Science.gov

Sample records for warfare general studies

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index andmore » title list.)« less

  2. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and titlemore » list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)« less

  3. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index andmore » title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)« less

  4. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and titlemore » list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)« less

  5. General Alphonse Juin: A Case Study in Leadership and Coalition Warfare (Italy 1943-1944)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-04

    Master of Military Studies Research Paper September 2009 - April 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER GENERAL ALPHONSE JUIN .. N/A A CASE...the command of General Alphonse Juin to the Italian Campaign during World War.ll was of cri.tical importance to the Allied war effort. It enabled...Command Quantico, Virginia 22134-5068 MASTER OF :MILITARY STUDIES TITLE: GENERAL ALPHONSE JUIN A CASE STUDY IN LEADERSIDP AND COALITION WARFARE

  6. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-19

    Section 1 of this paper provides an overview of cyber warfare as an element of information warfare, starting with the general background of the...alternative form of conflict, reviews the traditional principles of warfare and why they may or may not apply to cyber warfare , and proposes new principles of...warfare that may be needed to conduct cyber warfare . Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2

  7. Smart Climatology Applications for Undersea Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Comparisons of these climatologies with existing Navy climatologies based on the Generalized Digital Environmental Model ( GDEM ) reveal differences in sonic...undersea warfare. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 117 14. SUBJECT TERMS antisubmarine warfare, climate variations, climatology, GDEM , ocean, re...climatologies based on the Generalized Digital Environmental Model ( GDEM ) to our smart ocean climatologies reveal a number of differences. The

  8. New studies disputing allegations of bacteriological warfare during the Korean War.

    PubMed

    Rolicka, M

    1995-03-01

    In the television series Korea the Unknown War produced jointly by Thames Television (London) and WGBH (Boston) in 1990, General Matthew Ridgway, Commander in Chief of United Nations forces during the Korean War, called the accusations that the United States waged bacteriological warfare "black propaganda." The charges discredited the United States and, despite denials and many international discussions, have not been completely refuted until new. Following studies in archives previously not available for research and after uncovering new sources, many specific examples of black propaganda were discovered that contained false information and lies discrediting the United States. The mechanism of lies, which convinced the Korean population that bacteriological warfare was going on and that the only way not to become victims of the United States' inhuman cruelty was to fight, are shown in this paper.

  9. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  10. Chemical Warfare: Many Unanswered Questions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-29

    of Defense DSB Defense Science Board GAO U.S. General Accounting Office IDA Institute for Defense Analyses JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff SIPRI Stockholm...Defense Science Board in 1980, DOD specifically asked it to review intelligence data on chemical warfare, and DSB’s 1981 report accordingly presents its...Defense Science Board report suggests, however, that its com- - ments are based on a composite of intelligence information on Soviet chemical warfare

  11. LESSONS FROM THE FRONT: A CASE STUDY OF RUSSIAN CYBER WARFARE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Lessons From The Front: A Case Study Of Russian Cyber Warfare looks to capitalize on the lessons learned from the alleged Russian cyber-offensive on...through the careful analysis and comparison of two disparate conflicts related by their collision with Russian cyber - warfare . Following case study

  12. Cyber Warfare: An Evolution in Warfare not Just War Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-05

    cyber warfare is greatly debated. While some argue that Just War Theory is irrelevant to cyber warfare , a careful analysis demonstrates that it is a...useful tool for considering the morality of cyber warfare . This paper examines the application of Just War Theory to cyber warfare and contends that...Just War Theory is a useful tool for considering the morality of cyber warfare .

  13. Chemical warfare, past and future. Study project

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tzihor, A.

    1992-05-15

    World War I was arena for the first use of chemical warfare. The enormous tactical success brought about by this first time use of chemical weapons caused the continued development of more sophisticated tactics and weapons in this category of unconventional warfare. This phenomenon has carried through to today. However, at present, because of technological developments, the global economic situation, and political factors, coupled with the inability of the western world to control the proliferation of chemical weapons, a situation weapon of mass destruction. Recent use by Iraq against Kurdish civilian indicates that chemical warfare is no longer limited tomore » the battlefield. The western nations have a need to understand the risk. This paper conducts an analysis of past lessons and the factors which will affect the use of chemical warfare in the future. From this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning the significant threat chemical weapons pose for the entire world in the not too distant future.« less

  14. Environmental Warfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnaby, Frank

    1976-01-01

    Recent discussions at the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament have focused on the use of artificial changes in the environment as a method of warfare. A far more urgent task is development of a specific ban on already available techniques of environmental damage and a general and complete disarmament. (BT)

  15. Cyber warfare and electronic warfare integration in the operational environment of the future: cyber electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askin, Osman; Irmak, Riza; Avsever, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    For the states with advanced technology, effective use of electronic warfare and cyber warfare will be the main determining factor of winning a war in the future's operational environment. The developed states will be able to finalize the struggles they have entered with a minimum of human casualties and minimum cost thanks to high-tech. Considering the increasing number of world economic problems, the development of human rights and humanitarian law it is easy to understand the importance of minimum cost and minimum loss of human. In this paper, cyber warfare and electronic warfare concepts are examined in conjunction with the historical development and the relationship between them is explained. Finally, assessments were carried out about the use of cyber electronic warfare in the coming years.

  16. Cyber warfare: Armageddon in a Teacup?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-11

    Security concerns over the growing capability of Cyber Warfare are in the forefront of national policy and security discussions. In order to enable a...realistic discussion of the topic this thesis seeks to analyze demonstrated Cyber Warfare capability and its ability to achieve strategic political...objectives. This study examines Cyber Warfare conducted against Estonia in 2007, Georgia in 2008, and Israel in 2008. In all three cases Cyber Warfare did

  17. Toxic Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    Prepared for the United States Air Force Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Theodore Karasik Project AIR FORCE R TOXIC WARFARE...Report Documentation Page Report Date 000002002 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Toxic Warfare Contract Number Grant...310) 451-6915; Email: order@rand.org Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Karasik, Theodore William. Toxic warfare / Theodore Karasik

  18. Electronic Warfare for Cyber Warriors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    This research paper provides complete course content for the AFIT EENG 509, Electronic Warfare class. It is intended as a replacement for the existing course and designed for Intermediate Developmental Education (IDE) students in the Cyber Warfare degree program. This course provides relevant academic courseware and study material to give cyber warriors an academic and operational perspective on electronic warfare and its integration in the cyber domain.

  19. Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Neumaier, Katharina; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-11-16

    The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hybrid Warfare: the 21st Century Russian Way of Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    in Ukraine, can be best understood by examining it in relation to the ideas and theories of such preeminent theorists as Sun Tzu and Carl von...theories of warfare, of which Russia’s hybrid warfare is one of the most recent. Writing over two thousand years ago, Sun Tzu stated, “The art of...warfare is deceit.”17 Sun Tzu continued, stating that the “highest excellence” in war was not in winning every battle, but in subduing the enemy’s

  1. Does the Economy or Surface Warfare Officer Career Pay Affect Surface Warfare Officer Retention?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    be a career SWO (Surface Warfare Enterprise, 2013). 6 Military pay was more important to men than women ...OR SURFACE WARFARE OFFICER CAREER PAY AFFECT SURFACE WARFARE OFFICER RETENTION? by Meagan B. Makarenko December 2014 Thesis Advisor...2014 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DOES THE ECONOMY OR SURFACE WARFARE OFFICER CAREER PAY AFFECT

  2. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  3. The Physics of Warfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  4. Intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in human warfare

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen an explosion of multidisciplinary interest in ancient human warfare. Theory has emphasized a key role for kin-selected cooperation, modulated by sex-specific demography, in explaining intergroup violence. However, conflicts of interest remain a relatively underexplored factor in the evolutionary-ecological study of warfare, with little consideration given to which parties influence the decision to go to war and how their motivations may differ. We develop a mathematical model to investigate the interplay between sex-specific demography and human warfare, showing that: the ecology of warfare drives the evolution of sex-biased dispersal; sex-biased dispersal modulates intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in relation to warfare; intragenomic conflict drives parent-of-origin-specific patterns of gene expression—i.e. ‘genomic imprinting’—in relation to warfare phenotypes; and an ecological perspective of conflicts at the levels of the gene, individual, and social group yields novel predictions as to pathologies associated with mutations and epimutations at loci underpinning human violence. PMID:28228515

  5. Intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in human warfare.

    PubMed

    Micheletti, Alberto J C; Ruxton, Graeme D; Gardner, Andy

    2017-02-22

    Recent years have seen an explosion of multidisciplinary interest in ancient human warfare. Theory has emphasized a key role for kin-selected cooperation, modulated by sex-specific demography, in explaining intergroup violence. However, conflicts of interest remain a relatively underexplored factor in the evolutionary-ecological study of warfare, with little consideration given to which parties influence the decision to go to war and how their motivations may differ. We develop a mathematical model to investigate the interplay between sex-specific demography and human warfare, showing that: the ecology of warfare drives the evolution of sex-biased dispersal; sex-biased dispersal modulates intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in relation to warfare; intragenomic conflict drives parent-of-origin-specific patterns of gene expression-i.e. 'genomic imprinting'-in relation to warfare phenotypes; and an ecological perspective of conflicts at the levels of the gene, individual, and social group yields novel predictions as to pathologies associated with mutations and epimutations at loci underpinning human violence. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Batool; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Montazeri, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988). The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF) database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147) entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. Results The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7) ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50) reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2). The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P < 0.001). The results obtained from logistic regression analysis indicated that those who did not participate in sport activities suffer from a poorer physical health (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.36 to 6.30, P = 0.006). The analysis also showed that poor mental health was associated with longer time since exposure (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.39, P = 0.03) and lower education (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.21 to 7.56, P = 0.01). Conclusion The study findings suggest that chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research

  7. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Batool; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Montazeri, Ali

    2009-01-19

    Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988). The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF) database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147) entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7) ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50) reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2). The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P < 0.001). The results obtained from logistic regression analysis indicated that those who did not participate in sport activities suffer from a poorer physical health (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.36 to 6.30, P = 0.006). The analysis also showed that poor mental health was associated with longer time since exposure (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.39, P = 0.03) and lower education (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.21 to 7.56, P = 0.01). The study findings suggest that chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related

  8. Quality of Life in Iranian Chemical Warfare Veteran's.

    PubMed

    Ebadi, Abbas; Moradian, Tayeb; Mollahadi, Mohsen; Saeed, Yaser; Refahi, Ali Akbar

    2014-05-01

    Mustard gas has different effects on different body systems such as respiratory tract, blood, gastrointestinal, skin, eye, endocrine and peripheral nervous system. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life in chemical warfare veterans due to sulfur mustard exposure. In a cross-sectional and analytic study, 242 patients who had a chemical injury during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1983) and their lung damage was proven were investigated in our study. The quality of life was measured in these patients using an extensively validated Iranian version of SF-36. The mean age of veterans was 44.12 ± 4.9 ranging from 22 to 62 years. Our results showed that chemical warfare had a decreased quality of life in all subscales of the SF-36. The lowest scores in SF-36 subscales were related to role physical and general health. The data also showed a significant relationship between the number of organs involved and the quality of life in these patients (P < 0.001, r = - 0.33). So that the patients who had more than three organs involved had lower quality of life. 95.4% of our participants experienced another complication with respiratory complication and the ophthalmologic complications were the most frequent accompanying condition. The results imply that chemical warfare survivors suffering from late complications have a low health related quality of life.

  9. On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    longer adequate to rely solely on the now traditional defense-in-depth strategy. We must recognize that we are engaged in a form of warfare, cyber warfare , and... warfare . This causes security devices to be used ineffectively and responses to be untimely. Cyber warfare then becomes a one-sided battle where the... cyber warfare strategy and tactics requires a cyber warfare command and control system. Responses to cyber attacks do not require offensive measures

  10. Cyber-Warfare: Jus Post Bellum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    used to design a cyber - warfare jus post bellum framework. It also analyzes analogies to traditional warfare in the damage assessment and aid provided...and the ability to contain and reverse cyberattacks. This thesis proposes a cyber - warfare jus post bellum framework, with emphasis on prevention and

  11. The Physics of Warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-03-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics isn't always abstract. It is true that the examples and applications in this warfare class practically wrote themselves, but I wanted more for my students. I wanted them to embrace the iterative nature of scientific understanding. I wanted them to yearn for the breakthroughs that lead to paradigm shifts. I wanted them to demand experimental verification of each novel idea. This paper discusses the formation and implementation of a conceptual physics course, full of in-class demonstrations and solidly rooted in the context of humankind's ever-evolving methods of waging war.

  12. Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    January–February 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 44 FeatureCyber Focus Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought Maj Sean C. Butler, USAF In September 2007...1. REPORT DATE FEB 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought 5a...2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 45 Butler Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought FeatureCyber Focus characterized by the use of electronics and the

  13. Beyond-the-Box Thinking on Future War: The Art and Science of Unrestricted Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2008. Mattis , James N., and Frank Hoffman. “Future Warfare: The Rise of Hybrid Warfare.” Proceedings...nanotechnologies will augment the current bio -chemical capabilities, moving the battlefield into a microscopic arena. As seen before, the traditional American way...Military Trans-military Non-military Atomic Warfare Diplomatic Warfare Financial Warfare Conventional Warfare Network Warfare Trade Warfare Bio

  14. Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dolislager, Frederick; Bansleben, Dr. Donald; Watson, Annetta Paule

    2010-01-01

    Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty that has undergone chemical warfare agent attack.

  15. Nodes and Codes: The Reality of Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Nodes and Codes explores the reality of cyber warfare through the story of Stuxnet, a string of weaponized code that reached through a domain...nodes. Stuxnet served as a proof-of-concept for cyber weapons and provided a comparative laboratory to study the reality of cyber warfare from the...military powers most often associated with advanced, offensive cyber attack capabilities. The reality of cyber warfare holds significant operational

  16. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  17. Quality of Life in Iranian Chemical Warfare Veteran's

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi, Abbas; Moradian, Tayeb; Mollahadi, Mohsen; Saeed, Yaser; Refahi, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mustard gas has different effects on different body systems such as respiratory tract, blood, gastrointestinal, skin, eye, endocrine and peripheral nervous system. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life in chemical warfare veterans due to sulfur mustard exposure. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional and analytic study, 242 patients who had a chemical injury during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1983) and their lung damage was proven were investigated in our study. The quality of life was measured in these patients using an extensively validated Iranian version of SF-36. Results: The mean age of veterans was 44.12 ± 4.9 ranging from 22 to 62 years. Our results showed that chemical warfare had a decreased quality of life in all subscales of the SF-36. The lowest scores in SF-36 subscales were related to role physical and general health. The data also showed a significant relationship between the number of organs involved and the quality of life in these patients (P < 0.001, r = − 0.33). So that the patients who had more than three organs involved had lower quality of life. 95.4% of our participants experienced another complication with respiratory complication and the ophthalmologic complications were the most frequent accompanying condition. Conclusions: The results imply that chemical warfare survivors suffering from late complications have a low health related quality of life. PMID:25031863

  18. Cyber Warfare: A Need for Beyond Goldwater-Nichols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-13

    of Military Studies Research Paper September 2010- May 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cyber Warfare : "A Need for Beyond Goldwater...22134-5068 MASTER OF MlLIT AR Y STUDJES Cyber Warfare : "A Need for Beyond Goldwater Nichols" SlffiMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFitLMENT OF THE...DOCUMENT IS PERMITTED PROVIDED PROPER ACKNOWLEDGEMENT IS MADE.· l . ii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Title: Cyber Warfare : "A Need for Beyond Goldwater Nichols

  19. Computer-Assisted Performance Evaluation for Navy Anti-Air Warfare Training: Concepts, Methods, and Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesler, David J.

    An improved general methodological approach for the development of computer-assisted evaluation of trainee performance in the computer-based simulation environment is formulated in this report. The report focuses on the Tactical Advanced Combat Direction and Electronic Warfare system (TACDEW) at the Fleet Anti-Air Warfare Training Center at San…

  20. Maneuver Warfare in Cyberspace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    government departments and agencies; (2) National security and military strategies must outline a response to the threats and opportunities of cyber ... warfare ; and (3) the Department of Defense’s offensive and defensive responsibilities, parameters, and capabilities for strategic information warfare need

  1. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  2. A Better State of War: Surmounting the Ethical Cliff in Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzes the emergent field of cyber warfare through the lens of commonly-accepted tenets of ethical warfare. By comparing the...foundational understanding of concepts that determine the justice of wars (jus ad bellum) and justice in war (jus en bello) with the capabilities cyber warfare offers...analyzing how cyber warfare affects each of the core concepts introduced above. The fourth chapter presents a case study that tests the theoretical

  3. North Korean Protective Mine Warfare: An Analysis of the Naval Minefields at Wonsan, Chinnampo and Hungnam during the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    the United States Navy and the general military history community as well. As a result, studies involving mine warfare have been neglected. In...that particular campaign. The Navy, lulled into a sense of complacency, has neglected mine warfare studies . Naval Intelligence has made little attempt...Farragut famously ignored the mineline there to destroy the Confederate fleet nearby. While extensive mining also occurred during World War One , the United

  4. Detecting Biological Warfare Agents

    PubMed Central

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun

    2005-01-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array. PMID:16318712

  5. Civil Affairs in Unconventional Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    goals as Mao Tse -tung states, “Military action is a method used to attain a political goal. While military affairs and political affairs are not...OSS to Green Beret: The Birth at Special Forces (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1986), 149-51. 25Mao Tse -tung, On Guerrilla Warfare (New York: Classic...House Books, 2009), 39. 26David Galula, Counterinsurgency Warfare, 4; and Mao Tse -tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, 3-4. 27Ibid., 12-13. 28Ibid

  6. Cyber Warfare: New Character with Strategic Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    The advent of cyber warfare has sparked a debate amongst theorists as to whether timeless Clausewitzian principles remain true in the 21st century...Violence, uncertainty, and rationality still accurately depict the nature of cyber warfare , however, its many defining attributes and means by which...this style of warfare is conducted has definitively changed the character of war. Although cyber warfare is contested in the cyber domain, it often

  7. The Art of Aerial Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    14 3 THE POLITICAL DIMENSIONS OF AERIAL WARFARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 How Political Effects in...Aerial Warfare . . . . . . Outweigh Military Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Political Targets Versus Military Targets . . . . . 22...34 4 MILITARY AND POLITICAL EFFECTS OF STRATEGIC ATTACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 The Premise of

  8. Replication Does Survive Information Warfare Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    warfare, storage jamming, unauthorized modification, Trojan horse 1 INTRODUCTION Ammann, Jajodia, McCollum, and Blaustein define information warfare as the...information warfare, and we adopt the latter term. To provide context, Amman et al. specifically do not consider Trojan horses within the database system...called internal jammers (McDermott and Goldschalg, 1996b)), but instead consider a wide range of attacks other than Trojan horses . Both groups agree that

  9. 14th Annual Expeditionary Warfare Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-19

    Untitled Document 2009expedition.html[5/12/2016 8:33:22 AM] 14th ANNUAL EXPEDITIONARY WARFARE CONFERENCE “Expeditionary Warfare in a Complex Joint...WWW.NDIA.ORG/MEETINGS/0700 “Expeditionary Warfare in a Complex Joint Operating Environment” BAY POINT MARRIOTT HOTEL, PANAMA CITY, FL...Focus: The purpose of the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) is to determine the nation’s defense strategy and establish a defense program for

  10. Biodiversity conservation and armed conflict: a warfare ecology perspective.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Thor

    2018-04-23

    The activities involved in preparing for, executing, and recovering from armed conflict are globally pervasive and consequential, with significant impacts on natural systems. Effects on biodiversity are predominantly negative, produced by direct and indirect battlefield impacts, as well as the general breakdown of social, economic, and governance systems during wartime. Certain conservation opportunities do occur, however, particularly on lands set aside for training exercises, buffer zones, and peace parks. Here, the relationship between armed conflict and biodiversity is reviewed using the temporal framework of warfare ecology, which defines warfare as an ongoing process of three overlapping stages: preparations, war (armed conflict), and postwar activities. Several themes emerge from recent studies, including a heightened awareness of biodiversity conservation on military lands, the potential for scientific and conservation engagement to mitigate negative biodiversity impacts in war zones, and the importance of the postwar period for incorporating biodiversity priorities into reconstruction and recovery efforts. Research limitations and knowledge gaps are also discussed. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Cyber Warfare: Protecting Military Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Software is a key component in nearly every critical system used by the Department of Defense. Attacking the software in a system- cyber warfare - is a...revolutionary method of pursuing war. This article describes various cyber warfare approaches and suggests methods to counter them.

  12. Feasibility Study for the Use of Green, Bio-Based, Efficient Reactive Sorbent Material to Neutralize Chemical Warfare Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-02

    REPORT Feasibility study for the use of green, bio-based, efficient reactive sorbent material to neutralize chemical warfare agents 14. ABSTRACT 16...way cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses interact as well as whole wood dissolution occurs in ILs. The present project was conducted to 1. REPORT...Feasibility study for the use of green, bio-based, efficient reactive sorbent material to neutralize chemical warfare agents Report Title ABSTRACT Over the

  13. Cyber Warfare as an Operational Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-03

    This paper explores cyber warfare as an option for creating operational fires effects. Initially, cyberspace is defined and explained from the...fires are defined and the advantages of their use are explained. From there, discussion focuses on how cyber warfare fulfills the purposes of...operational fires. Finally, the paper draws conclusions about the viability of cyber warfare as an operational fire and makes recommendations about how to prioritize the activities of the newly approved U.S. Cyber Command.

  14. The evolution of human warfare.

    PubMed

    Pitman, George R

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a new theory for the origins and evolution of human warfare as a complex social phenomenon involving several behavioral traits, including aggression, risk taking, male bonding, ingroup altruism, outgroup xenophobia, dominance and subordination, and territoriality, all of which are encoded in the human genome. Among the family of great apes only chimpanzees and humans engage in war; consequently, warfare emerged in their immediate common ancestor that lived in patrilocal groups who fought one another for females. The reasons for warfare changed when the common ancestor females began to immigrate into the groups of their choice, and again, during the agricultural revolution.

  15. Why people believe they were exposed to biological or chemical warfare: a survey of Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Noel T; Lillie, Sarah E; Hallman, William K

    2006-04-01

    The study sought to understand better how people come to believe they have been exposed to biological and chemical warfare. We conducted telephone interviews with 1,009 American veterans (65% response rate) deployed and not deployed to the Gulf War, a conflict during which there were credible threats that such warfare could be used. Only 6% of non-Gulf War veterans reported exposure to biological or chemical warfare, but most of Gulf War veterans reported exposure (64%). The majority of these were unsure whether the exposure was chemical or biological in nature. The most commonly reported exposure indicators were receiving an alert from the military and having physical symptoms. Veterans who were certain of the type of exposure (biological or chemical) were more likely to recall having been told by the military and to recall physical symptoms. Future communications with soldiers and the general public about biological and chemical warfare may need to emphasize the uncertain nature of such risk information. Evaluations of exposure diagnostic technologies should take into account the problem of people initially believing, but not later discounting, false positive results.

  16. Cyber Warfare: China’s Strategy to Dominate in Cyber Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    CYBER WARFARE : CHINA‘S STRATEGY TO DOMINATE IN CYBER SPACE A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...warfare supports the use of cyber warfare in future conflict. The IW militia unit organization provides each Chinese military region commander with...China, Strategy, Cyber Warfare , Cyber Space, Information Warfare, Electronic Warfare 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18

  17. Strategic Impact of Cyber Warfare Rules for the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Despite the growing complexities of cyberspace and the significant strategic challenge cyber warfare poses on the United States’ vital interests few...specific rules for cyber warfare exist. The United States should seek to develop and maintain cyber warfare rules in order to establish...exemplify the need for multilaterally prepared cyber warfare rules that will reduce the negative influence cyber warfare presently has on the United States’ national interests.

  18. Initial Report of the Deans Cyber Warfare Ad Hoc Committee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-22

    in a cyber warfare environment. Among the more notable recent developments have been the establishment of a new Cyber Warfare Command (USCYBERCOM) at...information-warfare-centric organization. Clearly, future Naval Academy graduates will be expected to know more about cyber warfare than those we have...graduated in the past. The Academic Dean and Provost tasked an ad hoc committeethe Cyber Warfare ad hoc Committeeto examine how USNA can best ensure that

  19. The Theory of Unconventional Warfare: Win, Lose, and Draw

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE MODEL ...................................12 1. Planning Phase...Superiority over Time........................................................................11  Figure 3.  Unconventional Warfare Model ...superiority through the six principles of UW illustrated below in the UW model . . B. THE UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE MODEL Figure 3. Unconventional

  20. Employing U.S. Information Operations Against Hybrid Warfare Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Article 51.24 Cyber warfare is unique in that vulnerabilities that a network target may have could be discovered by software developers who then... cyber warfare rather than physical combat, a future subject to air strikes or ground-forces raids would likely be a powerful deterrent. Some in the U.S...Manwaring, The Complexity of Modern Asymmetric Warfare, (Norman, OK: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 2012), 126-129. 23 Arie J. Schaap, “ Cyber Warfare Operations

  1. RFID as a Tool in Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    RTO-MP-IST-091 P4 - 1 RFID as a Tool in Cyber Warfare Mikko Kiviharju P.O.Box 10 FIN-11311 Riihimaki FINLAND mikko.kiviharju@mil.fi...auditing existing systems and planning new establishments. 1 INTRODUCTION Cyber warfare , especially computer network operations (CNO) have a deep...SUBTITLE RFID as a Tool in Cyber Warfare 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  2. The Handicap Principle, Strategic Information Warfare and the Paradox of Asymmetry

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ma, Zhanshan; Sheldon, Frederick T; Krings, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The term asymmetric threat (or warfare) often refers to tactics utilized by countries, terrorist groups, or individuals to carry out attacks on a superior opponent while trying to avoid direct confrontation. Information warfare is sometimes also referred to as a type of asymmetric warfare perhaps due to its asymmetry in terms of cost and efficacy. Obviously, there are differences and commonalities between two types of asymmetric warfare. One major difference lies in the goal to avoid confrontation and one commonality is the asymmetry. Regardless, the unique properties surrounding asymmetric warfare warrant a strategic-level study. Despite enormous studies conducted in themore » last decade, a consensus on the strategy a nation state should take to deal with asymmetric threat seems still intriguing. In this article, we try to shed some light on the issue from the handicap principle in the context of information warfare. The Handicap principle was first proposed by Zahavi (1975) to explain the honesty or reliability of animal communication signals. He argued that in a signaling system such as one used in mate selection, a superior male is able to signal with a highly developed "handicap" to demonstrate its quality, and the handicap serves "as a kind of (quality) test imposed on the individual" (Zahavi 1975, Searcy and Nowicki 2005). The underlying thread that inspires us for the attempt to establish a connection between the two apparently unrelated areas is the observation that competition, communication and cooperation (3C), which are three fundamental processes in nature and against which natural selection optimize living things, may also make sense in human society. Furthermore, any communication networks, whether it is biological networks (such as animal communication networks) or computer networks (such as the Internet) must be reasonably reliable (honest in the case of animal signaling) to fulfill its missions for transmitting and receiving messages. The

  3. The Impacts of Modern Warfare on Freshwater Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Robert A.

    2011-11-01

    There is increasing recognition and concern regarding the impacts of modern industrial warfare on the environment. Freshwater ecosystems are perhaps the most vulnerable to warfare-related impacts, which is of concern given that they provide so many essential environmental resources and services to society. Despite this, there has been little work to establish and quantify the types of impacts (both negative and positive) that warfare may have on such systems. This paper firstly highlights why rivers and lakes may be susceptible to warfare-related impacts, before synthesizing the available literature to explore the following main themes: intensification of wartime resource acquisition, use of water as an offensive or defensive weapon, direct and indirect effects of explosive ordnance, increased pollution, introduction of invasive alien species, and positive ecological impacts. This is then followed by a discussion of the implications of such impacts in relation to future warfare, including a consideration of the efficacy of existing legal instruments to protect the environment during conflict, and the trend for war to become more localized and `informal', and therefore less regulated. Finally, the paper identifies key research foci for understanding and mitigating the effects of warfare on freshwater ecosystems.

  4. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Gordon, Wesley O.; Davis, Erin Durke; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A.; Morris, John R.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  5. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R; Gordon, Wesley O; Davis, Erin Durke; Mantooth, Brent A; Lalain, Teri A; Morris, John R

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  6. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Morris, John R.; Gordon, Wesley O.

    2014-01-15

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry tomore » study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.« less

  7. Examining U.S. Irregular Warfare Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    48 Future Theories ...Questions, and Hypotheses The classic warfare theories (i.e. Sun Tzu, Clausewitz, and so forth) directly apply to this research since they form the...Tzu, their theories on the conduct of warfare, and its close tie to politics, form the basis for examining the content of the manuals. The Marine

  8. Department of Defenses Enhanced Requirement for Offensive Cyber Warfare Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) needs to further develop its offensive cyber warfare capabilities at all levels. In an asymmetric environment...battlefields. If the DoD does not prosecute offensive cyber warfare tactics then the DoD has effectively allowed a significant advantage to be given...offensive cyber warfare operations, These states utilize their cyber warfare capabilities to support their national, operational and strategic

  9. Beyond Mission Command: Maneuver Warfare for Cyber Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-18

    operation in an A2AD environment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS command and control; maneuver warfare; cyberspace; cyberspace operations; cyber warfare , mission...Some Principles of Cyber Warfare (NWC 2160) (U.S. Naval War College, Joint Military Operations Department, Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College...research/ innovationleadership.pdf. Crowell, Richard M. Some Principles of Cyber Warfare (NWC 2160). U.S. Naval War College, Joint Military Operations

  10. Maneuver Warfare revisited: a plea for balance

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hamilton, M,R.

    1986-04-01

    This paper is a plea for balance in the current pursuit of understanding of the concept and the teaching of Maneuver Warfare. It specifically addresses the need for a more-complete analysis of some of the more-common historical examples commonly offered as examples of the supremecy of Maneuver Warfare. The paper in no way disagrees with the desirability of conducting the kinds of operations associated with the ill-defined concepts offered by advocates of Maneuver Warfare but suggests that the desirable results of historical battles may be too readily ascribed to the dynamic, offensive actions of the victorious side. Secondly, the papermore » points out the lack of utility and applicability of some common buzzwords being used in today's Army. Specifically assailed is the concept of turning within a decision cycle. The paper describes the reasons that this commonly used phrase has little applicability to ground warfare. Finally, the paper mentions the tendency for the Maneuver Warfare camp to cloud discussion of doctrine in a kind of intellectualism and elitism that has no use in forming the necessary consensus demanded by doctrine.« less

  11. The role of rewards in motivating participation in simple warfare.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard W

    2013-12-01

    In the absence of explicit punitive sanctions, why do individuals voluntarily participate in intergroup warfare when doing so incurs a mortality risk? Here we consider the motivation of individuals for participating in warfare. We hypothesize that in addition to other considerations, individuals are incentivized by the possibility of rewards. We test a prediction of this "cultural rewards war-risk hypothesis" with ethnographic literature on warfare in small-scale societies. We find that a greater number of benefits from warfare is associated with a higher rate of death from conflict. This provides preliminary support for the relationship between rewards and participation in warfare.

  12. Adapting Unconventional Warfare Doctrine to Cyberspace Operations: An Examination of Hacktivist Based Insurgencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    Unconventional Warfare, Cyberspace Operations, Cyber Warfare , Hacktivism, China, Russia, Georgia, Estonia, Umbrella Revolution, UW, Cyber, Guerilla, Hacktivist...6 Cyber Warfare ............................................................................................................. 7...Internet, and cyber warfare , the nature of the human element in cyberspace exhibits only a scientific advancement in the evolution of warfare, not a

  13. Anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in Iranian survivors of chemical warfare.

    PubMed

    Hashemian, Farnoosh; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Desai, Mayur M; Falahati, Farahnaz; Kasl, Stanislav; Southwick, Steven

    2006-08-02

    In the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq War, extensive use of chemical weapons resulted in high rates of morbidity and mortality. While much is known about the physical consequences of chemical warfare, there is a paucity of information about the long-term effects of chemical attacks on mental health. To assess the long-term psychological impact of chemical warfare on a civilian population. Cross-sectional randomized survey conducted in July 2004 of 153 civilians in 3 towns exposed to warfare in northwestern Iran: Oshnaviyeh (low-intensity conventional warfare), Rabat (high-intensity conventional warfare), and Sardasht (both high-intensity conventional warfare and chemical weapons). Full or partial posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms were assessed using Farsi versions of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Hamilton Scale for Anxiety, and Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Overall participation rate was 93%. Respondents had a mean age of 45 years and were all of Kurdish ethnicity. Among individuals exposed to both high-intensity warfare and chemical weapons, prevalence rates for lifetime PTSD, current PTSD, major anxiety symptoms, and severe depressive symptoms were 59%, 33%, 65%, and 41%, respectively. Among the low-intensity warfare group, the corresponding rates were 8%, 2%, 18%, and 6%, respectively, while intermediate rates were found among those exposed to high-intensity warfare but not to chemical weapons (31%, 8%, 26%, and 12%, respectively). Compared with individuals exposed to low-intensity warfare, those exposed to both high-intensity warfare and chemical weapons were at higher risk for lifetime PTSD (odds ratio [OR], 18.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.8-59.4), current PTSD (OR, 27.4; 95% CI, 3.4-218.2), increased anxiety symptoms (OR, 14.6; 95% CI, 6.0-35.6), and increased depressive symptoms (OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 3.3-15.9). Exposure to high-intensity warfare but not to chemical weapons was also

  14. Just War and Postmodern Warfare: A German Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    warfare construct, Germany is shaping a military concept based on recent conflicts and unfettered by biases of conventional strategies, organizations...remain sovereign while subconsciously evolving toward liberal democratic ideas. In respecting each country’s political sensitivities, Germany’s...before exhausting all diplomatic, economic and information instruments. Whereas the term AU/ACSC/PINSON/AY15 13 “interests” may bias the United

  15. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command and Overall Navy Needs to Improve Management of Waiver and Deferral Requests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-08

    Management of Waiver and Deferral Requests Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective Our objective for this audit was to evaluate the Space and Naval Warfare...We conducted this audit in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. We considered management comments on a draft of...OFFICIAL USE ON Y Introduction DODIG-2016-003 │ 1 Introduction Objective Our objective for this audit was to evaluate the Space and Naval Warfare

  16. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: the case of Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mottaghi, Ahmad; Hoseinzade, Abolfath; Zamani, Elham; Araghizade, Habib Allah

    2012-01-01

    Little evidence is available regarding the dental health of victims of chemical warfare in Iran. Therefore, in this study, we examined the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT), community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN), and saliva secretion rate of chemical warfare victims living in the province of Isfahan in Iran. This case-control study was conducted with 300 chemical warfare victims as the treatment group and 300 age-matched individuals without exposure to chemical warfare as the control group. DMFT and CPITN indices and saliva secretion rate were measured and compared between the two groups. Chemical warfare victims had significantly higher scores than the control group for decayed teeth (4.25 ± 3.88 vs 3.52 ± 2.81; P=0.009), missing teeth (8.79 ± 9.3 vs 6.15 ± 8.43; P<0.001), total DMFT index (17.00 ± 6.72 vs 13.20 ± 6.89; P<0.001), and CPTIN (2.81 ± 0.81 vs 1.71 ± 1.04; P<0.001). However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in filled teeth (4.00 ± 4.2 vs 3.59 ± 2.48; P=0.148). The level of saliva secretion in warfare victims was significantly lower than that in the control group (1.71 ± 0.05 vs 3.85 ± 1.95 cc/5 min; P<0.001). Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  17. What Good Are Warfare Models?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    PROFESSIONAL PAPER 306 / May 1981 WHAT GOOD ARE WARFARE MODELS? Thomas E. Anger DTICS E LECTE ,JUN 2198 1 j CENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES 81 6 19 025 V...WHAT GOOD ARE WARFARE MODELS? Thomas E. /Anger J Accession For !ETIS GRA&I DTIC TAB thonnounceldŕ 5 By-C Availability Codes iAva il aand/or Di1st...least flows from a life-or-death incenLive to make good guesses when choosing weapons, forces, or strategies. It is not surprising, however, that

  18. Small Ships Revival: From Cold War Anti-Invasion and Guerrilla Warfare Tactics to Highly Capable Force Multiplier in Littoral and Expeditionary Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    this gap might be filled. It will focus on the surface warfare aspect of sea control, though it touches on antiair warfare, mine warfare and...Sea As the flotilla acquired battle power […] the vital, most difficult, and most absorbing problem has become not how to increase the power of a...proving that their performance is absolutely necessary to these operations. Com Fr Amphib TG of the NATO Reaction Force-8 after Exercise Brilliant Midas

  19. Development of JSDF Cyber Warfare Defense Critical Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    attack identification capability is essential for a nation to defend her vital infrastructures against offensive cyber warfare . Although the necessity of...cyber-attack identification capability is quite clear, the Japans preparation against cyber warfare is quite limited.

  20. Sources of Occupational Stress and Prevalence of Burnout and Clinical Distress Among U.S. Air Force Cyber Warfare Operators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    distress within the cyber warfare community. This study involved cyber warfare operators including active duty (n = 376) and civilian contractor and...revealed that when compared to civilian cyber warfare operators, active duty cyber warfare operators are more likely to suffer from the facets of...8217 write-in responses revealed cyber warfare operators attributed shift work, shift changes, and hours worked as the primary sources of high occupational

  1. Software Acquisition in the Age of Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    s c h o o l o f S Y S T E M S a n d L O G I S T I C S education service research Software Acquisition in the Age of Cyber Warfare Maj...DATE MAY 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Software Acquisition in the Age of Cyber Warfare 5a...AFIT Cyber 200/300 Courses Cyber Warfare IDE Program 34 Special Emphasis On… Enterprise Integration (Active Directory, PKI) Security

  2. Warfare or partnership: which way for health care?

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1990-01-01

    There are many voices urging health care organizations to adopt aggressive competitive warfare, but a careful look at the dynamics affecting health care suggests that partnership may be at least as promising a strategy as warfare to promote mission and survival.

  3. The Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Environment

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Munro, Nancy B; Watson, Annetta Paule

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a clear review of the field. The book now contains a wealth of material on the mechanisms of action of the major chemical warfare agents, including the nerve agent cyclosarin, formally considered to be of secondary importance, as well as ricinmore » and abrin. Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition discusses the physico-chemical properties of chemical warfare agents, their dispersion and fate in the environment, their toxicology and management of their effects on humans, decontamination and protective equipment. New chapters cover the experience gained after the use of sarin to attack travelers on the Tokyo subway and how to deal with the outcome of the deployment of riot control agents such as CS gas. This book provides a comprehensive review of chemical warfare agents, assessing all available evidence regarding the medical, technical and legal aspects of their use. It is an invaluable reference work for physicians, public health planners, regulators and any other professionals involved in this field.« less

  4. Submarine Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries: A Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    International studies series ser. no. 02-019). 49 p. Bailey, Thomas Andrew and Paul B. Ryan. The Lusitania disaster: an episode in modern warfare and...verlagshandlung, 1939. 212 p. Ellis, Frederick D. The tragedy of the Lusitania : embracing authentic stories by the survivors and eye-witnesses of the disaster...warfare; a study of its methods and spirit, including the crime of the " Lusitania ," a record of observations and evidence. New York, London, D. Appleton

  5. Remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by CO2 -lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiko, Pavel P.; Smirnov, Sergey S.

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by differential absorption method were analyzed. The CO2 - laser emission lines suitable for sounding of chemical warfare agent with provision for disturbing absorptions by water vapor were choose. The detection range of chemical warfare agents was estimated for a lidar based on CO2 - laser The other factors influencing upon echolocation range were analyzed.

  6. Surface Warfare Officers Initial Training For Future Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-03-01

    updating and creating learning modules and Surface Warfare Officer School (SWOS) staffing as well as weaknesses in the methodologies used for...and Surface Warfare Officer School (SWOS) staffing as well as weaknesses in the methodologies used for training. We conclude that the Basic Division... METHODOLOGY ....................................................................................9 1. Staff Interviews

  7. Moral Warfare in Counterinsurgency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    Moral Warfare in Counterinsurgency Operations A Monograph by MAJOR David C. Chiarenza US Army School of Advanced Military Studies United...OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 11-05-2007 2. REPORT TYPE AMSP Monograph 3...Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This study explores the moral level of war in the context of

  8. U.S. Army Chemical Corps Historical Studies, Gas Warfare in World War I: The 5th Division Captures Frapelle, August 1918

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1958-03-01

    U. S . ARMY CHEMICAL CORPS HISTORICAL STUDIES GAS WARFARE IN WORLD WAR I THE 5t1h DIVISION CAPTURES FRAPELLF, 00 August 1918 CTD Offce t e Chef Ch mal...j JNSPECrrr / D~iJ f ; t t] GA o WARFARE IN WORLD WAR I By - --------- St ixdy Number 7 t:a . • ’ I : : . .. s U.S. ARMY CHEIICAL CORPS [ist...Analysi s Concerning the Weight of Shell . . . . . . . ... . 38 The Cost of Frapelle . . . . . . . . . . . .. 41 Medical Department Comments

  9. The Future of Warfare and Impact of Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    cyber warfare is occurring as a preferred method of conflict between large players on the global stage. Smaller players also have reasons to avoid conventional warfare and remain hidden. In Iraq and Afghanistan, those who fight against us attempt to remain hidden. The individual who places an improvised explosive device (IED) attempts to engage us without exposure or identification. Those who aid the individual emplacing an IED do so with hidden networks of support. The IED is an anonymous weapon. Both cyber warfare and insurgent use of IEDs depend

  10. Organizing for Irregular Warfare: Implications for the Brigade Combat Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    suggestions to improve his beloved institution. xii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION The Army ended up trying to fight...Secretary of Defense and supported by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, was improving Special Operations Forces (SOF) and general purpose...applicable to all three missions within the larger term of irregular warfare. This paper may interchange some terms due their associations from varying

  11. Introduction to electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleher, D. C.

    A broad overview of electronic warfare (EW) is given, emphasizing radar-related EW applications. A broad perspective of the EW field is first given, defining EW terms and giving methods of EW threat analysis and simulation. Electronic support measures and electronic countermeasures (ECM) systems are described, stressing their application to radar EW. Radars are comprehensively discussed from a system viewpoint with emphasis on their application in weapon systems and their electronic counter-countermeasures capabilities. Some general topics in C3 systems are described, stressing communication systems, C3I systems, and air defense systems. Performance calculations for EW and radar systems are covered, and modern EW signal processing is described from an airborne ECM perspective. Future trends and technology in the EW world are considered, discussing such topics as millimeter-wave EW, low-observable EW technology, GaAs monolithic circuits, VHSIC, and AI.

  12. Chemical warfare and the Gulf War: a review of the impact on Gulf veterans' health.

    PubMed

    Riddle, James R; Brown, Mark; Smith, Tyler; Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Brix, Kelley Ann; Romano, James

    2003-08-01

    It is unlikely that Gulf War veterans are suffering chronic effects from illnesses caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. Extensive investigation and review by several expert panels have determined that no evidence exists that chemical warfare nerve agents were used during the Gulf War. At no time before, during, or after the war was there confirmation of symptoms among anyone, military or civilian, caused by chemical warfare nerve agent exposure. However, studies of Gulf War veterans have found belief that chemical weapons were used, significantly associated with both severe and mild-moderate illnesses. The psychological impact of a chemical warfare attack, either actual or perceived, can result in immediate and long-term health consequences. The deployment or war-related health impact from life-threatening experiences of the Gulf War, including the perceived exposure to chemical warfare agents, should be considered as an important cause of morbidity among Gulf War veterans.

  13. History of the Chemical Warfare Service in World War II. Biological Warfare Research in the United States, Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-11-01

    of proteins and other substances of high molecular weight derived from bacteria, or from natural products with antibacterial activity Proteins and...WARFARE RESEARCH IS THE UNITED r STATES, is one of a series of historical monographs on the research and development activities of the Chemical...TSC Committee 16 War Research Service 13 A5C Committee •• 21 CWS Activities Under TSRS 22 Transfer of Biological Warfare Program to TTar

  14. Developing a Hybrid Virtualization Platform Design for Cyber Warfare Training and Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    CYBER WARFARE TRAINING AND EDUCATION THESIS Kyle E. Stewart 2nd...Government. AFIT/GCE/ENG/10-06 DEVELOPING A HYBRID VIRTUALIZATION PLATFORM DESIGN FOR CYBER WARFARE TRAINING...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT/GCE/ENG/10-06 DEVELOPING A HYBRID VIRTUALIZATION PLATFORM DESIGN FOR CYBER WARFARE

  15. At the Crossroads of Cyber Warfare: Signposts for the Royal Australian Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    At the Crossroads of Cyber Warfare : Signposts for the Royal Australian Air Force by Craig Stallard, Squadron leader, Royal...in the conduct of cyber warfare . The 2009 Defence White Paper provided some clarity by indentifying cyber warfare as critical to the maintenance...of national security, but left open the most important issue: should cyber warfare be a joint engagement or a service oriented fight? The RAAF

  16. Naval Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Naval Doctrine Publication 1 Naval Warfare March 2010 Doctrine The only satisfactory method of ensuring unity of effort lies in due...LCDR Dudley W. Knox, USN “The Role of Doctrine in Naval Warfare” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, 1915 01 March 2010 FOREWORD United States (US...naval doctrine is the foundation upon which our tactics, techniques, and procedures are built. It articulates operational concepts that govern the

  17. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    PubMed

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Defending Our Satellites: The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    intercept Allied bombers attacking at night.9 As a result of the electronic warfare advantage that systems like Window and Airborne Cigar be- stowed...74 | Air & Space Power Journal Defending Our Satellites The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training Lt Col E. Lincoln Bonner, USAF...expanding education and training in the use of electronic warfare to defend US satellites and improve their survivability. The following discussion

  19. Network Centric Warfare Case Study: U.S. V Corps and 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) During Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Operations (Mar-Apr 2003). Volume 3. Network Centric Warfare Insights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    OPSEC), military deception, psychological operations (PSYOPS), special information operations (IO), information assurance, physical security...nonlethal effects, such as operational 8 Network Centric Warfare Case Study security (OPSEC), military deception, psychological operations (PSYOP...Support Operations Group ASR Alternate Supply Route; or, Ammunition Supply Rate ATACMS Army Tactical Missile System ATARS Advanced

  20. Biodegradation of Organophosphate Chemical Warfare Agents by Activated Sludge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Holmstedt, B. (1963). Structure- activity relationships of the organophosphorus anticholinesterase agents. In: Koelle, G.B. (ed.), Handbuch...BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS BY ACTIVATED SLUDGE Steven J. Schuldt...AFIT/GES/ENV/12-M04 BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS BY ACTIVATED SLUDGE THESIS Presented to the

  1. 75 FR 6642 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Recruiting Directorate announces the submission... the proposal and associated collection instruments, write to the Director, Naval Special Warfare...

  2. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Letendre, Kenneth; Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that themore » burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.« less

  3. A Deeper Level of Network Intelligence: Combating Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    A Deeper Level of Network Intelligence: Combating Cyber Warfare This information is provided for your review only and is not for any distribution...A Deeper Level of Network Intelligence: Combating Cyber Warfare 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  4. Making Riflemen from Mud: Restoring the Army’s Culture of Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    among the people. —Mao Tse Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare2 In the summer of 1899, Lieutenant Matthew Batson was commanding L Troop, 4th U.S. Cavalry...Pershing, from the commander of the Constabulary, Brigadier General Henry Allen , to General Leonard Wood, all recognized that “ the successful leader...England unto Pharaoh, “You’ve had miracles before, When Aaron struck your rivers into blood; But if you watch the Sergeant, he can show you something

  5. Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TN-0779 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and...Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development by Neal Tesny Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  6. The challenges experienced by Iranian war veterans living with chemical warfare poisoning: a descriptive, exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hassankhani, Hadi; Taleghani, Fariba; Mills, Jane; Birks, Melanie; Francis, Karen; Ahmadi, Fazlolah

    2010-06-01

    This exploratory, descriptive study investigates the experiences of Iranian war veterans living with chronic disease acquired as a result of chemical warfare. Sulphur mustard (SM) is considered one of the most important agents of chemical warfare and was widely used during the Iran-Iraq conflict in 1980-1988. There are approximately 100 000 Iranian SM casualties who suffer from serious long-term progressive health problems involving their respiratory organs, eyes and skin. Seventeen male Iranian war veterans aged between 30 and 59 years and four victims' family members participated in the study. Data was generated during individual in-depth interviews that used open-ended questions. Grounded theory techniques, including the constant comparative method of concurrent data generation and analysis, were employed in the analysis of data. Preliminary results indicate two main thematic categories: social isolation and physical disability. It is argued that a lack of knowledge about the outcomes of SM poisoning, physical restrictions and difficulty in adjusting socially decreases war veterans' functional capacity and levels of independence.

  7. Homeland Biological Warfare Consequence Management: Capabilities and Needs Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    AU/ACSC/105/2001-04 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY HOMELAND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE CONSEQUENCE MANAGEMENT: CAPABILITIES AND NEEDS...Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Homeland biological Warfare Consequence Management: Capabilities and Needs Assessment Contract...FEMA, DoJ, DoD, HHS, etc.) make a comprehensive, organized solution to the problem difficult. Focusing on the consequence management functions

  8. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  9. Gender Differences in the Impact of Warfare Exposure on Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joyce M.; Lee, Lewina O.; Spiro, Avron

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study examined gender differences in the impact of warfare exposure on self-reported physical health. METHODS Data are from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans, a nationally representative survey of veterans from multiple eras of service. Regression analyses assessed gender differences in the association between warfare exposure (deployment to a war zone, exposure to casualties) and health status and functional impairment, adjusting for sociodemographics. FINDINGS Women reported better health status but greater functional impairment than men. In men, those who experienced casualties only or both casualties and deployment to a war zone had worse health compared to those who experienced neither stressor or deployment to a war zone only. In women, those who experienced casualties only or both stressors reported worse health than those who experienced war zone only, who did not differ from the unexposed. No association was found between warfare exposure and functional impairment in women, but in men, those who experienced exposure to casualties or both stressors had greater odds of functional impairment compared to those who experienced war zone only or neither stressor. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to casualties may be more predictive of health than deployment to a war zone, especially for men. We did not find a stronger association between warfare exposure and health for women than men. Given that the expansion of women's military roles has allowed them to serve in direct combat, their degree and scope of warfare exposure is likely to increase in the future. PMID:25442366

  10. The Characterization and Measurement of Cyber Warfare, Spring 2008 - Project 08-01

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Global Innovation and Strategy Center The Characterization and Measurement of Cyber Warfare Spring 2008 – Project 08-01 May 2008...and Measurement of Cyber Warfare N/A N/A N/A 08-01Dobitz, Kyle Haas, Brad Holtje, Michael Jokerst, Amanda Ochsner, Geoff Silva, Stephanie...research team as critical for purposes of cyber act characterization: Motivation, Intent, Target, Effects, and Actors. cyberspace, cyber warfare , targets

  11. Femoral vessel injuries in modern warfare since Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Jonathan P; McNally, Michael P; Perdue, Philip W

    2003-09-01

    The incidence of lower extremity injuries is high in modern warfare; however the mortality rate from these injuries is low. Despite the overall low mortality of lower extremity injuries, many deaths in modern conflicts are due to femoral vessel injury. The modern warfare literature was reviewed. In Somalia, 1 of the 14 reported deaths was due to a laceration of the superficial femoral artery. In the Persian Gulf, three deaths were reported in an Army field hospital, one resulted from uncontrolled hemorrhage from a profunda femoris artery wound and two others resulted from traumatic amputations with consequent major arterial injury. Despite the advances in modern body armor, the groin is left unprotected. A strategy to help minimize U.S. casualties in modern warfare may be a method of field hemostasis specifically designed for femoral vessel injury.

  12. Information Warfare and the Principles of War.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-07

    information dominance , control of ’cyberspace’ or the ’Infosphere’ and Information Warfare. Some argue that Information Warfare (IW) is just a repackaging of old concepts and current practices, while others contend it is the next Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA). The question that needs to be addressed is; can IW achieve strategic and operational military objectives on its on merit? A way to answer this questions is to analyze IW against our current doctrine. Using the principles of war as a framework, does IW fit (or can it be employed) in the

  13. Modeling Anti-Air Warfare With Discrete Event Simulation and Analyzing Naval Convoy Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    WARFARE WITH DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION AND ANALYZING NAVAL CONVOY OPERATIONS by Ali E. Opcin June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Arnold H. Buss Co...REPORT DATE June 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING ANTI-AIR WARFARE WITH DISCRETE EVENT...In this study, a discrete event simulation (DES) was built by modeling ships, and their sensors and weapons, to simulate convoy operations under

  14. Design and implementation of intelligent electronic warfare decision making algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hsin-Hsien; Chen, Chang-Kuo; Hsueh, Chi-Shun

    2017-05-01

    Electromagnetic signals and the requirements of timely response have been a rapid growth in modern electronic warfare. Although jammers are limited resources, it is possible to achieve the best electronic warfare efficiency by tactical decisions. This paper proposes the intelligent electronic warfare decision support system. In this work, we develop a novel hybrid algorithm, Digital Pheromone Particle Swarm Optimization, based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA). We use PSO to solve the problem and combine the concept of pheromones in ACO to accumulate more useful information in spatial solving process and speed up finding the optimal solution. The proposed algorithm finds the optimal solution in reasonable computation time by using the method of matrix conversion in SFLA. The results indicated that jammer allocation was more effective. The system based on the hybrid algorithm provides electronic warfare commanders with critical information to assist commanders in effectively managing the complex electromagnetic battlefield.

  15. Biomaterials for mediation of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Russell, Alan J; Berberich, Jason A; Drevon, Geraldine F; Koepsel, Richard R

    2003-01-01

    Recent events have emphasized the threat from chemical and biological warfare agents. Within the efforts to counter this threat, the biocatalytic destruction and sensing of chemical and biological weapons has become an important area of focus. The specificity and high catalytic rates of biological catalysts make them appropriate for decommissioning nerve agent stockpiles, counteracting nerve agent attacks, and remediation of organophosphate spills. A number of materials have been prepared containing enzymes for the destruction of and protection against organophosphate nerve agents and biological warfare agents. This review discusses the major chemical and biological warfare agents, decontamination methods, and biomaterials that have potential for the preparation of decontamination wipes, gas filters, column packings, protective wear, and self-decontaminating paints and coatings.

  16. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ˜5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

  17. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-08-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the warfare metaphor alive. On the other hand, there are substantial numbers of Christians who at least appear to oppose science given their high-profile opposition to the general theory of evolution. The research reported in this paper asked, "Does anti-science sentiment increase with increasing orthodox Christian belief?" Two validated, published instruments were used: The Thinking about Science Survey Instrument and the Christian Fundamentalist Belief Scale. The subjects for the study were 545 preservice elementary teachers. The analysis did not show that anti-science sentiment increases with increasing Christian belief. Subjects with strong Christian beliefs were found to be just as supportive of science, if not more so, than subjects with no Christian beliefs. The study concludes with a caution against projecting attitudes toward science "on the whole" based on attitudes specifically toward evolution when working with preservice elementary teachers. Such a projection could well be counterproductive. The study has implications for other modern countries having highly religious populations such as Turkey.

  18. Chemical warfare agents. Classes and targets.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Michael

    2018-09-01

    Synthetic toxic chemicals (toxicants) and biological poisons (toxins) have been developed as chemical warfare agents in the last century. At the time of their initial consideration as chemical weapon, only restricted knowledge existed about their mechanisms of action. There exist two different types of acute toxic action: nonspecific cytotoxic mechanisms with multiple chemo-biological interactions versus specific mechanisms that tend to have just a single or a few target biomolecules. TRPV1- and TRPA-receptors are often involved as chemosensors that induce neurogenic inflammation. The present work briefly surveys classes and toxicologically relevant features of chemical warfare agents and describes mechanisms of toxic action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Counter-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Warfare: Kill Authorizations for the Carrier Strike Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    COUNTER-UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE WARFARE: KILL AUTHORIZATIONS FOR THE CARRIER STRIKE GROUP A thesis presented to the Faculty...the Carrier Strike Group 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) LCDR Joshua C. Mattingly, U.S...including armed UAVs in an offensive role, but counter- UAV warfare is a new warfare area within the larger realm of air defense. Small Group 1 and 2

  20. Gender differences in the impact of warfare exposure on self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joyce M; Lee, Lewina O; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the impact of warfare exposure on self-reported physical health. Data are from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans, a nationally representative survey of veterans from multiple eras of service. Regression analyses assessed gender differences in the association between warfare exposure (deployment to a war zone, exposure to casualties) and health status and functional impairment, adjusting for sociodemographics. Women reported better health status but greater functional impairment than men. Among men, those who experienced casualties only or both casualties and deployment to a war zone had worse health compared with those who experienced neither stressor or deployment to a war zone only. Among women, those who experienced casualties only or both stressors reported worse health than those who experienced war zone only, who did not differ from the unexposed. No association was found between warfare exposure and functional impairment in women; in men, however, those who experienced exposure to casualties or both stressors had greater odds of functional impairment compared with those who experienced war zone only or neither stressor. Exposure to casualties may be more predictive of health than deployment to a war zone, especially for men. We did not find a stronger association between warfare exposure and health for women than men. Given that the expansion of women's military roles has allowed them to serve in direct combat, their degree and scope of warfare exposure is likely to increase in the future. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  1. IW Cyberlaw. The Legal Issues of Information Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    actions. The Information Warfare Center at Kelly AFB, Texas, casts a wide net in its definition of information war- fare. Its view is that... Maura T. McGowan, in an unpublished study en- titled “Law of Armed Conflict” (Colorado Springs, Colo.: United States Air Force Academy, Department of

  2. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K; Sharma, Ramesh C

    2013-08-01

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ~5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 15th Annual Expeditionary Warfare Conference - Expeditionary Operations - What’s Next

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-07

    00 PM - 5:00 PM Mine Warfare Capabilities Essential for Expeditionary Warfare Salon 1 (limited to first 120 registrants) Session Focus...have priority – Requires additional conceptual development, gaming & exercises Questions? 23

  4. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Watson, Annetta Paule; Dolislager, Fredrick G

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include themore » G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development are also

  5. Air Force Cyber Warfare: Now and the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    cyber warfare in popular culture. Most of them focus on the individual s uncanny grasp of technology the ability to exploit any system with a dizzying flurry of keystrokes or to fend off adversaries with a smartphone, a paper clip, and an ingenious plan. These socially awkward heroes and heroines fill the silver screen with visions of a new kind of warfare. Contradicting these stereotypes, Air Force cyber operations are carefully planned and controlled by disciplined, rigorously trained operators. Rather than acting alone, these professionals produce effects in support of

  6. Navy Operational Planner: Anti-Submarine Warfare with Time-Dependent Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    PLANNER: ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE WITH TIME -DEPENDENT PERFORMANCE by Anthony M. Baldessari September 2017 Thesis Advisor: W. Matthew...reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NAVY OPERATIONAL PLANNER: ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE WITH TIME -DEPENDENT

  7. The Human Domain and the Future of Army Warfare: Present as Prelude to 2050

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    ERDC/CERL MP-17-2 ii Abstract Studies on the future of warfare tend to focus on technology and place but largely overlook the actors. Warfare in 2050...will be predominantly urban, utilizing robotics and other advanced technologies , but at the core will re- main an inherently human and political...collaboration for success. Despite the ap- peal of advanced technology , the U.S. Army could greatly benefit by looking beyond strictly technological

  8. US Army Special Warfare. Its Origins: Psychological and Unconventional Warfare, 1941-1952

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    remained a fundamental military organization. Simultaneously, however, a few thinkers began to consider the possibility of forces capable of operating at...guerrilla warfare. He had been impressed as well by the British system of intelligence and counter- intelligence, as conducted by their Secret Intelligence...highly respected Columbia Broadcasting System reporter like Elmer Davis as its first director. Although most existing information services were trans

  9. About the bears and the bees: Adaptive responses to asymmetric warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Alex

    Conventional military forces are organised to generate large scale effects against similarly structured adversaries. Asymmetric warfare is a 'game' between a conventional military force and a weaker adversary that is unable to match the scale of effects of the conventional force. In asymmetric warfare, an insurgents' strategy can be understood using a multi-scale perspective: by generating and exploiting fine scale complexity, insurgents prevent the conventional force from acting at the scale they are designed for. This paper presents a complex systems approach to the problem of asymmetric warfare, which shows how future force structures can be designed to adapt to environmental complexity at multiple scales and achieve full spectrum dominance.

  10. About the bears and the bees: Adaptive responses to asymmetric warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Alex

    Conventional military forces are organised to generate large scale effects against similarly structured adversaries. Asymmetric warfare is a `game' between a conventional military force and a weaker adversary that is unable to match the scale of effects of the conventional force. In asymmetric warfare, an insurgents' strategy can be understood using a multi-scale perspective: by generating and exploiting fine scale complexity, insurgents prevent the conventional force from acting at the scale they are designed for. This paper presents a complex systems approach to the problem of asymmetric warfare, which shows how future force structures can be designed to adapt to environmental complexity at multiple scales and achieve full spectrum dominance.

  11. Fluorescent sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Burnworth, Mark; Rowan, Stuart J; Weder, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Along with biological and nuclear threats, chemical warfare agents are some of the most feared weapons of mass destruction. Compared to nuclear weapons they are relatively easy to access and deploy, which makes them in some aspects a greater threat to national and global security. A particularly hazardous class of chemical warfare agents are the nerve agents. Their rapid and severe effects on human health originate in their ability to block the function of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that is vital to the central nervous system. This article outlines recent activities regarding the development of molecular sensors that can visualize the presence of nerve agents (and related pesticides) through changes of their fluorescence properties. Three different sensing principles are discussed: enzyme-based sensors, chemically reactive sensors, and supramolecular sensors. Typical examples are presented for each class and different fluorescent sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents are summarized and compared.

  12. "No practical capabilities": American biological and chemical warfare programs during the Korean war.

    PubMed

    Crane, Conrad C

    2002-01-01

    Much controversy still surrounds accusations that American forces in the Far East during the Korean War used biological warfare against North Korea and China. An analysis of recently declassified documents reveals that, although the United States attempted to accelerate its development and acquisition of such weapons during that period, its efforts to create a viable biological warfare capability were unsuccessful. Plans to similarly expand chemical warfare stocks and capabilities were also frustrated. Technological difficulties, personnel shortages, bureaucratic battles between the armed services, and policy limitations combined to hold back advances in American chemical and biological warfare. In light of the recent fears of terrorist attacks with such weapons, this analysis highlights the great difficulties involved in developing, acquiring, and delivering such capabilities.

  13. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed.

  14. CYBER WARFARE GOVERNANCE: EVALUATION OF CURRENT INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS ON THE OFFENSIVE USE OF CYBER

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE DISTANCE LEARNING AIR UNIVERSITY CYBER WARFARE GOVERNANCE: EVALUATION OF CURRENT INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS ON THE...order to prevent catastrophic second and third order effects. Rule 43 “prohibits means or methods of cyber warfare that indiscriminate by nature...Means and methods of cyber warfare are indiscriminate by nature if they cannot be: directed at a specific military objective, or limited in their

  15. Strategic Analysis of Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    the same mathematical equations used by Lanchester .10 Irregular Warfare Theory and Doctrine It is time to develop new analytical methods and models...basis on which to build, similar to what Lanchester provided almost 100 years ago. Figure 9 portrays both Lanchester’s approach and an irregular 17

  16. The Airpower Advantage in Future Warfare: The Need for Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    political situation which gener- ates war and therefore warfare, foreign and domestic; the social- cultural ideologies , attitudes, habits of mind, and...the ideological rivalries that contributed so powerfully to interstate rivalry, ambition, and anxiety are all but defunct, save only in two respects...instead to fit that still improving competence into a truly holistic approach to warfare. That approach, in its turn, needs to fit into a genu - inely

  17. Sub state Unconventional Warfare: Expanding United States Military Political Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    phases due to competing incumbent efforts. Giap was influenced in his understanding of revolutionary war phasing by Sun Tzu who Giap called one of his...Challenge of Unconventional Warfare. London: Routledge, 2012. Ames, Roger T. Sun - Tzu The Art of Warfare. New York: Ballantine Books, 1993. Amin, Samir...Guerrilla: Insurgents, Patriots, and Terrorists from Sun Tzu to Bin Laden. London: Brassey’s Inc., 2004. Rosenau, William, Subversion and Insurgency

  18. Oceanography and Mine Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-13

    of breaking waves , the position and strength of surface currents, and the propagation of the tide into very shallow waters. In the surf zone...6) sediment properties determine shock wave propagation , a method for mine neutralization in the surf zone. 48 OCEANOGRAPHY AND MINE WARFARE...mines will be buried in the sediments, sedimentary explosive shock wave propagation is critical for determining operational performance. Presently, we

  19. Reconstructing exposures from the UK chemical warfare agent human research programme.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Tj; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mj; Fletcher, T; Brooks, C; Doyle, P; Maconochie, Nes; Carpenter, Lm; Venables, Km

    2007-07-01

    The UK government has carried out a research programme studying military capability under conditions of chemical warfare at a facility at Porton Down, Wiltshire, since World War I. In 2001 the Ministry of Defence commissioned a cohort study to investigate the long-term health effects on military veterans of their participation in this programme. We assessed the availability and quality of exposure assessment data held in the archive at Porton Down for the purpose of this study. This involved looking in detail at exposure data in a sample of 150 veterans and undertaking a general review of all available records held in the archive. These sources suggested that the Porton Down records were largely complete and included sufficient identifying information for linkage with service personnel data and with national mortality and cancer registration records. Servicemen usually had multiple tests so data were most readily available in a test-wise format, allowing subsequent aggregation of tests by individual. The name of the chemical used in each test could be determined for most tests and most of the named chemicals could be categorized into major groups for epidemiological analyses. For the major groups (vesicants and nerve agents), quantitative data were available on exposure and on acute toxicity. Standardization will be required of the several different units which were used. Based on this study, exposure assessment for the cohort study of Porton Down veterans will involve abstraction of the name of the chemical used in each test, with quantitative data on exposure and acute toxicity for vesicants and nerve agents. Our results here show that experimental records at Porton Down offer a unique and valuable resource for reconstructing the chemical exposures used in this research programme. The resulting cohort study has the potential to provide information which will assist in understanding the long-term health impact of chemical warfare agent exposure on these veterans.

  20. Integration of Robotics and 3D Visualization to Modernize the Expeditionary Warfare Demonstrator (EWD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    his schedule is. I learned most from our informal discussions and collaboration with other industry professionals. Amela was instrumental in allowing...me to effectively analyze, structure and critique my work. I take many professional lessons learned from Amela with me as I leave NPS. Thanks to...observers began learning about maneuver warfare in a large-scale battle. The demonstration was recognized as a huge success after General von Muffling

  1. Gray Zone Warfare: German and Russian Political Warfare, 1935-1939, and 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    Stretching and Exploiting Thresholds for High -Order War: How Russia, China, and Iran are Eroding American Influence Using Time-Tested Measures...PSYOP Terminology,” in American Institutes for Research, Department of the Army Pamphlet 525-7-1-2, The Art and Science of Psychological Operations...efforts to attack the enemies’ “ power , influence, and will.”88 In the United States, Irregular Warfare was not a part of doctrine until 2007, when the

  2. Cyberspace as a Complex Adaptive System and the Policy and Operational Implications for Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    CYBERSPACE AS A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM AND THE POLICY AND OPERTIONAL IMPLICATIONS FOR CYBER WARFARE A Monograph by Major Albert O. Olagbemiro...serves the US, especially in regards to the protect ion o f the 1S. SUBJECT TERMS omplex Adaptive System, Cyberspace, lnfosphere, Cyber Warfare ber...System and the Policy and Operational Implications for Cyber Warfare Approved by: __________________________________, Monograph Director Jeffrey

  3. Metal organic frameworks for the catalytic detoxification of chemical warfare nerve agents

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Katz, Michael J.

    A method of using a metal organic framework (MOF) comprising a metal ion and an at least bidendate organic ligand to catalytically detoxify chemical warfare nerve agents including exposing the metal-organic-framework (MOF) to the chemical warfare nerve agent and catalytically decomposing the nerve agent with the MOF.

  4. Intelligence, Information Technology, and Information Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Philip H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the use of information technology for intelligence and information warfare in the context of national security and reviews the status of clandestine collection. Discusses hacking, human agent collection, signal interception, covert action, counterintelligence and security, and communications between intelligence producers and consumers…

  5. Oxidative decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents using L-Gel.

    PubMed

    Raber, Ellen; McGuire, Raymond

    2002-08-05

    A decontamination method has been developed using a single reagent that is effective both against chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The new reagent, "L-Gel", consists of an aqueous solution of a mild commercial oxidizer, Oxone, together with a commercial fumed silica gelling agent, Cab-O-Sil EH-5. L-Gel is non-toxic, environmentally friendly, relatively non-corrosive, maximizes contact time because of its thixotropic nature, clings to walls and ceilings, and does not harm carpets or painted surfaces. The new reagent also addresses the most demanding requirements for decontamination in the civilian sector, including availability, low maintenance, ease of application and deployment by a variety of dispersal mechanisms, minimal training and acceptable expense. Experiments to test the effectiveness of L-Gel were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and independently at four other locations. L-Gel was tested against all classes of chemical warfare agents and against various biological warfare agent surrogates, including spore-forming bacteria and non-virulent strains of real biological agents. Testing showed that L-Gel is as effective against chemical agents and biological materials, including spores, as the best military decontaminants.

  6. Efficacy Evaluation of Current and Future Naval Mine Warfare Neutralization Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Distribution is unlimited. EFFICACY EVALUATION OF CURRENT AND FUTURE NAVAL MINE WARFARE NEUTRALIZATION METHOD by Team MIW Cohort SE311-152O...EFFICACY EVALUATION OF CURRENT AND FUTURE NAVAL MINE WARFARE NEUTRALIZATION METHOD 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR (S) Team MIW, Systems Engineering...NEUTRALIZATION METHOD Team MIW, Systems Engineering Cohort SE311-152O Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degrees of

  7. Calming the Churn: Resolving the Dilemma of Rotational Warfare in Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    warfare in counterinsurgency Publisher Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Issue Date 2013-12 URL http://hdl.handle.net/10945/38873... TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CALMING THE CHURN: RESOLVING THE DILEMMA OF ROTATIONAL WARFARE IN COUNTERINSURGENCY...operations, however, would not last and, after only a year, MacArthur was sent to other duties thanks to personality conflicts with Taft. His replacement

  8. Rethinking Cultural Influences on Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    36 Jarole B. Manheim, Richard C. Lars Willnat, and Craig Brians , Empirical Political...Willnat, and Craig Brians , Empirical Political Analysis: Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods (New York: Pearson Education Inc, 2008... Boxer Rebellions. In 1950, China was emerging from 13 years of protracted warfare with Japan and a civil war between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP

  9. Coalition Warfare: the Leadership Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Coalition Warfare: The leadership challenges A Monograph by Colonel Mark J Thornhill...The leadership challenges . 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Colonel Mark J. Thornhill...multinational operations, leadership challenges , leadership attributes, unity of command. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: UNCLASSIFIED 17. LIMITATION OF

  10. Nanoplatforms for Detection, Remediation and Protection Against Chem-Bio Warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denkbaş, E. B.; Bayram, C.; Kavaz, D.; Çirak, T.; Demirbilek, M.

    Chemical and biological substances have been used as warfare agents by terrorists by varying degree of sophistication. It is critical that these agents be detected in real-time with high level of sensitively, specificity, and accuracy. Many different types of techniques and systems have been developed to detect these agents. But there are some limitations in these conventional techniques and systems. Limitations include the collection, handling and sampling procedures, detection limits, sample transfer, expensive equipment, personnel training, and detection materials. Due to the unique properties such as quantum effect, very high surface/volume ratio, enhanced surface reactivity, conductivity, electrical and magnetic properties of the nanomaterials offer great opportunity to develop very fast, sensitive, accurate and cost effective detection techniques and systems to detect chemical and biological (chem.-bio) warfare agents. Furthermore, surface modification of the materials is very easy and effective way to get functional or smart surfaces to be used as nano-biosensor platform. In that respect many different types of nanomaterials have been developed and used for the detection, remediation and protection, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, quantum dots, Nano chips and arrays, fluorescent polymeric and magnetic nanoparticles, fiber optic and cantilever based nanobiosensors, nanofibrillar nanostructures etc. This study summarizes preparation and characterization of nanotechnology based approaches for the detection of and remediation and protection against chem.-bio warfare agents.

  11. Antidotes and treatments for chemical warfare/terrorism agents: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, G C; Condurache, C T

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of antidotes used or recommended for the potential chemical warfare agents of most concern. Chemical warfare agents considered include cyanide, vesicants, pulmonary irritants such as chlorine and phosgene, and nerve agents. The strength of evidence for most antidotes is weak, highlighting the need for additional research in this area.

  12. Remaining Relevant: Historical Contributions, Civil-Military Challenges, and Anti-Submarine Warfare Capabilities on Coast Guard Cutters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-03-01

    HISTORICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, CIVIL-MILITARY CHALLENGES, AND ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE CAPABILITIES ON COAST GUARD CUTTERS by Brian A. Smicklas...CONTRIBUTIONS, CIVIL- MILITARY CHALLENGES, AND ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE CAPABILITIES ON COAST GUARD CUTTERS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Brian A...MILITARY CHALLENGES, AND ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE CAPABILITIES ON COAST GUARD CUTTERS Brian A. Smicklas Commander, U.S. Coast Guard B.S., Coast

  13. The Strategic and Political Impacts of Collateral Damage from Strike Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    damage from strike warfare focuses on legal, humanitarian, and moral issues . To oversimplify, killing non-combatants is bad, but it happens, and not...humanitarian, and moral issues . To oversimplify, killing non- combatants is bad, but it happens, and not always by accident. Therefore, it is instructive...method of bombing. A significant amount of research on the effects of collateral damage from strike warfare focuses on humanitarian and moral issues

  14. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination.

  15. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cui, Xiaohui; Potok, Thomas E

    2009-12-01

    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are notmore » the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.« less

  16. Technology Transition for Hybrid Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-16

    and Iraq. At the same time, the science and technology base must provide the disruptive technologies to defeat future conventional enemies. This... disruptive technologies will be needed to retain long-term technological superiority in conventional warfare. Incremental improvement is the most...technology to be missed. Disruptive technologies are the second type of technological change and involve revolutionary concepts involving large technological

  17. Sink or Swim: The Marine Corps Capacity to Conduct a Marine Expeditionary Brigade Amphibious Assault using Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare? This study addresses the equipment issues surrounding the Marine expeditionary brigade ’s’ ability to conduct an amphibious...addresses the equipment issues surrounding the expeditionary brigade’s ability to conduct an amphibious assault under expeditionary maneuver warfare in...1 Issues and Elements of the Modern-Day MEB Assault .................................................................. 2 The Marine Corps

  18. Strategic Information Warfare: Challenges for the United States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    Professor Richard H. Shultz Jr. as Director of the International Security Studies Program at the Fletcher School, helped provide both the academic...of Information Warfare and Strategy at National Defense University; and Larry Rothenberg, Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis. Captain Richard P...War in the Information Age" in War in the Information Age. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr. and Richard P. Shultz, Jr., eds. London: Brassey’s, 1997

  19. 78 FR 53109 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti-Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...-AA87 Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti-Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay... Anti-Submarine Warfare Command to protect the relocated marine mammal program. These security zone... Warfare Command, the Commander of Naval Region Southwest, or a designated representative of those...

  20. Technical Support Services for the Office of Naval Research Littoral Warfare Advanced Development Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    Technical Support Services for the Office of Naval Research Littoral Warfare Advanced Development Project William R. Metzger Marine...Support Services for the Office of Naval Research Littoral Warfare Advanced Development Project 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  1. Electronic Warfare and Radar Systems Engineering Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    EWRL Electronic Warfare Reprogrammable ELNOT Emitter Library Notation Library (USN) EM Electromagnetic EWSI EW Systems Integration E-Mail Electronic...ram air turbine (RAT) propellers used to power aircraft pods, helicopter rotor blades, and protruding surfaces of automobile hubcaps will all provide

  2. Special Operations And Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    with the high level of Soldier competency in the 95th for CA Soldiers to retrain and fulfill the cyber requirement. With the reorganization of the...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. SPECIAL OPERATIONS AND CYBER...OPERATIONS AND CYBER WARFARE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jason C. Tebedo 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  3. 78 FR 72025 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ...-AA87 Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay... establishing a new security zone at the Naval Mine and Anti-Submarine Warfare Command to protect the relocated... Commander of Naval Base Point Loma, the Commander of the Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command, and the...

  4. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  5. 33 CFR 165.1103 - Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. 165.1103 Section 165.1103 Navigation and Navigable... Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1103 Security Zone; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San... the Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command, bound by the following coordinates: 32°43′40.9″ N, 117...

  6. German Views of Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    closely observed much of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815). His military experiences occurred during the end of the Age of Absolutism10 in Europe when...10 The Age of Absolutism refers to a period when absolute monarchs controlled much of Europe and is commonly considered to...concluded with a chapter related to irregular warfare and the nuclear age and an appendix dedicated to the training notes of the famed English

  7. U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare: Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment...U.S. Command Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority...Relationships in the Conduct of Cyber Warfare : Establishment, Exercise, and Institutionalization of Cyber Coordinating Authority The character of

  8. Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias [Oak Ridge, TN; Sanders, Charlene A [Knoxville, TN

    2003-05-27

    A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

  9. Ultrasensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents by low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanqi; Liang, Miao; Li, Zhen; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Xu, Ce; Zou, Yao

    2016-08-15

    On-spot monitoring of threat agents needs high sensitive instrument. In this study, a low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometer (LPPI-MS) was employed to detect trace amounts of vapor-phase explosives and chemical warfare agent mimetics under ambient conditions. Under 10-s detection time, the limits of detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate were 30, 0.5, 4, and 1 parts per trillion by volume, respectively. As compared to those obtained previously with PI mass spectrometric techniques, an improvement of 3-4 orders of magnitude was achieved. This study indicates that LPPI-MS will open new opportunities for the sensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tissue-based standoff biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-11-18

    A tissue-based, deployable, standoff air quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent, includes: a cell containing entrapped photosynthetic tissue, the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; means for introducing an air sample into the cell and contacting the air sample with the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; a fluorometer in operable relationship with the cell for measuring photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; and transmitting means for transmitting analytical data generated by the fluorometer relating to the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the air sample, the sensor adapted for deployment into a selected area.

  11. Development of vaccines for bio-warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, S R; Clifford, J C M

    2002-01-01

    There is a recognized need for the development of new vaccines (as well as other biologicals and drugs) to counteract the effects of a potential bio-terrorist or bio-warfare event in the U.S. domestic population and military forces. Regulation of products to protect against potential bio-warfare agents poses unique challenges since the usual measures of efficacy that require exposure to natural disease may not currently be possible, for epidemiological and ethical reasons. To help to address this issue, the FDA has published and requested comments on a proposed animal rule intended to address certain efficacy issues for new agents for use against lethal or permanently disabling toxic substances. Recent product development activity has focused on Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and variola major (smallpox), agents that are regarded as highest priority in posing a risk to national security. FDA resources exist to assist vaccine developers with regard to the novel challenges posed in the dinical development of these products.

  12. USAF Cyber Capability Development: A Vision for Future Cyber Warfare & a Concept for Education of Cyberspace Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Significant and interrelated problems are hindering the Air Force’s development of cyber warfare capabilities. The first is a lack of awareness about...why the AF has chosen to take cyber warfare on as a core capability on par with air and space. The second stems from the lack of a commonly...the cyber capabilities needed in the future? The contributions of this research include a strategic vision for future cyber warfare capabilities that

  13. Capability of the People’s Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network Exploitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-09

    Capability of the People’s Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network Exploitation Prepared for The US-China Economic and...the People?s Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network Exploitation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Capability of the People’s Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network Exploitation 2 US-China Economic and Security Review

  14. Integrating Defense, Diplomacy, and Development (3 D) in the Naval Special Warfare Operator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    DIPLOMACY, AND DEVELOPMENT (3 D) IN THE NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE OPERATOR by William Fiack William Roberts Tim Sulick December 2010...Development (3 D) in the Naval Special Warfare Operator 6. AUTHOR(S) William Fiack, William Roberts, Timothy Sulick 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING...MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in

  15. Health-related quality of life of chemical warfare victims: an assessment with the use of a specific tool.

    PubMed

    Biat Saeed, Khaled; Parandeh, Akram; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salaree, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to chemical warfare gases significantly changes the quality of life (QoL) of victims and has significant chronic adverse effects. This study sought to assess the health-related QoL (HRQoL) of chemical victims by means of a tool specifically designed for this purpose. The correlation of their QoL with several demographic factors was evaluated as well. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 120 chemical warfare victims were selected from subjects presenting to selected medical centers in Tehran in 2012 using convenience sampling. Two questionnaires of demographic information and HRQoL of chemical warfare victims (specific tool) were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). The mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD) of scores obtained by chemical warfare victims in physical, psychosocial and spiritual domains was 39.6 ± 16.5, 42.1 ± 15.2 and 82.4 ± 15.4, respectively. Different age groups showed a significant difference in the psychosocial domain score (P < 0.01). Also, the physical and spiritual domain scores had significant differences with respect to the level of education (P < 0.001). The occupational status showed significant differences in the psychosocial and spiritual domains scores of QoL (P < 0.001). The physical and psychosocial domain scores also accounted for a significant difference with respect to the duration and severity of pulmonary symptoms (P < 0.05). Considering the importance and high value of spirituality in chemical warfare victims, it can be used as strategically for these patients to help them cope with their injury and improve their physical and psychosocial health and QoL.

  16. New Developments in Chinese Strategic Psychological Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Taoism , which coupled hardness with softness in warfare, was not the only influence on the theory of psychological operations in ancient China. Other...portraying Islamic martyrs who appear to speak to soldiers from the clouds.38 In contemporary wars, such as the Gulf War, the first targets attacked have

  17. Situation Awareness Information Dominance & Information Warfare.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-01

    Information warfare and its primary objective of achieving information dominance over enemy forces have arisen as a major area of emphasis for future...military actions. The concept of information dominance and the issues involved in attaining it are explored through a model of situation awareness...directions for the development of systems to support the goal of information dominance can be established.

  18. Defining Islamic Way of Warfare and Its Comparison with Al Qaeda Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    DEFINING ISLAMIC WAY OF WARFARE AND ITS COMPARISON WITH AL QAEDA DOCTRINE A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO...Islamic way of warfare. It is important to understand that anything, to be qualified as Islamic, has to have a reference from the core sources of Islam

  19. Personal protection during resuscitation of casualties contaminated with chemical or biological warfare agents--a survey of medical first responders.

    PubMed

    Brinker, Andrea; Prior, Kate; Schumacher, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The threat of mass casualties caused by an unconventional terrorist attack is a challenge for the public health system, with special implications for emergency medicine, anesthesia, and intensive care. Advanced life support of patients injured by chemical or biological warfare agents requires an adequate level of personal protection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the personal protection knowledge of emergency physicians and anesthetists who would be at the frontline of the initial health response to a chemical/biological warfare agent incident. After institutional review board approval, knowledge of personal protection measures among emergency medicine (n = 28) and anesthetics (n = 47) specialty registrars in the South Thames Region of the United Kingdom was surveyed using a standardized questionnaire. Participants were asked for the recommended level of personal protection if a chemical/biological warfare agent(s) casualty required advanced life support in the designated hospital resuscitation area. The best awareness within both groups was regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome, and fair knowledge was found regarding anthrax, plague, Ebola, and smallpox. In both groups, knowledge about personal protection requirements against chemical warfare agents was limited. Knowledge about personal protection measures for biological agents was acceptable, but was limited for chemical warfare agents. The results highlight the need to improve training and education regarding personal protection measures for medical first receivers.

  20. Prevalence of asthma in children of chemical warfare victims.

    PubMed

    Mirsadraee, Majid; Mozaffari, Abolfazl; Attaran, Davood

    2011-09-01

    Exposure of DNA to sulfur mustard gas may increase the inheritance of asthma in chemical warfare victims' (CWV) offspring. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma in children of CWV and compare it to asthmatic children in the general population. Four hundred and nine children from 130 CWV fathers and 440 children from 145 asthmatic parents from two cities in Iran participated in this study. The prevalence of asthma was determined by standard questionnaire released for epidemiological survey of asthma in children and compared between two groups. The prevalence of asthma in the CWV group was 15%; this was not significantly different from the control group (12.5%). The children of the CWV group reported a significantly greater incidence of wheezing (1.2±3.1 attacks) per year, but the control group reported more severe attacks leading to speech difficulties (3%) and coughing (7%). Regression analysis showed that with increasing family size in the control group, the number of subjects suffering from asthmatic symptoms decreases significantly (r=0.86, P=0.001). Chemical agents may increase the prevalence of asthma in the offspring of CWV.

  1. Prevalence of Asthma in Children of Chemical Warfare Victims

    PubMed Central

    Mirsadraee, Majid; Mozaffari, Abolfazl; Attaran, Davood

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exposure of DNA to sulfur mustard gas may increase the inheritance of asthma in chemical warfare victims' (CWV) offspring. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma in children of CWV and compare it to asthmatic children in the general population. Methods Four hundred and nine children from 130 CWV fathers and 440 children from 145 asthmatic parents from two cities in Iran participated in this study. The prevalence of asthma was determined by standard questionnaire released for epidemiological survey of asthma in children and compared between two groups. Findings The prevalence of asthma in the CWV group was 15%; this was not significantly different from the control group (12.5%). The children of the CWV group reported a significantly greater incidence of wheezing (1.2±3.1 attacks) per year, but the control group reported more severe attacks leading to speech difficulties (3%) and coughing (7%). Regression analysis showed that with increasing family size in the control group, the number of subjects suffering from asthmatic symptoms decreases significantly (r=0.86, P=0.001). Conclusion Chemical agents may increase the prevalence of asthma in the offspring of CWV. PMID:23056804

  2. Emerging Roles of Combat Communication Squadrons in Cyber Warfare as Related to Computer Network Attack, Defense and Exploitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    EMERGING ROLES OF COMBAT COMMUNICATION SQUADRONS IN CYBER WARFARE AS RELATED TO COMPUTER NETWORK ATTACK, DEFENSE AND EXPLOITATION GRADUATE RESEARCH...Communication Squadrons in Cyber Warfare as Related to Computer Network Attack, Defense and Exploitation GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Presented to the Faculty...Education and Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Cyber Warfare Michael J. Myers Major, USAF June 2011

  3. Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel

    2012-06-01

    While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

  4. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  5. The Age of Irregular Warfare: So What?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Lynne Rienner, 2002), and Michael Vlahos , Fighting Identity: Sacred War and World Change (Westport, CT: Praeger Security Interna- tional, 2009). 7...the forms that warfare will take.” 8 I agree with Michael Vlahos that we poten- tially make matters worse by using the image of a triangle to depict

  6. Military Engineers and Chemical Warfare Troops (Inzhenernye Voiska Khimicheskie Voiska),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS, MILITARY ENGINEERING , INFANTRY, AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS, MINELAYING, ARMORED VEHICLES, NUCLEAR...RADIATION, DOSIMETERS, CHEMICAL WARFARE, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, DECONTAMINATION, HEALTH PHYSICS.

  7. Unorthodox Thoughts about Asymmetric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Unorthodox Thoughts about Asymmetric Warfare MONTGOMERY C. MEIGS “Bad terminology is the enemy of good thinking.” — Warren Buffett 1 I n the last few...Mr. Buffett , the Sage of Omaha, and agree on a set of definitions that will provide our tools for analysis. In preempting the terrorist are we really...still apt. 10. Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus, Leaders (New York: HarperCollins, 1997), pp. 102-40. Bennis and Nanus provide a useful construct for

  8. Information Warfare and International Law

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1998 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1998 to 00-00-1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Information Warfare and...international law where those dictates endanger or conflict with the pursuit of their fundamental interests , including national security. The Legal...34war," and may not be covered by the humanitarian provisions that attempt to lessen war’s cruelty.28 FIGURE 3 The Purpose of This Book The

  9. Intraosseous vascular access in the treatment of chemical warfare casualties assessed by advanced simulation: proposed alteration of treatment protocol.

    PubMed

    Vardi, Amir; Berkenstadt, Haim; Levin, Inbal; Bentencur, Ariel; Ziv, Amitai

    2004-06-01

    Current treatment protocols for chemical warfare casualties assume no IV access during the early treatment stages. Time constraints in mass casualty scenarios, impaired manual dexterity of medical personnel wearing protective gear, and victims' complex clinical presentations render standard IV access techniques impractical. A newly developed spring-driven, trigger-operated intraosseous infusion device may offer an effective solution. Sophisticated simulators were developed and used to mimic scenarios of chemical warfare casualties for assessing the feasibility of intraosseous infusion delivery. We evaluated the clinical performance of medical teams in full protective gear. The success rate in intraosseous insertion, time to completion of treatment goals, and outcome were measured in a simulated setting. Medical teams from major hospitals in Israel, designated for emergency response in a real chemical warfare mass casualty scenario, were trained in a simulated setting. All 94 participating physicians were supplied with conventional treatment modalities: only the 64 study group physicians received intraosseous devices. The simulated survival rate was 73.4% for the study group and 3.3% for the controls (P < 0.001). Treatment goals were achieved within 3.5 min (range, 1-9 min) in the study group and within >10 min for controls (P < 0.001), and the complication rate for intraosseous use was 13.8%. Personnel satisfaction with the intraosseous device was unanimous and high. New-generation intraosseous infusions have great potential value in the early treatment stages of chemical warfare casualties. In a chemical warfare mass casualty scenario, the protective gear worn by medical personnel, the time constraints, and the casualties' medical condition impose limitations on the establishment of IV access during early treatment of the victims. A spring-driven, trigger-operated intraosseous infusion delivery system may offer an effective solution.

  10. An evolutionary theory of large-scale human warfare: Group-structured cultural selection.

    PubMed

    Zefferman, Matthew R; Mathew, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    When humans wage war, it is not unusual for battlefields to be strewn with dead warriors. These warriors typically were men in their reproductive prime who, had they not died in battle, might have gone on to father more children. Typically, they are also genetically unrelated to one another. We know of no other animal species in which reproductively capable, genetically unrelated individuals risk their lives in this manner. Because the immense private costs borne by individual warriors create benefits that are shared widely by others in their group, warfare is a stark evolutionary puzzle that is difficult to explain. Although several scholars have posited models of the evolution of human warfare, these models do not adequately explain how humans solve the problem of collective action in warfare at the evolutionarily novel scale of hundreds of genetically unrelated individuals. We propose that group-structured cultural selection explains this phenomenon. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Changing the Scale and Efficiency of Chemical Warfare Countermeasure Discovery Using the Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Randall T.; MacRae, Calum A.

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of potential chemical warfare agents grows rapidly and as the diversity of potential threat scenarios expands with non-state actors, so a need for innovative approaches to countermeasure development has emerged. In the last few years, the utility of the zebrafish as a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput screening has become apparent and this system has been applied to the unbiased discovery of chemical warfare countermeasures. This review summarizes the in vivo screening approach that has been pioneered in the countermeasure discovery arena, and highlights the successes to date as well as the potential challenges in moving the field forward. Importantly, the establishment of a zebrafish platform for countermeasure discovery would offer a rapid response system for the development of antidotes to the continuous stream of new potential chemical warfare agents. PMID:24273586

  12. Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of a 14th-century account by the Genoese Gabriele de’ Mussi, the Black Death is widely believed to have reached Europe from the Crimea as the result of a biological warfare attack. This is not only of great historical interest but also relevant to current efforts to evaluate the threat of military or terrorist use of biological weapons. Based on published translations of the de’ Mussi manuscript, other 14th-century accounts of the Black Death, and secondary scholarly literature, I conclude that the claim that biological warfare was used at Caffa is plausible and provides the best explanation of the entry of plague into the city. This theory is consistent with the technology of the times and with contemporary notions of disease causation; however, the entry of plague into Europe from the Crimea likely occurred independent of this event. PMID:12194776

  13. Electronic warfare microwave components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosby, L. A.

    1984-09-01

    The current and projected state-of-the-art for electronic warfare (EW) microwave components is reviewed, with attention given to microwave components used extensively in EW systems for reconnaissance, threat warning, direction finding, and repeater jamming. It is emphasized that distributed EW systems must be able to operate from manned tactical and strategic platforms, with requirements including remote aerospace and space elements, as well as the need for expandable devices for detection, location, and denial/deception functions. EW coordination, or battle management, across a distributed system is a rapidly emerging requirement that must be integrated into current and projected command-and-control programs.

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life of Chemical Warfare Victims: An Assessment with the Use of a Specific Tool

    PubMed Central

    Biat Saeed, Khaled; Parandeh, Akram; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salaree, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to chemical warfare gases significantly changes the quality of life (QoL) of victims and has significant chronic adverse effects. Objective: This study sought to assess the health-related QoL (HRQoL) of chemical victims by means of a tool specifically designed for this purpose. The correlation of their QoL with several demographic factors was evaluated as well. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 120 chemical warfare victims were selected from subjects presenting to selected medical centers in Tehran in 2012 using convenience sampling. Two questionnaires of demographic information and HRQoL of chemical warfare victims (specific tool) were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Results: The mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD) of scores obtained by chemical warfare victims in physical, psychosocial and spiritual domains was 39.6 ± 16.5, 42.1 ± 15.2 and 82.4 ± 15.4, respectively. Different age groups showed a significant difference in the psychosocial domain score (P < 0.01). Also, the physical and spiritual domain scores had significant differences with respect to the level of education (P < 0.001). The occupational status showed significant differences in the psychosocial and spiritual domains scores of QoL (P < 0.001). The physical and psychosocial domain scores also accounted for a significant difference with respect to the duration and severity of pulmonary symptoms (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Considering the importance and high value of spirituality in chemical warfare victims, it can be used as strategically for these patients to help them cope with their injury and improve their physical and psychosocial health and QoL. PMID:24719824

  15. United States Coast Guard Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) in the Maritime Defense Zone (MDZ) - A Strategic Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    RIC ILE COPY AIR WAR COLLGE REEAC R~pCR UNITED STATES COAST GUARD ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE (ASW) IN THE MARITIME DEFENSE ZONE (MDZ) -A STRATEGIC...going to perform in these MDZs. Those tasks identified so far include: port and coastal physical security & preventive safety, mine warfare

  16. Irregular Warfare Centric Foreign Internal Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    goods, its weak security forces and the gap unfilled by international forces.126 Scott Mann conducted a video interview on October 3 , 2012 and...Reduction Project (0704–0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE June 2013 3 . REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Conflict over the past few decades has changed drastically. Warfare changed with the conflict

  17. Interagency Cooperation for Irregular Warfare at the Combatant Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Directorate, and the USSOCOM Interagency Task Force ( IATF ) offer examples of JIACGs coping with the issues of IW. Each organization possesses strengths...46 USSOCOM IATF History...Force for Irregular Warfare ( IATF IW).33 EUCOM conducts interagency

  18. A history of biological and chemical warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Malloy, C D

    2000-07-01

    This article provides a brief history of biological warfare and terrorism. It contends that examining disease in history provides public health specialists with the knowledge necessary to improve our surveillance system for potential acts of bioterrorism.

  19. War-Gaming Network-Centric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    games as well. 6 2 N A V A L W A R C O L L E G E R E V I E W War games are also classified...traditional gaming . All war games , whether they involve fighting sail R U B E L 6 3 Until a tactical network of units, each of them exercising a great degree... gaming and simulation. R U B E L 6 5 The principal requirements for achieving network-centric warfare are a network and shared awareness. By a

  20. [Perspectives in the treatments of poisonings by organophosphorus insecticides and warfare nerve agents].

    PubMed

    Sogorb-Sánchez, M A; Vilanova-Gisbert, E; Carrera-González, V

    Organophosphorus compounds are worldwide employed as insecticides and are yearly responsible of several millions of poisonings. The chemical structure of most of the warfare nerve agents also corresponds with an organophosphorus compound. Organophosphorus insecticides and warfare nerve agents exert their main toxicological effects through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Current treatments of patients poisoned with organophosphorus compounds include atropine (in order to protect muscarinic receptors), oximes (in order to accelerate the reactivation of the inhibited acetylcholinesterase) and benzodiazepines (in order to avoid convulsions). The administration of phosphotriesterases (enzymes involved in the detoxication of organophosphorus compounds through hydrolysis) is a very effective treatment against poisonings by organophosphorus insecticides and warfare nerve agents. There are experimental preventive treatments based on the simultaneous administration of carbamates and certain antimuscarinic drugs, different from atropine, which notably improve the efficacy of the classical treatments applied after poisonings by warfare nerve agents. The treatments based in the administration of phosphotriesterases might be the response to the call of the World Health Organization for searching new treatments with capability to reduce the high mortality recorded in the cases of poisonings by organophosphorus compounds. These treatments can be applied in a preventive way without the intrinsic neurotoxicity associated to the preventive treatments based on carbamates and antimuscarinic drugs. Therefore, these treatments are specially interesting for people susceptible to suffer severe exposures, i.e. sprayers in the farms.

  1. Military medicine and the ethics of war: British colonial warfare during the Seven Years War (1756-63).

    PubMed

    Charters, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.

  2. Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-02-01

    The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents indicated by the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant are presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography is also presented.

  3. The Venus "Shell-over-Star" hieroglyph and Maya warfare: An examination of the interpretation of a Mayan symbol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voit, Claudia Ann

    For decades, Maya scholars have associated the Mayan "Shell-Star" (also referred to as "Star-War") hieroglyph with Maya warfare. Put forward by scholars such as Floyd Lounsbury and David Kelley, and later advanced by Linda Schele, David Freidel, Ian Graham, Peter Matthews, Anthony Aveni and others, there are now dozens of published articles and chapters relating the hieroglyph to Venus and warfare. Venus is one of the most notable celestial objects outside of the Sun and Moon and was highly visible to the inhabitants of the Maya world. The Dresden Codex (an astronomical almanac) contains important information about the planet Venus, and the calendar section was deciphered by the librarian and mathematician, Ernst Förstemann in the late 1800s. In his decipherment, he deduced that the numbers contained in the tables must be connected to the orbital period of the planet. There is no other planet with the same orbital period 3 as Venus. Förstemann suggested that the decoded astronomy tables were used by the Maya to determine when to wage war. This interpretation, along with others, like Floyd Lounsbury`s study of Venus and the Long Count date at Bonampak were the seeds that have led to methodological errors that first began to take root in Maya research. The idea of the Venus association with warfare took hold and continues to propagate. Many scholars continue to assert that the "shell-star" glyph is related to warfare events. Others, like Gerardo Aldana, and Stanley Guenter, have recently come forward to reexamine and question the hieroglyph and its relationship, if any, to Maya warfare. I suggest, further, that methodological errors may have occurred along the way. I propose that these errors include data lost in translation, and inaccurate translations. In addition, the statistical analysis of Venus cycles has weak points. If this identification of the errors is correct, we need to re-evaluate the weakened foundation on which we are building our assertions about

  4. The Cyber Warfare Professional: Realizations for Developing the Next Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    consequences for the others. However, just as airpower soon emerged as a revolution in military affairs during the early twentieth century, so may cyber warfare become the next revolution for the new millennium.

  5. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.

  6. Management of chemical warfare injuries (on CD-ROM). Data file

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The threat of use of chemical warfare agents (agents of `mass destruction`) is no longer confined to the battlefield. Agent releases by terrorists in Japan in 1995 served to awaken the world to the dangers faced by civilian communities far removed from centers of armed conflict. The ability to save lives in the event of a chemical agent release turns on provision of immediate and correct medical care in the field and hospital. Being able to ensure availability of life-saving care depends on reaching both military and civilian medical personnel with information on chemical warfare agents and on keeping theirmore » skills and knowledge current. While this is of critical importance both to the Department of Defense and to civilian agencies charged with protecting the public, it also is a daunting and potentially expensive task in view of the numbers and geographic dispersion of persons to be trained. The Department of Defense has addressed and overcome these challenges, to the benefit of the military and civilians, by using computer technology as the vehicle by which cost-effective chemical warfare agent training may be conveniently delivered to all who require it. The multi-media instructional program, Management of Chemical Warfare Injuries, was developed for military use by the Naval Health Sciences Education and Training Command, with the technical assistance of the U.S. Army Medical Command. It was originally designed for delivery via video disc, a format used extensively within the Navy. However, in response to a request from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Office of the Secretary of Defense agreed to repackage the materials for delivery on CD-ROM in order to make them accessible to a larger audience. In addition, the Navy agreed to include on the two CD-ROMs which contain the program a ready reference not found on the video disc: the Army`s `Medical Management of Chemical Casualties` handbooks for field and medical personnel.« less

  7. Air Power and Warfare: A Supplement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    The Aeronautical History Collection of Colonel Richard Gimbel. , This bibliography, Number 99 in the Library’s Special Bibliography Series, was...H848 1992) Kohn, Richard H., and Joseph P. Harahan. Air Superiority in World War II and Korea: An Interview with Gen. James Fereuson, Gen. Robert M...Mark A. "Airpower as a Second Front." Airpowcr Journal 9 (Fall 1995): 63-73 Hallion, Richard P. "Airpower and the Changing Nature of Warfare." Joint

  8. The Rise of iWar: Identity, Information, and the Individualization of Modern Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    INDMDUALIZATION OF MODERN WARFARE Glenn J. Voelz U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE ~~ ..... ~O.L STRATEGIC STUDIES INSTITUTE Report Documentation Page Form...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army War College,Strategic Studies Institute,47 Ashburn Drive,Carlisle,PA,17013-5010 8. PERFORMING...concerning the role of ground forces in achieving national security objectives. The Strategic Studies Institute publishes national security and

  9. Chemistry and Warfare: A General Studies Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooch, E. Eugene

    2002-07-01

    Liberal arts courses with a science focus have been welcome in college curricula for a number of years. A course for nonmajors that blends basic chemistry with military history is described. It includes a regional conflict simulation involving the development and use of chemical weapons.

  10. Unconventional Warfare in the American Civil War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-18

    Miller Thesis Title: Unconventional Warfare in the American Civil War Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair LTC ( R ) Gregory T. Beck...M.A. , Member LTC ( R ) Richard Barbuto, Ph.D. , Consulting Faculty LTC ( R ) James B. Martin, Ph.D. Accepted this 18th day of...troops and supplies to forward areas. In official correspondence dated 26 May 1864 from Captain A. V. Barringer , Chief Quartermaster, Department of West

  11. Electronic warfare antenna systems - Past and present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaw, D.

    1981-09-01

    In discussing fixed beam arrays, it is noted that an array may be used to create simultaneous fixed beams or to form asymmetric beams of a desired shape. Attention is also given to arrays and beam control, noting that for some electronic warfare applications combinations of broad and narrow beam antenna response are needed. Other topics include ECM jamming antenna techniques and advanced array systems.

  12. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  13. The Entomological Institute of the Waffen-SS: evidence for offensive biological warfare research in the third Reich.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    In January 1942, Heinrich Himmler, head of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and police in Nazi Germany, ordered the creation of an entomological institute to study the physiology and control of insects that inflict harm to humans. Founded in the grounds of the concentration camp at Dachau, it has been the focus of previous research, notably into the question of whether it was involved in biological warfare research. This article examines research protocols by the appointed leader Eduard May, presented here for the first time, which confirm the existence of an offensive biological warfare research programme in Nazi Germany. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pirates of the Nuclear Age: The Role of U.S. Submarines in Modern Trade Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    have sought to influence the outcome of the conflict by targeting enemy commerce . This influence historically called for the use of privateers...submarines took the position of privateers as the ideal force for conducting commerce warfare. Throughout World War Two (WWII) commerce warfare using... commerce ) remains. From the time of Greek city-states, to the privateers of the age of sail, to the submarines of WWI and WWII, targeting the

  15. Countering Gray-Zone Hybrid Threats: An Analysis of Russias New Generation Warfare and Implications for the US Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-18

    education ...Publication (JP) 1, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, there are two forms of warfare, traditional and irregular, and...combat mission in 2010. Looking at OIF, the US Army participated in both traditional and irregular warfare and the characterization of

  16. Multifunctional Ultra-high Vacuum Apparatus for Studies of the Interactions of Chemical Warfare Agents on Complex Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-02

    of the formation of a hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl. Characteristic modes of the sarin molecule itself are also ob- served. These experimental results show...chemical warfare agent, surface science, uptake, decontamination, filtration , UHV, XPS, FTIR, TPD REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S...challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science

  17. The Human Drones of Isis: How 21st Century Terrorism Uses Remote Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    aftermath of 9/11 is Lorenzo Vidino’s Al Qaeda in Europe. Focusing on Al Qaeda (AQ) attacks in Europe, Vidino uses case studies of the major...the main focuses of our theory-building case study . 62 “The European Union’s Policies on Counter...it will consider case studies , and conduct cross- case comparisons in order to identify gaps in existing remote warfare theory. It will further

  18. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    PubMed

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  19. Al Qaeda and Fourth Generation Warfare as its Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    and materia ~ as well as money, from one point ofthe non- linear battlefield to another, thereby giving more flexibility to obtain the right materials...translated by Griffith, Samuel B., On Guerilla Warfare, (1937),21-22. 14 Bodansky, Yossef, Bin Laden The Man Who Declared War on America (Rocklin: Prima

  20. Measuring the Operational Readiness of an Air Force Network Warfare Squadron

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Abstract As part of its unit activation, the 315th Network Warfare Squadron (NWS) needed to measure and report its progression of unit readiness...NWS unit readiness should be measured and reported by SORTS Category Levels (C-Level) to support wartime missions, not by IOC and FOC milestones...This paper reviews SORTS computations and provides a case study of a notional Air Force NWS to propose that any new cyber squadron should report

  1. IRST: a key system in modern warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missirian, Jean-Michel; Ducruet, Laurent

    1997-08-01

    A naval infra red search and track (IRST) system is a passive surveillance device capable of detecting and tracking air and surface threats in the region where electromagnetic sensors are less efficient, typically within a few degrees around the horizon. The evolution in anti ship sea skimming missiles performances has outlined the benefit that can be gained from infrared systems in ship self-defense. The complementary nature of radar and IRST systems can also be exploited to full advantage in the field of multisensor data fusion. The combined use of radar and infrared secures the detection by redundancy of data; it substantially enhances target tracking, classification and identification and reduces the combat system's reaction time. Designing an IRST implies matching technical choices with operational requirements, and this under increasingly stringent cost constraints. This paper first reminds the benefits that can be obtained with an IRST system in the context of modern naval warfare, then retraces the evolutions from the first generation IRST systems, such as VAMPIR, to the second-generation systems now entering service. A general presentation of the current SAGEM SA IRST family is also made for naval, air and ground-based applications.

  2. Demonstration of spread-on peel-off consumer products for sampling surfaces contaminated with pesticides and chemical warfare agent signatures.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Deborah L; Smith, Deborah L; Katona, Vanessa R; Lewis, Alan T; Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    A terrorist attack using toxic chemicals is an international concern. The utility of rubber cement and latex body paint as spray-on/spread-on peel-off collection media for signatures attributable to pesticides and chemical warfare agents from interior building and public transportation surfaces two weeks post-deposition is demonstrated. The efficacy of these media to sample escalator handrail, stainless steel, vinyl upholstery fabric, and wood flooring is demonstrated for two pesticides and eight chemicals related to chemical warfare agents. The chemicals tested are nicotine, parathion, atropine, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, dipinacolyl methylphosphonate, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphonic acid, and thiodiglycol. Amounts of each chemical found are generally greatest when latex body paint is used. Analytes with low volatility and containing an alkaline nitrogen or a sulfur atom (e.g., nicotine and parathion) usually are recovered to a greater extent than the neutral phosphonate diesters and acidic phosphonic acids (e.g., dimethyl methylphosphonate and ethyl methylphosphonic acid). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 48 CFR 205.301 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... not available, in accordance with 225.7002-2(b); or (B) The acquisition is for chemical warfare... determined that this acquisition of chemical warfare protective clothing furthers an agreement with a...

  4. 48 CFR 205.301 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... not available, in accordance with 225.7002-2(b); or (B) The acquisition is for chemical warfare... determined that this acquisition of chemical warfare protective clothing furthers an agreement with a...

  5. 48 CFR 205.301 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... not available, in accordance with 225.7002-2(b); or (B) The acquisition is for chemical warfare... determined that this acquisition of chemical warfare protective clothing furthers an agreement with a...

  6. Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, Technical Digest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    Survivability Systems: An Overview Fred J. Fisch 139 Modeling and Simulation of Weapons Effects on Ships Robert R. Wunderlick 143 Intelligent Networks ...communications capability of forces afloat to support emerging network -centric warfare doc- trines. Stealth, for our next generation of warships...fully-inte- grated, fully- networked electronic countermeasures system, developed in parallel and in close coordination with sister systems. An

  7. Bridging the Gap in the Realm of Information Dominance: A Concept of Operations for the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    THE REALM OF INFORMATION DOMINANCE : A CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS FOR THE NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL CENTER FOR CYBER WARFARE by Cynthia R. Duke...Bridging the Gap in the Realm of Information Dominance : A Concept of Operations for the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Cyber Warfare 6...of importance to the U.S. Military service and its allies. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 102 14. SUBJECT TERMS Cyber Warfare, Information Dominance 16

  8. A model for warfare in stratified small-scale societies: The effect of within-group inequality.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Sagar; Pradhan, Gauri; van Schaik, Carel

    2017-01-01

    In order to predict the features of non-raiding human warfare in small-scale, socially stratified societies, we study a coalitionary model of war that assumes that individuals participate voluntarily because their decisions serve to maximize fitness. Individual males join the coalition if war results in a net economic and thus fitness benefit. Within the model, viable offensive war ensues if the attacking coalition of males can overpower the defending coalition. We assume that the two groups will eventually fuse after a victory, with ranks arranged according to the fighting abilities of all males and that the new group will adopt the winning group's skew in fitness payoffs. We ask whether asymmetries in skew, group size and the amount of resources controlled by a group affect the likelihood of successful war. The model shows, other things being equal, that (i) egalitarian groups are more likely to defeat their more despotic enemies, even when these are stronger, (ii) defection to enemy groups will be rare, unless the attacked group is far more despotic than the attacking one, and (iii) genocidal war is likely under a variety of conditions, in particular when the group under attack is more egalitarian. This simple optimality model accords with several empirically observed correlations in human warfare. Its success underlines the important role of egalitarianism in warfare.

  9. A model for warfare in stratified small-scale societies: The effect of within-group inequality

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Sagar; van Schaik, Carel

    2017-01-01

    In order to predict the features of non-raiding human warfare in small-scale, socially stratified societies, we study a coalitionary model of war that assumes that individuals participate voluntarily because their decisions serve to maximize fitness. Individual males join the coalition if war results in a net economic and thus fitness benefit. Within the model, viable offensive war ensues if the attacking coalition of males can overpower the defending coalition. We assume that the two groups will eventually fuse after a victory, with ranks arranged according to the fighting abilities of all males and that the new group will adopt the winning group’s skew in fitness payoffs. We ask whether asymmetries in skew, group size and the amount of resources controlled by a group affect the likelihood of successful war. The model shows, other things being equal, that (i) egalitarian groups are more likely to defeat their more despotic enemies, even when these are stronger, (ii) defection to enemy groups will be rare, unless the attacked group is far more despotic than the attacking one, and (iii) genocidal war is likely under a variety of conditions, in particular when the group under attack is more egalitarian. This simple optimality model accords with several empirically observed correlations in human warfare. Its success underlines the important role of egalitarianism in warfare. PMID:29228014

  10. Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martha

    Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

  11. Miniaturized low-cost ion mobility spectrometer for fast detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Stefan; Barth, Sebastian; Baether, Wolfgang K M; Ringer, Joachim

    2008-09-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a well-known method for detecting hazardous compounds in air. Typical applications are the detection of chemical warfare agents, highly toxic industrial compounds, explosives, and drugs of abuse. Detection limits in the low part per billion range, fast response times, and simple instrumentation make this technique more and more popular. In particular, there is an increasing demand for miniaturized low-cost IMS for hand-held devices and air monitoring of public areas by sensor networks. In this paper, we present a miniaturized aspiration condenser type ion mobility spectrometer for fast detection of chemical warfare agents. The device is easy to manufacture and allows single substance identification down to low part per billion-level concentrations within seconds. The improved separation power results from ion focusing by means of geometric constraints and fluid dynamics. A simple pattern recognition algorithm is used for the identification of trained substances in air. The device was tested at the German Armed Forces Scientific Institute for Protection Technologies-NBC-Protection. Different chemical warfare agents, such as sarin, tabun, soman, US-VX, sulfur mustard, nitrogen mustard, and lewisite were tested. The results are presented here.

  12. Airborne exposure limits for chemical and biological warfare agents: is everything set and clear?

    PubMed

    Sabelnikov, Alex; Zhukov, Vladimir; Kempf, C Ruth

    2006-08-01

    Emergency response strategies (guidelines) for biological, chemical, nuclear, or radiological terrorist events should be based on scientifically established exposure limits for all the agents or materials involved. In the case of a radiological terrorist event, emergency response guidelines (ERG) have been worked out. In the case of a terrorist event with the use of chemical warfare (CW) agents the situation is not that clear, though the new guidelines and clean-up values are being generated based on re-evaluation of toxicological and risk data. For biological warfare (BW) agents, such guidelines do not yet exist. In this paper the current status of airborne exposure limits (AELs) for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are reviewed. Particular emphasis is put on BW agents that lack such data. An efficient, temporary solution to bridge the gap in experimental infectious data and to set provisional AELs for BW agents is suggested. It is based on mathematically generated risks of infection for BW agents grouped by their alleged ID50 values in three categories: with low, intermediate and high ID50 values.

  13. Camouflage and Deception Techniques for Urban Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    ý 1 97418W / 7. AU"Olil’a) . CONTRACT GA GRANT NUMBER~o) 06. 01911TRMUINORGANIATIOENT NAME AND ADRSS1. RGRMELM ROETTS Cappoulagad forpubl apic ...of air to achieve rigidity as well as~ flotation . lii’ dco br g wohll le iul~lvel iiear real rilbbonl bridlges in order to con1fuse ellicini...A.. (PT. Spain. "~Attackingr and Defending, Populated Places?" Military Review, (October 19414). Felts. Robert. "Urban Warfare. Emerging Material

  14. Thumping the Hive: Russian Neocortical Warfare in Chechnya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    against the determined, resourceful Muslim tribes of the mountains and forests of the Central Caucasus, Russia’s military forces compiled a frustrating...warfare against minds and envisioning weapons as any means used to change the enemy’s will.” The merging of these two hemispheric approaches produces... single adviser in the Soviet system 40 Ibid., 5. 41 Szafranski, 409. 19 can allow himself to

  15. Potassium Ferrate: A Novel Chemical Warfare Agent Decontaminant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-16

    POTASSIUM FERRATE : A NOVEL CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT DECONTAMINANT Russell Greene greener@battelle.org (Battelle Memorial Institute, West...difficulties, and/or unsatisfactory CWA destruction efficiencies. Potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) addresses all of these issues through its high oxidation...used and proposed, are unstable (with respect to loss of activity) and/or difficult to prepare, store and transport. Potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) has

  16. Prognostication: Do the Services See the Same Future of Warfare?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    conduct of war, warfare. 24 Dana Johnson, Scott Pace, C. Bryan Gabbard , Space: Emerging Options for National Power, (RAND, 1998), 10. 25 Creveld, 145...Bryan Gabbard . Space: Emerging Options for National Power, RAND http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR517/, 1998. (Accessed 5 January 2008

  17. The role of the sand in chemical warfare agent exposure among Persian Gulf War veterans: Al Eskan disease and "dirty dust".

    PubMed

    Korényi-Both, A L; Svéd, L; Korényi-Both, G E; Juncer, D J; Korényi-Both, A L; Székely, A

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inquire into the relationship between Al Eskan disease and the probable exposure to chemical warfare agents by Persian Gulf War veterans. Al Eskan disease, first reported in 1991, compromises the body's immunological defense and is a result of the pathogenic properties of the extremely fine, dusty sand located in the central and eastern region of the Arabian peninsula. The disease manifests with localized expression of multisystem disorder. Signs and symptoms of Al Eskan disease have been termed by the news media "Persian Gulf syndrome." The dust becomes a warfare agent when toxic chemicals are microimpregnated into inert particles. The "dirty dust" concept, that the toxicity of an agent could be enhanced by absorption into inactive particles, dates from World War I. A growing body of evidence shows that coalition forces have encountered Iraqi chemical warfare in the theater of operation/Persian Gulf War to a much greater extent than early U.S. Department of Defense information had indicated. Veterans of that war were exposed to chemical warfare agents in the form of direct (deliberate) attacks by chemical weapons, such as missiles and mines, and indirect (accidental) contamination from demolished munition production plants and storage areas, or otherwise. We conclude that the microimpregnated sand particles in the theater of operation/Persian Gulf War depleted the immune system and simultaneously acted as vehicles for low-intensity exposure to chemical warfare agents and had a modifying-intensifying effect on the toxicity of exposed individuals. We recommend recognition of a new term, "dirty sand," as a subcategory of dirty dust/dusty chemical warfare agents. Our ongoing research efforts to investigate the health impact of chemical warfare agent exposure among Persian Gulf War veterans suggest that Al Eskan disease is a plausible and preeminent explanation for the preponderance of Persian Gulf War illnesses.

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman as a water monitor for warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Kevin M.; Sylvia, James M.; Clauson, Susan L.; Janni, James A.

    2002-02-01

    The threat of chemical warfare agents being released upon civilian and military personnel continues to escalate. One aspect of chemical preparedness is to analyze and protect the portable water supply for the military. Chemical nerve, blister, and choking agents, as well as biological threats must all be analyzed and low limits of detection must be verified. For chemical agents, this generally means detection down to the low ppb levels. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a spectroscopic technique that can detect trace levels of contaminants directly in the aqueous environment. In this paper, results are presented on the use of SERS to detect chemical and biological agent simulants with an end goal of creating a Joint Service Agent Water Monitor. Detection of cyanide, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, phosphonates, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using SERS has been performed and is discussed herein. Aspects of transferring laboratory results to an unattended field instrument are also discussed.

  19. A Heuristic Decision Making Model to Mitigate Adverse Consequences in a Network Centric Warfare/Sense and Respond System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    made. 4. Do military decision makers identify / analyze adverse consequences presently? Few do based on this research and most don’t do it effectively ...A HEURISTIC DECISION MAKING MODEL TO MITIGATE ADVERSE CONSEQUENCES IN A NETWORK CENTRIC WARFARE / SENSE AND RESPOND SYSTEM...ENS/05-01 A HEURISTIC DECISION MAKING MODEL TO MITIGATE ADVERSE CONSEQUENCES IN A NETWORK CENTRIC WARFARE / SENSE AND RESPOND SYSTEM

  20. Detection of warfare agents in liquid foods using the brine shrimp lethality assay.

    PubMed

    Lumor, Stephen E; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Labuza, Theodore P

    2011-01-01

    The brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) was used for rapid and non-specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents at concentrations considerably below that which will cause harm to humans. Warfare agents detected include T-2 toxin, trimethylsilyl cyanide, and commercially available pesticides such as dichlorvos, diazinon, dursban, malathion, and parathion. The assay was performed by introducing 50 μL of milk or orange juice contaminated with each analyte into vials containing 10 freshly hatched brine shrimp nauplii in seawater. This was incubated at 28 °C for 24 h, after which mortality was determined. Mortality was converted to probits and the LC(50) was determined for each analyte by plotting probits of mortality against analyte concentration (log(10)). Our findings were the following: (1) the lethal effects of toxins dissolved in milk were observed, with T-2 toxin being the most lethal and malathion being the least, (2) except for parathion, the dosage (based on LC(50)) of analyte in a cup of milk (200 mL) consumed by a 6-y-old (20 kg) was less than the respective published rat LD(50) values, and (3) the BSLA was only suitable for detecting toxins dissolved in orange juice if incubation time was reduced to 6 h. Our results support the application of the BSLA for routine, rapid, and non-specific prescreening of liquid foods for possible sabotage by an employee or an intentional bioterrorist act. Practical Application: The findings of this study strongly indicate that the brine shrimp lethality assay can be adapted for nonspecific detection of warfare agents or toxins in food at any point during food production and distribution.

  1. A Square Peg in a Round Hole: A Case Study of Center Gravity Application in Counter Insurgency Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    paradigm historically based on conventional warfare and state-based actors. Underlying questions related to the research question are: Is there a CoG...analysis is still useful by proposing 5 new interpretations of this aged concept. This thesis will examine whether CoG is still useful in...cuts through the confusion and contradictions related to CoG by translating it functionally for the war-fighter. He does this through a

  2. Littoral Combat Ship Open Ocean Anti-Submarine Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    maintain stealth and its defense in order to properly conduct an attack on a surface vessel (Sternhell and Thorndike 2014, 102). This statement...its target, the surface combatants can counter by increasing their speed (Sternhell and Thorndike 2014). While the maximum speed of the current...120316_PS.pdf Sternhell, Charles M, and Alan M Thorndike . 2014. “Antisubmarine Warfare in World War II.” CNA Analysis & Solutions. Accessed April 14, 2014

  3. Russian and Chinese Information Warfare: Theory and Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Integral neurolinguistic programming •Placing essential programs into the conscious or sub- conscious mind •Subconscious suggestions that modify human...Generators of special rays •Optical systems • Neurolinguistic programming •Computer psychotechnology •The mass media •Audiovisual effects •Special effects...Information Warfare: Theory and Practice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  4. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas.

  5. Destruction of chemical warfare surrogates using a portable atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škoro, Nikola; Puač, Nevena; Živković, Suzana; Krstić-Milošević, Dijana; Cvelbar, Uroš; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran Lj.

    2018-01-01

    Today's reality is connected with mitigation of threats from the new chemical and biological warfare agents. A novel investigation of cold plasmas in contact with liquids presented in this paper demonstrated that the chemically reactive environment produced by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is potentially capable of rapid destruction of chemical warfare agents in a broad spectrum. The decontamination of three different chemical warfare agent surrogates dissolved in liquid is investigated by using an easily transportable APPJ. The jet is powered by a kHz signal source connected to a low-voltage DC source and with He as working gas. The detailed investigation of electrical properties is performed for various plasmas at different distances from the sample. The measurements of plasma properties in situ are supported by the optical spectrometry measurements, whereas the high performance liquid chromatography measurements before and after the treatment of aqueous solutions of Malathion, Fenitrothion and Dimethyl Methylphosphonate. These solutions are used to evaluate destruction and its efficiency for specific neural agent simulants. The particular removal rates are found to be from 56% up to 96% during 10 min treatment. The data obtained provide basis to evaluate APPJ's efficiency at different operating conditions. The presented results are promising and could be improved with different operating conditions and optimization of the decontamination process.

  6. Unmanned Warfare: Second and Third Order Effects Stemming from the Afghan Operational Environment between 2001 and 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    the very nature of warfare took a dramatic step into the future. With new assets capable of remaining airborne for nearly 24 hours and live video ...warfare took a dramatic step into the future. With new assets capable of remaining airborne for nearly 24 hours and live video feeds streaming to...shape the battlefield during protracted combat operations. From the real time video feeds, to the 24 hour coverage of an area of interest, tangible

  7. Unconventional Warfare and Counterinsurgency in Pakistan: A Brief History

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    inter-connected. Punjabi Pakistani militants with sophisticated asymmetric warfare training and experience fighting Indian forces in Kashmir...factions. These Punjabi Pakistani militants would prove to be some of the most dangerous opponents of the government after 2006. From 2003 to 2006, the...68 Khan. “Untangling the Punjabi Taliban Network”. CTC Sentinel, March 2010; Franco, “Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan.” 69 Iqbal

  8. Modeling the transport of chemical warfare agents and simulants in polymeric substrates for reactive decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearl, Thomas; Mantooth, Brent; Varady, Mark; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are often used for environmental testing in place of highly toxic agents. This work sets the foundation for modeling decontamination of absorbing polymeric materials with the focus on determining relationships between agents and simulants. The correlations of agents to simulants must consider the three way interactions in the chemical-material-decontaminant system where transport and reaction occur in polymer materials. To this end, diffusion modeling of the subsurface transport of simulants and live chemical warfare agents was conducted for various polymer systems (e.g., paint coatings) with and without reaction pathways with applied decontamination. The models utilized 1D and 2D finite difference diffusion and reaction models to simulate absorption and reaction in the polymers, and subsequent flux of the chemicals out of the polymers. Experimental data including vapor flux measurements and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to determine model input parameters. Through modeling, an understanding of the relationship of simulant to live chemical warfare agent was established, focusing on vapor emission of agents and simulants from materials.

  9. Textbook of Military Medicine. Part 1. Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty. Part 5. Conventional Warfare. Ballistic, Blast, and Burn Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    United States. Because the vast majority of our patients are not active -duty military personnel, it may seem that our day-to-day ac- tivities are far... activated . A designated time-delay fuse uses an Source: Reference 8 15 Conventional Warfare: Ballistic, Blast, and Burn Injuries explosion and the...be found embedded and unexploded in tissue. The fuse is located at the tip of the warhead, and is activated and will deionate on contact only after

  10. Stormy Waters: Technology, Sea Control and Regional Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    AD-A283 945 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA "DTIC TI ELECTETHESIS • S Sop()z 994 v G STOwM NATERS "T"CDOLOGY, SEA CNTROL AND REGIONAL... S . FUNDING NUMBERS Stormy Waters: Technology, Sea Control and Regional Warfare 6. AUTHOR( S ) David A. Schnell 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND...ADDRESSRES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate School REPORT NUMBER Monterey, CA 93943-5000 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND

  11. WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

  12. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondloch, Joseph E.; Katz, Michael J.; Isley, William C., III; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W.; Hall, Morgan G.; Decoste, Jared B.; Peterson, Gregory W.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic ZrIV ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  13. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Joseph E; Katz, Michael J; Isley, William C; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W; Hall, Morgan G; DeCoste, Jared B; Peterson, Gregory W; Snurr, Randall Q; Cramer, Christopher J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic Zr(IV) ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  14. Continuous Acoustic Sensing With an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System for Anti-Submarine Warfare in a High-Threat Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    strive in multiple warfare areas. This research benefits not only the Navy, through enhancement of offensive warfighting by testing the next...multiple warfare areas. This research benefits not only the Navy, through enhancement of offensive warfighting by testing the next generation of...produce and definitely worth the research and testing to be a positive asset for the Navy. It not only can stay on station for an exponential amount of

  15. Winning the Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq: The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-26

    Winning the Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq: The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq A Monograph by Major...Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq: The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...14. ABSTRACT This monograph provides insight into the importance of political culture in relation to developing a counterinsurgency strategy. This

  16. Tuning the Morphology and Activity of Electrospun Polystyrene/UiO-66-NH2 Metal-Organic Framework Composites to Enhance Chemical Warfare Agent Removal.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Gregory W; Lu, Annie X; Epps, Thomas H

    2017-09-20

    This work investigates the processing-structure-activity relationships that ultimately facilitate the enhanced performance of UiO-66-NH 2 metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in electrospun polystyrene (PS) fibers for chemical warfare agent detoxification. Key electrospinning processing parameters including solvent type (dimethylformamide [DMF]) vs DMF/tetrahydrofuran [THF]), PS weight fraction in solution, and MOF weight fraction relative to PS were varied to optimize MOF incorporation into the fibers and ultimately improve composite performance. It was found that composites spun from pure DMF generally resulted in MOF crystal deposition on the surface of the fibers, while composites spun from DMF/THF typically led to MOF crystal deposition within the fibers. For cases in which the MOF was incorporated on the periphery of the fibers, the composites generally demonstrated better gas uptake (e.g., nitrogen, chlorine) because of enhanced access to the MOF pores. Additionally, increasing both the polymer and MOF weight percentages in the electrospun solutions resulted in larger diameter fibers, with polymer concentration having a more pronounced effect on fiber size; however, these larger fibers were generally less efficient at gas separations. Overall, exploring the electrospinning parameter space resulted in composites that outperformed previously reported materials for the detoxification of the chemical warfare agent, soman. The data and strategies herein thus provide guiding principles applicable to the design of future systems for protection and separations as well as a wide range of environmental remediation applications.

  17. [Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism.

  18. Lanchester-Type Models of Warfare. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    1 / - -I SLEVEL 0 LANCHESTER-TYPE MODELS OF WARFARE VOLUME I$ by James G. Taylor Professor of Operations Research Naval Postgraduate School Monterey...California a DTIC¢-• 1 tELECTED S• OCT 28 1980 • D bFiFTr--••5i•:hii:rfl 8 00 O 20 01 9 Approved for public 8e0 -.;209-’ )Distribution Unlimited KL...34’:•-~ l,,, I " .. .. .. . . .. ... , . . , • •_. . .• .: _ - •’ .. - ..A ] . ......LJ- srcr.’NTY CL ASS 1CATl.,N OF’ TNH 4 a. , 1 A t HI At) IN .TWV

  19. Recognizing and Adapting to Unrestricted Warfare Practices by China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-15

    Sun Zi, are of particular significance. These men taught obedience to the state, the primacy of relationships over law, and the importance of...Von Clausewitz and Baron Antoine Jomini. Whereas Clausewitz provided a theoretical strategic framework for warfare where “war is a continuation of...of family (filial Piety), ritual, loyalty, meritocracy, relationships , and the desire to avoid shame and losing face.17 Chinese rulers often used

  20. Testing the Paleolithic-human-warfare hypothesis of blood-injection phobia in the Baltimore ECA Follow-up Study--towards a more etiologically-based conceptualization for DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Bracha, H Stefan; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Eaton, William W

    2007-01-01

    The research agenda for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) has emphasized the need for a more etiologically-based classification system, especially for stress-induced and fear-circuitry disorders. Testable hypotheses based on threats to survival during particular segments of the human era of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA) may be useful in developing a brain-evolution-based classification for the wide spectrum of disorders ranging from disorders which are mostly overconsolidationally such as PTSD, to fear-circuitry disorders which are mostly innate such as specific phobias. The recently presented Paleolithic-human-warfare hypothesis posits that blood-injection phobia can be traced to a "survival (fitness) enhancing" trait, which evolved in some females of reproductive-age during the millennia of intergroup warfare in the Paleolithic EEA. The study presented here tests the key a priori prediction of this hypothesis-that current blood-injection phobia will have higher prevalence in reproductive-age women than in post-menopausal women. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule (version III-R), which included a section on blood and injection phobia, was administered to 1920 subjects in the Baltimore ECA Follow-up Study. Data on BII phobia was available on 1724 subjects (1078 women and 646 males). The prevalence of current blood-injection phobia was 3.3% in women aged 27-49 and 1.1% in women over age 50 (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.20-7.73). [The corresponding figures for males were 0.8% and 0.7% (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.20-7.14)]. This epidemiological study provides one source of support for the Paleolithic-human-warfare (Paleolithic-threat) hypothesis regarding the evolutionary (distal) etiology of bloodletting-related phobia, and may contribute to a more brain-evolution-based re-conceptualization and classification of this fear circuitry-related trait for the DSM-V. In addition, the finding reported here may also stimulate new research

  1. Proximal detection of chemical warfare agents using PMIRRAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petryk, Michael W. P.; Marenco, Armando J.

    2010-04-01

    Non-contact chemical warfare agent detection has been demonstrated on military painted surfaces using polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PMIRRAS). Notably, VX has been detected on chemical agent resistance coating (CARC) paint at a distance of approximately 10 cm. PMIRRAS does not rely on the presence of chemical vapors and is not affected by many common battlefield interferants such as aerosolized dust, water and diesel vapors, etc., making it highly suitable for use in operational environments.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Chemical Warfare on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Chronic Medical Conditions in Veterans.

    PubMed

    Safi-Aghdam, Hamideh; Shafie, Mehrzad; Khoshdel, Alireza; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Avakh, Farhad; Rahmani, Arash

    2018-04-24

    We investigated the association between exposure to chemical warfare and chronic mental/physical conditions. This was a secondary analysis of data from a case-control study on Iranian male veterans. Participants with neuropsychiatric disorders other than depressive/anxiety disorders, anatomical defects, or malignancies were excluded. Compared to non-exposed veterans, exposed veterans demonstrated significantly higher odds of PTSD [OR (95% CI) = 5.23 (1.98-13.85)], hypertension [OR (95% CI) = 5.57 (1.68-18.48)], coronary heart disease [OR (95% CI) = 6.8 (1.62-28.49)], and diabetes [OR (95% CI) = 3.88 (1.35-11.16)], and marginally higher odds of moderate to severe depressive symptoms [OR (95% CI) = 2.21 (0.93-5.28)]. This study provides preliminary evidence on association of exposure to chemical warfare with long-term mental disorders as well as chronic medical conditions.

  3. Factors Affecting the Retention Decisions of Female Surface Warfare Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FACTORS AFFECTING THE RETENTION...Warfare Officers 6. AUTHOR(S) Clifton, Elizabeth A. 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School ...for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN LEADERSHIP AND HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 2003

  4. MOFwich: Sandwiched Metal-Organic Framework-Containing Mixed Matrix Composites for Chemical Warfare Agent Removal.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Gregory W; Lu, Annie X; Hall, Morgan G; Browe, Matthew A; Tovar, Trenton; Epps, Thomas H

    2018-02-28

    This work describes a new strategy for fabricating mixed matrix composites containing layered metal-organic framework (MOF)/polymer films as functional barriers for chemical warfare agent protection. Through the use of mechanically robust polymers as the top and bottom encasing layers, a high-MOF-loading, high-performance-core layer can be sandwiched within. We term this multifunctional composite "MOFwich". We found that the use of elastomeric encasing layers enabled core layer reformation after breakage, an important feature for composites and membranes alike. The incorporation of MOFs into the core layer led to enhanced removal of chemical warfare agents while simultaneously promoting moisture vapor transport through the composite, showcasing the promise of these composites for protection applications.

  5. Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    the body,” and the Geneva Protocol of 1925, bans the use of chemical and biological weapons .11 On 8 April 1975, President Ford issued Executive...E Funding – PE 63851M) (accessed 15 December 2006). The American Journal of Bioethics . “Medical Ethics and Non-Lethal Weapons .” Bioethics.net...CASUALTIES: NON-LETHAL WEAPONS IN IRREGULAR WARFARE by Richard L. Scott September 2007 Thesis Advisor: Robert McNab Second Reader

  6. U.S. Army Special Forces Roles in Asymmetric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    1Jonathan B . Tucker, “Asymmetric Warfare: An Emerging Threat to U.S. Security,” Forum For Applied Research and Public Policy (Monterey...8Ibid., 34. 9Tucker, 11. 10Ibid., 2. 11 Henry H . Shelton, GEN, USA, Commander in Chief, U.S. Special Operations Command...the Senate Armed Services Committee, “Military Threats and Security Challenges Through 2015,” (Washington: 3 February 2000), 3. 26GEN Henry H

  7. Divisional Electronic Warfare Combat (DEWCOM) Model - User Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    ulated combat hours. DTIC TA% 1~ Il m I UNCLASSIFIED SIECURITY CLASSIFICATION Or THIS PAGEft7n Date Entered) 4 ’ ./ .7"* t l DIVISIONAL ELECTRONIC WARFARE...277 4.2.1 Report M (Unit Status) ....... .......................... 277 4.2.2 Report M2 (Link Status...NONE in the first 4 spaces. 27 Mai -RF DEWCOM M S aoNE_ DAF INPUT DATA PREPARATI toI 2 4 . 8 1() 1 12 ,1 14 15 1 1718 lq2n2122 21242526 2728293031 3233

  8. Above the Influence: The Strategic Effects of Airpower in Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    INDOCHINA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 APPENDIX B: MAP OF LAOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 APPENDIX...perspectives. These perspectives involve the use of airpower in North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and Laos . The overarching political endstate or...Nagl, ―Principles, Imperatives, and Paradoxes of Counterinsurgency,‖ 50; Mao Tse -Tung, Problems of Strategy in Guerrilla Warfare, 215-216; Gray

  9. Network Centric Warfare Case Study. U.S. V Corps and 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) During Operation Iraq Freedom Combat Operations (Mar-Apr 2003). Volume 1: Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-01

    Command Historian , and the personnel from the Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) for their assistance in gaining access to the many documents that...after the Network Centric Warfare Case Study operations. The Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL), the V Corps Command Historian , and other... Historian , Dr. Charles Kirkpatrick, in Heidelberg, Germany, assisted in this effort. Nu- merous documents were collected, both unclassified and classified

  10. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  11. Trends in electro-optical electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Carl R.; Grasso, Robert; Pledger, Jack; Murarka, Naveen

    2012-09-01

    Protection of military aircraft from hostile threats is paramount to ensure the survivability of aircrews, platforms, and mission success. While the threat environment continues to become more complex, shrinking defense budgets places new challenges on the development of electronic warfare (EW) systems. This paper presents the trends in electro-optical EW system development including 1) features, 2) affordability, 3) open architecture, 4) multi-functionality, 5) integrated avionics survivability equipment, and 6) enabling technologies for sensors, and optical sources. While these system attributes are not new, they have grown in importance in the design of EW systems. And, if treated correctly can have a beneficial symbiotic relationship to each other and to the airframe they support.

  12. Metal-organic frameworks for the removal of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Bobbitt, N Scott; Mendonca, Matthew L; Howarth, Ashlee J; Islamoglu, Timur; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Snurr, Randall Q

    2017-06-06

    Owing to the vast diversity of linkers, nodes, and topologies, metal-organic frameworks can be tailored for specific tasks, such as chemical separations or catalysis. Accordingly, these materials have attracted significant interest for capture and/or detoxification of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents. In this paper, we review recent experimental and computational work pertaining to the capture of several industrially-relevant toxic chemicals, including NH 3 , SO 2 , NO 2 , H 2 S, and some volatile organic compounds, with particular emphasis on the challenging issue of designing materials that selectively adsorb these chemicals in the presence of water. We also examine recent research on the capture and catalytic degradation of chemical warfare agents such as sarin and sulfur mustard using metal-organic frameworks.

  13. Drone warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusterson, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    Crude drones existed as early as World War I, but the technology matured in the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s and the current wars around the Middle East. The U.S. first used a weaponized drone in late 2001, in Afghanistan. Drones may cause more or less civilian casualties depending on the targeting protocols employed by their operators. There is an inherent ambiguity in determining who is an insurgent from several thousand feet, but civilian casualties are likely to be higher if targeters emphasize "signature strikes" over "personality strikes," if they engage in "double-tap strikes," if they rely too much on local informants, and if they rely too heavily on cellphone identification in the absence of corroboration from other intelligence sources. The legality of drone warfare is fairly clear in established battle zones such as Afghanistan, but is more problematic in terms of both international and domestic law when it comes to drone strikes in countries such as Yemen, Pakistan and Somalia with which the U.S. is not at war. Looking to the future, the U.S. would be well advised to sponsor negotiations for an international drone convention that might establish clear international rules for the use of drones, ban autonomous smart drones, and establish adjudicatory procedures to handle allegations of war crimes.

  14. Iron-montmorillonite clays as active sorbents for the decontamination of hazardous chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Carniato, F; Bisio, C; Evangelisti, C; Psaro, R; Dal Santo, V; Costenaro, D; Marchese, L; Guidotti, M

    2018-02-27

    A class of heterogeneous catalysts based on commercial bentonite from natural origin, containing at least 80 wt% of montmorillonite clay, was designed to transform selectively and under mild conditions toxic organosulfur and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents into non-noxious products with a reduced impact on health and environment. The bentonite from the natural origin was modified by introducing iron species and acid sites in the interlayer space, aiming to obtain a sorbent with strong catalytic oxidising and hydrolytic properties. The catalytic performance of these materials was evaluated in the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, in the presence of aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. A new decontamination formulation was, moreover, proposed and obtained by mixing sodium perborate, as a solid oxidant, to iron-bentonite catalysts. Solid-phase decontamination tests, performed on a cotton textile support contaminated with organosulfide and organophosphonate simulant agents revealed the good activity of the solid formulation, especially in the in situ detoxification of blistering agents. Tests carried out on the real blistering warfare agent, sulfur mustard (HD agent), showed that, thanks to the co-presence of the iron-based clay together with the solid oxidant component, a good decontamination of the test surface from the real warfare agent could be achieved (80% contaminant degradation, under ambient conditions, in 24 h).

  15. A review of multi-threat medical countermeasures against chemical warfare and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Fred M; Broomfield, Clarence A; Stojiljkovic, Milos P; Smith, William J

    2004-11-01

    The Multi-Threat Medical Countermeasure (MTMC) hypothesis has been proposed with the aim of developing a single countermeasure drug with efficacy against different pathologies caused by multiple classes of chemical warfare agents. Although sites and mechanisms of action and the pathologies caused by different chemical insults vary, common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes provide targets for MTMC drugs. This article will review the MTMC hypothesis for blister and nerve agents and will expand the scope of the concept to include other chemicals as well as briefly consider biological agents. The article will also consider how common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes that contribute to clinical pathologies and syndromes may relate to the toxicity of threat agents. Discovery of MTMC provides the opportunity for the integration of diverse researchers and clinicians, and for the exploitation of cutting-edge technologies and drug discovery. The broad-spectrum nature of MTMC can augment military and civil defense to combat chemical warfare and chemical terrorism.

  16. Experimental examination of ultraviolet Raman cross sections of chemical warfare agent simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, F.; Landström, L.; Lundén, H.; Wästerby, Pär.

    2015-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering from the commonly used chemical warfare agent simulants dimethyl sulfoxide, tributyl phosphate, triethyl phosphonoacetate was measured at excitation wavelengths ranging from 210 to 410 nm using a pulsed laser based spectrometer system with a probing distance of 1.4 m and with a field of view on the target of less than 1mm. For the purpose of comparison with well explored reference liquids the Raman scattering from simulants was measured in the form of an extended liquid surface layer on top of a silicon wafer. This way of measuring enabled direct comparison to the Raman scattering strength from cyclohexane. The reference Raman spectra were used to validate the signal strength of the simulants and the calibration of the experimental set up. Measured UV absorbance functions were used to calculate Raman cross sections. Established Raman cross sections of the simulants make it possible to use them as reference samples when measuring on chemical warfare agents in droplet form.

  17. Operational Ethics: Just War and Implications for Contemporary American Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-22

    will mutually share those values.12 Today, those values are manifested in the secular society in the form of ethics and basic human morality, what is...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Operational Ethics : Just War and Implications for Contemporary American Warfare A Monograph...a denkschrift through which the author hopes to inspire discussions on operational ethics among professional officers and civilian proponents of

  18. Evaluation of Organisational Interoperabiity in a Network Centric Warfare Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    understanding developed. Command and Coordination examines issues related to command structure, command and leadership styles . Ethos covers socio...harmonisation of command arrangements and the accommodation of differences in command and leadership styles . 3.2.4 Ethos Future warfare will... leadership styles . • changes to give less emphasis to hierarchy and command and more to coordination. Any reference to a single chain of command has been

  19. Constitution aims to bring an end to health economy warfare.

    PubMed

    Harding, Mary-Louise; Martin, Daniel

    2005-02-10

    A rough new constitution is being drawn up for the NHS in a bid to prevent health economies sliding into bitter 'Bradford-style' warfare in the era of foundations trusts and payment by results. The rules of engagement are part of a package of measures designed to rescue some of the government's flagship reforms amid warnings from audit chiefs on the impact of PbR.

  20. Application of Solid Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry as a Rapid Method for Field Sampling and Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Industrial Chemicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    PHASE MICROEXTRACTION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AS A RAPID METHOD FOR FIELD SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS...SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AS A RAPID METHOD FOR FIELD SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

  1. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  2. Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach.

    PubMed

    Dimijian, Gregory G

    2010-07-01

    As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth coverage of Darwinian natural and sexual selection, with examples from the domestication of animals and plants and the crisis of antibiotic resistance. The series strives to show how biology has been neglected in the study of the we-they orientation of human behavior, with its devastating consequences. The subject material is profoundly disturbing, as it looks at "human nature" and contrasts the "dark side" of human behavior with the opposite, profoundly caring and loving side.

  3. Warfare, genocide, and ethnic conflict: a Darwinian approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As the 21st century dawns, I reflect on the history of humankind with growing concern about the need to understand the underlying biological and cultural roots of ethnic conflict and warfare. In the many studies of human conflict, innate biological predispositions have been neglected. This article is the third part of a series of seminars for medical residents at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas (see http://adarwinstudygroup.org/). The series starts with in-depth coverage of Darwinian natural and sexual selection, with examples from the domestication of animals and plants and the crisis of antibiotic resistance. The series strives to show how biology has been neglected in the study of the we-they orientation of human behavior, with its devastating consequences. The subject material is profoundly disturbing, as it looks at “human nature” and contrasts the “dark side” of human behavior with the opposite, profoundly caring and loving side. PMID:21240320

  4. Chemical-warfare techniques for insect control: insect 'pests' in Germany before and after World War I.

    PubMed

    Jansen, S

    2000-01-01

    During World War I, chemical-warfare practices were introduced into economic entomology in Germany. Fritz Haber, 'the father of chemical warfare', realized that Germany could not win the war and thus looked for 'civilian' uses for his chemical arsenal. Before the war, there was a rhetoric of dangerous 'masses' of insects but the large-scale techniques needed to deal with them had not been developed. The gap between rhetoric and practices enabled entomology to integrate chemical weapons into its working methods. This article traces transformations in the ways of seeing insects and their control from the mid-nineteenth century to after World War I.

  5. Getting the Next War Right: Beyond Population-centric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    respectively: Che Guevara and Mao Tse -tung. Che’s foco theory, as we have discussed, advocates mobilizing from the top. The armed challenger chooses an...example, Thomas A. Marks, “Guerrillas in the Mist: Hmong Resistance Continues in Laos ,” Combat and Survival 8, no. 5 (August 1996), 4–11. 12 Theory and...Mao Tse -tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. and ed. Samuel B. Grif!th (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2005). The book is available from a wide

  6. Characterizing and Exploring the Implications of Maritime Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    1 The study’s dependent variable was conflict processes and outcomes in maritime warfare environments, and the independent variable was IW...capabilities are improving, or it may mean that the fre- quency of SPSS voyages is increasing, which would bode poorly for U.S. efforts to halt these shipments...Red Sea in the west to 76 degrees longitude in the east, 22 degrees in the south, and 21.5 degrees in the north (Bandel and Crowley, 2008; GAO, 2010

  7. The Effect of Shipboard Design Decisions in Amphibious Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    appreciate all that you have done for me over the past 18 months. Lastly, I would like to thank The Bosn for teaching me all about amphibs and...amphibious warfare field of expertise were also conducted to gain firsthand knowledge and gather data. Once all of the data were collected, a comparative...the U.S. entered World War II, Japan was able to extend their empire across the entire Pacific Ocean relatively unopposed, which in all probably led

  8. MRAPs, Irregular Warfare, and Pentagon Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    76 JFQ / issue 55, 4 th quarter 2009 ndupress .ndu.edu MRAPs, Irregular Warfare, and Pentagon Reform By C h r i s t o p h e r J . l a m b , m...a t t h e w J . s C h m i D t , and b e r i t g . F i t z s i m m o n s Mine resistant ambush protected (MRAP) vehicles offer an excellent...issue 55, 4 th quarter 2009 / JFQ 77 LAMB, SCHMIDT, and FITZSIMMONS By C h r i s t o p h e r J . l a m b , m a t t h e w J . s C h m i D t

  9. Textile/metal-organic-framework composites as self-detoxifying filters for chemical-warfare agents.

    PubMed

    López-Maya, Elena; Montoro, Carmen; Rodríguez-Albelo, L Marleny; Aznar Cervantes, Salvador D; Lozano-Pérez, A Abel; Cenís, José Luis; Barea, Elisa; Navarro, Jorge A R

    2015-06-01

    The current technology of air-filtration materials for protection against highly toxic chemicals, that is, chemical-warfare agents, is mainly based on the broad and effective adsorptive properties of hydrophobic activated carbons. However, adsorption does not prevent these materials from behaving as secondary emitters once they are contaminated. Thus, the development of efficient self-cleaning filters is of high interest. Herein, we report how we can take advantage of the improved phosphotriesterase catalytic activity of lithium alkoxide doped zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) materials to develop advanced self-detoxifying adsorbents of chemical-warfare agents containing hydrolysable P-F, P-O, and C-Cl bonds. Moreover, we also show that it is possible to integrate these materials onto textiles, thereby combining air-permeation properties of the textiles with the self-detoxifying properties of the MOF material. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Postural Stability of Special Warfare Combatant-Craft Crewmen With Tactical Gear.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul M; Williams, Valerie J; Sell, Timothy C

    The US Naval Special Warfare's Special Warfare Combatant-Craft Crewmen (SWCC) operate on small, high-speed boats while wearing tactical gear (TG). The TG increases mission safety and success but may affect postural stability, potentially increasing risk for musculoskeletal injury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of TG on postural stability during the Sensory Organization Test (SOT). Eight SWCC performed the SOT on NeuroCom's Balance Manager with TG and with no tactical gear (NTG). The status of gear was performed in randomized order. The SOT consisted of six different conditions that challenge sensory systems responsible for postural stability. Each condition was performed for three trials, resulting in a total of 18 trials. Overall performance, each individual condition, and sensory system analysis (somatosensory, visual, vestibular, preference) were scored. Data were not normally distributed therefore Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare each variable (ρ = .05). No significant differences were found between NTG and TG tests. No statistically significant differences were detected under the two TG conditions. This may be due to low statistical power, or potentially insensitivity of the assessment. Also, the amount and distribution of weight worn during the TG conditions, and the SWCC's unstable occupational platform, may have contributed to the findings. The data from this sample will be used in future research to better understand how TG affects SWCC. The data show that the addition of TG used in our study did not affect postural stability of SWCC during the SOT. Although no statistically significant differences were observed, there are clinical reasons for continued study of the effect of increased load on postural stability, using more challenging conditions, greater surface perturbations, dynamic tasks, and heavier loads. 2016.

  11. American Military History and its Insights into Fourth Generation Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    8William S . Lind, Colonel Keith Nightengale (USA), Captain John F. Schmitt (USMC), Colonel Joseph W. Sutton (USA), and Lieutenant Colonel Gary I. Wilson...Lind, William S ., Colonel Keith Nightengale (USA), Captain John F. Schmitt (USMC), Colonel Joseph W. Sutton (USA), and Lieutenant Colonel Gary I...military history and its insights into fourth generation warfare. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S

  12. Modern Warfare: NATO’s War amongst the People in Kosovo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    Defense Initiative and director of research for the Foreign Policy program at the Brookings Institution; Misha Glenny, then the Central... the Kosovo military campaign and offers useful incites regarding future 21st century warfare for those who are interested in advancing their...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the

  13. Asymmetric Warfare in the Simulation and Training Environment: Comprehensive Approach Wanted!

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Covering Support to Operations, Human Behaviour Representation, Irregular Warfare, Defence against Terrorism and Coalition Tactical Force Integration...learned behaviours arising from shared knowledge and it is passed on from one generation to the next. The behaviours that have become embedded as part of...symbols and behaviours . While culture changes, the change is usually slow, particularly in terms of military operations timeframes. Urban environments

  14. Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

    2014-03-19

    An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds.

  15. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    E.H. Seabury; D.L. Chichester; C.J. Wharton

    2008-08-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a Cf-252 isotopic neutron source, but recently a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Electronic Neutron Generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) andmore » high explosive (HE) filled munitions.« less

  16. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.

    2009-03-10

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM)more » and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.« less

  17. Development of biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents: its issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Rani, Renu

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses current development in biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents (BWAs). BWAs include bacteria, virus and toxins that are added deliberately into air water and food to spread terrorism and cause disease or death. The rapid and unambiguous detection and identification of BWAs with early warning signals for detecting possible biological attack is a major challenge for government agencies particularly military and health. The detection devices--biosensors--can be classified (according to their physicochemical transducers) into four types: electrochemical, nucleic acid, optical and piezoelectric. Advantages and limitations of biosensors are discussed in this review followed by an assessment of the current state of development of different types of biosensors. The research and development in biosensors for biological warfare agent detection is of great interest for the public as well as for governments.

  18. Unconventional Warfare: A Mission Metamorphosis for the 21st Century?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    technology, the trend for insurgent groups to use the internet to advance their cause or exploit propaganda is sure to increase. Insurgent groups using ...Zapatistas, they used “social net war” to put pressure on the Mexican government. Efforts such as this are expected to continue and are extremely important...authority of the local government or occupying power, and using primarily irregular and informal groupings and measures.246 FM 31-21 Guerrilla Warfare

  19. Bio Warfare and Terrorism: Toxins and Other Mid-Spectrum Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    biotechnology, toxicogenomics, toxin, tetrodotoxin, and others. Once an agent has and proteomics may also help to open the door to the 276 Bio Warfare...also interferon gamma, interleukin-6, and tumor alsointrfern gmma intrlekin6, ad tmor by the mold Aspergillus flavus and commonly conta- necrosis factor...as bullets. No the new sciences of genomics and proteomics to alter toxoid or antitoxin is available, genetic code and to affect the expression of

  20. Technology Transfer Summary Report (FY92), Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-20

    communications; no formal records are kept of these. Community Technical Outreach NSWCDD participates in the "Science and Engineering Apprentice" and the " Bay ...ADMINISTRATOR’S OFFICE NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE CENTER PO BOX 545 DIVISION NEWPORT SEQUIM WA 98382 NEWPORI’ RI 02841-5047 ATTN GIFT AND EXCHANGE DIV 4 ATTN CODE 00

  1. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 1--history of six-decades of military experiments with chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns of possible long-term health consequences. Clinical and research evaluation of potential long-term health effects has been difficult because the exposures occurred decades ago, the identity of troops exposed and exposure magnitudes are uncertain, and acute effects during experiments poorly documented. In contrast, a companion article describes the large amount of information available about the specific agents tested and their long-term health effects. This short history describes U.S. military chemical-agent experiments with human subjects and identifies tested agents. Finally, the demonstrated need to anticipate future health concerns from military personnel involved in such military testing suggests current and future military researchers should be required, by law and regulation, to fully record the identity of those exposed, relevant exposure magnitude, and complete medical information for all subjects. New study protocols and institutional review board approvals for research involving military personnel should reflect this need.

  2. Chemical warfare agents: their past and continuing threat and evolving therapies. Part I of II.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathleen J; Skelton, Henry

    2003-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are potentially accessible to even underdeveloped nations because they are easily and inexpensively produced. This means that they are ideal for use by terrorists and in military operations against civilian populations and troops. In terms of cutaneous injury, vesicants-mainly sulfur mustard-are the most significant chemical warfare agents. Advances in understanding the pathophysiology of the lesions produced by sulfur mustard have led to the research and development of barrier creams as well as pre- and post-exposure therapies to moderate the damage and accelerate healing. Part I of this paper will discuss the history and classification of chemical agents; Part II, which will appear in the September/October 2003 issue of SKINmed, will discuss characteristic manifestations of exposure to chemical agents, as well as prevention and therapy.

  3. Revolution or Evolution: Combined Arms Warfare in the Twenty-First Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-04

    of the relationship of technological development and its impact on the military . Technology has always been a major factor in the initiation, execution...this technology revolutionized warfare? 1 There has been much argument lately that the U.S. Army is participating in the latest revolution in military ...their impact on strategic concerns: The emergence of technology that has military applications is accelerating, but revolutionary changes in military

  4. Conventional Warfare and United States Military Involvement in Latin America: Early Adolescents' Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Bruce; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assessed adolescents' views concerning conventional war and compared views to those of adolescents 15 years ago. Surveyed 362 seventh graders regarding conventional warfare and United States military involvement in Latin America. Compared to adolescents in 1971, adolescents in 1986 were somewhat more accepting of war. Many were skeptical of…

  5. Waste minimization opportunity assessment: Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, Washington. Project summary

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    NONE

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a systematic approach to identify, select and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. The report describes the application of the waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station in Keyport, WA (NUWES Keyport).

  6. Integrated Biological Warfare Technology Platform (IBWTP). Intelligent Software Supporting Situation Awareness, Response, and Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    15 4.2.3. Users of Systems for Combating Biological Warfare ................................ 16 4.2.4...21 4.3.1. Existing Biosurveillance Systems .............................................................. 22 4.3.2. Automatic Integration...74 6.4.4. Multi-Agent System Management System (MMS).................................... 75 6.4.5. Agent Glossary

  7. Naval Special Warfare: Identifying and Prioritizing Core Attributes of the Profession

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    literature review supports the need for research that is designed to advance the NSW profession. Analytic rigor could inform how NSW should refine its...B. SKILLS REQUIRED - WHAT (QUESTIONS 10–25, 26, 30) This research was designed to answer the following question: “What are the practical skills...NSW PRODEV: Naval Special Warfare Professional Development This research is designed to answer the following question. What are the practical

  8. Surface Warfare Junior Officer Retention; Spouses’ Influence on Career Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    1974), and (4) Self - esteem ( Rosenberg , 1965 ). In November 1978, the survey questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 691 male surface warfare... Rosenberg , M. Society and the adolescent self -image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1965 . 29 ___________ Stumpf, S. 5., & Kieckhaefer, N...these services with no loss in st.- is or self - esteem . If this approach is not sLIccessful, a separate branch of Family Service. may be required

  9. The Feasibility of Generalized Acoustic Sensor Operator Training. Final Report for Period February 1974-February 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Richard W.; Alden, David G.

    The feasibility of generalized approaches to training military personnel in the use of different types of sonar/acoustic warfare systems was explored. The initial phase of the project consisted of the analysis of representative sonar and acoustic equipment to identify training areas and operator performance requirements that could be subjected to…

  10. Strategic Choice: United States Special Forces’ Comparative Advantage in Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    UNITED STATES SPECIAL FORCES’ COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE IN IRREGULAR WARFARE by Steven F. Payne March 2017 Thesis Advisor: Hy S. Rothstein...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STRATEGIC CHOICE: UNITED STATES SPECIAL FORCES’ COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE IN...methodology, this thesis concludes that U.S. Army Special Forces have a comparative advantage over conventional forces to provide the National Command

  11. Israel’s Second Lebanon War: A Failure of Afghan Model Warfare?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-10

    Israeli experience in the Second Lebanon War will be compared against the American experience in Afghanistan as analyzed by Dr. Stephen Biddle in his...Biddle’s arguments regarding the so-called “Afghan Model” reinforces the validity of the conclusions Dr. Biddle derives regarding the U.S. success in...an irregular guerilla force. 2 Stephen Biddle , Afghanistan and the Future of Warfare

  12. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-09-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  13. Evaluation of risk assessment guideline levels for the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hartmann, H.; Environmental Assessment

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Army has estimated acute lethality guideline levels for inhalation of the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX. These levels are expressed as dosages measured in milligram-minutes per cubic meter (mg-min/m3). The National Advisory Council has also proposed acute emergency guideline levels (AEGLs) for the agents. The AEGLs are threshold exposure limits for the general public for mild effects, serious adverse effects, and lethality. They are expressed as air concentrations (in units of mg/m3) and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 min to 8 h. The report discusses strengths and deficiencies in the levels, importantmore » parameters (i.e., exposure time, breathing rate) that need to be explicitly addressed in deriving the guideline levels, and possible impacts that could result from using AEGLs instead of guideline dosages in future assessments.« less

  14. Information Operations and Warfare: Fundamental Challenges for the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    Perritt, Jr., Access To The National Information Infrastructure, 30 WAKE FOREST L. REV. 51 (1995); John I. Alger, Declaring Information War, JANE’S...Sought For Info Warfare, COMPUTERWORLD, Jun. 5, 1995, at 55 [hereinafter New Laws]; John Arquilla & David Ronfeldt, Cyberwat is Coming!, COMPARATIVE...at 82. See also John T. Correll, Signs of a Revolution, AIR FORCE MAG., Aug. 1995, at 2 ("Over the years, there have been periodic innovations

  15. Seeking Shadows in the Sky: The Strategy of Air Guerrilla Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    Structuring Air Power for the Small Air Force,” in Air Power Confronts an Unstable World, ed. Richard P. Hallion (London: Brassey’s, 1997), 181. 12...Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 1997), 207. 6. Air Commodore Andrew G. B. Vallance , “The Changing Nature of Air Warfare,” in Air Power Confronts an...Unstable World, ed. Richard P. Hallion (London: Brassey’s, 1997), xv; and Alan Stephens, The Implications of Modern Airpower for Defence Strategy, Air

  16. COPD assessment test (CAT): simple tool for evaluating quality of life of chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Lari, Shahrzad M; Ghobadi, Hassan; Attaran, Davood; Mahmoodpour, Afsoun; Shadkam, Omid; Rostami, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the serious late pulmonary complications caused by sulphur mustard exposure. Health status evaluations of chemical warfare patients with COPD are important to the management of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the COPD assessment test (CAT) in evaluating the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of chemical warfare patients with COPD. Eighty-two consecutive patients with stable COPD were enrolled in this study. All subjects were visited by one physician, and the HRQOL was evaluated by the CAT and St. George Respiratory Questionnaires (SGRQs). In addition, a standard spirometry test, 6-min walk distance test and pulse oxymetry were conducted. The severity of the COPD was determined using Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging and the body mass index, obstruction, dyspnoea and exercise (BODE) index. The mean age of the patients was 47.30 ± 7.08 years. The mean CAT score was 26.03 ± 8.28. Thirty-five (43%) patients were in CAT stage 3. There were statistically significant correlations between the CAT and the SGRQ (r = 0.70, P = 0.001) and the BODE index (r = 0.70, P = 0.001). A statistically significant inverse correlation was found between the CAT score and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (r = -0.30, P = 0.03). Our results demonstrated that the CAT is a simple and valid tool for assessment of HRQOL in chemical warfare patients with COPD and can be used in clinical practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the…

  18. Information Warfare: Legal, Regulatory, Policy and Organizational Considerations for Assurance. Second Edition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-04

    of Information Warfare and Strategy graduated 32 students from its 10-month senior level (war college ) program on 12 June 1996. The event marked the...1989 prosecution of Robert Tappan Morris, a Cornell University graduate student who, on November 2, 1988, released a computer worm across the...2-25 2-2-1 Constitutional Amendments with Privacy Implications .................................... 2-28 2-2-2 Privacy and Access to Government

  19. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cognitive systems in electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulpa, Krzysztof; Szczepankiewicz, Michał; Żywek, Marcin; Malanowski, Mateusz; Misiurewicz, Jacek; Samczyński, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    Electronic warfare (EW) techniques were invented 70 years ago and are still being developed, all the time with a key role played by their operators. However, a human operator responds far too slowly for the on-going needs since to be adequate to current threats the EW system reaction should be within 1 ms or less. Too slow reaction defers an achievement of the objectives, and generally may lead to disclosure of the applied strategy and to waste of resources. Developing the adequate response to the threat is a multifaceted matter that requires considerable experience and knowledge on the one hand, and thorough observation of outcomes of the applied strategy on the other hand. Such action requires the use of not only intelligence but also more complex algorithms for automatic control than the classical ones, and it heavily builds on the experience. It is therefore a cognitive task in its nature, and a human operator acts naturally this way. Consequently, a proper training and experience gained are what really matters. As a result of tests and actions in EW the operator builds his own knowledge base, thus, gains a capability of responding to the known threats in a balanced way. New threats, however, are much more challenging since they should be handled as fast as possible but in a fresh and creative manner. To this end, adapting the algorithms of radar jamming protection for the new conditions of the battlefield is an example of such challenging tasks. At present, such adjustments are done in a long feedback loop when the operator, after recognizing the problem, notifies the equipment manufacturers, and then, their engineers work on required solutions accordingly. Thus, the reaction time is counted in years, not a single milliseconds or seconds. Speeding up the response time is therefore the key issue, and a solution to it would be feasible only when cognitive systems were used. A concept of such cognitive system is presented in this paper.

  1. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.

    PubMed

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2014-04-30

    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lumped element filters for electronic warfare systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, D.; Ragland, R.

    1986-02-01

    Increasing demands which future generations of electronic warfare (EW) systems are to satisfy include a reduction in the size of the equipment. The present paper is concerned with lumped element filters which can make a significant contribution to the downsizing of advanced EW systems. Lumped element filter design makes it possible to obtain very small package sizes by utilizing classical low frequency inductive and capacitive components which are small compared to the size of a wavelength. Cost-effective, temperature-stable devices can be obtained on the basis of new design techniques. Attention is given to aspects of design flexibility, an interdigital filter equivalent circuit diagram, conditions for which the use of lumped element filters can be recommended, construction techniques, a design example, and questions regarding the application of lumped element filters to EW processing systems.

  3. Seeking Shadows in the Sky: The Strategy of Air Guerrilla Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    Air Power for the Small Air Force,” in Air Power Confronts an Unstable World, ed. Richard P. Hallion (London: Brassey’s, 1997), 181. 12 Shaun Clarke...Information Age, ed. John Arquilla and David Ronfeldt (Santa Monica, Calif., RAND, 1997), 207. 71 Air Commodore Andrew G. B. Vallance , “The Changing Nature...of Air Warfare,” in Air Power Confronts an Unstable World, ed. Richard P. Hallion (London: Brassey’s, 1997), xv; Alan Stephens, The Implications of

  4. An outbreak of chickenpox in a military field hospital--the implications for biological warfare.

    PubMed Central

    Hepburn, N C; Brooks, T J

    1991-01-01

    An outbreak of chickenpox with spread to patients and staff on the isolation ward of a British field hospital during the Gulf war is described. The implications for the design and operation of field hospital isolation units should transmissible biological warfare agents be encountered in any future conflict are discussed. PMID:1774746

  5. Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS) and Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric (DESI-MS) Identification of Chemical Warfare Agents in Consumer Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    T ACanadaY Approved for PublicR Distribution Uln& Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric ( LC -ESI- MS) and Desorption...consumer products with chemical warfare agents or other toxic chemicals. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry ( LC -ESI-MS) and...house LC -ESI-MS and LC -ESI-MS/MS methods were evaluated for the determination of chemical warfare agents in spiked bottled water samples. The

  6. Maritime Trade Warfare: A Challenge to the Chinese A2/AD System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-15

    China should only be initiated by political leadership if the decision to wage war on China has been made and the consequences of such a decision...Department of Malaysia , Government of Malaysia , accessed May 3, 2014, http://www.marine.gov.my/jlmeng/pic/article...blockade of China would be counter- productive and waging warfare focused on maritime trade is unthinkable in an era of globalization. It is true

  7. Chemical and biological warfare. Should defenses be researched and deployed?

    PubMed

    Orient, J M

    1989-08-04

    The threat of chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction has intensified because of improved delivery systems and advances in chemistry, genetics, and other sciences. Possible US responses to this threat include deterrence, defenses, and/or disarmament, including a reaffirmation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention of 1972, which is now in jeopardy. This article discusses the history of chemical and biological warfare, existing and potential weapons, the proliferation of weapons and delivery systems, ways to prevent the use of these weapons, and ways to protect populations from their effects.

  8. Supramolecular chemistry and chemical warfare agents: from fundamentals of recognition to catalysis and sensing.

    PubMed

    Sambrook, M R; Notman, S

    2013-12-21

    Supramolecular chemistry presents many possible avenues for the mitigation of the effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), including sensing, catalysis and sequestration. To-date, efforts in this field both to study fundamental interactions between CWAs and to design and exploit host systems remain sporadic. In this tutorial review the non-covalent recognition of CWAs is considered from first principles, including taking inspiration from enzymatic systems, and gaps in fundamental knowledge are indicated. Examples of synthetic systems developed for the recognition of CWAs are discussed with a focus on the supramolecular complexation behaviour and non-covalent approaches rather than on the proposed applications.

  9. Fiber-optic microsphere-based arrays for multiplexed biological warfare agent detection.

    PubMed

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun; Walt, David R

    2006-02-15

    We report a multiplexed high-density DNA array capable of rapid, sensitive, and reliable identification of potential biological warfare agents. An optical fiber bundle containing 6000 individual 3.1-mum-diameter fibers was chemically etched to yield microwells and used as the substrate for the array. Eighteen different 50-mer single-stranded DNA probes were covalently attached to 3.1-mum microspheres. Probe sequences were designed for Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Brucella melitensis, Clostridium botulinum, Vaccinia virus, and one biological warfare agent (BWA) simulant, Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. The microspheres were distributed into the microwells to form a randomized multiplexed high-density DNA array. A detection limit of 10 fM in a 50-microL sample volume was achieved within 30 min of hybridization for B. anthracis, Y. pestis, Vaccinia virus, and B. thuringiensis kurstaki. We used both specific responses of probes upon hybridization to complementary targets as well as response patterns of the multiplexed array to identify BWAs with high accuracy. We demonstrated the application of this multiplexed high-density DNA array for parallel identification of target BWAs in spiked sewage samples after PCR amplification. The array's miniaturized feature size, fabrication flexibility, reusability, and high reproducibility may enable this array platform to be integrated into a highly sensitive, specific, and reliable portable instrument for in situ BWA detection.

  10. Toxicity induced by chemical warfare agents: insights on the protective role of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Pita, René; Marco-Contelles, José; Ramos, Eva; Del Pino, Javier; Romero, Alejandro

    2013-11-25

    Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) are substances that can be used to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare, but also against civilian population in terrorist attacks. Many chemical agents are able to generate free radicals and derived reactants, excitotoxicity process, or inflammation, and as consequence they can cause neurological symptoms and damage in different organs. Nowadays, taking into account that total immediate decontamination after exposure is difficult to achieve and there are not completely effective antidotes and treatments against all CWAs, we advance and propose that medical countermeasures against CWAs poisoning would benefit from a broad-spectrum multipotent molecule. Melatonin, a versatile and ubiquitous antioxidant molecule, originally discovered as a hormone synthesized mainly in the pineal gland, has low toxicity and high efficacy in reducing oxidative damage, anti-inflammatory effects by regulation of multiple cellular pathways and properties to prevent excitotoxicity, among others. The purpose of this review is to show the multiple and diverse properties of melatonin, as a pleiotropic indole derivative, and its marked potential for improving human health against the most widely used chemical weapons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Models, Analysis, and Recommendations Pertaining to the Retention of Naval Special Warfare s Mid-Level Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    The Analytic Hierarch/Network Process,” in Rev. R. Acad. Cien. Serie A. Mat (RACSAM), submitted by Francisco Javier Giron (Real Academia de Ciencias ...Academia de Ciencias : Spain. Scott, Nathan. Naval Special Warfare Officer Retention Survey. Monterey, CA: NPS Press, September 2013. Whittenberger

  12. Conquest from Within: A Comparative Analysis between Soviet Active Measures and United States Unconventional Warfare Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-27

    irregular threats. Unconventional Warfare (UW), traditionally a Special Operations Forces core activity, has served U.S. strategic interests in a variety...Special Operations Forces core activity, has served U.S. strategic interests in a variety of operational environments. Throughout the Cold War, the

  13. High-sensitivity, high-selectivity detection of chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Webber, Michael E.; Macdonald, Tyson; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2006-01-01

    We report high-sensitivity detection of chemical warfare agents (nerve gases) with very low probability of false positives (PFP). We demonstrate a detection threshold of 1.2ppb (7.7μg/m3 equivalent of Sarin) with a PFP of <1:106 in the presence of many interfering gases present in an urban environment through the detection of diisopropyl methylphosphonate, an accepted relatively harmless surrogate for the nerve agents. For the current measurement time of ˜60s, a PFP of 1:106 corresponds to one false alarm approximately every 23months. The demonstrated performance satisfies most current homeland and military security requirements.

  14. The enemy as animal: Symmetric dehumanization during asymmetric warfare.

    PubMed

    Bruneau, Emile; Kteily, Nour

    2017-01-01

    Historically, dehumanization has enabled members of advantaged groups to 'morally disengage' from disadvantaged group suffering, thereby facilitating acts of intergroup aggression such as colonization, slavery and genocide. But is blatant dehumanization exclusive to those at the top 'looking down', or might disadvantaged groups similarly dehumanize those who dominate them? We examined this question in the context of intergroup warfare in which the disadvantaged group shoulders a disproportionate share of casualties and may be especially likely to question the humanity of the advantaged group. Specifically, we assessed blatant dehumanization in the context of stark asymmetric conflict between Israelis (Study 1; N = 521) and Palestinians (Study 2; N = 354) during the 2014 Gaza war. We observed that (a) community samples of Israelis and Palestinians expressed extreme (and comparable) levels of blatant dehumanization, (b) blatant dehumanization was uniquely associated with outcomes related to outgroup hostility for both groups, even after accounting for political ideologies known to strongly predict outgroup aggression, and (c) the strength of association between blatant dehumanization and outcomes was similar across both groups. This study illuminates the striking potency and symmetry of blatant dehumanization among those on both sides of an active asymmetric conflict.

  15. The enemy as animal: Symmetric dehumanization during asymmetric warfare

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Historically, dehumanization has enabled members of advantaged groups to ‘morally disengage’ from disadvantaged group suffering, thereby facilitating acts of intergroup aggression such as colonization, slavery and genocide. But is blatant dehumanization exclusive to those at the top ‘looking down’, or might disadvantaged groups similarly dehumanize those who dominate them? We examined this question in the context of intergroup warfare in which the disadvantaged group shoulders a disproportionate share of casualties and may be especially likely to question the humanity of the advantaged group. Specifically, we assessed blatant dehumanization in the context of stark asymmetric conflict between Israelis (Study 1; N = 521) and Palestinians (Study 2; N = 354) during the 2014 Gaza war. We observed that (a) community samples of Israelis and Palestinians expressed extreme (and comparable) levels of blatant dehumanization, (b) blatant dehumanization was uniquely associated with outcomes related to outgroup hostility for both groups, even after accounting for political ideologies known to strongly predict outgroup aggression, and (c) the strength of association between blatant dehumanization and outcomes was similar across both groups. This study illuminates the striking potency and symmetry of blatant dehumanization among those on both sides of an active asymmetric conflict. PMID:28746412

  16. Identification of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and rocket fuels using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stearns, Jaime A.; McElman, Sarah E.; Dodd, James A.

    2010-05-01

    Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the identification of security threats is a growing area of research. This work presents LIBS spectra of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and typical rocket fuels. A large dataset of spectra was acquired using a variety of gas mixtures and background pressures and processed using partial least squares analysis. The five compounds studied were identified with a 99% success rate by the best method. The temporal behavior of the emission lines as a function of chamber pressure and gas mixture was also investigated, revealing some interesting trends that merit further study.

  17. Analysis of Vessels and Acquisition Methods Utilized to Support Maritime Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-27

    is the maritime component of irregular warfare (IW) or IW conducted from or on a body of water. Figure 1 identifies five fundamental IW operations as...important to examine the listed operations as they relate to MIW. Figure 7 identifies five fundamental IW operations as they relate to the maritime...designed for the insertion and extraction of SEAL team personnel. It is a twin- turbocharged diesel engine, waterjet-propelled personnel carrier with

  18. C3 in Maneuver Warfare: The Expanding Role of the Communications Officer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    command, control, and communications (C3 ) process employed within the Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF). Over the past two decades, the rapid...information to the right people at the right time. This paper presents a philosophical understanding of maneuver C3 and the communication officer’s...necessary to support maneuver warfare. Figure 1 depicts; thi:; dual role of C3 and serves as an outline for our paper . Maneuver C3 Architecture

  19. Ending the Debate: Unconventional Warfare, Foreign Internal Defense, and Why Words Matter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    JCS] apparently was fearful of what it perceived to be the stigma of having the military accused of engaging in subrosa [sic], cloak -and­ dagger ...was fearful of what it perceived to be the stigma of having the military accused of engaging in sub-rosa, cloak - and- dagger activities in the event of...disrupted by the terrorist attacks of 11 September. Less than two years later, Special Forces had successfully prosecuted two unconventional warfare

  20. Combat Pair: The Evolution of Air Force-Navy Integration in Strike Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Force–Navy Integration in Strike Warfare our departure for the carrier. I am equally indebted to Rear Admiral David Buss , USN, at the time Commanding... mari - time component commander (CFMCC) in Enduring Freedom, Vice Admiral Charles Moore, Jr., who drew a sharp contrast between the spotty...fired several Ababil 100 theater ballistic missiles at Kuwait in a response to the opening U.S. attack, the Navy’s Arleigh Burke -class destroyer USS

  1. Listening to Historys Rhyme:Preparing the United States Army for Future Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    of the most likely, which typically results in developing technologically advanced, conventional solutions to potential rivals, options poorly...What makes hybrid wars so challenging is that different elements execute the various modes of warfare and are typically coordinated at various... Morocco to train its forces on logistics, combined arms maneuver, and other skills. 72 Atlas Accord is a new exercise started in 2012 to provide

  2. The role of professionals in the South African chemical and biological warfare programme.

    PubMed

    Gould, Chandré; Folb, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a short account of the South African Defence Force's chemical and biological warfare programme during apartheid, specifically during the period 1980 to 1994. It examines the circumstances of recruitment of the scientists and physicians and their retention in the programme; details the 'scientific efforts' of the programme and its aberrations; and explores ethical issues in relation to the involvement of scientists in the programme.

  3. Application of Solid Phase Microextraction with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry as a Rapid, Reliable, and Safe Method for Field Sampling and Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agent Precursors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    in hair samples with analysis by GC-MS [41,42]. The research discussed here examined a polydimethylsiloxane polymer with 10% activated charcoal (PDMS...Field Sampling and Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agent Precursors” Name of Candidate: LT Douglas Parrish Doctor of Philosophy, Environmental...Microextraction with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry as a Rapid, Reliable, and Safe Method for Field Sampling and Analysis of Chemical Warfare

  4. Mortality in British military participants in human experimental research into chemical warfare agents at Porton Down: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, C; Linsell, L; Keegan, T J; Langdon, T; Fletcher, T; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J; Maconochie, N E S; Doyle, P; Beral, V

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate any long term effects on mortality in participants in experimental research related to chemical warfare agents from 1941 to 1989. Design Historical cohort study. Data sources Archive of UK government research facility at Porton Down, UK military personnel records, and national death and cancer records. Participants 18 276 male members of the UK armed forces who had spent one or more short periods (median 4 days between first and last test) at Porton Down and a comparison group of 17 600 non-Porton Down veterans followed to 31 December 2004. Main outcome measures Mortality rate ratio of Porton Down compared with non-Porton Down veterans and standardised mortality ratio of each veteran group compared with the general population. Both ratios adjusted for age group and calendar period. Results Porton Down veterans were similar to non-Porton Down veterans in year of enlistment (median 1951) but had longer military service (median 6.2 v 5.0 years). After a median follow-up of 43 years, 40% (7306) of Porton Down and 39% (6900) of non-Porton Down veterans had died. All cause mortality was slightly greater in Porton Down veterans (rate ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.10, P<0.001), more so for deaths outside the UK (1.26, 1.09 to 1.46). Of 12 cause specific groups examined, rate ratios in Porton Down veterans were increased for deaths attributed to infectious and parasitic (1.57, 1.07 to 2.29), genitourinary (1.46, 1.04 to 2.04), circulatory (1.07, 1.01 to 1.12), and external (non-medical) (1.17, 1.00 to 1.37) causes and decreased for deaths attributed to in situ, benign, and unspecified neoplasms (0.60, 0.37 to 0.99). There was no clear relation between type of chemical exposure and cause specific mortality. The mortality in both groups of veterans was lower than that in the general population (standardised mortality ratio 0.88, 0.85 to 0.90; 0.82, 0.80 to 0.84). Conclusions Mortality was slightly higher in Porton Down than non

  5. Measurements of Raman scattering in the middle ultraviolet band from persistent chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Landström, Lars; Lundén, Hampus; Mohammed, Abdesalam; Olofsson, Göran; Wästerby, Pär.

    2014-05-01

    The very low Raman scattering cross section and the fluorescence background limit the measuring range of Raman based instruments operating in the visible or infrared band. We are exploring if laser excitation in the middle ultraviolet (UV) band between 200 and 300 nm is useful and advantageous for detection of persistent chemical warfare agents (CWA) on various kinds of surfaces. The UV Raman scattering from tabun, mustard gas, VX and relevant simulants in the form of liquid surface contaminations has been measured using a laboratory experimental setup with a short standoff distance around 1 meter. Droplets having a volume of 1 μl were irradiated with a tunable pulsed laser swept within the middle UV band. A general trend is that the signal strength moves through an optimum when the laser excitation wavelength is swept between 240 and 300 nm. The signal from tabun reaches a maximum around 265 nm, the signal from mustard gas around 275 nm. The Raman signal from VX is comparably weak. Raman imaging by the use of a narrow bandpass UV filter is also demonstrated.

  6. Screening methods for chemical warfare agents in environmental samples at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jakubowski, E.M.; Borland, M.M.; Norris, L.

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground Support Activity, Directorate of Safety, Health and the Environment and SciTech Services Inc., an independent contractor, have developed an approach for screening environmental samples for the presence of chemical warfare agents. Since 1918, the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a research and testing ground for toxic agent compounds. Since these materials are considered highly toxic, screening for their presence in environmental samples is necessary for safe shipment to contract laboratories for testing by EPA guidelines. The screening ensures worker safety and maintainsmore » U.S. Army standards for transportation of materials potentially contaminated with chemical warfare agents. This paper describes the screening methodology.« less

  7. Detection of aqueous phase chemical warfare agent degradation products by negative mode ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry [IM(tof)MS].

    PubMed

    Steiner, Wes E; Harden, Charles S; Hong, Feng; Klopsch, Steve J; Hill, Herbert H; McHugh, Vincent M

    2006-02-01

    The use of negative ion monitoring mode with an atmospheric pressure ion mobility orthogonal reflector time-of-flight mass spectrometer [IM(tof)MS] to detect chemical warfare agent (CWA) degradation products from aqueous phase samples has been determined. Aqueous phase sampling used a traditional electrospray ionization (ESI) source for sample introduction and ionization. Certified reference materials (CRM) of CWA degradation products for the detection of Schedule 1, 2, or 3 toxic chemicals or their precursors as defined by the chemical warfare convention (CWC) treaty verification were used in this study. A mixture of six G-series nerve related CWA degradation products (EMPA, IMPA, EHEP, IHEP, CHMPA, and PMPA) and their related collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment ions (MPA and EPA) were found in each case to be clearly resolved and detected using the IM(tof)MS instrument in negative ion monitoring mode. Corresponding ions, masses, drift times, K(o) values, and signal intensities for each of the CWA degradation products are reported.

  8. Making Riflemen from Mud: Restoring the Army’s Culture of Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Guerrilla Warfare2 In the summer of 1899, Lieutenant Matthew Batson was commanding L Troop, 4th U.S. Cavalry, during operations in the ...conquest of the Sudan completed at the Battle of Omdurman in 1898. The full line from the poem reads, “Said England unto Pharaoh, “You’ve had miracles ...neighboring tribes as well.11 11 Allen R. Millett and Peter Maslowski, For the Common Defense (New

  9. Persistence and Effective Half-Life of Chemical Warfare Agent VX on Grass Foliage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    obtain results applicable to VX- contaminated battlefields. The Effective Half-Life of VX on grass foliage was determined as the net effect of factors...Soldiers on VX- contaminated battlefields. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Chemical warfare agent (CWA) Agent–plant Echinochloa crus-galli Foliage Effective Half...The use of either trade or manufacturers ’ names in this report does not constitute an official endorsement of any commercial products. This report may

  10. International Law: How It Affects Rules of Engagement and Responses in Information Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    with the least expenditure of life, time, and physical resources. Humanity. Prohibits the employment of any kind or degree of force not necessary...the beginning of warfare, the intent has been to physically and psychologically destroy an adversary. Little consideration was given to the amount of...threat to US security interests. For example, core interests are those interests dealing with the physical survival of a country or directly threatening

  11. On the use of spectra from portable Raman and ATR-IR instruments in synthesis route attribution of a chemical warfare agent by multivariate modeling.

    PubMed

    Wiktelius, Daniel; Ahlinder, Linnea; Larsson, Andreas; Höjer Holmgren, Karin; Norlin, Rikard; Andersson, Per Ola

    2018-08-15

    Collecting data under field conditions for forensic investigations of chemical warfare agents calls for the use of portable instruments. In this study, a set of aged, crude preparations of sulfur mustard were characterized spectroscopically without any sample preparation using handheld Raman and portable IR instruments. The spectral data was used to construct Random Forest multivariate models for the attribution of test set samples to the synthetic method used for their production. Colored and fluorescent samples were included in the study, which made Raman spectroscopy challenging although fluorescence was diminished by using an excitation wavelength of 1064 nm. The predictive power of models constructed with IR or Raman data alone, as well as with combined data was investigated. Both techniques gave useful data for attribution. Model performance was enhanced when Raman and IR spectra were combined, allowing correct classification of 19/23 (83%) of test set spectra. The results demonstrate that data obtained with spectroscopy instruments amenable for field deployment can be useful in forensic studies of chemical warfare agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Cutaneous and systemic toxicology of vesicants used in warfare].

    PubMed

    Pita, R; Vidal-Asensi, S

    2010-01-01

    Vesicants are a group of chemicals used in warfare. The most representative agent is yperite, also known as mustard gas. The blisters that appeared on those exposed to yperite during combat in the First World War are responsible for the current name--vesicants--for this group of chemicals. Their affects are produced mainly through localized action of liquid or vapor forms on the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. However, the high absorption of the liquid form through the skin or the vapor form on inhalation may cause substantial systemic effects. Here we analyze these effects, treatment of intoxication, and long-term sequelae, drawing on our experience and a review of the literature.

  13. Fast neutron sensor for detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Matika, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water has been confirmed it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive or chemical warfare charge. We propose that this be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat materials by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contrasts in Naval and Land Warfare; Their Impact on Combat Modeling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-05

    A0AI16 358 KETRON INC ARLINGTON VA F/9 15/7 CONTRASTS IN NAVAL AND LAND WARFAREI THEIR IMPACT ON COMBAT ROO-ETC(U) APR 82 L J LOW, E T DUBOIS N0001...11W ____ jj1.6 M)CROCOPY RE SOLLJ110N IF St CHART YMIN / CONTRASTS IN NAVAL AND LAND WARFARE; THEIR IMPACT ON COMBAT MODELING KFR 374-82 5 Apxil 1982...Report Their Impact on Combai Modeling 3 AUG 81 to 31 DEC 81 S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR($) . I 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s

  15. Laser mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents using ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weickhardt, C.; Grun, C.; Grotemeyer, J.

    1998-12-01

    Fast relaxation processes in excited molecules such as IC, ISC, and fragmentation are observed in many environmentally and technically relevant substances. They cause severe problems to resonance ionization mass spectrometry because they reduce the ionization yield and lead to mass spectra which do not allow the identification of the compound. By the use of ultrashort laser pulses these problems can be overcome and the advantages of REMPI over conventional ionization techniques in mass spectrometry can be regained. This is demonstrated using soil samples contaminated with a chemical warfare agent.

  16. Possible long term effects of chemical warfare using visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Abbas; Hafezi, Rhamatollah; Babaei, Mahmoud; Naderi, Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Some studies have already addressed the effects of occupational organic solvent exposure on the visually evoked potentials (VEPs). Visual system is an important target for Sulphur Mustard (SM) toxicity. A number of Iranian victims of Sulphur Mustard (SM) agent were apprehensive about the delay effect of SM on their vision and a possible delay effect of SM on their visual cortex. This investigation was performed on 34 individuals with a history of chemical exposure and a control group of 15 normal people. The Toennies electro-diagnosis device was used and its signals were saved as the latencies. The mean of N75, N140 and P100 of victims of chemical warfare (VCWs) and control group indicated no significant results (P>0.05). The VCWs did not show any visual symptoms and there was no clear deficit in their VEPs.

  17. Human scalp permeability to the chemical warfare agent VX.

    PubMed

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Briançon, S; Josse, D

    2011-12-01

    The use of chemical warfare agents such as VX in terrorism act might lead to contamination of the civilian population. Human scalp decontamination may require appropriate products and procedures. Due to ethical reasons, skin decontamination studies usually involve in vitro skin models, but human scalp skin samples are uncommon and expensive. The purpose of this study was to characterize the in vitro permeability to VX of human scalp, and to compare it with (a) human abdominal skin, and (b) pig skin from two different anatomic sites: ear and skull roof, in order to design a relevant model. Based on the VX skin permeation kinetics and distribution, we demonstrated that (a) human scalp was significantly more permeable to VX than abdominal skin and (b) pig-ear skin was the most relevant model to predict the in vitro human scalp permeability. Our results indicated that the follicular pathway significantly contributed to the skin absorption of VX through human scalp. In addition, the hair follicles and the stratum corneum significantly contributed to the formation of a skin reservoir for VX. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Guerilla Warfare on the Pancreas? A Case of Acute Pancreatitis From a Supplement Known to Contain Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    PubMed

    Liane, Billy-Joe; Magee, Charles

    2016-10-01

    Performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are commonly consumed in the United States with high prevalence of use in athlete populations and increased use by deployed service members. Many PEDs may contain anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), which are legally restricted and prohibited by many agencies due to their health risk. A unique case of acute pancreatitis associated with the use of the PED "Guerilla Warfare," a labeled AAS-containing supplement, is presented. The patient is a healthy 20-year-old male Marine who presented with multiple episodes of abdominal cramps each day for a month with decreased appetite and nonbilious vomiting. He reported a 6-week history of "Guerilla Warfare" PED use and review of systems identified fatigue and 12 lb reported weight loss. He presented with normal vital signs, tenderness in upper abdominal quadrants, elevated lipase (909 units/L), lactate dehydrogenase (193 units/L), and an enlarged pancreas with surrounding inflammation on computed tomography. This constitutes the first report of acute pancreatitis with the use of "Guerilla Warfare," and the second reported case with the use of any AAS-containing PED. Increased awareness of significant PED-associated adverse effects by both the civilian and military communities is needed to better characterize these risks moving forward. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the United States Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    communication satellites—operating high above the earth and at higher frequencies —are often better suited to communicate across much longer distances and...Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the...TYPE SAMS Monograph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and

  20. Chemical warfare nerve agents. A review of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology and resuscitation. Technical report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Franz, D.R.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the medical research community with a digest of the open and internal literature related to cardiopulmonary pathophysiology, resuscitation, and animal modeling of chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication. Though not comprehensive, this review makes available to the reader a cross section of what research was done in this small but important part of the medical chemical defense research program between World War II and the early 1980's.

  1. The Alpini Effect: Why the US Army Should Train Units for Mountain Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    than on training units and its leaders how to conduct mountain warfare.34 MOUNTAINS AND WHERE THEY ARE It is essential to understand what a...The first level is considered key terrain in counterinsurgencies, such as what the US Army has experienced in Afghanistan, because this is where...copyrighted. 40Andrew Young, “Distance to the Horizon,” San Diego State Department of Astronomy , http://mintaka.sdsu.edu/GF/explain/atmos_refr

  2. Load Sharing in Anti-Air Warfare Coordination: Criteria and a Simulation Test Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California AD-A245 968 DTIG EB 18 199Z THESIS L LOAD SHARING IN ANTI-AIR WARFARE COORDINATION: CRITERIA AND A...REPORT NUMBER(S) Ga. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Gb. OFFICE SYMBOL 71. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate School OR 6c. ADDRESS...the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN OPERATIONS RESEARCH from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL September 1991 Au thor: ’ysviL-’ / ; d Stephen Hue Keley

  3. Analysis of Maritime Support Vessels and Acquisition Methods Utilized to Support Maritime Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    1 identifies five fundamental IW operations as they relate to the maritime environment and domain. Maritime IrregularWarfare Activities...they relate to MIW. Figure 2 identifies five fundamental IW operations as they relate to the maritime environment and domain. Maritime...meter RHIB is designed for the insertion and extraction of SEAL Team personnel. It is a twin- turbocharged diesel engine, waterjet-propelled personnel

  4. The Feasibility of Instituting a Department Head Screen in the Naval Special Warfare Community.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    community, and through use of the Structured Accession Planning System for Officers (STRAP-O) model, projects the community from 1985 to 1991 both with and...Placement Officer. It looks at the current state of the NSW community, and through use of the Structured Accession Planning System for Officers (STRAP-0...ACCESSION PLANNING SYSTEM FOR OFFICERS----------------------------------------19 Ill. NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE COMMUNITY RESPONSE TO PROPOSAL

  5. Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low-Level Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense USAMRICD-TR-05-09 Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low...2005 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2003 to April 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Guinea pigs exposed repeatedly to low levels of chemical warfare nerve agents

  6. Passive Standoff Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents on Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thériault, Jean-Marc; Puckrin, Eldon; Hancock, Jim; Lecavalier, Pierre; Lepage, Carmela Jackson; Jensen, James O.

    2004-11-01

    Results are presented on the passive standoff detection and identification of chemical warfare (CW) liquid agents on surfaces by the Fourier-transform IR radiometry. This study was performed during surface contamination trials at Defence Research and Development Canada-Suffield in September 2002. The goal was to verify that passive long-wave IR spectrometric sensors can potentially remotely detect surfaces contaminated with CW agents. The passive sensor, the Compact Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, was used in the trial to obtain laboratory and field measurements of CW liquid agents, HD and VX. The agents were applied to high-reflectivity surfaces of aluminum, low-reflectivity surfaces of Mylar, and several other materials including an armored personnel carrier. The field measurements were obtained at a standoff distance of 60 m from the target surfaces. Results indicate that liquid contaminant agents deposited on high-reflectivity surfaces can be detected, identified, and possibly quantified with passive sensors. For low-reflectivity surfaces the presence of the contaminants can usually be detected; however, their identification based on simple correlations with the absorption spectrum of the pure contaminant is not possible.

  7. High-temperature superconductivity for avionic electronic warfare and radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Paul A.

    1994-01-01

    The electronic warfare (EW) and radar communities expect to be major beneficiaries of the performance advantages high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) has to offer over conventional technology. Near term upgrades to system hardware can be envisioned using extremely small, high Q, microwave filters and resonators; compact, wideband, low loss, microwave delay and transmission lines; as well as, wideband, low loss, monolithic microwave integrated circuit phase shifters. The most dramatic impact will be in the far term, using HTS to develop new, real time threat identification and response strategy receiver/processing systems designed to utilize the unique high frequency properties of microwave and ultimately digital HTS.

  8. SCREENOP: A Computer Assisted Model for ASW (Anti-Submarine Warfare) Screen Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    AD-A736 892 SCREENOP: A COMPUTER ASSISTED MODEL FOR ASW I (ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE) SCREEN DESIGN (S) NAVAL , POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA W J...POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL £ Monterey, California DTIC $ELECTE f JAIN17 1984J THESIS SCREENOP: A COMPUTER ASSISTED MODEL FOR ASH SCREEN DESIGN by William Joseph... Design SL AVSIUACY rCin do msiwoS 0ddst aO memeo mE Idm.M& 6y 61-k imwel) This chesis is a description of the Naval Postgraduate School’s version of

  9. Science, Technology, and Warfare. Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (3rd) Held at the United States Air Force Academy (Colorado Springs, Colorado) on 8-9 May 1969

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-09-01

    between science-technology and warfare. The stereotyped theory of a linear relationship between science, technology, and warfare satisfies the facts...therefore discarded piecemeal. Only with Mahan’s theory did this condition change. Morison then considers the opposite problem today: one in which the...1938), 1:531. = A s is now very well known, the impetus theory expounded with variations by all the most important writers on philosophy of motion

  10. Gulf war syndrome: could it be triggered by biological warfare-vaccines using pertussis as an adjuvant?

    PubMed

    Tournier, J-N; Jouan, A; Mathieu, J; Drouet, E

    2002-04-01

    Several recent epidemiological studies have shown that vaccinations against biological warfare using pertussis as an adjuvant were associated with the Gulf war syndrome. If such epidemiological findings are confirmed, we propose that the use of pertussis as an adjuvant could trigger neurodegeneration through induction of interleukin-1beta secretion in the brain. In turn, neuronal lesions may be sustained by stress or neurotoxic chemical combinations. Particular susceptibility for IL-1beta secretion and potential distant neuronal damage could provide an explanation for the diversity of the symptoms observed on veterans. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Graduate Education Timing on the Retention of Surface Warfare Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE EFFECT OF GRADUATE EDUCATION TIMING ON THE RETENTION OF SURFACE WARFARE OFFICERS 5. FUNDING...of graduated education attainment on retention to the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth year of service as well as promotion to O- 4 . The findings show...Department Heads earning a master’s degree at any point within their careers are more likely to promote to O- 4 , compared with those who had not

  12. Canada’s Army and the Concept of Maneuver Warfare: The Legacy of the Twentieth Century (1899-1998)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    comprehensiveness and authenticity. Canadian operational experience in peace and war over the last century has been characterized by: static warfare; attrition; lack...2 THE BOER WAR (1899 - 1901) .............................................................................................5...PRELUDE TO WORLD WAR I (1902 - 1913) ........................................................................8 WORLD WAR ONE (1914 - 1918

  13. Russian Perspectives on Network-Centric Warfare: The Key Aim of Serdyukov’s Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    has faced with its GLObal’naya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema —(GLONASS) system, and introducing advanced digitized communications in the armed...of targeting data will be accomplished by organizing virtual channels for data transmission or via a web -portal. The successful function- ing of the...Operations: Tactical Web Takes Shape,” Signal, November 2003; Col. Alan D. Campen, USAF (Ret.), “Look Closely At Network-Centric Warfare: Technology Can

  14. Revolution at Sea Starts Here. A 1987 History of the Naval Surface Warfare Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY...Blake, Mary H. Hagen, Mark E. Chase, Gary Kendrick, Barbara Wisdom, George L. Hamlin, Pamela 0. Lama, Marcella Westermeyer, and Dave Meggs. Without...needs over the next 10 to 20 years. These thrusts were to: * Emphasize development and integration of Shipboard Electronic Warfare Systems; * Increase

  15. Illness experience of Gulf War veterans possibly exposed to chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Linda A; Lasarev, Michael; Sticker, Diana; Rischitelli, D Gary; Spencer, Peter S

    2002-10-01

    During the 1991 Gulf War, some Allied troops were potentially exposed to chemical warfare agents as the result of the detonation of Iraqi munitions at Khamisiyah. In 1999, we conducted a computer-assisted telephone survey of 2918 Gulf War veterans from Oregon, Washington, California, North Carolina, and Georgia to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported medical diagnoses and hospitalizations among this potentially exposed population and among comparison groups of veterans deployed and nondeployed to the Southwest Asia theater of operations. Troops reported to be within 50 kilometers of the Khamisiyah site did not differ from other deployed troops on reports of any medical conditions or hospitalizations in the 9 years following the Gulf War. Hospitalization rates among deployed and nondeployed troops did not differ. Deployed troops were significantly more likely to report diagnoses of high blood pressure (odds ratio [OR]=1.7); heart disease (OR=2.5); slipped disk or pinched nerve (OR=1.5); post-traumatic stress disorder (OR=14.9); hospitalization for depression (OR=5.1); and periodontal disease (OR=1.8) when compared to nondeployed troops. There was a trend for deployed veterans to report more diagnoses of any cancer (OR=3.0). These findings do not provide evidence of any long-term health effect associated with exposure to the detonation of chemical warfare agents, but support findings from other investigations of increased morbidity among deployed troops. The prevalence of cancer among this population of deployed troops merits ongoing attention.

  16. Extraction of chemical warfare agents from water with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance and C18 cartridges: comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kanaujia, Pankaj K; Pardasani, Deepak; Gupta, A K; Dubey, D K

    2007-01-19

    Efficient extraction of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from water is essential before subjecting them to gas chromatographic and spectral analysis aiming towards verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It requires development of fast, reliable, simple and reproducible sample preparation of CWAs from water which is likely to be contaminated during deliberate or inadvertent spread of CWAs. This work describes development of a solid-phase extraction method using hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridges for extraction of CWAs from water. The extraction efficiencies of HLB and C18 cartridges were compared and the results revealed that HLB sorbents performed better. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Extraction parameters, such as extraction solvent, its volume and rinsing solvent were optimized. Best recoveries of target analytes were obtained using 1mL methanol and limits of detection were achieved up to 0.05microg/mL with dichloromethane. Precision of the method was found to be less than 9.2% RSD.

  17. USN/USMC Antiair Warfare and Command, Control and Communications for Amphibious Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    NUMBERS W’Vf~ * ic0"W O plows k; to., W..ia 0;41 40A.YWfI 11 TITLE (Inclucle Securily CiaSsifkcaticin) U8N/U8SUC Antiuar Warflire and4 CommaskC~Ual...the CWC to be a manager of all the warfare areas and frees him from becoming entangled in one tactical problem while another grows undetected elsewhere...hostile enemy actions (i.e., jamming) the potential begins to decrease rapidly . [Ref. 19:pp. 185-194] F. MARINE CORPS PRINCIPLES OF AAW There are three

  18. Proceedings on Combating the Unrestricted Warfare Threat: Integrating Strategy, Analysis, and Technology, 20-21 March 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Prosthetics to enable return to units without loss of capability Quantum...and will give us a big advantage in terms of unrestricted warfare. Figure 17 high-Productivity Computing System PRoSThETICS We have an exciting...program in prosthetics (Figure 18). It started with a monkey at Duke University. We put microelectronic implants into her brain, taught her

  19. General Crook and Counterinsurgency Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    the Yellowstone River was declared as “unceded Indian Territory” where the Sioux and Cheyenne could reside, but the white settlers were excluded.3...the Yellowstone and Tongue Rivers. The designated column commanders Crook, Terry, and Gibbon were to move their columns towards the center of the area...brutal winter months on the northern plains. Crook reorganized his command at Fort Fetterman. First he renamed his command the Big Horn and Yellowstone

  20. Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) Streamlining Project. Volume 1. Sustainment Analysis Report. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-30

    I Sustainment Analysis Report Accesion For NTIS CRA&I DTIC 1 AP- U. an-;o u,ced [] jj ~~~Y INSPECTED 5 Js~~~o By.......... ............ Dit Ib ’tiot...ELECTRONIC WARFARE (1EW) STREAMUNING PROJECT Vohune I Sustainment Analysis Report Revised October 30, 1992 93-29047 The views, opinions, and findings...Streamlining Project, C OPM-91-2964 Volume I, Sustainment Analysis Report PR 02TO2K 6. AUTHORIS) David P. Nicholas, Robert E. Klebo. Wolodymyr J. Mokey

  1. Waste-minimization opportunity assessment: Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, Washington. Final report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    The report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. The assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. These shops service the Mark 48 torpedo and the Mark 46 torpedo respectively. The five waste minimization options presented are volume reduction of contaminated clothing, automated cleaning of parts, automated fuel tank draining, modification of the deep sink draining schedule and recycling of mineral spirits.

  2. Information Operations: A Research Aid Includes Coverage of: Information Warfare, Information Assurance, and Infrastructure Protection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    Policy Implications Stephen D. Biddle, IDA Papaer P-3123 Institute for Defense Analysis (IDA), Strategy Forces and Research Division 1801 N...IDA INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES Information Operations: A Research Aid Includes Coverage of: Information Warfare, Information Assurance...Gray, Principal Investigator [pBC Q^^E^ nsSSPECTBD 8’ 19980303 031 This work was conducted under IDA’S central research program. The publication of

  3. Flattening the Learning Curve: SOF as the Supported Command in the Irregular Warfare Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Afghanistan and the Troubled Future of Unconventional Warfare (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2006). 45 Hy Rothstein, A Tale of Two Wars – Why...In recognition that all future wars and conflicts will be engaged in in a joint manner, something must be done to ensure that GPF have a base...CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) When the United States commits forces to a war , overseas contingency operations, or any other large

  4. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposure. Municipal water treatment facilities would be measurably less effective. Some replicating (infectious) agents and a few biotoxins are inactivated by chlorine disinfection; for others chlorine is ineffective or of unknown efficacy. This report assesses the state of our knowledge of agents as potable water threats and contemplates the consequences of intentional or collateral contamination of potable water supplies by 18 replicating agents and 9 biotoxins known or likely to be weaponized or otherwise used as threats. PMID:10585901

  5. The impact of warfare on the soil environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Certini, Giacomo; Scalenghe, Riccardo; Woods, William I.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most dramatic ways humans can affect soil properties is through the performance of military activities. Warfare-induced disturbances to soil are basically of three types - physical, chemical, and biological - and are aimed at causing direct problems to enemies or, more often, are indirect, undesired ramifications. Physical disturbances to soil include sealing due to building of defensive infrastructures, excavation of trenches or tunnels, compaction by traffic of machinery and troops, or cratering by bombs. Chemical disturbances consist of the input of pollutants such as oil, heavy metals, nitroaromatic explosives, organophosphorus nerve agents, dioxins from herbicides, or radioactive elements. Biological disturbances occur as unintentional consequences of the impact on the physical and chemical properties of soil or the deliberate introduction of microorganisms lethal to higher animals and humans such as botulin or anthrax. Soil represents a secure niche where such pathogens can perpetuate their virulence for decades.

  6. Chemical warfare protection for the cockpit of future aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickl, William C.

    1988-01-01

    Currently systems are being developed which will filter chemical and biological contaminants from crew station air. In order to maximize the benefits of these systems, a method of keeping the cockpit contaminant free during pilot ingress and egress is needed. One solution is to use a rectangular plastic curtain to seal the four edges of the canopy frame to the canopy sill. The curtain is stored in a tray which is recessed into the canopy sill and unfolds in accordion fashion as the canopy is raised. A two way zipper developed by Calspan could be used as an airlock between the pilot's oversuit and the cockpit. This system eliminates the pilot's need for heavy and restrictive CB gear because he would never be exposed to the chemical warfare environment.

  7. Naval electronic warfare simulation for effectiveness assessment and softkill programmability facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lançon, F.

    2011-06-01

    The Anti-ship Missile (ASM) threat to be faced by ships will become more diverse and difficult. Intelligence, rules of engagement constraints, fast reaction-time for effective softkill solution require specific tools to design Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and to integrate it onboard ship. SAGEM Company provides decoy launcher system [1] and its associated Naval Electronic Warfare Simulation tool (NEWS) to permit softkill effectiveness analysis for anti-ship missile defence. NEWS tool generates virtual environment for missile-ship engagement and counter-measure simulator over a wide spectrum: RF, IR, EO. It integrates EW Command & Control (EWC2) process which is implemented in decoy launcher system and performs Monte-Carlo batch processing to evaluate softkill effectiveness in different engagement situations. NEWS is designed to allow immediate EWC2 process integration from simulation to real decoy launcher system. By design, it allows the final operator to be able to program, test and integrate its own EWC2 module and EW library onboard, so intelligence of each user is protected and evolution of threat can be taken into account through EW library update. The objectives of NEWS tool are also to define a methodology for trial definition and trial data reduction. Growth potential would permit to design new concept for EWC2 programmability and real time effectiveness estimation in EW system. This tool can also be used for operator training purpose. This paper presents the architecture design, the softkill programmability facility concept and the flexibility for onboard integration on ship. The concept of this operationally focused simulation, which is to use only one tool for design, development, trial validation and operational use, will be demonstrated.

  8. Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of chemical warfare agent simulants.

    PubMed

    Martin, Audrey N; Farquar, George R; Frank, Matthias; Gard, Eric E; Fergenson, David P

    2007-08-15

    Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was used for the real-time detection of liquid nerve agent simulants. A total of 1000 dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for micrometer-sized single particles each of dimethyl methyl phosphonate, diethyl ethyl phosphonate, diethyl phosphoramidate, and diethyl phthalate using laser fluences between 0.58 and 7.83 nJ/microm2, and mass spectral variation with laser fluence was studied. The mass spectra obtained allowed identification of single particles of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants at each laser fluence used although lower laser fluences allowed more facile identification. SPAMS is presented as a promising real-time detection system for the presence of CWAs.

  9. Weathering the Cyber Storm: The Military’s Resiliency to Cyber Attacks in Future Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    observation. While the ability to collect intelligence is important, it falls under a different rubric than warfare itself. 20 Another term worth...the use of antivirus programs, firewalls, and security policies. These measures also fall under the rubric of information assurance, or “measures that...specifying how it is to be accomplished.” of genetic diversity. 13 A complaint after Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was that soldiers had to

  10. Binding of chemical warfare agent simulants as guests in a coordination cage: contributions to binding and a fluorescence-based response.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christopher G P; Piper, Jerico R; Ward, Michael D

    2016-05-07

    Cubic coordination cages act as competent hosts for several alkyl phosphonates used as chemical warfare agent simulants; a range of cage/guest structures have been determined, contributions to guest binding analysed, and a fluorescent response to guest binding demonstrated.

  11. Cancer morbidity in British military veterans included in chemical warfare agent experiments at Porton Down: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Linsell, L; Brooks, C; Keegan, T J; Langdon, T; Doyle, P; Maconochie, N E S; Fletcher, T; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J; Beral, V

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine cancer morbidity in members of the armed forces who took part in tests of chemical warfare agents from 1941 to 1989. Design Historical cohort study, with cohort members followed up to December 2004. Data source Archive of UK government research facility at Porton Down, UK military personnel records, and national death and cancer records. Participants All veterans included in the cohort study of mortality, excluding those known to have died or been lost to follow-up before 1 January 1971 when the UK cancer registration system commenced: 17 013 male members of the UK armed forces who took part in tests (Porton Down veterans) and a similar group of 16 520 men who did not (non-Porton Down veterans). Main outcome measures Cancer morbidity in each group of veterans; rate ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for age group and calendar period. Results 3457 cancers were reported in the Porton Down veterans compared with 3380 cancers in the non-Porton Down veterans. While overall cancer morbidity was the same in both groups (rate ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.05), Porton Down veterans had higher rates of ill defined malignant neoplasms (1.12, 1.02 to 1.22), in situ neoplasms (1.45, 1.06 to 2.00), and those of uncertain or unknown behaviour (1.32, 1.01 to 1.73). Conclusion Overall cancer morbidity in Porton Down veterans was no different from that in non-Porton Down veterans. PMID:19318700

  12. Distribution of chemical warfare agent, energetics, and metals in sediments at a deep-water discarded military munitions site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Christian; Shjegstad, Sonia M.; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Edwards, Margo H.

    2016-06-01

    There is a strong need to understand the behavior of chemical warfare agent (CWA) at underwater discarded military munitions (DMM) sites to determine the potential threat to human health or the environment, yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth at which most U.S. chemical munitions were disposed. As part of the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA), sediments adjacent to chemical and conventional DMM at depths of 400-650 m were sampled using human occupied vehicles (HOVs) in order to quantify the distribution of CWA, energetics, and select metals. Sites in the same general area, with no munitions within 50 m in any direction were sampled as a control. Sulfur mustard (HD) and its degradation product 1,4-dithiane were detected at each CWA DMM site, as well as a single sample with the HD degradation product 1,4-thioxane. An energetic compound was detected in sediment to a limited extent at one CWA DMM site. Metals common in munitions casings (i.e., Fe, Cu, and Pb) showed similar trends at the regional and site-wide scales, likely reflecting changes in marine sediment deposition and composition. This study shows HD and its degradation products can persist in the deep-marine environment for decades following munitions disposal.

  13. Smallpox and biological warfare: the case for abandoning vaccination of military personnel.

    PubMed Central

    Capps, L; Vermund, S H; Johnsen, C

    1986-01-01

    Smallpox was officially declared eradicated from the world in 1980. Earlier, in 1972, over 50 nations signed the Biological Weapons Convention renouncing this entire category of weapons. Despite this international agreement, both the United States and the Soviet Union continue to vaccinate their military troops against smallpox, thus implying that each fears the other might still use it in biological warfare. Vaccination is not a harmless procedure, and vaccinia infections continue to be reported in troops and their contacts. Negotiating an end to the vaccination of troops would be a final step in ending the fear of smallpox. PMID:2944401

  14. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

    2005-02-01

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

  15. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    PubMed

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  16. Immobilization of Enzymes in Nanoporous Host Materials: A Nanobiotechnological Approach to Decontamination and Demilitarization of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-06

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are highly toxic and found extensive use as pesticides , insecticides and potential chemical warfare (CW) agents . Recently...commonly used substrate, the serine protease inhibitor diisopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), and different fluoride-containing G-type nerve agents such as...

  17. μ-PADs for detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pardasani, Deepak; Tak, Vijay; Purohit, Ajay K; Dubey, D K

    2012-12-07

    Conventional methods of detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) based on chromogenic reactions are time and solvent intensive. The development of cost, time and solvent effective microfluidic paper based analytical devices (μ-PADs) for the detection of nerve and vesicant agents is described. The detection of analytes was based upon their reactions with rhodamine hydroxamate and para-nitrobenzyl pyridine, producing red and blue colours respectively. Reactions were optimized on the μ-PADs to produce the limits of detection (LODs) as low as 100 μM for sulfur mustard in aqueous samples. Results were quantified with the help of a simple desktop scanner and Photoshop software. Sarin achieved a linear response in the two concentration ranges of 20-100 mM and 100-500 mM, whereas the response of sulfur mustard was found to be linear in the concentration range of 10-75 mM. Results were precise enough to establish the μ-PADs as a valuable tool for security personnel fighting against chemical terrorism.

  18. Shaping future Naval warfare with unmanned systems, the impact across the fleet, and joint considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, E. C.; Johnson, Gordon; Summey, Delbert C.; Portmann, Helmut H., Jr.

    2004-09-01

    This paper discusses a comprehensive vision for unmanned systems that will shape the future of Naval Warfare within a larger Joint Force concept, and examines the broad impact that can be anticipated across the Fleet. The vision has been articulated from a Naval perspective in NAVSEA technical report CSS/TR-01/09, Shaping the Future of Naval Warfare with Unmanned Systems, and from a Joint perspective in USJFCOM Rapid Assessment Process (RAP) Report #03-10 (Unmanned Effects (UFX): Taking the Human Out of the Loop). Here, the authors build on this foundation by reviewing the major findings and laying out the roadmap for achieving the vision and truly transforming how we fight wars. The focus is on broad impact across the Fleet - but the implications reach across all Joint forces. The term "Unmanned System" means different things to different people. Most think of vehicles that are remotely teleoperated that perform tasks under remote human control. Actually, unmanned systems are stand-alone systems that can execute missions and tasks without direct physical manned presence under varying levels of human control - from teleoperation to full autonomy. It is important to note that an unmanned system comprises a lot more than just a vehicle - it includes payloads, command and control, and communications and information processing.

  19. Consumer of concern early entry program (C-CEEP): protecting against the biological suicidal warfare host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Janet D.

    2014-05-01

    Man has used poisons for assassination purposes ever since the dawn of civilization, not only against individual enemies but also occasionally against armies. According to (Frischknecht, 2003)11 article on the History of Biological Warfare, during the past century, more than 500 million people died of infectious diseases. Several tens of thousands of these deaths were due to the deliberate release of pathogens or toxins. Two international treaties outlawed biological weapons in 1925 and 1972, but they have largely failed to stop countries from conducting offensive weapons research and large-scale production of biological weapons. Before the 20th century, biological warfare took on three main forms: (1) deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious material, (2) use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and (3) use of biologically inoculated fabrics (Dire, 2013)8. This action plan is aimed at the recognition of the lack of current processes in place under an unidentified lead agency to detect, identify, track, and contain biological agents that can enter into the United States through a human host. This action plan program has been identified as the Consumer of Concern Early Entry Program or a simpler title is C-CEEP.

  20. Broad-Spectrum Liquid- and Gas-Phase Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents by One-Dimensional Heteropolyniobates.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weiwei; Lv, Hongjin; Sullivan, Kevin P; Gordon, Wesley O; Balboa, Alex; Wagner, George W; Musaev, Djamaladdin G; Bacsa, John; Hill, Craig L

    2016-06-20

    A wide range of chemical warfare agents and their simulants are catalytically decontaminated by a new one-dimensional polymeric polyniobate (P-PONb), K12 [Ti2 O2 ][GeNb12 O40 ]⋅19 H2 O (KGeNb) under mild conditions and in the dark. Uniquely, KGeNb facilitates hydrolysis of nerve agents Sarin (GB) and Soman (GD) (and their less reactive simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP)) as well as mustard (HD) in both liquid and gas phases at ambient temperature and in the absence of neutralizing bases or illumination. Three lines of evidence establish that KGeNb removes DMMP, and thus likely GB/GD, by general base catalysis: a) the k(H2 O)/k(D2 O) solvent isotope effect is 1.4; b) the rate law (hydrolysis at the same pH depends on the amount of P-PONb present); and c) hydroxide is far less active against the above simulants at the same pH than the P-PONbs themselves, a critical control experiment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. APSTNG: neutron interrogation for detection of explosives, drugs, and nuclear and chemical warfare materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Edgar A.; Peters, Charles W.

    1993-02-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14- MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators.

  2. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Surgical Success of Implants Placed in Iranian Warfare Victims

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian, Mohammad; Bayat, Mohammad; Pakravan, Amir-Hossein; Emadi, Naghmeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim was to evaluate the survival time and success rates of dental implants in warfare victims and factors that affect implant success. Subjects and Methods This retrospective study involved 250 Iranian warfare victims who received dental implants from 2003 to 2013. Patients' demographic characteristics, as well as the brand, diameter, length, location and failure rate of the implants were retrieved from patients' dental records and radiographs. The associations between these data and the survival rate were analyzed. Statistical analysis was carried out with χ2 and log-rank tests. Results Overall, out of the 1,533 dental implants, 61 (4s%) failed. The maxillary canine area had the highest failure rate [9 of 132 implants (6.8s%)], while the mandibular incisor region had the least number of failures [3 of 147 implants (2.0s%)] and the longest survival time (approximately 3,182 days). Maxillary canine areas had the shortest survival (about 2,996 days). The longest survival time was observed in implants with 11 mm length (3,179.72 ± 30.139 days) and 3.75-4 mm diameter (3,131.161 ± 35.96 days), and the shortest survival was found in implants with 11.5 mm length (2,317.79 ± 18.71 days) and 6.5 mm diameter (2,241.45 ± 182.21 days). Moreover, implants with 10 mm length (10.7s%) and 5.5-6 mm diameter (22.2s%) had the highest failure rate; however, the least failure rate occurred when the implants were 11.5 mm in length (1.9s%) and 3-3.5 mm in diameter (3.1s%). Conclusions The brand, length and diameter of implants affected the survival time, failure rate and time to failure. The location of the implant was not statistically significant regarding the mentioned factors, although it has clinical significance. PMID:27322534

  3. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-08-24

    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment. Copyright

  4. Plan Colombia: A Case For Political Warfare To Defeat Transnational Criminal Organizations In The Gray Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Plan Colombia: A Case for Political Warfare to Defeat Transnational Criminal Organizations ...to Defeat Transitional Criminal Organizations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER in the Gray Zone 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Kyle M. Spade 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  5. The Soldier-Cyborg Transformation: A Framework for Analysis of Social and Ethical Issues of Future Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-26

    attitude about the use of chemical and biologic weapons , one must question the deterrent value of WMD. With perhaps the 19 exception of nuclear...ENHANCING, TRANSFORMING AND TRANSCENDING 1 TRENDS AND PREDICTIONS ABOUT FUTURE WARFARE 3 CHANGING DEMOGRAPHICS 8 THE BIOLOGIC SHIFT 10 STRATEGIC...without widespread loss of life. Thus, low lethality weapons and distant applications of precisely- applied force are mandatory to make future

  6. Rapid Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Hydrolysis Products by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    of chemical warfare agents in natural water samples by solid-phase microextraction. Anal. Chem., 69, 1866-72. [36] Sng , M.T. and Ng ,W.F. (1999). In...liquid phase microextraction of alkylphosphonic acids from water. J. Chromatogr. A., 1141, 151-157. [43] Lee, H.S.N., Sng , M.T., Basheer, C., and Lee

  7. Sandals and Robes to Business Suits and Gulf Streams: Warfare in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-20

    movements and the extremist environments in which these movements operate. However, much like a franchise business enterprise, AQ is expanding its...2011, Small Wars Foundation April 20, 2011 Sandals and Robes to Business Suits and Gulf Streams: Warfare in the 21st Century by MG Michael T...comfortable in sandals and robes as they are wearing business suits and flying around the world in gulfstream aircraft. As confident in their ability to

  8. Biological and environmental hazards associated with exposure to chemical warfare agents: arsenicals.

    PubMed

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. On the basis of these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the best-known agent that was synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye. These chemicals also manifest systemic tissue injury following their cutaneous exposure. Although largely discontinued after WWI, stockpiles are still known to exist in the former Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, the United States, and Asia. Thus, access by terrorists or accidental exposure could be highly dangerous for humans and the environment. This review summarizes studies that describe the biological, pathophysiological, toxicological, and environmental effects of exposure to arsenicals, with a major focus on cutaneous injury. Studies related to the development of novel molecular pathobiology-based antidotes against these agents are also described. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Biological and environmental hazards associated with exposure to chemical warfare agents: arsenicals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. Based on these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the most known agent synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye. These chemicals also manifest systemic tissue injury following their cutaneous exposure. Although largely discontinued after WWI, their stockpiles are still known to exist in the former Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, the United States, and Asia. Thus, their access by terrorists or accidental exposure could be highly dangerous for humans and the environment. This review summarizes studies which describe the biological, pathophysiological, toxicological, and environmental effects of exposure to arsenicals, with a major focus on cutaneous injury. Studies related to the development of novel molecular pathobiology–based antidotes against these agents are also described. PMID:27636894

  10. Trade, Diplomacy, and Warfare: The Quest for Elite Rhizobia Inoculant Strains

    PubMed Central

    Checcucci, Alice; DiCenzo, George C.; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobia form symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on leguminous plants, which provides an important source of fixed nitrogen input into the soil ecosystem. The improvement of symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the main challenges facing agriculture research. Doing so will reduce the usage of chemical nitrogen fertilizer, contributing to the development of sustainable agriculture practices to deal with the increasing global human population. Sociomicrobiological studies of rhizobia have become a model for the study of the evolution of mutualistic interactions. The exploitation of the wide range of social interactions rhizobia establish among themselves, with the soil and root microbiota, and with the host plant, could constitute a great advantage in the development of a new generation of highly effective rhizobia inoculants. Here, we provide a brief overview of the current knowledge on three main aspects of rhizobia interaction: trade of fixed nitrogen with the plant; diplomacy in terms of communication and possible synergistic effects; and warfare, as antagonism and plant control over symbiosis. Then, we propose new areas of investigation and the selection of strains based on the combination of the genetic determinants for the relevant rhizobia symbiotic behavioral phenotypes. PMID:29170661

  11. Trade, Diplomacy, and Warfare: The Quest for Elite Rhizobia Inoculant Strains.

    PubMed

    Checcucci, Alice; DiCenzo, George C; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobia form symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on leguminous plants, which provides an important source of fixed nitrogen input into the soil ecosystem. The improvement of symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the main challenges facing agriculture research. Doing so will reduce the usage of chemical nitrogen fertilizer, contributing to the development of sustainable agriculture practices to deal with the increasing global human population. Sociomicrobiological studies of rhizobia have become a model for the study of the evolution of mutualistic interactions. The exploitation of the wide range of social interactions rhizobia establish among themselves, with the soil and root microbiota, and with the host plant, could constitute a great advantage in the development of a new generation of highly effective rhizobia inoculants. Here, we provide a brief overview of the current knowledge on three main aspects of rhizobia interaction: trade of fixed nitrogen with the plant; diplomacy in terms of communication and possible synergistic effects; and warfare, as antagonism and plant control over symbiosis. Then, we propose new areas of investigation and the selection of strains based on the combination of the genetic determinants for the relevant rhizobia symbiotic behavioral phenotypes.

  12. New method for comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kishi, Shintaro; Makita, Mika; Nagamatsu, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko; Toda, Masayoshi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a detection technology for vapor forms of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with an element analysis system using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. After the vapor sample was introduced directly into the ion source, the molecular material was decomposed into elements using electron cyclotron resonance plasma and ionized. The following CWAs and stimulants were examined: diisopropyl fluorophosphonate (DFP), 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (2CEES), cyanogen chloride (CNCl), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The type of chemical warfare agents, specifically, whether it was a nerve agent, blister agent, blood agent, or choking agent, could be determined by measuring the quantities of the monatomic ions or CN + using mass spectrometry. It was possible to detect gaseous CWAs that could not be detected by a conventional mass spectrometer. The distribution of electron temperature in the plasma could be closely controlled by adjusting the input power of the microwaves used to generate the electron cyclotron resonance plasma, and the target compounds could be detected as molecular ions or fragment ions, enabling identification of the target agents.

  13. Passive front-ends for wideband millimeter wave electronic warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastram, Nathan Joseph

    This thesis presents the analysis, design and measurements of novel passive front ends of interest to millimeter wave electronic warfare systems. However, emerging threats in the millimeter waves (18 GHz and above) has led to a push for new systems capable of addressing these threats. At these frequencies, traditional techniques of design and fabrication are challenging due to small size, limited bandwidth and losses. The use of surface micromachining technology for wideband direction finding with multiple element antenna arrays for electronic support is demonstrated. A wideband tapered slot antenna is first designed and measured as an array element for the subsequent arrays. Both 18--36 GHz and 75--110 GHz amplitude only and amplitude/phase two element direction finding front ends are designed and measured. The design of arrays using Butler matrix and Rotman lens beamformers for greater than two element direction finding over W band and beyond using is also presented. The design of a dual polarized high power capable front end for electronic attack over an 18--45 GHz band is presented. To combine two polarizations into the same radiating aperture, an orthomode transducer (OMT) based upon a new double ridge waveguide cross section is developed. To provide greater flexibility in needed performance characteristics, several different turnstile junction matching sections are tested. A modular horn section is proposed to address flexible and ever changing operational requirements, and is designed for performance criteria such as constant gain, beamwidth, etc. A multi-section branch guide coupler and low loss Rotman lens based upon the proposed cross section are also developed. Prototyping methods for the herein designed millimeter wave electronic warfare front ends are investigated. Specifically, both printed circuit board (PCB) prototyping of micromachined systems and 3D printing of conventionally machined horns are presented. A 4--8 GHz two element array with

  14. General George Crooks Development as a Practitioner of Irregular Warfare During the Indian Wars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    dogged determination, this cemented Crook’s understanding of the Indian problem, which would help shape the burgeoning American west...General Frederick Steele took command of the Department of the Columbia in early 1866 and shortly thereafter established Boise as its own district...regaining control of the area would be difficult, General Steele requested and received reinforcements. He received three additional companies of

  15. Optical constants of neat liquid-chemical warfare agents and related materials measured by infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. S.-C.; Williams, B. R.; Hulet, M. S.; Tiwald, T. E.; Miles, R. W., Jr.; Samuels, A. C.

    2011-05-01

    We studied various liquids using a vertical attenuated total reflection (ATR) liquid sampling assembly in conjunction with Infrared Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (IR-VASE), to determine the infrared optical constants of several bulk liquids related to chemical warfare. The index of refraction, n, and the extinction coefficient, k, of isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Sarin or GB), isopropyl alcohol (IPA) (a precursor of GB), and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP)-a commonly employed simulant for GB, measured by our vertical ATR IR-VASE setup are closely matched to those found in other studies. We also report the optical constants of cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GF), 2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (HD), and 2-chlorovinyl dichloroarsine (L, Lewisite). The ATR IR-VASE technique affords an accurate measurement of the optical constants of these hazardous compounds.

  16. Puncturing the Counterinsurgency Myth: Britain and Irregular Warfare in the Past, Present, and Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Academy also concedes that, in relation to Northern Ireland, “[ I ]t is easy in the light of the later success . . . to for- get the early mistakes and the...publicized incidents in Iraq, such as the death in Brit- ish custody of Basra hotel clerk Baha Mousa in 2003 and the subsequent court-martial of the...exemplars of COIN warfare. It can now look at An- bar province and the Surge as the new ideal case stud- ies in COIN textbooks. The Americans have

  17. Considerations for the Design and Implementation of a Management Support System for the Electronic Warfare System Support Laboratory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    Division Organization Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 4.4 Uaval Air Systeis Commana Organization Relationships...56 4.5 Groups Within AIR -05 Responsible For Electronic Warfare Projects ................. 57 8 I. IN OODUCTION A. BACKGRCUNID With technological...environment. Navy, Air Force, and Army developers of EW systems utilize the EWSSL. In the past 15 years the size of the EWSSL has greatly increased

  18. Escherichia coli biosensors for environmental, food industry and biological warfare agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allil, R. C. S. B.; Werneck, M. M.; da Silva-Neto, J. L.; Miguel, M. A. L.; Rodrigues, D. M. C.; Wandermur, G. L.; Rambauske, D. C.

    2013-06-01

    This work has the objective to research and develop a plastic optical fiber biosensor based taper and mPOF LPG techniques to detect Escherichia coli by measurements of index of refraction. Generally, cell detection is crucial in microbiological analysis of clinical, food, water or environmental samples. However, methods current employed are time consuming, taking at least 72 hours in order to produce reliable responses as they depend on sample collection and cell culture in controlled conditions. The delay in obtaining the results of the analysis can result in contamination of a great number of consumers. Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) biosensors consist in a viable alternative for rapid and inexpensive scheme for cells detection. A study the sensitivity of these sensors for microbiological detection, fiber Tapers and Long Period Grating (LPG) both in poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) were realized as possible candidates to take part of a biosensor system to detect Escherichia coli in water samples. In this work we adopted the immunocapture technique, which consists of quantifying bacteria in a liquid sample, attract-ing and fixing the bacteria on the surface of the polymer optical fiber, by the antigen-antibody reaction. The results were obtained by optical setup that consists in a side of the fiber a LED coupled to a photodetector through a POF with the taper in the middle of it. On the other side of the POF a photodetector receives this light producting a photocurrent. The output voltage is fed into the microcontroller A/D input port and its output data is sent via USB to a LabView software running in a microcomputer. The results showed the possibility of the POF in biosensor application capable to detect E. coli for environmental and food industry and for detecting and identifying biological-warfare agents using a very rapid response sensor, applicable to field detection prototypes.

  19. Decontamination issues for chemical and biological warfare agents: how clean is clean enough?

    PubMed

    Raber, E; Jin, A; Noonan, K; McGuire, R; Kirvel, R D

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this assessment is to determine what level of cleanup will be required to meet regulatory and stakeholder needs in the case of a chemical and/or biological incident at a civilian facility. A literature review for selected, potential chemical and biological warfare agents shows that dose information is often lacking or controversial. Environmental regulatory limits or other industrial health guidelines that could be used to help establish cleanup concentration levels for such agents are generally unavailable or not applicable for a public setting. Although dose information, cleanup criteria, and decontamination protocols all present challenges to effective planning, several decontamination approaches are available. Such approaches should be combined with risk-informed decision making to establish reasonable cleanup goals for protecting health, property, and resources. Key issues during a risk assessment are to determine exactly what constitutes a safety hazard and whether decontamination is necessary or not for a particular scenario. An important conclusion is that cleanup criteria are site dependent and stakeholder specific. The results of a modeling exercise for two outdoor scenarios are presented to reinforce this conclusion. Public perception of risk to health, public acceptance of recommendations based on scientific criteria, political support, time constraints, and economic concerns must all be addressed in the context of a specific scenario to yield effective and acceptable decontamination.

  20. Impact of psychological problems in chemical warfare survivors with severe ophthalmologic complication, a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, Gholamhosein; Ghasemi, Hassan; Mousavi, Batool; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Rahnama, Parvin; Jafari, Farhad; Afshin-Majd, Siamak; Sadeghi Naeeni, Maryam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-04-12

    Sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated SM induced ocular injuries, few of those studies have also focused on the psychological health status of victims. This study has evaluated the most prominent influences on the psychological health status of patients with severe SM induced ocular injuries. This descriptive study was conducted on 149 Iranian war veterans with severe SM induced eye injuries. The psychological health status of all patients was assessed using the Iranian standardized Symptom Check List 90-Revised (SCL90-R) questionnaire. The results of patients' Global Severity Index (GSI) were compared with the optimal cut-off point of 0.4 that has previously been calculated for GSI in Iranian community. The Mann-Whitney U test, T tests and effect sizes (using Cohen's d) were employed as statistical methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. The mean age of patients was 44.86 (SD=8.7) and mean duration of disease was 21.58 (SD=1.20) years. Rate of exposure was once in 99 (66.4%) cases. The mean GSI (1.46) of the study group was higher compared to standardized cut off point (0.4) of the Iranian community. The results of this study showed that the mean of total GSI score was higher in participants with lower educational levels (effect size=0.507), unemployment (effect size=0.464) and having more than 3 children (effect size=0.62). Among the participants, 87 (58.4%) cases had a positive psychological history for hospitalization or receiving outpatient cares previously and 62 (41.6%) cases had a negative psychological history. In addition, the mean of GSI in participants with negative psychological history was lower than those with positive psychological history (Mean Change Difference=-0.621 with SD=0.120). There was a significant difference between positive and negative psychological history with respect to GSI (P<0.001). The study showed that

  1. Impact of psychological problems in chemical warfare survivors with severe ophthalmologic complication, a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated SM induced ocular injuries, few of those studies have also focused on the psychological health status of victims. This study has evaluated the most prominent influences on the psychological health status of patients with severe SM induced ocular injuries. Methods This descriptive study was conducted on 149 Iranian war veterans with severe SM induced eye injuries. The psychological health status of all patients was assessed using the Iranian standardized Symptom Check List 90-Revised (SCL90-R) questionnaire. The results of patients' Global Severity Index (GSI) were compared with the optimal cut-off point of 0.4 that has previously been calculated for GSI in Iranian community. The Mann-Whitney U test, T tests and effect sizes (using Cohen's d) were employed as statistical methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results The mean age of patients was 44.86 (SD = 8.7) and mean duration of disease was 21.58 (SD = 1.20) years. Rate of exposure was once in 99 (66.4%) cases. The mean GSI (1.46) of the study group was higher compared to standardized cut off point (0.4) of the Iranian community. The results of this study showed that the mean of total GSI score was higher in participants with lower educational levels (effect size = 0.507), unemployment (effect size = 0.464) and having more than 3 children (effect size = 0.62). Among the participants, 87 (58.4%) cases had a positive psychological history for hospitalization or receiving outpatient cares previously and 62 (41.6%) cases had a negative psychological history. In addition, the mean of GSI in participants with negative psychological history was lower than those with positive psychological history (Mean Change Difference = -0.621 with SD = 0.120). There was a significant difference between positive and negative psychological history with respect

  2. Niobium(V) saponite clay for the catalytic oxidative abatement of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Carniato, Fabio; Bisio, Chiara; Psaro, Rinaldo; Marchese, Leonardo; Guidotti, Matteo

    2014-09-15

    A Nb(V)-containing saponite clay was designed to selectively transform toxic organosulfur chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under extremely mild conditions into nontoxic products with reduced environmental impact. Thanks to the insertion of Nb(V) sites within the saponite framework, a bifunctional catalyst with strong oxidizing and acid properties was obtained. Remarkable activity and high selectivity were observed for the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, at room temperature with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. This performance was significantly better compared to a conventional commercial decontamination powder. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Toward a Theory of Hybrid Warfare: The Russian Conduct of War During Peace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N /A 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT...See also: Edward N . Luttwak, “Notes on Low-Intensity Warfare,” Parameters XIII, no.4 (Carlisle Barracks, PA; U.S. Army War College, 1983...the Russian interview titled: И.Стрелков Vs Н.Стариков “ЦЕНТРСИЛЫ / СИЛАЦЕНТРА” [I. Strelkov vs. N . Starikov “CENTRSILY/ SILACENTRA”], aired

  4. Warfare and reproductive success in a tribal population

    PubMed Central

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is a persistent feature of many human societies yet little is known about why individuals participate when doing so imposes a mortality risk. To evaluate whether participation in warfare is associated with reproductive benefits, we present data on participation in small-scale livestock raids among the Nyangatom, a group of nomadic pastoralists in East Africa. Nyangatom marriages require the exchange of a significant amount of bridewealth in the form of livestock. Raids are usually intended to capture livestock, which raises the question of whether and how these livestock are converted into reproductive opportunities. Over the short term, raiders do not have a greater number of wives or children than nonraiders. However, elders who were identified as prolific raiders in their youth have more wives and children than other elders. Raiders were not more likely to come from families with fewer older maternal sisters or a greater number of older maternal brothers. Our results suggest that in this cultural context raiding provides opportunities for increased reproductive success over the lifetime. PMID:25548190

  5. Highly Stable Lyophilized Homogeneous Bead-Based Immunoassays for On-Site Detection of Bio Warfare Agents from Complex Matrices.

    PubMed

    Mechaly, Adva; Marx, Sharon; Levy, Orly; Yitzhaki, Shmuel; Fisher, Morly

    2016-06-21

    This study shows the development of dry, highly stable immunoassays for the detection of bio warfare agents in complex matrices. Thermal stability was achieved by the lyophilization of the complete, homogeneous, bead-based immunoassay in a special stabilizing buffer, resulting in a ready-to-use, simple assay, which exhibited long shelf and high-temperature endurance (up to 1 week at 100 °C). The developed methodology was successfully implemented for the preservation of time-resolved fluorescence, Alexa-fluorophores, and horse radish peroxidase-based bead assays, enabling multiplexed detection. The multiplexed assay was successfully implemented for the detection of Bacillus anthracis, botulinum B, and tularemia in complex matrices.

  6. Contamination in fractured-rock aquifers: Research at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Tiedeman, Claire; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Chapelle, Francis H.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and cooperators are studying chlorinated solvents in a fractured sedimentary rock aquifer underlying the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, New Jersey. Fractured-rock aquifers are common in many parts of the United States and are highly susceptible to contamination, particularly at industrial sites. Compared to 'unconsolidated' aquifers, there can be much more uncertainty about the direction and rate of contaminant migration and about the processes and factors that control chemical and microbial transformations of contaminants. Research at the NAWC is improving understanding of the transport and fate of chlorinated solvents in fractured-rock aquifers and will compare the effectiveness of different strategies for contaminant remediation.

  7. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.

    2000-04-12

    There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons ismore » of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.« less

  8. Potential Science and Technology Game Changers for the Ground Warfare of 2050: Selected Projections Made in 2017

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-02-01

    ARL-TR-8283 ● FEB 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Potential Science and Technology Game Changers for the Ground Warfare of 2050...report when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-8283 ● FEB 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Potential...ARL Kwong Choi and Joseph Mait Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Brad Forch and Shashi Karna Weapons and Materials Research

  9. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 2--long-term health effects among participants of U.S. military chemical warfare agent testing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns about how their participation affected their health. A companion article describes the history of these experiments, and how the lack of clinical data hampers evaluation of long-term health consequences. Conversely, much information is available about specific agents tested and their long-term health effects in other populations, which may be invaluable for helping clinicians respond effectively to the health care and other needs of affected veterans. The following review describes tested agents and their known long-term health consequences. Although hundreds of chemicals were tested, they fall into only about a half-dozen pharmaceutical classes, including common pharmaceuticals; anticholinesterase agents including military nerve agents and pesticides; anticholinergic glycolic acid esters such as atropine; acetylcholine reactivators such as 2-PAM; psychoactive compounds including cannabinoids, phencyclidine, and LSD; and irritants including tear gas and riot control agents.

  10. Warfare rather than agriculture as a critical influence on fires in the late Holocene, inferred from northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Saito, Yoshiki; Dang, Phong X.; Matsumoto, Eiji; Vu, Quang Lan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has played an essential role in the development of human civilization. Most previous research suggests that frequent-fire regimes in the late Holocene were associated with intensification of human activities, especially agriculture development. Here, we analyze fire regimes recorded in the Song Hong delta area of Vietnam over the past 5,000 years. In the prehistoric period, 2 long-term, low-charcoal abundance periods have been linked to periods of low humidity and cool climate, and 5 short-term fire regimes of 100–150 years in duration occurred at regular intervals of ≈700 years. However, over the last 1,500 years, the number, frequency, and intensity of fire regimes clearly increased. Six intensified-fire regime periods in northern Vietnam during this time coincided with changes of Vietnamese dynasties and associated warfare and unrest. In contrast, agricultural development supported by rulers of stable societies at this time does not show a positive correlation with intensified-fire regime periods. Thus, warfare rather than agriculture appears to have been a critical factor contributing to fire regimes in northern Vietnam during the late Holocene. PMID:19597148

  11. Comparison of the lethal effects of chemical warfare nerve agents across multiple ages.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lee, Robyn B; Vincelli, Nicole M; Whalley, Christopher E; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-22

    Children may be inherently more vulnerable than adults to the lethal effects associated with chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure because of their closer proximity to the ground, smaller body mass, higher respiratory rate, increased skin permeability and immature metabolic systems. Unfortunately, there have only been a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in pediatric animal models, and more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Using a stagewise, adaptive dose design, we estimated the 24h median lethal dose for subcutaneous exposure to seven CWNA in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at six different developmental times. Perinatal (postnatal day [PND] 7, 14 and 21) and adult (PND 70) rats were more susceptible than pubertal (PND 28 and 42) rats to the lethal effects associated with exposure to tabun, sarin, soman and cyclosarin. Age-related differences in susceptibility were not observed in rats exposed to VM, Russian VX or VX. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Biodegradation potential of chlorinated solvents in ground water at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Louisville, Kentucky, July 1999 to February 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Bradley, Paul M.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Navy, Southern Division Naval Facilities Engineering Command, investigated the potential for biodegradation of chlorinated solvents in ground water at the Naval Surface Warfare Center (also known as the Naval Ordnance Station, or the station), Louisville, Kentucky. The subsurface down to at least 100 feet at the station is characterized, from shallowest to deepest, by overburden deposits, a shale layer, and limestone. In general, all of the strata are poorly permeable. The permeable zones of the overburden and the limestone make up the overburden aquifer and the bedrock aquifer, respectively. Observed concentrations of redox-sensitive solutes suggest that the predominant anaerobic terminal electron accepting process in the overburden aquifer can shift between iron reduction and sulfate reduction, possibly as a result of rainfall-induced oxidation events. Daughter-product concentrations and laboratory experiments indicate that a variety of mechanisms, including reductive dechlorination and cometabolic oxidation, appear to be actively

  13. Properties and applications of antimicrobial peptides in biodefense against biological warfare threat agents.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Raymond Murray; Liu, Chun-Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in knowledge of the properties of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are reviewed. AMPs are typically small, positively charged, amphipathic peptides that interact electrostatically and non-stereospecifically with the bacterial cell membrane, resulting in its permeabilization and cell death. Classes of AMPs, their mechanisms of action, hemolytic activity, and cytotoxicity towards host cells are discussed. A particular focus is AMPs with potential for use in defense against biological warfare agents. Some AMPs cytotoxic to Bacillus anthracis have been described. Synthesis of these peptides in multivalent form leads to a synergistic increase in antibacterial activity. Strategies to enhance the potency, stability, and selectivity of AMPs are discussed.

  14. [Acute poisoning by chemical warfare agent: sulfur mustard].

    PubMed

    Mérat, S; Perez, J P; Rüttimann, M; Bordier, E; Lienhard, A; Lenoir, B; Pats, B

    2003-02-01

    To review story, mechanism of action, clinical and therapeutic bases of a sulfur mustard poisoning, by accidental, terrorism or war exposure. References were obtained from computerised bibliographic research (Medline), from personnel data (academic memoir, documents under approbation of the National Defense Office) and from the Library of Military Medical Service. Sulfur mustard is a chemical warfare agent with peace time results: leak, accidental handling, acts of terrorism. Sulfur mustard is a vesicant agent, an organochlorine agent, who alkylate DNA. Under liquid or gas form its main target are skin and lungs. Clinical effects are like burns with loss of immunity, with respiratory failure, ophthalmic, gastrointestinal and haematological signs. The last studies have improved knowledge about the mechanism of action, detection, protection and treatment. Methods for determination of sulfur mustard are based on gas chromatographic method and mass spectrometry. During sulfur mustard contamination the first priorities of treatment are to remove victims from the contaminated place and to initiate decontamination. Emergency workers and materials must take protection to avoid secondary contamination of emergency unit. With treatment of vital functions and respiratory failure, the new ways of treatment are about N-acetyl cysteine for lung injury, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, calmodulin antagonists and Ca(++) chelators. Interactions between sulfur mustard and anaesthetic agents are not well known and are based on clinical observations. Emergency care unit can be confronted with sulfur mustard during accidental contamination or acts of terrorism. First and most efficacy priorities of treatment are to remove and to decontaminate victims. New means of detection and treatment are studied since several years but are not still appropriate to human victims or mass treatment.

  15. A war psychiatry approach to warfare in the Middle Byzantine period.

    PubMed

    Ntafoulis, Pavlos

    2016-12-01

    Combat stress cases were traced in historical texts and military manuals on warfare from the Middle Byzantine period; they were mainly labelled as cowardice. Soldiers suffered from nostalgia or exhaustion; officers looked stunned, or could not speak during the battle. Cruel punishments were often enforced. Suicide and alcohol abuse were rarely mentioned. The Byzantines' evacuation system for battle casualties was well organized. Psychological operations were conducted and prisoners-of-war were usually part of them. The Byzantine army had 'parakletores', officers assigned to encourage soldiers before combat. The leaders dealt with combat stress by using their rhetoric skills and emphasizing religious faith in eternal life. The treatment of the 'cowards' was rather similar to modern war psychiatry principles of treatment. No description of PTSD was found. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Biasing hydrogen bond donating host systems towards chemical warfare agent recognition.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Jennifer R; Wells, Neil J; Ede, Jayne A; Gale, Philip A; Sambrook, Mark R

    2016-10-12

    A series of neutral ditopic and negatively charged, monotopic host molecules have been evaluated for their ability to bind chloride and dihydrogen phosphate anions, and neutral organophosphorus species dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP) and the chemical warfare agent (CWA) pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GD, soman) in organic solvent via hydrogen bonding. Urea, thiourea and boronic acid groups are shown to bind anions and neutral guests through the formation of hydrogen bonds, with the urea and thiourea groups typically exhibiting higher affinity interactions. The introduction of a negative charge on the host structure is shown to decrease anion affinity, whilst still allowing for high stability host-GD complex formation. Importantly, the affinity of the host for the neutral CWA GD is greater than for anionic guests, thus demonstrating the potential for selectivity reversal based on charge repulsion.

  17. Simulation-based planning for theater air warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popken, Douglas A.; Cox, Louis A., Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Planning for Theatre Air Warfare can be represented as a hierarchy of decisions. At the top level, surviving airframes must be assigned to roles (e.g., Air Defense, Counter Air, Close Air Support, and AAF Suppression) in each time period in response to changing enemy air defense capabilities, remaining targets, and roles of opposing aircraft. At the middle level, aircraft are allocated to specific targets to support their assigned roles. At the lowest level, routing and engagement decisions are made for individual missions. The decisions at each level form a set of time-sequenced Courses of Action taken by opposing forces. This paper introduces a set of simulation-based optimization heuristics operating within this planning hierarchy to optimize allocations of aircraft. The algorithms estimate distributions for stochastic outcomes of the pairs of Red/Blue decisions. Rather than using traditional stochastic dynamic programming to determine optimal strategies, we use an innovative combination of heuristics, simulation-optimization, and mathematical programming. Blue decisions are guided by a stochastic hill-climbing search algorithm while Red decisions are found by optimizing over a continuous representation of the decision space. Stochastic outcomes are then provided by fast, Lanchester-type attrition simulations. This paper summarizes preliminary results from top and middle level models.

  18. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@uach.cz; Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resultingmore » doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.« less

  19. Use of doubly labeled water technique in soldiers training for jungle warfare

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Forbes-Ewan, C.H.; Morrissey, B.L.; Gregg, G.C.

    1989-07-01

    The doubly labeled water method was used to estimate the energy expended by four members of an Australian Army platoon (34 soldiers) engaged in training for jungle warfare. Each subject received an oral isotope dose sufficient to raise isotope levels by 200-250 ({sup 18}O) and 100-120 ppm ({sup 2}H). The experimental period was 7 days. Concurrently, a factorial estimate of the energy expenditure of the platoon was conducted. Also, a food intake-energy balance study was conducted for the platoon. Mean daily energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method was 4,750 kcal (range 4,152-5,394 kcal). The factorial estimate of meanmore » daily energy expenditure was 4,535 kcal. Because of inherent inaccuracies in the food intake-energy balance technique, we were able to conclude only that energy expenditure, as measured by this method, was greater than the estimated mean daily intake of 4,040 kcal. The doubly labeled water technique was well tolerated, is noninvasive, and appears to be suitable in a wide range of field applications.« less

  20. Nanodispersive mixed oxides for destruction of warfare agents prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis with urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daněk, Ondřej; Štengl, Václav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Kalendová, Andrea; Opluštil, Frantisek

    2007-05-01

    Nanocrystalline mixed oxides of Ti, Zn, Al and Fe were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphates with urea at temperature of 100 °C in an aqueous solution. The prepared samples were characterized by BET and BJH measurements, an X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with yperite (2,2‧-dichloroethyl sulphide), soman (3,3-dimethyl-2-butyl methylphosphonofluoridate) and matter VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothionate). An excellent activity in decomposition of chemical warfare agents was observed in these materials (conversion degree higher then 96%/h).

  1. Mammalian Toxicology Testing: Problem Definition Study, Global Army Toxicology Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Electronic Warfare Equipment (D251) Tactical ECK System (64750A) Protective Electronic Warfare Equipment (D540) High Energy Electromagnetic Radiation...Fighting Portable Weapon (for IFV) Smoke Grenade Launcher Staff Smart, Target-Activated Fire-and-Forget Tactical ECK System (63755A) Protective Electronic...Warfare Equipment (D251) Tactical ECK System (64750A) Protective Electronic Warfare Equipment (D540) High Energy Electromagnetic Radiation Weapons (e.g

  2. History and perspectives of bioanalytical methods for chemical warfare agent detection.

    PubMed

    Black, Robin M

    2010-05-15

    This paper provides a short historical overview of the development of bioanalytical methods for chemical warfare (CW) agents and their biological markers of exposure, with a more detailed overview of methods for organophosphorus nerve agents. Bioanalytical methods for unchanged CW agents are used primarily for toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic studies. An important aspect of nerve agent toxicokinetics is the different biological activity and detoxification pathways for enantiomers. CW agents have a relatively short lifetime in the human body, and are hydrolysed, metabolised, or adducted to nucleophilic sites on macromolecules such as proteins and DNA. These provide biological markers of exposure. In the past two decades, metabolites, protein adducts of nerve agents, vesicants and phosgene, and DNA adducts of sulfur and nitrogen mustards, have been identified and characterized. Sensitive analytical methods have been developed for their detection, based mainly on mass spectrometry combined with gas or liquid chromatography. Biological markers for sarin, VX and sulfur mustard have been validated in cases of accidental and deliberate human exposures. The concern for terrorist use of CW agents has stimulated the development of higher throughput analytical methods in support of homeland security. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Navy Warfare Development Command’s NEXT Magazine, Spring 2014 Edition. Volume 2, Number 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    m~plqy pr«i:ion """apron:. (tlld ~rm barrk> damag" a:sfl:-sm.gnt. (U..S. ,. IQ \\.)’ photo by Kun L0tg{lllkf~IU1«SSN) 14 nEXT SPRING2014 lead <o an...intel6gence windfaJ but may also overwhelm intelligence analysts. The OAW raises some interesting legal issues. For instance, the possibility of...against terrorists has Glready raised concerns at the United Nations about robotic warfare. AI of these issues will need to be addressed as the DAW

  4. Chemical analysis of bleach and hydroxide-based solutions after decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, F B; Gravett, M R; Self, A J; Wang, M; Chua, Hoe-Chee; Hoe-Chee, C; Lee, H S Nancy; Sim, N Lee Hoi; Jones, J T A; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that report their detailed chemical analysis. This paper describes the application of modern analytical techniques to the analysis of decontamination solutions following decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). We confirm the formation of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine following decontamination of VX with hypochlorite-based solution, whereas they were not detected in extracts of hydroxide-based decontamination solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We report the electron ionisation and chemical ionisation mass spectroscopic details, retention indices, and NMR spectra of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine, as well as analytical methods suitable for their analysis and identification in solvent extracts and decontamination residues.

  5. Bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, and metals in deep-sea shrimp from discarded military munitions sites off Pearl Harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Shelby; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Dupra, Vilma; Edwards, Margo

    2016-06-01

    The bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals at former military deep-water disposal sites is poorly understood. This paper presents the results of human-food-item biota sampling to assess the potential for bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, arsenic, and additional munitions-related metals in deep-sea shrimp tissue samples collected during the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) project to date. The HUMMA investigation area is located within a former munitions sea-disposal site located south of Pearl Harbor on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i, designated site Hawaii-05 (HI-05) by the United States Department of Defense. Indigenous deep-sea shrimp (Heterocarpus ensifer) were caught adjacent to discarded military munitions (DMM) and at control sites where munitions were absent. Tissue analysis results showed that chemical warfare agents and their degradation products were not present within the edible portions of these samples at detectable concentrations, and energetic materials and their degradation products were detected in only a few samples at concentrations below the laboratory reporting limits. Likewise, arsenic, copper, and lead concentrations were below the United States Food and Drug Administration's permitted concentrations of metals in marine biota tissue (if defined), and their presence within these samples could not be attributed to the presence of DMM within the study area based on a comparative analysis of munitions-adjacent and control samples collected. Based on this current dataset, it can be concluded that DMM existing within the HUMMA study area is not contributing to the bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals for the biota species investigated to date.

  6. An Irony of War: Human Development as Warfare in Afghanistan (Colloquium, Volume 3, Number 3, October 2010)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    near genius” because of the quick impact it was designed to have to boost the quality of life for the Afghans. LTG Vines was particularly optimistic...destined to play a role for many years. It is a country beset by an insurgency that threatens to destroy the 9-year economic progress that many Afghans...have enjoyed since the end of Taliban rule. Many students of insurgency, or any other type of warfare, do not associate human develop- ment with

  7. Network Centric Warfare in the U.S. Navy’s Fifth Fleet. Network-Supported Operational Level Command and Control in Operation Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Mark Adkins Director of Research Ph.D Human Communication adkins@arizona.edu Dr. John Kruse Director of Programming Ph.D Management Information Systems...Theory • Network Centric Warfare • Technology Adoption – Technology Adoption Model – Technology Transition Model • Human Communication – Social Context

  8. The United States Air Force and Profession: Why Sixty Percent of Air Force General Officers are Still Pilots When Pilots Comprise Just Twenty Percent of the Officer Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-25

    EXA thog001uehMcoptr a acltetecus n pedo nm lnsi secnd. an dipath gide misila ad itereptrs o te trge fo detrutio anLreur intrcptos o hte I pefomin tes...a capability, at that time at least, to transmit video footage of the aircraft, then loiter while waiting for a decision to shoot down the aircraft or...emerges. In general, however, modem Air Force warfare takes on the aura of a video game. Furthermore, the air and missile crews do not generally see

  9. Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Michael E.; Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2004-12-01

    We present an analytical model evaluating the suitability of optical absorption based spectroscopic techniques for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in ambient air. The sensor performance is modeled by simulating absorption spectra of a sample containing both the target and multitude of interfering species as well as an appropriate stochastic noise and determining the target concentrations from the simulated spectra via a least square fit (LSF) algorithm. The distribution of the LSF target concentrations determines the sensor sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP) and probability of false negatives (PFN). The model was applied to CO2 laser based photoacosutic (L-PAS) CWA sensor and predicted single digit ppb sensitivity with very low PFP rates in the presence of significant amount of interferences. This approach will be useful for assessing sensor performance by developers and users alike; it also provides methodology for inter-comparison of different sensing technologies.

  10. Chemical Weapons Disposal: Improvements Needed in Program Accountability and Financial Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    United States General Accounting Office PAQ Report to Congressional Committees May 2000 CHEMICAL WEAPONS DISPOSAL Improvements Needed in Program...warfare materiel, and former production facilities and identify and locate buried chemical warfare materiel. Alternative Technologies and Approaches...production facilities, and buried chemical warfare materiel. These items are described in table 1. Table 1: Nonstockpile Chemical Materiel Category

  11. Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS) Analysis of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents: Rapid Acquisition of Time-Aligned Parallel (TAP) Fragmentation Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    phase microextraction. Anal. Chem., 69, 1866-72. [39] Sng , M.T. and Ng ,W.F. (1999). In-situ derivatisation of degradation products of chemical warfare...Chromatogr. A., 1141, 151-157. [46] Lee, H.S.N., Sng , M.T., Basheer, C., and Lee, H.K. (2007). Determination of degradation products of chemical

  12. A hybrid method for protection against threats to a network infrastructure for an electronic warfare management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byłak, Michał; RóŻański, Grzegorz

    2017-04-01

    The article presents the concept of ensuring the security of network information infrastructure for the management of Electronic Warfare (EW) systems. The concept takes into account the reactive and proactive tools against threats. An overview of the methods used to support the safety of IT networks and information sources about threats is presented. Integration of mechanisms that allow for effective intrusion detection and rapid response to threats in a network has been proposed. The architecture of the research environment is also presented.

  13. Vesicants and nerve agents in chemical warfare. Decontamination and treatment strategies for a changed world.

    PubMed

    Devereaux, Asha; Amundson, Dennis E; Parrish, J S; Lazarus, Angeline A

    2002-10-01

    Vesicants and nerve agents have been used in chemical warfare for ages. They remain a threat in today's altered political climate because they are relatively simple to produce, transport, and deploy. Vesicants, such as mustard and lewisite, can affect the skin, eyes, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal system. They leave affected persons at risk for long-term effects. Nerve agents, such as tabun, sarin, soman, and VX, hyperstimulate the muscarinic and nicotinic receptors of the nervous system. Physicians need to familiarize themselves with the clinical findings of such exposures and the decontamination and treatment strategies necessary to minimize injuries and deaths.

  14. Clostridium botulinum and the ophthalmologist: a review of botulism, including biological warfare ramifications of botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Caya, J G

    2001-01-01

    The anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum causes disease by elaborating an extremely potent neurotoxin that inhibits release of acetylcholine at presynaptic nerve endings, thereby resulting in a descending flaccid paralysis and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Possible ophthalmological effects of this neurotoxin are many and typically constitute the earliest manifestations of botulism. This review summarizes the medical literature on botulism with regard to historical perspective, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment. Ophthalmological findings of botulism are tabulated and their frequencies are provided. Finally, the bioterrorism/biologic warfare ramifications of botulinum toxin are briefly discussed.

  15. Information Technology Certification Training Implementation: Exploratory Case Study of Air Force and Civilian Leaders Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Jamie E.

    2017-01-01

    Military leaders, both active duty and General Schedule (GS), must understand cyber warfare with its environmental connections and rapid evolution while finding ways to develop strategies that may lessen threats and attacks to government infrastructure. The Department of Defense (DoD) sought training and certification programs from the civilian…

  16. Analysis of chemical warfare agents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: methods for their direct detection and derivatization approaches for the analysis of their degradation products

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Valdez, Carlos A.; Leif, Roald N.; Hok, Saphon

    Abstract Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are unarguably one of the most feared toxic substances produced by mankind. Their inception in conventional warfare can be traced as far back as the Middle Ages but their full breakthrough as central players in bellic conflicts was not realized until World War I. Since then, more modern CWAs along with efficient methods for their manufacture have emerged and violently shaped the way modern warfare and diplomatic relations are conducted. Owing to their mass destruction ability, counter methods to mitigate their impact appeared almost immediately on par with their development. These efforts have focused onmore » their efficient destruction, development of medical countermeasures and their detection by modern analytical chemistry methods. The following review seeks to provide the reader with a broad introduction on their direct detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the various sample derivatization methods available for the analysis of their degradation products. The review concentrates on three of the main CWA classes and includes the nerve agents, the blistering agents and lastly, the incapacitating agents. Each section begins with a brief introduction of the CWA along with discussions of reports dealing with their detection in the intact form by GC-MS. Furthermore, as products arising from their degradation carry as much importance as the agents themselves in the field of forensic analysis, the available derivatization methods of these species are presented for each CWA highlighting some examples from our lab in the Forensic Science Center at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.« less

  17. Analysis of chemical warfare agents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: methods for their direct detection and derivatization approaches for the analysis of their degradation products

    DOE PAGES

    Valdez, Carlos A.; Leif, Roald N.; Hok, Saphon; ...

    2017-07-25

    Abstract Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are unarguably one of the most feared toxic substances produced by mankind. Their inception in conventional warfare can be traced as far back as the Middle Ages but their full breakthrough as central players in bellic conflicts was not realized until World War I. Since then, more modern CWAs along with efficient methods for their manufacture have emerged and violently shaped the way modern warfare and diplomatic relations are conducted. Owing to their mass destruction ability, counter methods to mitigate their impact appeared almost immediately on par with their development. These efforts have focused onmore » their efficient destruction, development of medical countermeasures and their detection by modern analytical chemistry methods. The following review seeks to provide the reader with a broad introduction on their direct detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the various sample derivatization methods available for the analysis of their degradation products. The review concentrates on three of the main CWA classes and includes the nerve agents, the blistering agents and lastly, the incapacitating agents. Each section begins with a brief introduction of the CWA along with discussions of reports dealing with their detection in the intact form by GC-MS. Furthermore, as products arising from their degradation carry as much importance as the agents themselves in the field of forensic analysis, the available derivatization methods of these species are presented for each CWA highlighting some examples from our lab in the Forensic Science Center at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.« less

  18. [The re-introduction of malaria in the Pontine Marshes and the Cassino district during the end of World War II. Biological warfare or global war tactics?].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio; Manfredi, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    After the fall of the Fascist regime on September 8, 1943, Italy was split into two parts: (i) the Southern regions where the King Victor Emanuel III and the military general staff escaped was under the control of English-American allied armies, and (ii) the northern regions comprising Lazio, Tuscany, Umbria, and Marche still under the control of the Germans. The German Wehrmacht, after suffering several defeats on Southern lines, established a new strengthened line of defence called the Gustav line, located south of Rome and crossing in the western portion the recently-drained Pontine Marshes. In his book published in 2006, Frank Snowden hypothesised that occupying German armies in 1943 had initiated a programme of re-flooding the Pontine plain as a biological warfare strategy to re-introduce malaria infection in the territories south of Rome, Such a plan was intended (i) to slow down the advance of English-American forces, and (ii) to punish Italians who abandoned their former allies. Other authors, including Annibale Folchi, Erhard Geissler, and Jeanne Guillemin, have disputed this hypothesis based on an analysis of recently-uncovered archive documents. What is not disputed is that the flooding of the Pontine and Roman plains in 1943 contributed to a severe malaria epidemic in 1944, which was associated with exceptionally high morbidity and mortality rates in the afflicted populations. Herein, we critically evaluate the evidence and arguments of whether the Wehrmacht specifically aimed to spread malaria as a novel biological warfare strategy in Italy during the Second World War. In our opinion, evidence for specific orders to deliberately spread malaria by the German army is lacking, although the strategy itself may have been considered by Nazis during the waning years of the war.

  19. Chemical warfare agent detection: a review of current trends and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Pacsial-Ong, Eden Joy; Aguilar, Zoraida P

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends countries to create a public health system that can respond to the deliberate release of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Procedures for preparedness, response, decontamination protocols and medical countermeasures against CWA attacks are described. Known CWAs, including their properties and pharmacological consequences upon exposure, are tabulated and discussed. Requirements imposed on detection systems by various applications and environmental needs are presented in order to assess the devices for detection and identification of specific CWAs. The review surveys current and near-term detection technologies and equipments, as well as devices that are currently available to the military and civilian first responders. Brief technical discussions of several detection technologies are presented, with emphasis placed in the principles of detection. Finally, enabling technologies that form the basis for advanced sensing systems and devices are described.

  20. Determination of trace amounts of chemical warfare agent degradation products in decontamination solutions with NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Harri; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Kuitunen, Marja-Leena; Vanninen, Paula

    2007-12-01

    Decontamination solutions are used for an efficient detoxification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). As these solutions can be composed of strong alkaline chemicals with hydrolyzing and oxidizing properties, the analysis of CWA degradation products in trace levels from these solutions imposes a challenge for any analytical technique. Here, we present results of application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for analysis of trace amounts of CWA degradation products in several untreated decontamination solutions. Degradation products of the nerve agents sarin, soman, and VX were selectively monitored with substantially reduced interference of background signals by 1D 1H-31P heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectrometry. The detection limit of the chemicals was at the low part-per-million level (2-10 microg/mL) in all studied solutions. In addition, the concentration of the degradation products was obtained with sufficient confidence with external standards.

  1. Dual-Function Metal-Organic Framework as a Versatile Catalyst for Detoxifying Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang; Moon, Su-Young; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-12-22

    The nanocrystals of a porphyrin-based zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) are used as a dual-function catalyst for the simultaneous detoxification of two chemical warfare agent simulants at room temperature. Simulants of nerve agent (such as GD, VX) and mustard gas, dimethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, have been hydrolyzed and oxidized, respectively, to nontoxic products via a pair of pathways catalyzed by the same MOF. Phosphotriesterase-like activity of the Zr6-containing node combined with photoactivity of the porphyrin linker gives rise to a versatile MOF catalyst. In addition, bringing the MOF crystals down to the nanoregime leads to acceleration of the catalysis.

  2. Metal-Organic Framework Modified Glass Substrate for Analysis of Highly Volatile Chemical Warfare Agents by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dhummakupt, Elizabeth S; Carmany, Daniel O; Mach, Phillip M; Tovar, Trenton M; Ploskonka, Ann M; Demond, Paul S; DeCoste, Jared B; Glaros, Trevor

    2018-03-07

    Paper spray mass spectrometry has been shown to successfully analyze chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. However, due to the volatility differences between the simulants and real G-series (i.e., sarin, soman) CWAs, analysis from an untreated paper substrate proved difficult. To extend the analytical lifetime of these G-agents, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were successfully integrated onto the paper spray substrates to increase adsorption and desorption. In this study, several MOFs and nanoparticles were tested to extend the analytical lifetimes of sarin, soman, and cyclosarin on paper spray substrates. It was found that the addition of either UiO-66 or HKUST-1 to the paper substrate increased the analytical lifetime of the G-agents from less than 5 min detectability to at least 50 min.

  3. Molecularly imprinted nanopatterns for the recognition of biological warfare agent ricin.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Santwana; Boopathi, M; Kumar, Om; Baghel, Anuradha; Pandey, Pratibha; Mahato, T H; Singh, Beer; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2009-11-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for biological warfare agent (BWA) ricin was synthesized using silanes in order to avoid harsh environments during the synthesis of MIP. The synthesized MIP was utilized for the recognition of ricin. The complete removal of ricin from polymer was confirmed by fluorescence spectrometer and SEM-EDAX. SEM and EDAX studies confirmed the attachment of silane polymer on the surface of silica gel matrix. SEM image of Ricin-MIP exhibited nanopatterns and it was found to be entirely different from the SEM image of non-imprinted polymer (NIP). BET surface area analysis revealed more surface area (227 m(2)/g) for Ricin-MIP than that of NIP (143 m(2)/g). In addition, surface area study also showed more pore volume (0.5010 cm(3)/g) for Ricin-MIP than that of NIP (0.2828 cm(3)/g) at 12 nm pore diameter confirming the presence of imprinted sites for ricin as the reported diameter of ricin is 12 nm. The recognition and rebinding ability of the Ricin-MIP was tested in aqueous solution. Ricin-MIP rebound more ricin when compared to the NIP. Chromatogram obtained with Ricin-MIP exhibited two peaks due to imprinting, however, chromatogram of NIP exhibited only one peak for free ricin. SDS-PAGE result confirmed the second peak observed in chromatogram of Ricin-MIP as ricin peak. Ricin-MIP exhibited an imprinting efficiency of 1.76 and it also showed 10% interference from the structurally similar protein abrin.

  4. Information Warfare-Worthy Jamming Attack Detection Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Fuzzy Inference System

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sudip; Singh, Ranjit; Rohith Mohan, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    The proposed mechanism for jamming attack detection for wireless sensor networks is novel in three respects: firstly, it upgrades the jammer to include versatile military jammers; secondly, it graduates from the existing node-centric detection system to the network-centric system making it robust and economical at the nodes, and thirdly, it tackles the problem through fuzzy inference system, as the decision regarding intensity of jamming is seldom crisp. The system with its high robustness, ability to grade nodes with jamming indices, and its true-detection rate as high as 99.8%, is worthy of consideration for information warfare defense purposes. PMID:22319307

  5. Vapour breakthrough behaviour of carbon tetrachloride - A simulant for chemical warfare agent on ASZMT carbon: A comparative study with whetlerite carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Avanish Kumar; Shah, Dilip K.; Mahato, T. H.; Roy, A.; Yadav, S. S.; Srivas, S. K.; Singh, Beer

    2013-06-01

    ASZMT and whetlerite carbon was prepared by impregnation of active carbon with ammonical salts of Cu (II), Ag (I), Zn (II), Mo (VI), TEDA and Cu (II), Ag (I), Cr (VI), NaOH, C5H5N respectively using incipient wetness technique. Thereafter, impregnated carbon systems were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and surface characterization techniques. Impregnated carbon systems were evaluated under dynamic conditions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) vapour that was used as a simulant for the persistent chemical warfare agents for testing breakthrough times of filter cartridges and canisters of gas masks in the national approval test of respirators. The protective potential of ASZMT carbon was compared with the whetlerite carbon which is presently used in NBC filtration system. The effect of CCl4 concentration, test flow rate, temperature and relative humidity on the breakthrough behaviour of the impregnated carbon systems has also been studied. The study clearly indicated that the whetlerite carbon possessed breakthrough time greater than ASZMT carbon. However, ASZMT carbon provided adequate protection against CCl4 vapours and can be used as an alternative to whetlerite carbon that contain Cr(VI), which is reported to be carcinogenic and having lesser shelf life. The study indicated the breakthrough time of impregnated carbon systems were found to decrease with the increase of the CCl4 concentration and flow rate. The variation in temperature and relative humidity did not significantly affect the breakthrough behaviour of impregnated carbon systems at high vapour concentration of CCl4 whereasbreak through time of impregnated carbon systems reduced by an increase of relative humidity at low CCl4 vapour concentration.

  6. Global physics: from percolation to terrorism, guerilla warfare and clandestine activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge

    2003-12-01

    The September 11 attack on the US has revealed an unprecedented terrorism with worldwide range of destruction. It is argued to result from the first worldwide percolation of passive supporters. They are people sympathetic to the terrorism cause but without being involved with it. They just do not oppose it in case they could. This scheme puts suppression of the percolation as the major strategic issue in the fight against terrorism. Acting on the population is shown to be useless. Instead a new strategic scheme is suggested to increase the terrorism percolation threshold and in turn suppress the percolation. The relevant associated space is identified as a multi-dimensional social space including both the ground earth surface and all various independent flags displayed by the terrorist group. Some hints are given on how to shrink the geographical spreading of terrorism threat. The model apply to a large spectrum of clandestine activities including guerilla warfare as well as tax evasion, corruption, illegal gambling, illegal prostitution and black markets.

  7. Plastic antibody for the recognition of chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard.

    PubMed

    Boopathi, M; Suryanarayana, M V S; Nigam, Anil Kumar; Pandey, Pratibha; Ganesan, K; Singh, Beer; Sekhar, K

    2006-06-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) known as plastic antibodies (PAs) represent a new class of materials possessing high selectivity and affinity for the target molecule. Since their discovery, PAs have attracted considerable interest from bio- and chemical laboratories to pharmaceutical institutes. PAs are becoming an important class of synthetic materials mimicking molecular recognition by natural receptors. In addition, they have been utilized as catalysts, sorbents for solid-phase extraction, stationary phase for liquid chromatography and mimics of enzymes. In this paper, first time we report the preparation and characterization of a PA for the recognition of blistering chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard (SM). The SM imprinted PA exhibited more surface area when compared to the control non-imprinted polymer (NIP). In addition, SEM image showed an ordered nano-pattern for the PA of SM that is entirely different from the image of NIP. The imprinting also enhanced SM rebinding ability to the PA when compared to the NIP with an imprinting efficiency (alpha) of 1.3.

  8. Mid-wave infrared hyperspectral imaging of unknown chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clewes, Rhea J.; Howle, Chris R.; Guicheteau, Jason; Emge, Darren; Ruxton, Keith; Robertson, Gordon; Miller, William; Malcolm, Graeme; Maker, Gareth T.

    2013-05-01

    The ability of a stand-off chemical detector to distinguish two different chemical warfare agents is demonstrated in this paper. Using Negative Contrast Imaging, based upon IR absorption spectroscopy, we were able to detect 1 μl of VX, sulfur mustard and water on a subset of representative surfaces. These experiments were performed at a range of 1.3 metres and an angle of 45° to the surface. The technique employed utilises a Q-switched intracavity MgO:PPLN crystal that generated 1.4 - 1.8 μm (shortwave) and 2.6 - 3.6 μm (midwave) infrared radiation (SWIR and MWIR, respectively). The MgO:PPLN crystal has a fanned grating design which, via translation through a 1064 nm pump beam, enables tuning through the SWIR and MWIR wavelength ranges. The SWIR and MWIR beams are guided across a scene via a pair of raster scanned mirrors allowing detection of absorption features within these spectral regions. This investigation exploited MWIR signatures, as they provided sufficient molecular information to distinguish between toxic and benign chemicals in these proof-of-concept experiments.

  9. Environmental Decontamination of a Chemical Warfare Simulant Utilizing a Membrane Vesicle-Encapsulated Phosphotriesterase.

    PubMed

    Alves, Nathan J; Moore, Martin; Johnson, Brandy J; Dean, Scott N; Turner, Kendrick B; Medintz, Igor L; Walper, Scott A

    2018-05-09

    While technologies for the remediation of chemical contaminants continue to emerge, growing interest in green technologies has led researchers to explore natural catalytic mechanisms derived from microbial species. One such method, enzymatic degradation, offers an alternative to harsh chemical catalysts and resins. Recombinant enzymes, however, are often too labile or show limited activity when challenged with nonideal environmental conditions that may vary in salinity, pH, or other physical properties. Here, we demonstrate how phosphotriesterase encapsulated in a bacterial outer membrane vesicle can be used to degrade the organophosphate chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulant paraoxon in environmental water samples. We also carried out remediation assays on solid surfaces, including glass, painted metal, and fabric, that were selected as representative materials, which could potentially be contaminated with a CWA.

  10. Decontamination of adsorbed chemical warfare agents on activated carbon using hydrogen peroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Osovsky, Ruth; Kaplan, Doron; Nir, Ido; Rotter, Hadar; Elisha, Shmuel; Columbus, Ishay

    2014-09-16

    Mild treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions (3-30%) efficiently decomposes adsorbed chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on microporous activated carbons used in protective garments and air filters. Better than 95% decomposition of adsorbed sulfur mustard (HD), sarin, and VX was achieved at ambient temperatures within 1-24 h, depending on the H2O2 concentration. HD was oxidized to the nontoxic HD-sulfoxide. The nerve agents were perhydrolyzed to the respective nontoxic methylphosphonic acids. The relative rapidity of the oxidation and perhydrolysis under these conditions is attributed to the microenvironment of the micropores. Apparently, the reactions are favored due to basic sites on the carbon surface. Our findings suggest a potential environmentally friendly route for decontamination of adsorbed CWAs, using H2O2 without the need of cosolvents or activators.

  11. Specificity enhancement by electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry--a valuable tool for differentiation and identification of 'V'-type chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Weissberg, Avi; Tzanani, Nitzan; Dagan, Shai

    2013-12-01

    The use of chemical warfare agents has become an issue of emerging concern. One of the challenges in analytical monitoring of the extremely toxic 'V'-type chemical weapons [O-alkyl S-(2-dialkylamino)ethyl alkylphosphonothiolates] is to distinguish and identify compounds of similar structure. MS analysis of these compounds reveals mostly fragment/product ions representing the amine-containing residue. Hence, isomers or derivatives with the same amine residue exhibit similar mass spectral patterns in both classical EI/MS and electrospray ionization-MS, leading to unavoidable ambiguity in the identification of the phosphonate moiety. A set of five 'V'-type agents, including O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX), O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (RVX) and O-ethyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VM) were studied by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/MS, utilizing a QTRAP mass detector. MS/MS enhanced product ion scans and multistage MS(3) experiments were carried out. Based on the results, possible fragmentation pathways were proposed, and a method for the differentiation and identification of structural isomers and derivatives of 'V'-type chemical warfare agents was obtained. MS/MS enhanced product ion scans at various collision energies provided information-rich spectra, although many of the product ions obtained were at low abundance. Employing MS(3) experiments enhanced the selectivity for those low abundance product ions and provided spectra indicative of the different phosphonate groups. Study of the fragmentation pathways, revealing some less expected structures, was carried out and allowed the formulation of mechanistic rules and the determination of sets of ions typical of specific groups, for example, methylphosphonothiolates versus ethylphosphonothiolates. The new group-specific ions elucidated in this work are also useful for screening unknown 'V'-type agents and related

  12. Coast Guard SOF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Forces units into known Viet Cong (VC) strongholds, participating in direct action raids on VC junk bases, conducting psychological operations, and...and General McClure established the Army’s Psychological Warfare Cen- ter and 10th Special Forces Group in 1952.62 President Kennedy’s interest in...counterinsurgency warfare paved the way for the “Green Beret,” for which Army Special Forces renamed the Psychological Warfare Center the JFK Special

  13. French and US Army’s dilemma Between Athena and Ares: Keep a Sense of Humanity in a Technological Warfare?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    approach describing complexity and friction in warfare is less and less understood by a society developed in a positivist way of mind ( Auguste Comte ). The...Publication (ADRP) 3-07, Stability (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, August 2012). 2Didier Danet and Jean-Paul Hanon, “Digitization and...operations is still a relatively new phenomenon, but one that is gaining traction. In August 2008, a successful ambush against a French company in the

  14. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of chemical warfare G-agent hydrolysis products by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank E.; Gift, Alan D.; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

    2004-12-01

    The United States and its allies have been increasingly challenged by terrorism, and since the September 11, 2001 attacks and the war in Afghanistan and Iraq, homeland security has become a national priority. The simplicity in manufacturing chemical warfare agents, the relatively low cost, and previous deployment raises public concern that they may also be used by terrorists or rogue nations. We have been investigating the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect extremely low concentrations (e.g. part-per-billion) of chemical agents, as might be found in poisoned water. Since trace quantities of nerve agents can be hydrolyzed in the presence of water, we have expanded our studies to include such degradation products. Our SERS-active medium consists of silver or gold nanoparticles incorporated into a sol-gel matrix, which is immobilized in a glass capillary. The choice of sol-gel precursor allows controlling hydrophobicity, while the porous silica network offers a unique environment for stabilizing the SERS-active metals. Here we present the use of these metal-doped sol-gels to selectively enhance the Raman signal of the hydrolyzed products of the G-series nerve agents.

  16. Setting up a mobile Lidar (DIAL) system for detecting chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavosh Tehrani, M.; Mohammad, M. Malek; Jaafari, E.; Mobashery, A.

    2015-03-01

    The mobile light detection and ranging DIAL system of Malek Ashtar University of Technology has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agents whose absorption wavelengths are in the range of 9.2-10.8 μm tunable CO2 lasers of the system. In this paper, this system is first described and then ammonia detection is analyzed experimentally. Also, experimental results of detecting a sarin agent simulant, dimethyl-methyl phosphonate (DMMP), are presented. The power levels received from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of NH3 and DMMP have been measured and debated. The primary test results with a 150 ns clipped pulse width by passive pinhole plasma shutter indicate that the system is capable of monitoring several species of pollutants in the range of about 1 km, with a 20 m spatial and 2 min temporal resolution.

  17. Reduced chemical warfare agent sorption in polyurethane-painted surfaces via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of perfluoroalkanes.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Wesley O; Peterson, Gregory W; Durke, Erin M

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoralkalation via plasma chemical vapor deposition has been used to improve hydrophobicity of surfaces. We have investigated this technique to improve the resistance of commercial polyurethane coatings to chemicals, such as chemical warfare agents. The reported results indicate the surface treatment minimizes the spread of agent droplets and the sorption of agent into the coating. The improvement in resistance is likely due to reduction of the coating's surface free energy via fluorine incorporation, but may also have contributing effects from surface morphology changes. The data indicates that plasma-based surface modifications may have utility in improving chemical resistance of commercial coatings.

  18. Chemical warfare agent simulants for human volunteer trials of emergency decontamination: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wyke, Stacey; Marczylo, Tim; Collins, Samuel; Gaulton, Tom; Foxall, Kerry; Amlôt, Richard; Duarte‐Davidson, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Incidents involving the release of chemical agents can pose significant risks to public health. In such an event, emergency decontamination of affected casualties may need to be undertaken to reduce injury and possible loss of life. To ensure these methods are effective, human volunteer trials (HVTs) of decontamination protocols, using simulant contaminants, have been conducted. Simulants must be used to mimic the physicochemical properties of more harmful chemicals, while remaining non‐toxic at the dose applied. This review focuses on studies that employed chemical warfare agent simulants in decontamination contexts, to identify those simulants most suitable for use in HVTs of emergency decontamination. Twenty‐two simulants were identified, of which 17 were determined unsuitable for use in HVTs. The remaining simulants (n = 5) were further scrutinized for potential suitability according to toxicity, physicochemical properties and similarities to their equivalent toxic counterparts. Three suitable simulants, for use in HVTs were identified; methyl salicylate (simulant for sulphur mustard), diethyl malonate (simulant for soman) and malathion (simulant for VX or toxic industrial chemicals). All have been safely used in previous HVTs, and have a range of physicochemical properties that would allow useful inference to more toxic chemicals when employed in future studies of emergency decontamination systems. PMID:28990191

  19. National policy and military doctrine: development of a nuclear concept of land warfare, 1949-1964

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bockar, D.

    In the thirty years that battle field nuclear weapons have been available, no one has originated an idea of how they might be used as an entirely new weapon. New weapons are routinely introduced into existing combat organizations before an appropriate tactical concept has been invented. But never before in history has a new weapon been deployed on so massive a scale without a tactical concept that exploited the radical implications of its novel technology for traditional warfare. This study is an attempt to understand the problem of developing a persuasive tactical concept for nuclear weapons. The process of assimilationmore » by which military organizations integrate new weapons with existing weapons in novel tactical and organizational concepts has an intellectual, and institutional, and a political dimension. The principle of civilian control, however, makes the process by which weapons are assimilated part of the process by which national security policies are made. In peacetime the military's formulation of doctrine is almost entirely consequent upon the world view, the methodological and managerial assumptions, and the domestic policy concerns of political authority.« less

  20. Deep sea habitats in the chemical warfare dumping areas of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Czub, Michał; Kotwicki, Lech; Lang, Thomas; Sanderson, Hans; Klusek, Zygmunt; Grabowski, Miłosz; Szubska, Marta; Jakacki, Jaromir; Andrzejewski, Jan; Rak, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2018-03-01

    The Baltic Sea is a severely disturbed marine ecosystem that has previously been used as a dumping ground for Chemical Warfare Agents (CW). The presence of unexploded underwater ordnance is an additional risk factor for offshore activities and an environmental risk for the natural resources of the sea. In this paper, the focus is on descriptions of the marine habitat based on the observations arising from studies linked to the CHEMSEA, MODUM and DAIMON projects. Investigated areas of Bornholm, Gotland and Gdańsk Deeps are similarly affected by the Baltic Sea eutrophication, however, at depths greater than 70m several differences in local hydrological regimes and pore-water heavy metal concentrations between those basins were observed. During the lifespan of presented studies, we were able to observe the effects of Major Baltic Inflow, that started in December 2014, on local biota and their habitats, especially in the Bornholm Deep area. Reappearance of several meiofauna taxa and one macrofauna specimen was observed approximately one year after this phenomenon, however it's ecological effects already disappeared in March 2017. According to our findings and to the EUNIS Habitat Classification, the three reviewed areas should be characterized as Deep Sea Muddy Sands, while the presence of suspicious bomb-like objects both beneath and on top of the sediments confirms their CW dumpsite status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Coalition Logistics: A Case Study in Operation Restore Hope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    coalition operations."° In Seland’s interview with Colonel Wolfgang Kopp, chief of staff, German/Franco Brigade, Colonel Kopp stated that key members...February 1994. 21William G. Pagonis and Michael D. Krause , "Operational Logistics and the Gulf War," The Institute of Land Warfare: The Land Warfare...Headquarters, 1989. Pagonis, William G. and Michael D. Krause . "Operational Logistics and the Gulf War." The Land Warfare Paper No. 13. Arlington, Virginia

  2. Poly High Internal Phase Emulsion for the Immobilization of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alexander J; Main, Marcus J; Cooper, Nicholas J; Blight, Barry A; Holder, Simon J

    2017-09-20

    We report a facile method for the absorption (characterized by the weight/weight swelling degree, Q) of a variety of chemical warfare agents (CWAs); including sulfur mustard (HD) (Q = 40) and V-series (VM, VX, i-Bu-VX, n-Bu-VX) of nerve agents (Q ≥ 45) and a simulant, methyl benzoate (Q = 55), through the use of a poly(styrene-co-vinyl benzyl chloride-co-divinylbenzene) lightly cross-linked poly high internal phase emulsion (polyHIPE). By varying the vinyl benzyl chloride (VBC) content and the volume of the internal phase of the precursor emulsion it is demonstrated that absorption is facilitated both by the swelling of the polymer and the uptake of liquid in the pores. In particular the sample prepared from a 95% internal emulsion water content showed rapid swelling (<5 min to total absorption) and the ability to swell both from a monolithic state and from a compressed state, making these systems ideal practical candidates for the rapid immobilization of CWAs.

  3. An Army and Air Force Issue: Principles and Procedures for AirLand Warfare. A Perspective of Operational Effectivenes on the Modern Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    certain and effective method of destroying Rommel is to unify Air and Army Commands, to reorganize the VIIIth Army under new leadership and new methods...15 r r ,- ~13 z The British did, in fact, reorganize the Eighth Army under new leadership . This new leadership instituted AirLand warfare principles...geographical advantage, leadership , initiative, quality of 52equipment and units, and logistical support. William P. Mako also succinctly addresses

  4. How is the United States Naval Academy Developing and Preparing Surface Warfare Officers: A Needs Analysis of the SWO Leadership Capstone Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    the ship. These cognitive needs can be thought of as what would be taught at the five-month SWOSDOC, the DOSP computer -based training modules, at a...137 a. Can NL401 Provide both Closure and Further Exploration? ...................138 b. Can Both be Accomplished in the Time Allotted...Warfare Officer Community, has no follow-on school; SWO Ensigns are trained by coupling the Division Officer at Sea Program (DOSP) computer based

  5. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse. (I) Development of a model for screening studies in skin decontamination and protection.

    PubMed

    Dorandeu, F; Taysse, L; Boudry, I; Foquin, A; Hérodin, F; Mathieu, J; Daulon, S; Cruz, C; Lallement, G

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to lethal chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is no longer only a military issue due to the terrorist threat. Among the CWAs of concern are the organophosphorus nerve agent O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX) and the vesicant sulfur mustard (SM). Although efficient means of decontamination are available, most of them lose their efficacy when decontamination is delayed after exposure of the bare skin. Alternatively, CWA skin penetration can be prevented by topical skin protectants. Active research in skin protection and decontamination is thus paramount. In vivo screening of decontaminants or skin protectants is usually time consuming and may be expensive depending on the animal species used. We were thus looking for a suitable, scientifically sound and cost-effective model, which is easy to handle. The euthymic hairless mouse Crl: SKH-1 (hr/hr) BR is widely used in some skin studies and has previously been described to be suitable for some experiments involving SM or SM analogs. To evaluate the response of this species, we studied the consequences of exposing male anaesthetized SKH-1 mice to either liquid VX or to SM, the latter being used in liquid form or as saturated vapours. Long-term effects of SM burn were also evaluated. The model was then used in the companion paper (Taysse et al.(1)).

  6. Detoxification of Chemical Warfare Agents Using a Zr6 -Based Metal-Organic Framework/Polymer Mixture.

    PubMed

    Moon, Su-Young; Proussaloglou, Emmanuel; Peterson, Gregory W; DeCoste, Jared B; Hall, Morgan G; Howarth, Ashlee J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2016-10-10

    Owing to their high surface area, periodic distribution of metal sites, and water stability, zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks (Zr 6 -MOFs) have shown promising activity for the hydrolysis of nerve agents GD and VX, as well as the simulant, dimethyl 4-nitrophenylphosphate (DMNP), in buffered solutions. A hurdle to using MOFs for this application is the current need for a buffer solution. Here the destruction of the simulant DMNP, as well as the chemical warfare agents (GD and VX) through hydrolysis using a MOF catalyst mixed with a non-volatile, water-insoluble, heterogeneous buffer is reported. The hydrolysis of the simulant and nerve agents in the presence of the heterogeneous buffer was fast and effective. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data for the main site, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Laboratory, Dahlgren, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Clifton F.; Bolles, Thomas P.; Harlow, George E.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Laboratory at Dahlgren, Virginia, as part of a hydrogeologic assessment of the shallow aquifer system begun in 1992. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to provide the Navy with hydrogeologic data to meet the requirements of a Spill Contingency Plan. This report describes the ground-water observation-well network, hydro- geologic, and water-quality data collected between August 1992 and September 1993. The report includes a description of the locations and con- struction of 35 observation wells on the Main Site. Hydrologic data include lithologic core samples, geophysical logs, and vertical hydraulic conductivity measurements of selected core intervals. Hydrologic data include synoptic and hourly measurements of ground-water levels, observation-well slug tests to determine horizontal hydraulic conductivity, and tide data. Water-quality data include analyses of major dissolved constituents in ground water and surface water.

  8. War gaming for strategic and tactical nuclear warfare. January 1970-January 1988 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-January 1988

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning non-quick war gaming for strategic and tactical nuclear warfare. Analyses and comparative evaluations, based upon computerized simulations, are considered as are manuals and specification for the various computer programs employed. Stage 64 and Satan II and III are covered prominently. (This updated bibliography contains 356 citations, 36 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  9. Joint Command and Control of Cyber Operations: The Joint Force Cyber Component Command (JFCCC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-04

    relies so heavily on complex command and control systems and interconnectivity in general, cyber warfare has become a serious topic of interest at the...defensive cyber warfare into current and future operations and plans. In particular, Joint Task Force (JTF) Commanders must develop an optimum method to

  10. Wearable Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Fabrics Produced by Knitting Flexible Wire Electrodes for the Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Heesoo; Seo, Jin Ah; Choi, Seungki

    2017-01-01

    One of the key reasons for the limited use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is its inability to treat non-flat, three-dimensional (3D) surface structures, such as electronic devices and the human body, because of the rigid electrode structure required. In this study, a new APP system design—wearable APP (WAPP)—that utilizes a knitting technique to assemble flexible co-axial wire electrodes into a large-area plasma fabric is presented. The WAPP device operates in ambient air with a fully enclosed power electrode and grounded outer electrode. The plasma fabric is flexible and lightweight, and it can be scaled up for larger areas, making it attractive for wearable APP applications. Here, we report the various plasma properties of the WAPP device and successful test results showing the decontamination of toxic chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard (HD), soman (GD), and nerve (VX) agents. PMID:28098192

  11. Wearable Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Fabrics Produced by Knitting Flexible Wire Electrodes for the Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Heesoo; Seo, Jin Ah; Choi, Seungki

    2017-01-01

    One of the key reasons for the limited use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is its inability to treat non-flat, three-dimensional (3D) surface structures, such as electronic devices and the human body, because of the rigid electrode structure required. In this study, a new APP system design—wearable APP (WAPP)—that utilizes a knitting technique to assemble flexible co-axial wire electrodes into a large-area plasma fabric is presented. The WAPP device operates in ambient air with a fully enclosed power electrode and grounded outer electrode. The plasma fabric is flexible and lightweight, and it can be scaled up for larger areas, making it attractive for wearable APP applications. Here, we report the various plasma properties of the WAPP device and successful test results showing the decontamination of toxic chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard (HD), soman (GD), and nerve (VX) agents.

  12. Wearable Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Fabrics Produced by Knitting Flexible Wire Electrodes for the Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    PubMed

    Jung, Heesoo; Seo, Jin Ah; Choi, Seungki

    2017-01-18

    One of the key reasons for the limited use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is its inability to treat non-flat, three-dimensional (3D) surface structures, such as electronic devices and the human body, because of the rigid electrode structure required. In this study, a new APP system design-wearable APP (WAPP)-that utilizes a knitting technique to assemble flexible co-axial wire electrodes into a large-area plasma fabric is presented. The WAPP device operates in ambient air with a fully enclosed power electrode and grounded outer electrode. The plasma fabric is flexible and lightweight, and it can be scaled up for larger areas, making it attractive for wearable APP applications. Here, we report the various plasma properties of the WAPP device and successful test results showing the decontamination of toxic chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard (HD), soman (GD), and nerve (VX) agents.

  13. Mission Accomplished! Or Not? A Study about Success in Information Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    sensors and presented on a man-machine interface, e.g., a computer screen or on a radar plan position indicator. In modern warfare, staff and...has to be achievable; otherwise, it can be viewed simply as dreaming. Compared to sea, land and even air warfare, information warfare is a young...shares some of its characteristics with the air and sea domains. All of them exist without borders. In addition, they cannot be fortified or

  14. Naval Coastal Warfare Operations from 2000 to Operation Iraqi Freedom and the Deficiencies that Prompted their Addition to the Naval Expeditionary Combat Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-02

    overmatched small boats sought refuge with the Boutwell but very little could be done and the 25ft boats were sent back to MABOT under the escort of a zodiac ...NAVAL COASTAL WARFARE OPERATIONS FROM 2000 TO OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM AND THE DEFICIENCIES THAT PROMPTED THEIR ADDITION TO THE NAVAL EXPEDITIONARY...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing

  15. Chemical warfare agent simulants for human volunteer trials of emergency decontamination: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    James, Thomas; Wyke, Stacey; Marczylo, Tim; Collins, Samuel; Gaulton, Tom; Foxall, Kerry; Amlôt, Richard; Duarte-Davidson, Raquel

    2018-01-01

    Incidents involving the release of chemical agents can pose significant risks to public health. In such an event, emergency decontamination of affected casualties may need to be undertaken to reduce injury and possible loss of life. To ensure these methods are effective, human volunteer trials (HVTs) of decontamination protocols, using simulant contaminants, have been conducted. Simulants must be used to mimic the physicochemical properties of more harmful chemicals, while remaining non-toxic at the dose applied. This review focuses on studies that employed chemical warfare agent simulants in decontamination contexts, to identify those simulants most suitable for use in HVTs of emergency decontamination. Twenty-two simulants were identified, of which 17 were determined unsuitable for use in HVTs. The remaining simulants (n = 5) were further scrutinized for potential suitability according to toxicity, physicochemical properties and similarities to their equivalent toxic counterparts. Three suitable simulants, for use in HVTs were identified; methyl salicylate (simulant for sulphur mustard), diethyl malonate (simulant for soman) and malathion (simulant for VX or toxic industrial chemicals). All have been safely used in previous HVTs, and have a range of physicochemical properties that would allow useful inference to more toxic chemicals when employed in future studies of emergency decontamination systems. © 2017 Crown Copyright. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. On-Site Detection as a Countermeasure to Chemical Warfare/Terrorism.

    PubMed

    Seto, Y

    2014-01-01

    On-site monitoring and detection are necessary in the crisis and consequence management of wars and terrorism involving chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as sarin. The analytical performance required for on-site detection is mainly determined by the fatal vapor concentration and volatility of the CWAs involved. The analytical performance for presently available on-site technologies and commercially available on-site equipment for detecting CWAs interpreted and compared in this review include: classical manual methods, photometric methods, ion mobile spectrometry, vibrational spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, sensors, and other methods. Some of the data evaluated were obtained from our experiments using authentic CWAs. We concluded that (a) no technologies perfectly fulfill all of the on-site detection requirements and (b) adequate on-site detection requires (i) a combination of the monitoring-tape method and ion-mobility spectrometry for point detection and (ii) a combination of the monitoring-tape method, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction, and gas chromatography with a trap and special detectors for continuous monitoring. The basic properties of CWAs, the concept of on-site detection, and the sarin gas attacks in Japan as well as the forensic investigations thereof, are also explicated in this article. Copyright © 2014 Central Police University.

  17. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    PubMed Central

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  18. In Situ Probes of Capture and Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants by Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Plonka, Anna M.; Wang, Qi; Gordon, Wesley O.

    Recently, Zr-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) were shown to be among the fastest catalysts of nerve-agent hydrolysis in solution. Here, we report a detailed study of the adsorption and decomposition of a nerve-agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), on UiO-66, UiO-67, MOF-808, and NU-1000 using synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption, and infrared spectroscopy, which reveals key aspects of the reaction mechanism. The diffraction measurements indicate that all four MOFs adsorb DMMP (introduced at atmospheric pressures through a flow of helium or air) within the pore space. In addition, the combination of X-ray absorption and infrared spectra suggests direct coordination ofmore » DMMP to the Zr6 cores of all MOFs, which ultimately leads to decomposition to phosphonate products. Our experimental probes into the mechanism of adsorption and decomposition of chemical warfare agent simulants on Zr-based MOFs open new opportunities in rational design of new and superior decontamination materials.« less

  19. In Situ Probes of Capture and Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants by Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Plonka, Anna M.; Wang, Qi; Gordon, Wesley O.

    Zr-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been recently shown to be among the fastest catalysts of nerve-agent hydrolysis in solution. We report a detailed study of the adsorption and decomposition of a nerve-agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), on UiO-66, UiO-67, MOF-808, and NU-1000 using synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption, and infrared spectroscopy, which reveals key aspects of the reaction mechanism. The diffraction measurements indicate that all four MOFs adsorb DMMP (introduced at atmospheric pressures through a flow of helium or air) within the pore space. In addition, the combination of X-ray absorption and infrared spectra suggests direct coordination ofmore » DMMP to the Zr6 cores of all MOFs, which ultimately leads to decomposition to phosphonate products. These experimental probes into the mechanism of adsorption and decomposition of chemical warfare agent simulants on Zr-based MOFs open new opportunities in rational design of new and superior decontamination materials.« less

  20. In Situ Probes of Capture and Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants by Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Plonka, Anna M.; Wang, Qi; Gordon, Wesley O.; ...

    2016-12-30

    Recently, Zr-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) were shown to be among the fastest catalysts of nerve-agent hydrolysis in solution. Here, we report a detailed study of the adsorption and decomposition of a nerve-agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), on UiO-66, UiO-67, MOF-808, and NU-1000 using synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption, and infrared spectroscopy, which reveals key aspects of the reaction mechanism. The diffraction measurements indicate that all four MOFs adsorb DMMP (introduced at atmospheric pressures through a flow of helium or air) within the pore space. In addition, the combination of X-ray absorption and infrared spectra suggests direct coordination ofmore » DMMP to the Zr6 cores of all MOFs, which ultimately leads to decomposition to phosphonate products. Our experimental probes into the mechanism of adsorption and decomposition of chemical warfare agent simulants on Zr-based MOFs open new opportunities in rational design of new and superior decontamination materials.« less