-SSCP and direct sequencing technique. The index patient, who was born to a family with no history of Hirschsprung disease, presented total colonic aganglionosis with small bowel extension, sensorineural hearing loss and generalized cutaneous pigmentary defects. Interestingly, both irides were normally black. The study detected a homozygous missense mutation at codon 196 in exon 2 (Ser196Asn), which has not been reported. Both parents and four in six siblings harbored heterozygous mutation without any clinical manifestation. Our findings were consistent with previous observations that full spectrum of WS4 occurred to the mutate homozygotes. Moreover, the non-penetrance of heterozygotes in our pedigree, which differs from other reports, demonstrates the high pleiotropic effect of EDNRB mutations in human.

  17. Mutational screening of CHX10, GDF6, OTX2, RAX and SOX2 genes in 50 unrelated microphthalmia-anophthalmia-coloboma (MAC) spectrum cases.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J; Pelcastre, E L; Tovilla-Canales, J L; Garcia-Ortiz, J E; Amato-Almanza, M; Villanueva-Mendoza, C; Espinosa-Mattar, Z; Zenteno, J C

    2010-08-01

    Microphthalmia-anophthalmia-coloboma (MAC) are congenital eye malformations causing a significant percentage of visually impairments in children. Although these anomalies can arise from prenatal exposure to teratogens, mutations in well-defined genes originate potentially heritable forms of MAC. Mutations in genes such as CHX10, GDF6, RAX, SOX2 and OTX2, among others, have been recognised in dominant or recessive MAC. SOX2 and OTX2 are the two most commonly mutated genes in monogenic MAC. However, as more numerous samples of MAC subjects would be analysed, a better estimation of the actual involvement of specific MAC-genes could be made. Here, a comprehensive mutational analysis of the CHX10, GDF6, RAX, SOX2 and OTX2 genes was performed in 50 MAC subjects. PCR amplification and direct automated DNA sequencing of all five genes in 50 unrelated subjects. Eight mutations (16% prevalence) were recognised, including four GDF6 mutations (one novel), two novel RAX mutations, one novel OTX2 mutation and one SOX2 mutation. Anophthalmia and nanophthalmia, not previously associated with GDF6 mutations, were observed in two subjects carrying defects in this gene, expanding the spectrum of GDF6-linked ocular anomalies. Our study underscores the importance of genotyping large groups of patients from distinct ethnic origins for improving the estimation of the global involvement of particular MAC-causing genes.

  18. Congenital Anophthalmia and Binocular Neonatal Enucleation Differently Affect the Proteome of Primary and Secondary Visual Cortices in Mice.

    PubMed

    Laramée, Marie-Eve; Smolders, Katrien; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Bronchti, Gilles; Boire, Denis; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2016-01-01

    In blind individuals, visually deprived occipital areas are activated by non-visual stimuli. The extent of this cross-modal activation depends on the age at onset of blindness. Cross-modal inputs have access to several anatomical pathways to reactivate deprived visual areas. Ectopic cross-modal subcortical connections have been shown in anophthalmic animals but not in animals deprived of sight at a later age. Direct and indirect cross-modal cortical connections toward visual areas could also be involved, yet the number of neurons implicated is similar between blind mice and sighted controls. Changes at the axon terminal, dendritic spine or synaptic level are therefore expected upon loss of visual inputs. Here, the proteome of V1, V2M and V2L from P0-enucleated, anophthalmic and sighted mice, sharing a common genetic background (C57BL/6J x ZRDCT/An), was investigated by 2-D DIGE and Western analyses to identify molecular adaptations to enucleation and/or anophthalmia. Few proteins were differentially expressed in enucleated or anophthalmic mice in comparison to sighted mice. The loss of sight affected three pathways: metabolism, synaptic transmission and morphogenesis. Most changes were detected in V1, followed by V2M. Overall, cross-modal adaptations could be promoted in both models of early blindness but not through the exact same molecular strategy. A lower metabolic activity observed in visual areas of blind mice suggests that even if cross-modal inputs reactivate visual areas, they could remain suboptimally processed.

  19. Strain differences of the effect of enucleation and anophthalmia on the size and growth of sensory cortices in mice.

    PubMed

    Massé, Ian O; Guillemette, Sonia; Laramée, Marie-Eve; Bronchti, Gilles; Boire, Denis

    2014-11-07

    Anophthalmia is a condition in which the eye does not develop from the early embryonic period. Early blindness induces cross-modal plastic modifications in the brain such as auditory and haptic activations of the visual cortex and also leads to a greater solicitation of the somatosensory and auditory cortices. The visual cortex is activated by auditory stimuli in anophthalmic mice and activity is known to alter the growth pattern of the cerebral cortex. The size of the primary visual, auditory and somatosensory cortices and of the corresponding specific sensory thalamic nuclei were measured in intact and enucleated C57Bl/6J mice and in ZRDCT anophthalmic mice (ZRDCT/An) to evaluate the contribution of cross-modal activity on the growth of the cerebral cortex. In addition, the size of these structures were compared in intact, enucleated and anophthalmic fourth generation backcrossed hybrid C57Bl/6J×ZRDCT/An mice to parse out the effects of mouse strains and of the different visual deprivations. The visual cortex was smaller in the anophthalmic ZRDCT/An than in the intact and enucleated C57Bl/6J mice. Also the auditory cortex was larger and the somatosensory cortex smaller in the ZRDCT/An than in the intact and enucleated C57Bl/6J mice. The size differences of sensory cortices between the enucleated and anophthalmic mice were no longer present in the hybrid mice, showing specific genetic differences between C57Bl/6J and ZRDCT mice. The post natal size increase of the visual cortex was less in the enucleated than in the anophthalmic and intact hybrid mice. This suggests differences in the activity of the visual cortex between enucleated and anophthalmic mice and that early in-utero spontaneous neural activity in the visual system contributes to the shaping of functional properties of cortical networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Congenital Anophthalmia and Binocular Neonatal Enucleation Differently Affect the Proteome of Primary and Secondary Visual Cortices in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, Katrien; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Bronchti, Gilles; Boire, Denis; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2016-01-01

    In blind individuals, visually deprived occipital areas are activated by non-visual stimuli. The extent of this cross-modal activation depends on the age at onset of blindness. Cross-modal inputs have access to several anatomical pathways to reactivate deprived visual areas. Ectopic cross-modal subcortical connections have been shown in anophthalmic animals but not in animals deprived of sight at a later age. Direct and indirect cross-modal cortical connections toward visual areas could also be involved, yet the number of neurons implicated is similar between blind mice and sighted controls. Changes at the axon terminal, dendritic spine or synaptic level are therefore expected upon loss of visual inputs. Here, the proteome of V1, V2M and V2L from P0-enucleated, anophthalmic and sighted mice, sharing a common genetic background (C57BL/6J x ZRDCT/An), was investigated by 2-D DIGE and Western analyses to identify molecular adaptations to enucleation and/or anophthalmia. Few proteins were differentially expressed in enucleated or anophthalmic mice in comparison to sighted mice. The loss of sight affected three pathways: metabolism, synaptic transmission and morphogenesis. Most changes were detected in V1, followed by V2M. Overall, cross-modal adaptations could be promoted in both models of early blindness but not through the exact same molecular strategy. A lower metabolic activity observed in visual areas of blind mice suggests that even if cross-modal inputs reactivate visual areas, they could remain suboptimally processed. PMID:27410964

  1. Targeted 'next-generation' sequencing in anophthalmia and microphthalmia patients confirms SOX2, OTX2 and FOXE3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Nelson Lopez; Flannick, Jason; Yahyavi, Mani; Li, Jiang; Bardakjian, Tanya; Tonkin, Leath; Schneider, Adele; Sherr, Elliott H; Slavotinek, Anne M

    2011-12-28

    Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) is caused by mutations in several different transcription factors, but mutations in each causative gene are relatively rare, emphasizing the need for a testing approach that screens multiple genes simultaneously. We used next-generation sequencing to screen 15 A/M patients for mutations in 9 pathogenic genes to evaluate this technology for screening in A/M. We used a pooled sequencing design, together with custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling software. We verified predicted sequence alterations using Sanger sequencing. We verified three mutations - c.542delC in SOX2, resulting in p.Pro181Argfs*22, p.Glu105X in OTX2 and p.Cys240X in FOXE3. We found several novel sequence alterations and SNPs that were likely to be non-pathogenic - p.Glu42Lys in CRYBA4, p.Val201Met in FOXE3 and p.Asp291Asn in VSX2. Our analysis methodology gave one false positive result comprising a mutation in PAX6 (c.1268A > T, predicting p.X423LeuextX*15) that was not verified by Sanger sequencing. We also failed to detect one 20 base pair (bp) deletion and one 3 bp duplication in SOX2. Our results demonstrated the power of next-generation sequencing with pooled sample groups for the rapid screening of candidate genes for A/M as we were correctly able to identify disease-causing mutations. However, next-generation sequencing was less useful for small, intragenic deletions and duplications. We did not find mutations in 10/15 patients and conclude that there is a need for further gene discovery in A/M.

  2. Targeted 'Next-Generation' sequencing in anophthalmia and microphthalmia patients confirms SOX2, OTX2 and FOXE3 mutations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) is caused by mutations in several different transcription factors, but mutations in each causative gene are relatively rare, emphasizing the need for a testing approach that screens multiple genes simultaneously. We used next-generation sequencing to screen 15 A/M patients for mutations in 9 pathogenic genes to evaluate this technology for screening in A/M. Methods We used a pooled sequencing design, together with custom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling software. We verified predicted sequence alterations using Sanger sequencing. Results We verified three mutations - c.542delC in SOX2, resulting in p.Pro181Argfs*22, p.Glu105X in OTX2 and p.Cys240X in FOXE3. We found several novel sequence alterations and SNPs that were likely to be non-pathogenic - p.Glu42Lys in CRYBA4, p.Val201Met in FOXE3 and p.Asp291Asn in VSX2. Our analysis methodology gave one false positive result comprising a mutation in PAX6 (c.1268A > T, predicting p.X423LeuextX*15) that was not verified by Sanger sequencing. We also failed to detect one 20 base pair (bp) deletion and one 3 bp duplication in SOX2. Conclusions Our results demonstrated the power of next-generation sequencing with pooled sample groups for the rapid screening of candidate genes for A/M as we were correctly able to identify disease-causing mutations. However, next-generation sequencing was less useful for small, intragenic deletions and duplications. We did not find mutations in 10/15 patients and conclude that there is a need for further gene discovery in A/M. PMID:22204637

  3. Manitoba-oculo-tricho-anal (MOTA) syndrome is caused by mutations in FREM1

    PubMed Central

    Slavotinek, Anne M; Baranzini, Sergio E; Schanze, Denny; Labelle-Dumais, Cassandre; Short, Kieran M; Chao, Ryan; Yahyavi, Mani; Bijlsma, Emilia K; Chu, Catherine; Musone, Stacey; Wheatley, Ashleigh; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Marles, Sandra; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Maga, A Murat; Hassan, Mohamed G; Gould, Douglas B; Madireddy, Lohith; Li, Chumei; Cox, Timothy C; Smyth, Ian; Chudley, Albert E; Zenker, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Manitoba-oculo-tricho-anal (MOTA) syndrome is a rare condition defined by eyelid colobomas, cryptophthalmos and anophthalmia/ microphthalmia, an aberrant hairline, a bifid or broad nasal tip, and gastrointestinal anomalies such as omphalocele and anal stenosis. Autosomal recessive inheritance had been assumed because of consanguinity in the Oji-Cre population of Manitoba and reports of affected siblings, but no locus or cytogenetic aberration had previously been described. Methods and results This study shows that MOTA syndrome is caused by mutations in FREM1, a gene previously mutated in bifid nose, renal agenesis, and anorectal malformations (BNAR) syndrome. MOTA syndrome and BNAR syndrome can therefore be considered as part of a phenotypic spectrum that is similar to, but distinct from and less severe than, Fraser syndrome. Re-examination of Frem1bat/bat mutant mice found new evidence that Frem1 is involved in anal and craniofacial development, with anal prolapse, eyelid colobomas, telecanthus, a shortened snout and reduced philtral height present in the mutant mice, similar to the human phenotype in MOTA syndrome. Conclusions The milder phenotypes associated with FREM1 deficiency in humans (MOTA syndrome and BNAR syndrome) compared to that resulting from FRAS1 and FREM2 loss of function (Fraser syndrome) are also consistent with the less severe phenotypes resulting from Frem1 loss of function in mice. Together, Fraser, BNAR and MOTA syndromes constitute a clinically overlapping group of FRAS–FREM complex diseases. PMID:21507892

  4. Phantom eye syndrome: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Agda M; Goiato, Marcelo C; Pellizzer, Eduardo P; Pesqueira, Aldiéris A; Guiotti, Aimée M; Gennari-Filho, Humberto; dos Santos, Daniela M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe the main features of phantom eye syndrome in relation to their possible causes, symptoms, treatments, and influence of eye amputation on quality of life of anophthalmic patients. For this, a bibliographical research was performed in Pubmed database using the following terms: "eye amputation," "eye trauma," "phantom eye syndrome," "phantom pain," and "quality of life," associated or not. Thirteen studies were selected, besides some relevant references contained in the selected manuscripts and other studies hallowed in the literature. Thus, 56 articles were included in this review. The phantom eye syndrome is defined as any sensation reported by the patient with anophthalmia, originated anophthalmic cavity. In phantom eye syndrome, at least one of these three symptoms has to be present: phantom vision, phantom pain, and phantom sensations. This syndrome has a direct influence on the quality of life of the patients, and psychological support is recommended before and after the amputation of the eyeball as well as aid in the treatment of the syndrome. Therefore, it is suggested that, for more effective treatment of phantom eye syndrome, drug therapy should be associated with psychological approach.

  5. Association of Shah-Waardenburgh syndrome: a review of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Jan, Iftikhar A; Stroedter, Lutz; Haq, Anwaar-ul; Din, Zaheer-ud

    2008-04-01

    Shah-Waardenburg syndrome (SWS) is a neurocristopathy and is characterized by Hirschsprung's disease (HD), deafness, and depigmentation of hairs, skin, and iris. The aim of the article is to study the relative frequency of associations in 6 consecutive cases of SWS. A review of 6 consecutive patients with SWS was performed to study the frequency of various components of the syndrome. Six patients had features of SWS. All patients had HD; of these, 3 had rectosigmoid HD, whereas 3 had extended HD. All patients had white forelock of hairs with skin depigmentation. One patient had sensorineural deafness, whereas other babies were less than 1 year, and thus, full evaluation of hearing deficiency was not assessed. Three patients had blue eyes, whereas other babies had normal iris pigmentation. Skin depigmentation was noted in 5 of the 6 patients. Three babies were seriously malnourished and showed higher association of enterocolitis. Shah-Waardenburg syndrome is an uncommon association of HD. Depigmentation with a white forelock and skin manifestations are common, whereas blue iris, long segment disease, and enterocolitis are present in nearly half of the patients.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Fraser syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... them, or they may be small ( microphthalmia ) or missing (anophthalmia). Eye abnormalities typically lead to impairment or ... other problems related to abnormal eye development, including missing eyebrows or eyelashes or a patch of hair ...

  7. Novel splice-site and missense mutations in the ALDH1A3 gene underlying autosomal recessive anophthalmia/microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Semerci, C Nur; Kalay, Ersan; Yıldırım, Cem; Dinçer, Tuba; Olmez, Akgün; Toraman, Bayram; Koçyiğit, Ali; Bulgu, Yunus; Okur, Volkan; Satıroğlu-Tufan, Lale; Akarsu, Nurten A

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the underlying genetic defect responsible for anophthalmia/microphthalmia. In total, two Turkish families with a total of nine affected individuals were included in the study. Affymetrix 250 K single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and homozygosity mapping were used to identify the localisation of the genetic defect in question. Coding region of the ALDH1A3 gene was screened via direct sequencing. cDNA samples were generated from primary fibroblast cell cultures for expression analysis. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) analysis was performed using direct sequencing of the obtained fragments. The causative genetic defect was mapped to chromosome 15q26.3. A homozygous G>A substitution (c.666G>A) at the last nucleotide of exon 6 in the ALDH1A3 gene was identified in the first family. Further cDNA sequencing of ALDH1A3 showed that the c.666G>A mutation caused skipping of exon 6, which predicted in-frame loss of 43 amino acids (p.Trp180_Glu222del). A novel missense c.1398C>A mutation in exon 12 of ALDH1A3 that causes the substitution of a conserved asparagine by lysine at amino acid position 466 (p.Asn466Lys) was observed in the second family. No extraocular findings-except for nevus flammeus in one affected individual and a variant of Dandy-Walker malformation in another affected individual-were observed. Autistic-like behaviour and mental retardation were observed in three cases. In conclusion, novel ALDH1A3 mutations identified in the present study confirm the pivotal role of ALDH1A3 in human eye development. Autistic features, previously reported as an associated finding, were considered to be the result of social deprivation and inadequate parenting during early infancy in the presented families. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Genetic, chromosomal, and syndromic causes of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Seidahmed, Mohammed Z; Abdelbasit, Omer B; Shaheed, Meeralebbae M; Alhussein, Khalid A; Miqdad, Abeer M; Samadi, Abdulmohsen S; Khalil, Mohammed I; Al-Mardawi, Elham; Salih, Mustafa A

    2014-12-01

    To ascertain the incidence, and describe the various forms of neural tube defects (NTDs) due to genetic, chromosomal, and syndromic causes. We carried out a retrospective analysis of data retrieved from the medical records of newborn infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with NTDs and their mothers spanning 14 years (1996-2009) at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The cases were ascertained by a perinatologist, neonatologist, geneticist, radiologist, and neurologist. The literature was reviewed via a MEDLINE search. Only liveborn babies were included. Permission from the Educational Committee at the Security Forces Hospital was obtained prior to the collection of data. Out of 103 infants with NTDs admitted during this period, 20 (19.4%) were found to have an underlying genetic syndromic, chromosomal and/or other anomalies. There were 5 cases of Meckel-Gruber syndrome, 2 Joubert syndrome, one Waardenburg syndrome, one Walker-Warburg syndrome, 2 chromosomal disorders, 2 caudal regression, one amniotic band disruption sequence, one associated with omphalocele, one with diaphragmatic hernia, and 4 with multiple congenital anomalies. There is a high rate of underlying genetic syndromic and/or chromosomal causes of NTDs in the Saudi Arabian population due to the high consanguinity rate. Identification of such association can lead to more accurate provisions of genetic counseling to the family including preimplantation genetic diagnosis or early termination of pregnancies associated with lethal conditions.

  9. Genetic, chromosomal, and syndromic causes of neural tube defects

    PubMed Central

    Seidahmed, Mohammed Z.; Abdelbasit, Omer B.; Shaheed, Meeralebbae M.; Alhussein, Khalid A.; Miqdad, Abeer M.; Samadi, Abdulmohsen S.; Khalil, Mohammed I.; Al-Mardawi, Elham; Salih, Mustafa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the incidence, and describe the various forms of neural tube defects (NTDs) due to genetic, chromosomal, and syndromic causes. Methods: We carried out a retrospective analysis of data retrieved from the medical records of newborn infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with NTDs and their mothers spanning 14 years (1996-2009) at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The cases were ascertained by a perinatologist, neonatologist, geneticist, radiologist, and neurologist. The literature was reviewed via a MEDLINE search. Only liveborn babies were included. Permission from the Educational Committee at the Security Forces Hospital was obtained prior to the collection of data. Results: Out of 103 infants with NTDs admitted during this period, 20 (19.4%) were found to have an underlying genetic syndromic, chromosomal and/or other anomalies. There were 5 cases of Meckel-Gruber syndrome, 2 Joubert syndrome, one Waardenburg syndrome, one Walker-Warburg syndrome, 2 chromosomal disorders, 2 caudal regression, one amniotic band disruption sequence, one associated with omphalocele, one with diaphragmatic hernia, and 4 with multiple congenital anomalies. Conclusions: There is a high rate of underlying genetic syndromic and/or chromosomal causes of NTDs in the Saudi Arabian population due to the high consanguinity rate. Identification of such association can lead to more accurate provisions of genetic counseling to the family including preimplantation genetic diagnosis or early termination of pregnancies associated with lethal conditions. PMID:25551112

  10. Mice Lacking the Giant Protocadherin mFAT1 Exhibit Renal Slit Junction Abnormalities and a Partially Penetrant Cyclopia and Anophthalmia Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Lorenza; Patel, Anjla; Allen, Nicholas D.; ffrench-Constant, Charles

    2003-01-01

    While roles in adhesion and morphogenesis have been documented for classical cadherins, the nonclassical cadherins are much less well understood. Here we have examined the functions of the giant protocadherin FAT by generating a transgenic mouse lacking mFAT1. These mice exhibit perinatal lethality, most probably caused by loss of the renal glomerular slit junctions and fusion of glomerular epithelial cell processes (podocytes). In addition, some mFAT1−/− mice show defects in forebrain development (holoprosencephaly) and failure of eye development (anophthalmia). In contrast to Drosophila, where FAT acts as a tumor suppressor gene, we found no evidence for abnormalities of proliferation in two tissues (skin and central nervous system [CNS]) containing stem and precursor cell populations and in which FAT is expressed strongly. Our results confirm a necessary role for FAT1 in the modified adhesion junctions of the renal glomerular epithelial cell and reveal hitherto unsuspected roles for FAT1 in CNS development. PMID:12724416

  11. A de novo 1.38 Mb duplication of 1q31.1 in a boy with hemifacial microsomia, anophthalmia, anotia, macrostomia, and cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue-shuang; Zhu, Bao; Jiang, Hai-ou; Wu, Su-fan; Zhang, Zai-qi; Xiao, Lin; Yi, Li-lan; Zhang, Jian-xiang

    2013-04-01

    We reported a 2-year-old boy with developmental delay, mild mental retardation, and severe craniofacial malformation, including facial asymmetry with hypoplasia of the left zygoma, maxilla, and mandible, and left anophthalmia and anotia. A genome-wide screen revealed a 1.38 Mb duplication on chromosome 1q31.1, which was absent in his parents and 27 healthy controls. The duplication region contains two Refseq genes, PLA2G4A and C1orf99, which have not been reported to be implicated in craniofacial malformation. Functional studies of these genes and additional clinical analysis are necessary to elucidate the pathogenesis of craniofacial malformation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of novel mutations and sequence variants in the SOX2 and CHX10 genes in patients with anophthalmia/microphthalmia

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Kherani, Femida; Bardakjian, Tanya M.; Katowitz, James; Hughes, Nkecha; Schimmenti, Lisa A.; Schneider, Adele

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in the SOX2 and CHX10 genes have been reported in patients with anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia. In this study, we evaluated 34 anophthalmic/microphthalmic patient DNA samples (two sets of siblings included) for mutations and sequence variants in SOX2 and CHX10. Methods Conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) was used for the initial SOX2 and CHX10 screening of 34 affected individuals (two sets of siblings), five unaffected family members, and 80 healthy controls. Patient samples containing heteroduplexes were selected for sequence analysis. Base pair changes in SOX2 and CHX10 were confirmed by sequencing bidirectionally in patient samples. Results Two novel heterozygous mutations and two sequence variants (one known) in SOX2 were identified in this cohort. Mutation c.310 G>T (p. Glu104X), found in one patient, was in the region encoding the high mobility group (HMG) DNA-binding domain and resulted in a change from glutamic acid to a stop codon. The second mutation, noted in two affected siblings, was a single nucleotide deletion c.549delC (p. Pro184ArgfsX19) in the region encoding the activation domain, resulting in a frameshift and premature termination of the coding sequence. The shortened protein products may result in the loss of function. In addition, a novel nucleotide substitution c.*557G>A was identified in the 3′-untranslated region in one patient. The relationship between the nucleotide change and the protein function is indeterminate. A known single nucleotide polymorphism (c. *469 C>A, SNP rs11915160) was also detected in 2 of the 34 patients. Screening of CHX10 identified two synonymous sequence variants, c.471 C>T (p.Ser157Ser, rs35435463) and c.579 G>A (p. Gln193Gln, novel SNP), and one non-synonymous sequence variant, c.871 G>A (p. Asp291Asn, novel SNP). The non-synonymous polymorphism was also present in healthy controls, suggesting non-causality. Conclusions These results support the role of SOX2 in ocular

  13. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous FNBP4 mutation in a family with a condition similar to microphthalmia with limb anomalies.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yukiko; Koshimizu, Eriko; Megarbane, Andre; Hamanoue, Haruka; Okada, Ippei; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Kodera, Hirofumi; Miyatake, Satoko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Doi, Hiroshi; Miyake, Noriko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2013-07-01

    Microphthalmia with limb anomalies (MLA), also known as Waardenburg anophthalmia syndrome or ophthalmoacromelic syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Recently, we and others successfully identified SMOC1 as the causative gene for MLA. However, there are several MLA families without SMOC1 abnormality, suggesting locus heterogeneity in MLA. We aimed to identify a pathogenic mutation in one Lebanese family having an MLA-like condition without SMOC1 mutation by whole-exome sequencing (WES) combined with homozygosity mapping. A c.683C>T (p.Thr228Met) in FNBP4 was found as a primary candidate, drawing the attention that FNBP4 and SMOC1 may potentially modulate BMP signaling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A missense mutation in ALDH1A3 causes isolated microphthalmia/anophthalmia in nine individuals from an inbred Muslim kindred.

    PubMed

    Mory, Adi; Ruiz, Francesc X; Dagan, Efrat; Yakovtseva, Evgenia A; Kurolap, Alina; Parés, Xavier; Farrés, Jaume; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth

    2014-03-01

    Nine affected individuals with isolated anophthalmia/microphthalmia from a large Muslim-inbred kindred were investigated. Assuming autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance, whole-genome linkage analysis, on DNA samples from four affected individuals, was undertaken. Homozygosity mapping techniques were employed and a 1.5-Mbp region, homozygous in all affected individuals, was delineated. The region contained nine genes, one of which, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A3), was a clear candidate. This gene seems to encode a key enzyme in the formation of a retinoic-acid gradient along the dorsoventral axis during an early eye development and the development of the olfactory system. Sanger sequence analysis revealed a missense mutation, causing a substitution of valine (Val) to methionine (Met) at position 71. Analyzing the p.Val71Met missense mutation using standard open access software (MutationTaster online, PolyPhen, SIFT/PROVEAN) predicts this variant to be damaging. Enzymatic activity, studied in vitro, showed no changes between the mutated and the wild-type ALDH1A3 protein.

  15. A missense mutation in ALDH1A3 causes isolated microphthalmia/anophthalmia in nine individuals from an inbred Muslim kindred

    PubMed Central

    Mory, Adi; Ruiz, Francesc X; Dagan, Efrat; Yakovtseva, Evgenia A; Kurolap, Alina; Parés, Xavier; Farrés, Jaume; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Nine affected individuals with isolated anophthalmia/microphthalmia from a large Muslim-inbred kindred were investigated. Assuming autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance, whole-genome linkage analysis, on DNA samples from four affected individuals, was undertaken. Homozygosity mapping techniques were employed and a 1.5-Mbp region, homozygous in all affected individuals, was delineated. The region contained nine genes, one of which, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A3), was a clear candidate. This gene seems to encode a key enzyme in the formation of a retinoic-acid gradient along the dorsoventral axis during an early eye development and the development of the olfactory system. Sanger sequence analysis revealed a missense mutation, causing a substitution of valine (Val) to methionine (Met) at position 71. Analyzing the p.Val71Met missense mutation using standard open access software (MutationTaster online, PolyPhen, SIFT/PROVEAN) predicts this variant to be damaging. Enzymatic activity, studied in vitro, showed no changes between the mutated and the wild-type ALDH1A3 protein. PMID:23881059

  16. Duane Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Duane Syndrome? Duane syndrome, also called Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), is a congenital and non-progressive ... Is Duane syndrome congenital (present from birth)? Duane retraction syndrome is present from birth, even if it ...

  17. LEOPARD syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple lentigines syndrome; Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines ... Genetics Home Reference -- ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/noonan-syndrome-with-multiple-lentigines National Organization for Rare Disorders -- ...

  18. Cushing syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hypercortisolism; Cortisol excess; Glucocorticoid excess - Cushing syndrome ... The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is taking too much ... Cushing syndrome . Prednisone, dexamethasone, and prednisolone ...

  19. A splice donor mutation in NAA10 results in the dysregulation of the retinoic acid signaling pathway and causes Lenz microphthalmia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Esmailpour, Taraneh; Riazifar, Hamidreza; Liu, Linan; Donkervoort, Sandra; Huang, Vincent H; Madaan, Shreshtha; Shoucri, Bassem M; Busch, Anke; Wu, Jie; Towbin, Alexander; Chadwick, Robert B; Sequeira, Adolfo; Vawter, Marquis P; Sun, Guoli; Johnston, Jennifer J; Biesecker, Leslie G; Kawaguchi, Riki; Sun, Hui; Kimonis, Virginia; Huang, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lenz microphthalmia syndrome (LMS) is a genetically heterogeneous X-linked disorder characterised by microphthalmia/anophthalmia, skeletal abnormalities, genitourinary malformations, and anomalies of the digits, ears, and teeth. Intellectual disability and seizure disorders are seen in about 60% of affected males. To date, no gene has been identified for LMS in the microphthalmia syndrome 1 locus (MCOPS1). In this study, we aim to find the disease-causing gene for this condition. Methods and results Using exome sequencing in a family with three affected brothers, we identified a mutation in the intron 7 splice donor site (c.471+2T→A) of the N-acetyltransferase NAA10 gene. NAA10 has been previously shown to be mutated in patients with Ogden syndrome, which is clinically distinct from LMS. Linkage studies for this family mapped the disease locus to Xq27-Xq28, which was consistent with the locus of NAA10. The mutation co-segregated with the phenotype and cDNA analysis showed aberrant transcripts. Patient fibroblasts lacked expression of full length NAA10 protein and displayed cell proliferation defects. Expression array studies showed significant dysregulation of genes associated with genetic forms of anophthalmia such as BMP4, STRA6, and downstream targets of BCOR and the canonical WNT pathway. In particular, STRA6 is a retinol binding protein receptor that mediates cellular uptake of retinol/vitamin A and plays a major role in regulating the retinoic acid signalling pathway. A retinol uptake assay showed that retinol uptake was decreased in patient cells. Conclusions We conclude that the NAA10 mutation is the cause of LMS in this family, likely through the dysregulation of the retinoic acid signalling pathway. PMID:24431331

  20. Fanconi syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    De Toni-Fanconi syndrome ... Fanconi syndrome can be caused by faulty genes, or it may result later in life due to kidney damage. Sometimes the cause of Fanconi syndrome is unknown. Common causes of Fanconi syndrome in ...

  1. Co-occurrence of severe Goltz-Gorlin syndrome and pentalogy of Cantrell - Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Smigiel, Robert; Jakubiak, Aleksandra; Lombardi, Maria Paola; Jaworski, Wojciech; Slezak, Ryszard; Patkowski, Dariusz; Hennekam, Raoul C

    2011-05-01

    Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is a highly variable disorder affecting many body parts of meso-ectodermal origin. Mutations in X-linked PORCN have been identified in almost all patients with a classical Goltz-Gorlin phenotype. The pentalogy of Cantrell is an infrequently described congenital disorder characterized by the combination of five anomalies: a midline supra-umbilical abdominal wall defect; absent or cleft lower part of the sternum; deficiency of the diaphragmatic pericardium; deficiency of the anterior diaphragm; and congenital heart anomalies. Etiology and pathogenesis are unknown. We report on an infant with findings fitting both Goltz-Gorlin syndrome (sparse hair; anophthalmia; clefting; bifid nose; irregular vermillion of both lips; asymmetrical limb malformations; caudal appendage; linear aplastic skin defects; unilateral hearing loss) and the pentalogy of Cantrell (absent lower sternum; anterior diaphragmatic hernia; ectopia cordis; omphalocele). The clinical diagnosis Goltz-Gorlin syndrome was confirmed molecularly by a point mutation in PORCN (c.727C>T). The presence of molecularly confirmed Goltz-Gorlin syndrome and pentalogy of Cantrell in a single patient has been reported twice before. The present patient confirms that the pentalogy of Cantrell can be caused in some patients by a PORCN mutation. It remains at present uncertain whether this can be explained by the type or localization of the mutation within PORCN, or whether the co-occurrence of the two entities is additionally determined by mutations or polymorphisms in other genes, environmental factors, and/or epigenetic influences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Aarskog syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Aarskog disease; Aarskog-Scott syndrome; AAS; Faciodigitogenital syndrome; Gaciogenital dysplasia ... Aarskog syndrome is a genetic disorder that is linked to the X chromosome. It affects mainly males, but females ...

  3. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, blood vessels, ... A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, and ...

  4. Malabsorption Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods you eat. If you have a malabsorption syndrome, your small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from foods. Causes of malabsorption syndromes include Celiac disease Lactose intolerance Short bowel syndrome. ...

  5. Williams syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Williams syndrome may show: A flattened nasal bridge with small upturned nose Long ridges in the ... Alternative Names Williams-Beuren syndrome Images Low nasal bridge Chromosomes and DNA References Morris CA. Williams syndrome. ...

  6. Loss of Asxl1 leads to myelodysplastic syndrome-like disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiapeng; Li, Zhaomin; He, Yongzheng; Pan, Feng; Chen, Shi; Rhodes, Steven; Nguyen, Lihn; Yuan, Jin; Jiang, Li; Yang, Xianlin; Weeks, Ophelia; Liu, Ziyue; Zhou, Jiehao; Ni, Hongyu; Cai, Chen-Leng; Xu, Mingjiang; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2014-01-23

    ASXL1 is mutated/deleted with high frequencies in multiple forms of myeloid malignancies, and its alterations are associated with poor prognosis. De novo ASXL1 mutations cause Bohring-Opitz syndrome characterized by multiple congenital malformations. We show that Asxl1 deletion in mice led to developmental abnormalities including dwarfism, anophthalmia, and 80% embryonic lethality. Surviving Asxl1(-/-) mice lived for up to 42 days and developed features of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), including dysplastic neutrophils and multiple lineage cytopenia. Asxl1(-/-) mice had a reduced hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool, and Asxl1(-/-) HSCs exhibited decreased hematopoietic repopulating capacity, with skewed cell differentiation favoring granulocytic lineage. Asxl1(+/-) mice also developed mild MDS-like disease, which could progress to MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasm, demonstrating a haploinsufficient effect of Asxl1 in the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies. Asxl1 loss led to an increased apoptosis and mitosis in Lineage(-)c-Kit(+) (Lin(-)c-Kit(+)) cells, consistent with human MDS. Furthermore, Asxl1(-/-) Lin(-)c-Kit(+) cells exhibited decreased global levels of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 and altered expression of genes regulating apoptosis (Bcl2, Bcl2l12, Bcl2l13). Collectively, we report a novel ASXL1 murine model that recapitulates human myeloid malignancies, implying that Asxl1 functions as a tumor suppressor to maintain hematopoietic cell homeostasis. Future work is necessary to clarify the contribution of microenvironment to the hematopoietic phenotypes observed in the constitutional Asxl1(-/-) mice.

  7. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaviarasan, P K; Prasad, P V S; Shradda; Viswanathan, P

    2005-01-01

    Kindler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with skin fragility. It is characterized by blistering in infancy, photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. The syndrome involves the skin and mucous membrane with radiological changes. The genetic defect has been identified on the short arm of chromosome 20. This report describes an 18-year-old patient with classical features like blistering and photosensitivity in childhood and the subsequent development of poikiloderma. The differential diagnosis of Kindler syndrome includes diseases like Bloom syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, epidermolysis bullosa, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum. Our patient had classical cutaneous features of Kindler syndrome with phimosis as a complication.

  8. Facts about Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search the NEI Website search NEI on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M ... Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, Social ...

  9. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lai-Cheong, Joey E; McGrath, John A

    2010-01-01

    Kindler syndrome (MIM173650) is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by poikiloderma, trauma-induced skin blistering, mucosal inflammation, and photosensitivity. Loss-of-function mutations in the FERMT1 gene are the cause of Kindler syndrome. Kindler syndrome is categorized as a subtype of epidermolysis bullosa (EB). During infancy and childhood, there is clinical overlap between Kindler syndrome and dystrophic EB. Unlike other forms of EB, Kindler syndrome is characterized by impaired actin cytoskeleton-extracellular matrix interactions and a variable plane of blister formation at or close to the dermal-epidermal junction. This article reviews clinicopathologic and molecular features of Kindler syndrome and discusses patient management.

  10. Piriformis syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Pseudosciatica; Wallet sciatica; Hip socket neuropathy; Pelvic outlet syndrome; Low back pain - piriformis ... Sciatica is the main symptom of piriformis syndrome. Other symptoms include: Tenderness or a dull ache in ...

  11. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. The cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone that ... your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper body obesity ...

  12. Usher Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Usher syndrome is an inherited disease that causes serious hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disorder that causes ... and vision. There are three types of Usher syndrome: People with type I are deaf from birth ...

  13. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental and nervous system problems, mostly in girls. It's related to autism spectrum disorder. Babies with Rett syndrome seem to grow and develop normally at first. ...

  14. Reye Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Reye syndrome is a rare illness that can affect the blood, liver, and brain of someone who has recently ... a viral illness, seek medical attention immediately. Reye syndrome can lead to a coma and brain death, ...

  15. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... with blood clotting. If you have a myelodysplastic syndrome, the stem cells do not mature into healthy ... lead to infection, anemia, or easy bleeding. Myelodysplastic syndromes often do not cause early symptoms and are ...

  16. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  17. Felty syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA); Felty's syndrome ... The cause of Felty syndrome is unknown. It is more common in people who have had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for a long time. People with ...

  18. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as tobacco, benzene and pesticides, or to heavy metals, such as lead. Types of myelodysplastic syndromes The ... and industrial chemicals, such as benzene. Exposure to heavy metals. Heavy metals linked to myelodysplastic syndromes include lead ...

  19. Angelman Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... heads, jerky movements, protruding tongues, and bouts of laughter." Infants with Angelman syndrome appear normal at birth, ... heads, jerky movements, protruding tongues, and bouts of laughter." Infants with Angelman syndrome appear normal at birth, ...

  20. Zellweger Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Institutes of Health (NIH), conduct research exploring the molecular and genetic basis of Zellweger syndrome and the other PBDs, ... Institutes of Health (NIH), conduct research exploring the molecular and genetic basis of Zellweger syndrome and the other PBDs, ...

  1. Reye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome has occurred in children who were given aspirin when they had chickenpox or the flu. Reye syndrome has become very rare. This is because aspirin is no longer recommended for routine use in ...

  2. Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Down syndrome increases as a woman gets older. Down syndrome cannot be cured. Early treatment programs can help improve skills. They may include ... occupational, and/or educational therapy. With support and treatment, many ... Down syndrome live happy, productive lives. NIH: National Institute of ...

  3. Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the…

  4. [Enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome. A review of 55 paediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Santos, Saturnino; Sgambatti, Luciano; Bueno, Antonio; Albi, Gustavo; Suárez, Alicia; Domínguez, Maria Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is the commonest congenital anomaly found with imaging techniques in paediatric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Our aim was to describe clinical and audiological findings in paediatric hearing loss associated to EVA. Retrospective review of 55 children with imaging-technique EVA findings from 2000 to 2009. Subjective and/or objective audiological tests were analysed and audiological findings related to clinical features were described. Thirty-seven patients (67.27%) showed bilateral EVA and 18 (32.72%) were unilateral. Hearing loss was bilateral in 46 (83.63%) patients and unilateral in 9 (16.36%). Mean age at diagnosis was 3.78 years. Fifty-three (96.36%) children showed SNHL (28 bilateral and profound), while 2 (3.63%) patients had mixed hearing loss. There were 3 cases of hearing loss progression, 2 fluctuations, 2 of them were asymmetric and 2 patients suffered from vestibular symptoms. Concomitant image findings were 6 cochlear hypoplasia, 2 enlarged internal auditory canals, 1 enlarged vestibule and 1 hypoplastic lateral semicircular canal. Six clinical syndromes were found (2 cases of Down's, and 1 each of Jacobsen, Pendred, Waardenburg and branchio-oto-renal). One child was positive for GJB2 mutation. Familial hearing loss was demonstrated on 12 (21.8%) cases. The clinical picture of hearing loss associated to EVA is characterised by great variability. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained mixed hearing loss. Familial and syndromic findings have to be taken into consideration in the diagnostic evaluations of such patients. Knowledge about the natural history of this illness is needed so as to give parents prognostic information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernández López, M T; López Otero, M J; Alvarez Vázquez, P; Arias Delgado, J; Varela Correa, J J

    2009-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a complex syndrome that occurs as a result of reintroducing nutrition (oral, enteral or parenteral) to patients who are starved or malnourished. Patients can develop fluid-balance abnormalities, electrolyte disorders (hypophosphataemia, hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia), abnormal glucose metabolism and certain vitamin deficiencies. Refeeding syndrome encompasses abnormalities affecting multiple organ systems, including neurological, pulmonary, cardiac, neuromuscular and haematological functions. Pathogenic mechanisms involved in the refeeding syndrome and clinical manifestations have been reviewed. We provide suggestions for the prevention and treatment of refeeding syndrome. The most important steps are to identify patients at risk, reintroduce nutrition cautiously and correct electrolyte and vitamin deficiencies properly.

  6. Increased levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds underlie the craniofacial disorder, Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dixon, J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R; Dixon, M J

    2000-06-12

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of human craniofacial development that results from loss-of-function mutations in the gene TCOF1. Although this gene has been demonstrated to encode the nucleolar phosphoprotein treacle, the developmental mechanism underlying TCS remains elusive, particularly as expression studies have shown that the murine orthologue, Tcof1, is widely expressed. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of TCS, we replaced exon 1 of Tcof1 with a neomycin-resistance cassette via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Tcof1 heterozygous mice die perinatally as a result of severe craniofacial anomalies that include agenesis of the nasal passages, abnormal development of the maxilla, exencephaly and anophthalmia. These defects arise due to a massive increase in the levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds, which are the site of the highest levels of Tcof1 expression. Our results demonstrate that TCS arises from haploinsufficiency of a protein that plays a crucial role in craniofacial development and indicate that correct dosage of treacle is essential for survival of cephalic neural crest cells.

  7. Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Devi, Basanti; Behera, Binodini; Patro, Sibasish; Pattnaik, Subhransu S; Puhan, Manas R

    2013-05-01

    Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  8. Proteus syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Ritha de Cássia Capelato; Estrella, Mariani Paulino Soriano; do Amaral, Danielle Mechereffe; Barbosa, Angela Marques; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2017-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by disproportionate overgrowth of limbs, multiple hamartomas, and vascular malformations. The cerebriform connective tissue nevi, also called cerebriform plantar hyperplasia, are present in most patients, and is the main characteristic of the syndrome. If present, even alone, they can be considered as a pathognomonic sign. This article reports a classic case of Proteus syndrome in a 2-year-old male patient who began to show a discrete asymmetry of the right hemibody in relation to the left one after birth, which increased over the months. He also showed cerebriform plantar hyperplasia and Port-wine stains, among other alterations. PMID:29166516

  9. Goodpasture syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary hemorrhage; Pulmonary renal syndrome; Glomerulonephritis - pulmonary hemorrhage Images Kidney blood supply References Appel GB, Radhakrishnan J, D'Agati V. Secondary glomerular disease. In: Skorecki ...

  10. Marfan Syndrome (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic disorder called Marfan syndrome. What Is Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome is named after Antoine Marfan, the French ... immediately. What's Life Like for Teens With Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome affects people differently, so life is not ...

  11. Genetic and Dynamic Analysis of Murine Peak Bone Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    number of diseases including Waardenburg syndrome (18, 19) and retinitis pigmentosa (20). Substantial computerized genetic data bases maintained at...411, 1992. 14. Foy, C., Newton, V., Wellesley, D., Harris, R., and Read, A. P. Assignment of the locus for Waardenburg syndrome type 1 to human...Balling, R., Gruss, P., and Strachan, T. Waardenburg’s syndrome patients have mutations in the human homologue of the Pax-3 paired box gene, Nature

  12. Seckel syndrome: an overdiagnosed syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, E; Pembrey, M

    1985-01-01

    Five children in whom a diagnosis of Seckel syndrome had previously been made were re-examined in the genetic unit. One child had classical Seckel syndrome, a sib pair had the features of the syndrome with less severe short stature, and in two children the diagnosis was not confirmed. Seckel syndrome is only one of a group of low birth weight microcephalic dwarfism and careful attention should be paid to fulfillment of the major criteria defined by Seckel before the diagnosis is made. There remains a heterogeneous group of low birth weight microcephalic dwarfism yet to be defined. Images PMID:4040172

  13. De novo SOX10 Nonsense Mutation in a Patient with Kallmann Syndrome, Deafness, Iris Hypopigmentation, and Hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Zhao, Shaoli; Xie, Yanhong; Yang, Wenjun; Mo, Zhaohui

    2018-03-01

    Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and olfactory dysfunction. Recently, mutations in SOX10, a well-known causative gene of Waardenburg syndrome (WS), have been identified in a few KS patients with additional developmental defects including hearing loss. However, the understanding of SOX10 mutation associates with KS and other clinical consequences remains fragmentary. A 30-year-old Chinese male patient presented with no pubertal sex development when he was at the age of twelve years. Additionally, he showed anosmia, sensory deafness, and blue irises. Last year, he developed clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism with a fast heartbeat, heat intolerance and weight loss. Blood examinations revealed low levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone. Thyroid function showed high levels of FT3, FT4 and extremely low level of TSH. Molecular analysis detected a de novo (c.565G>T/p.E189X) mutation in SOX10, which has previously been reported in a patient with WS4 (WS with Hirschsprung). The mutation was predicted to be probably damaging. These results highlight the significance of SOX10 haploinsufficiency as a genetic cause of KS. Importantly, our result implies that the same SOX10 mutation can underlie both typical KS and WS, while the correlation between SOX10 and hyperthyroidism still needs to be clarified in the future. © 2018 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  14. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    If you have Tourette syndrome, you make unusual movements or sounds, called tics. You have little or no control over them. Common tics are throat- ... spin, or, rarely, blurt out swear words. Tourette syndrome is a disorder of the nervous system. It ...

  15. Postthrombotic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rondina MT. Contemporary issues in the prevention and management of postthrombotic syndrome. Ann Pharmacother . 2009 ; 43 : 1824 –1835. OpenUrl CrossRef PubMed ↵ Kahn SR, Ginsberg JS. Relationship between deep venous thrombosis and the postthrombotic syndrome. ...

  16. Aicardi Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aicardi Syndrome Foundation P.O. Box 3202 St. Charles IL St. Charles, IL 60174 web@aicardisyndrome.org http://www.aicardisyndrome. ... Aicardi Syndrome Foundation P.O. Box 3202 St. Charles IL St. Charles, IL 60174 web@aicardisyndrome.org ...

  17. Sjogren's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms. Symptoms The two main symptoms of Sjogren's syndrome are: Dry eyes. Your eyes might burn, itch or feel gritty — ... mouth is dry. Yeast infections. People with Sjogren's syndrome are much ... Vision problems. Dry eyes can lead to light sensitivity, blurred vision and ...

  18. [Cotard syndrome].

    PubMed

    Simovici, G; Bauer, A

    1996-01-01

    We describe a schizophrenic paranoid patient, who developed a unique clinical state that fits the Cotard syndrome. The article deals with the course of the disease, the clinical characteristics, the difficulties of treatment. The process of diagnosis and its difficulties, and the rareness of the symptoms are emphasized. Various etiological causes of the syndrome are discussed.

  19. Poland syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Chandra Madhur; Kumar, Shrawan; Meghwani, Manoj K.; Agrawal, Ravi P.

    2014-01-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India. PMID:24959021

  20. Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chandra Madhur; Kumar, Shrawan; Meghwani, Manoj K; Agrawal, Ravi P

    2014-01-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India.

  1. Horner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... at birth Tumor of the hormonal and nervous systems (neuroblastoma) Unknown causes In some cases the cause of Horner syndrome cannot be identified. This is known as idiopathic Horner syndrome. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of this site ...

  2. Prostatitis Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. Curtis

    1991-01-01

    The many prostatitis syndromes remain a frustrating enigma to family physicians as well as specialists. An understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of these syndromes and a rigorous diagnostic plan to properly classify the patients at first presentation are essential to a successful treatment outcome. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:21229071

  3. Brugada Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... A telltale abnormality — called a type 1 Brugada ECG pattern — is detected by an electrocardiogram (ECG) test. Brugada syndrome is much more common in ... syndrome is an abnormal pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) called a type 1 Brugada ECG pattern. You ...

  4. TAFRO Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Takuro; Sato, Yasuharu

    2018-02-01

    TAFRO syndrome is a newly recognized variant of idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) that involves a constellation of syndromes: thrombocytopenia (T), anasarca (A), fever (F), reticulin fibrosis (R), and organomegaly (O). Thrombocytopenia and severe anasarca accompanied by relatively low serum immunoglobulin levels are characteristic clinical findings of TAFRO syndrome that are not present in iMCD-not otherwise specified (iMCD-NOS). Lymph node biopsy is recommended to exclude other diseases and to diagnose TAFRO syndrome, which reveals characteristic histopathological findings similar to hyaline vascular-type CD. TAFRO syndrome follows a more aggressive course, compared with iMCD-NOS, and there is no standard treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... become irregular or stop. Men may have decreased fertility with lowered interest in sex and may have ... but don’t develop the long-term health effects of Cushing's syndrome. These people may have pseudo- ...

  6. Behcet's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Behcet's syndrome is a disease that involves vasculitis, which is inflammation of the blood vessels. It causes problems in many parts of the body. The ... National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

  7. Carcinoid syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... things such as blue cheese, chocolate, or red wine. Exams and Tests Most of these tumors are ... outlook is more favorable thanks to new treatment methods. Possible Complications Complications of carcinoid syndrome may include: ...

  8. Lynch Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... child is a son or daughter. How gene mutations cause cancer The genes affected in Lynch syndrome ... children have a risk of inheriting your genetic mutations. If one parent carries a genetic mutation for ...

  9. Noonan syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray , or echocardiogram Hearing tests Growth hormone levels Genetic testing can help diagnose this syndrome. ... Problems with the structure of the heart Short height Social problems due to physical symptoms

  10. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone your body produces to help ... into energy for your body. If you are insulin resistant, too much sugar builds up in your ...

  11. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... like he's in pain or needs help. These tics are symptoms of Luke's Tourette syndrome. What Is ... the body's brain and nervous system by causing tics — sudden, repetitive movements or sounds that some people ...

  12. Hurler Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... del paciente Transplant process Diseases treated by transplant Acute myeloid leukemia Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) ... SCID) Sickle cell disease (SCD) Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Other diseases Treatment decisions Learn ...

  13. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... trials, epidemiology, neurophysiology, neuroimmunology, and descriptive/diagnostic clinical science. Findings from these studies will provide clues for more effective therapies. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Tourette Syndrome × What research is ...

  14. Apert syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... by ridging along sutures (craniosynostosis) Frequent ear infections Fusion or severe webbing of the 2nd, 3rd, and ... midface Skeletal (limb) abnormalities Short height Webbing or fusion of the toes Several other syndromes can lead ...

  15. [Refeeding syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ševela, Stanislav; Novák, František; Kazda, Antonín; Brodská, Helena

    Despite being known more than 60 years, refeeding syndrome (RS) still bears many uncertainties. For example, its definition is not clear and definite, and the attitude to it varies from the complete neglect to over-prevention.The term "refeeding syndrome" refers to electrolyte and metabolic changes occurring in malnourished patients after the readministration of nutrition. These changes concern especially to phosphates and ions. Potassium, magnesium, naturism and fluids balance are involved. The changes lead to cell energetic metabolism and electric potential disturbances, with related clinical symptoms.Fully developed refeeding syndrome is quite rare; nevertheless it can be fatal for the patient. However, even its development can lead to many complications increasing the patient's morbidity and the length of stay in the hospital. Yet the refeeding syndrome is more or less predictable and if kept in mind also preventable.The aim of this article is to get the reader to know more about this metabolic phenomenon and possible attitudes towards it.

  16. Stickler Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children who have Stickler syndrome often have distinctive facial features — prominent eyes, a small nose with a scooped ... develop ear infections than are children with normal facial features. Deafness. Hearing loss may worsen with time and ...

  17. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Brown syndrome cause eye problems besides abnormal eye movements? In the more severely affected cases of Brown ... acquired and congenital cases. In congenital cases, the eye movement problem is usually constant and unlikely to resolve ...

  18. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased risk of developing weak, brittle bones (osteoporosis). Learning disabilities. Girls and women with Turner syndrome usually have normal intelligence. However, there is increased risk of learning disabilities, particularly with learning that involves spatial concepts, math, ...

  19. Aase syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Aase-Smith syndrome; Hypoplastic anemia - triphalangeal thumbs, Aase-Smith type ... Jones KL, Jones MC, Del Campo M, eds. Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation . 7th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  20. Alagille Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  1. Reye Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  2. Tourette syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... had many motor tics and 1 or more vocal tics, although these tics may not have occurred ... symptoms of Tourette syndrome. A type of talk therapy (coginitive behavioral therapy) called habit-reversal may help ...

  3. HELLP syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is considered to be a variant of preeclampsia. Sometimes the presence of HELLP syndrome is due ... out of 1,000 pregnancies. In women with preeclampsia or eclampsia , the condition develops in 10% to ...

  4. Noonan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Amy E; Allanson, Judith E; Tartaglia, Marco; Gelb, Bruce D

    2014-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a genetic multisystem disorder characterised by distinctive facial features, developmental delay, learning difficulties, short stature, congenital heart disease, renal anomalies, lymphatic malformations, and bleeding difficulties. Mutations that cause Noonan syndrome alter genes encoding proteins with roles in the RAS–MAPK pathway, leading to pathway dysregulation. Management guidelines have been developed. Several clinically relevant genotype–phenotype correlations aid risk assessment and patient management. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease could help development of pharmacogenetic treatments. PMID:23312968

  5. [Poland's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Slezak, R; Sasiadek, M

    2000-08-01

    Poland's syndrome consists of the variable clinical features, but always includes unilateral aplasia of the chest wall muscles and ipsilateral anomalies of upper extremity. The incidence of Poland's syndrome, reported by different authors ranges from 1:10,000 to 1:100,000 and is observed more frequently in males than in females with the right side of the body affected more often than the left. The etiology of this syndrome is still discussed. However most of described cases were sporadic, rare familial incidence of Poland's syndrome were also presented. Therefore different etiologic factors of the Poland's syndrome are taken into account: genetic, vascular compromise during early stages of embriogenesis but also teratogenic effect of environmental xenobiotics (e.g. cigarette smoking by pregnant women). The authors present also the case of 20-years old man with inherited bilateral syndactyly with the right side aplasia of major pectoralis muscle and face asymmetry. The familial history was negative in respect to the features, associated with Poland's syndrome.

  6. Learning about WAGR Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... children who have WAGR syndrome may have normal intelligence. Other symptoms of WAGR syndrome may also include: ... mild. Some individuals with WAGR syndrome have normal intelligence. Children with WAGR syndrome should be referred for ...

  7. Exogenous Cushing syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Cushing syndrome - corticosteroid induced; Corticosteroid-induced Cushing syndrome; Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome ... Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a higher than normal level of the hormone ...

  8. Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other FAQs Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs Basic information for topics, such as " ... been diagnosed with Turner syndrome. Now what? Is Turner syndrome inherited? Turner syndrome is usually not inherited, but ...

  9. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Also known as Pickwickian Syndrome What ... your neck is larger than normal. Complications of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome When left untreated, OHS can cause ...

  10. Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the signs and symptoms of Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Marfan syndrome is different from Loeys-Dietz syndrome in that the gene mutation which causes Marfan syndrome is in fibrillin-1 (FBN-1), a protein ...

  11. National Down Syndrome Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... individuals with Down syndrome. Help us fix the law and end #LawSyndrome. Law Syndrome affects 100% of people with Down syndrome. It’s a series of antiquated laws that impede the pursuit of a career or ...

  12. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic condition. The gene linked to the syndrome is known as PTCH (" ...

  13. What Is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or rheumatic (ru-MAT-ik) disorders, such as lupus . ("Rheumatic" refers to disorders that affect the joints, ... aCL syndrome Antiphospholipid syndrome aPL syndrome Hughes syndrome Lupus anticoagulant syndrome Causes Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) occurs ...

  14. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ramesh Chander; Mahajan, Vikram; Sharma, Nand Lal; Sharma, Ashok K

    2003-09-01

    Kindler syndrome is a rare genodermatosis characterized by acral bullae and photosensitivity. The photosensitivity improves with advancing age and results in progressive poikiloderma and cutaneous atrophy, and many additional features have also been described. This report describes two male Kindler syndrome patients with classical features of acral blistering and photosensitivity in childhood, and subsequent development of poikiloderma, leukokeratosis of oro-ano-genital mucosae, phimosis and meatal stenosis. The first patient had additional ophthalmic features of chronic simple conjunctivitis caused by persistent irritation, multiple stromal nebular corneal opacities and thickened corneal nerves. The second patient showed skeletal changes, namely a dome-shaped skull (turri-cephaly), bifid fourth rib, missing fifth rib, short fourth and fifth metacarpals and mandibular abnormalities. This is the first report of such ophthalmic and skeletal features of Kindler syndrome.

  15. Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhambhani, Vikas; Muenke, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a common genetic disorder that causes multiple congenital abnormalities and a large number of potential health conditions. Most affected individuals have characteristic facial features that evolve with age; a broad, webbed neck; increased bleeding tendency; and a high incidence of congenital heart disease, failure to thrive, short stature, feeding difficulties, sternal deformity, renal malformation, pubertal delay, cryptorchidism, developmental or behavioral problems, vision problems, hearing loss, and lymphedema. Familial recurrence is consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, but most cases are due to de novo mutations. Diagnosis can be made on the basis of clinical features, but may be missed in mildly affected patients. Molecular genetic testing can confirm diagnosis in 70% of cases and has important implications for genetic counseling and management. Most patients with Noonan syndrome are intellectually normal as adults, but some may require multidisciplinary evaluation and regular follow-up care. Age-based Noonan syndrome-specific growth charts and treatment guidelines are available.

  16. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  17. Refeeding syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Swagata; Mishra, Padmini; Dash, S. C.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a fifty-year-old male who was admitted with a three month history of increasing weakness, prostration, decreasing appetite and inability to swallow. The patient was a chronic alcoholic, unemployed, and of very poor socioeconomic background. The patient was initially investigated for upper GI malignancy, Addisons disease, bulbar palsy and other endocrinopathies. Concurrent management was started for severe electrolyte abnormalities and enteral nutritional supplementation was begun. By the fourth day of feeding patient developed severe hypophosphatemia and other life-threatening features suggesting refeeding syndrome. The patient was managed for the manifestations of refeeding syndrome. A final diagnosis of chronic alcoholic malnutrition with refeeding syndrome was made. Refeeding of previously starving patients may lead to a variety of complications including sudden death. PMID:19742256

  18. Eagle's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves; Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Ferreira, Denise Bastos Lage; Raymundo, Igor Teixeira; Nascimento, Luiz Augusto; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT) of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical. PMID:25992033

  19. Postpolio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Winters, R

    1991-01-01

    The recurrence of symptoms many years after the rehabilitation of individuals who survived the acute illness, poliomyelitis, is a major concern. The purpose of this article is to provide information to the nurse practitioner (NP), who, as a primary health care provider, may be the first health professional to encounter persons with such complaints. Although no cure has been identified, diagnosis and treatment is available and is important to the psychosocial well-being of those who suffer from postpolio syndrome. This article reviews research on the syndrome including etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms and management, psychological issues, and the role of the aging process. Some areas where further research is indicated are also identified.

  20. Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Srivastava, Rohit

    2005-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a rare, progressive, neurodevelopmental disorder that has been reported only in the girl child. We describe the case of a 6.9-year-old girl with Rett syndrome. She had normal development till the age of 2 years. However, over the next 4–5 months, she lost her acquired, purposeful hand skills; expressive and receptive language; and reciprocal social interaction; and gradually developed a broad-based gait and typical midline stereotyped hand movements (mouthing, rubbing). PMID:20711295

  1. [Elsberg syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kristine Esbjerg; Knudsen, Troels Bygum

    2013-12-16

    A syndrome involving acute urinary retention in combination with sacral radiculitis and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis was first described by the American neurosurgeon Charles Elsberg in 1931. In many instances the aetiology is herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivation from sensory neurons. In this case report we present a 34-year-old pregnant woman with previous undiagnosed sensory lumbosacral symptoms. She was hospitalized with HSV-2 meningitis and lumbosacral radiculitis but no genital rash. A week after the onset of symptoms she developed acute urinary retention, thus indicating Elsberg syndrome.

  2. Reiter's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Savant, S S; Fernandez, J C; Dhurandhar, M W; Fernandez, R J

    1979-01-01

    A case of Reiter's syndrome occurring in a young mate aged 20 years having extensive skin lesions of keratoderina blenoffhagica is presented along with a review of literature. Although urethritis was absent, other clinical and histopathological features of the cutaneous lesions led us to the diagnosis. The-possible relationship of postural psoriasis to Reiter's syndrome is discussed. Failure of the patient to respond satisfactorily to steroids, antibiotics etc, prompted the use of rnethotrexate in the case. The result was dramatic, as the patient completely recovered within ten days of starting treatment.

  3. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ashton, G H S

    2004-03-01

    Kindler syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive skin fragility disorder characterized by blistering in infancy, followed by photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. Ultrastructural examination reveals marked basement membrane reduplication and variable levels of cleavage at the dermal-epidermal junction. The molecular pathology underlying Kindler syndrome has recently been shown to involve loss-of-function mutations in a novel gene, KIND1, encoding kindlin-1. Immunofluorescence, gene expression and cell biology studies have shown that kindlin-1 is expressed mainly in basal keratinocytes and plays a role in the attachment of the actin cytoskeleton via focal contacts to the extracellular matrix. Thus, Kindler syndrome is the first genodermatosis caused by a defect in actin-extracellular matrix linkage rather than the classic keratin-extracellular matrix linkage underlying the pathology of other inherited skin fragility disorders such as epidermolysis bullosa. This article reviews the clinical features as well as the molecular and cellular pathology of Kindler syndrome and highlights the importance of the new protein, kindlin-1, in cell-matrix adhesion and its intriguing link to photosensitivity.

  4. Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbert, Linda A.

    This pamphlet reviews the historical process involved in initially recognizing Rett Syndrome as a specific disorder in girls. Its etiology is unknown, but studies have considered factors as hyperammonemia, a two-step mutation, a fragile X chromosome, metabolic disorder, environmental causation, dopamine deficiency, and an inactive X chromosome.…

  5. Pendred Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... weigh the medical, emotional, and ethical considerations of testing. A genetic counselor is a health professional who provides information and support to people (and their families) who have a genetic disorder or who are at risk for a genetic disorder. How is Pendred syndrome ...

  6. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... with movement and coordination, and a loss of social interaction and communication. Stage III: plateau. The third stage usually begins between the ages of 2 and 10 years and can last for many years. ... social functioning Shortened life span — people with Rett syndrome ...

  7. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin. What health problems can occur with Turner syndrome? Girls and women with TS are at risk for congenital (present at birth) abnormalities of the heart and kidneys, high blood pressure, chronic or repeated middle ear infections, hearing loss, diabetes, underactive thyroid gland, bowel ...

  8. Sotos syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baujat, Geneviève; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth condition characterized by cardinal features including excessive growth during childhood, macrocephaly, distinctive facial gestalt and various degrees of learning difficulty, and associated with variable minor features. The exact prevalence remains unknown but hundreds of cases have been reported. The diagnosis is usually suspected after birth because of excessive height and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), advanced bone age, neonatal complications including hypotonia and feeding difficulties, and facial gestalt. Other inconstant clinical abnormalities include scoliosis, cardiac and genitourinary anomalies, seizures and brisk deep tendon reflexes. Variable delays in cognitive and motor development are also observed. The syndrome may also be associated with an increased risk of tumors. Mutations and deletions of the NSD1 gene (located at chromosome 5q35 and coding for a histone methyltransferase implicated in transcriptional regulation) are responsible for more than 75% of cases. FISH analysis, MLPA or multiplex quantitative PCR allow the detection of total/partial NSD1 deletions, and direct sequencing allows detection of NSD1 mutations. The large majority of NSD1 abnormalities occur de novo and there are very few familial cases. Although most cases are sporadic, several reports of autosomal dominant inheritance have been described. Germline mosaicism has never been reported and the recurrence risk for normal parents is very low (<1%). The main differential diagnoses are Weaver syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedeman syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome and 22qter deletion syndrome. Management is multidisciplinary. During the neonatal period, therapies are mostly symptomatic, including phototherapy in case of jaundice, treatment of the feeding difficulties and gastroesophageal reflux, and detection and treatment of hypoglycemia. General pediatric follow-up is important during the first years of life to allow detection

  9. Pendred syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Kopp, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder that is classically defined by the combination of sensorineural deafness/hearing impairment, goiter, and an abnormal organification of iodide with or without hypothyroidism. The hallmark of the syndrome is the impaired hearing, which is associated with inner ear malformations such as an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). The thyroid phenotype is variable and may be modified by the nutritional iodine intake. Pendred syndrome is caused by biallelic mutations in the SLC26A4/PDS gene, which encodes the multifunctional anion exchanger pendrin. Pendrin has affinity for chloride, iodide, and bicarbonate, among other anions. In the inner ear, pendrin functions as a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger that is essential for maintaining the composition and the potential of the endolymph. In the thyroid, pendrin is expressed at the apical membrane of thyroid cells facing the follicular lumen. Functional studies have demonstrated that pendrin can mediate iodide efflux in heterologous cells. This, together with the thyroid phenotype observed in humans (goiter, impaired iodine organification) suggests that pendrin could be involved in iodide efflux into the lumen, one of the steps required for thyroid hormone synthesis. Iodide efflux can, however, also occur in the absence of pendrin suggesting that other exchangers or channels are involved. It has been suggested that Anoctamin 1 (ANO1/TMEM16A), a calcium-activated anion channel, which is also expressed at the apical membrane of thyrocytes, could participate in mediating apical efflux. In the kidney, pendrin is involved in bicarbonate secretion and chloride reabsorption. While there is no renal phenotype under basal conditions, severe metabolic alkalosis has been reported in Pendred syndrome patients exposed to an increased alkali load. This review provides an overview on the clinical spectrum of Pendred syndrome, the functional data on pendrin with a focus on its potential role in

  10. The Source for Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Hoge, Debra Reichert

    Designed for practicing speech-language pathologists, this book discusses different syndrome disabilities, pertinent speech-language characteristics, and goals and strategies to begin intervention efforts at a preschool level. Chapters address: (1) Angelman syndrome; (2) Asperger syndrome; (3) Down syndrome; (4) fetal alcohol syndrome; (5) fetal…

  11. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Irritable Bowel Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Irritable Bowel Syndrome What's in ... intestinal disorder called irritable bowel syndrome. What Is Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common intestinal ...

  12. Clinical features and prognosis of a sample of patients with trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Petry, Patrícia; Polli, Janaina B; Mattos, Vinícius F; Rosa, Rosana C M; Zen, Paulo R G; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio A; Rosa, Rafael F M

    2013-06-01

    Trisomy 13 or Patau syndrome (PS) is a chromosomal disorder characterized by a well known presentation of multiple congenital anomalies. Our objective was to determine the clinical features and prognosis observed in a sample of patients with PS. The series was composed of patients with diagnosis of PS consecutively evaluated by a Clinical Genetics Service from a reference hospital of southern Brazil, in the period between 1975 and 2012. Statistical analysis was performed using PEPI program (version 4.0), with two-tailed Fisher's exact test for comparison of frequencies (P<0.05). The sample consisted of 30 patients, 60% male, median age at first evaluation of 9 days. Full trisomy of chromosome 13 was the main cytogenetic alteration (73%). The major clinical findings included: cryptorchidism (78%), abnormal auricles (77%), congenital heart defects (76%), polydactyly (63%), microphthalmia (60%) and micrognathia (50%). Four patients (13%) simultaneously had micro/anophthalmia, oral clefts and polydactyly. Some findings were only observed in our sample and included, among others, preauricular tags (10%), duplication of the hallux (3%) and spots following the lines of Blaschko (3%). Mosaicism (20% of cases) had a statistically significant association only with absence of cryptorchidism. The median of survival was 26 days. Patients with and without mosaicism had similar median of survival. Our findings, in agreement with the literature, show that the anomalies in patients with PS can be quite variable, sometimes even atypical. There is no pathognomonic finding, which may make the early identification of these patients challenging. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Overtraining Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kreher, Jeffrey B.; Schwartz, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Fatigue and underperformance are common in athletes. Understanding overtraining syndrome (OTS) is helpful in the evaluation, management, and education of athletes. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles in English were searched with OVID (1948-2011) and PubMed using the following keywords: overtraining syndrome, overtraining, overreaching, unexplained underperformance, staleness, pathophysiology, management, treatment, evaluation. Bibliographies were reviewed for additional resources. Results: OTS appears to be a maladapted response to excessive exercise without adequate rest, resulting in perturbations of multiple body systems (neurologic, endocrinologic, immunologic) coupled with mood changes. Many hypotheses of OTS pathogenesis are reviewed, and a clinical approach to athletes with possible OTS (including history, testing, and prevention) is presented. Conclusions: OTS remains a clinical diagnosis with arbitrary definitions per the European College of Sports Science’s position statement. History and, in most situations, limited serologies are helpful. However, much remains to be learned given that most past research has been on athletes with overreaching rather than OTS. PMID:23016079

  14. Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farruggia, Piero; Di Marco, Floriana; Dufour, Carlo

    2018-03-01

    Pearson syndrome (PS) is a sporadic and very rare syndrome classically associated with single large-scale deletions of mitochondrial DNA and characterized by refractory sideroblastic anemia during infancy. Areas covered: This review presents an analysis and interpretation of the published data that forms the basis for our understanding of PS. PubMed, Google Scholarand Thompson ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant data. Expert commentary: PS is a very rare mitochodrial disease that involves different organs and systems. Clinical phenotype is extremely variable and may change over the course of disease itself with the possibility both of worsenings and improvements. Outcome is invariably lethal and at the moment no cure is available. Accurate supportive treatment and follow up program in centres with experience in mitochondrial diseases and marrow failure may positively influence quality and duration of life.

  15. Paraneoplastic syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) comprise a diverse group of disorders that are associated with cancer but unrelated to the size, location, metastases, or physiologic activities of the mature tissue of origin. They are remote effects of tumors that may appear as signs, symptoms, or syndromes which can mimic other disease conditions encountered in veterinary medicine. Recognition of PNS is valuable for several reasons: the observed abnormalities may represent tumor cell markers and facilitate early diagnosis of the tumor; they may allow assessment of premalignant states; they may aid in the search metastases; they may help quantify and monitor response to therapy;more » and, they may provide insight into the study of malignant transformation and oncogene expression. This review will concentrate on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of some of the common PNS encountered in veterinary medicine.« less

  16. Fluency Disorders in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Tetnowski, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of various genetic syndromes have included "stuttering" as a primary symptom associated with that syndrome. Specifically, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type I, and Turner syndrome all list "stuttering" as a characteristic of that syndrome. An extensive review of…

  17. [Usher syndrome].

    PubMed

    Preda, Mirela; Damian, Carmen; Irimia, Anca; Sollosy, Mihaela; Ciuca, Cristi Adelina; Totolin, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    We present the case report of two brothers, PF-21 years old and PN-19 years old, to whom the fundus examination, perimetry and dark adaptation established the diagnosis of Retinitis Pigmentosa. The otorhinolaryngology exam and the audiogram revealed, in both cases, bilateral sensorineural deafness. The simultaneous presence of these two conditions completes the clinical findings of Usher syndrome. The common ectodermic origin of the retina and the inner ear could explain this pathological association.

  18. [Crush syndrome].

    PubMed

    Scapellato, S; Maria, S; Castorina, G; Sciuto, G

    2007-08-01

    Crush injuries and crush syndrome are common after natural (e.g. earthquake, land-slide, tornadoes, tsunami) or man-made catastrophes (e.g. wars, terrorist attacks), in fact the history of this disease is well reported both in earthquake rescue reviews and in military literature. However, there are instances due to conventional causes, such as building collapses, road traffic accident, accident at work or altered level of consciousness after stroke or drug overdose. These situations of ''big or small'' catastrophes can occur at any time and anywhere, for this reason every clinician should be prepared to address issues of crush syndrome quickly and aggressively. The treatment has to manage and to predict clinical conditions before they present themselves. In particular, acute renal failure is one of the few life-threatening complications that can be reversed. This article reviews the various evidences and summarizes the treatment strategies available. Fundamental targets in crush syndrome management are early aggressive hydration, urine alkalinization and, when possible, forced diuresis. Since electrolyte imbalance may be fatal due to arrhythmias secondary to hyperkalemia (especially associated with hypocalcemia), it's necessary to correct these abnormalities using insulin-glucose solution and/or potassium binders, and if nevertheless serum potassium levels remain high this serious disease will necessitate dialysis, which is often a vital procedure.

  19. Gorlin Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Álvarez, I; González-Sarmiento, R; Fernández-López, E

    2018-04-01

    Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. Of particular importance is the PTCH1 gene. The disease is characterized by the development of multiple basal cell carcinomas at young ages. These tumors may present with other skin manifestations such as palmoplantar pits and with extracutaneous manifestations such as odontogenic keratocysts and medulloblastoma. Although the dermatologist may be key for recognizing clinical suspicion of the syndrome, a multidisciplinary team is usually necessary for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Skin treatment may be complicated due to the large number of basal cell carcinomas and the extent of involvement. In recent years, new drugs that inhibit targets in the sonic hedgehog pathway have been developed. Although these agents appear promising options for patients with Gorlin syndrome, their efficacy is limited by adverse effects and the development of resistance. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [PHACES syndrome].

    PubMed

    Morcillo Azcárate, J; Bernabeu-Wittel, J; Fernández-Pineda, I; Conejo-Mir, M D; Tuduri Limousin, I; Aspiazu Salinas, D A; de Agustín Asensio, J C

    2010-04-01

    PHACES syndrome associates a segmental facial hemangioma with cerebral malformations, aortic branches/cranial arteries anomalies, cardiac defects, eye anomalies or ventral wall defects. The aim of this study is to analyze our experience with this syndrome. Retrospective study of the cases seen at our unit in the last year. We treat 4 cases; 3 girls and 1 child. Besides the segmental hemangioma they presented: 3 vascular cerebral malformations; 2 structural cardiopathies; 2 cerebral malformations, 1 microftalmia. We did not find ventral wall defects. A case received treatment with two cycles of metilprednisolone i.v. and oral prednisone, with favourable course; two cases received initial treatment with oral prednisone continued of oral propanolol in rising pattern up to 2 mg/kg/day, Obtaining both the detention of the tumour growth and regression of the lesion, with very good tolerance. A 7-year-old patient has been treated with colouring pulse laser for her residual lesions. When we see a segmental facial hemangioma we must perform a wide diagnostic study in order to discard a PHACES syndrome. Multidisciplinar approach to the patient by a wide expert's group gets an earlier diagnose and improves the outcome. Propranolol is a promising therapeutic alternative.

  1. Anserine syndrome.

    PubMed

    Helfenstein, Milton; Kuromoto, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Knee pain is a common complaint in clinical practice, and pes anserinus tendino-bursitis syndrome (PATB) has been frequently diagnosed based only on clinical features that may cause equivocal interpretations. Patients complain of characteristic spontaneous medial knee pain with tenderness in the inferomedial aspect of the joint. Studies with different imaging modalities have been undertaken during the last years to identify whether these patients suffer from bursitis, tendinitis, or both. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the structural defect responsible for this disturbance. Due to these problems and some controversies, we suggest the term "anserine syndrome" for this condition. Diabetes Mellitus is a known predisposing factor for this syndrome. Overweight and osteoarthritis seem to represent additional risk factors; however, their role in the pathophysiology of the disease is not yet understood. Treatment includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy, and injections of corticosteroid, with highly variable responses, from 10 days to 36 months to achieve recovery. The lack of knowledge about its epidemiological, etiological, and pathophysiological aspects requires future studies for this common and intriguing disorder.

  2. Learning about Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the mothers of infants with Down syndrome. Intelligence in individuals with Down syndrome ranges from low ... is not possible to tell the level of intelligence a baby with Down syndrome will have. All ...

  3. Toxic shock syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  4. Reye syndrome - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Reye syndrome ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Reye Syndrome : National Reye's Syndrome Foundation, Inc. -- www.reyessyndrome.org National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...

  5. Facts about Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Down syndrome is a condition in which a person has an extra chromosome. What is Down Syndrome? Down syndrome is a condition in which a person has an extra chromosome. Chromosomes are small “packages” ...

  6. What Is Usher Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and usually appears during adolescence or early adulthood. Balance may also be affected in people with Usher syndrome. Symptoms and disease progression vary from person to person. There are three general categories of Usher syndrome. People with Usher syndrome ...

  7. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  8. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... toxic shock syndrome results from toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria, but the condition may also be ... a skin or wound infection. Causes Most commonly, Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria cause toxic shock syndrome. The syndrome ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Alagille syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition Alagille-Watson Syndrome Alagille's syndrome arteriohepatic dysplasia (AHD) cardiovertebral syndrome ... hypoplasia hepatofacioneurocardiovertebral syndrome paucity of interlobular bile ducts Watson-Miller syndrome Related Information How are genetic conditions ...

  10. Acute nephritic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Glomerulonephritis - acute; Acute glomerulonephritis; Nephritis syndrome - acute Images Kidney anatomy References Appel GB, Radhakrishnan J. Glomerular disorders and nephrotic syndromes. In: Goldman L, ...

  11. Morvan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Maskery, Mark; Chhetri, Suresh K.; Dayanandan, Rejith; Gall, Claire

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old gentleman was admitted to the regional neurosciences center with encephalopathy, myokymia, and dysautonomia. Chest imaging had previously identified an incidental mass in the anterior mediastinum, consistent with a primary thymic tumor. Antivoltage-gated potassium channel (anti-VGKC) antibodies were positive (titer 1273 pmol/L) and he was hypokalemic. Electromyogram and nerve conduction studies were in keeping with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome, and an electroencephalogram was consistent with encephalopathy. A diagnosis of Morvan syndrome was made, for which he was initially treated with high-dose steroids, followed by a 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. He also underwent thymectomy, followed by a postexcision flare of his symptoms requiring intensive care management. Further steroids, plasmapheresis, and IVIG achieved stabilization of his clinical condition, enabling transfer for inpatient neurorehabilitation. He was commenced on azathioprine and a prolonged oral steroid taper. A subsequent presumed incipient relapse responded well to further IVIG treatment. This case report documents a thymoma-associated presentation of anti-VGKC-positive Morvan syndrome supplemented by patient and carer narrative and video, both of which provide valuable further insights into this rare disorder. There are a limited number of publications surrounding this rare condition available in the English literature. This, combined with the heterogenous presentation, association with underlying malignancy, response to treatment, and prognosis, provides a diagnostic challenge. However, the association with anti-VGKC antibody-associated complexes and 2 recent case series have provided some scope for both accurate diagnosis and management. PMID:26740856

  12. Refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fuentebella, Judy; Kerner, John A

    2009-10-01

    Refeeding syndrome (RFS) is the result of aggressive enteral or parenteral feeding in a malnourished patient, with hypophosphatemia being the hallmark of this phenomenon. Other metabolic abnormalities, such as hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia, may also occur, along with sodium and fluid retention. The metabolic changes that occur in RFS can be severe enough to cause cardiorespiratory failure and death. This article reviews the pathophysiology, the clinical manifestations, and the management of RFS. The key to prevention is identifying patients at risk and being aware of the potential complications involved in rapidly reintroducing feeds to a malnourished patient.

  13. Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Murray, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (Gilles de la Tourette disease) is a disorder of involuntary muscular tics, vocalizations and compulsive behavior. The tics and muscle movements vary in form and course; the complex repetitive patterns are eventually replaced by other patterns. The vocalization may be in the form of sounds, words or profanities and sometimes echolalia, echopraxia and palilalia. The onset may be from age two to 15 but is usually between ages eight and 12. Recent studies suggest that there is a hypersensitivity of dopamine receptors. Most patients respond well to haloperidol, but other drugs that may be of value include clonidine, pimozide, fluphenazine and trifluoroperazine. PMID:21286050

  14. Elsberg syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Savoldi, Filippo; Kaufmann, Timothy J.; Flanagan, Eoin P.; Toledano, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Elsberg syndrome (ES) is an established but often unrecognized cause of acute lumbosacral radiculitis with myelitis related to recent herpes virus infection. We defined ES, determined its frequency in patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES) with myelitis, and evaluated its clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic features and outcomes. Methods: We searched the Mayo Clinic medical records for ES and subsequently for combinations of index terms to identify patients with suspected CES and myelitis. Results: Our search yielded 30 patients, 2 diagnosed with ES and an additional 28 with clinical or radiologic evidence of CES retrospectively suspected of having ES. We classified patients in 5 groups according to diagnostic certainty. MRI and EMG confirmed that 2 had only myelitis, 5 only radiculitis, and 16 both. Two had preceding sacral herpes infection and 1 oral herpes simplex. Spinal cord lesions were commonly multiple, discontinuous, not expansile, and centrally or ventrally positioned. Lesions generally spared the distal conus. Nerve root enhancement was occasionally prominent and was smooth rather than nodular. Lymphocytic CSF pleocytosis was common. Thirteen patients (43%) had viral isolation studies, which were commonly delayed; the delay may have accounted for the low rate of viral detection. Acyclovir was administered to 6 patients. Most patients recovered with sequelae; 1 patient experienced encephalomyelitis and died. Conclusion: ES is a definable condition likely responsible for 10% of patients with combined CES and myelitis. Radiologic findings are not entirely specific but may help in differentiating ES from some competing diagnostic considerations. We propose criteria to facilitate diagnosis. PMID:28534040

  15. Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sherling, Dawn Harris; Perumareddi, Parvathi; Hennekens, Charles H

    2017-07-01

    The United States is experiencing its greatest life expectancy ever. Nonetheless, the general health of the US population is far from at an all-time high. An important contributor to the pandemic of cardiovascular disease is that overweight and obesity are also the major determinants of metabolic syndrome, an all too common and all too serious clinical and public health challenge. Clinicians have traditionally evaluated each of the major risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome on an individual basis. There is evidence, however, that the risk factors are more than additive. The overlap of these factors in each disease state, resulting in increased atherogenic risks, is worth examining as a broader entity rather than separately. While therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) should be strongly recommended, clinicians should not let the perfect be the enemy of the possible. Evidence-based doses of statins, aspirin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor blockers should be prescribed as adjuncts, not alternatives, to TLCs. In fact, there is cogent evidence that the benefits of these pharmacologic therapies may also be at least additive.

  16. [Schnitzler's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Henry, B; Néel, A; Barbarot, S; Masseau, A; Hamidou, M

    2013-04-01

    Schnitzler syndrome (SS) is a rare clinical entity, which belongs to the spectrum of monoclonal gammapathy-associated systemic disorders. Its pathophysiology remains elusive, even if it is tempting to consider it as a late onset and probably acquired auto-inflammatory syndrome. SS mainly occurs in the fifth and sixth decade, and present with an urticariform rash with periodic fever and/or osteoarticular pain. Systemic inflammation and monoclonal gammapathy (overwhelmingly IgM kappa) are constant features. SS is a chronic disease, which can severely impair quality of life of the affected individuals. Many drugs have been used and proved disappointing. In the last few years, accumulating reports provided evidence for the dramatic efficacy of anakinra, which has revolutionized the management of most severe cases. The main long-term threat to these patients is to develop a lymphoproliferative disorder (mainly Waldenström's macroglobulinemia). The mechanisms underlying the different facets of the disease remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. Cotard Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dieguez, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Cotard's syndrome is often described as the delusional belief that one is dead or non-existent. However, Jules Cotard's initial description (1880) of the "delusion of negations" was much richer and also involved delusions and claims of immortality and enormity, feelings of damnation, and illusions of bodily dissolution and transformation. Alternatively conceived as an extreme case of depression, hypochondria, or psychosis, the condition is considered rare and remains poorly understood. Cotard himself provided a taxonomy and several explanations for the condition, focusing on its distinction from classical persecutory delusions and suggesting that it could be a kind of reversed grandiosity. He proposed a psychosensory basis in the dissolution of mental imagery, which he then extended to a more general psychomotor impairment of volition. Other early authors highlighted a disorder of the bodily self, and more recent theories postulated an impairment of right hemispheric functions, leading to perceptual and somatosensory feelings of unreality, which coupled with reasoning impairments and an internalized attributional style led in turn to beliefs of non-existence. However, despite its striking presentation and its relevance to our understanding of self-awareness, Cotard's syndrome remains an elusive condition, rarely reported and poorly researched. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Turner Syndrome (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Turner Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Turner Syndrome What's in this ... en español El síndrome de Turner What Is Turner Syndrome? Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic condition found ...

  19. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Danlos syndrome care at Mayo Clinic Symptoms Classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Signs and symptoms of the most common form ... but few or none of the skin symptoms. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vascular type People who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, ...

  20. Waardenberg syndrome (WS) type I is caused by defects at multiple loci, one of which is near ALPP on chromosome 2: First report of the WS consortium

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Lindsay A.; Grundfast, Kenneth M.; Amos, Jean; Arnos, Kathleen S.; Asher, James H.; Beighton, Peter; Diehl, Scott R.; Fex, Jörgen; Foy, Carole; Friedman, Thomas B.; Greenberg, Jacquie; Hoth, Christopher; Marazita, Mary; Milunsky, Aubrey; Morell, Robert; Nance, Walter; Newton, Valerie; Ramesar, Rajkumar; Agustin, Theresa B. San; Skare, James; Stevens, Cathy A.; Wagner, Ronald G.; Wilcox, Edward R.; Winship, Ingrid; Read, Andrew P.

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have localized the gene for Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type I to the distal portion of chromosome 2q, near the ALPP locus. We pooled linkage data obtained from 41 WS type I and 3 WS type II families which were typed for six polymorphic loci on chromosome 2q in order to refine the location of the WS locus (WS1) and evaluate the extent of genetic heterogeneity. In the course of this work, we developed diagnostic criteria for genetic and phenotypic studies. Our findings, based on two-locus and multilocus analysis using a linkage map established from reference pedigrees, suggest that there are two or more mutations causing WS, one of which (i.e., WS1) is located on chromosome 2q, between the ALPP and FN1 loci, at distances of 7.8 cM and 11.2 cM for each marker, respectively. The results also indicate that WS1 is responsible for the illness in approximately 45% of all families in this sample. However, the odds favoring this position over a location between ALPP and SAG are only 2:1 when alternate assumptions about the proportion of linked families are considered. We conclude that a more saturated map of this region of chromosome 2q, including highly polymorphic markers, will be needed to accurately distinguish linked families and, ultimately, isolate the mutant gene. PMID:1349198

  1. [Analysis of nuclear localization and signal function of MITF protein predisposing to Warrdenburg syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Feng, Juan; Chen, Hongsheng; Li, Jiada; Luo, Hunjin; Feng, Yong

    2015-12-01

    To study the role of dysfunction of nuclear localization signals (NLS) of MITF protein in the pathogenesis of Waardenburg syndrome. Eukaryotic expression plasmid pCMV-MITF-Flag was used as a template to generate mutant plasmid pCMV-MITF△NLS-Flag by molecular cloning technique in order to design the mutagenic primers. The UACC903 cells were transfected transiently with MITF and MITF△NLS plasmids, and the luciferase activity assays were performed to determine their impact on the transcriptional activities of target gene tyrosinase (TYR). The oligonucleotide 5'-GAACGAAGAAGAAGATTT-3' was subcloned into pEGFP-N1 to generate recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid pEGFP-N1-MITF-NLS. The NIH3T3 cells were transfected separately with MITF, MITF△NLS, pEGFP-N1 and pEGFP-N1-NLS plasmids, and their subcellular distribution was observed by immunoflorescence assays. Expression plasmids for the mutant MITF△NLS with loss of core NLS sequence and pEGFP-N1-NLS coupled with MITF△NLS were successfully generated. Compared with the wild-type MITF, MITF△NLS was not able to transactivate the transcriptional activities of promoter TYR and did not affect the normal function of MITF. MITF△NLS was only localized in the cytoplasm and pEGFP-N1 was found in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas pEGFP-N1-NLS was mainly located in the nucleus. This study has confirmed the localization function of NLS sequence 213ERRRRF218 within the MITF protein. Mutant MITF with loss of NLS has failed to transactivate the transcriptional activities of target gene TYR, which can result in melanocyte defects and cause WS.

  2. Understanding Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fremont, Oliver T; Chan, James C M

    2012-02-01

    We aim to review the clinical features of two renal tubular disorders characterized by sodium and potassium wasting: Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome. Selected key references concerning these syndromes were analyzed, together with a PubMed search of the literature from 2000 to 2011. The clinical features common to both conditions and those which are distinct to each syndrome were presented. The new findings on the genetics of the five types of Bartter syndrome and the discrete mutations in Gitelman syndrome were reviewed, together with the diagnostic workup and treatment for each condition. Patients with Bartter syndrome types 1, 2 and 4 present at a younger age than classic Bartter syndrome type 3. They present with symptoms, often quite severe in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome type 3 present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. The severe, steady-state hypokalemia in Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome may abruptly become life-threatening under certain aggravating conditions. Clinicians need to be cognizant of such renal tubular disorders, and promptly treat at-risk patients.

  3. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  4. Syndromes with supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Lubinsky, Mark; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik

    2016-10-01

    While most supernumerary teeth are idiopathic, they can be associated with a number of Mendelian syndromes. However, this can also be a coincidental finding, since supernumerary teeth occur in 6% or more of the normal population. To better define this relationship, we analyzed the evidence for specific associations. We excluded conditions with a single affected patient reported, supernumerary teeth adjacent to clefts or other forms of alveolar disruption (as secondary rather than primary findings), and natal teeth, which can involve premature eruption of a normal tooth. Since, the cause of supernumerary teeth shows considerable heterogeneity, certain findings are less likely to be coincidental, such as five or more supernumerary teeth in a single patient, or locations outside of the premaxilla. We found only eight genetic syndromes with strong evidence for an association: cleidocranial dysplasia; familial adenomatous polyposis; trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I; Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome; Nance-Horan syndrome; Opitz BBB/G syndrome; oculofaciocardiodental syndrome; and autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome. There is also suggestive evidence of an association with two uncommon disorders, Kreiborg-Pakistani syndrome (craniosynostosis and dental anomalies), and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosisnigricans. An association of a Mendelian disorder with a low frequency manifestation of supernumerary teeth is difficult to exclude without large numbers, but several commonly cited syndromes lacked evidence for clear association, including Hallermann-Streiff syndrome, Fabry disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Apert and Crouzon syndromes, Zimmermann-Laband syndrome, and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Gorlin's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, R T; Barrett, A

    1975-06-01

    The uncommon familial syndrome of multiple odontogenic keratocysts, basal cell naevi and skeletal anomalies is reviewed, and seven cases are described, including one patient who developed squamous cell carcinoma in a previous odontogenic keratocyst of the maxilla. We wish to thank Consultants from the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, The Middlesex Hospital and the Eastman Dental Hospital, who allowed us access to their patients; Mr. D. Garfield Davies, Dr. M. F. Spittle, Mr. D. Winstock, Mr. H. P. Cook, Professor H. C. Killey and Mr. L. W. Kay. We are grateful to Professor L. Michaels and Mr. D. J. Connolly for preparation of the illustrations and to Mrs. A. Matthews for the typescript.

  6. Gorlin-goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pandeshwar, Padma; Jayanthi, K; Mahesh, D

    2012-01-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) (the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome-NBCCS) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused due to mutations in the PTCH (patched) gene found on chromosome arm 9q. The syndrome, characterized by increased predisposition to develop basal cell carcinoma and associated multiorgan anomalies, has a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. GGS is a multidisciplinary problem, early diagnosis of which allows introduction of secondary prophylaxis and following an appropriate treatment to delay the progress of the syndrome. The following report emphasizes the need for awareness of the diagnostic criteria of this syndrome in cases with no typical skin lesions.

  7. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  8. The metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Essah, P A; Nestler, J E

    2006-03-01

    Much overlap is present between the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the metabolic syndrome. This article reviews the existing data regarding the prevalence, characteristics, and treatment of the metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS is approximately 43-47%, a rate 2-fold higher than that for women in the general population. High body mass index and low serum HDL cholesterol are the most frequently occurring components of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS. The pathogenic link between the metabolic syndrome and PCOS is most likely insulin resistance. Therefore, the presence of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS suggests a greater degree of insulin resistance compared to PCOS without the metabolic syndrome. Obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance, and vascular abnormalities are all common metabolic abnormalities present in PCOS. Lifestyle modification has proven benefit and pharmacological therapy with insulin-sensitizing agents has potential benefit in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS.

  9. Hepatorenal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Papper, S

    1980-01-01

    Renal failure without apparent cause (the hepatorenal syndrome) may develop in the course of cirrhosis of the liver. While the development of renal failure bears a poor prognosis, spontaneous recovery can occur. The data suggest that for the most part patients die in rather than of renal failure. The latter seems to be only part of a broader more fundamental disturbance. The pathogenesis of HRS is unknown, but the evidence supports an impairment of effective renal perfusion. The two major hypotheses concerning the nature of the impaired perfusion are that it is a physiologic response to alterations in the extrarenal circulation, and that there is an unidentified humoral agent(s) produced by or inadequately inactivated by or bypassing the diseased liver and causing circulatory changes in the kidney as well as in other organs. It is possible that both mechanisms are operative. Treatment is unsatisfactory and emphasis is presently best placed upon searching for more treatable causes of renal functional impairment in individual patients.

  10. Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    Noonan syndrome is a common autosomal dominant condition, readily recognisable in childhood. It is characterised by a pattern of typical facial dysmorphism and malformations including congenital cardiac defects, short stature, abnormal chest shape, broad or webbed neck, and a variable learning disability. Mildly affected adults may not be diagnosed until the birth of a more obviously affected child. The phenotype is highly variable. Important progress in understanding the molecular basis of this and other related conditions was made in 2001 when germline mutations in the PTPN11 gene were found to account for ∼50% of cases. Since then, mutations in additional genes in the rat sarcoma (RAS) pathway have been identified in a proportion of the remainder. Molecular confirmation of diagnosis is now possible for many families and has become increasingly important in guiding management. Increased awareness by paediatricians will lead to earlier diagnosis, and provide patients and their families with accurate genetic counselling, including options when planning pregnancy. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. [Pseudoexfoliation syndrome].

    PubMed

    Esmail, F

    1991-05-01

    The Frequency of the Pseudoexfoliation-Syndrom (= PES) was investigated about two months in a prospective study of 1069 patients in the university eye hospital of Zurich. 7.35% of these patients had a PES with or without glaucoma. Among the clinic patients there were 9.9% and among the policlinic patients 6.26%. All our patients were elder than 60 years old, 58.9% between 70-85 years. There were 33.37% men and 66.63% women. 33% of the PES-patients had a tension over 22 mmHg. 42.86% of the patients had the highest tension over 30 mmHg. 33.33% (= 26 patients) had a PES without glaucoma and 66.66% (= 52 patients) a PES with glaucoma. 56.42% of the patients (= 44 patients) had in one eye PES and 43.58% (34 patients) in both eyes. 9.61% (= 5 pat.) had an absolute PES-glaucoma in one eye.

  12. Premenstrual syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yonkers, Kimberly Ann; O’Brien, P M Shaughn; Eriksson, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Most women of reproductive age have some physical discomfort or dysphoria in the weeks before menstruation. Symptoms are often mild, but can be severe enough to substantially affect daily activities. About 5–8% of women thus suffer from severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS); most of these women also meet criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Mood and behavioural symptoms, including irritability, tension, depressed mood, tearfulness, and mood swings, are the most distressing, but somatic complaints, such as breast tenderness and bloating, can also be problematic. We outline theories for the underlying causes of severe PMS, and describe two main methods of treating it: one targeting the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis, and the other targeting brain serotonergic synapses. Fluctuations in gonadal hormone levels trigger the symptoms, and thus interventions that abolish ovarian cyclicity, including long-acting analogues of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or oestradiol (administered as patches or implants), effectively reduce the symptoms, as can some oral contraceptives. The effectiveness of serotonin reuptake inhibitors, taken throughout the cycle or during luteal phases only, is also well established. PMID:18395582

  13. Pseudohypopituitary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Heinze, E; Holl, R W

    1992-07-01

    In a child with short stature, the finding of normal or elevated GH levels in the presence of low concentrations of IGF-I raises the following possibilities. (1) A modification of the GH molecule, which is still detected by RIA, but inactive biologically. Therefore, an RRA or bioassay for hGH should result in considerably lower GH measurements compared with RIA determinations in the same sample. As both bioassays as well as RRAs are not widely available and are hampered by several difficulties, few children with this presumptive diagnosis have been described. So far, it has not been possible to define a specific molecular defect in one of these patients. (2) Abnormalities of the GH receptor or postreceptor mechanisms lead to a GH insensitivity syndrome. Laron-type dwarfism is usually due to a deletion in the gene for hepatic GH receptors: the serum binding protein for GH is absent. In three additional populations, the Pygmies of Zaire, the little women of Loja in Ecuador and the Mountain Ok people in Papua New Guinea, alterations of GH receptor function have been described. Finally, some reports describe patients with normal or elevated serum levels of both growth hormone and IGF-I in whom resistance to IGF has been implied in the pathogenesis of small stature.

  14. Central Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... cord. This syndrome can be caused by stroke, multiple sclerosis, tumors, epilepsy, brain or spinal cord trauma, or ... cord. This syndrome can be caused by stroke, multiple sclerosis, tumors, epilepsy, brain or spinal cord trauma, or ...

  15. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... including rotator cuff injuries, cervical disc disorders, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, complex regional pain syndrome, and tumors of the ... including rotator cuff injuries, cervical disc disorders, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, complex regional pain syndrome, and tumors of the ...

  16. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) happens when a woman's ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. PCOS causes cysts ( ... PCOS are at higher risk of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and high blood pressure. PCOS is ...

  17. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... a passing cramp? It could be carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway of ... three times more likely to have carpal tunnel syndrome than men. Early diagnosis and treatment are important ...

  18. Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Guillain-Barre syndrome is a rare disorder that causes your immune system to attack your peripheral nervous system (PNS). The PNS ... your brain. No one knows what causes the syndrome. Sometimes it is triggered by an infection, surgery, ...

  19. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  20. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000085.htm Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a condition in some ...

  1. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Overview Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods ...

  2. [Kniest's syndrome (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kniest, W; Leiber, B

    1977-12-01

    The clinical picture of the Kniest's syndrome is described. The syndrome is a rare hereditary condition with generalized bone dysplasia, disproportional dwarfism, conduction deafness and severe myopia, retinal detachment, cataract and amaurosis.

  3. Down Syndrome (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body ... people who have it. What's Life Like for Kids With Down Syndrome? Many kids with Down syndrome ...

  4. Diabetic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... for treatment. Don't wait until your blood sugar is high enough to cause diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome. You have ... prevent diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome. Know the symptoms of high blood sugar. Be alert for the warning symptoms of high ...

  5. Tics and Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Nausea and Vomiting Home Diseases and Conditions Tics and Tourette Syndrome Condition Tics and Tourette Syndrome Share Print Table of Contents1. ... little or no control over. These are called tics. Several different tics can happen at the same ...

  6. Prune belly syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat or help prevent urinary tract infections. Support Groups The following resources can provide more information on prune belly syndrome: Prune Belly Syndrome Network -- www.prunebelly.org National Organization for Rare Disorders -- ...

  7. Restless Legs Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Legs Syndrome Condition Restless Legs Syndrome Share Print Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Diagnosis4. Treatment5. Questions Overview ... twitch when you try and sleep (also called periodic limb movements of sleep or PLMS). Diagnosis How ...

  8. Marfan syndrome (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder of connective tissue which causes skeletal defects typically recognized in a tall, lanky person. A person with Marfan syndrome may exhibit long limbs and spider-like fingers, ...

  9. Kleine-Levin Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... between Kleine-Levin syndrome and certain mood disorders, lithium and carbamazepine may be prescribed and, in some ... between Kleine-Levin syndrome and certain mood disorders, lithium and carbamazepine may be prescribed and, in some ...

  10. Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tunnel Syndrome Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Close Popup Figures Figure 1 - ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...

  11. Dubin-Johnson syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000242.htm Dubin-Johnson syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS) is a disorder passed down through ...

  12. Os Trigonum Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually triggered by an injury, such as an ankle sprain. The syndrome is also frequently caused by repeated ... other conditions, such as an Achilles tendon injury, ankle sprain or talus fracture. Diagnosis of os trigonum syndrome ...

  13. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  14. 4H Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome? 4H syndrome is short for hypomyelination, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypodontia. Hypomyelination means that there is lack ... myelin in the central nervous system. In hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, normal puberty development is absent because the central ...

  15. [Myelodysplastic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Thol, F; Heuser, M; Ganser, A

    2015-04-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) encompasses a heterogeneous group of diseases originating in hematopoietic stem cells and is characterized by inefficient hematopoiesis and dysplastic changes in the bone marrow. In peripheral blood patients show anemia (mostly macrocytic), frequently accompanied by neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Thus, clinically the patients suffer from fatigue (anemia), increased bleeding (thrombocytopenia) and infectious complications (neutropenia). Approximately one quarter of MDS patients develop acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the course of the disease, which is characterized by a 20 % or more increase of blasts in the bone marrow. The estimated overall survival as well as the risk for AML transformation can be calculated with the international prognostic scoring system (IPSS) as well as the revised IPSS score (IPSS-R). Novel sequencing methods (e.g. next generation sequencing) allow the detection of recurrent gene mutations in MDS patients. Genes of the splicing machinery as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation (e.g. ASXL1 and TET2) are most frequently mutated in MDS. Therapy is selected based on the patient risk profile (IPSS). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is a curative approach for high risk patients (i.e. IPSS int-2 and higher) with a good performance status and a biological age below 70 years. Otherwise, high risk patients are treated with demethylating agents (e.g. decitabine and azacitidine). Low risk patients (IPSS low and int-1) mainly receive supportive therapy including iron chelation. An exceptional position is presented by MDS with an isolated 5q deletion as it can be treated with lenalidomide with good success. Enrolling patients in clinical trials is strongly recommended to improve the prospects of this disease.

  16. Postthrombotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Raffaele; Bernardi, Enrico; Concolato, Alessia; Dalla Valle, Fabio; Pagnan, Antonio; Prandoni, Paolo

    2006-10-01

    Despite considerable progress in the diagnosis and treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities, one of every three patients will develop postthrombotic sequelae within 2 years; these sequelae are severe in approximately 20% of cases and produce considerable socioeconomic consequences. Among factors potentially related to the development of the postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) are older age, obesity, insufficient oral anticoagulant therapy, and recurrent ipsilateral thrombosis. Whether the extent and location of the initial thrombosis are associated with the development of PTS is controversial. Based on recent findings, the lack of vein recanalization within the first 6 months appears to be an important predictor of PTS, whereas the development of transpopliteal venous reflux is not. The diagnosis of PTS can be made on clinical grounds for patients with a history of DVT. The combination of a standardized clinical evaluation with the results of compression ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasound helps diagnose or exclude a previous proximal vein thrombosis. According to the results of recent clinical studies, the prompt administration of adequate compression elastic stockings in patients with symptomatic DVT has the potential to reduce the frequency of late PTS development by half. The management of this condition is demanding and often frustrating. However, when carefully supervised and instructed to wear proper elastic stockings, more than 50% of patients will either remain stable or improve during long-term follow-up. Clinical presentation helps predict the prognosis; the outcome of patients who refer with initially severe manifestations is more favorable than that of patients whose symptoms deteriorate progressively over time.

  17. Kounis syndrome and ziprasidone.

    PubMed

    Hamera, Leonard; Khishfe, Basem F

    2017-03-01

    Kounis syndrome (KS), described by Kounis and Zavras in 1991, is the manifestation of an allergic reaction preceding and leading to an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). There are three variants of Kounis Syndrome. Here we describe a novel case report of a type 1 variant secondary to Ziprasidone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fragile X syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Martin-Bell syndrome; Marker X syndrome ... Fragile X syndrome is caused by a change in a gene called FMR1 . A small part of the gene ... repeated several times in one area of the X chromosome. The more repeats, the more likely the ...

  19. [XYY syndrome (diplo-Y syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Braun-Scharm, H; Schroeder-Kurth, T M

    1986-01-01

    A case is reported of a 12-year-old boy with the XYY syndrome and unusual clinical symptoms. In addition, past research on the XYY syndrome and the current state of knowledge is reviewed, with special emphasis on psychopathology, psychiatry and genetic counseling.

  20. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.