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Sample records for warfarin

  1. Warfarin Pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Julie A.; Cavallari, Larisa H.

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) genotypes have been strongly and consistently associated with warfarin dose requirements, and dosing algorithms incorporating genetic and clinical information have been shown to be predictive of stable warfarin dose. However, clinical trials evaluating genotype-guided warfarin dosing produced mixed results, calling into question the utility of this approach. Recent trials used surrogate markers as endpoints rather than clinical endpoints, further complicating translation of the data to clinical practice. The present data do not support genetic testing to guide warfarin dosing, but in the setting where genotype data are available, use of such data in those of European ancestry is reasonable. Outcomes data are expected from an on-going trial, observational studies continue, and more work is needed to define dosing algorithms that incorporate appropriate variants in minority populations; all these will further shape guidelines and recommendations on the clinical utility of genotype-guided warfarin dosing. PMID:25282448

  2. Warfarin-induced Venous Limb Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Grim Hostetler, Sarah; Sopkovich, Jennifer; Dean, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Warfarin is a commonly used anticoagulant that has been associated with several significant cutaneous side effects, most notably warfarin-induced skin necrosis. A lesser known adverse reaction to warfarin is warfarin-induced venous limb gangrene. Both cutaneous adverse effects share the same pathophysiology, but are clinically quite different. The majority of cases of warfarin-induced venous limb gangrene has been in patients with cancer or heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. However, other hypercoagulable disease states, such as the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, can be associated with venous limb gangrene. In order to increase recognition of this important condition, the authors report a case of warfarin-induced venous limb gangrene in a patient with presumed antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and review the literature on warfarin-induced venous limb gangrene. PMID:23198012

  3. Warfarin Pharmacogenomics in Diverse Populations.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Justin B; Schultz, Lauren E; Steiner, Heidi E; Kittles, Rick A; Cavallari, Larisa H; Karnes, Jason H

    2017-09-01

    Genotype-guided warfarin dosing algorithms are a rational approach to optimize warfarin dosing and potentially reduce adverse drug events. Diverse populations, such as African Americans and Latinos, have greater variability in warfarin dose requirements and are at greater risk for experiencing warfarin-related adverse events compared with individuals of European ancestry. Although these data suggest that patients of diverse populations may benefit from improved warfarin dose estimation, the vast majority of literature on genotype-guided warfarin dosing, including data from prospective randomized trials, is in populations of European ancestry. Despite differing frequencies of variants by race/ethnicity, most evidence in diverse populations evaluates variants that are most common in populations of European ancestry. Algorithms that do not include variants important across race/ethnic groups are unlikely to benefit diverse populations. In some race/ethnic groups, development of race-specific or admixture-based algorithms may facilitate improved genotype-guided warfarin dosing algorithms above and beyond that seen in individuals of European ancestry. These observations should be considered in the interpretation of literature evaluating the clinical utility of genotype-guided warfarin dosing. Careful consideration of race/ethnicity and additional evidence focused on improving warfarin dosing algorithms across race/ethnic groups will be necessary for successful clinical implementation of warfarin pharmacogenomics. The evidence for warfarin pharmacogenomics has a broad significance for pharmacogenomic testing, emphasizing the consideration of race/ethnicity in discovery of gene-drug pairs and development of clinical recommendations for pharmacogenetic testing. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  4. Influence of Sampling on the Determination of Warfarin and Warfarin Alcohols in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lomonaco, Tommaso; Ghimenti, Silvia; Piga, Isabella; Biagini, Denise; Onor, Massimo; Fuoco, Roger; Di Francesco, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective The determination of warfarin, RS/SR- and RR/SS-warfarin alcohols in oral fluid may offer additional information to the INR assay. This study aimed to establish an optimized sampling technique providing the best correlation between the oral fluid and the unbound plasma concentrations of these compounds. Materials and Methods Samples of non-stimulated and stimulated oral fluid, and blood were collected from 14 patients undergoing warfarin therapy. After acidification, analytes were extracted with a dichloromethane/hexane mixture and determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Plasma samples were also ultrafiltered for the determination of the unbound fraction. The chromatographic separation was carried out in isocratic conditions with a phosphate buffer/methanol mobile phase on a C-18 reversed-phase column. The absence of interfering compounds was verified by HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Results Stimulation generally increased the oral fluid pH to values close to blood pH in about 6 minutes. The concentration of warfarin and RS/SR-warfarin alcohols in oral fluid followed the same trend, whereas the concentration of RR/SS-warfarin alcohols was not affected. Six minute stimulation with chewing gum followed by collection with a polyester swab was the best sampling procedure, with a good repeatability (RSD <10%) and relatively low inter-subject variability (RSD  = 30%) of the oral fluid to plasma ratio. This procedure provided strong correlations between the measured oral fluid and unbound plasma concentration of warfarin (r  =  0.92, p <0.001) and RS/SR-warfarin alcohols (r  =  0.84, p <0.001), as well as between stimulated oral fluid and total plasma concentration of warfarin (r  =  0.78, p <0.001) and RS/SR-warfarin alcohols (r  =  0.81, p <0.001). Conclusion The very good correlation between oral fluid and unbound plasma concentration of warfarin and RS/SR-warfarin alcohols suggests that oral fluid analysis could provide

  5. Azathioprine-Induced Warfarin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Sara R; Rondina, Matthew T; Pendleton, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe a case of azathioprine-induced warfarin resistance, present a literature review on warfarin–azathioprine interactions, and provide recommendations on appropriate management of this clinically significant interaction. CASE SUMMARY A 29-year-old female with Cogan’s syndrome experienced thrombosis of the left internal carotid artery. She was treated with an average weekly warfarin dose of 39 mg (5.5 mg daily) prior to beginning azathioprine therapy. Three weeks following initiation of azathioprine 150 mg daily, the international normalized ratio (INR) decreased from 1.9 (prior to the medication change) to 1.0 without any change in the warfarin dose or other relevant factors. Over several weeks, the patient’s warfarin dose was titrated up to 112 mg weekly (16 mg daily) to achieve an INR of 2.5 (a 188%, or 2.9-fold dose increase). Because of elevated liver enzyme levels, the azathioprine dosage was decreased to 100 mg daily. Within 2 weeks following that decrease, warfarin requirements decreased to 105 mg weekly (15 mg daily). DISCUSSION Azathioprine was the probable causative agent of warfarin resistance according to the Naranjo probability scale, and a possible causative agent according to the Drug Interaction Probability Scale. A literature search (PubMed, 1966–December 2007) revealed 8 case reports of this drug interaction and 2 cases involving a similar effect with 6-mercaptopurine, the active metabolite of azathioprine. The exact mechanism of the interaction remains unknown. Previously published case reports point to a rapid onset and offset of the warfarin–azathioprine interaction and a dose-dependent increase of at least 2.5-fold in warfarin dose requirement with the initiation of azathioprine 75–200 mg daily. CONCLUSIONS This case report and several others point toward azathioprine as a clinically significant inducer of warfarin resistance. Providers should anticipate the need for higher warfarin doses, warfarin dose adjustment

  6. [The current role of warfarin].

    PubMed

    Michalcová, Jana; Buliková, Alena; Zavřelová, Jiřina; Prudková, Marie; Penka, Miroslav

    Well-managed warfarin therapy remains an important method of anticoagulation in the 21st century, despite the introduction of new antithrombotics into the clinical practice. The main advantages of warfarin are decades of treatment experience, the possibility to monitor its anticoagulant effect using the INR and the last, but not least, the low cost. Currently, approximately 75 % of anticoagulated patients in the Czech Republic are treated with warfarin and warfarin remains the only option for oral anticoagulant therapy in certain clinical conditions (particularly in patients with valvular atrial fibrillation or mechanical heart valves). For physicians across specialties it is still indispensable to master the basics of safe and effective warfarin therapy, including the management of treatment complications.Key words: anticoagulant therapy - INR - thrombosis - warfarin.

  7. Warfarin-induced eosinophilic pleurisy.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, T; Hamada, M; Inoue, Y; Aono, S; Hiwada, K

    1995-08-01

    A 51-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of dry cough and low grade fever with right-sided pleural fluid and blood eosinophilia. Warfarin had been prescribed following coronary artery bypass grafting. After the discontinuation of warfarin the clinical and chest X-ray findings improved; readministration of the drug caused recurrent blood eosinophilia and pleural effusion in the other lung. Since no other specific etiologies for eosinophilia and pleural effusion were determined by extensive evaluation, warfarin seemed to be associated with his illness. This is the first report of warfarin-induced eosinophilic pleurisy.

  8. Pharmacogenetics of warfarin: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Ta Michael Lee, Ming; Klein, Teri E

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction in the 1950s, warfarin has become the commonly used oral anticoagulant for the prevention of thromboembolism in patients with deep vein thrombosis, atrial fibrillation or prosthetic heart valve replacement. Warfarin is highly efficacious; however, achieving the desired anticoagulation is difficult because of its narrow therapeutic window and highly variable dose response among individuals. Bleeding is often associated with overdose of warfarin. There is overwhelming evidence that an individual's warfarin maintenance is associated with clinical factors and genetic variations, most notably polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 2C9 and vitamin K epoxide reductase subunit 1. Numerous dose-prediction algorithms incorporating both genetic and clinical factors have been developed and tested clinically. However, results from major clinical trials are not available yet. This review aims to provide an overview of the field of warfarin which includes information about the drug, genetics of warfarin dose requirements, dosing algorithms developed and the challenges for the clinical implementation of warfarin pharmacogenetics. PMID:23657428

  9. Warfarin

    MedlinePlus

    ... forming or growing larger in your blood and blood vessels. It is prescribed for people with certain types ... symptoms You should know that warfarin may cause necrosis or gangrene (death of skin or other body ...

  10. Warfarin-acetaminophen drug interaction revisited.

    PubMed

    Shek, K L; Chan, L N; Nutescu, E

    1999-10-01

    Physicians and pharmacists routinely advise patients receiving warfarin to take acetaminophen for pain or fever because of its relative safety; however, a recent study questioned the safety of such practice. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE and IPA for human studies and case reports from 1966-1999 revealed evidence that acetaminophen may potentiate the effect of warfarin by a mechanism that has yet to be elucidated. Due to lack of a safer alternative, acetaminophen still should be the analgesic and antipyretic of choice in patients taking warfarin, as long as excessive amounts and prolonged administration (> 1.3 g acetaminophen/day for > 2 wks) are avoided. With the high degree of interpatient variability and the unpredictability of various drug-drug interactions with warfarin, close and frequent monitoring of international normalized ratios is the key for safe oral anticoagulation therapy.

  11. Warfarin interaction with Matricaria chamomilla

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Robert; Pilote, Louise

    2006-01-01

    No cases have been reported of Matricaria chamomilla potentiating the effects of warfarin. Nevertheless there is a theoretical risk for potentiation, since the herb is thought to be a coumarin constituent. We describe the case of a 70-year-old woman who, while being treated with warfarin, was admitted to hospital with multiple internal hemorrhages after having used chamomile products (tea and body lotion) to soothe upper respiratory tract symptoms. Patient education on the potential risk of taking chamomile products while being treated with warfarin is necessary to avoid such occurrences. PMID:16636327

  12. Updates on the Clinical Evidenced Herb-Warfarin Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Beikang; Zhang, Zhen; Zuo, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John's wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I), three were estimated as probable (level II), and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III) and doubtful (level IV), respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of “interacting herbs.” In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:24790635

  13. Warfarin Poisoning with Delayed Rebound Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Berling, Ingrid; Mostafa, Ahmed; Grice, Jeffrey E; Roberts, Michael S; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2017-02-01

    Intentional poisoning with warfarin is not the same as over-anticoagulation, for which guidelines exist. The coagulopathy resulting from a warfarin overdose is reversed with vitamin K 1 , the dose and timing of which is often guided by experience with the management of over-anticoagulation with warfarin therapy, rather than acute overdose. We report a case of a 50-year-old man who ingested an unknown amount of his warfarin, venlafaxine, and paracetamol. He presented with an international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.5, which steadily increased over 24 h to 7, despite receiving an initial 1 mg of vitamin K 1 . He was then treated with 5 mg vitamin K 1 , and once the INR returned to 4.5, 40 h post ingestion, he was discharged home. He was also treated with a full course of acetylcysteine for the paracetamol overdose. The following day his INR rebounded to 8.5 and he suffered a spontaneous epistaxis requiring readmission; he was treated with low titrated doses of vitamin K 1 . The warfarin concentration was 74.6 μg/mL 26 h post ingestion and decreased to 3.7 μg/mL over 72 h. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Our case highlights the risk of a rebound elevated INR even 3 days after acute warfarin overdose despite treatment with vitamin K 1 . Understanding the pharmacokinetics of vitamin K 1 in comparison with warfarin, repeat INR testing, and continued treatment with oral vitamin K 1 may help avoid complications of rebound coagulopathy in warfarin overdose. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inappropriate combination of warfarin and aspirin.

    PubMed

    Turan, Burak; Demir, Hakan; Mutlu, Ayhan; Daşlı, Tolga; Erkol, Ayhan; Erden, İsmail

    2016-03-01

    A combination of warfarin and aspirin is associated with increased bleeding compared with warfarin monotherapy. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence and appropriateness of the combination of warfarin and aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or mechanical heart valve (MHV). This cross-sectional study included consecutive patients with AF or MHV on chronic warfarin therapy (>3 months) without acute coronary syndrome or have not undergone a revascularization procedure in the preceding year. Medical history, concomitant diseases, and treatment data were acquired through patient interviews and from hospital records. Three hundred and sixty patients (213 with AF, 147 with MHV) were included. In those with AF, a significantly higher warfarin-aspirin combination was observed with concomitant vascular disease (38.8% vs. 14.6%), diabetes (36.6% vs. 16.3%), statin therapy (40% vs. 16.9%), left ventricular systolic dysfunction (33.3% vs. 17.5%) (p<0.05 for all). The use of combination therapy was similar between different CHADS-VASc scores. In patients with MHV, higher combination therapy was observed in males (41% vs. 26.7% in females; p=0.070), concomitant vascular disease (47.8% vs. 29.8%; p=0.091), and AF (56.3% vs. 29.8%; p=0.033). Independent predictors of warfarin-aspirin combination were concomitant vascular disease, diabetes, and (younger) age in patients with AF and were concomitant AF and male sex in patients with MHV. Interestingly, the incidence of combination therapy was found to increase with a higher HAS-BLED score in both patients with AF and MHV (p<0.001). The combination of warfarin and aspirin was found to be prescribed to patients with AF mainly for the prevention of cardiovascular events, for which warfarin monotherapy usually suffices. On the other hand, co-treatment with aspirin appeared to be underused in patients with MHV.

  15. Oesophageal ulcer caused by warfarin.

    PubMed Central

    Loft, D. E.; Stubington, S.; Clark, C.; Rees, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    Oesophageal injury is a well recognized complication of certain oral medications but warfarin has not been implicated previously. We present a case of an oesophageal ulcer occurring in a patient with mitral regurgitation taking warfarin, and demonstrate a delayed oesophageal tablet transit time. PMID:2594605

  16. Warfarin use and the risk of valvular calcification.

    PubMed

    Lerner, R G; Aronow, W S; Sekhri, A; Palaniswamy, C; Ahn, C; Singh, T; Sandhu, R; McClung, J A

    2009-12-01

    Warfarin affects the synthesis and function of the matrix Gla-protein, a vitamin K-dependent protein, which is a potent inhibitor of tissue calcification. To investigate the incidence of mitral valve calcium (MVC), mitral annular calcium (MAC) and aortic valve calcium (AVC) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with warfarin vs. no warfarin. Of 1155 patients, mean age 74 years, with AF, 725 (63%) were treated with warfarin and 430 (37%) without warfarin. The incidence of MVC, MAC and AVC was investigated in these 1155 patients with two-dimensional echocardiograms. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between the use of warfarin and the incidence of MVC, MAC or AVC. Logistic regression analyses were also conducted to investigate whether the relationship stands after adjustment for confounding risk factors such as age, sex, race, ejection fraction, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease (CAD), glomerular filtration rate, calcium, phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, alkaline phosphatase, use of aspirin, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins. There was a significant association between the use of warfarin and the risk of calcification [unadjusted odds ratio = 1.71, 95% CI = (1.34-2.18)]. The association still stands after adjustment for confounding risk factors. MVC, MAC or AVC was present in 473 of 725 patients (65%) on warfarin vs. 225 of 430 patients (52%) not on warfarin (P < 0.0001). Whether this is a causal relationship remains unknown. Use of warfarin in patients with AF is associated with an increased prevalence of MVC, MAC or AVC.

  17. Warfarin: history, tautomerism and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, William R.

    2010-06-01

    The anticoagulant drug warfarin, normally administered as the racemate, can exist in solution in potentially as many as 40 topologically distinct tautomeric forms. Only 11 of these forms for each enantiomer can be distinguished by selected computational software commonly used to estimate octanol-water partition coefficients and/or ionization constants. The history of studies on warfarin tautomerism is reviewed, along with the implications of tautomerism to its biological properties (activity, protein binding and metabolism) and chemical properties (log P, log D, p K a). Experimental approaches to assessing warfarin tautomerism and computational results for different tautomeric forms are presented.

  18. Use of warfarin in long-term care: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of warfarin in older patients requires special consideration because of concerns with comorbidities, interacting medications, and the risk of bleeding. Several studies have suggested that warfarin may be underused or inconsistently prescribed in long-term care (LTC); no published systematic review has evaluated warfarin use for stroke prevention in this setting. This review was conducted to summarize the body of published original research regarding the use of warfarin in the LTC population. Methods A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane Library was conducted from January 1985 to August 2010 to identify studies that reported warfarin use in LTC. Studies were grouped by (1) rates of warfarin use and prescribing patterns, (2) association of resident and institutional characteristics with warfarin prescribing, (3) prescriber attitudes and concerns about warfarin use, (4) warfarin management and monitoring, and (5) warfarin-related adverse events. Summaries of study findings and quality assessments of each study were developed. Results Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Atrial fibrillation (AF) was the most common indication for warfarin use in LTC and use of warfarin for stroke survivors was common. Rates of warfarin use in AF were low in 5 studies, ranging from 17% to 57%. These usage rates were low even among residents with high stroke risk and low bleeding risk. Scored bleeding risk had no apparent association with warfarin use in AF. In physician surveys, factors associated with not prescribing warfarin included risk of falls, dementia, short life expectancy, and history of bleeding. International normalized ratio was in the target range approximately half of the time. The combined overall rate of warfarin-related adverse events and potential events was 25.5 per 100 resident months on warfarin therapy. Conclusions Among residents with AF

  19. Warfarin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Warfarin ; CASRN 81 - 81 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  20. Feasibility of implementing a comprehensive warfarin pharmacogenetics service.

    PubMed

    Nutescu, Edith A; Drozda, Katarzyna; Bress, Adam P; Galanter, William L; Stevenson, James; Stamos, Thomas D; Desai, Ankit A; Duarte, Julio D; Gordeuk, Victor; Peace, David; Kadkol, Shrihari S; Dodge, Carol; Saraf, Santosh; Garofalo, John; Krishnan, Jerry A; Garcia, Joe G N; Cavallari, Larisa H

    2013-11-01

    To determine the procedural feasibility of a pharmacist-led interdisciplinary service for providing genotype-guided warfarin dosing for hospitalized patients newly starting warfarin. Prospective observational study. A 438-bed tertiary care hospital affiliated with a large academic institution. Eighty patients who started warfarin therapy and were managed by a newly implemented pharmacogenetics service. All patients received routine warfarin genotyping and clinical pharmacogenetics consultation. The primary outcomes were percentage of genotype-guided dose recommendations available prior to the second warfarin dose and adherence of the medical staff to doses recommended by the pharmacogenetics service. Of 436 genotype orders placed during the first 6 months of the service, 190 (44%) were deemed appropriate. For the 80 patients on the service who consented to data collection, 76% of the genotypes were available prior to the second warfarin dose. The median (range) time from genotype order to genotype result was 26 hours (7-80 hrs), and the time to genotype-guided dose recommendation was 30 hours (7-80 hrs). A total of 73% of warfarin doses ordered by the medical staff were within 0.5 mg of the daily dose recommended by the pharmacogenetics consult service. Providing routine genotype-guided warfarin dosing supported by a pharmacogenetics consult service is feasible from a procedural standpoint, with most genotypes available prior to the second warfarin dose and good adherence to genotype-guided dose recommendations by the medical staff. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  1. Feasibility of Implementing a Comprehensive Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Service

    PubMed Central

    Nutescu, Edith A.; Drozda, Katarzyna; Bress, Adam P.; Galanter, William L.; Stevenson, James; Stamos, Thomas D.; Desai, Ankit A.; Duarte, Julio D.; Gordeuk, Victor; Peace, David; Kadkol, ShriHari S.; Dodge, Carol; Saraf, Santosh; Garofalo, John; Krishnan, Jerry A.; Garcia, Joe G.N.; Cavallari, Larisa H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the procedural feasibility of a pharmacist-led interdisciplinary service for providing genotype-guided warfarin dosing for hospitalized patients newly starting warfarin. Design Prospective observational study Setting 483-bed hospital affiliated with a large academic institution Participants Eighty patients started on warfarin and managed by a newly implemented pharmacogenetics service. Intervention Routine warfarin genotyping and clinical pharmacogenetics consultation Measurements and Main Results The primary outcomes were percent of genotype-guided dose recommendations available prior to the second warfarin dose and adherence of the medical staff to doses recommended by the pharmacogenetics service. Of 436 genotype orders during the first 6 months of the service, 190 were deemed appropriate. For 80 patients on the service who consented to data collection, 77% of genotypes were available prior to the second warfarin dose. The median (range) time from the genotype order to the genotype result was 26 (7 to 80) hours, and the time to genotype-guided dosing recommendation was 30 (7 to 80) hours. Seventy-three percent of warfarin doses ordered by the medical staff were within 0.5 mg of the dose recommended by the pharmacogenetics consult service. Conclusions Providing routine genotype-guided warfarin dosing supported by a pharmacogenetics consult service is feasible from a procedural standpoint, with the majority of genotypes available prior to the second warfarin dose and good adherence to genotype-guided dose recommendations by the medical staff. PMID:23864527

  2. Validation of Clinical Testing for Warfarin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Langley, Michael R.; Booker, Jessica K.; Evans, James P.; McLeod, Howard L.; Weck, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    Responses to warfarin (Coumadin) anticoagulation therapy are affected by genetic variability in both the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes. Validation of pharmacogenetic testing for warfarin responses includes demonstration of analytical validity of testing platforms and of the clinical validity of testing. We compared four platforms for determining the relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both CYP2C9 and VKORC1 that are associated with warfarin sensitivity (Third Wave Invader Plus, ParagonDx/Cepheid Smart Cycler, Idaho Technology LightCycler, and AutoGenomics Infiniti). Each method was examined for accuracy, cost, and turnaround time. All genotyping methods demonstrated greater than 95% accuracy for identifying the relevant SNPs (CYP2C9 *2 and *3; VKORC1 −1639 or 1173). The ParagonDx and Idaho Technology assays had the shortest turnaround and hands-on times. The Third Wave assay was readily scalable to higher test volumes but had the longest hands-on time. The AutoGenomics assay interrogated the largest number of SNPs but had the longest turnaround time. Four published warfarin-dosing algorithms (Washington University, UCSF, Louisville, and Newcastle) were compared for accuracy for predicting warfarin dose in a retrospective analysis of a local patient population on long-term, stable warfarin therapy. The predicted doses from both the Washington University and UCSF algorithms demonstrated the best correlation with actual warfarin doses. PMID:19324988

  3. Inappropriate combination of warfarin and aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Burak; Demir, Hakan; Mutlu, Ayhan; Daşlı, Tolga; Erkol, Ayhan; Erden, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A combination of warfarin and aspirin is associated with increased bleeding compared with warfarin monotherapy. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence and appropriateness of the combination of warfarin and aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or mechanical heart valve (MHV). Methods: This cross-sectional study included consecutive patients with AF or MHV on chronic warfarin therapy (>3 months) without acute coronary syndrome or have not undergone a revascularization procedure in the preceding year. Medical history, concomitant diseases, and treatment data were acquired through patient interviews and from hospital records. Results: Three hundred and sixty patients (213 with AF, 147 with MHV) were included. In those with AF, a significantly higher warfarin-aspirin combination was observed with concomitant vascular disease (38.8% vs. 14.6%), diabetes (36.6% vs. 16.3%), statin therapy (40% vs. 16.9%), left ventricular systolic dysfunction (33.3% vs. 17.5%) (p<0.05 for all). The use of combination therapy was similar between different CHADS-VASc scores. In patients with MHV, higher combination therapy was observed in males (41% vs. 26.7% in females; p=0.070), concomitant vascular disease (47.8% vs. 29.8%; p=0.091), and AF (56.3% vs. 29.8%; p=0.033). Independent predictors of warfarin-aspirin combination were concomitant vascular disease, diabetes, and (younger) age in patients with AF and were concomitant AF and male sex in patients with MHV. Interestingly, the incidence of combination therapy was found to increase with a higher HAS-BLED score in both patients with AF and MHV (p<0.001). Conclusion: The combination of warfarin and aspirin was found to be prescribed to patients with AF mainly for the prevention of cardiovascular events, for which warfarin monotherapy usually suffices. On the other hand, co-treatment with aspirin appeared to be underused in patients with MHV. (Anatol J Cardiol 2016; 16: 189-96) PMID:26467380

  4. [Enantioselective determinination of R-warfarin/S-warfarin in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application in a drug-drug interaction study].

    PubMed

    Jin, Shu; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Ke; Zhong, Da-Fang

    2012-01-01

    To study the drug-drug interaction of morinidazole and warfarin and its application, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of R-warfarin/S-warfarin in human plasma. In a random, two-period crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of 5 mg racemic warfarin in the absence and presence of morinidazole. Blood samples were collected according to a pre-designed time schedule. R-warfarin, S-warfarin and methyclothiazide were extracted with ethylether : methylenechloride (3 : 2), then separated on a Astec Chirobiotic V (150 mm x 4.6 mm ID, 5 microm) column using 5 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate (pH 4.0) - acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow-rate of 1.5 mL x min(-1). The mobile phase was splitted and 0.5 mL x min(-1) was introduced into MS. A tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source was used as detector and operated in the negative ion mode. Quantification was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The resolution of warfarin enantiomers is 1.56. The linear calibration curves for R-warfarin and S-warfarin both were obtained in the concentration range of 5 - 1 000 ng x mL(-1). Intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) for R-warfarin and S-warfarin over the entire concentration range across three validation runs was both less than 10%, and relative error (RE) ranged from -4.9% to 0.7%, separately. The method herein described is effective and convenient, and suitable for the study of metabolic interaction between morinidazole and warfarin. The results showed that coadministration of warfarin with morinidazole did not affect the pharmacokinetics of either R-warfarin or S-warfarin.

  5. Warfarin interaction with erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Sato, R I; Gray, D R; Brown, S E

    1984-12-01

    The drug interaction between warfarin and erythromycin is not well known. We report a case in which erythromycin was observed to markedly potentiate warfarin anticoagulation, resulting in hemorrhage in a patient treated for Legionella pneumonia. The morbidity of this drug interaction is enhanced in elderly patients who have infection accompanied by anorexia and/or fever and who are receiving intravenous erythromycin. The well-documented, temporal relationship established erythromycin as the interacting drug.

  6. Determination of total and unbound warfarin and warfarin alcohols in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Lomonaco, Tommaso; Ghimenti, Silvia; Piga, Isabella; Onor, Massimo; Melai, Bernardo; Fuoco, Roger; Di Francesco, Fabio

    2013-11-01

    Two analytical procedures are presented for the determination of the total content and unbound fraction of both warfarin and warfarin alcohols in human plasma. Chromatographic separation was carried out in isocratic conditions at 25°C on a C-18 reversed-phase column with a mobile phase consisting of a 70% buffer phosphate 25mM at pH=7, 25% methanol and 5% acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.2mL/min. Fluorescence detection was performed at 390nm (excitation wavelength 310nm). Neither method showed any detectable interference or matrix effect. Inter-day recovery of the total warfarin and warfarin alcohols at a concentration level of 1000ng/mL was 89±3% and 73±3%, respectively, whereas for their unbound fraction (at a concentration level of 10ng/mL) was 66±8% and 90±7%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision (assessed as relative standard deviation) was <10% for both methods. The limits of detection were 0.4 and 0.2ng/mL for warfarin and warfarin alcohols, respectively. The methods were successfully applied to a pooled plasma sample obtained from 69 patients undergoing warfarin therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CYP2C9 Genotype-Dependent Warfarin Pharmacokinetics: Impact of CYP2C9 Genotype on R- and S-Warfarin and Their Oxidative Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Flora, Darcy R; Rettie, Allan E; Brundage, Richard C; Tracy, Timothy S

    2017-03-01

    Multiple factors can impact warfarin therapy, including genetic variations in the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9). Compared with individuals with the wild-type allele, CYP2C9*1, carriers of the common *3 variant have significantly impaired CYP2C9 metabolism. Genetic variations in CYP2C9, the primary enzyme governing the metabolic clearance of the more potent S-enantiomer of the racemic anticoagulant warfarin, may impact warfarin-drug interactions. To establish a baseline for such studies, plasma and urine concentrations of R- and S-warfarin and 10 warfarin metabolites were monitored for up to 360 hours following a 10-mg warfarin dose in healthy subjects with 4 different CYP2C9 genotypes: CYP2C9*1/*1 (n = 8), CYP2C9*1/*3 (n = 9), CYP2C9*2/*3 (n = 3), and CYP2C9*3/*3 (n = 4). Plasma clearance of S-warfarin, but not R-warfarin, decreased multiexponentially and in a CYP2C9 gene-dependent manner: 56%, 70%, and 75% for CYP2C9*1/*3, CYP2C9*2/*3, and CYP2C9*3/*3 genotypes, respectively, compared with CYP2C9*1/*1, resulting in pronounced differences in the S:R ratio that identified warfarin-sensitive genotypes. CYP2C9 was the primary P450 enzyme contributing to S-warfarin metabolism and a minor contributor to R-warfarin metabolism. In the presence of a defective CYP2C9 allele, switching of warfarin metabolism to other oxidative pathways and P450 enzymes for the metabolic elimination of S-warfarin was not observed. The 10-hydroxywarfarin metabolites, whose detailed pharmacokinetics are reported for the first time, exhibited a prolonged half-life with no evidence of renal excretion and displayed elimination rate-limited kinetics. Understanding the impact of CYP2C9 genetics on warfarin pharmacokinetics lays the foundation for future genotype-dependent warfarin-drug interaction studies. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. Topical Antimycotics for Oral Candidiasis in Warfarin Users.

    PubMed

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Pottegård, Anton; Pedersen, Andreas James Thestrup; Burghle, Alaa; Mouaanaki, Fatima; Hallas, Jesper; Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Damkier, Per

    2017-04-01

    Treatment for oral candidiasis in warfarin users may be complicated by drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between warfarin and topically applied antimycotics. However, current knowledge of these putative DDIs is merely based on case series. We therefore performed a cohort cross-over study with the objective to evaluate the potential DDIs between warfarin and miconazole oral gel or nystatin oral solution. The cohort consisted of individuals using warfarin in the period of 1998-2012 (n ≈ 7400). We collected data on cohort members' measurements of the international normalized ratio (INR) from a clinical database, and obtained information on their use of topically applied miconazole and nystatin from a regional prescription register. Potential DDIs were assessed by comparing INR values before and after initiation of an antimycotic drug. Among 17 warfarin users exposed to miconazole oral gel, the mean INR increased from 2.5 (95% CI: 2.1-2.8) to 3.8 (95% CI: 2.8-4.8) after exposure, corresponding to a mean INR increase of 1.4 (95% CI: 0.3-2.4). Among 30 warfarin users exposed to nystatin oral solution, the mean INR was 2.7 (95% CI: 2.3-3.1) before and 2.5 (95% CI: 2.2-2.9) after exposure. In conclusion, we found evidence supporting a clinically relevant drug-drug interaction between warfarin and miconazole oral gel. In contrast, we did not find any indication of an interaction between warfarin and nystatin oral solution. Nystatin rather than miconazole should be preferred when treating warfarin users for oral candidiasis. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  9. Pharmacogenomics of warfarin in populations of African descent

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Botton, Mariana R

    2013-01-01

    Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant worldwide despite its narrow therapeutic index and the notorious inter- and intra-individual variability in dose required for the target clinical effect. Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms are major determinants of warfarin pharmacokinetic and dynamics and included in several warfarin dosing algorithms. This review focuses on warfarin pharmacogenomics in sub-Saharan peoples, African Americans and admixed Brazilians. These ‘Black’ populations differ in several aspects, notably their extent of recent admixture with Europeans, a factor which impacts on the frequency distribution of pharmacogenomic polymorphisms relevant to warfarin dose requirement for the target clinical effect. Whereas a small number of polymorphisms in VKORC1 (3673G > A, rs9923231), CYP2C9 (alleles *2 and *3, rs1799853 and rs1057910, respectively) and arguably CYP4F2 (rs2108622), may capture most of the pharmacogenomic influence on warfarin dose variance in White populations, additional polymorphisms in these, and in other, genes (e.g. CALU rs339097) increase the predictive power of pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing algorithms in the Black populations examined. A personalized strategy for initiation of warfarin therapy, allowing for improved safety and cost-effectiveness for populations of African descent must take into account their pharmacogenomic diversity, as well as socio-economical, cultural and medical factors. Accounting for this heterogeneity in algorithms that are ‘friendly’ enough to be adopted by warfarin prescribers worldwide requires gathering information from trials at different population levels, but demands also a critical appraisal of racial/ethnic labels that are commonly used in the clinical pharmacology literature but do not accurately reflect genetic ancestry and population diversity. PMID:22676711

  10. Pharmacogenomics of warfarin in populations of African descent.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Botton, Mariana R

    2013-02-01

    Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant worldwide despite its narrow therapeutic index and the notorious inter- and intra-individual variability in dose required for the target clinical effect. Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms are major determinants of warfarin pharmacokinetic and dynamics and included in several warfarin dosing algorithms. This review focuses on warfarin pharmacogenomics in sub-Saharan peoples, African Americans and admixed Brazilians. These 'Black' populations differ in several aspects, notably their extent of recent admixture with Europeans, a factor which impacts on the frequency distribution of pharmacogenomic polymorphisms relevant to warfarin dose requirement for the target clinical effect. Whereas a small number of polymorphisms in VKORC1 (3673G > A, rs9923231), CYP2C9 (alleles *2 and *3, rs1799853 and rs1057910, respectively) and arguably CYP4F2 (rs2108622), may capture most of the pharmacogenomic influence on warfarin dose variance in White populations, additional polymorphisms in these, and in other, genes (e.g. CALU rs339097) increase the predictive power of pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing algorithms in the Black populations examined. A personalized strategy for initiation of warfarin therapy, allowing for improved safety and cost-effectiveness for populations of African descent must take into account their pharmacogenomic diversity, as well as socio-economical, cultural and medical factors. Accounting for this heterogeneity in algorithms that are 'friendly' enough to be adopted by warfarin prescribers worldwide requires gathering information from trials at different population levels, but demands also a critical appraisal of racial/ethnic labels that are commonly used in the clinical pharmacology literature but do not accurately reflect genetic ancestry and population diversity. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. New high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of (R)-warfarin and (S)-warfarin using chiral separation on a glycopeptide-based stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Malakova, Jana; Pavek, Petr; Svecova, Lucie; Jokesova, Iveta; Zivny, Pavel; Palicka, Vladimir

    2009-10-01

    Warfarin is a well-known anticoagulant agent that occurs in two enantiomers, (R)-(+)-warfarin and (S)-(-)-warfarin. A new liquid chromatography method for the determination of both enantiomers was developed, validated and applied in in vitro studies with the aim of evaluating the accumulation of (R)-warfarin and (S)-warfarin in the hepatoma HepG2 cell line. OptiMEM cell cultivation medium samples and cellular lysates were purified using Waters Oasis MAX extraction cartridges. The chiral separation of warfarin and the internal standard p-chlorowarfarin enantiomers was performed on an Astec Chirobiotic V2 column at a flow rate of 1.2mL/min. The mobile phase was composed of 31% acetonitrile, 5% of methanol and 64% of ammonium acetate buffer (10mmol/L, pH 4.1). The enantiomers were quantified using a fluorescence detector (lambda(excit)=320nm, lambda(emiss)=415nm). The limit of detection was found to be 0.121micromol/L of (S)-warfarin and 0.109micromol/L of (R)-warfarin. The range of applicability and linearity was estimated from 0.25 to 100micromol/L. The precision ranged from 1.3% to 12.2% of the relative standard deviation, and the accuracy reached acceptable values from 95.5% to 108.4%. The new bioanalytical method confirmed the same accumulation of (R)-warfarin and (S)-warfarin in the hepatoma HepG2 cell line.

  12. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Garg, Jyotsna; Pan, Guohua; Singer, Daniel E; Hacke, Werner; Breithardt, Günter; Halperin, Jonathan L; Hankey, Graeme J; Piccini, Jonathan P; Becker, Richard C; Nessel, Christopher C; Paolini, John F; Berkowitz, Scott D; Fox, Keith A A; Califf, Robert M

    2011-09-08

    The use of warfarin reduces the rate of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation but requires frequent monitoring and dose adjustment. Rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, may provide more consistent and predictable anticoagulation than warfarin. In a double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 14,264 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who were at increased risk for stroke to receive either rivaroxaban (at a daily dose of 20 mg) or dose-adjusted warfarin. The per-protocol, as-treated primary analysis was designed to determine whether rivaroxaban was noninferior to warfarin for the primary end point of stroke or systemic embolism. In the primary analysis, the primary end point occurred in 188 patients in the rivaroxaban group (1.7% per year) and in 241 in the warfarin group (2.2% per year) (hazard ratio in the rivaroxaban group, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.96; P<0.001 for noninferiority). In the intention-to-treat analysis, the primary end point occurred in 269 patients in the rivaroxaban group (2.1% per year) and in 306 patients in the warfarin group (2.4% per year) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.03; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.12 for superiority). Major and nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding occurred in 1475 patients in the rivaroxaban group (14.9% per year) and in 1449 in the warfarin group (14.5% per year) (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.11; P=0.44), with significant reductions in intracranial hemorrhage (0.5% vs. 0.7%, P=0.02) and fatal bleeding (0.2% vs. 0.5%, P=0.003) in the rivaroxaban group. In patients with atrial fibrillation, rivaroxaban was noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism. There was no significant between-group difference in the risk of major bleeding, although intracranial and fatal bleeding occurred less frequently in the rivaroxaban group. (Funded by Johnson & Johnson and Bayer; ROCKET AF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00403767.).

  13. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of aspirin with warfarin in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chenlin; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Ping; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Tingting; Pappoe, Faustina; Huang, Jihan; Tang, Haiqin

    2016-01-01

    1. Warfarin and aspirin are widely used in a wide spectrum of thromboembolic and atherothrombotic diseases. Despite the potential efficacy of warfarin-aspirin therapy, the safety and side effect of combined therapy remains unclear. 2. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between warfarin and aspirin in beagles after single and multiple doses. 3. Coadministration of aspirin had no significant effects on the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC(0-t)) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of R- and S-warfarin after a single dose of warfarin, but significantly increase the AUC(0-t) and Cmax and dramatically decrease the clearance (CL) of R- and S-warfarin after multiple dose of warfarin. Accordingly, there was a slight increase in the AUEC(0-t) and Emax of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) after multiple dose of warfarin. 4. Coadministration of warfarin had no markedly effects on the AUC(0-t) and Cmax of aspirin and its metabolite salicylic acid after single or multiple dose of aspirin. Meanwhile, the AUEC(0-t) and Emax of inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) were not significantly affected by warfarin. 5. Our animal study indicated that coadministration of aspirin with warfarin can cause significant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions in beagles. However, more studies are urgently needed to assess related information of warfarin-aspirin drug interactions in healthy volunteers or patients.

  14. Validation of clinical testing for warfarin sensitivity: comparison of CYP2C9-VKORC1 genotyping assays and warfarin-dosing algorithms.

    PubMed

    Langley, Michael R; Booker, Jessica K; Evans, James P; McLeod, Howard L; Weck, Karen E

    2009-05-01

    Responses to warfarin (Coumadin) anticoagulation therapy are affected by genetic variability in both the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes. Validation of pharmacogenetic testing for warfarin responses includes demonstration of analytical validity of testing platforms and of the clinical validity of testing. We compared four platforms for determining the relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both CYP2C9 and VKORC1 that are associated with warfarin sensitivity (Third Wave Invader Plus, ParagonDx/Cepheid Smart Cycler, Idaho Technology LightCycler, and AutoGenomics Infiniti). Each method was examined for accuracy, cost, and turnaround time. All genotyping methods demonstrated greater than 95% accuracy for identifying the relevant SNPs (CYP2C9 *2 and *3; VKORC1 -1639 or 1173). The ParagonDx and Idaho Technology assays had the shortest turnaround and hands-on times. The Third Wave assay was readily scalable to higher test volumes but had the longest hands-on time. The AutoGenomics assay interrogated the largest number of SNPs but had the longest turnaround time. Four published warfarin-dosing algorithms (Washington University, UCSF, Louisville, and Newcastle) were compared for accuracy for predicting warfarin dose in a retrospective analysis of a local patient population on long-term, stable warfarin therapy. The predicted doses from both the Washington University and UCSF algorithms demonstrated the best correlation with actual warfarin doses.

  15. Major bleeding caused by warfarin in a genetically susceptible patient.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Aharon; Ben-Chetrit, Eldad; Muszkat, Mordechai; Caraco, Yoseph

    2002-01-01

    A 90-year-old woman was hospitalized for gastrointestinal bleeding. Although she had been receiving only warfarin 5 mg/day, her international normalized ratio (INR) was 66. Warfarin was discontinued, and her INR fell to 3.7 after transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma. However, it rose again spontaneously to 7.5. Eleven days after the last dose of warfarin had been administered, it was still detectable in the patient's plasma, indicating that impaired warfarin clearance may have caused an enhanced anticoagulation effect. Genetic analysis of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme 2C9, which mediates the major deactivating pathway of S-warfarin, revealed that the patient was a compound heterozygote carrying two variant alleles: CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. The patient's enhanced sensitivity to warfarin 5 mg/day can be ascribed to decreased clearance of S-warfarin secondary to genetic alteration of the gene encoding CYP2C9, resulting in a life-threatening complication.

  16. Warfarin therapy: in need of improvement after all these years

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Stephen E

    2010-01-01

    Background Warfarin therapy has been used clinically for over 60 years, yet continues to be problematic because of its narrow therapeutic index and large inter-individual variability in patient response. As a result, warfarin is a leading cause of serious medication-related adverse events, and its efficacy is also suboptimal. Objective To review factors that are responsible for variable response to warfarin, including clinical, environmental, and genetic factors, and to explore some possible approaches to improving warfarin therapy. Results Recent efforts have focused on developing dosing algorithms that included genetic information to try to improve warfarin dosing. These dosing algorithms hold promise, but have not been fully validated or tested in rigorous clinical trials. Perhaps equally importantly, adherence to warfarin is a major problem that should be addressed with innovative and cost-effective interventions. Conclusion Additional research is needed to further test whether interventions can be used to improve warfarin dosing and outcomes. PMID:18345947

  17. Factors influencing warfarin control in Australia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Bernaitis, Nijole; Ching, Chi Keong; Teo, Siew Chong; Chen, Liping; Badrick, Tony; Davey, Andrew K; Crilly, Julia; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2017-09-01

    Warfarin is widely used for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Variations in warfarin control, as measured by time in therapeutic range (TTR), have been reported across different regions and ethnicities, particularly between Western and Asian countries. However, there is limited data on comparative factors influencing warfarin control in Caucasian and Asian patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine warfarin control and potential factors influencing this in patients with NVAF in Australia and Singapore. Retrospective data was collected for patients receiving warfarin for January to June 2014 in Australia and Singapore. TTR was calculated for individuals with mean patient TTR used for analysis. Possible influential factors on TTR were analysed including age, gender, concurrent co-morbidities, and concurrent medication. The mean TTR was significantly higher in Australia (82%) than Singapore (58%). At both sites, chronic kidney disease significantly lowered this TTR. Further factors influencing control were anaemia and age<60years in Australia, and vascular disease, CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score of 6, and concurrent platelet inhibitor therapy in Singapore. Warfarin control was significantly higher in Australia compared to Singapore, however chronic kidney disease reduced control at both sites. The different levels of control in these two countries, together with patient factors further reducing control may impact on anticoagulant choice in these countries with better outcomes from warfarin in Australia compared to Singapore. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Creating an Optimal Warfarin Nomogram (CROWN) Study

    PubMed Central

    Perlstein, Todd S.; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Nelson, Kerrie; Joshi, Victoria; Morgan, T. Vance; Lesko, Lawrence J.; Lee, Joo-Yeon; Gobburu, Jogarao; Schoenfeld, David; Kucherlapati, Raju; Freeman, Mason W.; Creager, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    A significant proportion of warfarin dose variability is explained by variation in the genotypes of the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 and the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, VKORC1, enzymes that influence warfarin metabolism and sensitivity, respectively. We sought to develop an optimal pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing algorithm that incorporated clinical and genetic information. We enroled patients initiating warfarin therapy. Genotyping was performed of the VKORC1, –1639G>A, the CYP2C9*2, 430C>T, and the CYP2C9*3, 1075C>A genotypes. The initial warfarin dosing algorithm (Algorithm A) was based upon established clinical practice and published warfarin pharmacogenetic information. Subsequent dosing algorithms (Algorithms B and Algorithm C) were derived from pharmacokinetic / pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling of warfarin dose, international normalised ratio (INR), clinical and genetic factors from patients treated by the preceding algorithm(s). The primary outcome was the time in the therapeutic range, considered an INR of 1.8 to 3.2. A total of 344 subjects are included in the study analyses. The mean percentage time within the therapeutic range for each subject increased progressively from Algorithm A to Algorithm C from 58.9 (22.0), to 59.7 (23.0), to 65.8 (16.9) percent (p = 0.04). Improvement also occurred in most secondary endpoints, which included the per-patient percentage of INRs outside of the therapeutic range (p = 0.004), the time to the first therapeutic INR (p = 0.07), and the time to achieve stable therapeutic anticoagulation (p < 0.001). In conclusion, warfarin pharmacogenetic dosing can be optimised in real time utilising observed PK/PD information in an adaptive fashion. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00401414) PMID:22116191

  19. Correlations between the enantio- and regio-selective metabolisms of warfarin.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Harumi; Ohara, Minami; Shibata, Soichi; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Cavallari, Larisa H; Nutescu, Edith A; Scordo, Maria G; Pengo, Vittorio; Padrini, Roberto; Atsuda, Koichiro; Matsubara, Hajime; Chen, Yuan Tsong; Echizen, Hirotoshi

    2017-01-01

    To clarify whether the activities of multiple CYPs associated with warfarin metabolism would be correlated with each other. Oral clearances (CLpo) of warfarin enantiomers were estimated in 378 Chinese, Caucasians and African-Americans. The partial metabolic clearances (CLm) for 7-hydroxywarfarin enantiomers were also measured. In addition, CLpo and CLm were determined in a patient on warfarin and rifampicin. Correlations between CLpo for warfarin enantiomers existed across the three populations. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the CLm for 7-hydroxylation of warfarin enantiomers. Under induced conditions by rifampicin, there were significant correlations between the enantio- and regio-selective metabolisms of warfarin. Metabolic activities of CYP2C9, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 may be regulated by common transcriptional mechanism(s).

  20. The Active Metabolite of Warfarin (3'-Hydroxywarfarin) and Correlation with INR, Warfarin and Drug Weekly Dosage in Patients under Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: A Pharmacogenetics Study

    PubMed Central

    Talarico, Anna; Fabbri, Matteo; Bertocco, Cesare; Vigliano, Marco; Moratelli, Stefano; Cuneo, Antonio; Serino, Maria Luisa; Avato, Francesco Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Warfarin oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) requires regular and frequent drug adjustment monitored by INR. Interindividual variability, drug and diet interferences, and genetics (VKORC1 and CYP2C9) make the maintenance/reaching of stable INR a not so easy task. HPLC assessment of warfarin/enantiomers was suggested as a valid monitoring-tool along with INR, but definite results are still lacking. We evaluated possible correlations between INR, warfarin/3’-hydroxywarfarin, and drug weekly dosage aimed at searching novel alternatives to OAT monitoring. VKORC1/CYP2C9 pharmacogenetics investigation was performed to account for the known influence on warfarin homeostasis. Methods 133 OAT patients were recruited and assessed for warfarin/3’-hydroxywarfarin serum levels (HPLC), INR, and VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes. A subgroup of 52 patients were monitored in detail (5 consecutive controls; c0-c4) till the target INR was reached. Correlation analyses were performed in both groups Results In the whole OAT group both warfarin and 3’-hydroxywarfarin correlate with INR at comparable degree (r2 = 0.0388 and 0.0362 respectively). Conversely, warfarin weekly dosage better correlates with warfarin than with 3’-hydroxywarfarin (r2 = 0.0975 and r2 = 0.0381 respectively), but considering together warfarin plus 3’-hydroxywarfarin the correlation strongly increased (r2 = 0.1114; p<0.0001). Interestingly, 3’-hydroxywarfarin reached a strong correlation at c4 respect to warfarin (r2 = 0.2157 and r2 = 0.0549; p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0944 respectively) seeming less affected by drug adjustments in the subgroup of 52 patients who started OAT. The multivariate analyses aimed at estimating the true contribution of 3’-hydroxywarfarin on INR value ascribed it the unique significant value (p = 0.0021) in spite of warfarin who lost association. The pharmacogenetics studies confirmed that patients carrying the VKORC1 variant-allele required lower warfarin maintenance dosage and

  1. The Active Metabolite of Warfarin (3'-Hydroxywarfarin) and Correlation with INR, Warfarin and Drug Weekly Dosage in Patients under Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: A Pharmacogenetics Study.

    PubMed

    Gemmati, Donato; Burini, Francesco; Talarico, Anna; Fabbri, Matteo; Bertocco, Cesare; Vigliano, Marco; Moratelli, Stefano; Cuneo, Antonio; Serino, Maria Luisa; Avato, Francesco Maria; Tisato, Veronica; Gaudio, Rosa Maria

    2016-01-01

    Warfarin oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) requires regular and frequent drug adjustment monitored by INR. Interindividual variability, drug and diet interferences, and genetics (VKORC1 and CYP2C9) make the maintenance/reaching of stable INR a not so easy task. HPLC assessment of warfarin/enantiomers was suggested as a valid monitoring-tool along with INR, but definite results are still lacking. We evaluated possible correlations between INR, warfarin/3'-hydroxywarfarin, and drug weekly dosage aimed at searching novel alternatives to OAT monitoring. VKORC1/CYP2C9 pharmacogenetics investigation was performed to account for the known influence on warfarin homeostasis. 133 OAT patients were recruited and assessed for warfarin/3'-hydroxywarfarin serum levels (HPLC), INR, and VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes. A subgroup of 52 patients were monitored in detail (5 consecutive controls; c0-c4) till the target INR was reached. Correlation analyses were performed in both groups. In the whole OAT group both warfarin and 3'-hydroxywarfarin correlate with INR at comparable degree (r2 = 0.0388 and 0.0362 respectively). Conversely, warfarin weekly dosage better correlates with warfarin than with 3'-hydroxywarfarin (r2 = 0.0975 and r2 = 0.0381 respectively), but considering together warfarin plus 3'-hydroxywarfarin the correlation strongly increased (r2 = 0.1114; p<0.0001). Interestingly, 3'-hydroxywarfarin reached a strong correlation at c4 respect to warfarin (r2 = 0.2157 and r2 = 0.0549; p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0944 respectively) seeming less affected by drug adjustments in the subgroup of 52 patients who started OAT. The multivariate analyses aimed at estimating the true contribution of 3'-hydroxywarfarin on INR value ascribed it the unique significant value (p = 0.0021) in spite of warfarin who lost association. The pharmacogenetics studies confirmed that patients carrying the VKORC1 variant-allele required lower warfarin maintenance dosage and that the combination of VKORC1 and CYP2C

  2. Fixed minidose warfarin and aspirin alone and in combination vs adjusted-dose warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: Second Copenhagen Atrial Fibrillation, Aspirin, and Anticoagulation Study.

    PubMed

    Gulløv, A L; Koefoed, B G; Petersen, P; Pedersen, T S; Andersen, E D; Godtfredsen, J; Boysen, G

    1998-07-27

    Despite the efficacy of warfarin sodium therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation, many physicians hesitate to prescribe it to elderly patients because of the risk for bleeding complications and because of inconvenience for the patients. The Second Copenhagen Atrial Fibrillation, Aspirin, and Anticoagulation Study was a randomized, controlled trial examining the following therapies: warfarin sodium, 1.25 mg/d; warfarin sodium, 1.25 mg/d, plus aspirin, 300 mg/d; and aspirin, 300 mg/d. These were compared with adjusted-dose warfarin therapy (international normalized ratio of prothrombin time [INR], 2.0-3.0). Stroke or a systemic thromboembolic event was the primary outcome event. Transient ischemic attack, acute myocardial infarction, and death were secondary events. Data were handled as survival data, and risk factors were identified using the Cox proportional hazards model. The trial was scheduled for 6 years from May 1, 1993, but due to scientific evidence of inefficiency of low-intensity warfarin plus aspirin therapy from another study, our trial was prematurely terminated on October 2, 1996. We included 677 patients (median age, 74 years). The cumulative primary event rate after 1 year was 5.8% in patients receiving minidose warfarin; 7.2%, warfarin plus aspirin; 3.6%, aspirin; and 2.8%, adjusted-dose warfarin (P = .67). After 3 years, no difference among the groups was seen. Major bleeding events were rare. Although the difference was insignificant, adjusted-dose warfarin seemed superior to minidose warfarin and to warfarin plus aspirin after 1 year of treatment. The results do not justify a change in the current recommendation of adjusted-dose warfarin (INR, 2.0-3.0) for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation.

  3. Economic Evaluation of the Combined Use of Warfarin and Low-dose Aspirin Versus Warfarin Alone in Mechanical Valve Prostheses.

    PubMed

    El-Hamamsy, Manal H; Elsisi, Gihan H; Eldessouki, Randa; Elmazar, Mohamed M; Taha, Ahmed S; Awad, Basma F; Elmansy, Hossam

    2016-08-01

    The use of combined therapy of antiplatelet and anticoagulant versus anticoagulant alone to reduce instances of thromboembolic events in patients with heart valve prostheses is an established standard of care in many countries but not in Egypt. A previous Markov model cost-effectiveness study on Egyptian patients aged 50-60 years demonstrated that the combined therapy reduces the overall treatment cost. However, due to the lack of actual real-world data on cost-effectiveness and the limitation of the Markov model study to 50- to 60-year-old patients, the Egyptian medical community is still questioning whether the added benefit is worth the cost. To assess, from the perspective of the Egyptian health sector, the cost-effectiveness of the combined use of warfarin and low-dose aspirin (75 mg) versus that of warfarin alone in patients with mechanical heart valve prostheses who began therapy between the age of 15 and 50 years. An economic evaluation was conducted alongside a randomized, controlled trial to assess the cost-effectiveness of the combined therapy in patients with mechanical valve prostheses. A total of 316 patients aged between 15 and 50 years were included in the study and randomly assigned to a group treated with both warfarin and aspirin or a group treated with warfarin alone. The patients in the combined therapy group exhibited a significantly longer duration of protection against the first event. Fewer primary events were observed in the patients treated with warfarin plus aspirin than in those treated with warfarin alone (1.4 %/year, vs. 4.8 %/year), and a higher mean quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) value over 4 years was obtained for the group treated with warfarin plus aspirin (difference 0.058; 95 % CI 0.013-0.118), although this difference did not reach a conventional level of statistical significance. The total costs over a 4-year period were lower with the combined therapy (difference -US$244; 95 % CI -US$483.1 to -US$3.8), which

  4. Evaluation of the effect of torsemide on warfarin dosage requirements.

    PubMed

    Lai, Sophia; Momper, Jeremiah D; Yam, Felix K

    2017-08-01

    Background According to drug interaction databases, torsemide may potentiate the effects of warfarin. Evidence for this drug-drug interaction, however, is conflicting and the clinical significance is unknown. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of torsemide initiation on warfarin dosage requirements. Setting This study was conducted at the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System in San Diego, California. Method A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Veterans Affairs data from patients who were converted from bumetanide to torsemide between March 2014 and July 2014. Patients were also prescribed and taking warfarin during the observation period. Warfarin dosage requirements were evaluated to determine if any changes occurred within the first 3 months of starting torsemide. Main outcome measure The primary outcome was the average weekly warfarin dose before and after torsemide initiation. Results Eighteen patients met study inclusion criteria. The weekly warfarin dose before and after initiation of torsemide was not significantly different (34 ± 15 and 34 ± 13 mg, p > 0.05). Of those eighteen patients, only two experienced elevations in INR that required a decrease in warfarin dosage after torsemide initiation. Between those two patients, dosage reductions ranged from 5.3 to 18%. Conclusion These results indicated that most patients did not require any warfarin dosage adjustments after torsemide was initiated. The potential for interaction, however, still exists. While empiric warfarin dosage adjustments are not recommended when initiating torsemide, increased monitoring is warranted to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

  5. Interaction of quercetin and its metabolites with warfarin: Displacement of warfarin from serum albumin and inhibition of CYP2C9 enzyme.

    PubMed

    Poór, Miklós; Boda, Gabriella; Needs, Paul W; Kroon, Paul A; Lemli, Beáta; Bencsik, Tímea

    2017-04-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous molecules in nature with manifold pharmacological effects. Flavonoids interact with several proteins, and thus potentially interfere with the pharmacokinetics of various drugs. Though much is known about the protein binding characteristics of flavonoid aglycones, the behaviour of their metabolites, which are extensively formed in the human body has received little attention. In this study, the interactions of the flavonoid aglycone quercetin and its main metabolites with the albumin binding of the oral anticoagulant warfarin were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of these flavonoids on CYP2C9 enzyme were tested because the metabolic elimination of warfarin is catalysed principally by this enzyme. Herein, we demonstrate that each tested flavonoid metabolite can bind to human serum albumin (HSA) with high affinity, some with similar or even higher affinity than quercetin itself. Quercetin metabolites are able to strongly displace warfarin from HSA suggesting that high quercetin doses can strongly interfere with warfarin therapy. On the other hand, tested flavonoids showed no or weaker inhibition of CYP2C9 compared to warfarin, making it very unlikely that quercetin or its metabolites can significantly inhibit the CYP2C9-mediated inactivation of warfarin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Prescribing Warfarin Appropriately to Meet Patient Safety Goals

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarajan, Lekshmi; Dharmarajan, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    The anticoagulant warfarin is increasingly used in a variety of disorders associated with risk of thromboembolism. The drug is undoubtedly effective but is linked to numerous nutrient, disease, and drug interactions; safe use of warfarin therefore necessitates close patient monitoring, using the international normalized ratio. The predominant adverse effect is bleeding, and individuals respond to warfarin in different ways. Both high and subtherapeutic international normalized ratios warrant attention, whereas a high international normalized ratio, with or without bleeding, mandates prompt patient evaluation. The 2008 National Patient Safety Goals require medical institutions to develop processes to ensure the safe use and monitoring of anticoagulant use. Last August, the US Food and Drug Administration revised the prescribing information for warfarin to include genetic testing before initiating therapy, although this is still not covered by most health plans. PMID:25126243

  7. Can We Predict Daily Adherence to Warfarin?

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Alec B.; Localio, A. Russell; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Cruess, Dean G.; Christie, Jason D.; Gross, Robert; Parker, Catherine S.; Price, Maureen; Metlay, Joshua P.; Cohen, Abigail; Newcomb, Craig W.; Strom, Brian L.; Laskin, Mitchell S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Warfarin is the primary therapy to prevent stroke and venous thromboembolism. Significant periods of nonadherence frequently go unreported by patients and undetected by providers. Currently, no comprehensive screening tool exists to help providers assess the risk of nonadherence at the time of initiation of warfarin therapy. Methods: This article reports on a prospective cohort study of adults initiating warfarin therapy at two anticoagulation clinics (university- and Veterans Affairs-affiliated). Nonadherence, defined by failure to record a correct daily pill bottle opening, was measured daily by electronic pill cap monitoring. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to develop a point system to predict daily nonadherence to warfarin. Results: We followed 114 subjects for a median of 141 days. Median nonadherence of the participants was 14.4% (interquartile range [IQR], 5.8-33.8). A point system, based on nine demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors, distinguished those demonstrating low vs high levels of nonadherence: four points or fewer, median nonadherence 5.8% (IQR, 2.3-14.1); five points, 9.1% (IQR, 5.9-28.6); six points, 14.5% (IQR, 7.1-24.1); seven points, 14.7% (IQR, 7.0-34.7); and eight points or more, 29.3% (IQR, 15.5-41.9). The model produces a c-statistic of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.61-0.71), suggesting modest discriminating ability to predict day-level warfarin nonadherence. Conclusions: Poor adherence to warfarin is common. A screening tool based on nine demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors, if further validated in other patient populations, may help to identify groups of patients at lower risk for nonadherence so that intensified efforts at increased monitoring and intervention can be focused on higher-risk patients. PMID:19903973

  8. Factors influencing warfarin response in hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aziz, Mahmoud I.; Ali, Mostafa A. Sayed; Hassan, Ayman K.M.; Elfaham, Tahani H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of simultaneous factors that potentially keep patients far from achieving target INR range at discharge in hospitalized patients. Prospective cross-sectional observational study conducted at the Cardiology Department and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Assiut University Hospitals. One-hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the study from July 2013 to January 2014. Outcome measures were discharge INRs, bleeding and thromboembolic episodes. Bivariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to determine independent risk factors that can keep patients outside target INR range. Patients who were newly initiated warfarin on hospital admission were given low initiation dose (2.8 mg ± 0.9). They were more likely to have INR values below 1.5 during hospital stay, 13 (27.7%) patients compared with 9 (12.3%) previously treated patients, respectively (p = .034). We found that the best predictors of achieving below target INR range relative to within target INR range were; shorter hospital stay periods (OR, 0.82 for every day increase [95% CI, 0.72–0.94]), being a male patient (OR, 2.86 [95% CI, 1.05–7.69]), concurrent infection (OR, 0.21 [95% CI, 0.07–0.59]) and new initiation of warfarin therapy on hospital admission (OR, 3.73 [95% CI, 1.28–10.9]). Gender, new initiation of warfarin therapy on hospital admission, shorter hospital stay periods and concurrent infection can have a significant effect on discharge INRs. Initiation of warfarin without giving loading doses increases the risk of having INRs below 1.5 during hospital stay and increases the likelihood of a patient to be discharged with INR below target range. Following warfarin dosing nomograms and careful monitoring of the effect of various factors on warfarin response should be greatly considered. PMID:26702259

  9. The Time in Therapeutic Range and Bleeding Complications of Warfarin in Different Geographic Regions of Turkey: A Subgroup Analysis of WARFARIN-TR Study.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Salih; Çelik, Ahmet; Çakmak, Hüseyin Altuğ; Afşin, Abdülmecit; Tekkeşin, Ahmet İlker; Açıksarı, Gönül; Memetoğlu, Mehmet Erdem; Özpamuk Karadeniz, Fatma; Şahan, Ekrem; Alıcı, Mehmet Hayri; Dereli, Yüksel; Sinan, Ümit Yaşar; Zoghi, Mehdi

    2017-08-04

    The time in therapeutic range values may vary between different geographical regions of Turkey in patients vitamin K antagonist therapy. To evaluate the time in therapeutic range percentages, efficacy, safety and awareness of warfarin according to the different geographical regions in patients who participated in the WARFARIN-TR study (The Awareness, Efficacy, Safety and Time in Therapeutic Range of Warfarin in the Turkish population) in Turkey. Cross-sectional study. The WARFARIN-TR study includes 4987 patients using warfarin and involved regular international normalized ratio monitoring between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014. Patients attended follow-ups for 12 months. The sample size calculations were analysed according to the density of the regional population and according to Turkish Statistical Institute data. The time in therapeutic range was calculated according to F.R. Roosendaal's algorithm. Awareness was evaluated based on the patients' knowledge of the effect of warfarin and food-drug interactions with simple questions developed based on a literature review. The Turkey-wide time in therapeutic range was reported as 49.5%±22.9 in the WARFARIN-TR study. There were statistically significant differences between regions in terms of time in therapeutic range (p>0.001). The highest rate was reported in the Marmara region (54.99%±20.91) and the lowest was in the South-eastern Anatolia region (41.95±24.15) (p>0.001). Bleeding events were most frequently seen in Eastern Anatolia (41.6%), with major bleeding in the Aegean region (5.11%) and South-eastern Anatolia (5.36%). There were statistically significant differences between the regions in terms of awareness (p>0.001). Statistically significant differences were observed in terms of the efficacy, safety and awareness of warfarin therapy according to different geographical regions in Turkey.

  10. Warfarin Toxicity and Individual Variability—Clinical Case

    PubMed Central

    Piatkov, Irina; Rochester, Colin; Jones, Trudi; Boyages, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Warfarin is a widely used anticoagulant in the treatment and prevention of thrombosis, in the treatment for chronic atrial fibrillation, mechanical valves, pulmonary embolism, and dilated cardiomyopathy. It is tasteless and colorless, was used as a poison, and is still marketed as a pesticide against rats and mice. Several long-acting warfarin derivatives—superwarfarin anticoagulants—such as brodifacoum, diphenadione, chlorophacinone, bromadiolone, are used as pesticides and can produce profound and prolonged anticoagulation. Several factors increase the risk of warfarin toxicity. However, polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 genes and drug interactions account for most of the risk for toxicity complications. Each person is unique in their degree of susceptibility to toxic agents. The toxicity interpretation and the health risk of most toxic substances are a subject of uncertainty. Genetically determined low metabolic capacity in an individual can dramatically alter the toxin and metabolite levels from those normally expected, which is crucial for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index, like warfarin. Personalized approaches in interpretation have the potential to remove some of the scientific uncertainties in toxicity cases. PMID:22069565

  11. Effects of etravirine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in rats

    PubMed Central

    John, J; John, M; Wu, L; Hsiao, C; Abobo, CV; Liang, D

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Warfarin is often used with etravirine (ETV) to prevent HIV-related thromboembolic events. As both warfarin and ETV bind to plasma proteins and are metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450s, they are likely to interact. Hence, we evaluated the effect of ETV on the pharmacokinetics and blood clotting time of racemic warfarin in rats. Experimental Approach Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats, in which the jugular vein had been cannulated, were studied. The control group (n = 10) received 1 mg·kg−1 racemic warfarin i.v., and the test group (n = 13) 1 mg·kg−1 of racemic warfarin followed by 25 mg·kg−1 ETV i.v. Serial blood samples were collected for up to 144 h and the blood clotting time (calculated as international normalized ratio [INR]) measured in blood plasma at each sample point. Plasma concentrations of R-warfarin, S-warfarin, R-7-hydroxywarfarin and S-7-hydroxywarfarin were measured by a LC/MS/MS method using a chiral lux cellulose-1 column. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analysed using non-compartmental methods. Key Results ETV significantly increased, by threefold, the systemic clearance and volume of distribution of S-warfarin, but not those of R-warfarin. ETV decreased the total AUC of warfarin, but had no effect on its elimination half-life. ETV also increased the systemic clearance of both R-7-hydroxywarfarin and S-7-hydroxywarfarin but only increased the volume of distribution of R-7-hydroxywarfarin. Interestingly, the effect of warfarin on blood clotting time (INR) was significantly increased in the presence of etravirine. Conclusion and Implications Our data suggest that etravirine may potentiate the anticoagulant effect of warfarin and this could have clinical significance. PMID:23215758

  12. Fecal hemoglobin excretion in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation: combined aspirin and low-dose warfarin vs conventional warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Blackshear, J L; Baker, V S; Holland, A; Litin, S C; Ahlquist, D A; Hart, R G; Ellefson, R; Koehler, J

    1996-03-25

    Antithrombotic prophylaxis using combined aspirin and low-dose warfarin is under evaluation in several clinical trials. However, therapy may result in increased gastrointestinal blood loss and clinical bleeding vs conventional single-agent antithrombotic therapy. To assess differences in gastrointestinal blood loss, we measured quantitative fecal hemoglobin equivalents (HemoQuant, Mayo Medical Laboratory, Rochester, Minn) in 117 patients, mean age 71 years, 1 month after initiation of assigned therapy in the Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation III Study. Sixty-three of these patients who had characteristics for high risk of stroke were randomly assigned to conventional adjusted-dose warfarin therapy (international normalized ratio, 2.0 to 3.0) or low-dose combined therapy (warfarin [international normalization ratio,<1.5] plus 325 mg/d of enteric-coated aspirin). The remaining 54 patients with low risk of stroke received 325 mg/d of enteric-coated aspirin. Among the 63 at high risk of stroke, abnormal values (>2mg of hemoglobin per gram of stool) were detected in 11% and values greater than 4 mg of hemoglobin per gram of stool were found in 8%. Mean ( +/- SD) values were more for those randomly assigned to receive combined therapy (1.7 +/- 3.3 mg of hemoglobin per gram of stool vs adjusted-dose warfarin therapy, 1.0 +/- 1.9 mg/g; P=.003). The 54 nonrandomized patients with low risk of stroke receiving aspirin alone had a mean (+/- SD) HemoQuant value of 0.8 +/- 0.7mg of hemoglobin per gram of stool 1 month after entry in the study. Abnormal levels of fecal hemoglobin excretion were common in elderly patients with high risk of atrial fibrillation 1 month after randomization to prophylactic antithrombotic therapy. Combined warfarin and aspirin therapy was associated with greater fecal hemoglobin excretion than standard warfarin therapy, suggesting the potential for increased gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

  13. Lack of effect of lacosamide on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of warfarin.

    PubMed

    Stockis, Armel; van Lier, Jan Jaap; Cawello, Willi; Kumke, Thomas; Eckhardt, Klaus

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the antiepileptic drug lacosamide on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the anticoagulant warfarin. In this open-label, two-treatment crossover study, 16 healthy adult male volunteers were randomized to receive a single 25-mg dose of warfarin alone in one period and lacosamide 200 mg twice daily on days 1-9 with a single 25 mg dose of warfarin coadministered on day 3 in the other period. There was a 2-week washout between treatments. Pharmacokinetic end points were area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0,last) and AUC(0,∞) ) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) for S- and R-warfarin. Pharmacodynamic end points were area under the international normalized ratio (INR)-time curve (AUCINR ), maximum INR (INRmax ), maximum prothrombin time (PTmax ) and area under the PT-time curve (AUCPT ). Following warfarin and lacosamide coadministration, Cmax and AUC of S- and R-warfarin, as well as peak value and AUC of PT and INR, were equivalent to those after warfarin alone. In particular, the AUC(0,∞) ratio (90% confidence interval) for coadministration of warfarin and lacosamide versus warfarin alone was 0.97 (0.94-1.00) for S-warfarin and 1.05 (1.02-1.09) for R-warfarin, and the AUCINR ratio was 1.04 (1.01-1.06). All participants completed the study. Coadministration of lacosamide 400 mg/day did not alter the pharmacokinetics of warfarin 25 mg or the anticoagulation level. These results suggest that there is no need for dose adjustment of warfarin when coadministered with lacosamide. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Response to warfarin and other oral anticoagulants: effects of disease states.

    PubMed

    Demirkan, K; Stephens, M A; Newman, K P; Self, T H

    2000-05-01

    Warfarin is associated with numerous drug and food interactions, and much attention has been appropriately focused on this subject. Because several disease states may also affect response to oral anticoagulants, we present a summary of the literature. We searched MEDLINE for original articles on the effect of disease states on response to warfarin. Liver disease and thyroid dysfunction are well-documented as affecting warfarin response. Further study is needed to establish whether febrile illness, congestive heart failure, and other disease states enhance the effect of warfarin in some patients. Careful monitoring of anticoagulant therapy in patients with diseases that have the potential to affect warfarin response could increase safety and efficacy of this important agent.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats: role of serum protein binding and tissue distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, W.K.

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of serum protein binding and tissue distribution in the non-linear pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats. The first phase of the research was an attempt to elucidate the causes of intersubject differences in serum protein binding of warfarin in rats. It was found that the distribution of S-warfarin between blood and liver, kidneys, muscle, or fatty tissue was non-linear. Based on the tissue distribution data obtained, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model was developed to describe the time course of S-warfarin concentrations in the serum and tissues of rats. The proposed model wasmore » able to display the dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats. Namely a lower clearance and a smaller apparent volume of distribution with increasing dose, which appear to be due to the presence of capacity-limited, high-affinity binding sites for warfarin in various tissues. To determine if the binding of warfarin to the high-affinity binding sites in the liver of rats is reversible, concentrations of S-warfarin in the liver and serum of rats were monitored for a very long time after an intravenous injection of a 1 mg/kg dose. In another study in rats, non-radioactive warfarin was found to be able to displace tissue-bound C/sup 14/-warfarin which was administered about 200 hours before the i.v. injection of the non-radioactive warfarin, showing that the binding of warfarin to the high-affinity binding sites in the body is persistent and reversible.« less

  16. A Pharmacogenetics-Based Warfarin Maintenance Dosing Algorithm from Northern Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fang; Wang, Jin'e; Shi, Yi; Tan, Yu; Chen, Qianlong; Zhang, Yu; Hui, Rutai; Wang, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    Inconsistent associations with warfarin dose were observed in genetic variants except VKORC1 haplotype and CYP2C9*3 in Chinese people, and few studies on warfarin dose algorithm was performed in a large Chinese Han population lived in Northern China. Of 787 consenting patients with heart-valve replacements who were receiving long-term warfarin maintenance therapy, 20 related Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped. Only VKORC1 and CYP2C9 SNPs were observed to be significantly associated with warfarin dose. In the derivation cohort (n = 551), warfarin dose variability was influenced, in decreasing order, by VKORC1 rs7294 (27.3%), CYP2C9*3(7.0%), body surface area(4.2%), age(2.7%), target INR(1.4%), CYP4F2 rs2108622 (0.7%), amiodarone use(0.6%), diabetes mellitus(0.6%), and digoxin use(0.5%), which account for 45.1% of the warfarin dose variability. In the validation cohort (n = 236), the actual maintenance dose was significantly correlated with predicted dose (r = 0.609, P<0.001). Our algorithm could improve the personalized management of warfarin use in Northern Chinese patients. PMID:25126975

  17. Clinical and Genetic Determinants of Warfarin Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics during Treatment Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Inna Y.; Schwarz, Ute I.; Crown, Natalie; Dresser, George K.; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Zou, GuangYong; Roden, Dan M.; Stein, C. Michael; Rodger, Marc; Wells, Philip S.; Kim, Richard B.; Tirona, Rommel G.

    2011-01-01

    Variable warfarin response during treatment initiation poses a significant challenge to providing optimal anticoagulation therapy. We investigated the determinants of initial warfarin response in a cohort of 167 patients. During the first nine days of treatment with pharmacogenetics-guided dosing, S-warfarin plasma levels and international normalized ratio were obtained to serve as inputs to a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model. Individual PK (S-warfarin clearance) and PD (Imax) parameter values were estimated. Regression analysis demonstrated that CYP2C9 genotype, kidney function, and gender were independent determinants of S-warfarin clearance. The values for Imax were dependent on VKORC1 and CYP4F2 genotypes, vitamin K status (as measured by plasma concentrations of proteins induced by vitamin K absence, PIVKA-II) and weight. Importantly, indication for warfarin was a major independent determinant of Imax during initiation, where PD sensitivity was greater in atrial fibrillation than venous thromboembolism. To demonstrate the utility of the global PK-PD model, we compared the predicted initial anticoagulation responses with previously established warfarin dosing algorithms. These insights and modeling approaches have application to personalized warfarin therapy. PMID:22114699

  18. Reducing warfarin medication interactions: an interrupted time series evaluation.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Adrianne C; Smith, David H; Perrin, Nancy; Yang, Xiuhai; Simon, Steven R; Krall, Michael; Sittig, Dean F; Ditmer, Diane; Platt, Richard; Soumerai, Stephen B

    2006-05-08

    Computerized decision support reduces medication errors in inpatients, but limited evidence supports its effectiveness in reducing the coprescribing of interacting medications, especially in the outpatient setting. The usefulness of academic detailing to enhance the effectiveness of medication interaction alerts also is uncertain. This study used an interrupted time series design. In a health maintenance organization with an electronic medical record, we evaluated the effectiveness of electronic medical record alerts and group academic detailing to reduce the coprescribing of warfarin and interacting medications. Participants were 239 primary care providers at 15 primary care clinics and 9910 patients taking warfarin. All 15 clinics received electronic medical record alerts for the coprescription of warfarin and 5 interacting medications: acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, fluconazole, metronidazole, and sulfamethoxazole. Seven clinics were randomly assigned to receive group academic detailing. The primary outcome, the interacting prescription rate (ie, the number of coprescriptions of warfarin-interacting medications per 10 000 warfarin users per month), was analyzed with segmented regression models, controlling for preintervention trends. At baseline, nearly a third of patients had an interacting prescription. Coinciding with the alerts, there was an immediate and continued reduction in the warfarin-interacting medication prescription rate (from 3294.0 to 2804.2), resulting in a 14.9% relative reduction (95% confidence interval, -19.5 to -10.2) at 12 months. Group academic detailing did not enhance alert effectiveness. This study, using a strong and quasi-experimental design in ambulatory care, found that medication interaction alerts modestly reduced the frequency of coprescribing of interacting medications. Additional efforts will be required to further reduce rates of inappropriate prescribing of warfarin with interacting drugs.

  19. Warfarin sensitivity genotyping: a review of the literature and summary of patient experience.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Thomas P; O'Kane, Dennis J; Baudhuin, Linnea M; Wiley, Carmen L; Fortini, Alexandre; Fisher, Pamela K; Dupras, Denise M; Chaudhry, Rajeev; Thapa, Prabin; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Heit, John A

    2009-12-01

    The antithrombotic benefits of warfarin are countered by a narrow therapeutic index that contributes to excessive bleeding or cerebrovascular clotting and stroke in some patients. This article reviews the current literature describing warfarin sensitivity genotyping and compares the results of that review to the findings of our study in 189 patients at Mayo Clinic conducted between June 2001 and April 2003. For the review of the literature, we identified relevant peer-reviewed articles by searching the Web of Knowledge using key word warfarin-related adverse event. For the 189 Mayo Clinic patients initiating warfarin therapy to achieve a target international normalized ratio (INR) in the range of 2.0 to 3.5, we analyzed the CYP2C9 (cytochrome P450 2C9) and VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1) genetic loci to study the relationship among the initial warfarin dose, steady-state dose, time to achieve steady-state dose, variations in INR, and allelic variance. Results were compared with those previously reported in the literature for 637 patients. The relationships between allelic variants and warfarin sensitivity found in our study of Mayo Clinic patients are fundamentally the same as in those reported by others. The Mayo Clinic population is predominantly white and shows considerable allelic variability in CYP2C9 and VKORC1. Certain of these alleles are associated with increased sensitivity to warfarin. Polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 have a considerable effect on warfarin dose in white people. A correlation between steady-state warfarin dose and allelic variants of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 has been demonstrated by many previous reports and is reconfirmed in this report. The allelic variants found to most affect warfarin sensitivity are CYP2C9*1*1-VKORC1BB (less warfarin sensitivity than typical); CYP2C9*1*1-VKORC1AA (considerable variance in INR throughout initiation); CYP2C9*1*2-VKORC1AB (more sensitivity to warfarin than typical); CYP2C9*1*3-VKORC1

  20. Racial background is a determinant factor in the maintenance dosage of warfarin.

    PubMed

    Gan, Gin Gin; Teh, Alan; Goh, Kim Yen; Chong, Heng Thay; Pang, Kang Wah

    2003-07-01

    Warfarin is a drug commonly used in the prevention of thromboembolic events. There have been reports suggesting that racial background may influence warfarin dose requirements. Malaysia is a multiracial country in which there are 3 major races, Malay, Chinese, and Indian. We examined 100 patients from our hospital on stable maintenance doses of warfarin, with international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.0 to 3.5. We found that the mean warfarin dose for Indian patients (n = 19) was 6.9 mg, for Chinese patients (n = 55) was 3.6 mg, and for Malay patients (n = 26) was 3.2 mg. The results showed that the Indian patients required a statistically significantly higher warfarin dose than did patients of the other 2 races (P < .0005). Age was also found to affect the daily warfarin maintenance dose.

  1. Improving Warfarin Management Within the Medical Home: A Health-System Approach.

    PubMed

    Rose, Anne E; Robinson, Erin N; Premo, Joan A; Hauschild, Lori J; Trapskin, Philip J; McBride, Ann M

    2017-03-01

    Anticoagulation clinics have been considered the optimal strategy for warfarin management with demonstrated improved patient outcomes through increased time in therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) range, decreased critical INR values, and decreased anticoagulation-related adverse events. However, not all health systems are able to support a specialized anticoagulation clinic or may see patient volume exceed available anticoagulation clinic resources. The purpose of this study was to utilize an anticoagulation clinic model to standardize warfarin management in a primary care clinic setting. A warfarin management program was developed that included standardized patient assessment, protocolized warfarin-dosing algorithm, and electronic documentation and reporting tools. Primary care clinics were targeted for training and implementation of this program. The warfarin management program was applied to over 2000 patients and implemented at 39 clinic sites. A total of 160 nurses and 15 pharmacists were trained on the program. Documentation of warfarin dose and date of the next INR increased from 70% to 90% (P <.0001), documentation occurring within 24 hours of the INR result increased from 75% to 87% (P <.0001), and monitoring the INR at least every 4 weeks increased from 71% to 83% (P <.0001) per patient encounter. Time in therapeutic INR range improved from 65% to 75%. Incorporating a standardized approach to warfarin management in the primary care setting significantly improves warfarin-related documentation and time in therapeutic INR range. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Stuart J; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Yusuf, Salim; Eikelboom, John; Oldgren, Jonas; Parekh, Amit; Pogue, Janice; Reilly, Paul A; Themeles, Ellison; Varrone, Jeanne; Wang, Susan; Alings, Marco; Xavier, Denis; Zhu, Jun; Diaz, Rafael; Lewis, Basil S; Darius, Harald; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Joyner, Campbell D; Wallentin, Lars

    2009-09-17

    Warfarin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation but increases the risk of hemorrhage and is difficult to use. Dabigatran is a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor. In this noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 18,113 patients who had atrial fibrillation and a risk of stroke to receive, in a blinded fashion, fixed doses of dabigatran--110 mg or 150 mg twice daily--or, in an unblinded fashion, adjusted-dose warfarin. The median duration of the follow-up period was 2.0 years. The primary outcome was stroke or systemic embolism. Rates of the primary outcome were 1.69% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 1.53% per year in the group that received 110 mg of dabigatran (relative risk with dabigatran, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 1.11; P<0.001 for noninferiority) and 1.11% per year in the group that received 150 mg of dabigatran (relative risk, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.82; P<0.001 for superiority). The rate of major bleeding was 3.36% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 2.71% per year in the group receiving 110 mg of dabigatran (P=0.003) and 3.11% per year in the group receiving 150 mg of dabigatran (P=0.31). The rate of hemorrhagic stroke was 0.38% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 0.12% per year with 110 mg of dabigatran (P<0.001) and 0.10% per year with 150 mg of dabigatran (P<0.001). The mortality rate was 4.13% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 3.75% per year with 110 mg of dabigatran (P=0.13) and 3.64% per year with 150 mg of dabigatran (P=0.051). In patients with atrial fibrillation, dabigatran given at a dose of 110 mg was associated with rates of stroke and systemic embolism that were similar to those associated with warfarin, as well as lower rates of major hemorrhage. Dabigatran administered at a dose of 150 mg, as compared with warfarin, was associated with lower rates of stroke and systemic embolism but similar rates of major hemorrhage. (ClinicalTrials.gov number

  3. Clopidogrel and warfarin pharmacogenetic tests: what is the evidence for use in clinical practice?

    PubMed Central

    Shahin, Mohamed H.A.; Johnson, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the most promising genetic markers associated with the variability in the safety or efficacy of warfarin and clopidogrel and highlight the verification and validation initiatives for translating clopidogrel and warfarin pharmacogenetic tests to clinical practice. Recent findings Rapid advances in pharmacogenetics, continuous decrease in genotyping cost, development of point-of-care devices and the newly established clinical genotyping programs at several institutions hold the promise of individualizing clopidogrel and warfarin based on genotype. Guidelines have been established to assist clinicians in prescribing clopidogrel or warfarin dose based on genotype. However, the clinical utility of clopidogrel and warfarin is still limited. Accordingly, large randomized clinical trials are underway to define the role of clopidogrel and warfarin pharmacogenetics in clinical practice. Summary Pharmacogenetics has offered compelling evidence toward the individualization of clopidogrel and warfarin therapies. The rapid advances in technology make the clinical implementation of clopidogrel and warfarin pharmacogenetics possible. The clinical genotyping programs and the ongoing clinical trials will help in overcoming some of the barriers facing the clinical implementation of clopidogrel and warfarin pharmacogenetics. PMID:23478884

  4. Ezetimibe enhances and stabilizes anticoagulant effect of warfarin.

    PubMed

    Hashikata, Takehiro; Yamaoka-Tojo, Minako; Kakizaki, Ryota; Nemoto, Teruyoshi; Fujiyoshi, Kazuhiro; Namba, Sayaka; Kitasato, Lisa; Hashimoto, Takuya; Ishii, Shunsuke; Kameda, Ryo; Shimohama, Takao; Tojo, Taiki; Ako, Junya

    2017-01-01

    Ezetimibe reduces plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by inhibiting Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1 (NPC1L1). A recent study demonstrated that NPC1L1 plays an important role in absorption of fat-soluble vitamins including vitamin K. We evaluated whether the add-on treatment of ezetimibe affects anticoagulation in patients taking warfarin. Between October 2007 and March 2015, the administration of ezetimibe was started to a total of 101 outpatients who were already on oral anticoagulation with warfarin. We retrospectively analyzed blood lipid levels, prothrombin time international normalized ratio (PT-INR) and time in therapeutic INR range (TTR). Seventy-one patients (70 %) showed increase in PT-INR after ezetimibe treatment (1.96 ± 0.45 to 2.20 ± 0.61, p < 0.001). It was necessary to reduce the warfarin dose in 9 of 101 patients for clinical indication. There was a significant positive correlation between change in PT-INR and statin usage at baseline (p = 0.03). The mean value of changes in PT-INR of patients with taking statin was significantly larger than that of patients without taking statin (0.34 ± 0.54 vs. 0.06 ± 0.36, p = 0.03). There was an increase in the TTR (52 ± 26 to 61 ± 23 %, p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the frequency to change the dose of warfarin after the ezetimibe treatment [45 times of 735 examination days (6 %) to 20 times of 695 examination days (3 %), p = 0.02]. Our data suggest possible drug interaction between warfarin and ezetimibe. Ezetimibe may increase and stabilize the anticoagulant effect of warfarin, especially in patients taking statins.

  5. Interaction between gemfibrozil and warfarin: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Dave L; Williams, Virginia G

    2009-06-01

    Possible procoagulant effects can occur when lipid-lowering fibric acid derivatives, such as gemfibrozil and fenofibrate, are taken concomitantly with warfarin. Although there are several detailed reports of fenofibrate potentiating the anticoagulant effects of warfarin, few case reports have been published regarding an interaction between gemfibrozil and warfarin. We describe a 62-year-old man who was taking warfarin for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and came to the anticoagulation clinic for a routine follow-up. For 9 months, the patient's international normalized ratio (INR) had been stable (target range 2.0-3.0) with warfarin 45 mg/week. At this clinic visit, however, his INR was supratherapeutic at 5.8; the only identified change in his drug therapy was the addition of gemfibrozil 600 mg twice/day, started 3 weeks earlier. The patient denied any changes in his dietary intake of vitamin K, alcohol use, or addition of nonprescription or herbal agents. Recent laboratory tests revealed no signs of thyroid abnormalities and only an insignificant elevation in his alanine aminotransferase level. His warfarin dose was decreased to 35-37.5 mg/week (a 22% reduction), and a therapeutic INR was maintained until gemfibrozil was later discontinued because of myalgia. After consecutive subtherapeutic INRs, his warfarin dose was increased to 45 mg/week and a therapeutic INR was maintained. Use of the Drug Interaction Probability Scale indicated that the likelihood of the gemfibrozil-warfarin interaction was probable. The exact mechanism of the proposed interactions between fibric acid derivatives and warfarin remains unknown but may be multifactorial through inhibition of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, displacement from protein binding sites, or changes in coagulation factor synthesis. Regardless of the fibric acid derivative chosen, an empiric dosage reduction of 20% and close INR monitoring are warranted in patients receiving warfarin.

  6. Effect of gemfibrozil on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of racemic warfarin in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lilja, Jari J; Backman, Janne T; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2005-01-01

    Aims Case reports suggest that gemfobrozil can increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Because gemfibrozil inhibits CYP2C9 in vitro, we studied its effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of racemic warfarin. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 10 healthy subjects ingested 600 mg gemfibrozil or placebo twice daily for 8 days. On day 3, they were administered a single dose of 10 mg racemic R-S-warfarin orally. The concentrations of R- and S-warfarin in plasma and thromboplastin time were monitored up to 168 h. Results Gemfibrozil decreased the mean (±SD) area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC(0–∞)] of S-warfarin by 11%, from 19.9 ± 5.2 mg l−1 h to 17.6 ± 4.7 mg l−1 h (95% CI on the difference −3.7, −0.78; P < 0.01) and that of R-warfarin by 6% from 31.3 ± 7.5 mg l−1 h during the gemfibrozil phase to 29.5 ± 6.9 mg l−1 h during the placebo phase (95% CI −3.3, −0.33; P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the elimination half-lives of S- or R-warfarin between the phases. Gemfibrozil did not alter the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Conclusion Unexpectedly, gemfibrozil slightly decreased the plasma concentrations of R- and S-warfarin. Displacement of warfarin from plasma albumin by gemfibrozil or its interference with the absorption of warfarin could explain the present findings. Usual therapeutic doses of gemfibrozil seem to have limited effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single dose warfarin in healthy subjects. PMID:15801938

  7. Oral warfarin intake affects skin inflammatory cytokine responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, Aleksandra Popov; Mirkov, Ivana; Zolotarevski, Lidija; Ninkov, Marina; Mileusnic, Dina; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2017-09-01

    Warfarin is an anticoagulant used in prevention/prophylaxis of thromboembolism. Besides the effects on coagulation, non-hemorrhagic reactions have also been documented. Although cutaneous reactions were reported in some patients, the impact on skin immunity was not explored. In the present paper, the effect of 30-day oral warfarin intake on skin cytokine responses in rats was analyzed. Increased release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β and IL-10) was noted by skin explants from rats which received warfarin, but without effect on IL-6. No impact on epidermal cell cytokine secretion was seen, except a tendency of an increase of IL-6 response to stimulation with microbial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Topical application of contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) resulted in slight (numerical solely) increase of TNF release by skin explants of warfarin-treated animals, while epidermal cells responded by increased secretion of all four cytokines examined. The data presented provide new information on the potential of oral warfarin to modulate skin innate immune activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Robert P; Ruff, Christian T; Braunwald, Eugene; Murphy, Sabina A; Wiviott, Stephen D; Halperin, Jonathan L; Waldo, Albert L; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Špinar, Jindřich; Ruzyllo, Witold; Ruda, Mikhail; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Betcher, Joshua; Shi, Minggao; Grip, Laura T; Patel, Shirali P; Patel, Indravadan; Hanyok, James J; Mercuri, Michele; Antman, Elliott M

    2013-11-28

    Edoxaban is a direct oral factor Xa inhibitor with proven antithrombotic effects. The long-term efficacy and safety of edoxaban as compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation is not known. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trial comparing two once-daily regimens of edoxaban with warfarin in 21,105 patients with moderate-to-high-risk atrial fibrillation (median follow-up, 2.8 years). The primary efficacy end point was stroke or systemic embolism. Each edoxaban regimen was tested for noninferiority to warfarin during the treatment period. The principal safety end point was major bleeding. The annualized rate of the primary end point during treatment was 1.50% with warfarin (median time in the therapeutic range, 68.4%), as compared with 1.18% with high-dose edoxaban (hazard ratio, 0.79; 97.5% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 0.99; P<0.001 for noninferiority) and 1.61% with low-dose edoxaban (hazard ratio, 1.07; 97.5% CI, 0.87 to 1.31; P=0.005 for noninferiority). In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was a trend favoring high-dose edoxaban versus warfarin (hazard ratio, 0.87; 97.5% CI, 0.73 to 1.04; P=0.08) and an unfavorable trend with low-dose edoxaban versus warfarin (hazard ratio, 1.13; 97.5% CI, 0.96 to 1.34; P=0.10). The annualized rate of major bleeding was 3.43% with warfarin versus 2.75% with high-dose edoxaban (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.91; P<0.001) and 1.61% with low-dose edoxaban (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.55; P<0.001). The corresponding annualized rates of death from cardiovascular causes were 3.17% versus 2.74% (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.97; P=0.01), and 2.71% (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.96; P=0.008), and the corresponding rates of the key secondary end point (a composite of stroke, systemic embolism, or death from cardiovascular causes) were 4.43% versus 3.85% (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.96; P=0.005), and 4.23% (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.05; P

  9. Rationale, design, and preliminary results of the Quebec Warfarin Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Sylvie; Shahabi, Payman; Côté, Robert; Dumas, Stéphanie; Rouleau-Mailloux, Étienne; Feroz Zada, Yassamin; Provost, Sylvie; Mongrain, Ian; Dorais, Marc; Huynh, Thao; Kouz, Simon; Diaz, Ariel; Blostein, Mark; de Denus, Simon; Turgeon, Jacques; Ginsberg, Jeffrey; Lelorier, Jacques; Lalonde, Lyne; Busque, Lambert; Kassis, Jeannine; Talajic, Mario; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Dubé, Marie-Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Over- and undercoagulation with warfarin are associated with hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events, respectively. Genetic and clinical factors affect warfarin response, and the causes of this variability remain unclear. We present descriptive statistics and test for predictors of poor anticoagulation control. The Quebec Warfarin Cohort (QWC) comprises 1059 new warfarin users, with prospective follow-up using telephone questionnaires every 3 months for 1 year, and using healthcare administrative databases (RAMQ and Med-Echo) for 5 years prior to cohort entry and up to 10 years following active patient participation. Genetic material was collected, and genotyping of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes was conducted. Measured outcomes included the percentage of time patients spent within therapeutic range, anticoagulation control, warfarin dose, bleeding, and thromboembolic events. We report baseline characteristics and outcomes after 1 year of follow-up. Poor anticoagulation control was defined as time in therapeutic range <60% in the 3- to 12-month interval. Participants had a mean age of 71 years, and 62% were men. The most common indication for warfarin was atrial fibrillation (87%). Mean time in therapeutic range was 56% (±25%) in the 3 months following warfarin initiation, and 70% (±21%) in the 3- to 12-month interval. During follow-up, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was 1.8 events per 100 person-years; for major bleeding events, 3.3 events per 100 person-years. Independent predictors of poor anticoagulation control were chronic kidney disease, heart failure, dyslipidemia, and age. The QWC represents a good research cohort to investigate clinical and genetic factors in a warfarin-anticoagulated population. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Gastrointestinal bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage in concomitant users of warfarin and antihyperlipidemics.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Charles E; Brensinger, Colleen M; Bilker, Warren B; Kimmel, Stephen E; Han, Xu; Nam, Young Hee; Gagne, Joshua J; Mangaali, Margaret J; Hennessy, Sean

    2017-02-01

    Drug interactions, particularly those involving warfarin, are a major clinical and public health problem. Minimizing serious bleeding caused by anticoagulants is a recent major focus of the United States (US) Department of Health and Human Services. This study quantified the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) among concomitant users of warfarin and individual antihyperlipidemics. The authors conducted a high-dimensional propensity score-adjusted cohort study of new concomitant users of warfarin and an antihyperlipidemic, among US Medicaid beneficiaries from five states during 1999-2011. Exposure was defined by concomitant use of warfarin plus one of eight antihyperlipidemics. The primary outcome measure was a composite of GIB/ICH within the first 30days of concomitant use. As a secondary outcome measure, GIB/ICH was examined within the first 180days of concomitant use. Among 236,691 persons newly-exposed to warfarin and an antihyperlipidemic, the crude incidence of GIB/ICH was 13.2 (95% confidence interval 12.7 to 13.8) per 100person-years. Users were predominantly older, female, and Caucasian. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for warfarin and individual statins were consistent with no association. Warfarin+gemfibrozil was associated with an 80% increased risk of GIB/ICH within the first month of concomitant use (aHR=1.8, 1.4 to 2.4). Warfarin+fenofibrate was associated with a similar increased risk (aHR=1.8, 1.2 to 2.7), yet with an onset during the second month of concomitant use. Among warfarin-treated persons, the use of fibrates-but not statins-increases the risk of hospital presentation for GIB/ICH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Healthcare utilization and costs for patients initiating Dabigatran or Warfarin.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Shannon L; Ghate, Sameer R; Sheer, Richard; Gandhi, Pranav K; Moretz, Chad; Wang, Cheng; Sander, Stephen; Costantino, Mary E; Annavarapu, Srinivas; Andrews, George

    2017-06-21

    Novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) such as dabigatran, when compared to warfarin, have been shown to potentially reduce the risk of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) together with lower healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and similar total costs. This study expands on previous work by comparing HCRU and costs for patients newly diagnosed with NVAF and newly initiated on dabigatran or warfarin, and is the first study specifically in a Medicare population. A retrospective matched-cohort study was conducted using data from administrative health care claims during the study period 01/01/2010-12/31/2012. Cox regression analyses were used to compare all-cause risk of first hospitalizations and emergency room (ER) visits. Medical, pharmacy, and total costs per-patient-per-month (PPPM) were compared between dabigatran and warfarin users. A total of 1110 patients initiated on dabigatran were propensity score-matched with corresponding patients initiated on warfarin. The mean number of hospitalizations (0.92 vs. 1.13, P = 0.012), ER visits (1.32 vs. 1.56, P < 0.01), office visits (21.43 vs. 29.41; P < 0.01), and outpatient visits (10.86 vs. 22.02; P < 0.01) were lower among dabigatran compared to warfarin users. Patients initiated on dabigatran had significantly lower risk of first all-cause ER visits [hazard ratio (HR): 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.98] compared to those initiated on warfarin. Adjusted mean pharmacy costs PPPM were significantly greater for dabigatran users ($510 vs. $250, P < 0.001); however, mean medical costs PPPM ($1912 vs. $1956, P = 0.55) and mean total costs PPPM ($2381 vs. $2183, P = 0.10) were not significantly different compared to warfarin users. Dabigatran users had significantly lower HCRU compared to warfarin users. In addition, dabigatran users had lower risk of all-cause ER visits. Despite higher pharmacy costs, the two cohorts did not differ significantly in medical or total all

  12. Health literacy and knowledge in a cohort of Australian patients taking warfarin.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Angela W; Bajorek, Beata V

    2018-01-01

    To 1) characterise older patients taking warfarin, 2) assess these patients' level of warfarin knowledge, and 3) describe their strengths and limitations in health literacy, and 4) explore relationships between participants' characteristics, warfarin knowledge and health literacy. A warfarin knowledge questionnaire and Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) were administered to older patients (aged >65 years, N=34) taking warfarin in an Australian general practice setting. Key gaps in participant knowledge pertained to the consequences of an international normalized ratio (INR) being below the target INR range and safety issues such as when to seek medical attention. A limitation for participants with a lower level of health literacy was the ability to appraise health information. Patients who needed assistance in completing the HLQs had significantly lower warfarin knowledge scores (p=0.03). Overseas-born participants and those taking 5 or more long-term medications had lower HLQ scores for specific scales (p<0.05). In this study warfarin knowledge gaps and a limitation of health literacy amongst a small sample of older patients were identified. The findings suggest that education and resources may need to be tailored to the needs of older patients taking warfarin and their carers to address these knowledge gaps and limitations in health literacy. Patients who may need greater support include those that need assistance in completing the HLQ, are overseas-born, or are taking 5 or more long-term medications.

  13. Vascular access site complication in transfemoral coronary angiography between uninterrupted warfarin and heparin bridging.

    PubMed

    Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Pinyosamosorn, Kittipong; Gunaparn, Siriluck; Boonnayhun, Suchada; Thonghong, Tasalak; Suwannasom, Pannipa; Phrommintikul, Arintaya

    2017-08-01

    Warfarin discontinuation with heparin bridging is a common practice in patients receiving warfarin prior to elective coronary angiography (CAG). The uninterrupted warfarin strategy has been suggested to be alternative option for patients with high thromboembolic risk. Therefore, we aimed to assess the safety of elective transfemoral CAG during uninterrupted warfarin therapy compared to heparin bridging. This study was a randomized open-label design with blinded event evaluation. The 110 consecutive patients (age ≥ 18 years) receiving warfarin before the planned transfemoral CAG were randomly assigned to either heparin bridging or uninterrupted warfarin with targeted INR (2.0-3.0). The primary outcome was the incidence of major vascular access site complications. The baseline characteristics were comparable between two groups (mean age was 60.1 ± 7.8 years, 49 males). The mean INR on the day of CAG of heparin bridging and uninterrupted warfarin groups was 1.2 ± 0.3 and 2.2 ± 0.5 (P < 0.001). The major vascular access site complications occurred in 3 of 55 (5.5%) heparin-bridging patients and in none of 55 uninterrupted warfarin patients (P = 0.243). The total vascular access site complications occurred in 6 (10.9%) heparin-bridging and one (1.8%) uninterrupted warfarin patients (P = 0.113). No patient developed either other bleeding or thromboembolic events during 7 days after CAG. We demonstrated that an uninterrupted warfarin strategy did not increase vascular access site complications in patients undergoing transfemoral CAG compared to heparin bridging therapy. Due to the safety and the ease of uninterrupted warfarin strategy, this approach should be encouraged in patients receiving long-term warfarin who undergo elective transfemoral CAG. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Patient satisfaction with extended-interval warfarin monitoring.

    PubMed

    Carris, Nicholas W; Hwang, Andrew Y; Smith, Steven M; Taylor, James R; Sando, Karen; Powell, Jason; Rosenberg, Eric I; Zumberg, Marc S; Gums, John G; Dietrich, Eric A; Anderson, Katherine Vogel

    2016-11-01

    Extended-interval monitoring of warfarin has been proposed to reduce follow-up burden and improve patient satisfaction. We aimed to make an initial assessment of anticoagulation satisfaction before and after an extended-interval warfarin monitoring intervention. We conducted a translational prospective single-arm pilot study of extended-interval warfarin monitoring in five pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinics. Patients meeting CHEST guideline criteria for extended-interval warfarin monitoring began progressive extended-interval follow-up (6, 8, and 12 weeks thereafter). The Duke Anticoagulation Satisfaction Scale (DASS) was administered at baseline and at end-of-study or study removal (in patients no longer appropriate for extended interval follow-up). Forty-six patients had evaluable pre- and post-intervention DASS survey data. Mean age of patients was 66.5 years, 74 % were non-Hispanic whites, and 48 % were men. Patients completed a mean ± SD of 34 ± 22 weeks of follow-up. Mean ± SD total DASS score at baseline was 45.2 ± 14.2 versus 49.1 ± 14.9 at end-of-study (mean change, +3.9 [95 % CI -0.6-8.4; p = 0.09]), indicating no benefit-and trending toward decrement-to anticoagulation satisfaction. Change in anticoagulation satisfaction varied substantially following extended-interval monitoring, with no evidence of improved satisfaction. Plausible reasons for patients not preferring extended-interval monitoring include increased anxiety and disengagement from self-management activities, both potentially related to less frequent feedback and reassurance during extended interval-monitoring. Additional research is needed to identify who is likely to benefit most from extended-interval monitoring. Anticoagulation satisfaction should be considered with clinical factors and shared-decision making when implementing extended-interval warfarin monitoring.

  15. Warfarin traps human vitamin K epoxide reductase in an intermediate state during electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guomin; Cui, Weidong; Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Fengbo; Huang, Wei; Liu, Qian; Yang, Yihu; Li, Shuang; Bowman, Gregory R.; Sadler, J. Evan; Gross, Michael L.; Li, Weikai

    2017-01-01

    Although warfarin is the most widely used anticoagulant worldwide, the mechanism by which warfarin inhibits its target, human vitamin K epoxide reductase (hVKOR), remains unclear. Here we show that warfarin blocks a dynamic electron-transfer process in hVKOR. A major fraction of cellular hVKOR is at an intermediate redox state of this process containing a Cys51-Cys132 disulfide, a characteristic accommodated by a four-transmembrane-helix structure of hVKOR. Warfarin selectively inhibits this major cellular form of hVKOR, whereas disruption of the Cys51-Cys132 disulfide impairs warfarin binding and causes warfarin resistance. Relying on binding interactions identified by cysteine alkylation footprinting and mass spectrometry coupled with mutagenesis analysis, we are able to conduct structure simulations to reveal a closed warfarin-binding pocket stabilized by the Cys51-Cys132 linkage. Understanding the selective warfarin inhibition of a specific redox state of hVKOR should enable the rational design of drugs that exploit the redox chemistry and associated conformational changes in hVKOR. PMID:27918545

  16. Cytochrome P450-mediated warfarin metabolic ability is not a critical determinant of warfarin sensitivity in avian species: In vitro assays in several birds and in vivo assays in chicken.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kensuke P; Kawata, Minami; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishii, Chihiro; Darwish, Wageh Sobhi; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-10-01

    Coumarin-derivative anticoagulant rodenticides used for rodent control are posing a serious risk to wild bird populations. For warfarin, a classic coumarin derivative, chickens have a high median lethal dose (LD50), whereas mammalian species generally have much lower LD50. Large interspecies differences in sensitivity to warfarin are to be expected. The authors previously reported substantial differences in warfarin metabolism among avian species; however, the actual in vivo pharmacokinetics have yet to be elucidated, even in the chicken. In the present study, the authors sought to provide an in-depth characterization of warfarin metabolism in birds using in vivo and in vitro approaches. A kinetic analysis of warfarin metabolism was performed using liver microsomes of 4 avian species, and the metabolic abilities of the chicken and crow were much higher in comparison with those of the mallard and ostrich. Analysis of in vivo metabolites from chickens showed that excretions predominantly consisted of 4'-hydroxywarfarin, which was consistent with the in vitro results. Pharmacokinetic analysis suggested that chickens have an unexpectedly long half-life despite showing high metabolic ability in vitro. The results suggest that the half-life of warfarin in other bird species could be longer than that in the chicken and that warfarin metabolism may not be a critical determinant of species differences with respect to warfarin sensitivity. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Sol-gel Derived Warfarin - Silica Composites for Controlled Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Dolinina, Ekaterina S; Parfenyuk, Elena V

    2017-01-01

    Warfarin, commonly used anticoagulant in clinic, has serious shortcomings due to its unsatisfactory pharmacodynamics. One of the efficient ways for the improvement of pharmacological and consumer properties of drugs is the development of optimal drug delivery systems. The aim of this work is to synthesize novel warfarin - silica composites and to study in vitro the drug release kinetics to obtain the composites with controlled release. The composites of warfarin with unmodified (UMS) and mercaptopropyl modified silica (MPMS) were synthesized by sol-gel method. The composite formation was confirmed by FTIR spectra. The concentrations of warfarin released to media with pH 1.6, 6.8 and 7.4 were measured using UV spectroscopy. The drug release profiles from the solid composites were described by a series of kinetic models which includes zero order kinetics, first order kinetics, the modified Korsmeyer-Peppas model and Hixson-Crowell model. The synthesized sol-gel composites have different kinetic behavior in the studied media. In contrast to the warfarin composite with unmodified silica, the drug release from the composite with mercaptopropyl modified silica follows zero order kinetics for 24 h irrespective to the release medium pH due to mixed mechanism (duffusion + degradation and/or disintegration of silica matrix). The obtained results showed that warfarin - silica sol-gel composites have a potential application for the development of novel oral formulation of the drug with controlled delivery. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Suboptimal Anticoagulant Management in Japanese Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Warfarin for Stroke Prevention.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Kaneko, Hirokazu; Mishina, Sari; Wang, Feng; Morita, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, with increasing prevalence in Japan. Although prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) targets for monitoring warfarin therapy in patients with nonvalvular AF (NVAF) are well defined, real-world patient characteristics and PT-INR levels remain unknown among Japanese patients with NVAF who initiate and continue warfarin (warfarin maintainers) versus those who switch from warfarin to direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs; warfarin switchers). Patients with NVAF receiving oral anticoagulants between February 2013 and June 2015 were identified using a nationwide electronic medical record (EMR) database from 69 hospitals in Japan. Demographics and characteristics of patients, PT-INR, time in therapeutic range (TTR), and frequency in range (FIR) of PT-INR between warfarin maintainers and warfarin switchers were assessed. A total of 1705 patients met inclusion criteria and were examined (1501 warfarin maintainers versus 204 warfarin switchers). CHADS 2 , CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc, and HAS-BLED scores were comparable between groups. However, these scores were significantly higher among warfarin switchers at the time of switching than at the time of warfarin initiation. Furthermore, TTR and FIR of PT-INR were lower in warfarin switchers than in maintainers. Nevertheless, TTR and FIR were below 50% (PT-INR, 1.6-2.6) in both patient groups. In this EMR-based clinical study, patients who switched to DOACs had both poor or inadequate PT-INR control and higher risk factors of stroke. Many patients receiving warfarin did not achieve sufficient PT-INR therapeutic range. DOACs could be recommended in Japanese patients with NVAF with inadequate PT-INR control and increased risk of stroke. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Algorithms for monitoring warfarin use: Results from Delphi Method.

    PubMed

    Kano, Eunice Kazue; Borges, Jessica Bassani; Scomparini, Erika Burim; Curi, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Eliane

    2017-10-01

    Warfarin stands as the most prescribed oral anticoagulant. New oral anticoagulants have been approved recently; however, their use is limited and the reversibility techniques of the anticoagulation effect are little known. Thus, our study's purpose was to develop algorithms for therapeutic monitoring of patients taking warfarin based on the opinion of physicians who prescribe this medicine in their clinical practice. The development of the algorithm was performed in two stages, namely: (i) literature review and (ii) algorithm evaluation by physicians using a Delphi Method. Based on the articles analyzed, two algorithms were developed: "Recommendations for the use of warfarin in anticoagulation therapy" and "Recommendations for the use of warfarin in anticoagulation therapy: dose adjustment and bleeding control." Later, these algorithms were analyzed by 19 medical doctors that responded to the invitation and agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 16 responded to the first round, 11 to the second and eight to the third round. A 70% consensus or higher was reached for most issues and at least 50% for six questions. We were able to develop algorithms to monitor the use of warfarin by physicians using a Delphi Method. The proposed method is inexpensive and involves the participation of specialists, and it has proved adequate for the intended purpose. Further studies are needed to validate these algorithms, enabling them to be used in clinical practice.

  20. Concurrent Hand and Penile Gangrene following Prolonged Warfarin Use; a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mahdizadeh, Fatemeh; Safari, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Warfarin induced skin necrosis (WISN) is a rare but important side effect of warfarin. Early diagnosis may lessen the amount of permanent tissue damage and can prevent progression to full thickness skin necrosis. So, physicians should be aware of such a complication. Screening for protein C or S or anti-thrombin deficiencies, or presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies before beginning warfarin therapy, could be helpful to avoid high levels of international normalized ratio (INR). Here, we report a 54-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with acral and penile gangrene following prolonged use of warfarin. PMID:29201953

  1. Concurrent Hand and Penile Gangrene following Prolonged Warfarin Use; a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mahdizadeh, Fatemeh; Safari, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Warfarin induced skin necrosis (WISN) is a rare but important side effect of warfarin. Early diagnosis may lessen the amount of permanent tissue damage and can prevent progression to full thickness skin necrosis. So, physicians should be aware of such a complication. Screening for protein C or S or anti-thrombin deficiencies, or presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies before beginning warfarin therapy, could be helpful to avoid high levels of international normalized ratio (INR). Here, we report a 54-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with acral and penile gangrene following prolonged use of warfarin.

  2. Lack of a meaningful effect of anacetrapib on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Rajesh; Stypinski, Daria; Ali, Melissa; Garg, Amit; Cote, Josee; Maes, Andrea; DeGroot, Bruce; Liu, Yang; Li, Susie; Connolly, Sandra M; Wagner, John A; Stoch, S Aubrey

    2012-01-01

    AIM Anacetrapib is currently being developed for the treatment of dyslipidaemia. Since warfarin, an anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic index, is expected to be commonly prescribed in this population, a drug interaction study was conducted. METHODS In a randomized, open-label, two-period fixed-sequence design, 12 healthy male subjects received two different treatments (treatment A followed by treatment B). In treatment A, a single oral dose of 30 mg warfarin (3 × 10 mg CoumadinTM) was administered on day 1. After a washout interval, subjects began treatment B, where they were given daily 100 mg doses of anacetrapib (1 × 100 mg) beginning on day −14 and continuing through day 7, with concomitant administration of 30 mg warfarin (3 × 10 mg) on day 1. All anacetrapib and warfarin doses were administered with a standard low fat breakfast. After warfarin concentrations and prothrombin time were measured, standard pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and statistical (linear mixed effects model) analyses were applied. RESULTS Anacetrapib was generally well tolerated when co-administered with warfarin in the healthy males in this study. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) for warfarin + anacetrapib : warfarin alone and 90% confidence interval (CIs) for warfarin AUC(0–∞) were 0.94 (0.90, 0.97) for the R(+) warfarin enantiomer and 0.93 (0.87, 0.98) for the S(−) warfarin enantiomer, both being contained in the interval (0.80, 1.25), supporting the primary hypothesis of the study. The GMRs warfarin + anacetrapib : warfarin alone and 90% CIs for the statistical comparison of warfarin Cmax were 1.01 (0.97, 1.05) for both the R(+) warfarin and the S(−) warfarin enantiomers, and were also contained in the interval (0.80, 1.25). The GMR (warfarin + anacetrapib : warfarin alone) and 90% CI for the statistical comparison of INR AUC(0–168 h) was 0.93 (0.89, 0.96). CONCLUSION The single dose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orally administered warfarin were not

  3. Race influences warfarin dose changes associated with genetic factors

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Todd M.; Yan, Qi; Thigpen, Jonathan L.; Shendre, Aditi; Liu, Nianjun; Hill, Charles E.; Arnett, Donna K.; Beasley, T. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Warfarin dosing algorithms adjust for race, assigning a fixed effect size to each predictor, thereby attenuating the differential effect by race. Attenuation likely occurs in both race groups but may be more pronounced in the less-represented race group. Therefore, we evaluated whether the effect of clinical (age, body surface area [BSA], chronic kidney disease [CKD], and amiodarone use) and genetic factors (CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *11, rs12777823, VKORC1, and CYP4F2) on warfarin dose differs by race using regression analyses among 1357 patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study and compared predictive ability of race-combined vs race-stratified models. Differential effect of predictors by race was assessed using predictor-race interactions in race-combined analyses. Warfarin dose was influenced by age, BSA, CKD, amiodarone use, and CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1 variants in both races, by CYP2C9*2 and CYP4F2 variants in European Americans, and by rs12777823 in African Americans. CYP2C9*2 was associated with a lower dose only among European Americans (20.6% vs 3.0%, P < .001) and rs12777823 only among African Americans (12.3% vs 2.3%, P = .006). Although VKORC1 was associated with dose decrease in both races, the proportional decrease was higher among European Americans (28.9% vs 19.9%, P = .003) compared with African Americans. Race-stratified analysis improved dose prediction in both race groups compared with race-combined analysis. We demonstrate that the effect of predictors on warfarin dose differs by race, which may explain divergent findings reported by recent warfarin pharmacogenetic trials. We recommend that warfarin dosing algorithms should be stratified by race rather than adjusted for race. PMID:26024874

  4. Race influences warfarin dose changes associated with genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Limdi, Nita A; Brown, Todd M; Yan, Qi; Thigpen, Jonathan L; Shendre, Aditi; Liu, Nianjun; Hill, Charles E; Arnett, Donna K; Beasley, T Mark

    2015-07-23

    Warfarin dosing algorithms adjust for race, assigning a fixed effect size to each predictor, thereby attenuating the differential effect by race. Attenuation likely occurs in both race groups but may be more pronounced in the less-represented race group. Therefore, we evaluated whether the effect of clinical (age, body surface area [BSA], chronic kidney disease [CKD], and amiodarone use) and genetic factors (CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *11, rs12777823, VKORC1, and CYP4F2) on warfarin dose differs by race using regression analyses among 1357 patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study and compared predictive ability of race-combined vs race-stratified models. Differential effect of predictors by race was assessed using predictor-race interactions in race-combined analyses. Warfarin dose was influenced by age, BSA, CKD, amiodarone use, and CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1 variants in both races, by CYP2C9*2 and CYP4F2 variants in European Americans, and by rs12777823 in African Americans. CYP2C9*2 was associated with a lower dose only among European Americans (20.6% vs 3.0%, P < .001) and rs12777823 only among African Americans (12.3% vs 2.3%, P = .006). Although VKORC1 was associated with dose decrease in both races, the proportional decrease was higher among European Americans (28.9% vs 19.9%, P = .003) compared with African Americans. Race-stratified analysis improved dose prediction in both race groups compared with race-combined analysis. We demonstrate that the effect of predictors on warfarin dose differs by race, which may explain divergent findings reported by recent warfarin pharmacogenetic trials. We recommend that warfarin dosing algorithms should be stratified by race rather than adjusted for race. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. The population pharmacokinetics of R- and S-warfarin: effect of genetic and clinical factors.

    PubMed

    Lane, Steven; Al-Zubiedi, Sameh; Hatch, Ellen; Matthews, Ivan; Jorgensen, Andrea L; Deloukas, Panos; Daly, Ann K; Park, B Kevin; Aarons, Leon; Ogungbenro, Kayode; Kamali, Farhad; Hughes, Dyfrig; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2012-01-01

    Warfarin is a drug with a narrow therapeutic index and large interindividual variability in daily dosing requirements. Patients commencing warfarin treatment are at risk of bleeding due to excessive anticoagulation caused by overdosing. The interindividual variability in dose requirements is influenced by a number of factors, including polymorphisms in genes mediating warfarin pharmacology, co-medication, age, sex, body size and diet. To develop population pharmacokinetic models of both R- and S-warfarin using clinical and genetic factors and to identify the covariates which influence the interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetic parameters of clearance and volume of distribution in patients on long-term warfarin therapy. Patients commencing warfarin therapy were followed up for 26 weeks. Plasma warfarin enantiomer concentrations were determined in 306 patients for S-warfarin and in 309 patients for R-warfarin at 1, 8 and 26 weeks. Patients were also genotyped for CYP2C9 variants (CYP2C9*1,*2 and *3), two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP1A2, one SNP in CYP3A4 and six SNPs in CYP2C19. A base pharmacokinetic model was developed using NONMEM software to determine the warfarin clearance and volume of distribution. The model was extended to include covariates that influenced the between-subject variability. Bodyweight, age, sex and CYP2C9 genotype significantly influenced S-warfarin clearance. The S-warfarin clearance was estimated to be 0.144 l h⁻¹ (95% confidence interval 0.131, 0.157) in a 70 kg woman aged 69.8 years with the wild-type CYP2C9 genotype, and the volume of distribution was 16.6 l (95% confidence interval 13.5, 19.7). Bodyweight and age, along with the SNPs rs3814637 (in CYP2C19) and rs2242480 (in CYP3A4), significantly influenced R-warfarin clearance. The R-warfarin clearance was estimated to be 0.125 l h⁻¹ (95% confidence interval 0.115, 0.135) in a 70 kg individual aged 69.8 years with the wild-type CYP2C19

  6. Comparison of Nine Statistical Model Based Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Dosing Algorithms Using the Racially Diverse International Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Consortium Cohort Database

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rong; Li, Xi; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Objective Multiple linear regression (MLR) and machine learning techniques in pharmacogenetic algorithm-based warfarin dosing have been reported. However, performances of these algorithms in racially diverse group have never been objectively evaluated and compared. In this literature-based study, we compared the performances of eight machine learning techniques with those of MLR in a large, racially-diverse cohort. Methods MLR, artificial neural network (ANN), regression tree (RT), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), boosted regression tree (BRT), support vector regression (SVR), random forest regression (RFR), lasso regression (LAR) and Bayesian additive regression trees (BART) were applied in warfarin dose algorithms in a cohort from the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium database. Covariates obtained by stepwise regression from 80% of randomly selected patients were used to develop algorithms. To compare the performances of these algorithms, the mean percentage of patients whose predicted dose fell within 20% of the actual dose (mean percentage within 20%) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated in the remaining 20% of patients. The performances of these techniques in different races, as well as the dose ranges of therapeutic warfarin were compared. Robust results were obtained after 100 rounds of resampling. Results BART, MARS and SVR were statistically indistinguishable and significantly out performed all the other approaches in the whole cohort (MAE: 8.84–8.96 mg/week, mean percentage within 20%: 45.88%–46.35%). In the White population, MARS and BART showed higher mean percentage within 20% and lower mean MAE than those of MLR (all p values < 0.05). In the Asian population, SVR, BART, MARS and LAR performed the same as MLR. MLR and LAR optimally performed among the Black population. When patients were grouped in terms of warfarin dose range, all machine learning techniques except ANN and LAR showed significantly

  7. Hemorrhagic Transformation After Large Cerebral Infarction in Rats Pretreated With Dabigatran or Warfarin.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Il; An, Sunho; Kim, Jayoung; Yang, Seung-Hee; Yoo, Joonsang; Baek, Jang-Hyun; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Hye Sun; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2017-10-01

    It is uncertain whether hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after large cerebral infarction is less frequent in dabigatran users than warfarin users. We compared the occurrence of HT after large cerebral infarction among rats pretreated with dabigatran, warfarin, or placebo. This was a triple-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled experiment. After treatment with warfarin (0.2 mg/kg), dabigatran (20 mg/kg), or saline for 7 days, Wistar rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. As the primary outcome, HT was determined by gradient-recalled echo imaging. For the secondary outcome, intracranial hemorrhage was assessed via gradient-recalled echo imaging in surviving rats and via autopsy for dead rats. Of 62 rats, there were 33 deaths (53.2%, 17 technical reasons). Of the intention-to-treat population, 33 rats underwent brain imaging. HT was less frequent in the dabigatran group than the warfarin group (placebo 2/14 [14%], dabigatran 0/10 [0%], and warfarin 9/9 [100%]; dabigatran versus warfarin; P <0.001). In all 62 rats, compared with the placebo (2/14 [14.3%]), the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage was significantly higher in the warfarin group (19/29 [65.5%]; P =0.003), but not in the dabigatran group (6/19 [31.6%]; P =0.420). Mortality was significantly higher in the warfarin group than the dabigatran group (79.3% versus 47.4%; P =0.022), but not related to the hemorrhage frequency. The risk of HT after a large cerebral infarction was significantly increased in rats pretreated with warfarin than those with dabigatran. However, the results here may not have an exact clinical translation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Comparative effectiveness of dabigatran and rivaroxaban versus warfarin for the treatment of non-valvular atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson, Lindsay GS; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Chen, Lin Y.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Background Effectiveness data on novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) versus warfarin for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) by prior warfarin use are limited. Methods We used data from the US MarketScan databases from 2009–2012. NVAF patients initiating dabigatran or rivaroxaban were matched with up to 5 warfarin users. Propensity score-adjusted Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for relevant endpoints in NOACs versus warfarin users. Separate analyses were conducted to compare anticoagulant-naïve users of NOACs and those switching from warfarin. Results Among 32,918 dabigatran, 3,301 rivaroxaban, and 109,447 warfarin users with NVAF, 225 intracranial bleeds, 1035 ischemic strokes, 958 myocardial infarctions, and 1842 gastrointestinal bleeds were identified. Compared to warfarin users, patients initiating NOACs had similar ischemic stroke rates and lower intracranial bleeding rates, while the gastrointestinal bleeding rate was higher in dabigatran users than warfarin users. Associations of dabigatran with ischemic stroke risk differed between anticoagulant-naïve initiators and patients switching from warfarin; dabigatran was associated with lower ischemic stroke rates in naïve users (HR 0.65, 95%CI 0.52–0.82) but not in switchers (HR 1.20, 95%CI 0.95–1.51), compared to warfarin. Risk of stroke and bleeding was not different between rivaroxaban and warfarin users. Conclusions Real-world effectiveness of NOACs (compared to warfarin) for diverse outcomes was comparable to efficacy reported in published clinical trials. However, harms and benefits of switching from warfarin to dabigatran need to be evaluated. PMID:27889397

  9. Post-polypectomy bleeding and thromboembolism risks associated with warfarin vs direct oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Naohiro; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Iida, Tatsuhiro; Hamada, Mariko; Kobayashi, Sakurako; Shimbo, Takuro; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2018-04-14

    To verify the validity of the endoscopy guidelines for patients taking warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC). We collected data from 218 patients receiving oral anticoagulants (73 DOAC users, 145 warfarin users) and 218 patients not receiving any antithrombotics (age- and sex-matched controls) who underwent polypectomy. (1) We evaluated post-polypectomy bleeding (PPB) risk in patients receiving warfarin or DOAC compared with controls; (2) we assessed the risks of PPB and thromboembolism between three AC management methods: Discontinuing AC with heparin bridge (HPB) (endoscopy guideline recommendation), continuing AC, and discontinuing AC without HPB. PPB rate was significantly higher in warfarin users and DOAC users compared with controls (13.7% and 13.7% vs 0.9%, P < 0.001), but was not significantly different between rivaroxaban (13.2%), dabigatran (11.1%), and apixaban (13.3%) users. Two thromboembolic events occurred in warfarin users, but none in DOAC users. Compared with the continuing anticoagulant group, the discontinuing anticoagulant with HPB group (guideline recommendation) had a higher PPB rate (10.8% vs 19.6%, P = 0.087). These findings were significantly evident in warfarin but not DOAC users. One thrombotic event occurred in the discontinuing anticoagulant with HPB group and the discontinuing anticoagulant without HPB group; none occurred in the continuing anticoagulant group. PPB risk was similar between patients taking warfarin and DOAC. Thromboembolism was observed in warfarin users only. The guideline recommendations for HPB should be re-considered.

  10. Oral warfarin affects peripheral blood leukocyte IL-6 and TNFα production in rats.

    PubMed

    Popov, Aleksandra; Belij, Sandra; Subota, Vesna; Zolotarevski, Lidija; Mirkov, Ivana; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Warfarin is a Vitamin K (VK) antagonist that affects Vitamin K-dependent (VKD) processes, including blood coagulation, as well as processes unrelated to hemostasis such as bone growth, calcification, and growth of some cell types. In addition, warfarin exerts influence on some non-VKD-related activities, including anti-tumor and immunomodulating activity. With respect to the latter, both immune stimulating and suppressive effects have been noted in different experimental systems. To explore the in vivo immunomodulatory potential of warfarin on one type of activity (i.e., cytokine production) in two different immune cell populations (i.e., mononuclear or polymorphonuclear cells), effects of subchronic oral warfarin intake in rats on pro-inflammatory cytokine (i.e., TNFα, IL-6) production by peripheral blood mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells (granulocytes) was examined. Differential effects of warfarin intake on TNFα and IL-6 were noted, depending on the type of peripheral blood leukocytes and on the cytokine examined. Specifically, a lack of effect on TNFα and a priming of IL-6 production by mononuclear cells along with a decrease in TNFα and a lack of effect on IL-6 in polymorphonuclear cells were seen in warfarin-exposed hosts. The cell- and cytokine-dependent effects from subchronic oral warfarin intake on peripheral blood leukocytes demonstrated in this study could, possibly, differentially affect reactions mediated by these cells. Ultimately, the observed effects in rats might have implications for those humans who are on long-term/prolonged warfarin therapy.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: warfarin sensitivity

    MedlinePlus

    ... it thins the blood, preventing blood clots from forming . Warfarin is often prescribed to prevent blood clots ... much drug to prevent clots because their clot forming process is already slower than average and can ...

  12. The future of warfarin pharmacogenetics in under-represented minority groups

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Larisa H; Perera, Minoli A

    2012-01-01

    Genotype-based dosing recommendations are provided in the US FDA-approved warfarin labeling. However, data that informed these recommendations were from predominately Caucasian populations. Studies show that variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in Caucasians provide similar contributions to dose requirements in US Hispanics, but significantly lesser contributions in African–Americans. Further data demonstrate that variants occurring commonly in individuals of African ancestry, but rarely in other racial groups, significantly influence dose requirements in African–Americans. These data suggest that it is important to consider variants specific for African–Americans when implementing genotype-guided warfarin dosing in this population. PMID:22871196

  13. Patterns of international normalized ratio values among new warfarin patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Winnie W; Milentijevic, Dejan; Wang, Li; Baser, Onur; Damaraju, C V; Schein, Jeffrey R

    2016-12-01

    Limited information exists regarding the relationship between international normalized ratio (INR) control/stability and the discontinuation of warfarin therapy among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). This study evaluated the association between INR stabilization and warfarin discontinuation and assessed INR patterns before and after INR stabilization among patients (≥18 years) with NVAF who newly initiated warfarin (Veterans Health Administration datasets; October 1, 2007 through September 30, 2012). Achievement of INR stabilization (≥3 consecutive in-range therapeutic INR measurements ≥7 days apart) was examined from warfarin initiation through the end of warfarin exposure. Proportion of time in therapeutic range during warfarin exposure was calculated (Rosendaal method) and categorized as at least 60% or less than 60%. Among 34 346 patients, 49.4% achieved INR stabilization (mean time to stabilization, 98 days). Approximately 40% of INR values were out-of-range, even after achieving stabilization. During 30 days following an INR 4.0 or higher, patients had more INR testing than the overall mean (2.51 vs. 1.67 tests). Warfarin discontinuation was 4.2 times more likely among patients without INR stabilization versus those with INR stabilization (P < 0.00001). Patients with poor INR control (time in therapeutic range <60%) were 1.76 times more likely to discontinue warfarin within 1 year (P < 0.0001). INR stabilization is a better predictor of warfarin discontinuation than poor INR control. Improved approaches are necessary to maintain appropriate anticoagulation levels among patients with NVAF.

  14. Acquired absolute vitamin K deficiency in a patient undergoing warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Takada, Hiroaki; Toru, Hifumi; Bunya, Naofumi; Kiriu, Nobuaki; Kato, Hiroshi; Koido, Yuichi; Yasuhiro, Kuroda

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of absolute vitamin K deficiency (VKD) diagnosed by measuring serum VK levels in an elderly woman undergoing warfarin therapy. A 78-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea and sore throat diagnosed as pharyngitis 1 week before admission. On admission, the sore throat had exacerbated and dyspnea developed. She had history of atrial fibrillation, for which warfarin 1.5 mg/d was started approximately 10 years prior and her international normalized ratio (INR) had been maintained at an acceptable therapeutic level. Blood results revealed unmeasurable INR and abnormally prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). She was diagnosed with adenoiditis and warfarin-related coagulopathy and administered intravenous VK (20 mg) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP; 4 U), which improved INR and APTT. Since the coagulopathy responded to intravenous VK administration, the patient was clinically diagnosed with warfarin-related relative VKD. Approximately 1 month later, she returned with complaints of sore throat. Blood results indicated abnormal INR (7.22) and APTT (N80.0 s). She was diagnosed with recurrent adenoiditis and VK deficient coagulopathy. The patient’s serum VK levels were low (VK1 level, 0.13 ng/mL; VK2 levels, 0.85 ng/mL). Initial treatment of VK (20 mg) and FFP followed by intravenous VK (20 mg/d) for 6 days, her symptoms dissipated. Warfarin was suspected to have caused absolute VKD. Severe coagulopathy in patients undergoing warfarin therapy is primarily caused by, relative VKD. However, the possibility of warfarin-related absolute VKD should be suspected when INRis not sufficiently improved by intravenous VK administration.

  15. Pharmacometabonomics Technique to Identify Warfarin Response Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bawadikji, Abdulkader A; Teh, Chin-Hoe; Kader, Muhamad A B S A; Sulaiman, Syed A S; Ibrahim, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Warfarin, an anticoagulant medication, is prescribed regularly despite of its bleeding tendency for the prevention and/or treatment of various thromboembolic conditions, such as deep vein thrombosis, and complications associated with atrial fibrillation, and myocardial infarction, but because of its narrow therapeutic window, it has a lot of interactions with drugs and diet. Warfarin relies on regular monitoring of International Normalized Ratio which is a standardized test to measure prothrombin time and appropriate dose adjustment. Pharmacometabonomics is a novel scientific field which deals with identification and quantification of the metabolites present in the metabolome using spectroscopic techniques such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Pharmacometabonomics helps to indicate perturbation in the levels of metabolites in the cells and tissues due to drug or ingestion of any substance. NMR is one of the most widely-used spectroscopic techniques in metabolomics because of its reproducibility and speed. There are many factors that influence the metabolism of warfarin, making changes in drug dosage common, and clinical factors like drug-drug interactions, dietary interactions and age explain for the most part the variability in warfarin dosing. Some studies have showed that pharmacogenetic testing for warfarin dosing does not improve health outcomes, and around 26% of the variation in warfarin dose requirements remains unexplained yet. Many recent pharmacometabonomics studies have been conducted to identify novel biomarkers of drug therapies such as paracetamol, aspirin and simvastatin. Thus, a technique such as NMR based pharmacometabonomics to find novel biomarkers in plasma and urine might be useful to predict warfarin outcome. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Patient Attitudinal and Behavioral Factors Associated with Warfarin Non-adherence at Outpatient Anticoagulation Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Localio, A. Russell; Platt, Alec B.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Christie, Jason D.; Gross, Robert; Parker, Catherine S.; Price, Maureen; Metlay, Joshua P.; Cohen, Abigail; Newcomb, Craig W.; Strom, Brian L.; Kimmel, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Warfarin is an anticoagulant effective in preventing stroke, but it has a narrow therapeutic range requiring optimal adherence to achieve the most favorable effects. Purpose The goal of this study was to examine specific patient factors that might help explain warfarin non-adherence at outpatient anticoagulation clinics. Method In a prospective cohort study of 156 adults, we utilized logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between the five Treatment Prognostics scales from the Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD), as well as three additional MBMD scales (Depression, Future Pessimism, and Social Isolation), and daily warfarin non-adherence assessed using electronic medication event monitoring systems caps over a median of 139 days. Results Four of the five Treatment Prognostic scales and greater social isolation were associated with warfarin non-adherence. When controlling for pertinent demographic and medical variables, the Information Discomfort scale remained significantly associated with warfarin non-adherence over time. Conclusion Although several factors were related to warfarin non-adherence, patients reporting a lack of receptivity to details regarding their medical illness seemed most at risk for warfarin non-adherence. This information might aid in the development of interventions to enhance warfarin adherence and perhaps reduce adverse medical events. PMID:19579066

  17. Development of Novel Warfarin-Silica Composite for Controlled Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Parfenyuk, Elena V; Dolinina, Ekaterina S

    2017-04-01

    The work is devoted to synthesis and study of warfarin composites with unmodified, methyl and phenyl modified silica in order to develop controlled release formulation of the anticoagulant. The composites were prepared by two routes, adsorption and sol-gel, and characterized with FTIR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and DSC methods. The drug release behavior from the composites in media with pH 1.6, 6.8 and 7.4 was analyzed in vitro. The release kinetics of the warfarin - silica composites prepared by the two routes was compared among each other and with analogous silica composites with water soluble drug molsidomine. The comparative analysis showed that in general the kinetic regularities and mechanisms of release for both drugs are similar and determined by nonuniform distribution of the drugs over the silica matrixes and stability of the matrixes in the studied media for the adsorbed composites and uniformly distributed drug and more brittle structure for the sol-gel composites. The sol-gel composite of warfarin - phenyl modified silica is perspective for further development of novel warfarin formulation with controlled release because it releases warfarin according to zero-order kinetic law with approximately equal rate in the media imitating different segments of gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Does chronic warfarin cause increased blood loss and transfusion during lumbar spinal surgery?

    PubMed

    Young, Ernest Y; Ahmadinia, Kasra; Bajwa, Navkirat; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2013-10-01

    The use of oral anticoagulation therapy such as warfarin is projected to increase significantly as the population ages and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease increases. Current recommendations state that warfarin be discontinued before surgery and the international normalized ratio (INR) normalized. To determine if stopping warfarin 7 days before surgery and correcting INR had any effect on intraoperative blood loss or the requirements for blood product transfusion. This was a retrospective cohort study in a high-volume tertiary care center. Sample comprised 263 consecutive patients who underwent elective lumbar spinal surgery. The outcome measures were intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative blood transfusion, postoperative blood transfusion, and the number of blood products transfused. The records of patients undergoing elective spinal surgery were analyzed for patient demographic data, comorbidities, coagulation panel laboratory findings, operative characteristics, blood loss, and blood transfusion requirements. These included patients undergoing full laminectomies with or without posterolateral fusion and instrumentation. Patients on warfarin were analyzed for the mean dosage of warfarin and underlying pathology that required anticoagulation. All patients on warfarin had their anticoagulation therapy stopped 7 days before surgery and their INR checked preoperatively to confirm normalization. Both univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. The patients on warfarin had a mean intraoperative blood loss of 839 mL compared with 441 mL for patients not on warfarin (p<.01). Multiple regression analysis determined that warfarin and number of spinal levels decompressed/fused/instrumented were predictors for increased blood loss (R(2)=0.37). Patients on warfarin also had increased postoperative blood transfusions (23.1% compared with 7.4%, p=.04). There was no significant difference between groups in terms of intraoperative blood

  19. Evaluation of 16 genotype-guided Warfarin Dosing Algorithms in 310 Korean Patients Receiving Warfarin Treatment: Poor Prediction Performance in VKORC1 1173C Carriers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mina; Choi, Rihwa; Kim, June Soo; On, Young Keun; Bang, Oh Young; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of 16 previously published warfarin dosing algorithms in Korean patients. The 16 algorithms were selected through a literature search and evaluated using a cohort of 310 Korean patients with atrial fibrillation or cerebral infarction who were receiving warfarin therapy. A large interindividual variation (up to 11-fold) in warfarin dose was observed (median, 25 mg/wk; range, 7-77 mg/wk). Estimated dose and actual maintenance dose correlated well overall (r range, 0.52-0.73). Mean absolute error (MAE) of the 16 algorithms ranged from -1.2 to -20.1 mg/wk. The percentage of patients whose estimated dose fell within 20% of the actual dose ranged from 1.0% to 49%. All algorithms showed poor accuracy with increased MAE in a higher dose range. Performance of the dosing algorithms was worse in patients with VKORC1 1173TC or CC than in total (r range, 0.38-0.61 vs 0.52-0.73; MAE range, -2.6 to -28.0 mg/wk vs -1.2 to -20.1 mg/wk). The algorithms had comparable prediction abilities but showed limited accuracy depending on ethnicity, warfarin dose, and VKORC1 genotype. Further studies are needed to develop genotype-guided warfarin dosing algorithms with greater accuracy in the Korean population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrating In Vitro, Modeling, and In Vivo Approaches to Investigate Warfarin Bioequivalence

    PubMed Central

    Wen, H; Fan, J; Vince, B; Li, T; Gao, W; Kinjo, M; Brown, J; Sun, W; Jiang, W; Lionberger, R

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of modeling and simulation to investigate bioequivalence (BE) concerns raised about generic warfarin products. To test the hypothesis that the loss of isopropyl alcohol and slow dissolution in acidic pH has significant impact on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin sodium tablets, we conducted physiologically based pharmacokinetic absorption modeling and simulation using formulation factors or in vitro dissolution profiles as input parameters. Sensitivity analyses indicated that warfarin pharmacokinetics was not sensitive to solubility, particle size, density, or dissolution rate in pH 4.5, but was affected by dissolution rate in pH 6.8 and potency. Virtual BE studies suggested that stressed warfarin sodium tablets with slow dissolution rate in pH 4.5 but having similar dissolution rate in pH 6.8 would be bioequivalent to the unstressed warfarin sodium tablets. A four‐way, crossover, single‐dose BE study in healthy subjects was conducted to test the same hypothesis and confirmed the simulation conclusion. PMID:28379643

  1. Development of a pharmacogenetic-guided warfarin dosing algorithm for Puerto Rican patients.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Alga S; Seip, Richard L; Rivera-Miranda, Giselle; Felici-Giovanini, Marcos E; Garcia-Berdecia, Rafael; Alejandro-Cowan, Yirelia; Kocherla, Mohan; Cruz, Iadelisse; Feliu, Juan F; Cadilla, Carmen L; Renta, Jessica Y; Gorowski, Krystyna; Vergara, Cunegundo; Ruaño, Gualberto; Duconge, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    This study was aimed at developing a pharmacogenetic-driven warfarin-dosing algorithm in 163 admixed Puerto Rican patients on stable warfarin therapy. A multiple linear-regression analysis was performed using log-transformed effective warfarin dose as the dependent variable, and combining CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping with other relevant nongenetic clinical and demographic factors as independent predictors. The model explained more than two-thirds of the observed variance in the warfarin dose among Puerto Ricans, and also produced significantly better 'ideal dose' estimates than two pharmacogenetic models and clinical algorithms published previously, with the greatest benefit seen in patients ultimately requiring <7 mg/day. We also assessed the clinical validity of the model using an independent validation cohort of 55 Puerto Rican patients from Hartford, CT, USA (R(2) = 51%). Our findings provide the basis for planning prospective pharmacogenetic studies to demonstrate the clinical utility of genotyping warfarin-treated Puerto Rican patients.

  2. Development of a pharmacogenetic-guided warfarin dosing algorithm for Puerto Rican patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Alga S; Seip, Richard L; Rivera-Miranda, Giselle; Felici-Giovanini, Marcos E; Garcia-Berdecia, Rafael; Alejandro-Cowan, Yirelia; Kocherla, Mohan; Cruz, Iadelisse; Feliu, Juan F; Cadilla, Carmen L; Renta, Jessica Y; Gorowski, Krystyna; Vergara, Cunegundo; Ruaño, Gualberto; Duconge, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study was aimed at developing a pharmacogenetic-driven warfarin-dosing algorithm in 163 admixed Puerto Rican patients on stable warfarin therapy. Patients & methods A multiple linear-regression analysis was performed using log-transformed effective warfarin dose as the dependent variable, and combining CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping with other relevant nongenetic clinical and demographic factors as independent predictors. Results The model explained more than two-thirds of the observed variance in the warfarin dose among Puerto Ricans, and also produced significantly better ‘ideal dose’ estimates than two pharmacogenetic models and clinical algorithms published previously, with the greatest benefit seen in patients ultimately requiring <7 mg/day. We also assessed the clinical validity of the model using an independent validation cohort of 55 Puerto Rican patients from Hartford, CT, USA (R2 = 51%). Conclusion Our findings provide the basis for planning prospective pharmacogenetic studies to demonstrate the clinical utility of genotyping warfarin-treated Puerto Rican patients. PMID:23215886

  3. Switching from rivaroxaban to warfarin: an open label pharmacodynamic study in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kenneth Todd; Byra, William; Vaidyanathan, Seema; Natarajan, Jaya; Ariyawansa, Jay; Salih, Hiba; Turner, Kenneth C

    2015-01-01

    Aims The primary objective was to explore the pharmacodynamic changes during transition from rivaroxaban to warfarin in healthy subjects. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics were assessed as secondary objectives. Methods An open label, non-randomized, sequential two period study. In treatment period 1 (TP1), subjects received rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily (5 days), followed by co-administration with a warfarin loading dose regimen of 5 or 10 mg (for the 10 mg regimen, the dose could be uptitrated to attain target international normalized ratio [INR] ≥2.0) once daily (2–4 days). When trough INR values ≥2.0 were attained, rivaroxaban was discontinued and warfarin treatment continued as monotherapy (INR 2.0–3.0). During treatment period 2, subjects received the same warfarin regimen as in TP1, but without rivaroxaban. Results During co-administration, maximum INR and prothrombin time (PT) values were higher than with rivaroxaban or warfarin monotherapy. The mean maximum effect (Emax) for INR after co-administration was 2.79–4.15 (mean PT Emax 41.0–62.7 s), compared with 1.41–1.74 (mean PT Emax 20.1–25.2 s) for warfarin alone. However, rivaroxaban had the smallest effect on INR at trough rivaroxaban concentrations. Neither rivaroxaban nor warfarin significantly affected maximum plasma concentrations of the other drug. Conclusions The combined pharmacodynamic effects during co-administration of rivaroxaban and warfarin were greater than additive, but the pharmacokinetics of both drugs were unaffected. Co-administration was well tolerated. When transitioning from rivaroxaban to warfarin, INR monitoring during co-administration should be performed at the trough rivaroxaban concentration to minimize the effect of rivaroxaban on INR. PMID:25475601

  4. Genetics Home Reference: warfarin resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... J, Müller CR, Rost S, Watzka M, Bevans CG. Comparative genetics of warfarin resistance. Hamostaseologie. 2014;34(2): ... in Brazilian patients with thrombosis: a prospective cohort study. Mol Diagn Ther. 2014 Dec;18(6):675- ...

  5. [Clinical applications of dosing algorithm in the predication of warfarin maintenance dose].

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-wen; Xiang, Dao-kang; An, Bang-quan; Li, Gui-fang; Huang, Ling; Wu, Hai-li

    2011-12-27

    To evaluate the feasibility of clinical application for genetic based dosing algorithm in the predication of warfarin maintenance dose in Chinese population. The clinical data were collected and blood samples harvested from a total of 126 patients undergoing heart valve replacement. The genotypes of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 were determined by melting curve analysis after PCR. They were divided randomly into the study and control groups. In the study group, the first three doses of warfarin were prescribed according to the predicted warfarin maintenance dose while warfarin was initiated at 2.5 mg/d in the control group. The warfarin doses were adjusted according to the measured international normalized ratio (INR) values. And all subjects were followed for 50 days after an initiation of warfarin therapy. At the end of a 50-day follow-up period, the proportions of the patients on a stable dose were 82.4% (42/51) and 62.5% (30/48) for the study and control groups respectively. The mean durations of reaching a stable dose of warfarin were (27.5 ± 1.8) and (34.7 ± 1.8) days and the median durations were (24.0 ± 1.7) and (33.0 ± 4.5) days in the study and control groups respectively. Significant differences existed in the durations of reaching a stable dose between the two groups (P = 0.012). Compared with the control group, the hazard ratio (HR) for the duration of reaching a stable dose was 1.786 in the study group (95%CI 1.088 - 2.875, P = 0.026). The predicted dosing algorithm incorporating genetic and non-genetic factors may shorten the duration of achieving efficiently a stable dose of warfarin. And the present study validates the feasibility of its clinical application.

  6. Patients' perspectives on taking warfarin: qualitative study in family practice

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Guilherme Coelho; Thompson, Barbara V; Manson, Judith A; Tracy, C Shawn; Upshur, Ross EG

    2004-01-01

    Background Despite the well-documented benefits of using warfarin to prevent stroke, physicians remain reluctant to initiate therapy, and especially so with the elderly owing to the higher risk of hemorrhage. Prior research suggests that patients are more accepting of the risk of bleeding than are physicians, although there have been few qualitative studies. The aim of this study was to employ qualitative methods to investigate the experience and perspective of individuals taking warfarin. Methods We conducted face-to-face interviews with 21 older patients (12 male, 9 female) who had been taking warfarin for a minimum of six months. Participants were patients at a family practice clinic situated in a large, tertiary care teaching hospital. We used a semistructured interview guide with four main thematic areas: decision-making, knowledge/education, impact, and satisfaction. Data were analysed according to the principles of content analysis. Results and Discussion Participants tended to have minimal input into the decision to initiate warfarin therapy, instead relying in great part on physicians' expertise. There appeared to be low retention of information received regarding the therapy; half the patients in our sample possessed only a superficial level of understanding of the risks and benefits. This notwithstanding, participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the care provided and a low level of impact on their day-to-day lives. Conclusions Minimal patient involvement in the initial decision and modest knowledge did not appear to diminish satisfaction with warfarin management. At the same time, care providers exert a tremendous influence on the initiation of warfarin therapy and should strive to incorporate patient preferences and expectations into the decision-making process. PMID:15268764

  7. Quality of warfarin control in atrial fibrillation patients in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bernaitis, N; Badrick, T; Davey, A K; Anoopkumar-Dukie, S

    2016-08-01

    Warfarin is widely prescribed to decrease the risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Due to patient variability in response, regular monitoring is required, and time in therapeutic range (TTR) used to indicate quality of warfarin control with a TTR>60% is recommended. Recently, an Australian Government review of anticoagulants identified the need to establish current warfarin control and determine the potential place of the newer oral anticoagulants. To determine warfarin control by a pathology practice in Queensland, Australia and identify factors influencing TTR. Retrospective data were collected from Sullivan Nicolaides Pathology, a major pathology practice offering a warfarin care programme in Australia. Patients enrolled in their programme as of September 2014 were included in the study. TTR was calculated using INR test results, and test dates using the Rosendaal method with mean patient TTR were used for analysis and comparison. Exclusions were target therapeutic range outside 2.0-3.0, less than two INR tests and programme treatment time of less than 30 days. The eligible 3692 AF patients had 73.6% of INR tests within the therapeutic range. The mean TTR was 81%, with 97% of patients above a TTR of 60%. TTR was not significantly influenced by age, gender or socioeconomic factors. The observed mean TTR of over 80% is superior to the minimum recommended threshold of 60%. The TTR achieved by the Queensland pathology practice demonstrates that dedicated warfarin programmes can produce high-quality warfarin care, ensuring the full benefit of warfarin for Australian patients. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  8. Warfarin and bosentan interaction in a patient with pulmonary hypertension secondary to bilateral pulmonary emboli.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Mikayla L; Saxena, Shailendra

    2010-01-01

    Bosentan is an endothelin-receptor antagonist that reportedly induces both cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and CYP2C9 enzymes, which are also involved in warfarin metabolism. We present a case report describing a probable drug interaction between warfarin and bosentan in a patient with pulmonary hypertension. A 52-year-old black female (weight, 77 kg) diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension secondary to bilateral pulmonary emboli had a stable international normalized ratio (INR; target range, 2-3) with a weekly warfarin dose of 52.5 mg for 2 months before the initiation of bosentan therapy. Other concurrent medications included telmisartan/ hydrochlorothiazide 40/12.5 mg once daily and a daily multivitamin (which contained no vitamin K). Three weeks after starting bosentan 62.5 mg BID, a therapeutic INR concentration was reached with a weekly warfarin dose 14% higher (an increase of 7.5 mg/wk) than her weekly warfarin dose before initiation of bosentan. After a brief discontinuation (7 days) and retitration of bosentan and warfarin, the final weekly warfarin dose (75 mg/wk) was 43% greater (an increase of 22.5 mg/wk) than the previously stable dose, which enabled the patient to reach her therapeutic INR goal range of 2 to 3. Bosentan has CYP3A4- and CYP2C9-inducing properties and is therefore likely to cause decreased concentrations of warfarin. We describe here a probable drug interaction between bosentan and warfarin that resulted in a 43% increase in warfarin dose to maintain the patient's therapeutic INR.

  9. Prospective evaluation of a bivalirudin to warfarin transition nomogram.

    PubMed

    Hohlfelder, Benjamin; Sylvester, Katelyn W; Rimsans, Jessica; DeiCicchi, David; Connors, Jean M

    2017-05-01

    Bivalirudin may cause a falsely prolonged international normalized ratio (INR) that complicates the discontinuation of bivalirudin when used as a bridge to warfarin. To prospectively validate our novel bivalirudin to warfarin transition nomogram, adult patients who received bivalirudin as a bridge to warfarin between July 2015 and June 2016 were prospectively evaluated, utilizing our predictive nomogram. The major outcome of our analysis was the correlation between the predicted change in INR upon bivalirudin discontinuation based on the nomogram, and the actual change in INR upon bivalirudin discontinuation. The major outcome was analyzed using the Pearson's correlation test. A Pearson's correlation coefficient >0.6 was considered to be a strong correlation. Bivalirudin was used as a bridge to warfarin in 29 patients. The majority of patients (86%) included in the analysis had a ventricular assist device. The median initial bivalirudin rate was 0.07 mg/kg/h and the mean increase in INR when starting bivalirudin was 0.6. The mean final weight-based bivalirudin rate was 0.08 mg/kg/h and the mean change in INR after stopping bivalirudin was 0.7. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the predicted change in INR upon bivalirudin discontinuation and the actual change in INR upon bivalirudin discontinuation was 0.86 (p < 0.001). After bivalirudin discontinuation, 68% of patients had a therapeutic INR. The results of this prospective analysis successfully validated our novel bivalirudin to warfarin transition nomogram. There was a very strong correlation between the predicted change and actual change in INR upon bivalirudin discontinuation.

  10. Comparing intracerebral hemorrhages associated with direct oral anticoagulants or warfarin

    PubMed Central

    Kurogi, Ryota; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Kada, Akiko; Kamitani, Satoru; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Toyoda, Kazunori; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ono, Junichi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Aruga, Toru; Miyachi, Shigeru; Nagata, Izumi; Matsuda, Shinya; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Okuchi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Akifumi; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Onozuka, Daisuke; Ido, Keisuke; Kurogi, Ai; Mukae, Nobutaka; Nishimura, Ataru; Arimura, Koichi; Kitazono, Takanari; Hagihara, Akihito

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This cross-sectional survey explored the characteristics and outcomes of direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC)–associated nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) by analyzing a large nationwide Japanese discharge database. Methods We analyzed data from 2,245 patients who experienced ICHs while taking anticoagulants (DOAC: 227; warfarin: 2,018) and were urgently hospitalized at 621 institutions in Japan between April 2010 and March 2015. We compared the DOAC- and warfarin-treated patients based on their backgrounds, ICH severities, antiplatelet therapies at admission, hematoma removal surgeries, reversal agents, mortality rates, and modified Rankin Scale scores at discharge. Results DOAC-associated ICHs were less likely to cause moderately or severely impaired consciousness (DOAC-associated ICHs: 31.3%; warfarin-associated ICHs: 39.4%; p = 0.002) or require surgical removal (DOAC-associated ICHs: 5.3%; warfarin-associated ICHs: 9.9%; p = 0.024) in the univariate analysis. Propensity score analysis revealed that patients with DOAC-associated ICHs also exhibited lower mortality rates within 1 day (odds ratio [OR] 4.96, p = 0.005), within 7 days (OR 2.29, p = 0.037), and during hospitalization (OR 1.96, p = 0.039). Conclusions This nationwide study revealed that DOAC-treated patients had less severe ICHs and lower mortality rates than did warfarin-treated patients, probably due to milder hemorrhages at admission and lower hematoma expansion frequencies. PMID:29490916

  11. Supervised Patient Self-Testing of Warfarin Therapy Using an Online System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Point-of-care international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring devices simplify warfarin management by allowing selected patients to monitor their own therapy in their homes. Patient self-testing (PST) has been shown to improve the clinical outcomes of warfarin therapy compared to usual care. Objective To compare management of warfarin therapy using PST combined with online supervision by physicians via a custom system with usual warfarin management, which involved laboratory testing and physician dosing. Methods Interested patients were recruited via community pharmacies to participate in a warfarin PST training program. Participants were required to have a long-term indication for warfarin, have been taking warfarin for at least 6 months, and have Internet access in their home. The training involved two sessions covering theoretical aspects of warfarin therapy, use of the CoaguChek XS, and the study website. Following training, patients monitored their INR once weekly for up to 3 months. Patients and physicians utilized a secure website to communicate INR values, dosage recommendations, and clinical incidents. Physicians provided a 6-12 month history of INR results for comparison with study results. The percentage of time spent within the therapeutic INR range (TTR) was the primary outcome, with participants acting as their own historical controls. The percentage of INR tests in range and participant satisfaction were secondary outcomes. Results Sixteen patients completed training requirements. The mean age of participants was 69.8 (SD 10.1) years. TTR improved significantly from 66.4% to 78.4% during PST (P=.01), and the number of tests within the target range also improved significantly (from 66.0% at prior to the study to 75.9% during PST; P=.04). Patients and physicians expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the monitoring strategy and online system. Conclusions PST supported by an online system for supervision was associated with improved INR

  12. The changing characteristics of atrial fibrillation patients treated with warfarin.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Andrew; Gu, Xiaokui; Haymart, Brian; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Almany, Steve; Kozlowski, Jay; Krol, Gregory D; Kaatz, Scott; Froehlich, James B; Barnes, Geoffrey D

    2015-11-01

    It has been suggested that direct oral anticoagulants are being preferentially used in low risk atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Understanding the changing risk profile of new AF patients treated with warfarin is important for interpreting the quality of warfarin delivery through an anticoagulation clinic. Six anticoagulation clinics participating in the Michigan Anticoagulation Quality Improvement Initiative enrolled 1293 AF patients between 2010 and 2014 as an inception cohort. Abstracted data included demographics, comorbidities, medication use and all INR values. Risk scores including CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, HAS-BLED, SAMe-TT2R2, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) were calculated for each patient at the time of warfarin initiation. The quality of anticoagulation was assessed using the Rosendaal time in the therapeutic range (TTR) during the first 6 months of treatment. Between 2010 and 2014, patients initiating warfarin therapy for AF had an increasing mean CHADS2 (2.0 ± 1.1 to 2.2 ± 1.4, p = 0.02) and CCI (4.7 ± 1.8 to 5.1 ± 2.0, p = 0.03), and a trend towards increasing mean CHA2DS2-VASc, HAS-BLED, and SAMe-TT2R2 scores. The actual TTR remained unchanged over the study period (62.6 ± 18.2 to 62.7 ± 17.0, p = 0.98), and the number of INR checks did not change (18.9 ± 5.2 to 18.5 ± 5.1, p = 0.06). Between 2010 and 2014, AF patients newly starting warfarin had mild increases in risk for stroke and death with sustained quality of warfarin therapy.

  13. Warfarin genotyping in a single PCR reaction for microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Poe, Brian L; Haverstick, Doris M; Landers, James P

    2012-04-01

    Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant medication but also is the second leading cause of emergency room visits for adverse drug reactions. Genetic testing for warfarin sensitivity may reduce hospitalization rates, but prospective genotyping is impeded in part by the turnaround time and costs of genotyping. Microfluidics-based assays can reduce reagent consumption and analysis time; however, no current assay has integrated multiplexed allele-specific PCR for warfarin genotyping with electrophoretic microfluidics hardware. Ideally, such an assay would use a single PCR reaction and, without further processing, a single microchip electrophoresis (ME) run to determine the 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting warfarin sensitivity [i.e., CYP2C9 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 9) *2, CYP2C9 *3, and the VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1) A/B haplotype]. We designed and optimized primers for a fully multiplexed assay to examine 3 biallelic SNPs with the tetraprimer amplification refractory mutation system (T-ARMS). The assay was developed with conventional PCR equipment and demonstrated for microfluidic infrared-mediated PCR. Genotypes were determined by ME on the basis of the pattern of PCR products. Thirty-five samples of human genomic DNA were analyzed with this multiplex T-ARMS assay, and 100% of the genotype determinations agreed with the results obtained by other validated methods. The sample population included several genotypes conferring warfarin sensitivity, with both homozygous and heterozygous genotypes for each SNP. Total analysis times for the PCR and ME were approximately 75 min (1-sample run) and 90 min (12-sample run). This multiplexed T-ARMS assay coupled with microfluidics hardware constitutes a promising avenue for an inexpensive and rapid platform for warfarin genotyping.

  14. CYP2C9*3 polymorphism presenting as lethal subdural hematoma with low-dose warfarin

    PubMed Central

    Karnik, Niteen D.; Sridharan, Kannan; Tiwari, D.; Gupta, V.

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin is the most common and cheap oral anticoagulant currently used in clinical practice. A high inter-individual variation is seen in the response to warfarin. Recently, pharmacogenetics has gained importance in managing patients on warfarin, both in predicting the optimum required dose as well as in decreasing the risk of bleeding. This case report is a description of a 49-year-old patient who had a lethal subdural hematoma with low-dose warfarin. He was subsequently found to have CYP2C9 gene polymorphism (*1/*3). This case report stresses the importance of pre-prescription assessment of genetic analysis for those initiated on warfarin. PMID:25298588

  15. Warfarin hypersensitivity due to gluten-sensitive enteropathy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kwolek, Sara; Deming, Paula

    2012-01-01

    A 53 year old female who was maintained on long-term warfarin therapy due to history of pulmonary embolism, repeatedly presents with an abnormally prolonged Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT). After many asymptomatic episodes were corrected with Vitamin K therapy to temporarily reverse the effects of the warfarin, the cause of the apparent coagulopathy was further investigated. Factor Activity Assays of the common pathway factors II, IX, and X all revealed critically low values; below the threshold even a loading dose of warfarin is typically capable of eliciting. The patient tested strongly positive for Tissue Transglutaminase IgA, which is highly suggestive of a gluten-sensitive enteropathy. One effect of this condition is malabsorption due to flattened intestinal villi. The patient was determined to have an acquired vitamin K deficiency secondary to gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Her condition was exacerbated by the long-term warfarin therapy, resulting in the prolonged PT and PTT. The patient was treated with vitamin K therapy, which reversed the deficiency and corrected her abnormal coagulation results.

  16. Adjusted-dose warfarin versus low-intensity, fixed-dose warfarin plus aspirin for high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation: Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation III randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    1996-09-07

    Adjusted-dose warfarin is highly efficacious for prevention of ischaemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, this treatment carries a risk of bleeding and the need for frequent medical monitoring. We sought an alternative that would be safer and easier to administer to patients with AF who are at high-risk of thromboembolism. 1044 patients with AF and with at least one thromboembolic risk factor (congestive heart failure or left ventricular fractional shortening < or = 25%, previous thromboembolism, systolic blood pressure of more than 160 mm Hg at study enrollment, or being a woman aged over 75 years) were randomly assigned either a combination of low-intensity, fixed-dose warfarin (international normalised ratio [INR] 1.2-1.5 for initial dose adjustment) and aspirin (325 mg/day) or adjusted-dose warfarin (INR 2.0-3.0). Drugs were given open-labelled. The mean INR during follow-up of patients taking combination therapy (n = 521) was 1.3, compared with 2.4 for those taking adjusted-dose warfarin (n = 523). During follow-up, 54% of INRs in patients taking combination therapy were 1.2-1.5 and 34% were less than 1.2. The trial was stopped after a mean, follow-up of 1.1 years when the rate of ischaemic stroke and systemic embolism (primary events) in patients given combination therapy (7.9% per year) was significantly higher than in those given adjusted-dose warfarin (1.9% per year) at an interim analysis (p < 0.0001), an absolute reduction of 6.0% per year (95% Cl 3.4, 8.6) by adjusted-dose warfarin. The annual rates of disabling stroke (5.6% vs 1.7%, p = 0.0007) and of primary event or vascular death (11.8% vs 6.4%, p = 0.002), were also higher with combination therapy. The rates of major bleeding were similar in both treatment groups. Low-intensity, fixed-dose warfarin plus aspirin in this regimen is insufficient for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular AF at high-risk for thromboembolism; adjusted-dose warfarin (target INR 2

  17. Warfarinized Patients with Proximal Femoral Fractures: Survey of UK Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Starks, Ian; Cooke, Stephen; Docker, Charles; Raine, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    In an aging population, anticoagulation in patients with musculoskeletal injuries is increasingly prevalent. The North American literature indicates an absence of consensus concerning the most appropriate management for this group. We aim to test the hypothesis that there is a lack of consensus in the UK regarding the perioperative management of patients with hip fractures on long-term warfarin therapy. A representative group of 400 consultant orthopedic surgeons was surveyed by postal questionnaire regarding their policy on the reversal of anticoagulation in warfarinized patients with hip fractures. The consultants contacted were selected to represent a geographical spread throughout the UK. There were 159 respondents (40% response rate), of which 79% (126) had a trauma commitment. 95 (75%) of these had a protocol for the reversal of anticoagulation prior to surgery. The commonest method used was to simply withhold warfarin and wait (70%). Other methods included FFP (16%), and low-dose (23%) and high-dose (14%) vitamin K. Some respondents used more than onemethod. Although nearly all respondents preferred an INR < 2.0 prior to surgery, 55% preferred an INR < 1.5. Hip fracture in the presence of long-term warfarin use is associated with significantly increased morbidity. This problem is likely to increase. Our results demonstrate variation in approach throughout the UK with regard to warfarin reversal and the acceptable INR at which to operate in this group of patients. We propose that low-dose vitamin K is considered more widely as a safe and effective method of warfarin reversal in this group.

  18. Elevated International Normalized Ratio in a Patient Taking Warfarin and Mauby: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sorbera, Maria; Joseph, Tina; DiGregorio, Robert V

    2017-10-01

    We describe a 70-year-old Haitian man who had been taking warfarin for 5 years for atrial fibrillation and pulmonary hypertension. This patient had his international normalized ratio (INR) checked in the pharmacist-run anticoagulation clinic and was followed monthly. Prior to the interaction, his INR was therapeutic for 5 months while taking warfarin 10.5 mg/d. The patient presented with an INR > 8.0. Patient held 4 days of warfarin and restarted on warfarin 8.5 mg/d. Two weeks later, his INR was 2.5. After continuing dose, patient presented 2 weeks later and INR was 4.8. Upon further questioning, the patient stated he recently began ingesting mauby. Mauby is a bitter dark liquid extracted from the bark of the mauby tree that is commonly used in the Caribbean population as a folk remedy with many health benefits. This case report illustrates that mauby may have a probable drug-herb interaction (Naranjo Algorithm Score of 6) when given with warfarin. There is a lack of published literature and unclear information on the Internet describing the interaction of mauby and warfarin. Health professionals should be cautious regarding interactions between warfarin and mauby until the interaction is fully elucidated.

  19. Contribution of three CYP3A isoforms to metabolism of R- and S-warfarin.

    PubMed

    Jones, Drew R; Kim, So-Young; Boysen, Gunnar; Yun, Chul-Ho; Miller, Grover P

    2010-12-01

    Effective coumadin (R/S-warfarin) therapy is complicated by inter-individual variability in metabolism. Recent studies have demonstrated that CYP3A isoforms likely contribute to patient responses and clinical outcomes. Despite a significant focus on CYP3A4, little is known about CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 metabolism of warfarin. Based on our studies, recombinant CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 metabolized R- and S-warfarin to 10- and 4'-hydroxywarfarin with efficiencies that depended on the individual enzymes. For R-warfarin, CYP3A4, CYP3A7, and CYP3A5 demonstrated decreasing preference for 10-hydroxylation over 4'-hydroxylation. By contrast, there was no regioselectivity toward S-warfarin. While all enzymes preferentially metabolized R-warfarin, CYP3A4 was the most efficient at metabolizing all reactions. Individuals, namely African-Americans and children, with higher relative levels of CYP3A5 and/or CYP3A7, respectively, compared to CYP3A4 may metabolize warfarin less efficiently and thus may require lower doses and be at risk for adverse drug-drug interactions related to the contributions of the respective enzymes.

  20. Continued Use of Warfarin in Veterans with Atrial Fibrillation After Dementia Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Orkaby, Ariela R; Ozonoff, Al; Reisman, Joel I; Miller, Donald R; Zhao, Shibei; Rose, Adam J

    2017-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of warfarin in older adults with dementia. Retrospective cohort study. Department of Veterans Affairs national healthcare system. Veterans aged 65 and older (73% aged ≥75, 99% male, 91% white) who had been receiving warfarin for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation for at least 6 months, were newly diagnosed with dementia in fiscal year 2007 or 2008, and were not enrolled in Medicare Advantage (n = 2,572). The onset of dementia was defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code. Participants were followed for up to 4 years for persistence of warfarin therapy, anticoagulation control, major hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, and all-cause mortality. The average CHADS2 score was 3.3 ± 1.3. After a diagnosis of dementia, 405 individuals (16%) persisted on warfarin therapy. Unadjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis demonstrated a protective effect of warfarin in prevention of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.46-0.89, P = .008), major bleeding (HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.55-0.94, P = .02), and all-cause mortality (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.55-0.79, P < .001). Using propensity score matching, the protective effect of continuing warfarin persisted in prevention of stroke (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54-0.996, P = .047) and mortality (HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.60-0.87, P < .001), with no statistically significant decrease in risk of major bleeding (HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.61-1.01, P = .06). Discontinuing warfarin after a diagnosis of dementia is associated with a significant increase in stroke and mortality. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Comparing Usual Care With a Warfarin Initiation Protocol After Mechanical Heart Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gregory; Razooqi, Rasha; Quinn, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    The immediate postoperative warfarin sensitivity for patients receiving heart valve prostheses is increased. Established warfarin initiation protocols may lack clinical applicability, resulting in dosing based on clinical judgment. To compare current practice for warfarin initiation with a known warfarin initiation protocol, with doses proportionally reduced to account for the increased postoperative sensitivity. We compared the Mechanical Heart Valve Warfarin Initiation Protocol (Protocol group) with current practice (clinical judgment-Empirical group) for patients receiving mechanical heart valves in an observational before-and-after format. End points were the time to achieve a stable therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR), doses held in the first 6 days, and overanticoagulation in the first 6 days. The Protocol group (n = 37) achieved a stable INR more rapidly than the Empirical group (n = 77; median times 5.1 and 8.7 days, respectively; P = 0.002). Multivariable analysis indicated that the Protocol group (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.22; P = 0.005) and men (HR = 1.76; P = 0.043) more rapidly achieved a stable therapeutic INR. Age, serum albumin, amiodarone, presence of severe heart failure, and surgery type had no impact. Protocol patients had fewer doses held (1.1% vs 10.1%, P < 0.001) and no difference in overanticoagulation (2.7% vs 9.1%, P = 0.27). The Mechanical Heart Valve Warfarin Initiation Protocol provided a reliable approach to initiating warfarin in patients receiving mechanical aortic or mitral valves.

  2. Edoxaban versus warfarin for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Büller, Harry R; Décousus, Hervé; Grosso, Michael A; Mercuri, Michele; Middeldorp, Saskia; Prins, Martin H; Raskob, Gary E; Schellong, Sebastian M; Schwocho, Lee; Segers, Annelise; Shi, Minggao; Verhamme, Peter; Wells, Phil

    2013-10-10

    Whether the oral factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban can be an alternative to warfarin in patients with venous thromboembolism is unclear. In a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority study, we randomly assigned patients with acute venous thromboembolism, who had initially received heparin, to receive edoxaban at a dose of 60 mg once daily, or 30 mg once daily (e.g., in the case of patients with creatinine clearance of 30 to 50 ml per minute or a body weight below 60 kg), or to receive warfarin. Patients received the study drug for 3 to 12 months. The primary efficacy outcome was recurrent symptomatic venous thromboembolism. The principal safety outcome was major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. A total of 4921 patients presented with deep-vein thrombosis, and 3319 with a pulmonary embolism. Among patients receiving warfarin, the time in the therapeutic range was 63.5%. Edoxaban was noninferior to warfarin with respect to the primary efficacy outcome, which occurred in 130 patients in the edoxaban group (3.2%) and 146 patients in the warfarin group (3.5%) (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70 to 1.13; P<0.001 for noninferiority). The safety outcome occurred in 349 patients (8.5%) in the edoxaban group and 423 patients (10.3%) in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.94; P=0.004 for superiority). The rates of other adverse events were similar in the two groups. A total of 938 patients with pulmonary embolism had right ventricular dysfunction, as assessed by measurement of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels; the rate of recurrent venous thromboembolism in this subgroup was 3.3% in the edoxaban group and 6.2% in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.98). Edoxaban administered once daily after initial treatment with heparin was noninferior to high-quality standard therapy and caused significantly less bleeding in a broad spectrum of patients with venous thromboembolism, including those with

  3. [Advantages and disadvantages of warfarin and pradaxa therapy for venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Sukovatykh, B S; Belikov, L N; Savchuk, O F; Sukovatykh, M B

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of complex examination of 110 patients with venous thromboembolism was made. The patients were separated into 2 groups. The first group included 60 patients, who had the start heparin therapy during 7 days with the following 6-month warfarin therapy. Warfarin was substituted by pradaxa (dabigatran) for 50 patients of the second group. The efficacy of pradaxa could be compared with warfarin. However, pradaxa had a number of advantages such as the predictable anticoagulant effect, standard dosages. This medicine is more predictable and doesn't require a control of homeostasis and an adjustment of drug dosage.

  4. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single dose (R)- and (S)-warfarin administered separately and together: relationship to VKORC1 genotype

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, John; Somogyi, Andrew A; Jensen, Berit P; James, Heather M; Gentgall, Melanie; Rolan, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    AIMS 1) To determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of (R)- and (S)-warfarin given alone and in combination and 2) to determine whether the relative potency of (R)- and (S)-warfarin is dependent on VKORC1 genotype. METHODS A three way crossover study was conducted in which 17 healthy male subjects stratified by VKORC1 1173 C>T genotype and all CYP2C9 1*/1* received (R)-warfarin 80 mg, (S)-warfarin 12.5 mg and rac-warfarin sodium 25 mg. Plasma (R)- and (S)-warfarin unbound and total concentrations and prothrombin time were determined at multiple time points to 168 h. RESULTS Pharmacokinetic parameters for (R)- and (S)-warfarin were similar to the literature. (R)-warfarin 80 mg alone resulted in a mean AUCPT (0,168 h) of 3550 s h (95% CI 3220, 3880). Rac-warfarin sodium 25 mg containing (S)-warfarin 11.7 mg produced a greater effect on AUCPT (0,168 h) than (S)-warfarin 12.5 mg (mean difference 250 s.h, 95% CI 110, 380, P < 0.002) given alone. In a mixed effects model the ratio of response between (R)- and (S)-warfarin (AUCPT((R)-warfarin) : AUCPT((S)-warfarin)) was 1.21 fold higher (95% CI 1.05, 1.41, P < 0.02) in subjects of VKORC1 TT genotype compared with the CC genotype. CONCLUSIONS (R)-warfarin has a clear PD effect and contributes to the hypoprothrombinaemic effect of rac-warfarin. VKORC1 genotype is a covariate of the relative R/S potency relationship. Prediction of drug interactions with warfarin needs to consider effects on (R)-warfarin PK and VKORC1 genotype. PMID:22616655

  5. Integrating Genomic Based Information into Clinical Warfarin (Coumadin®) Management: An Illustrative Case Report

    PubMed Central

    LaSala, Anthony; Bower, Bruce; Windemuth, Andreas; White, C. Michael; Kocherla, Mohan; Seip, Richard; Duconge, Jorge; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2013-01-01

    Warfarin is a well established oral anticoagulant for the treatment of thromboembolic disorders. Warfarin therapy is complicated by a narrow therapeutic index and marked inter-individual dose variability with therapeutic doses ranging from 1 mg to 10 mg/day.1 Recently genetic variation and resultant drug metabolizing polymorphisms have been found to contribute to warfarin dose variability with resultant hemorrhagic or thromboembolic complications. Cytochrome P450 2C9 alters the rate of warfarin metabolism and clearance. A second enzyme, vitamin K epoxide reductase comple (VKOR) binds and reduces vitamin K which is necessary for activation of clotting Factors II, VII, IX and X. The VKORC1 gene encodes for vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1, a key component of VKOR. The combination of physiologic factors (30%), CYP2C9 variations (20%) and VKORC1 variants (25%) accounts for approximately 75% of warfarin dose variability. This illustrative case report demonstrates the clinical importance of this new information. Clinicians need to incorporate these new genomic findings into appropriate management of warfarin dose anticoagulation. PMID:18763667

  6. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetics-guided warfarin therapy vs. alternative anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Pink, J; Pirmohamed, M; Lane, S; Hughes, D A

    2014-02-01

    Pharmacogenetics-guided warfarin dosing is an alternative to standard clinical algorithms and new oral anticoagulants for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. However, clinical evidence for pharmacogenetics-guided warfarin dosing is limited to intermediary outcomes, and consequently, there is a lack of information on the cost-effectiveness of anticoagulation treatment options. A clinical trial simulation of S-warfarin was used to predict times within therapeutic range for different dosing algorithms. Relative risks of clinical events, obtained from a meta-analysis of trials linking times within therapeutic range with outcomes, served as inputs to an economic analysis. Neither dabigatran nor rivaroxaban were cost-effective options. Along the cost-effectiveness frontier, in relation to clinically dosed warfarin, pharmacogenetics-guided warfarin and apixaban had incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of £13,226 and £20,671 per quality-adjusted life year gained, respectively. On the basis of our simulations, apixaban appears to be the most cost-effective treatment.

  7. Effect of Single-dose Rifampin on the Pharmacokinetics of Warfarin in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Frymoyer, A; Shugarts, S; Browne, M; Wu, AHB; Frassetto, L; Benet, LZ

    2011-01-01

    Based on in vitro rat and human hepatocyte uptake studies showing inhibition of warfarin uptake in the presence of the non-specific organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) inhibitor rifampin, a clinical study was conducted in 10 healthy volunteers. In a randomized, single-dose, two-period, crossover design, subjects received a 7.5 mg dose of warfarin alone or immediately following a 600 mg intravenous dose of rifampin. Rifampin did not significantly alter R- or S- warfarin area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0–12 hours (period of hepatic OATP inhibition by rifampin) or Cmax (maximum plasma concentration). AUC0–∞ was decreased on rifampin days for both R- (25% reduction; p < 0.001) and S-warfarin (15% reduction; p < 0.05). No differences were seen on the area under the INR-time curve. Our study suggests hepatic uptake via OATPs may not be clinically important in the pharmacokinetics of warfarin. PMID:20703222

  8. Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Granger, Christopher B; Alexander, John H; McMurray, John J V; Lopes, Renato D; Hylek, Elaine M; Hanna, Michael; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Ansell, Jack; Atar, Dan; Avezum, Alvaro; Bahit, M Cecilia; Diaz, Rafael; Easton, J Donald; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Flaker, Greg; Garcia, David; Geraldes, Margarida; Gersh, Bernard J; Golitsyn, Sergey; Goto, Shinya; Hermosillo, Antonio G; Hohnloser, Stefan H; Horowitz, John; Mohan, Puneet; Jansky, Petr; Lewis, Basil S; Lopez-Sendon, Jose Luis; Pais, Prem; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Verheugt, Freek W A; Zhu, Jun; Wallentin, Lars

    2011-09-15

    Vitamin K antagonists are highly effective in preventing stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation but have several limitations. Apixaban is a novel oral direct factor Xa inhibitor that has been shown to reduce the risk of stroke in a similar population in comparison with aspirin. In this randomized, double-blind trial, we compared apixaban (at a dose of 5 mg twice daily) with warfarin (target international normalized ratio, 2.0 to 3.0) in 18,201 patients with atrial fibrillation and at least one additional risk factor for stroke. The primary outcome was ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke or systemic embolism. The trial was designed to test for noninferiority, with key secondary objectives of testing for superiority with respect to the primary outcome and to the rates of major bleeding and death from any cause. The median duration of follow-up was 1.8 years. The rate of the primary outcome was 1.27% per year in the apixaban group, as compared with 1.60% per year in the warfarin group (hazard ratio with apixaban, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.95; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.01 for superiority). The rate of major bleeding was 2.13% per year in the apixaban group, as compared with 3.09% per year in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.80; P<0.001), and the rates of death from any cause were 3.52% and 3.94%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.99; P=0.047). The rate of hemorrhagic stroke was 0.24% per year in the apixaban group, as compared with 0.47% per year in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.75; P<0.001), and the rate of ischemic or uncertain type of stroke was 0.97% per year in the apixaban group and 1.05% per year in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.13; P=0.42). In patients with atrial fibrillation, apixaban was superior to warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism, caused less bleeding, and resulted in lower mortality. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb

  9. Lack of clinical pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions between warfarin and the antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoyang; Hard, Marjie L; Grundy, John S; Singh, Tejdip; von Moltke, Lisa L; Boltje, Ingrid

    2014-08-01

    Mipomersen is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide indicated as an adjunct therapy for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH). Warfarin is commonly prescribed for a variety of cardiac disorders in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia population, and concurrent use of warfarin and mipomersen is likely. This open-label, single-sequence 2-period phase 1 study in healthy subjects evaluated the potential drug-drug interactions between mipomersen and warfarin. The subjects received a single oral 25 mg dose of warfarin alone on day 1, and after a 7-day washout period, received 200 mg mipomersen alone subcutaneously every other day on days 8-12, and received both concurrently on day 14. Coadministration of mipomersen did not change the pharmacodynamics (international normalized ratio, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time) and pharmacokinetics (PK) of warfarin. There were no clinically significant changes in the PK of mipomersen with concurrent administration of warfarin. There were no events indicative of an increase in bleeding tendency when warfarin was coadministered with mipomersen, and the adverse event profile of mipomersen did not appear to be altered in combination with warfarin, as compared with that of the respective reference treatment. The combination of these 2 medications appeared to be safe and well tolerated. These results suggest that the dosage adjustment of warfarin or mipomersen is not expected to be necessary with coadministration.

  10. Inadvertent exaggerated anticoagulation following use of bismuth subsalicylate in an enterally fed patient receiving warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Angela L; Brown, Rex O; Dickerson, Roland N

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of an inadvertent increase in the international normalized ratio (INR) after the addition of bismuth subsalicylate for the treatment of diarrhea in an enterally fed patient receiving warfarin therapy. A 56-year-old Caucasian female presented to the trauma intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple lower extremity fractures. Warfarin was initiated for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis due to the patient's inability to ambulate. The target INR was 2-3. Continuous intragastric enteral feeding was withheld 1 hour before and 1 hour after intragastric administration of warfarin. Bismuth subsalicylate 30 mL every 4 hours was prescribed for diarrhea. Within 3 days after starting bismuth subsalicylate therapy, the patient's INR increased from 2.56 to 3.54 and minor bleeding was noted from the patient's tracheostomy site. No significant change in warfarin dosage, variability in vitamin K intake, or medications that potentially alter warfarin metabolism were present during the unexpected rise in INR. When the bismuth subsalicylate was discontinued, the patient's INR stabilized into the target range on the same warfarin dose given at the time of the supratherapeutic INR. Salicylate displaces warfarin from plasma protein binding sites and may result in a significant increase in INR secondary to redistribution of warfarin to the free active form. Evaluation of this case report using the Drug Interaction Probability Scale and Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale yielded scores consistent with a probable adverse drug interaction. Bismuth subsalicylate exaggerates warfarin's anticoagulant response and its concurrent use during warfarin therapy should be avoided.

  11. Comparison of enzyme kinetics of warfarin analyzed by LC-MS/MS QTrap and differential mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Abdul Naveed; Grater, Richard; Lulla, Mukesh; Williams, David A; Gan, Lawrence L; Bohnert, Tonika; LeDuc, Barbara W

    2016-01-01

    Warfarin is an anticoagulant used in the treatment of thrombosis and thromboembolism. It is given as a racemic mixture of R and S enantiomers. These two enantiomers show differences in metabolism by CYPs: S-warfarin undergoes 7 hydroxylation by CYP2C9 and R-warfarin by CYP3A4 to form 10 hydroxy warfarin. In addition, warfarin is acted upon by different CYPs to form the minor metabolites 3'-hydroxy, 4'-hydroxy, 6-hydroxy, and 8-hydroxy warfarin. For analysis, separation of these metabolites is necessary since all have the same m/z ratio and similar fragmentation pattern. Enzyme kinetics for the formation of all of the six hydroxylated metabolites of warfarin from human liver microsomes were determined using an LC-MS/MS QTrap and LC-MS/MS with a differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) (SelexION™) interface to compare the kinetic parameters. These two methods were chosen to compare their selectivity and sensitivity. Substrate curves for 3'-OH, 4'-OH, 6-OH, 7-OH, 8-OH and 10-OH warfarin formation were generated to determine the kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) in human liver microsomal preparations. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for all the six hydroxylated metabolites of warfarin were in the range of 1-3nM using an LC-MS/MS QTrap method which had a run time of 22min. In contrast, the LOQ for all the six hydroxylated metabolites using DMS interface technology was 100nM with a run time of 2.8min. We compare these two MS methods and discuss the kinetics of metabolite formation for the metabolites generated from racemic warfarin. In addition, we show inhibition of major metabolic pathways of warfarin by sulfaphenazole and ketoconazole which are known specific inhibitors of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Bleeding Events Requiring Hospitalization in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Dabigatran, Warfarin, or Antiplatelet Therapy.

    PubMed

    Riley, Tanya R; Gauthier-Lewis, Mary L; Sanchez, Chelsea K; Riley, Treavor T

    2017-04-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of bleeding events requiring hospitalization among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving anticoagulants (dabigatran or warfarin) or antiplatelet agents (eg, aspirin and clopidogrel). This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study involving 1494 patients with AF hospitalized from November 1, 2010, to November 1, 2011, with prior warfarin, dabigatran, or antiplatelet therapy. Overall bleeding events in the dabigatran group compared to the warfarin group were 24% and 12%, respectively ( P = .004). Of these events, individually, there were no significant differences in major (56% vs 58%, P = .88), life-threatening (25% vs 36%, P = .38), or minor bleeding (44% vs 42%, P = .06). Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding occurred more in the dabigatran group compared to the warfarin group ( P = .02). Intracranial bleeding occurred in 15% of patients in the warfarin group and did not occur at all in the dabigatran group. Warfarin patients had significantly more overall bleeding events compared to antiplatelet therapy ( P < .001), with an increasing trend seen in major bleeding ( P = .06). GI bleeding, however, favored the warfarin group over the antiplatelet group (48% vs 73%, P = .04). Anticoagulation with dabigatran was associated with an overall increased occurrence of bleeding requiring hospital admission compared to warfarin. GI bleeding was more prevalent with dabigatran and antiplatelets than with warfarin. There were more intracranial hemorrhages seen in the warfarin group.

  13. Evaluation of knowledge of Health care professionals on warfarin interactions with drug and herb medicinal in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Arifi, Mohamed N.; Wajid, Syed; Al-Manie, Nawaf K.; Al-Saker, Faisal M.; Babelgaith, Salmeen D.; Asiri, Yousif A.; Sales, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate health care professionals’ knowledge on warfarin interactions with drugs and herbs. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was developed to assess health care professionals’ knowledge on warfarin interactions with drug and herb. Respondents were asked to classify 15 drugs that may effect on warfarin action as “enhance”, “inhibit “, “no effect”. The study sample involved health care professionals (physicians, pharmacists and nurses) from king Salman hospital, Saudi Arabia. Results: About 92.2% of health care professionals identified warfarin interactions with aspirin, 4.4% for warfarin and fluoxetine. Warfarin and cardiac agents (atenolol) was correctly identified by 11.1% of respondents. In warfarin –herb interactions section, the majority of respondents (66.7%) identified the interaction between green tea and warfarin. Approximately one-third of respondents (n=33) correctly classified warfarin interactions with cardamom. No significant difference was found between the health care professionals (p=0.49) for warfarin-drug interactions knowledge score and p= 0.52 for warfarin- herb interactions knowledge score. Conclusion: This study suggests that health care professionals’ knowledge of warfarin- drug-herb interactions was inadequate. Therefore, health care professionals should receive more education programs about drug-drug/herb interactions to provide appropriate patient counseling and optimal therapeutic outcomes. PMID:27022381

  14. Pulmonary Embolism Inpatients Treated With Rivaroxaban Had Shorter Hospital Stays and Lower Costs Compared With Warfarin.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Jay M; Deitelzweig, Steven; Kline, Jeffrey; Tran, Oth; Smith, David M; Crivera, Concetta; Bookhart, Brahim; Schein, Jeff

    2016-11-01

    Using real-world data, this study compares inpatient length of stay (LOS) and costs for patients with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) initiating treatment with oral anticoagulation with rivaroxaban versus warfarin. Hospitalizations from MarketScan's Hospital Drug Database were selected from November 1, 2012, through December 31, 2013, for adults with a primary diagnosis of PE initiating treatment with rivaroxaban or warfarin. Warfarin patients were matched 1:1 to rivaroxaban patients using exact and propensity score matching. Hospital LOS, treatment patterns, and hospitalization costs were evaluated. Matched cohorts included 751 rivaroxaban-treated patients and 751 warfarin-treated patients. Adjusted mean LOS was 3.77 days for rivaroxaban patients (95% CI, 3.66-3.87 days) and 5.48 days for warfarin patients (95% CI, 5.33-5.63 days; P < .001). Mean (SD) LOS was shorter for patients taking rivaroxaban whether admission was for provoked PE (rivaroxaban: 5.2 [5.1] days; warfarin: 7.0 [6.5] days; P < .001) or unprovoked PE (rivaroxaban: 3.4 [2.3] days; warfarin: 5.1 [2.7] days; P < .001). Mean (SD) days from first dose to discharge were 2.5 (1.7) (rivaroxaban) and 4.0 (2.9) (warfarin) when initiated with parenteral anticoagulants (P < .001) and 2.7 (1.7) (rivaroxaban) and 4.0 (2.2) (warfarin) without parenteral anticoagulants (P < .001). The rivaroxaban cohort incurred significantly lower unadjusted mean (SD) hospitalization costs (rivaroxaban: $8473 [$9105]; warfarin: $10,291 [$9185]; P < .001), confirmed by covariate adjustment with generalized linear modeling estimating predicted mean hospitalization costs of $8266 for rivaroxaban patients (95% CI, $7851-$8681) and $10,511 for warfarin patients (95% CI, $10,031-$10,992; P < .001). patients with PE treated with rivaroxaban incurred significantly lower hospitalization costs by $2245 per admission compared with patients treated with warfarin, which was attributable to cost offsets from 1.71 fewer days of

  15. Interethnic variability of warfarin maintenance requirement is explained by VKORC1 genotype in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Chin; Ng, Swee-Siang; Oldenburg, Johannes; Chong, Pei-Yi; Rost, Simone; Guo, Jia-Yi; Yap, Hui-Ling; Rankin, Sheila Clare; Khor, Hui-Boon; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng; Ng, Kheng-Siang; Soong, Richie; Goh, Boon-Cher

    2006-03-01

    Chinese and Malay subjects have been reported to require less maintenance warfarin than Indians that could not be accounted for by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 variants. Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) is the target enzyme of warfarin, and VKORC1 intronic variants and haplotypes have recently been shown to influence VKORC1 activity and warfarin requirements. We sequenced the coding regions of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 and inferred VKORC1 haplotype from 10 intronic variants in 147 Chinese, 85 Malay, and 43 Indian patients receiving maintenance warfarin. The mean weight-normalized warfarin dose was lower for Chinese and Malays than for Indians (0.058 +/- 0.025 mg/kg, 0.059 +/- 0.023 mg/kg, and 0.089 +/- 0.036 mg/kg, respectively; P < .001 for comparisons between Chinese and Malays with Indians). CYP2C9*2 and VKORC1 coding region variants were rare (<2%), whereas CYP2C9*3 associated with lower warfarin requirements was less common in Chinese and Malays (7% and 9%, respectively) than in Indians (18%) and could not account for their lower warfarin requirements. VKORC1 H1 and H7/H8/H9 haplotypes were associated with lower and higher warfarin requirements, respectively (0.050 +/- 0.019 mg/kg and 0.092 +/- 0.057 mg/kg, respectively; P < .001). VKORC1 H1 haplotype (requiring low warfarin doses) was common in Chinese (87%) and Malays (65%) but uncommon in Indians (12%), whereas H7, H8, and H9 haplotypes (requiring high warfarin doses) were rare in Chinese (9%), intermediate in Malays (30%), and common in Indians (82%). The interethnic difference in warfarin requirements became nonsignificant when adjusted for VKORC1 haplotype. Interethnic difference in VKORC1 haplotypes accounts for the difference in warfarin requirements between Chinese, Malays, and Indians, providing interesting insights into genetic variation between ethnogeographically distinct Asian groups.

  16. Warfarin-induced calciphylaxis successfully treated with sodium thiosulphate.

    PubMed

    Hafiji, Juber; Deegan, Patrick; Brais, Rebecca; Norris, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Calciphylaxis is a rare life-threatening form of skin necrosis. Although traditionally observed in patients with end-stage renal disease and/or hyperparathyroidism, calciphylaxis has also been reported to occur in 'non-traditional' patients with normal renal and parathyroid function. We report a case of warfarin-induced calciphylaxis treated successfully with sodium thiosulphate and discuss the role of Vitamin K2 as a potential therapeutic option in the management of warfarin-induced calciphylaxis. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  17. Congenital Dandy Walker malformation associated with first trimester warfarin: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, L C

    1985-12-01

    While the warfarin embryopathy is well defined, central nervous system abnormalities associated with gestational warfarin exposure require further definition. Based on the timing of warfarin exposure in humans, it has been proposed that second- and third-trimester exposure predisposes to CNS abnormalities while first-trimester exposure more typically is associated with the warfarin embryopathy. A case is presented of a liveborn male with Dandy Walker malformation, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and Peter anomaly of the right eye who was exposed to warfarin between the 8th and 12th weeks of gestation who had none of the stigmata of the warfarin embryopathy. His is the first known case of exposure confined to the first trimester, and the fifth case of Dandy Walker malformation among a total of 15 CNS cases associated with this drug. This case offers evidence that Dandy Walker malformation may represent a distinct complication of in utero first-trimester exposure, and consideration of these particular abnormalities with exposure limited to a period prior to the known appearance of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors suggests that warfarin has a direct teratogenic effect on central nervous system morphogenesis.

  18. Effectiveness and safety of a 10mg warfarin initiation nomogram in Asian population.

    PubMed

    Chandriah, Haarathi; Kumolosasi, Endang; Islahudin, Farida; Makmor-Bakry, Mohd

    2015-05-01

    Anticoagulant responses to warfarin vary among patients, based on genetic factors, diet, concomitant medications, and disease state. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of a 10mg warfarin initiation nomogram in an Asian population. Retrospective cross-sectional audit studies were conducted from March 2009 to March 2010. The use of a 10mg-loading dose to initiate warfarin treatment resulted in 33(84.6%) patients attaining a therapeutic INR within four days (mean time, 2.6 days). There was no significant correlation between age, gender, race, and serum albumin for the time to reach a therapeutic INR. A significant correlation was noted for patient's baseline INR and time to reach a therapeutic INR (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in time to reach a therapeutic INR in patients treated with specific class of concomitant drugs or patients with specific disease states. The overall incidence of over-anticoagulation was 35.9%; however, no bleeding episodes were encountered. In conclusion, the use of a 10mg warfarin nomogram was effective in rapidly achieving a therapeutic INR. However, the nomogram's safety is debatable owing to the high over-anticoagulation rate warfarin-administered patients. Caution is recommended in the initiation of warfarin treatment using the 10mg nomogram.

  19. Genetics and clinical response to warfarin and edoxaban in patients with venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Vandell, Alexander G; Walker, Joseph; Brown, Karen S; Zhang, George; Lin, Min; Grosso, Michael A; Mercuri, Michele F

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variants can identify patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) at an increased risk of bleeding with warfarin. Methods Hokusai-venous thromboembolism (Hokusai VTE), a randomised, multinational, double-blind, non-inferiority trial, evaluated the safety and efficacy of edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with VTE initially treated with heparin. In this subanalysis of Hokusai VTE, patients genotyped for variants in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes were divided into three warfarin sensitivity types (normal, sensitive and highly sensitive) based on their genotypes. An exploratory analysis was also conducted comparing normal responders to pooled sensitive responders (ie, sensitive and highly sensitive responders). Results The analysis included 47.7% (3956/8292) of the patients in Hokusai VTE. Among 1978 patients randomised to warfarin, 63.0% (1247) were normal responders, 34.1% (675) were sensitive responders and 2.8% (56) were highly sensitive responders. Compared with normal responders, sensitive and highly sensitive responders had heparin therapy discontinued earlier (p<0.001), had a decreased final weekly warfarin dose (p<0.001), spent more time overanticoagulated (p<0.001) and had an increased bleeding risk with warfarin (sensitive responders HR 1.38 [95% CI 1.11 to 1.71], p=0.0035; highly sensitive responders 1.79 [1.09 to 2.99]; p=0.0252). Conclusion In this study, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes identified patients with VTE at increased bleeding risk with warfarin. Trial registration number NCT00986154. PMID:28689179

  20. Monkey liver cytochrome P450 2C19 is involved in R- and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Yoshio; Uno, Yasuhiro; Murayama, Norie; Fujino, Hideki; Shukuya, Mitsunori; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Shimizu, Makiko; Utoh, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2012-12-15

    Cynomolgus monkeys are widely used as primate models in preclinical studies. However, some differences are occasionally seen between monkeys and humans in the activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes. R- and S-warfarin are model substrates for stereoselective oxidation in humans. In this current research, the activities of monkey liver microsomes and 14 recombinantly expressed monkey cytochrome P450 enzymes were analyzed with respect to R- and S-warfarin 6- and 7-hydroxylation. Monkey liver microsomes efficiently mediated both R- and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation, in contrast to human liver microsomes, which preferentially catalyzed S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation. R-Warfarin 7-hydroxylation activities in monkey liver microsomes were not inhibited by α-naphthoflavone or ketoconazole, and were roughly correlated with P450 2C19 levels and flurbiprofen 4-hydroxylation activities in microsomes from 20 monkey livers. In contrast, S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation activities were not correlated with the four marker drug oxidation activities used. Among the 14 recombinantly expressed monkey P450 enzymes tested, P450 2C19 had the highest activities for R- and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylations. Monkey P450 3A4 and 3A5 slowly mediated R- and S-warfarin 6-hydroxylations. Kinetic analysis revealed that monkey P450 2C19 had high V(max) and low K(m) values for R-warfarin 7-hydroxylation, comparable to those for monkey liver microsomes. Monkey P450 2C19 also mediated S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation with V(max) and V(max)/K(m) values comparable to those for recombinant human P450 2C9. R-warfarin could dock favorably into monkey P450 2C19 modeled. These results collectively suggest high activities for monkey liver P450 2C19 toward R- and S-warfarin 6- and 7-hydroxylation in contrast to the saturation kinetics of human P450 2C9-mediated S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of protocol-based pharmacotherapy management on anticoagulation with warfarin for patients with cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Katada, Y; Nakagawa, S; Minakata, K; Odaka, M; Taue, H; Sato, Y; Yonezawa, A; Kayano, Y; Yano, I; Nakatsu, T; Sakamoto, K; Uehara, K; Sakaguchi, H; Yamazaki, K; Minatoya, K; Sakata, R; Matsubara, K

    2017-10-01

    Anticoagulation therapy with warfarin requires periodic monitoring of prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) and adequate dose adjustments based on the data to minimize the risk of bleeding and thromboembolic events. In our hospital, we have developed protocol-based pharmaceutical care, which we called protocol-based pharmacotherapy management (PBPM), for warfarin therapy. The protocol requires pharmacists to manage timing of blood sampling for measuring PT-INR and warfarin dosage determination based on an algorithm. This study evaluated the efficacy of PBPM in warfarin therapy by comparing to conventional pharmaceutical care. From October 2013 to June 2015, a total of 134 hospitalized patients who underwent cardiovascular surgeries received post-operative warfarin therapy. The early series of patients received warfarin therapy as the conventional care (control group, n=77), whereas the latter received warfarin therapy based on the PBPM (PBPM group, n=68). These patients formed the cohort of the present study and were retrospectively analysed. The indications for warfarin included aortic valve replacement (n=56), mitral valve replacement (n=4), mitral valve plasty (n=22) and atrial fibrillation (n=29). There were no differences in patients' characteristics between both groups. The percentage time in therapeutic range in the first 10 days was significantly higher in the PBPM group (47.1%) than that in the control group (34.4%, P<.005). The average time to reach the steady state was significantly (P<.005) shorter in the PBPM group compared to the control group (7.3 vs 8.6 days). Warfarin therapy based on our novel PBPM was clinically safe and resulted in significantly better anticoagulation control compared to conventional care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of Ankaferd Blood Stopper on Skin Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Activities in Warfarin-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Aktop, Sertaç; Emekli-Alturfan, Ebru; Gönül, Onur; Göçmen, Gökhan; Garip, Hasan; Yarat, Ayşen; Göker, Kamil

    2017-03-01

    Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) is a new promising local hemostatic agent, and its mechanism on hemostasis has been shown by many studies. However, the effects of ABS on skin superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities have not been investigated before. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of this new generation local hemostatic agent on warfarin-treated rats focusing on its the antioxidant potential in short-term soft tissue healing. Twelve systemically warfarin treated (warfarin group) and 12 none treated Wistar Albino rats (control group) were selected for the trial. Rats in the warfarin group were treated intraperitonally with 0.1 mg/kg warfarin, and rats in the control group were given 1 mL/kg saline 3 days earlier to surgical procedure and continued until killing. All rats had incisions on dorsal dermal tissue, which was applied ABS or no hemostatic agent before suturing. Six of each group were killed on day 4, and the other 6 were killed on day 8. Blood and skin samples were taken. Prothrombin time (PT) in blood samples, CAT, and SOD activities in skin samples were determined. Warfarin treatment dose was found to be convenient and warfarin treatment increased the PT levels as expected. Warfarin treatment decreased CAT activity significantly compared to the control group. The ABS treatment significantly increased SOD activities in the warfarin group at the end of the eighth day. Ankaferd Blood Stopper acted positively in short-term tissue healing by increasing SOD activity in warfarin-treated rats. Therefore, ABS may be suggeted as a promoting factor in tissue healing.

  3. Safety and Efficacy of Warfarin Therapy in Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, Annette L; Vanderpluym, Christina; Gauvreau, Kimberly A; Fulton, David R; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Friedman, Kevin G; Murray, Jenna M; Brown, Loren D; Almond, Christopher S; Evans-Langhorst, Margaret; Newburger, Jane W

    2017-10-01

    To describe the safety and efficacy of warfarin for patients with Kawasaki disease and giant coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs, ≥8 mm). Giant aneurysms are managed with combined anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapies, heightening risk of bleeding complications. We reviewed the time in therapeutic range; percentage of international normalization ratios (INRs) in range (%); bleeding events, clotting events; INRs ≥6; INRs ≥5 and <6; and INRs <1.5. In 9 patients (5 male), median age 14.4 years (range 7.1-22.8 years), INR testing was prescribed weekly to monthly and was done by home monitor (n = 5) or laboratory (n = 3) or combined (1). Median length of warfarin therapy was 7.2 years (2.3-13.3 years). Goal INR was 2.0-3.0 (n = 6) or 2.5-3.5 (n = 3), based on CAA size and history of CAA thrombosis. All patients were treated with aspirin; 1 was on dual antiplatelet therapy and warfarin. The median time in therapeutic range was 59% (37%-85%), and median percentage of INRs in range was 68% (52%-87%). INR >6 occurred in 3 patients (4 events); INRs ≥5 <6 in 7 patients (12 events); and INR <1.5 in 5 patients (28 events). The incidence of major bleeding events and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events were each 4.3 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 0.9-12.6). New asymptomatic coronary thrombosis was detected by imaging in 2 patients. Bleeding and clotting complications are common in patients with Kawasaki disease on warfarin and aspirin, with INRs in range only two-thirds of the time. Future studies should evaluate the use of direct oral anticoagulants in children as an alternative to warfarin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with mechanical heart valves.

    PubMed

    Eikelboom, John W; Connolly, Stuart J; Brueckmann, Martina; Granger, Christopher B; Kappetein, Arie P; Mack, Michael J; Blatchford, Jon; Devenny, Kevin; Friedman, Jeffrey; Guiver, Kelly; Harper, Ruth; Khder, Yasser; Lobmeyer, Maximilian T; Maas, Hugo; Voigt, Jens-Uwe; Simoons, Maarten L; Van de Werf, Frans

    2013-09-26

    Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor that has been shown to be an effective alternative to warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. We evaluated the use of dabigatran in patients with mechanical heart valves. In this phase 2 dose-validation study, we studied two populations of patients: those who had undergone aortic- or mitral-valve replacement within the past 7 days and those who had undergone such replacement at least 3 months earlier. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either dabigatran or warfarin. The selection of the initial dabigatran dose (150, 220, or 300 mg twice daily) was based on kidney function. Doses were adjusted to obtain a trough plasma level of at least 50 ng per milliliter. The warfarin dose was adjusted to obtain an international normalized ratio of 2 to 3 or 2.5 to 3.5 on the basis of thromboembolic risk. The primary end point was the trough plasma level of dabigatran. The trial was terminated prematurely after the enrollment of 252 patients because of an excess of thromboembolic and bleeding events among patients in the dabigatran group. In the as-treated analysis, dose adjustment or discontinuation of dabigatran was required in 52 of 162 patients (32%). Ischemic or unspecified stroke occurred in 9 patients (5%) in the dabigatran group and in no patients in the warfarin group; major bleeding occurred in 7 patients (4%) and 2 patients (2%), respectively. All patients with major bleeding had pericardial bleeding. The use of dabigatran in patients with mechanical heart valves was associated with increased rates of thromboembolic and bleeding complications, as compared with warfarin, thus showing no benefit and an excess risk. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01452347 and NCT01505881.).

  5. Use of warfarin therapy among residents who developed venous thromboembolism in the nursing home.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Gregory; Pandya, Naushira; Nutescu, Edith A; Lamori, Joyce; Damaraju, Chandrasekhar V; Schein, Jeff; Bookhart, Brahim K

    2012-12-01

    Treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in long-term care (LTC) settings has received little empirical study. Among residents with VTE in nursing homes, this analysis evaluated frequency of anticoagulant use, the proportion of residents newly started on warfarin who persisted on therapy (≥3 months), and the association of key resident characteristics, including bleeding risk, with warfarin use and persistence. Using the AnalytiCare LTC database (US), eligible residents had deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism coded in the Minimum Data Set (MDS) 2.0 during the uptake period April 1, 2007 through December 31, 2008 (earliest VTE was index date) and had 1 or more MDS assessment(s) over the 90-day preindex period, each negative for VTE. Logistic regression evaluated the association of resident characteristics with warfarin use. Cox regression evaluated persistence with warfarin therapy. The median age of residents with VTE included in the analysis (N = 489) was 80 years; 73% received anticoagulant therapy and 66% were prescribed warfarin ±45 days of the index date. Multivariate logistic regression identified several factors significantly associated with warfarin use: location in South Central region (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, P = 0.019) and the Western region (OR = 2.53, P = 0.005) [both vs reference South Atlantic]; body mass index categories normal (OR = 2.73, P = 0.045), overweight (OR = 4.21, P = 0.005), and obese (OR = 3.82, P = 0.010) (both vs reference underweight); Alzheimer's/dementia (OR = 0.52, P = 0.024); cancer (OR = 0.39, P = 0.008); and moderate-dependent versus independent physical functioning (OR = 2.59, P = 0.003). Of residents newly started on warfarin therapy with no history of cancer (n = 149), 28% discontinued warfarin within 90 days of initiation. Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) (OR = 4.07, P < 0.001), Alzheimer's disease/dementia (OR = 2.55, P = 0.046), and antipsychotic use (OR = 4.60, P < 0.001) were all significantly associated with

  6. Impact on survival of warfarin in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension receiving subcutaneous treprostinil.

    PubMed

    Ascha, Mona; Zhou, Xuan; Rao, Youlan; Minai, Omar A; Tonelli, Adriano R

    2017-10-01

    Anticoagulation is a common treatment modality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Further studies are needed to appropriately assess the risk/benefit ratio of anticoagulation, particularly in PAH patients receiving PAH-specific therapies. We use observational long-term data on PAH patients treated with subcutaneous (SQ) treprostinil from a large open-label study. Patients were followed for up to 4 years. The use of warfarin and bleeding events were recorded. At total of 860 patients (age [mean±SD] 46±15 years, 76% female, 83% Caucasian, 49% idiopathic PAH, and 76% New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class III) were included. All patients received SQ treprostinil (15% also other pulmonary hypertension [PH]-therapies) and 590 (69%) received warfarin during the study. The proportions of women, African American, and idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (IPAH) patients were higher in the group receiving warfarin. A higher proportion of patients with congenital heart disease and portopulmonary hypertension did not receive warfarin. There were no differences in unadjusted long-term survival between PAH patients receiving warfarin or not (log-rank test, P value=.69), even when only considering idiopathic PAH (P=.32). In addition, no difference was found in adjusted long-term survival both in PAH (P=.84) and idiopathic PAH patients (P=.44) based on the use of warfarin. Furthermore, no survival difference based on the use of warfarin were noted between propensity score-matched PAH patients (P=.37). Long-term anticoagulation with warfarin was not associated with any significant effect on survival in PAH or idiopathic PAH patients treated with SQ treprostinil. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Warfarin resistance associated with genetic polymorphism of VKORC1: linking clinical response to molecular mechanism using computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Benjamin C; Nair, Pramod C; Heran, Subash S; Somogyi, Andrew A; Bowden, Jeffrey J; Doogue, Matthew P; Miners, John O

    2016-01-01

    The variable response to warfarin treatment often has a genetic basis. A protein homology model of human vitamin K epoxide reductase, subunit 1 (VKORC1), was generated to elucidate the mechanism of warfarin resistance observed in a patient with the Val66Met mutation. The VKORC1 homology model comprises four transmembrane (TM) helical domains and a half helical lid domain. Cys132 and Cys135, located in the N-terminal end of TM-4, are linked through a disulfide bond. Two distinct binding sites for warfarin were identified. Site-1, which binds vitamin K epoxide (KO) in a catalytically favorable orientation, shows higher affinity for S-warfarin compared with R-warfarin. Site-2, positioned in the domain occupied by the hydrophobic tail of KO, binds both warfarin enantiomers with similar affinity. Displacement of Arg37 occurs in the Val66Met mutant, blocking access of warfarin (but not KO) to Site-1, consistent with clinical observation of warfarin resistance.

  8. No effect of the novel antidiabetic agent nateglinide on the pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant properties of warfarin in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Denise M; Shelley, Sarah; Crick, Nina; Buraglio, Mauro

    2002-12-01

    The novel hypoglycemic agent nateglinide is pharmacologically distinct from oral hypoglycemic agents such as sulfonylureas and repaglinide. The present study investigated the effects in healthy volunteers of multiple doses of nateglinide on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin. The study comprised a randomized two-group, two-way crossover, open-label design in 12 healthy male subjects. One group of 6 subjects initially received a single oral dose of warfarin 30 mg and then, after a 7- to 14-day washout, received both warfarin and nateglinide (120 mgnateglinide, 10 min before meals for 4 days and a single dose of 30 mg warfarin on the second day). The alternate group of 6 subjects received treatments in the opposite order. Pharmacokinetic profiles were derived from plasma warfarin and nateglinide concentrations. Prothrombin measurements were evaluated in both periods as a measure of warfarin activity. When administered alone or in combination, there were no statistically significant differences in mean warfarin (R- and S-enantiomers) or nateglinide pharmacokinetic parameters. The concurrent administration of nateglinide and warfarin did not affect the maximal change in prothrombin time that follows warfarin administration. In this study, there was no evidence of an effect of coadministration of nateglinide on the pharmacodynamic action of warfarin or any pharmacokinetic interaction between warfarin and nateglinide.

  9. Preemptive warfarin dose reduction after initiation of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Powers, Anna; Loesch, Erin B; Weiland, Anthony; Fioravanti, Nicole; Lucius, David

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the utility of a preemptive warfarin dose reduction at the time of initiation of either sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or metronidazole, a retrospective chart review of patients who received an outpatient prescription for warfarin and either sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and/or metronidazole from July 1, 2011 to July 1, 2015 was conducted. Clinical outcomes compared Veterans who had a warfarin dose reduction and those who did not within 120 h (5 days) of antibiotic initiation. The primary outcome compared the pre-and post-antibiotic International Normalized Ratio (INR) of patients in the intervention group (warfarin dose reduction) with those in the control group (no intervention). Secondary outcomes assessed incidence of thromboembolic and major bleeding events within 30 days of antibiotic completion. Fifty patients were assessed. Forty-nine patients had at least one follow-up appointment; 126 follow-up visits were evaluated. There was a statistically significant difference for the change in therapeutic INR at the first follow-up appointment (p = 0.029) for those patients in the control group. On average, the patients in the intervention group required fewer follow-up visits (p = 0.019). There were no statistically significant differences for the overall rate of therapeutic INR values between groups, as well as no instances of a thromboembolic or major bleeding events during the follow-up period. Clinically significant differences were observed for patients who received a preemptive warfarin dose reduction upon initiation of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or metronidazole. Patients in the intervention group required fewer follow-up appointments and were more likely maintain a therapeutic INR within the 30 days following the antibiotic course. Results of this study will be presented the at Pharmacy and Therapeutics committee in an effort to seek approval for policy development to initiate a local preemptive warfarin dose adjustment as a standard

  10. Verification of Pharmacogenetics-Based Warfarin Dosing Algorithms in Han-Chinese Patients Undertaking Mechanic Heart Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Chen, Chunxia; Li, Bei; Dong, Li; Guo, Yingqiang; Xiao, Xijun; Zhang, Eryong; Qin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the performance of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms in the initial and the stable warfarin treatment phases in a cohort of Han-Chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart valve replacement. Methods We searched PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases for selecting pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing models. Patients with mechanic heart valve replacement were consecutively recruited between March 2012 and July 2012. The predicted warfarin dose of each patient was calculated and compared with the observed initial and stable warfarin doses. The percentage of patients whose predicted dose fell within 20% of their actual therapeutic dose (percentage within 20%), and the mean absolute error (MAE) were utilized to evaluate the predictive accuracy of all the selected algorithms. Results A total of 8 algorithms including Du, Huang, Miao, Wei, Zhang, Lou, Gage, and International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) model, were tested in 181 patients. The MAE of the Gage, IWPC and 6 Han-Chinese pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms was less than 0.6 mg/day in accuracy and the percentage within 20% exceeded 45% in all of the selected models in both the initial and the stable treatment stages. When patients were stratified according to the warfarin dose range, all of the equations demonstrated better performance in the ideal-dose range (1.88–4.38 mg/day) than the low-dose range (<1.88 mg/day). Among the 8 algorithms compared, the algorithms of Wei, Huang, and Miao showed a lower MAE and higher percentage within 20% in both the initial and the stable warfarin dose prediction and in the low-dose and the ideal-dose ranges. Conclusions All of the selected pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing regimens performed similarly in our cohort. However, the algorithms of Wei, Huang, and Miao showed a better potential for warfarin prediction in the initial and the stable treatment phases in Han

  11. Verification of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms in Han-Chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Chen, Chunxia; Li, Bei; Dong, Li; Guo, Yingqiang; Xiao, Xijun; Zhang, Eryong; Qin, Li

    2014-01-01

    To study the performance of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms in the initial and the stable warfarin treatment phases in a cohort of Han-Chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart valve replacement. We searched PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases for selecting pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing models. Patients with mechanic heart valve replacement were consecutively recruited between March 2012 and July 2012. The predicted warfarin dose of each patient was calculated and compared with the observed initial and stable warfarin doses. The percentage of patients whose predicted dose fell within 20% of their actual therapeutic dose (percentage within 20%), and the mean absolute error (MAE) were utilized to evaluate the predictive accuracy of all the selected algorithms. A total of 8 algorithms including Du, Huang, Miao, Wei, Zhang, Lou, Gage, and International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) model, were tested in 181 patients. The MAE of the Gage, IWPC and 6 Han-Chinese pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms was less than 0.6 mg/day in accuracy and the percentage within 20% exceeded 45% in all of the selected models in both the initial and the stable treatment stages. When patients were stratified according to the warfarin dose range, all of the equations demonstrated better performance in the ideal-dose range (1.88-4.38 mg/day) than the low-dose range (<1.88 mg/day). Among the 8 algorithms compared, the algorithms of Wei, Huang, and Miao showed a lower MAE and higher percentage within 20% in both the initial and the stable warfarin dose prediction and in the low-dose and the ideal-dose ranges. All of the selected pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing regimens performed similarly in our cohort. However, the algorithms of Wei, Huang, and Miao showed a better potential for warfarin prediction in the initial and the stable treatment phases in Han-Chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart

  12. Genetics and clinical response to warfarin and edoxaban in patients with venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Vandell, Alexander G; Walker, Joseph; Brown, Karen S; Zhang, George; Lin, Min; Grosso, Michael A; Mercuri, Michele F

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variants can identify patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) at an increased risk of bleeding with warfarin. Hokusai-venous thromboembolism (Hokusai VTE), a randomised, multinational, double-blind, non-inferiority trial, evaluated the safety and efficacy of edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with VTE initially treated with heparin. In this subanalysis of Hokusai VTE, patients genotyped for variants in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes were divided into three warfarin sensitivity types (normal, sensitive and highly sensitive) based on their genotypes. An exploratory analysis was also conducted comparing normal responders to pooled sensitive responders (ie, sensitive and highly sensitive responders). The analysis included 47.7% (3956/8292) of the patients in Hokusai VTE. Among 1978 patients randomised to warfarin, 63.0% (1247) were normal responders, 34.1% (675) were sensitive responders and 2.8% (56) were highly sensitive responders. Compared with normal responders, sensitive and highly sensitive responders had heparin therapy discontinued earlier (p<0.001), had a decreased final weekly warfarin dose (p<0.001), spent more time overanticoagulated (p<0.001) and had an increased bleeding risk with warfarin (sensitive responders HR 1.38 [95% CI 1.11 to 1.71], p=0.0035; highly sensitive responders 1.79 [1.09 to 2.99]; p=0.0252). In this study, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes identified patients with VTE at increased bleeding risk with warfarin. NCT00986154. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Pre-treatment with puerarin affects pharmacokinetics of warfarin, but not clopidogrel, in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, An-Chang; Zhao, Li-Xia; Yu, Shu-Wen; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2015-04-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of puerarin pre-treatment on the pharmacokinetics of the oral anticoagulant agent warfarin and the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel in rats. In the treatment group, rats was gavaged with warfarin or clopidogrel after repeated treatment with puerarin at intraperitoneal doses of 20, 60, or 200 mg·kg(-1) for 7 days, while rats in the control group were administrated only with the same dose warfarin or clopidogrel. Plasma samples were obtained at the prescribed times and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that rats treated with puerarin at all the test doses of 20, 60 and 200 mg·kg(-1) were found to affect the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, but not clopidogrel, suggesting a potential herb-drug interaction between puerarin and warfarin. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Warfarin for stroke prevention in octogenarians with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Howard, P A; Ellerbeck, E F; Engelman, K K; Dunn, M I

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined warfarin use in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation. Medical records were abstracted from a random sample of Medicare beneficiaries with atrial fibrillation who were discharged from Kansas hospitals. Data were analyzed for warfarin and aspirin use and risk factors for stroke or bleeding in patients 65-79 years of age or 80 years and older. Stroke risk factors other than age and atrial fibrillation were seen in 98% of 142 patients less than 80 years of age and 100% of 141 octogenarians. Warfarin use was similar in the younger and older age groups (50% vs. 45%, respectively; p = ns) and was not associated with the number of stroke or bleeding risk factors. Compared to patients less than 80 years of age, octogenarians were less likely to receive aspirin (38% vs. 27%, respectively; p < 0.05). Anticoagulation rates for high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation were low and poorly explained by stroke or bleeding risks.

  15. Edoxaban vs. warfarin in vitamin K antagonist experienced and naive patients with atrial fibrillation†.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Ruff, Christian T; Giugliano, Robert P; Murphy, Sabina A; Grip, Laura T; Mercuri, Michele F; Rutman, Howard; Shi, Minggao; Kania, Grzegorz; Cermak, Ondrej; Braunwald, Eugene; Antman, Elliott M

    2015-06-14

    Edoxaban is an oral, once-daily factor Xa inhibitor that is non-inferior to well-managed warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolic events (SEEs). We examined the efficacy and safety of edoxaban vs. warfarin in patients who were vitamin K antagonist (VKA) naive or experienced. ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 randomized 21 105 patients with AF at moderate-to-high risk of stroke to once-daily edoxaban vs. warfarin. Subjects were followed for a median of 2.8 years. The primary efficacy endpoint was stroke or SEE. As a pre-specified subgroup, we analysed outcomes for those with or without prior VKA experience (>60 consecutive days). Higher-dose edoxaban significantly reduced the risk of stroke or SEE in patients who were VKA naive [hazard ratio (HR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.90] and was similar to warfarin in the VKA experienced (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.82-1.24; P interaction = 0.028). Lower-dose edoxaban was similar to warfarin for stroke or SEE prevention in patients who were VKA naive (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.73-1.15), but was inferior to warfarin in those who were VKA experienced (HR 1.31, 95% 1.08-1.60; P interaction = 0.019). Both higher-dose and lower-dose edoxaban regimens significantly reduced the risk of major bleeding regardless of prior VKA experience (P interaction = 0.90 and 0.71, respectively). In patients with AF, edoxaban appeared to demonstrate greater efficacy compared with warfarin in patients who were VKA naive than VKA experienced. Edoxaban significantly reduced major bleeding compared with warfarin regardless of prior VKA exposure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Prevalence of Drug Combinations Increasing Bleeding Risk Among Warfarin Users With and Without Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Heidi; Vuorikari, Hanna; Tanskanen, Antti; Koponen, Marjaana; Tiihonen, Jari; Kettunen, Raimo; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence and predictors of drug combinations increasing bleeding risk among warfarin users with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD). This retrospective observational study utilised data from the Finnish MEDALZ-2005 cohort. The MEDALZ-2005 study included all community-dwelling persons with a clinically verified diagnosis of AD at the end of 2005, and one comparison person without AD for each case. Data on drug use was collected from the Prescription Register. We included persons who were warfarin users during the study period 2006-2009. Drug combinations increasing bleeding risk with warfarin included selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), other antithrombotic drugs and tramadol. Factors associated with combination use were investigated with logistic regression. During the follow-up, 3385 persons with AD and 4830 persons without AD used warfarin. Drug combinations increasing bleeding risk were more common in warfarin users with AD than without AD [35.9 and 30.5%, respectively (p < 0.0001)]. The most common combination was SSRIs and warfarin, which was more common among persons with AD (23.8%) than among persons without AD (10.9%). NSAIDs and warfarin combination was more common among persons without AD. Combination use was associated with AD, female gender, younger age, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis and asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Use of drug combinations increasing bleeding risk was more common among warfarin users with AD. Special attention should be paid to minimise the duration of concomitant use and to find safer alternatives without increased bleeding risk.

  17. Effect of access to anticoagulation management services on warfarin use in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Burkiewicz, Jill S

    2005-08-01

    To determine the effect of access to ambulatory anticoagulation management services (AMS) on the rate of warfarin use in patients with atrial fibrillation. Retrospective medical record review. Two ambulatory care clinics in the same managed care system: one with and one without access to pharmacist-managed AMS. One hundred seventy-eight patients with atrial fibrillation diagnosed between June 2000 and June 2001. Warfarin use was assessed overall and by contraindications and risk factors for stroke. Independent predictors of therapy were identified. The overall rate of warfarin use in atrial fibrillation was higher in the clinic with access to AMS than in the clinic without access (77.9% vs 61.7%, p=0.03). In patients with no known contraindications, warfarin use increased by 20.2% with access to AMS versus no access (80.2% vs 60.0%, p=0.023). Patients aged 65 years or older with one or more risk factors for stroke and no contraindications were more likely to receive warfarin in the clinic with access to AMS than in the clinic without access (85.1% vs 53.8%, p=0.001). Access to AMS was an independent predictor of warfarin use (odds ratio 2.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-4.56). Female sex was an independent negative predictor of warfarin use (odds ratio 0.48, 95% CI 0.24-0.96). In the managed care setting, use of warfarin for stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation was higher in the ambulatory care clinic with access to pharmacist-managed AMS than in the clinic without access.

  18. Hepatic uptake and storage of warfarin. The relation with the target enzyme vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Thijssen, H.H.; Baars, L.G.

    The mechanisms of the reported dose-dependent warfarin pharmacokinetics were investigated using (/sup 14/C)warfarin. When administered in microdoses (9 micrograms i.v.) to rats (male Wistars, 270-300 g), a steep distribution phase (T1/2 = 0.25 hr) was followed by a relatively slow beta-phase (T1/2 = 40 hr). The observed volume of distribution was 390 ml. This pharmacokinetic behavior contrasted highly with the one seen for higher (greater than 0.2 mg/kg) doses (unlabeled) warfarin; volume of distribution = 45 ml, T1/2 = 12.5 hr. If a macrodose (0.2 mg/kg) preceded (16 hr) the microdose, normal pharmacokinetics were observed for the latter, suggesting amore » saturable deep compartment. The administration of 4-hydroxycoumarins (i.e., acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon and warfarin) after the microdose of (/sup 14/C)warfarin was in its beta-phase caused a rapid rise of plasma (/sup 14/C)warfarin indicating (/sup 14/C)warfarin to be displaced from the deep compartment. The rate of appearance of (/sup 14/C)warfarin was 0.3 hr-1 irrespective the 4-hydroxycoumarin used. The hepatic distribution of (/sup 14/C)warfarin was investigated and the effect of a displacer thereupon. Fifty-three hours after the (/sup 14/C)warfarin administration, the liver contained about 40% of the dose; 45% of it was bound to microsomes. The administration of acenocoumarol (0.2 mg/kg) at 48 hr, halved the liver content. (/sup 14/C)warfarin was redistributed from microsomes (-65%) and from the 10,000 X g pellet (-65%) into the cytosol (+260%) and the plasma (+320%). Microsomal bound (/sup 14/C)warfarin in vitro could not be washed out or be displaced unless dithiothreitol (50 mM) was included in the washing buffers.« less

  19. Importance of a multidisciplinary approach and monitoring in fetal warfarin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Daniélle B; da Rosa, Ernani B; de Mattos, Vinicius F; Goetze, Thayse B; Sleifer, Pricila; Santa Maria, Fernanda D; Rosa, Rosana C M; Rosa, Rafael F M; Zen, Paulo R G

    2015-06-01

    Warfarin is a synthetic oral anticoagulant that crosses the placenta and can lead to a number of congenital abnormalities known as fetal warfarin syndrome. Our aim is to report on the follow-up from birth to age 8 years of a patient with fetal warfarin syndrome. He presented significant respiratory dysfunction, as well as dental and speech and language complications. The patient was the second child of a mother who took warfarin during pregnancy due to a metallic heart valve. The patient had respiratory dysfunction at birth. On physical examination, he had a hypoplastic nose, pectus excavatum, and clubbing of the fingers. Nasal fibrobronchoscopy showed upper airway obstruction due to narrowing of the nasal cavities. He underwent surgical correction with Max Pereira graft, zetaplasty, and osteotomies for the piriform aperture. At dental evaluation, he had caries and delayed eruption of the upper incisors. Speech and language assessment revealed high palate, mouth breathing, little nasal patency, and shortened upper lip. Auditory long latency and cognitive-related potential to auditory stimuli demonstrated functional changes in the cortical auditory pathways. We believe that the frequency of certain findings observed in our patient may be higher in fetal warfarin syndrome than is appreciated, since a significant number result in abortions, stillbirths, or children evaluated in the first year of life without a follow-up. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach and long-term monitoring of these patients may be necessary. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Bioequivalence Study of Warfarin in Healthy Chinese Volunteers With a Validated High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlong; Bu, Fanlong; Li, Rong; Wang, Benjie; Shaikh, Abdul Sami; Zhang, Yunyun; Guo, Ruichen; Zhang, Rui

    2018-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of an innovative film-coated warfarin sodium tablet and to compare it with the marketed sugar-coated warfarin sodium tablet in humans. A single-dose, open-label, randomized, two-way crossover study was performed in 24 healthy Chinese male volunteers. They were administered 2.5 mg of innovative film-coated warfarin sodium tablets or the marketed sugar-coated warfarin sodium tablets. Blood samples were collected at different time points after dosing for investigation of the pharmacokinetics of warfarin in human plasma. A sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was established to determine warfarin in plasma. Drug and Statistics 2.1.1 was applied to calculate the pharmacokinetics parameters. The main pharmacokinetic parameters for film-coated and sugar-coated warfarin were the following: t ½ , 103.5 ± 18.8 and 105.8 ± 21.3 hours; T max , 0.7 ± 0.5 and 1.3 ± 0.8 hours; C max , 347.8 ± 74.8 and 322.9 ± 75.7 ng/mL; AUC 0∼360 , 16,024.2 ± 3713.9 and 15,586.6 ± 3477.0 ng·mL -1 ·h; AUC 0∼∞ , 17,335.7 ± 4089.1 and 16,912.0 ± 3911.2 ng·mL -1 ·h, respectively. The human pharmacokinetics of film-coated and sugar-coated warfarin were slightly different. The oral absorption and bioavailability of innovative film-coated warfarin were slightly higher than those of the sugar-coated warfarin. This study is vital to clinical usage of warfarin not only because of the pharmacokinetic parameters of the 2 pharmaceutical dosage forms of warfarin but also to obtain data on the prevalence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes and their influence on the concentration of warfarin. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. A Population-Based Assessment of the Drug Interaction Between Levothyroxine and Warfarin

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, D; Gomes, T; Hellings, C; Zheng, H; Paterson, JM; Mamdani, MM; Juurlink, DN

    2013-01-01

    Most drug interaction resources suggest that levothyroxine can dramatically potentiate the effect of warfarin. However, the mechanistic basis of the interaction is speculative, and little evidence supports a meaningful drug interaction. We conducted a population-based nested case–control study to examine the risk of hospitalization for hemorrhage following the initiation of levothyroxine in a cohort of 260,076 older patients receiving warfarin. In this group, we identified 10,532 case subjects hospitalized for hemorrhage and 40,595 controls. In the primary analysis, we found no association between hospitalization for hemorrhage during warfarin therapy and initiation of levothyroxine in the preceding 30 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.67–1.86). Secondary analyses using more remote initiation of levothyroxine also found no association. These findings suggest that concerns about a clinically meaningful levothyroxine–warfarin drug interaction are not justified. Drug interaction resources that presently characterize this interaction as important should reevaluate this classification. PMID:23093318

  2. Pharmacogenetic association study of warfarin safety endpoints in Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Valentín, Isa I; Rivera, Giselle; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Cruz, Iadelisse; Renta, Jessica Y; Cadilla, Carmen L; Feliu, Juan F; Seip, Richard L; Ruaño, Gualberto; Duconge, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    This study was intended to determine the incidence rate of warfarin-related adverse events (e.g., bleeding) in Puerto Ricans and whether a genetic association between warfarin pharmacogenes and any of these adverse events was observed over the initiation period (i.e., the first 90 days of therapy). We conducted an observational, retrospective cohort study of pharmacogenetic association in 122 warfarin-treated, male, Puerto Rican patients (69.9 +/- 9.6 years) from the Veterans Affair Caribbean Healthcare System (VACHS) who consented to participate. Genotyping was performed using the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 assays by Luminex. Event-free survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed by log-rank test. Cox regression models were constructed and hazard ratios (HR) calculated. Carriers of functional CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms demonstrated a higher incidence rate of multiple adverse events (i.e., 5.2 vs. 1.0 cases per 100 patient-months; RR = 4.8, p = 0.12) than did wild types. A significant association was observed between multiple adverse events and carrier status (HR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.0-6.3, p = 0.04). However, no significant associations between genotypes and individual outcomes over the first 90 days of therapy were found. The association of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes and risks for adverse events due to exposure to warfarin was examined for the first time in Puerto Ricans. Despite a lack of association with individual events in this study population, our findings revealed a potential utility of genotyping for the prevention of multiple adverse events during warfarin therapy.

  3. Pharmacogenetic Association Study of Warfarin Safety Endpoints in Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Valentín, Isa I.; Rivera, Giselle; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Cruz, Iadelisse; Renta, Jessica Y.; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Feliu, Juan F.; Seip, Richard L.; Ruaño, Gualberto; Duconge, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was intended to determine the incidence rate of warfarin-related adverse events (e.g., bleeding) in Puerto Ricans and whether a genetic association between warfarin pharmacogenes and any of these adverse events was observed over the initiation period (i.e., the first 90 days of therapy). Methods We conducted an observational, retrospective cohort study of pharmacogenetic association in 122 warfarin-treated, male, Puerto Rican patients (69.9 ±9.6 years) from the Veterans Affair Caribbean Healthcare System (VACHS) who consented to participate. Genotyping was performed using the CYP2C9 and VKORC 1 assays by Luminex. Event-free survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method and analyzed by log-rank test. Cox regression models were constructed and hazard ratios (HR) calculated. Results Carriers of functional CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms demonstrated a higher incidence rate of multiple adverse events (i.e., 5.2 vs. 1.0 cases per 100 patient-months; RR = 4.8, p = 0.12) than did wild types. A significant association was observed between multiple adverse events and carrier status (HR = 2.5; 95% CI : 1.0–6.3, p = 0.04). However, no significant associations between genotypes and individual outcomes over the first 90 days of therapy were found. Conclusion The association of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes and risks for adverse events due to exposure to warfarin was examined for the first time in Puerto Ricans. Despite a lack of association with individual events in this study population, our findings revealed a potential utility of genotyping for the prevention of multiple adverse events during warfarin therapy. PMID:25244877

  4. Thromboembolic and Major Bleeding Events With Rivaroxaban Versus Warfarin Use in a Real-World Setting.

    PubMed

    Russo-Alvarez, Giavanna; Martinez, Kathryn A; Valente, Megan; Bena, James; Hu, Bo; Luxenburg, Jennifer; Chaitoff, Alexander; Ituarte, Catherine; Brateanu, Andrei; Rothberg, Michael B

    2018-01-01

    Although randomized trials demonstrate the noninferiority of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in the context of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF), little is known about how these drugs compare in practice. To assess the relative effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin in a large health system and to evaluate this association by time in therapeutic range (TTR). We conducted a retrospective cohort study with propensity matching in the Cleveland Clinic Health System. The study included patients initiated on warfarin or rivaroxaban for thromboembolic prevention in nonvalvular AF between January 2012 and July 2016. The main outcomes were thromboembolic events and major bleeds. Analyses were stratified by warfarin patients' TTR. The cohort consisted of 472 propensity-matched pairs. The mean age was 73.6 years (SD = 11.7), and the mean CHADS 2 score was 1.8. The median TTR for warfarin patients was 64%. In the propensity-matched analysis, there was no significant difference in thromboembolic or major bleeding events between groups. Among warfarin patients with a TTR <64% and their matched rivaroxaban pairs, there was also no significant difference in thromboembolic or major bleeding events. Under real-world conditions, warfarin and rivaroxaban were associated with similar safety and effectiveness, even among those with suboptimal therapeutic control. Individualized decision making, taking into account the nontherapeutic tradeoffs associated with these medications (eg, monitoring, half-life, cost) is warranted.

  5. VKORC1 polymorphisms and warfarin maintenance dose in population of Sakha (Yakuts).

    PubMed

    Chertovskikh, Y V; Malova, E U; Maksimova, N R; Popova, N V; Sychev, D A

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin K antagonists are effective in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders. Warfarin is one of the most widely prescribed vitamin K antagonists in the world [1, 2]. It has a narrow therapeutic range and a given dose may result in a large inter-individual variation of response. Insufficient dose may fail to prevent thromboembolism, while an overdose increases the risk of bleeding. Patient-specific factors (e.g., age, body size, race, concurrent diseases, and medications) explain some of the variability in warfarin dosage, but genetic factors influencing warfarin response explain a significantly higher proportion of this variability [3]. Molecular analysis of the gene that encodes the target enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) strongly suggests that its genetic variations greatly affect the individual response to oral anticoagulants [4-7]. To evaluate effects of VKORC1 polymorphisms on warfarin dose excess anticoagulation (INR >4.0) in the population of Sakha (S) patients. 53 patients (29-women, 24-men) with atrial fibrillation (68%), congestive heart failure (60%), hypertension (49%) and cardiac valve replacement (26%) were recruited. The age range was 26-80 years, with a mean age of 62.87 ± 12.57 years.International normalized ratio and plasma warfarin concentrations were determined. Genotyping was carried out by RT-PCR (real-time PCR). The three genetic polymorphisms of the gene VKORC1 G3673A (rs9923231) were studied: normal (GG), heterozygous (GA) and homozygous (AA). Fisher exact probability test and chi-square test (with Yates correction) were applied to compare data among the AA and GG + GA groups; also Mann-Whitney test was used. The median maintenance daily dose of warfarin among AA carriers was 3.0 mg/day [1.25-7.5 mg], while in GG and GA patients it was 3.13 mg/day [1.88-7.92 mg]. The mean daily warfarin dosage was higher in GG and GA genotype carriers 4.05 mg/day (SD ± 1.7) than in patients with AA genotype 3

  6. Abnormal vaginal bleeding in women with venous thromboembolism treated with apixaban or warfarin.

    PubMed

    Brekelmans, Marjolein P A; Scheres, Luuk J J; Bleker, Suzanne M; Hutten, Barbara A; Timmermans, Anne; Büller, Harry R; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2017-04-03

    Abnormal vaginal bleeding can complicate direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) treatment. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of abnormal vaginal bleeding in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) receiving apixaban or enoxaparin/warfarin. Data were derived from the AMPLIFY trial. We compared the incidence of abnormal vaginal bleeding between patients in both treatment arms and collected information on clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, management and outcomes. In the AMPLIFY trial, 1122 women were treated with apixaban and 1106 received enoxaparin/warfarin. A clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) vaginal bleeding occurred in 28 (2.5 %) apixaban and 24 (2.1 %) enoxaparin/warfarin recipients (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.7-2.0). Of all CRNM bleeds, 28 of 62 (45 %) and 24 of 120 (20 %) were of vaginal origin in the apixaban and enoxaparin/warfarin group, respectively (OR 3.4; 95 % CI 1.8-6.7). Premenopausal vaginal bleeds on apixaban were characterised by more prolonged bleeding (OR 2.3; 95 %CI 0.5-11). In both pre- and postmenopausal vaginal bleeds, diagnostic tests were performed in six (21 %) and in seven (29 %) apixaban and enoxaparin/warfarin treated patients, respectively. Medical treatment was deemed not necessary in 16 (57 %) apixaban and 16 (67 %) enoxaparin/warfarin recipients. The severity of clinical presentation and course of the bleeds was mild in 75 % of the cases in both groups. In conclusion, although the absolute number of vaginal bleeding events is comparable between apixaban and enoxaparin/warfarin recipients, the relative occurrence of vaginal bleeds is higher in apixaban-treated women. The characteristics and severity of bleeding episodes were comparable in both treatment arms.

  7. Safety Outcomes of Apixaban Compared With Warfarin in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Sarratt, Stefanie C; Nesbit, Ross; Moye, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Current guidelines make no specific recommendations on the selection of direct oral anticoagulants for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving hemodialysis. Based on these guidelines, warfarin remains the anticoagulant of choice in these patients. To compare bleeding rates in patients receiving apixaban or warfarin with ESRD undergoing chronic hemodialysis. This was a single-center, retrospective, institutional review board-approved cohort analysis. Patients with ESRD undergoing chronic hemodialysis and receiving anticoagulation therapy with either apixaban or warfarin were included in this study. All data were collected from paper charts and electronic medical records and included documentation of bleeding events and related interventions. The primary outcome of this study was clinically relevant major bleeding events. Secondary outcomes included clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events and minor bleeding events. A total of 160 patients were included in this study (warfarin group, n = 120; apixaban group, n = 40). There were 7 major bleeding events in the warfarin group compared with zero in the apixaban group ( P = 0.34). There were similar rates of clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events (12.5% vs 5.8%, P = 0.17) and minor bleeding (2.5% vs 2.5%, P = 0.74) events in patients receiving apixaban and warfarin. There were no observed differences in bleeding rates in patients receiving apixaban compared with those receiving warfarin. Apixaban may be a cautious consideration in hemodialysis patients until there is further insight into the effect of subsequent, multiple doses on drug accumulation and clinical outcomes.

  8. Warfarin monitoring in nursing homes assessed by case histories. Do recommendations and electronic alerts affect judgements?

    PubMed

    Teruel, Reyes Serrano; Thue, Geir; Fylkesnes, Svein Ivar; Sandberg, Sverre; Kristoffersen, Ann Helen

    2017-09-01

    Older adults treated with warfarin are prone to complications, and high-quality monitoring is essential. The aim of this case history based study was to assess the quality of warfarin monitoring in a routine situation, and in a situation with an antibiotic-warfarin interaction, before and after receiving an electronic alert. In April 2014, a national web-based survey with two case histories was distributed among Norwegian nursing home physicians and general practitioners working part-time in nursing homes. Case A represented a patient on stable warfarin treatment, but with a substantial INR increase within the therapeutic interval. Case B represented a more challenging patient with trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMS) treatment due to pyelonephritis. In both cases, the physicians were asked to state the next warfarin dose and the INR recall interval. In case B, the physicians could change their suggestions after receiving an electronic alert on the TMS-warfarin interaction. Three hundred and ninety eight physicians in 292 nursing homes responded. Suggested INR recall intervals and warfarin doses varied substantially in both cases. In case A, 61% gave acceptable answers according to published recommendations, while only 9% did so for case B. Regarding the TMS-warfarin interaction in case history B, the electronic alert increased the percentage of respondents correctly suggesting a dose reduction from 29% to 53%. Having an INR instrument in the nursing home was associated with shortened INR recall times. Practical advice on handling of warfarin treatment and drug interactions is needed. Electronic alerts as presented in electronic medical records seem insufficient to change practice. Availability of INR instruments may be important regarding recall time.

  9. Treatments for Reversing Warfarin Anticoagulation in Patients with Acute Intracranial Hemorrhage: A Structured Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-08

    available soon. Treatments for reversing warfarin anticoagulation in patients with acute intracranial hemorrhage: a structured literature review...DATE 08 JUL 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Treatments For Reversing Warfarin ...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES International Journal of Emergency Medicine 2011 14. ABSTRACT The acute management of patients on warfarin

  10. Vitamin K2 for the reversal of warfarin-related coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Hifumi, Toru; Takada, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Kenta; Hamaya, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Natsuyo; Abe, Yuko; Takano, Koshiro; Kawakita, Kenya; Hagiike, Masanobu; Koido, Yuichi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2015-08-01

    The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation recommends vitamin K1 for warfarin-related coagulopathy. In Japan, vitamin K2 is used more commonly for such purpose. The difference between vitamins K1 and K2 in reversing warfarin-related coagulopathy has not been discussed. Herein, we report a case that was reversed with vitamin K2; alterations in vitamins K1 and K2 levels and coagulation markers are also presented.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of apixaban versus warfarin and aspirin in Sweden for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lanitis, Tereza; Kongnakorn, Thitima; Jacobson, Lena; De Geer, Anna

    2014-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), one of the major risk factors for stroke, imposing a substantial burden to the Swedish health care system. Apixaban has demonstrated superiority to warfarin and aspirin in stroke prevention amongst patients with AF in two large randomised clinical trials. The aim of this study was to assess the economic implications of apixaban against warfarin and aspirin in these patients from a Swedish societal perspective. A Markov cohort model was constructed to characterise the consequences of anticoagulant treatment with regards to thromboembolic and bleeding events, as well as the associated health care costs, life-years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for patients with AF treated with apixaban, warfarin or aspirin. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) per QALY gained of apixaban relative to warfarin (among patients suitable for warfarin treatment) and aspirin (among patients unsuitable for warfarin treatment) were calculated. Costs (in 2011 SEKs) and QALYs were discounted at 3% per annum. The model estimated the ICER of apixaban versus warfarin amongst patients who are suitable for warfarin therapy to be SEK 33,458/QALY gained and that of apixaban versus aspirin amongst those unsuitable for warfarin therapy to be SEK 41,453/QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicate that apixaban is an optimal treatment option compared with warfarin and aspirin, when the willingness-to-pay is above SEK 35,000 and SEK 45,000 per QALY, respectively. Apixaban was found to be a cost-effective alternative to warfarin and aspirin for stroke prevention in patients with AF in Sweden. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Rivaroxaban vs. warfarin in Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation – the J-ROCKET AF study –.

    PubMed

    Hori, Masatsugu; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Tanahashi, Norio; Momomura, Shin-ichi; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Goto, Shinya; Izumi, Tohru; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Kajikawa, Mariko; Kato, Masaharu; Ueda, Hitoshi; Iwamoto, Kazuya; Tajiri, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    The global ROCKET AF study evaluated once-daily rivaroxaban vs. warfarin for stroke and systemic embolism prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). A separate trial, J-ROCKET AF, compared the safety of a Japan-specific rivaroxaban dose with warfarin administered according to Japanese guidelines in Japanese patients with AF. J-ROCKET AF was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, phase III trial. Patients (n=1,280) with non-valvular AF at increased risk for stroke were randomized to receive 15 mg once-daily rivaroxaban or warfarin dose-adjusted according to Japanese guidelines. The primary objective was to determine non-inferiority of rivaroxaban against warfarin for the principal safety outcome of major and non-major clinically relevant bleeding, in the on-treatment safety population. The primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of stroke and systemic embolism. Non-inferiority of rivaroxaban to warfarin was confirmed; the rate of the principal safety outcome was 18.04% per year in rivaroxaban-treated patients and 16.42% per year in warfarin-treated patients (hazard ratio [HR] 1.11; 95% confidence interval 0.87-1.42; P<0.001 [non-inferiority]). Intracranial hemorrhage rates were 0.8% with rivaroxaban and 1.6% with warfarin. There was a strong trend for a reduction in the rate of stroke/systemic embolism with rivaroxaban vs. warfarin (HR, 0.49; P=0.050). J-ROCKET AF demonstrated the safety of a Japan-specific rivaroxaban dose and supports bridging the global ROCKET AF results into Japanese clinical practice.

  13. Vitamin K for improved anticoagulation control in patients receiving warfarin.

    PubMed

    Mahtani, Kamal R; Heneghan, Carl J; Nunan, David; Roberts, Nia W

    2014-05-15

    Effective use of warfarin involves keeping the international normalised ratio (INR) within a relatively narrow therapeutic range. However, patients respond widely to their dose of warfarin. Overcoagulation can lead to an increased risk of excessive bleeding, while undercoagulation can lead to increased clot formation. There is some evidence that patients with a variable response to warfarin may benefit from a concomitant low dose of vitamin K. To assess the effects of concomitant supplementation of low-dose oral vitamin K for anticoagulation control in patients being initiated on or taking a maintenance dose of warfarin. To identify previous reviews, we searched the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE via The Cochrane Library, Wiley) (Issue 2, 2011). To identify primary studies, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL via The Cochrane Library, Wiley) (Issue 2, 2014), Ovid MEDLINE (R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations database and Ovid MEDLINE (R) (OvidSP) (1946 to 25 February 2014), Embase (OvidSP) (1974 to week 8 of 2014), Science Citation Index Expanded™ & Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (Web of Science™) (1945 to 27 February 2014), and the NHS Economics Evaluations Database (NHS EED) (via The Cochrane Library, Wiley) (Issue 2, 2014). We did not apply any language or date restrictions. We used additional methods to identify grey literature and ongoing studies. Randomised controlled trials comparing the addition of vitamin K versus placebo in patients initiating warfarin or already taking warfarin. Two review authors independently selected and extracted data from included studies. When disagreement arose, a third author helped reached a consensus. We also assessed risk of bias. We identified two studies with a total of 100 participants for inclusion in the review. We found the overall risk of bias to be unclear in a number of domains. Neither study reported the time taken to the first INR in

  14. Apixaban Versus Warfarin for Mechanical Heart Valve Thromboprophylaxis in a Swine Aortic Heterotopic Valve Model.

    PubMed

    Lester, Patrick A; Coleman, Dawn M; Diaz, Jose A; Jackson, Tatum O; Hawley, Angela E; Mathues, Angela R; Grant, Brandon T; Knabb, Robert M; Ramacciotti, Eduardo; Frost, Charles E; Song, Yan; Wakefield, Thomas W; Myers, Daniel D

    2017-05-01

    Warfarin is the current standard for oral anticoagulation therapy in patients with mechanical heart valves, yet optimal therapy to maximize anticoagulation and minimize bleeding complications requires routine coagulation monitoring, possible dietary restrictions, and drug interaction monitoring. As alternatives to warfarin, oral direct acting factor Xa inhibitors are currently approved for the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism and reduction of stroke and systemic embolization. However, no in vivo preclinical or clinical studies have been performed directly comparing oral factor Xa inhibitors such as apixaban to warfarin, the current standard of therapy. A well-documented heterotopic aortic valve porcine model was used to test the hypothesis that apixaban has comparable efficacy to warfarin for thromboprophylaxis of mechanical heart valves. Sixteen swine were implanted with a bileaflet mechanical aortic valve that bypassed the ligated descending thoracic aorta. Animals were randomized to 4 groups: control (no anticoagulation; n=4), apixaban oral 1 mg/kg twice a day (n=5), warfarin oral 0.04 to 0.08 mg/kg daily (international normalized ratio 2-3; n=3), and apixaban infusion (n=4). Postmortem valve thrombus was measured 30 days post-surgery for control-oral groups and 14 days post-surgery for the apixaban infusion group. Control thrombus weight (mean) was significantly different (1422.9 mg) compared with apixaban oral (357.5 mg), warfarin (247.1 mg), and apixiban 14-day infusion (61.1 mg; P <0.05). Apixaban is a promising candidate and may be a useful alternative to warfarin for thromboprophylaxis of mechanical heart valves. Unlike warfarin, no adverse bleeding events were observed in any apixaban groups. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Warfarin Use in Hemodialysis Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review of Stroke and Bleeding Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chieh; Marcus, Laura Quinn; Patel, Priya; Battistella, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Given the lack of clear indications for the use of warfarin in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients on hemodialysis and the potential risks that accompany warfarin use in these patients, we systematically reviewed stroke and bleeding outcomes in hemodialysis patients treated with warfarin for AF. Objective: To systematically review the stroke and bleeding outcomes associated with warfarin use in the hemodialysis population to treat AF. Design: Systematic review. Setting: All adult hemodialysis patients. Patients: Patients on hemodialysis receiving warfarin for the management of AF. Measurements: Any type of stroke and/or bleeding outcomes. Methods: MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and MEDLINE(R) via OVID (1946 to January 11, 2017), and EMBASE via OVID (1974 to January 11, 2017) were searched for relevant literature. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series in English that examined stroke and bleeding outcomes in adult population of patients (over 18 years old) who are on hemodialysis and taking warfarin for AF. Studies with less than 10 subjects, case reports, review articles, and editorials were excluded. Quality of selected articles was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Results: Of the 2340 titles and abstracts screened, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Two studies showed an association between warfarin use and an increased risk of stroke (Hazard Ratio: 1.93-3.36) but no association with an increased risk of bleed (HR: 0.85-1.04), while 4 studies showed no association between warfarin and stroke outcomes (HR: 0.12-1.17) but identified an association between warfarin and increased bleeding outcome (HR: 1.41-3.96). And 1 study reported neither beneficial nor harmful effects associated with warfarin use. Limitations: The major limitation to this review is that the 7 included studies were observational cohort studies, and thus the outcome measures were not

  16. Rivaroxaban vs. warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Darby-Stewart, Andrea; Dachs, Robert; Graber, Mark A

    2012-03-15

    Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and a CHADS2 score of 2 points or more should be placed on warfarin anticoagulation. If they do not meet the CHADS2 criteria for warfarin, then they should receive therapy with aspirin. If a patient's condition is well-controlled on warfarin, this study does not support transitioning him or her to rivaroxaban, the more expensive alternative. Home monitoring of INR should be considered for patients who are capable and motivated to perform self-monitoring. Rivaroxaban has no reversal agent and has significant drug interactions (P-glycoprotein inducers and CYP3A4 inhibitors increase the risk of bleeding; P-glycoprotein inducers reduce effectiveness).

  17. Educating patients about warfarin therapy using information technology: A survey on healthcare professionals’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Nasser, Sayeed; Mullan, Judy; Bajorek, Beata

    Objective To explore healthcare professionals' views about the benefits and challenges of using information technology (IT) resources for educating patients about their warfarin therapy. Methods A cross-sectional survey of both community and hospital-based healthcare professionals (e.g., doctors, pharmacists and nurses) involved using a purpose-designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were distributed using a multi-modal approach to maximise response rates. Results Of the total 300 questionnaires distributed, 109 completed surveys were received (43.3% response rate). Over half (53.2%) of the healthcare participants were aged between 40-59 years, the majority (59.5%) of whom were female. Fifty nine (54.1%) participants reported having had no access to warfarin-specific IT-based patient education resources, and a further 19 (38.0%) of the participants who had IT-access reported that they never used such resources. According to the healthcare participants, the main challenges associated with educating their patients about warfarin therapy included: patient-related factors, such as older age, language barriers, cognitive impairments and/or ethnic backgrounds or healthcare professional factors, such as time constraints. The healthcare professionals reported that there were several aspects about warfarin therapy which they found difficult to educate their patients about which is why they identified computers and interactive touch screen kiosks as preferred IT devices to deliver warfarin education resources in general practices, hospital-based clinics and community pharmacies. At the same time, the healthcare professionals also identified a number of facilitators (e.g., to reinforce warfarin education, to offer reliable and easily comprehensible information) and barriers (e.g., time and costs of using IT resources, difficulty in operating the resources) that could impact on the effective implementation of these devices in educating patients about their warfarin therapy

  18. Predictors of warfarin use in atrial fibrillation in the United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite warfarin's marked efficacy, not all eligible patients receive it for stroke prevention in AF. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between prescriber and/or patient characteristics and subsequent prescription of warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods Observational studies conducted in the US using multivariate analysis to determine the relationship between characteristics and the odds of receiving warfarin for stroke prevention were identified in MEDLINE, EMBASE and a manual review of references. Effect estimates of prescriber and/or patient characteristics from individual studies were pooled to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. Results Twenty-eight studies reporting results of 33 unique multivariate analyses were identified. Warfarin use across studies ranged from 9.1%-79.8% (median = 49.1%). There was a moderately-strong correlation between warfarin use and year of study (r = 0.60, p = 0.002). Upon meta-analysis, characteristics associated with a statistically significant increase in the odds of warfarin use included history of cerebrovascular accident (OR = 1.59), heart failure (OR = 1.36), and male gender (OR = 1.12). Those associated with a significant reduction in the odds of warfarin use included alcohol/drug abuse (OR = 0.62), perceived barriers to compliance (OR = 0.87), contraindication(s) to warfarin (OR = 0.81), dementia (OR = 0.32), falls (OR = 0.60), gastrointestinal hemorrhage (OR = 0.47), intracranial hemorrhage (OR = 0.39), hepatic (OR = 0.59), and renal impairment (OR = 0.69). While age per 10-year increase (OR = 0.78) and advancing age as a dichotomized variable (cut-off varied by study) (OR = 0.57) were associated with significant reductions in warfarin use; qualitative review of results of studies evaluating age as a categorical variable did not confirm this relationship. Conclusions Warfarin use has increased somewhat over time. The

  19. Evaluation of the clinical and economic impact of a brand name-to-generic warfarin sodium conversion program.

    PubMed

    Witt, Daniel M; Tillman, Donald J; Evans, Christy M; Plotkin, Tatyana V; Sadler, Melanie A

    2003-03-01

    Substitution of generic warfarin initially was discouraged because of concerns regarding therapeutic failure or toxicity. Although subsequent research with AB-rated (i.e., bioequivalent) warfarin did not confirm initial concerns, the issue is not settled for all clinicians. We sought to provide additional information regarding the clinical and economic impact of warfarin conversion by analyzing a real-life sample of patients receiving long-term anticoagulation therapy who were switched from brand name to generic warfarin. Patients who had been taking warfarin for at least 180 days and had received uninterrupted oral anticoagulation 90 days before and 90 days after switching to generic warfarin were included. The switch date was based on the first time generic warfarin was dispensed from our pharmacies. The primary end point was the calculated amount of time each patient's international normalized ratio (INR) values were within the patient-specific target INR range in the 90 days before and after the switch. Data regarding adverse events and medical resource utilization were also collected. Pharmacoeconomic analyses were performed. The analysis included 2299 patients. The overall difference in calculated time INR values were below (22.6% before vs 26.1% after switch, p<0.0001) and within (65.9% before vs 63.3% after switch, p=0.0002) the therapeutic INR range was statistically but not clinically significant. Only 28.0% of patients experienced a change in therapeutic INR control of 10% or less, 33.1% experienced INR control that improved by greater than 10%, and 38.9% experienced INR control that worsened by more than 10%. The difference in total treatment costs associated with brand name and generic warfarin was 3128 dollars/100 patient-years in favor of the generic product. Sensitivity analyses revealed that cost savings associated with warfarin conversion in this health care system were highly dependent on the difference between warfarin costs and cost of treating

  20. Direct oral anticoagulants compared with warfarin in patients with severe blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Feeney, James M; Neulander, Matthew; DiFiori, Monica; Kis, Lilla; Shapiro, David S; Jayaraman, Vijay; Marshall, William T; Montgomery, Stephanie C

    2017-01-01

    We queried our Trauma Quality Improvement Program registry for patients who presented between 6/1/2011 and 9/1/2015 with severe (injury severity score (ISS)>15) blunt traumatic injury during anticoagulant use. Patients were then grouped into those prescribed warfarin and patients prescribed any of the available novel Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOAC) medications. We excluded severe (AIS≧4) head injuries. There were no differences between DOAC and warfarin groups in terms of age, gender mean ISS, median hospital or intensive care unit lengths of stay, complication proportions, numbers of complications per patient, or the proportion of patients requiring transfusion. Finally, excluding patients who died, the observed proportion of discharge to skilled nursing facility was similar. In our sample of trauma patients, DOAC use was associated with significantly lower mortality (DOAC group 8.3% vs. warfarin group 29.5%, p<0.015). The ratio of units transfused per patient was also lower in the DOAC group (2.8±1.8 units/patient in the DOAC group vs. 6.7±6.4 units per patient in the warfarin group; p=0.001). In conclusion, we report an association with decrease in mortality and a decrease in transfused blood products in severely injured trauma patients with likely minimal or no head injury taking novel DOACs over those anticoagulated with warfarin for outpatient anticoagulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extended International Normalized Ratio testing intervals for warfarin-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G D; Kong, X; Cole, D; Haymart, B; Kline-Rogers, E; Almany, S; Dahu, M; Ekola, M; Kaatz, S; Kozlowski, J; Froehlich, J B

    2018-05-15

    Essentials Warfarin typically requires International Normalized Ratio (INR) testing at least every 4 weeks. We implemented extended INR testing for stable warfarin patients in six anticoagulation clinics. Use of extended INR testing increased from 41.8% to 69.3% over the 3 year study. Use of extended INR testing appeared safe and effective. Background A previous single-center randomized trial suggested that patients with stable International Normalized Ratio (INR) values could safely receive INR testing as infrequently as every 12 weeks. Objective To test the success of implementation of an extended INR testing interval for stable warfarin patients in a practice-based, multicenter collaborative of anticoagulation clinics. Methods At six anticoagulation clinics, patients were identified as being eligible for extended INR testing on the basis of prior INR value stability and minimal warfarin dose changes between 2014 and 2016. We assessed the frequency with which anticoagulation clinic providers recommended an extended INR testing interval (> 5 weeks) to eligible patients. We also explored safety outcomes for eligible patients, including next INR values, bleeding events, and emergency department visits. Results At least one eligible period for extended INR testing was identified in 890 of 3362 (26.5%) warfarin-treated patients. Overall, the use of extended INR testing in eligible patients increased from 41.8% in the first quarter of 2014 to 69.3% in the fourth quarter of 2016. The number of subsequent out-of-range next INR values were similar between eligible patients who did and did not have an extended INR testing interval (27.3% versus 28.4%, respectively). The numbers of major bleeding events were not different between the two groups, but rates of clinically relevant non-major bleeding (0.02 per 100 patient-years versus 0.09 per 100 patient-years) and emergency department visits (0.07 per 100 patient-years versus 0.19 per 100 patient-years) were lower for

  2. Comparison of the therapeutic dose of warfarin in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients: a study of clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, B S; Mokoena, T

    2017-01-01

    Background People infected with HIV are prone to venous thrombosis. Treatment of thrombosis is primarily with warfarin. No studies have addressed the effects of HIV infection on warfarin dose. The aims of this study were to determine whether the therapeutic dose of warfarin and induction time to therapeutic dose in HIV-infected patients differ from that in HIV-uninfected patients. Methods A prospective and retrospective descriptive study of induction time to therapeutic warfarin dose, as well as of ambulant therapeutic warfarin dose, was performed. HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients being treated after deep venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism were compared. Sex and use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) were also compared in the groups. Results 234 patients were entered into the study. Induction time to therapeutic warfarin dose did not differ between the 2 groups. The mean therapeutic dose of warfarin was higher in the HIV-infected than the HIV-uninfected group: 6.06 vs 5.72 mg/day, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.29). There was no difference in therapeutic warfarin dose between ARV-naïve groups—HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected patients not on ARVs. Conclusions There appears to be little effect of HIV infection on warfarin dosing. Warfarin therapy should be administered conventionally in HIV-infected patients. PMID:28179414

  3. [Comparison of quality and hemorragic risk of oral anticoagulant therapy using acenocoumarol versus warfarin].

    PubMed

    Oliva Berini, Elvira; Galán Alvarez, Pilar; Pacheco Onrubia, Ana María

    2008-06-21

    Long half life oral anticoagulants have shown a higher anticoagulation stability and a lower hemorragic risk than those of a short half life. We have compared therapeutic stability and hemorragic risk of acenocoumarol versus warfarin in 2 groups of patients on preventive anticoagulation because of atrial fibrilation (international normalised ratio [INR]: 2-3). Data on 120 patients treated with acenocoumarol and 120 on warfarin treatment who had started and continued treatment in our hospital for a minimum of a year was collected. The percentage of visits within the intended range of INR (2 to 3) was 65.5% with warfarin and 63.4% with acenocoumarol. Thirty percent of patients on warfarin had 75% or more of their controls within range, while for those treated with acenocoumarol this percentage was 22.5%. In the acenocoumarol group, 0.3 visits/patient/year presented an INR > or = 6 versus 0.07 in the warfarin group (p = 0.003). Patients treated with acenocoumarol show a higher risk of presenting with an INR > or = 6, but no statistically significant differences are observed in therapeutic stability.

  4. Association of Proton Pump Inhibitors with Reduced Risk of Warfarin-related Serious Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Wayne A.; Chung, Cecilia P.; Murray, Katherine T.; Smalley, Walter E.; Daugherty, James R.; Dupont, William D.; Stein, C. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) might reduce the risk of serious warfarin-related upper gastrointestinal bleeding, but the evidence of their efficacy for this indication is limited. A gastroprotective effect of PPIs would be particularly important for patients who take warfarin with antiplatelet drugs or nonselective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which further increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods This retrospective cohort study of patients beginning warfarin treatment in Tennessee Medicaid and the 5% National Medicare Sample identified 97,430 new episodes of warfarin treatment with 75,720 person-years of follow up. The study endpoints were hospitalizations for upper gastrointestinal bleeding potentially preventable by PPIs and for bleeding at other sites. Results Patients who took warfarin without PPI co-therapy had 119 hospitalizations for upper gastrointestinal bleeding per 10,000 person-years of treatment. The risk decreased by 24% among patients who received PPI co-therapy (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63–0.91). There was no significant reduction in the risk of other gastrointestinal bleeding hospitalizations (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.94–1.22) or non-gastrointestinal bleeding hospitalizations (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84–1.15) in this group. Among patients concurrently using antiplatelet drugs or NSAIDs, those without PPI co-therapy had 284 upper gastrointestinal bleeding hospitalizations per 10,000 person-years of warfarin treatment. The risk decreased by 45% (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.39–0.77) with PPI co-therapy. PPI co-therapy had no significant protective effect for warfarin patients not using antiplatelet drugs or NSAIDs (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.70-1.06). Findings were similar in both study populations. Conclusions In an analysis of patients beginning warfarin treatment in Tennessee Medicaid and the 5% National Medicare Sample, PPI co-therapy was associated with reduced risk of warfarin-related upper

  5. Ximelagatran compared with warfarin for the prevention of systemic embolism and stroke. An imputed placebo analysis.

    PubMed

    Berry, Colin; Norrie, John; McMurray, John J V

    2005-03-01

    The active control trials, SPORTIF III and SPORTIF V, compared the direct thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran to warfarin, where each was given as a treatment to prevent systemic embolism and stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Because warfarin has previously been compared to placebo in similar patients and ximelagatran has now been compared to warfarin, an indirect comparison between ximelagatran and placebo is possible (imputed placebo analysis). In this analysis, ximelagatran reduces the risk of stroke and systemic embolism by 66% (hazard ratio 0.338; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.204-0.560). Ximelagatran preserves 102% (95% CI 72-132%) of the benefit of warfarin. Based on these data, ximelagatran may be an effective alternative to warfarin for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation.

  6. Effects of VKORC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Warfarin Maintenance Dose Requirement in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaojuan; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Hanyun; Zhang, Hongshen; Liu, Jianfei; Ma, Kezhong; Li, Yi; Zhu, Jun; Ding, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background VKORC1 is reported to be capable of treating several diseases with thrombotic risk, such as cardiac valve replacement. Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VKORC1 are documented to be associated with clinical differences in warfarin maintenance dose. This study explored the correlations of VKORC1–1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G genetic polymorphisms with warfarin maintenance dose requirement in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement. Material/Methods A total of 298 patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement were recruited. During follow-up, clinical data were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied to detect VKORC1–1639 G/A, 1173 C/T and 497 T/G polymorphisms, and genotypes were analyzed. Results Correlations between warfarin maintenance dose and baseline characteristics revealed statistical significances of age, gender and operation methods with warfarin maintenance dose (all P<0.05). Warfarin maintenance dose in VKORC1–1639 G/A AG + GG carriers was obviously higher than in AA carriers (P<0.001). As compared with patients with TT genotype in VKORC1 1173 C/T, warfarin maintenance dose was apparently higher in patients with CT genotype (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed that gender, operation method, method for heart valve replacement, as well as VKORC1–1639 G/A and 1173 C/T gene polymorphisms were significantly related to warfarin maintenance dose (all P<0.05). Conclusions VKORC1 gene polymorphisms are key genetic factors to affect individual differences in warfarin maintenance dose in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement; meanwhile, gender, operation method and method for heart valve replacement might also be correlate with warfarin maintenance dose. PMID:26583785

  7. Genetic polymorphisms are associated with variations in warfarin maintenance dose in Han Chinese patients with venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wei-Juan; Zhu, Jin; Kong, Fan-Cui; Li, Yan-Yan; Wang, He-Yao; Yang, Yuan-Hua; Wang, Chen

    2012-02-01

    Warfarin is a clinical anticoagulant that requires periodic monitoring because it is associated with adverse outcomes. Personalized medicine, which is based on pharmacogenetics, holds great promise in solving these types of problems. It aims to provide the tools and knowledge to tailor drug therapy to an individual patient, with the potential of increasing safety and efficacy of medications. In the present study we analyzed genotypes of 14 SNPs for seven genes using DNA from 297 Han Chinese venous thromboembolism patients treated with warfarin. Multiple regression analyses revealed that CYP2C9 genotype (p = 0.001), VKORC1 genotype (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.01) and weight (p < 0.001) were all associated with warfarin dose requirements, which can explain 37.4% of the variability of warfarin dose among Han Chinese patients. Meanwhile, in the validation cohort, the predicted warfarin daily dose was calculated using the best model with a 64.5% predicted dose being acceptable (-1 mg/day ≤Δwarfarin dose ≤1 mg/day). We developed a pharmacogenetic dose algorithm for warfarin treatment that uses genotypes from two genes (VKORC1 and CYP2C9) and clinical variables to predict therapeutic maintenance doses in Chinese patients with venous thromboembolism. The validity of the dosing algorithm was confirmed in a cohort of venous thromboembolism patients on warfarin therapy.

  8. Safety and Efficacy of Uninterrupted Apixaban Therapy Versus Warfarin During Atrial Fibrillation Ablation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ruchit R; Pillai, Ajay; Schafer, Pascha; Meggo, David; McElderry, Tom; Plumb, Vance; Yamada, Takumi; Kumar, Vineet; Doppalapudi, Harish; Gunter, Alicia; Pentecost, Emily; Maddox, William R

    2017-08-01

    Thromboembolic cerebrovascular accident remains a rare but potentially devastating complication of catheter-based atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. Uninterrupted oral anticoagulant therapy with warfarin has become the standard of care when performing catheter-based AF ablation. Compared with warfarin, apixaban, a factor Xa inhibitor, has been shown to reduce the risk of stroke and major bleeding in nonvalvular AF. With an increase in apixaban use for stroke prophylaxis in patients with AF, there is an increased interest in the safety and efficacy of uninterrupted apixaban therapy during AF ablation. We compared the safety and efficacy of uninterrupted OA therapy with either warfarin or apixaban in all patients who underwent catheter-based AF ablation at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and at Augusta University Medical Center from January 7, 2013, to February 25, 2016. All patients underwent a transesophageal echocardiogram on the day of their ablation to assess for the presence of intracardiac thrombi. All complications were identified and classified as bleeding, thromboembolic events, or other. A total of 627 patients were analyzed as described earlier. There were 310 patients in the warfarin group and 317 patients in the apixaban group. There were 8 complications in the warfarin group and 5 complications in the apixaban group (p = 0.38). There were no thromboembolic complications in either group. In conclusion, the use of apixaban is as safe and effective as warfarin for uninterrupted OA therapy during catheter-based ablation of AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Warfarin Personalized Dosage: Re-compounding for a More Suitable Therapy and Better Compliance.

    PubMed

    Pellagatti, Tommaso; Ternelli, Marco; Frascio, Davide; Bettini, Ruggero

    2017-01-01

    Warfarin is still the most prescribed oral anticoagulant prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic events such as stroke, heart attack, embolism, and deep vein thrombosis. It is administered orally in the form of sodium salt as a tablet with a typical strength of 5 mg. The molecule has a narrow therapeutic index. As a consequence, the dosage must be individualized for each patient based on the patient response in terms of time of coagulation. Thus, warfarin represents an example of a drug whose dose needs to be tailored to individual requirements that are often changing and, therefore, constitute a paramount illustration of personalized medicine. The aim of the present work was to investigate to what extent the manual division of a warfarin tablet by the patient represents an issue in terms of dose accuracy and precision. A second goal was to demonstrate that possible problems stemming from the manual division of the warfarin tablet could be overcome by compounding a solid dosage form (e.g., a capsule) starting from the commercially available warfarin product. The results of the present study put into evidence the great inhomogeneity and discrepancy from the target dose obtained when commercially available warfarin tablets are manually divided in four parts. This represents a potential source of inefficacy of the anticoagulant activity, with increased risk of either bleeding or thromboembolic events. The proposed solution is effective and yet simple and economically affordable, in particular considering the cost of the possible hospitalizations related to therapy failure. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  10. Apixaban vs. warfarin with concomitant aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial.

    PubMed

    Alexander, John H; Lopes, Renato D; Thomas, Laine; Alings, Marco; Atar, Dan; Aylward, Philip; Goto, Shinya; Hanna, Michael; Huber, Kurt; Husted, Steen; Lewis, Basil S; McMurray, John J V; Pais, Prem; Pouleur, Hubert; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Verheugt, Freek W A; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Granger, Christopher B; Wallentin, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the effect of concomitant aspirin use on the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In ARISTOTLE, 18 201 patients were randomized to apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin. Concomitant aspirin use was left to the discretion of the treating physician. In this predefined analysis, simple and marginal structured models were used to adjust for baseline and time-dependent confounders associated with aspirin use. Outcome measures included stroke or systemic embolism, ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction, mortality, major bleeding, haemorrhagic stroke, major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding, and any bleeding. On Day 1, 4434 (24%) patients were taking aspirin. Irrespective of concomitant aspirin use, apixaban reduced stroke or systemic embolism [with aspirin: apixaban 1.12% vs. warfarin 1.91%, hazard ratio (HR) 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.85 vs. without aspirin: apixaban 1.11% vs. warfarin 1.32%, HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.66-1.07; P interaction = 0.10] and caused less major bleeding than warfarin (with aspirin: apixaban 3.10% vs. warfarin 3.92%, HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.60-0.99 vs. without aspirin: apixaban 1.82% vs. warfarin 2.78%, HR without aspirin 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.78; P interaction = 0.29). Similar results were seen in the subgroups of patients with and without arterial vascular disease. Apixaban had similar beneficial effects on stroke or systemic embolism and major bleeding compared with warfarin, irrespective of concomitant aspirin use.

  11. Medication persistence and discontinuation of rivaroxaban versus warfarin among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Winnie W; Song, Xue; Coleman, Craig I; Thomson, Erin; Smith, David M; Damaraju, C V; Schein, Jeffrey R

    2014-12-01

    To compare real-world persistence and discontinuation among non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients on rivaroxaban and warfarin in the US. A large nationally representative US claims database was used to conduct a retrospective cohort analysis of patients with NVAF treated with rivaroxaban or warfarin from 1 July 2010 through 31 March 2013. Index date was the date of the first prescription of rivaroxaban or warfarin. All patients were followed until the earliest of inpatient death, end of continuous enrollment, or end of study period. Rivaroxaban patients were matched 1:1 by propensity scores. Medication persistence was defined as absence of refill gap of ≥ 60 days. Discontinuation was defined as no additional refill for at least 90 days and until the end of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were estimated to examine the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of rivaroxaban vs. warfarin on non-persistence and discontinuation. A total of 32,886 NVAF patients on rivaroxaban or warfarin met the study inclusion criteria. Each of the 7259 rivaroxaban patients identified were matched 1:1 to warfarin patients. Patients on rivaroxaban had a significantly better rate of persistence (aHR: 0.63, 95% CI 0.59-0.68) and lower rate of discontinuation (aHR: 0.54, 95% CI 0.49-0.58) compared to warfarin recipients. Claims data may have contained inaccuracies and miscoding. Confounding may remain even after propensity score matching and additional adjustments in model. Refill data may not fully reflect actual medication use. Longer follow-up may produce more precise estimates of persistence and discontinuation. This matched cohort analysis indicated that rivaroxaban was associated with significantly higher medication persistence and lower discontinuation rates compared to warfarin.

  12. Locations and Mucosal Lesions Responsible for Major Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients on Warfarin or Dabigatran.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Jennifer M; Flack, Kathryn Friedman; Chatterjee-Murphy, Prapti; Desai, Jay; Wallentin, Lars C; Ezekowitz, Michael; Connolly, Stuart; Reilly, Paul; Brueckmann, Martina; Ilgenfritz, John; Aisenberg, James

    2018-03-27

    Different oral anticoagulants may be associated with gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) from different locations or mucosal lesions. We aimed to test this hypothesis. Two blinded gastroenterologists independently analyzed source documents from the randomized evaluation of long-term anticoagulant therapy (RE-LY) trial of dabigatran 150 mg BID (D150), dabigatran 110 mg BID (D110) versus warfarin in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Major GIB events (total n = 546) and life-threatening GIB events (n = 258) were more common with D150 versus warfarin (RR 1.57 [1.28-1.92] and RR 1.62 [1.20-2.18], respectively) and similar for D110 compared to warfarin (RR 1.11 [0.89-1.38] and RR 1.16 [0.84-1.61], respectively). Fatal bleeding was similarly rare across treatment groups. Lower GI major bleeding and life-threatening bleeding were more common with D150 compared to warfarin (RR 2.23 [1.47, 3.38] and RR 2.64 [1.36, 5.13], respectively) and with D110 compared to warfarin (RR 1.78 [1.16, 2.75] and RR 2.00 [1.00, 4.00], respectively). MGIB from colonic angiodysplasia was increased with dabigatran versus warfarin (P < 0.01 for both dose comparisons). Subacute and chronic MGIB events were more common with D150 than with warfarin (RR 1.72 [1.06, 2.78] and RR 1.66 [1.12, 2.45], respectively), as were hematochezia or melena (RR 1.67 [1.18, 2.36] and RR 1.72 [1.20, 2.47], respectively). In a chronic NVAF population, D150 but not D110 is associated with increased major and life-threatening GI bleeding in comparison with warfarin. At both dabigatran doses, increased bleeding from the colorectum, in particular from angiodysplasia, is seen.

  13. In-hospital management and outcome of patients on warfarin undergoing coronary stent implantation: results of the multicenter, prospective WARfarin and coronary STENTing (WAR-STENT) registry.

    PubMed

    Rubboli, Andrea; Sciahbasi, Alessandro; Briguori, Carlo; Saia, Francesco; Palmieri, Cataldo; Moroni, Luigi Andrea; Calabrò, Paolo; Leone, Antonio Maria; Franco, Nicoletta; Valgimigli, Marco; Varani, Elisabetta; Santi, Michela; Pasqualini, Paola; Capecchi, Alessandro; Piccalò, Giacomo; Margheri, Massimo; di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Galvani, Marcello; Bolognese, Leonardo; Gonzini, Lucio; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro

    2013-04-01

    The in-hospital management of patients on warfarin undergoing coronary stent implantation (PCI-S) is variable, and the in-hospital outcome incompletely defined. To determine the adherence to the current recommendations, and the incidence of adverse events, we carried out the prospective, multicenter, observational WARfarin and coronary STENTing (WAR-STENT) registry (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00722319). All consecutive patients on warfarin undergoing PCI-S at 37 Italian centers were enrolled and followed for 12 months. Outcome measures were: major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, need for urgent revascularization, stroke, and venous thromboembolism, and major and minor bleeding. In this paper, we report the in-hospital findings. Out of the 411 patients enrolled, 92% were at non-low (ie, moderate or high) thromboembolic risk. The radial approach and bare-metal stents were used in 61% and 60% of cases, respectively. Drug-eluting stents were essentially reserved to patients with diabetes, which in turn, significantly predicted the implantation of drug-eluting stents (odds ratio [OR], 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-3.17; P=.002). The in-hospital MACE and major bleeding rates were 2.7% and 2.1%, respectively. At discharge, triple therapy (TT) of warfarin, aspirin, and clopidogrel was prescribed to 76% of patients. Prescription of TT was significantly more frequent in the non-low thromboembolic risk group. Non-low thromboembolic risk, in turn, was a significant predictor of TT prescription (OR, 11.2; 95% CI, 4.83-26.3; P<.0001). In conclusion, real-world warfarin patients undergoing PCI-S are largely managed according to the current recommendations. As a consequence, the risk of in-hospital MACE and major bleedings appears limited and acceptable.

  14. Predicting prolonged dose titration in patients starting warfarin.

    PubMed

    Finkelman, Brian S; French, Benjamin; Bershaw, Luanne; Brensinger, Colleen M; Streiff, Michael B; Epstein, Andrew E; Kimmel, Stephen E

    2016-11-01

    Patients initiating warfarin therapy generally experience a dose-titration period of weeks to months, during which time they are at higher risk of both thromboembolic and bleeding events. Accurate prediction of prolonged dose titration could help clinicians determine which patients might be better treated by alternative anticoagulants that, while more costly, do not require dose titration. A prediction model was derived in a prospective cohort of patients starting warfarin (n = 390), using Cox regression, and validated in an external cohort (n = 663) from a later time period. Prolonged dose titration was defined as a dose-titration period >12 weeks. Predictor variables were selected using a modified best subsets algorithm, using leave-one-out cross-validation to reduce overfitting. The final model had five variables: warfarin indication, insurance status, number of doctor's visits in the previous year, smoking status, and heart failure. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) in the derivation cohort was 0.66 (95%CI 0.60, 0.74) using leave-one-out cross-validation, but only 0.59 (95%CI 0.54, 0.64) in the external validation cohort, and varied across clinics. Including genetic factors in the model did not improve the area under the ROC curve (0.59; 95%CI 0.54, 0.65). Relative utility curves indicated that the model was unlikely to provide a clinically meaningful benefit compared with no prediction. Our results suggest that prolonged dose titration cannot be accurately predicted in warfarin patients using traditional clinical, social, and genetic predictors, and that accurate prediction will need to accommodate heterogeneities across clinical sites and over time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Administrative claims analysis of the relationship between warfarin use and risk of hemorrhage including drug-drug and drug-disease interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kui; Young, Christopher; Berger, Jan

    2006-10-01

    Despite the risk of hemorrhage, warfarin is the most commonly used oral anticoagulant today, both as monotherapy and when taken in combination with selected drugs. Warfarin is used most commonly for irregular heartbeat, after a heart attack, and after joint or heart valve replacement surgery. To evaluate the relative risk of hemorrhage in health plan members who received warfarin concomitant with a drug known to cause an interaction or after diagnosis of liver disease or heart failure (HF). A cohort study sample was drawn from an administrative database comprising medical and pharmacy claims for 1.7 million health plan members. A health plan member was defined as anyone who was eligible for pharmacy and medical benefits at any time from October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004. To be included in the study, a member must have received at least 1 pharmacy claim for warfarin during the study period and been younger than 100 years. Hemorrhage was defined as a diagnosed bleeding episode recorded on a medical claim within 7 calendar days of a fill date for a pharmacy claim (new or refill) for warfarin. The following variables were used to predict the outcome measures: type of drug-drug or drug-disease interaction, patient age and gender, number of unique prescribers during the year for all drugs, specialty of the first prescriber for warfarin, average dose of warfarin, and days of warfarin therapy. Because individuals were followed only during the calendar year under study, the authors have interpreted the days of therapy measured primarily as a control on exposure. The outcome measures are prevalence of drug and disease interactions among members receiving warfarin therapy and the per-patient-per-year and per-member-per-month (PMPM) cost of medical treatment of hemorrhage associated with warfarin therapy including drug and disease interactions. Costs are defined as the total paid amount for a procedure or service after negotiated provider discounts and subtraction of

  16. Comparison of the therapeutic dose of warfarin in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients: a study of clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B S; Mokoena, T

    2017-02-08

    People infected with HIV are prone to venous thrombosis. Treatment of thrombosis is primarily with warfarin. No studies have addressed the effects of HIV infection on warfarin dose. The aims of this study were to determine whether the therapeutic dose of warfarin and induction time to therapeutic dose in HIV-infected patients differ from that in HIV-uninfected patients. A prospective and retrospective descriptive study of induction time to therapeutic warfarin dose, as well as of ambulant therapeutic warfarin dose, was performed. HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients being treated after deep venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism were compared. Sex and use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) were also compared in the groups. 234 patients were entered into the study. Induction time to therapeutic warfarin dose did not differ between the 2 groups. The mean therapeutic dose of warfarin was higher in the HIV-infected than the HIV-uninfected group: 6.06 vs 5.72 mg/day, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.29). There was no difference in therapeutic warfarin dose between ARV-naïve groups-HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected patients not on ARVs. There appears to be little effect of HIV infection on warfarin dosing. Warfarin therapy should be administered conventionally in HIV-infected patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. R- and S-Warfarin Were Transported by Breast Cancer Resistance Protein: From In Vitro to Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng-Syuan; Yu, Chung-Ping; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2017-05-01

    Warfarin, a racemate of R- and S-warfarin, is an important oral anticoagulant with narrow therapeutic window. Being an acidic drug, warfarin (pKa = 4.94) exists mainly as anion under physiological pH. We hypothesized that the transport of warfarin anion across cell membrane was mediated by breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), an efflux transporter having a variety of acidic substrates. This study aimed at verifying that warfarin was a substrate of BCRP. Cell lines and mice were used for transport assay and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies, respectively. The concentrations of R- and S-warfarin were simultaneously determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Transport assay showed that the intracellular concentrations of R- and S-warfarin in MDCKII-BCRP were significantly lower than those in MDCKII. In addition, Ko143, a potent BCRP inhibitor, significantly inhibited the efflux transport of R- and S-warfarin in MDCKII-BCRP, but not in MDCKII. Pharmacokinetic study showed that the plasma concentrations of R- and S-warfarin in Bcrp -/- mice were significantly higher than those in wild-type mice at 6 h after dosing. Anticoagulation measurement showed that the international normalized ratio in Bcrp -/- mice was significantly higher than that in wild-type mice at 24 h after dosing. In conclusion, R- and S-warfarin were transported by BCRP. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical events after transitioning from apixaban versus warfarin to warfarin at the end of the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial.

    PubMed

    Granger, Christopher B; Lopes, Renato D; Hanna, Michael; Ansell, Jack; Hylek, Elaine M; Alexander, John H; Thomas, Laine; Wang, Junyuan; Bahit, M Cecilia; Verheugt, Freek; Lawrence, Jack; Xavier, Denis; Wallentin, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We sought to assess the occurrence of events after blinded study drug discontinuation and transition to open-label vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in ARISTOTLE. At the end of ARISTOTLE, blinded study drug was stopped, and open-label VKA was recommended. For patients completing the trial on blinded study drug, a 2-day bridging period with apixaban or apixaban placebo was recommended (while beginning open-label VKA). Outcomes were assessed during the 30 days after stopping blinded study drug. Of the 6,809 patients in the apixaban group and 6,588 in the warfarin group who completed the trial on study drug, there were 21 strokes or systemic emboli (4.02%/year) and 26 major bleeding (4.97%/year) events in the apixaban group (transitioning to VKA) and 5 strokes or systemic emboli (0.99%/year) and 10 major bleeding (1.97%/year) events in the warfarin group (continuing on VKA), with most of the imbalance between groups being after the first week. Similar results were seen in the first 30 days of the trial where warfarin-naive patients starting warfarin had a higher rate of stroke or systemic emboli (5.41%/year) than warfarin-experienced patients (1.42%/year), a pattern not seen when starting apixaban. No similar increase in events with apixaban versus warfarin was seen during temporary or permanent study drug discontinuation during the trial. The excess in thrombotic and bleeding events in the apixaban group after study drug discontinuation appears to be related to an increased risk associated with the initiation of a VKA rather than a direct effect of apixaban. Whether ≥2 days of apixaban bridging improves outcomes during VKA transition is unknown and deserves further evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Warfarin and Flavonoids Do Not Share the Same Binding Region in Binding to the IIA Subdomain of Human Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Rimac, Hrvoje; Dufour, Claire; Debeljak, Željko; Zorc, Branka; Bojić, Mirza

    2017-07-11

    Human serum albumin (HSA) binds a variety of xenobiotics, including flavonoids and warfarin. The binding of another ligand to the IIA binding site on HSA can cause warfarin displacement and potentially the elevation of its free concentration in blood. Studies dealing with flavonoid-induced warfarin displacement from HSA provided controversial results: estimated risk of displacement ranged from none to serious. To resolve these controversies, in vitro study of simultaneous binding of warfarin and eight different flavonoid aglycons and glycosides to HSA was carried out by fluorescence spectroscopy as well as molecular docking. Results show that warfarin and flavonoids do not share the same binding region in binding to HSA. Interactions were only observed at high warfarin concentrations not attainable under recommended dosing regimes. Docking experiments show that flavonoid aglycons and glycosides do not bind at warfarin high affinity sites, but rather to different regions within the IIA HSA subdomain. Thus, the risk of clinically significant warfarin-flavonoid interaction in binding to HSA should be regarded as negligible.

  20. Stroke prophylaxis with warfarin or dabigatran for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation-cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ali; Bailey, Claire; Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H

    2012-09-01

    cost of anticoagulation with dabigatran is largely based on estimation of complication rates derived from clinical trials. to investigate cost of anticoagulation with dabigatran in comparison with warfarin in clinical practice. a prospective observational study of patients with non-vavular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) referred to anticoagulation clinic. Patients were interviewed (4-6 weekly by telephone) about bleeding events. Costs of anticoagulation were calculated as: (i) drug cost, (ii) international normalised ratio (INR) monitoring cost and (iii) bleeding cost. For cost calculation of dabigatran, INR monitoring cost was omitted. a total of 402 patients were included and followed up for a mean (SD) of 19 (8.1) months. Annual cost of anticoagulation was £207.3 and £1,573.5 per patient for warfarin and dabigatran, respectively. Drug price constituted 13.6% of the total cost for warfarin and 94% for dabigatran. Total cost of anticoagulation to prevent one stroke per year was £6,219, £28,086.5 and £25,181 for warfarin, dabigatran 110 and 150 mg, respectively. cost of anticoagulation is mainly driven by drug price for dabigatran and quality of INR control for warfarin. Until the price of dabigatran is reviewed, warfarin remains suitable for the majority of patients with NVAF.

  1. Enzyme-catalyzed Michael addition for the synthesis of warfarin and its determination via fluorescence quenching of L-tryptophan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yusheng; Yang, Liu; Liu, Shaopu; Yang, Jidong; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Jingjing; Hu, Xiaoli

    2017-04-01

    A sensitive fluorescence sensor for warfarin was proposed via quenching the fluorescence of L-tryptophan due to the interaction between warfarin and L-tryptophan. Warfarin, as one of the most effective anticoagulants, was designed and synthesized via lipase from porcine pancreas (PPL) as a biocatalyst to catalyze the Michael addition of 4-hydroxycoumarin to α, β-unsaturated enones in organic medium in the presence of water. Furthermore, the spectrofluorometry was used to detect the concentration of warfarin with a linear range and detection limit (3σ/k) of 0.04-12.0 μmol L- 1 (R2 = 0.994) and 0.01 μmol L- 1, respectively. Herein, this was the first application of bio-catalytic synthesis and fluorescence for the determination of warfarin. The proposed method was applied to determine warfarin of the drug in tablets with satisfactory results.

  2. Comparison of the Effectiveness and Safety of Apixaban, Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban, and Warfarin in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Inmaculada; Zhang, Yuting; Saba, Samir

    2017-11-15

    No studies have performed direct pairwise comparisons of the effectiveness and safety of warfarin and the new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban. Using 2013 to 2014 claims from a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, we identified patients newly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation who initiated apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, warfarin, or no oral anticoagulation therapy in 2013 to 2014. Outcomes included the composite of ischemic stroke, systemic embolism (SE) and death, any bleeding event, gastrointestinal bleeding, intracranial bleeding, and treatment persistence. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compare outcomes between each pair of treatment groups. The composite risk of ischemic stroke, SE, and death was lower for NOACs than for warfarin: hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76 to 0.98 for apixaban; 0.73, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.86 for dabigatran; and 0.82, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.89 for rivaroxaban, all compared with warfarin. There were no differences in effectiveness across NOACs. The risk of any bleeding was lower with apixaban than with warfarin, but higher with rivaroxaban than with warfarin. Apixaban (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.79) and dabigatran (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.92) were associated with lower bleeding risk than rivaroxaban. Treatment persistence was highest for apixaban (82%), and lowest for dabigatran and warfarin (64%) (p value <0.001). Compared with warfarin, NOACs are more effective in preventing stroke but their risk of bleeding varies, with rivaroxaban having higher risk than warfarin. Altogether, apixaban had the most favorable effectiveness, safety, and persistence profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Shorter Hospital Stays and Lower Costs for Rivaroxaban Compared With Warfarin for Venous Thrombosis Admissions.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Jay M; Deitelzweig, Steven; Kline, Jeffrey; Tran, Oth; Smith, David M; Bookhart, Brahim; Crivera, Concetta; Schein, Jeff

    2016-10-06

    Venous thromboembolism, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, results in a substantial healthcare system burden. This retrospective observational study compared hospital length of stay (LOS) and hospitalization costs for patients with venous thromboembolism treated with rivaroxaban versus those treated with warfarin. Hospitalizations for adult patients with a primary diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism who were initiated on rivaroxaban or warfarin were selected from MarketScan's Hospital Drug Database between November 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013. Patients treated with warfarin were matched 1:1 to patients treated with rivaroxaban using exact and propensity score matching. Hospital LOS, time from first dose to discharge, and hospitalization costs were reported descriptively and with generalized linear models (GLMs). The final study cohorts each included 1223 patients (751 with pulmonary embolism and 472 with deep vein thrombosis). Cohorts were well matched for demographic and clinical characteristics. Mean (±SD) LOS was 3.7±3.1 days for patients taking rivaroxaban and 5.2±3.7 days for patients taking warfarin, confirmed by GLM-adjusted results (rivaroxaban 3.7 days, warfarin 5.3 days, P<0.001). Patients with provoked venous thromboembolism admissions showed longer LOSs (rivaroxaban 5.1±4.5 days, warfarin 6.5±5.6 days, P<0.001) than those with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (rivaroxaban 3.3±2.4 days, warfarin 4.8±2.8 days, P<0.001). Days from first dose to discharge were 2.4±1.7 for patients treated with rivaroxaban and 3.9±3.7 for patients treated with warfarin when initiated with parenteral anticoagulants (P<0.001), and 2.7±1.7 and 3.7±2.1, respectively, when initiated without parenteral anticoagulants (P<0.001). Patients initiated on rivaroxaban incurred significantly lower mean total hospitalization costs ($8688±$9927 versus $9823±$9319, P=0.004), confirmed by modeling (rivaroxaban $8387 [95

  4. Evidence-Based Best Practices for Outpatient Management of Warfarin.

    PubMed

    Rose, Adam J; Vaiana, Mary

    2018-06-01

    Many best practices have been described for organizing a clinic to manage warfarin. Although these practices may have face validity, they may not be based on empirical analysis. Here, we describe our decade-long effort to apply the Structure-Process-Outcome model of quality measurement as a basis for measuring and improving outpatient warfarin management in the Veterans Health Administration. The purpose of the article is to raise awareness of this body of work with pharmacists who could potentially incorporate the findings of this work into their own practice settings. We conclude with concrete suggestions for immediate implementation in clinical settings.

  5. Impact of a pharmacist-driven warfarin management protocol on achieving therapeutic International Normalized Ratios.

    PubMed

    Downing, Amanda; Mortimer, Molly; Hiers, Jill

    2016-03-01

    Warfarin is a high alert medication and a challenge to dose and monitor. Pharmacist-driven warfarin management has been shown to decrease the time international normalized ratio (INR) is out of range, which may reduce undesired outcomes. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of the implementation of a pharmacist-driven warfarin management protocol on the achievement of therapeutic INRs. A warfarin management protocol was developed using evidence based literature and similar protocols from other institutions. Pharmacists utilized the protocol to provide patient specific warfarin dosing upon provider referral. To evaluate the protocol's impact, a retrospective chart review pre- and post-implementation was completed for admitted patients receiving warfarin. Three hundred twenty-seven charts were reviewed for pre- and post-implementation data. INRs within therapeutic range increased from 27.8% before protocol implementation to 38.5% after implementation. There was also a reduction in subtherapeutic INRs (55.3% pre to 39% post) and supratherapeutic INRs 5 or above (3.7% pre to 2.6% post). Supratherapeutic INRs between 3 and 5 did increase from 13.2% before protocol implementation to 19.9% in the pharmacist managed group. In addition to reducing the time to achievement of therapeutic INRs by 0.5 days, implementation of the protocol resulted in an increased the number of patients with at least one therapeutic INR during admission (35% pre to 40% post). The implementation of a pharmacist-driven warfarin dosing protocol increased therapeutic INRs, and decreased the time to therapeutic range, as well as the proportion of subtherapeutic INRs and supratherapeutic INRs 5 or greater. Additional benefits of the protocol include documentation of Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal compliance, promotion of interdisciplinary collaboration and increased continuity of care. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights

  6. Warfarin Use in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chang-Yun; Noh, Juhwan; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Chang, Tae Ik; Kang, Ea Wha; Kee, Youn Kyung; Kim, Hyoungnae; Park, Seohyun; Yun, Hae-Ryong; Jung, Su-Young; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Changsoo; Yoo, Tae-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of warfarin use in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing dialysis using a population-based Korean registry. Data were extracted from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, which is a nationwide, mandatory social insurance database of all Korean citizens enrolled in the National Health Information Service between 2009 and 2013. Thromboembolic and hemorrhagic outcomes were analyzed according to warfarin use. Overall and propensity score-matched cohorts were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards models. Among 9974 hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation, the mean age was 66.6±12.2 years, 5806 (58.2%) were men, and 2921 (29.3%) used warfarin. After propensity score matching to adjust for all described baseline differences, 5548 subjects remained, and differences in baseline variables were distributed equally between warfarin users and nonusers. During a mean follow-up duration of 15.9±11.1 months, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke occurred in 678 (6.8%) and 227 (2.3%) patients, respectively. In a multiple Cox model, warfarin use was significantly associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.91; P =0.010) in the overall cohort. Furthermore, a significant relationship between warfarin use and hemorrhagic stroke was found in propensity-matched subjects (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.22; P =0.013). However, the ratios for ischemic stroke were not significantly different in either the propensity-matched (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.15; P =0.569) or overall cohort (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.26; P =0.470). Our findings suggest that warfarin should be used carefully in hemodialysis patients, given the higher risk of hemorrhagic events and the lack of ability to prevent thromboembolic complications. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Factors influencing medication knowledge and beliefs on warfarin adherence among patients with atrial fibrillation in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shujuan; Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Xianpei; Gao, Chuanyu; Qin, Yuhua; Cai, Haixia; Chen, Boya; Cao, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    Warfarin is often used for ischemic stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the factors affecting patient adherence to warfarin therapy have not been fully understood. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in AF patients undergoing warfarin therapy at least 6 months prior to the study. The clinical data collected using questionnaires by phone interviews included the following: 1) self-reported adherence measured by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 © ; 2) beliefs about medicines surveyed by Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ); and 3) drug knowledge as measured by the Warfarin Related Knowledge Test (WRKT). Demographic and clinical factors associated with warfarin adherence were identified using a logistic regression model. Two hundred eighty-eight patients completed the survey and 93 (32.3%) of them were classified as nonadherent (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 score <6). Major factors predicting warfarin adherence included age, cardiovascular disorders, WRKT, and BMQ; WRKT and BMQ were independently correlated with adherence to warfarin therapy by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Adherents were more likely to have greater knowledge scores and stronger beliefs in the necessity of their specific medications ([odds ratio {OR} =1.81, 95% confidence interval {CI} =1.51-2.15] and [OR =1.17, 95% CI =1.06-1.29], respectively). Patients with greater concerns about adverse reactions and more negative views of general harm were more likely to be nonadherent ([OR =0.76, 95% CI =0.69-0.84] and [OR =0.82, 95% CI =0.73-0.92], respectively). BMK and WRKT are related with patient behavior toward warfarin adherence. BMQ can be applied to identify patients at increased risk of nonadherence.

  8. Use of Warfarin at Discharge Among Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaomeng; Li, Zixiao; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Chunjuan; Liu, Liping; Wang, Chunxue; Pan, Yuesong; Li, Hao; Wang, David; Hart, Robert G; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2016-02-01

    Guidelines recommend oral anticoagulation for ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation, and previous studies have shown the underuse of anticoagulation for these patients in China. We sought to explore the underlying reasons and factors that currently affect the use of warfarin in China. From June 2012 to January 2013, 19 604 patients with acute ischemic stroke were admitted to 219 urban hospitals voluntarily participating in the China National Stroke Registry II. Multivariable logistic regression models using the generalized estimating equation method were used to identify patient/hospital factors independently associated with warfarin use at discharge. Among the 952 acute ischemic stroke patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, 19.4% were discharged on warfarin. The risk of bleeding (52.8%) and patient refusal (31.9%) were the main reasons for not prescribing anticoagulation. Larger/teaching hospitals were more likely to prescribe warfarin. Older patients, heavy drinkers, patients with higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission were less likely to be given warfarin, whereas patients with history of heart failure and an international normalized ratio between 2.0 and 3.0 during hospitalization were significantly associated with warfarin use at discharge. The rate of warfarin use remains low among patients with ischemic stroke and known nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in China. Hospital size and academic status together with patient age, heart failure, heavy alcohol drinking, international normalized ratio in hospital, and stroke severity on admission were each independently associated with the use of warfarin at discharge. There is much room for improvement for secondary stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients in China. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Warfarin Therapy in Remote Communities of the Top End of Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Jahde; Majoni, William; Tinsley, Jeffrey; Kangaharan, Nadarajah

    2017-12-01

    Warfarin remains a widely used anticoagulant but application in the remote context is not well documented. This study aimed to assess in more detail whether warfarin is being utilised effectively in Australia's most isolated and remote areas. Retrospective cohort analysis of 2013 captured international normalised ratio (INR) results from people engaged in long term warfarin usage within a number of remote Northern Australian communities. Assessment of monitoring, effectiveness of dosing and complication rates was undertaken. A cohort of 167 patients was established. On average, warfarin was utilised within therapeutic range 52% of the time. Monitoring frequency averaged 16 days. Major bleeding and thrombo-embolism occurred at rates of 5.8 and 4.1 per 100 patient years respectively. Therapeutic utilisation of warfarin in this setting is close to accepted rates but has room for improvement. Monitoring was acceptable and complication rates were not disproportionately high. This study indicates that warfarin is being used with reasonable safety and efficacy in remote regions, but further research is needed. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of novel variants associated with warfarin stable dosage by use of a two-stage extreme phenotype strategy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Z; Li, X; Zhu, M; Tang, J; Li, Z; Zhou, X; Song, G; Liu, Z; Zhou, H; Zhang, W

    2017-01-01

    Essentials Required warfarin doses for mechanical heart valves vary greatly. A two-stage extreme phenotype design was used to identify novel warfarin dose associated mutation. We identified a group of variants significantly associated with extreme warfarin dose. Four novel identified mutations account for 2.2% of warfarin dose discrepancies. Background The variation among patients in warfarin response complicates the management of warfarin therapy, and an improper therapeutic dose usually results in serious adverse events. Objective To use a two-stage extreme phenotype strategy in order to discover novel warfarin dose-associated mutations in heart valve replacement patients. Patients/method A total of 1617 stable-dose patients were enrolled and divided randomly into two cohorts. Stage I patients were genotyped into three groups on the basis of VKORC1-1639G>A and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms; only patients with the therapeutic dose at the upper or lower 5% of each genotype group were selected as extreme-dose patients for resequencing of the targeted regions. Evaluation of the accuracy of the sequence data and the potential value of the stage I-identified significant mutations were conducted in a validation cohort of 420 subjects. Results A group of mutations were found to be significantly associated with the extreme warfarin dose. The validation work finally identified four novel mutations, i.e. DNMT3A rs2304429 (24.74%), CYP1A1 rs3826041 (47.35%), STX1B rs72800847 (7.01%), and NQO1 rs10517 (36.11%), which independently and significantly contributed to the overall variability in the warfarin dose. After addition of these four mutations, the estimated regression equation was able to account for 56.2% (R 2 Adj = 0.562) of the overall variability in the warfarin maintenance dose, with a predictive accuracy of 62.4%. Conclusion Our study provides evidence linking genetic variations in STX1B, DNMT3A and CYP1A1 to warfarin maintenance dose. The newly identified mutations

  11. The effect of amiodarone on warfarin anticoagulation: a register-based nationwide cohort study involving the Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Holm, J; Lindh, J D; Andersson, M L; Mannheimer, B

    2017-03-01

    Essentials Data on the effect of introducing amiodarone in patients already using warfarin regime are scarce. Information on 754 patients was extracted from three nationwide registers in Sweden. With amiodaron, 37% of patients had an international normalized ratio (INR) over 3.0 To avoid bleeding, the initiation of amiodarone should be accompanied by closer INR monitoring. Background Data indicate that the interaction between warfarin and amiodarone results in an increased warfarin effect. There are several large, well-performed studies using genetic and clinical factors such as co-medication to predict an adequate starting dose of warfarin. However, longitudinal data on the effect of introducing amiodarone in patients on an ongoing warfarin regime are more scarce. Objectives An investigation of how initiation of amiodarone affects the anticoagulant effect and dosing of warfarin, using data from three nationwide registries. Patients/Methods In a retrospective cohort study including 754 patients, warfarin doses were compared between two 4-week periods, before and 18-21 weeks after initiating co-treatment with amiodarone. In addition, warfarin doses and international normalized ratio (INR) values were calculated week-by-week after the initiation of amiodarone. Results The initiation of amiodarone increased the mean INR from 2.6 to 3.1. The proportion of patients with a supratherapeutic INR over 3.0 and 4.0 increased from 12% to 37% and 0.9% to 5.5%, respectively. The subsequent mean decrease in warfarin dose was 24.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.5, 25.6). The frequency of INR monitoring within 1 and 2 weeks after initiation of amiodarone was 67% and 90%. Conclusions Although warfarin doses in most patients were within the therapeutic range, more than one in three patients initiating co-treatment with amiodarone were exposed to a supratherapeutic anticoagulative effect within 3 weeks. In order to further avoid severe unnecessary bleeding, the initiation of

  12. Relative Expression of PBMC MicroRNA-133a Analysis in Patients Receiving Warfarin After Mechanical Heart Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Kabiri Rad, Hamid; Mazaheri, Mahta; Dehghani Firozabadi, Ali

    Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in various biological processes including anticoagulation. However, the modulation of miRNA by pharmacological intervention such as warfarin treatment in patients receiving warfarin has not been disclosed yet. The aim of this study work was to assess the effect of warfarin drug on expression level of mir-133a-3p in patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. Methods: In this research, the expression level of miRNA-133a-3p was analyzed in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from mechanical valve replacement patients who had received warfarin for at least 3 months continuously. Quantitative RT-PCR method was used for this assay. Results: Our findings indicated a significant diffrence between the rate of miR-133a-3p expression in individuals receiving warfarin and the control group (p<0.01). There was also a statistically significant difference in miR-133a-3p expression in patients with different ages (p<0.05) suggesting that the rate of miR-133a-3p expression in persons receiving warfarin is related to age. However, other variables like warfarin dose, International Normalized Ratio (INR), gender, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were not significantly effective on the miR-133a-3p experssion rate in individuals receving warfarin. Conclusion: Based on our results, it can be concluded that miR-133a-3p is involved in the coagulation pathway. The recent result indicates that warfarin affects the expression of miR-133a. This expression may be potentially important for treatment by anticoagulants. Awareness of the time course of miRNA expression profile can improve efficiency of response to warfarin. PMID:29296264

  13. Impact of Aspirin on Warfarin Control as Measured by Time in Therapeutic Range.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Michelle L; Zayac, Alexa; Davis, Arie; Badrick, Tony; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra; Bernaitis, Nijole

    2018-05-12

    Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant widely prescribed for a variety of thromboembolic indications including venous thromboembolism (VTE) deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the prevention of stroke associated for atrial fibrillation (AF). 1 Warfarin requires ongoing monitoring of Internationalised Normalised Ratio (INR) due to a narrow therapeutic index and interactions with numerous drugs. 2 The time in therapeutic range (TTR) is often used to indicate the quality of warfarin therapy due to the established correlation between higher mean TTR and reduced complications such as bleeding and thromboembolism. 3 This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of Proton Pump Inhibitors With Reduced Risk of Warfarin-Related Serious Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ray, Wayne A; Chung, Cecilia P; Murray, Katherine T; Smalley, Walter E; Daugherty, James R; Dupont, William D; Stein, C Michael

    2016-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) might reduce the risk of serious warfarin-related upper gastrointestinal bleeding, but the evidence of their efficacy for this indication is limited. A gastroprotective effect of PPIs would be particularly important for patients who take warfarin with antiplatelet drugs or nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which further increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. This retrospective cohort study of patients beginning warfarin treatment in Tennessee Medicaid and the 5% National Medicare Sample identified 97,430 new episodes of warfarin treatment with 75,720 person-years of follow-up. The study end points were hospitalizations for upper gastrointestinal bleeding potentially preventable by PPIs and for bleeding at other sites. Patients who took warfarin without PPI co-therapy had 119 hospitalizations for upper gastrointestinal bleeding per 10,000 person-years of treatment. The risk decreased by 24% among patients who received PPI co-therapy (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.91). There was no significant reduction in the risk of other gastrointestinal bleeding hospitalizations (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.94-1.22) or non-gastrointestinal bleeding hospitalizations (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84-1.15) in this group. Among patients concurrently using antiplatelet drugs or NSAIDs, those without PPI co-therapy had 284 upper gastrointestinal bleeding hospitalizations per 10,000 person-years of warfarin treatment. The risk decreased by 45% (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.39-0.77) with PPI co-therapy. PPI co-therapy had no significant protective effect for warfarin patients not using antiplatelet drugs or NSAIDs (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.70-1.06). Findings were similar in both study populations. In an analysis of patients beginning warfarin treatment in Tennessee Medicaid and the 5% National Medicare Sample, PPI co-therapy was associated with reduced risk of warfarin-related upper gastrointestinal bleeding; the

  15. Is rivaroxaban associated with lower inpatient costs compared to warfarin among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation?

    PubMed

    Laliberté, François; Pilon, Dominic; Raut, Monika K; Nelson, Winnie W; Olson, William H; Germain, Guillaume; Schein, Jeff R; Lefebvre, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    Warfarin has been the mainstay treatment used by patients with a moderate-to-high risk of stroke due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Unlike rivaroxaban, laboratory monitoring to allow the attainment of the prothrombin time international normalized ratio goal is required with warfarin, thereby potentially increasing a patient's hospitalization costs. To compare hospitalization costs between hospitalized NVAF patients using rivaroxaban versus warfarin in a real-world setting. A retrospective claims analysis was conducted using the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital Database from November 2010 to September 2012. The study included adult patients hospitalized for NVAF after November 2011. Patients using rivaroxaban during hospitalization were matched with up to four warfarin users by propensity score analyses. Hospitalization costs were compared between the matched cohorts using generalized estimating equations. A sub-analysis was performed for patients who were first administered their treatment on day three or later of their hospital stay. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on matched cohorts with a primary diagnosis of AF. The matched cohorts' (2809 rivaroxaban and 11,085 warfarin users) characteristics were well balanced. The mean age of cohorts was 71 years and 49% of patients were female. The average hospitalization cost of rivaroxaban users was $11,993 compared to $13,255 for warfarin users. The cost difference was significantly lower by $1284 (P < 0.001). Patients who were administered rivaroxaban treatment on day three or after incurred significantly lower hospitalization costs (cost difference: $4350; P < 0.001) compared to warfarin users. Rivaroxaban users with a primary diagnosis of AF also had significantly lower costs compared to warfarin users. These included possible inaccuracies or omissions in diagnoses, completeness of baseline characteristics, and a study population that included patients newly initiated on and patients

  16. Effect of casopitant, a novel NK-1 receptor antagonist, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of steady-state warfarin.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Lyndon C; Johnson, Brendan M; Adams, Laurel M; Eberwein, Derek J; Zhang, Ke; Murray, Sharon C; Lates, Christian D; Blum, Robert A; Morris, Shannon R

    2010-05-01

    Casopitant, a novel NK-1 receptor antagonist under investigation for the prevention of postoperative and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, is a weak to moderate inhibitor of CYP3A and a moderate inducer of CYP2C9 in vitro. Furthermore, both CYP enzymes are involved in the metabolism of R- and S-warfarin, respectively. This clinical study was conducted to explore the potential drug-drug interaction between casopitant and warfarin. In total, 97 healthy participants were enrolled and 54 completed the study. Participants received individualized daily dosing of warfarin to an international normalized ratio (INR) of 1.3 to 2.3 over a 14-day period (period 1). Immediately following period 1, participants entered period 2 and were randomized to receive either regimen A (oral casopitant [150 mg day 1, 50 mg days 2 and 3] and warfarin [days 1-10]) or regimen B (oral casopitant 60 mg and warfarin [days 1-14]). INR assessments were performed daily. The steady-state C(max) and AUC of R- and S-warfarin were not altered by regimen A, but R-warfarin AUC was increased 1.31-fold (90% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22, 1.41), and S-warfarin AUC was increased 1.27-fold (90% CI: 1.18, 1.38) on day 14 in regimen B. Steady-state INR values were not affected by either casopitant regimen.

  17. Warfarin - Fluoroquinolones, Sulfonamides, or Azole Antifungals Interactions and the Risk of Hospitalization for Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Schelleman, Hedi; Bilker, Warren B.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Han, Xiaoyan; Kimmel, Stephen E.; Hennessy, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a potential pharmacokinetic interaction between warfarin and orally administered anti-infectives increases the risk of hospitalization for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in warfarin users. Methods We conducted a nested case-control and case-crossover study in US Medicaid data. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between GI bleeding and prior use of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, cotrimoxazole, or fluconazole, all versus no exposure and versus cephalexin, which would not be expected to interact with warfarin. Results All anti-infectives examined exhibited an elevated odds ratio (OR) vs. no exposure. Using cephalexin as the reference category, ORs for cotrimoxazole (OR:1.68 [95% CI:1.21–2.33] in the prior 6–10 days) and fluconazole (OR:2.09 [95% CI:1.34–3.26] in the prior 11–15 days) were significantly elevated. Conclusions Warfarin users who had received an anti-infective agent showed a substantially increased risk of GI bleeding. Nonetheless, a drug-drug interaction with warfarin was evident only for cotrimoxazole and fluconazole. PMID:18685566

  18. Resource use and cost implications of switching among warfarin formulations in atrial fibrillation patients.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Winghan Jacqueline; Kamat, Siddhesh; Fang, Christy

    2012-12-01

    Despite the uncertainty surrounding the safety of switching warfarin formulations, limited data exist on the resource use and costs associated with this switching pattern. To evaluate health care resource use and costs associated with switching warfarin formulations among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in a managed care organization. Patients diagnosed with AF (ICD-9 427.31) between July 2004 and August 2008 and who received warfarin therapy were identified in the HealthCore Integrated Research Database and categorized into 3 groups: users of generic warfarin formulations from a single drug manufacturer (generic-only group), users of branded warfarin formulations only (brand-only group), and patients who used generic and branded warfarin therapy interchangeably or who may have used generic drugs from 1 or more manufacturers (generic/brand switching group). Patients were followed 12 months or longer after their index warfarin prescription date to compare all-cause resource use and costs using multivariable regression analysis. The analysis included 12,908 patients: 71.82% were in the genericonly group, 9.61% were in the brand-only group, and 18.57% were in the generic/brand switching group. Patients in the generic/brand switching group were more likely to be hospitalized (relative risk [RR] = 1.43, p < 0.0001) or to use emergency department services (RR = 1.20, p < 0.01), compared to the brand-only users. Hospitalizations were more likely (RR = 1.26, p < 0.001) to occur among generic-only users versus brand-only users. Adjusted mean pharmacy costs per member per month were lower in the generic/brand switching group compared to the brand-only group ($257 vs $273, p = 0.038), but inpatient costs were higher ($1250 vs $972, p < 0.001), resulting in higher ($2125 vs $1847, p < 0.001) total costs. Generic-only users had lower pharmacy costs compared to brand-only users ($246 vs $273, p < 0.001), but total health care costs trended to be higher in the generic

  19. Polymorphisms of vitamin K-related genes (EPHX1 and VKORC1L1) and stable warfarin doses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jee-Eun; Lee, Kyung Eun; Chang, Byung Chul; Gwak, Hye Sun

    2018-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of EPHX1 and VKORC1L1 polymorphisms on variability of responses to warfarin. Sixteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 201 patients with stable warfarin doses were analyzed including genes of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2, GGCX, EPHX1 and VKORC1L1. Univariate analysis was conducted for the association of genotypes with stable warfarin doses. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate factors that independently affected the inter-individual variability of warfarin dose requirements. The rs4072879 of VKORC1L1 (A>G) was significantly associated with stable warfarin doses; wild homozygote carriers (AA) required significantly lower stable warfarin doses than those with the variant G allele (5.02±1.56 vs. 5.96±2.01mg; p=0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that EPHX1 rs1877724 and VKORC1L1 rs4072879 accounted for 1.5% and 1.3% of the warfarin dose variability. Adding EPHX1 and VKORC1L1 SNPs to the base model including non-genetic variables (operation age, body weight and the therapy of ACEI or ARB) and genetic variables (VKORC1 rs9934438, CYP2C9 rs1057910, and CYP4F2 rs2108622) gave a number needed to genotype of 34. This study showed that polymorphisms of EPHX1 and VKORC1L1 could be determinants of stable warfarin doses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Review of potential drug interaction between Oseltamivir and Warfarin and why it is important for emergency medicine physicians.

    PubMed

    Shah, Siddharth P; Patel, Kinner M; Subedi, Rogin; Gambhir, Harvir Singh

    2017-08-01

    Oseltamivir is a very commonly prescribed anti-viral medication by the Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians for the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of Influenza infection. While the drug interaction of Warfarin with various antibiotics is known, the drug interaction between Oseltamivir and Warfarin is not common. We present a case where an 83-year female patient, on Warfarin for Pulmonary Embolism, had worsening of coagulopathy after she was started on Oseltamivir. The INR was monitored daily in our patient and Warfarin was stopped when the INR became supra-therapeutic. Our patient did not have any minor or major bleeding complication. This is the first reported case of Oseltamivir related worsening coagulopathy in patient on Warfarin to the best of our knowledge. Keeping in mind the possible interaction between the two as it was evident in our case and few other published reports, we recommend monitoring the INR closely in patients using Warfarin after they are started on Oseltamivir therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bleeding rates in Veterans Affairs patients with atrial fibrillation who switch from warfarin to dabigatran.

    PubMed

    Vaughan Sarrazin, Mary S; Jones, Michael; Mazur, Alexander; Chrischilles, Elizabeth; Cram, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Clinical trial data suggest that dabigatran and warfarin have similar rates of major bleeding but higher rates of gastrointestinal bleeding. These findings have not been evaluated outside of a clinical trial. We evaluated the relative risks of any, gastrointestinal, intracranial, and other bleeding for Veterans Affairs patients who switched to dabigatran after at least 6 months on warfarin, compared with patients who continued on warfarin. We used national Veterans Affairs administrative encounter and pharmacy data from fiscal years 2010-2012 to identify 85,344 patients with atrial fibrillation who had been taking warfarin for at least 180 days before June 2011, of whom 1394 (1.7%) received dabigatran (150 mg) during the next 15 months. Dates of the first occurrence of each type of bleed and dates of death from June 2011 to September 2012 were determined. Baseline and time-dependent patient characteristics were identified, including comorbid conditions, stroke and bleeding risk scores, and time in therapeutic range for international normalized ratios. Marginal structural models were used to address selection bias in the longitudinal observational data. Weighted logistic regression models were fit using generalized estimating equations and reflected baseline and time-dependent covariates and weekly indicators of anticoagulant type (warfarin or dabigatran). Compared with patients who never used dabigatran, patients who used dabigatran at least once were younger, were more likely to be white, had lower international normalized ratio time in therapeutic range on warfarin, had lower stroke risk scores, and had similar bleeding risk scores. Overall, 10,734 patients experienced bleeding events, including 131 events after dabigatran use. The risk-adjusted rate of any bleeding was higher with dabigatran compared with warfarin, which was largely driven by a 54% higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding with dabigatran. Rates of intracranial, other bleeding, and death were

  2. Clinical Prediction Model for Time in Therapeutic Range While on Warfarin in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Brent A; Evans, Michael A; Honushefsky, Ashley M; Berger, Peter B

    2017-10-12

    Though warfarin has historically been the primary oral anticoagulant for stroke prevention in newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF), several new direct oral anticoagulants may be preferred when anticoagulation control with warfarin is expected to be poor. This study developed a prediction model for time in therapeutic range (TTR) among newly diagnosed AF patients on newly initiated warfarin as a tool to assist decision making between warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants. This electronic medical record-based, retrospective study included newly diagnosed, nonvalvular AF patients with no recent warfarin exposure receiving primary care services through a large healthcare system in rural Pennsylvania. TTR was estimated as the percentage of time international normalized ratio measurements were between 2.0 and 3.0 during the first year following warfarin initiation. Candidate predictors of TTR were chosen from data elements collected during usual clinical care. A TTR prediction model was developed and temporally validated and its predictive performance was compared with the SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score (sex, age, medical history, treatment, tobacco, race) using R 2 and c-statistics. A total of 7877 newly diagnosed AF patients met study inclusion criteria. Median (interquartile range) TTR within the first year of starting warfarin was 51% (32, 67). Of 85 candidate predictors evaluated, 15 were included in the final validated model with an R 2 of 15.4%. The proposed model showed better predictive performance than the SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score ( R 2 =3.0%). The proposed prediction model may assist decision making on the proper mode of oral anticoagulant among newly diagnosed AF patients. However, predicting TTR on warfarin remains challenging. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. Factors influencing medication knowledge and beliefs on warfarin adherence among patients with atrial fibrillation in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shujuan; Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Xianpei; Gao, Chuanyu; Qin, Yuhua; Cai, Haixia; Chen, Boya; Cao, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Warfarin is often used for ischemic stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the factors affecting patient adherence to warfarin therapy have not been fully understood. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in AF patients undergoing warfarin therapy at least 6 months prior to the study. The clinical data collected using questionnaires by phone interviews included the following: 1) self-reported adherence measured by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8©; 2) beliefs about medicines surveyed by Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ); and 3) drug knowledge as measured by the Warfarin Related Knowledge Test (WRKT). Demographic and clinical factors associated with warfarin adherence were identified using a logistic regression model. Results Two hundred eighty-eight patients completed the survey and 93 (32.3%) of them were classified as nonadherent (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 score <6). Major factors predicting warfarin adherence included age, cardiovascular disorders, WRKT, and BMQ; WRKT and BMQ were independently correlated with adherence to warfarin therapy by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Adherents were more likely to have greater knowledge scores and stronger beliefs in the necessity of their specific medications ([odds ratio {OR} =1.81, 95% confidence interval {CI} =1.51–2.15] and [OR =1.17, 95% CI =1.06–1.29], respectively). Patients with greater concerns about adverse reactions and more negative views of general harm were more likely to be nonadherent ([OR =0.76, 95% CI =0.69–0.84] and [OR =0.82, 95% CI =0.73–0.92], respectively). Conclusion BMK and WRKT are related with patient behavior toward warfarin adherence. BMQ can be applied to identify patients at increased risk of nonadherence. PMID:28223782

  4. Cost effectiveness of novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation depending on the quality of warfarin anticoagulation control.

    PubMed

    Janzic, Andrej; Kos, Mitja

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, are standard treatments for stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation. Patient outcomes depend on quality of warfarin management, which includes regular monitoring and dose adjustments. Recently, novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) that do not require regular monitoring offer an alternative to warfarin. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether cost effectiveness of NOACs for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation depends on the quality of warfarin control. We developed a Markov decision model to simulate warfarin treatment outcomes in relation to the quality of anticoagulation control, expressed as percentage of time in the therapeutic range (TTR). Standard treatment with adjusted-dose warfarin and improved anticoagulation control by genotype-guided dosing were compared with dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban. The analysis was performed from the Slovenian healthcare payer perspective using 2014 costs. In the base case, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for apixaban, dabigatran and edoxaban was below the threshold of €25,000 per quality-adjusted life-years compared with adjusted-dose warfarin with a TTR of 60%. The probability that warfarin was a cost-effective option was around 1%. This percentage rises as the quality of anticoagulation control improves. At a TTR of 70%, warfarin was the preferred treatment in half the iterations. The cost effectiveness of NOACs for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who are at increased risk for stroke is highly sensitive to warfarin anticoagulation control. NOACs are more likely to be cost-effective options in settings with poor warfarin management than in settings with better anticoagulation control, where they may not represent good value for money.

  5. Stroke in Heart Failure in Sinus Rhythm: The Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pullicino, Patrick M.; Thompson, John L.P.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Sanford, Alexandra R.; Qian, Min; Teerlink, John R.; Haddad, Haissam; Diek, Monika; Freudenberger, Ronald S.; Labovitz, Arthur J.; Di Tullio, Marco R.; Lok, Dirk J.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D.; Graham, Susan; Mann, Douglas L.; Mohr, J.P.; Homma, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction trial found no difference between warfarin and aspirin in patients with low ejection fraction in sinus rhythm for the primary outcome: first to occur of 84 incident ischemic strokes (IIS), 7 intracerebral hemorrhages or 531 deaths. Prespecified secondary analysis showed a 48% hazard ratio reduction (p = 0.005) for warfarin in IIS. Cardioembolism is likely the main pathogenesis of stroke in heart failure. We examined the IIS benefit for warfarin in more detail in post hoc secondary analyses. Methods We subtyped IIS into definite, possible and noncardioembolic using the Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation method. Statistical tests, stratified by prior ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, were the conditional binomial for independent Poisson variables for rates, the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test for stroke subtype and the van Elteren test for modified Rankin Score (mRS) and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) distributions, and an exact test for proportions. Results Twenty-nine of 1,142 warfarin and 55 of 1,163 aspirin patients had IIS. The warfarin IIS rate (0.727/100 patient-years, PY) was lower than for aspirin (1.36/100 PY, p = 0.003). Definite cardioembolic IIS was less frequent on warfarin than aspirin (0.22 vs. 0.55/100 PY, p = 0.012). Possible cardioembolic IIS tended to be less frequent on warfarin than aspirin (0.37 vs. 0.67/100 PY, p = 0.063) but noncardioembolic IIS showed no difference: 5 (0.12/100 PY) versus 6 (0.15/100 PY, p = 0.768). Among patients experiencing IIS, there were no differences by treatment arm in fatal IIS, baseline mRS, mRS 90 days after IIS, and change from baseline to post-IIS mRS. The warfarin arm showed a trend to a lower proportion of severe nonfatal IIS [mRS 3–5; 3/23 (13.0%) vs. 16/48 (33.3%), p = 0.086]. There was no difference in NIHSS at the time of stroke (p = 0.825) or in post-IIS mRS (p = 0.948) between cardioembolic

  6. Stroke in heart failure in sinus rhythm: the Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction trial.

    PubMed

    Pullicino, Patrick M; Thompson, John L P; Sacco, Ralph L; Sanford, Alexandra R; Qian, Min; Teerlink, John R; Haddad, Haissam; Diek, Monika; Freudenberger, Ronald S; Labovitz, Arthur J; Di Tullio, Marco R; Lok, Dirk J; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D; Graham, Susan; Mann, Douglas L; Mohr, J P; Homma, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    The Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction trial found no difference between warfarin and aspirin in patients with low ejection fraction in sinus rhythm for the primary outcome: first to occur of 84 incident ischemic strokes (IIS), 7 intracerebral hemorrhages or 531 deaths. Prespecified secondary analysis showed a 48% hazard ratio reduction (p = 0.005) for warfarin in IIS. Cardioembolism is likely the main pathogenesis of stroke in heart failure. We examined the IIS benefit for warfarin in more detail in post hoc secondary analyses. We subtyped IIS into definite, possible and noncardioembolic using the Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation method. Statistical tests, stratified by prior ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, were the conditional binomial for independent Poisson variables for rates, the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test for stroke subtype and the van Elteren test for modified Rankin Score (mRS) and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) distributions, and an exact test for proportions. Twenty-nine of 1,142 warfarin and 55 of 1,163 aspirin patients had IIS. The warfarin IIS rate (0.727/100 patient-years, PY) was lower than for aspirin (1.36/100 PY, p = 0.003). Definite cardioembolic IIS was less frequent on warfarin than aspirin (0.22 vs. 0.55/100 PY, p = 0.012). Possible cardioembolic IIS tended to be less frequent on warfarin than aspirin (0.37 vs. 0.67/100 PY, p = 0.063) but noncardioembolic IIS showed no difference: 5 (0.12/100 PY) versus 6 (0.15/100 PY, p = 0.768). Among patients experiencing IIS, there were no differences by treatment arm in fatal IIS, baseline mRS, mRS 90 days after IIS, and change from baseline to post-IIS mRS. The warfarin arm showed a trend to a lower proportion of severe nonfatal IIS [mRS 3-5; 3/23 (13.0%) vs. 16/48 (33.3%), p = 0.086]. There was no difference in NIHSS at the time of stroke (p = 0.825) or in post-IIS mRS (p = 0.948) between cardioembolic, possible cardioembolic and

  7. Effects of Tramadol Coadministration on Prothrombin Time-International Normalized Ratio in Patients Receiving Warfarin.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Tomomi; Kondo, Aiko; Kambayashi, Yasuyuki; Homma, Masato

    2017-01-01

    Several case studies have reported a possible drug interaction between warfarin and tramadol where tramadol coadministration enhanced the antithrombotic effects of warfarin. To assess this drug interaction, changes in prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) before and after tramadol coadministration were investigated in patients receiving warfarin. For this study, we examined 54 patients (male/female: 22/32, 68.4±12.7 years) who were being treated with warfarin for deep vein thrombosis, atrial fibrillation, arteriosclerosis obliterans, congestive heart failure, and other vascular diseases. Significant increases in PT-INR were observed 9.5 (1-118) d after coadministration of tramadol (1.81±0.56 vs. 2.47±1.10, p<0.01). Twenty-eight patients (PT-INR increased group) with PT-INR elevation of greater than 0.5 or dose reduction of warfarin after coadministration of tramadol were compared with other groups of patients to find drug interaction risk factors. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower levels of albumin (3.5 g/dL or less) [odds ratio (OR) 22.1; 95%CI 2.9-169.9]; lower eGFR (50 mL/min or less) (OR 7.7; 95%CI 1.4-42.0); and PT-INR before tramadol coadministration (OR 38.2; 95%CI 3.7-397.6) were characteristic of the PT-INR increased group. These results suggest that tramadol coadministration enhanced the antithrombotic effects of warfarin in patients with higher PT-INR, lower albumin levels and decreased renal function as the risk factors for this drug interaction.

  8. Association of Warfarin Use With Lower Overall Cancer Incidence Among Patients Older Than 50 Years.

    PubMed

    Haaland, Gry S; Falk, Ragnhild S; Straume, Oddbjørn; Lorens, James B

    2017-12-01

    In cancer models, warfarin inhibits AXL receptor tyrosine kinase-dependent tumorigenesis and enhances antitumor immune responses at doses not reaching anticoagulation levels. This study investigates the association between warfarin use and cancer incidence in a large, unselected population-based cohort. To examine the association between warfarin use and cancer incidence. This population-based cohort study with subgroup analysis used the Norwegian National Registry coupled with the Norwegian Prescription Database and the Cancer Registry of Norway. The cohort comprised all persons (N = 1 256 725) born between January 1, 1924, and December 31, 1954, who were residing in Norway from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2012. The cohort was divided into 2 groups-warfarin users and nonusers; persons taking warfarin for atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter were the subgroup. Data were collected from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2012. Data analysis was conducted from October 15, 2016, to January 31, 2017. Warfarin use was defined as taking at least 6 months of a prescription and at least 2 years from first prescription to any cancer diagnosis. If warfarin treatment started after January 1, 2006, each person contributed person-time in the nonuser group until the warfarin user criteria were fulfilled. Cancer diagnosis of any type during the 7-year observation period (January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2012). Of the 1 256 725 persons in the cohort, 607 350 (48.3%) were male, 649 375 (51.7%) were female, 132 687 (10.6%) had cancer, 92 942 (7.4%) were classified as warfarin users, and 1 163 783 (92.6%) were classified as nonusers. Warfarin users were older, with a mean (SD) age of 70.2 (8.2) years, and were predominantly men (57 370 [61.7%]) as compared with nonusers, who had a mean (SD) age of 63.9 (8.6) years and were mostly women (613 803 [52.7%]). Among warfarin users and compared with nonusers, there was a significantly lower age- and sex

  9. International normalized ratio stability in warfarin-experienced patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Winnie W; Desai, Sunita; Damaraju, Chandrasekharrao V; Lu, Lang; Fields, Larry E; Wildgoose, Peter; Schein, Jeffery R

    2015-06-01

    Maintaining stable levels of anticoagulation using warfarin therapy is challenging. Few studies have examined the stability of the international normalized ratio (INR) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) who have had ≥6 months' exposure to warfarin anticoagulation for stroke prevention. Our objective was to describe INR control in NVAF patients who had been receiving warfarin for at least 6 months. Using retrospective patient data from the CoagClinic™ database, we analyzed data from NVAF patients treated with warfarin to assess the quality of INR control and possible predictors of poor INR control. Time within, above, and below the recommended INR range (2.0-3.0) was calculated for patients who had received warfarin for ≥6 months and had three or more INR values. The analysis also assessed INR patterns and resource utilization of patients with an INR >4.0. Logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with poor INR control. Patients (n = 9433) had an average of 1.6 measurements per 30 days. Mean follow-up time was 544 days. Approximately 39% of INR values were out of range, with 23% of INR values being <2.0 and 16% being >3.0. Mean percent time with INR in therapeutic range was 67%; INR <2.0 was 19% and INR >3.0 was 14%. Patients with more than one reading of INR >4.0 (~39%) required an average of one more visit and took 3 weeks to return to an in-range INR. Male sex and age >75 years were predictive of better INR control, whereas a history of heart failure or diabetes were predictive of out-of-range INR values. However, patient characteristics did not predict the likelihood of INR >4.0. Out-of-range INR values remain frequent in patients with NVAF treated with warfarin. Exposure to high INR values was common, resulting in increased resource utilization.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Apixaban Compared with Warfarin for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soyon; Mullin, Rachel; Blazawski, Jon; Coleman, Craig I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Apixaban was shown to be superior to adjusted-dose warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and at least one additional risk factor for stroke, and associated with reduced rates of hemorrhage. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of using apixaban for stroke prevention. Methods Based on the results from the Apixaban Versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial and other published studies, we constructed a Markov model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of apixaban versus warfarin from the Medicare perspective. The base-case analysis assumed a cohort of 65-year-old patients with a CHADS2 score of 2.1 and no contraindication to oral anticoagulation. We utilized a 2-week cycle length and a lifetime time horizon. Outcome measures included costs in 2012 US$, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life years saved and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results Under base case conditions, quality adjusted life expectancy was 10.69 and 11.16 years for warfarin and apixaban, respectively. Total costs were $94,941 for warfarin and $86,007 for apixaban, demonstrating apixaban to be a dominant economic strategy. Upon one-way sensitivity analysis, these results were sensitive to variability in the drug cost of apixaban and various intracranial hemorrhage related variables. In Monte Carlo simulation, apixaban was a dominant strategy in 57% of 10,000 simulations and cost-effective in 98% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per QALY. Conclusions In patients with AF and at least one additional risk factor for stroke and a baseline risk of ICH risk of about 0.8%, treatment with apixaban may be a cost-effective alternative to warfarin. PMID:23056642

  11. Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia and Re-Thrombosis Associated with Warfarin and Fondaparinux in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Scott H.; Wilimas, Judith A.; Wang, Winfred C.; Reiss, Ulrike M.

    2016-01-01

    An 11 year-old female developed heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) with thrombosis during therapy for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Transition from bivalirudin, a direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI), to warfarin resulted in extensive re-thrombosis, and fondaparinux therapy similarly failed. She was then treated with argatroban, and transitioned successfully to warfarin after nine weeks. The risk of re-thrombosis was ultimately reduced by allowing time for the thrombogenic potential to abate. The argatroban/warfarin transition was monitored with chromogenic factor X levels. This case highlights several difficult problems in pediatric thrombosis. PMID:19415734

  12. Cohort-specific imputation of gene expression improves prediction of warfarin dose for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Assaf; Daneshjou, Roxana; DeGorter, Marianne; Bourgeois, Stephane; Svensson, Peter J; Wadelius, Mia; Deloukas, Panos; Montgomery, Stephen B; Altman, Russ B

    2017-11-24

    Genome-wide association studies are useful for discovering genotype-phenotype associations but are limited because they require large cohorts to identify a signal, which can be population-specific. Mapping genetic variation to genes improves power and allows the effects of both protein-coding variation as well as variation in expression to be combined into "gene level" effects. Previous work has shown that warfarin dose can be predicted using information from genetic variation that affects protein-coding regions. Here, we introduce a method that improves dose prediction by integrating tissue-specific gene expression. In particular, we use drug pathways and expression quantitative trait loci knowledge to impute gene expression-on the assumption that differential expression of key pathway genes may impact dose requirement. We focus on 116 genes from the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathways of warfarin within training and validation sets comprising both European and African-descent individuals. We build gene-tissue signatures associated with warfarin dose in a cohort-specific manner and identify a signature of 11 gene-tissue pairs that significantly augments the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium dosage-prediction algorithm in both populations. Our results demonstrate that imputed expression can improve dose prediction and bridge population-specific compositions. MATLAB code is available at https://github.com/assafgo/warfarin-cohort.

  13. Association Between Dabigatran vs Warfarin and Risk of Osteoporotic Fractures Among Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lau, Wallis C Y; Chan, Esther W; Cheung, Ching-Lung; Sing, Chor Wing; Man, Kenneth K C; Lip, Gregory Y H; Siu, Chung-Wah; Lam, Joanne K Y; Lee, Alan C H; Wong, Ian C K

    2017-03-21

    The risk of osteoporotic fracture with dabigatran use in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is unknown. To investigate the risk of osteoporotic fracture with dabigatran vs warfarin in patients with NVAF. Retrospective cohort study using a population-wide database managed by the Hong Kong Hospital Authority. Patients newly diagnosed with NVAF from 2010 through 2014 and prescribed dabigatran or warfarin were matched by propensity score at a 1:2 ratio with follow-up until July 31, 2016. Dabigatran or warfarin use during the study period. Risk of osteoporotic hip fracture and vertebral fracture was compared between dabigatran and warfarin users using Poisson regression. The corresponding incidence rate ratio (IRR) and absolute risk difference (ARD) with 95% CIs were calculated. Among 51 496 patients newly diagnosed with NVAF, 8152 new users of dabigatran (n = 3268) and warfarin (n = 4884) were matched by propensity score (50% women; mean [SD] age, 74 [11] years). Osteoporotic fracture developed in 104 (1.3%) patients during follow-up (32 dabigatran users [1.0%]; 72 warfarin users [1.5%]). Results of Poisson regression analysis showed that dabigatran use was associated with a significantly lower risk of osteoporotic fracture compared with warfarin (0.7 vs 1.1 per 100 person-years; ARD per 100 person-years, -0.68 [95% CI, -0.38 to -0.86]; IRR, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.22 to 0.66]). The association with lower risk was statistically significant in patients with a history of falls, fractures, or both (dabigatran vs warfarin, 1.6 vs 3.6 per 100 person-years; ARD per 100 person-years, -3.15 [95% CI, -2.40 to -3.45]; IRR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.04 to 0.33]), but not in those without a history (0.6 vs 0.7 per 100 person-years; ARD per 100 person-years, -0.04 [95% CI, 0.67 to -0.39]; IRR, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.45 to 1.96]) (P value for interaction, <.001). Among adults with NVAF receiving anticoagulation, the use of dabigatran compared with warfarin was associated with a

  14. Clinical and genetic factors associated with warfarin maintenance dose in northern Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Cao, Jian; Zhang, Qian; Shi, Xin-Miao; Pan, Xiao-Dong; Dong, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The effects of genetic variants on warfarin dosing vary among different ethnic groups, especially in the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to recruit patients through a rigorous experimental design and to perform a comprehensive screen to identify gene polymorphisms that may influence warfarin dosing in northern Han Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. Consenting patients (n = 183) with a stable warfarin dose were included in this study. Ninety-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 30 genes involved in warfarin pharmacological pathways were genotyped using the Illumina SNP GoldenGate Assay, and their associations with warfarin dosing were assessed using univariate regression analysis with post hoc comparison using least significant difference analysis. Multiple linear regression was performed by incorporating patients’ clinical and genetic data to create a new algorithm for warfarin dosing. From the 96 SNPs analyzed, VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP1A2 rs2069514, CYP3A4 rs28371759, and APOE rs7412 were associated with higher average warfarin maintenance doses, whereas CYP2C9 rs1057910, EPHX1 rs2260863, and CYP4F2 rs2189784 were associated with lower warfarin doses (P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis could estimate 44.4% of warfarin dose variability consisting of, in decreasing order, VKORC1 rs9923231 (14.2%), CYP2C9∗3 (9.6%), body surface area (6.7%), CYP1A2 rs2069514 (3.7%), age (2.7%), CYP3A4 rs28371759 (2.5%), CYP4F2 rs2108622 (1.9%), APOE rs7412 (1.7%), and VKORC1 rs2884737 (1.4%). In the dosing algorithm we developed, we confirmed the strongest effects of VKORC1, CYP2C9 on warfarin dosing. In the limited sample set, we also found that novel genetic predictors (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, APOE, EPHX1, CYP4F2, and VKORC1 rs2884737) may be associated with warfarin dosing. Further validation is needed to assess our results in larger independent northern Chinese samples. PMID:28079798

  15. Extensive gluteal haematoma after an intracapsular hip fracture in a patient on warfarin

    PubMed Central

    Al-Obaidi, Bilal; Field, Michael H; Al-Hadithy, Nawfal; Griffiths, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of a patient on warfarin who developed an extensive haematoma after a hip hemiarthroplasty and was successfully treated with embolisation. This case highlights the importance of regular haematology input, careful consideration of a suitable surgical approach, close monitoring of postoperative wounds in patients on warfarin and the emerging role of embolisation. PMID:26113582

  16. Dabigatran Versus Warfarin After Bioprosthesis Valve Replacement for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation Postoperatively: DAWA Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Durães, André Rodrigues; de Souza Roriz, Pollianna; de Almeida Nunes, Bianca; Albuquerque, Felipe Pinho E; de Bulhões, Fábio Vieira; de Souza Fernandes, Andre Mauricio; Aras, Roque

    2016-06-01

    Dabigatran is a direct thrombin inhibitor shown to be an effective alternative to warfarin in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). We evaluated the use of dabigatran in patients with bioprosthetic mitral and/or aortic valve replacement and AF. We selected 34 and randomized 27 patients in a 1:1 ratio to receive dabigatran or warfarin. The primary endpoint was the presence of a new intracardiac thrombus at 90 days, by transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE). Secondary endpoints included the development of dense spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) and incidence of stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic), myocardium infarction, valve thrombosis and peripheral embolic events. The trial was terminated prematurely because of low enrollment. There were 27 patients in total: 15 patients placed in the dabigatran group and 12 in the warfarin group. After 90 days, one patient (8.3 %) in the warfarin group and none in the dabigatran group had developed a new intracardiac thrombus. In the dabigatran group, two patients (13.3 %) developed dense SEC versus one patient (8.3 %) in the warfarin group. In the warfarin group, one patient (8.3 %) presented ischemic stroke, and none did in the dabigatran group. We observed no cases of hemorrhagic stroke, valve thrombosis, embolic events or myocardial infarction in either group throughout the study. However, one patient (6.7 %) in the dabigatran group had a fully recovered transient ischemic attack and one patient in the warfarin group died of heart failure. The use of dabigatran appears to be similar to warfarin in preventing the formation of intracardiac thrombus. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01868243.

  17. The Impact of Genetic and Non-Genetic Factors on Warfarin Dose Prediction in MENA Region: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Warfarin is the most commonly used oral anticoagulant for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic disorders. Pharmacogenomics studies have shown that variants in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes are strongly and consistently associated with warfarin dose variability. Although different populations from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region may share the same ancestry, it is still unclear how they compare in the genetic and non-genetic factors affecting their warfarin dosing. Objective To explore the prevalence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants in MENA, and the effect of these variants along with other non-genetic factors in predicting warfarin dose. Methods In this systematic review, we included observational cross sectional and cohort studies that enrolled patients on stable warfarin dose and had the genetics and non-genetics factors associated with mean warfarin dose as the primary outcome. We searched PubMed, Medline, Scopus, PharmGKB, PHGKB, Google scholar and reference lists of relevant reviews. Results We identified 17 studies in eight different populations: Iranian, Israeli, Egyptian, Lebanese, Omani, Kuwaiti, Sudanese and Turkish. Most common genetic variant in all populations was the VKORC1 (-1639G>A), with a minor allele frequency ranging from 30% in Egyptians and up to 52% and 56% in Lebanese and Iranian, respectively. Variants in the CYP2C9 were less common, with the highest MAF for CYP2C9*2 among Iranians (27%). Variants in the VKORC1 and CYP2C9 were the most significant predictors of warfarin dose in all populations. Along with other genetic and non-genetic factors, they explained up to 63% of the dose variability in Omani and Israeli patients. Conclusion Variants of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are the strongest predictors of warfarin dose variability among the different populations from MENA. Although many of those populations share the same ancestry and are similar in their warfarin dose predictors, a population specific dosing algorithm is

  18. The Impact of Genetic and Non-Genetic Factors on Warfarin Dose Prediction in MENA Region: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bader, Loulia Akram; Elewa, Hazem

    2016-01-01

    Warfarin is the most commonly used oral anticoagulant for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic disorders. Pharmacogenomics studies have shown that variants in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes are strongly and consistently associated with warfarin dose variability. Although different populations from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region may share the same ancestry, it is still unclear how they compare in the genetic and non-genetic factors affecting their warfarin dosing. To explore the prevalence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants in MENA, and the effect of these variants along with other non-genetic factors in predicting warfarin dose. In this systematic review, we included observational cross sectional and cohort studies that enrolled patients on stable warfarin dose and had the genetics and non-genetics factors associated with mean warfarin dose as the primary outcome. We searched PubMed, Medline, Scopus, PharmGKB, PHGKB, Google scholar and reference lists of relevant reviews. We identified 17 studies in eight different populations: Iranian, Israeli, Egyptian, Lebanese, Omani, Kuwaiti, Sudanese and Turkish. Most common genetic variant in all populations was the VKORC1 (-1639G>A), with a minor allele frequency ranging from 30% in Egyptians and up to 52% and 56% in Lebanese and Iranian, respectively. Variants in the CYP2C9 were less common, with the highest MAF for CYP2C9*2 among Iranians (27%). Variants in the VKORC1 and CYP2C9 were the most significant predictors of warfarin dose in all populations. Along with other genetic and non-genetic factors, they explained up to 63% of the dose variability in Omani and Israeli patients. Variants of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are the strongest predictors of warfarin dose variability among the different populations from MENA. Although many of those populations share the same ancestry and are similar in their warfarin dose predictors, a population specific dosing algorithm is needed for the prospective estimation of warfarin

  19. Bleeding events among new starters and switchers to dabigatran compared with warfarin in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Skjøth, Flemming; Rosenzweig, Mary; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2014-07-01

    The bleeding risk among patients with atrial fibrillation is higher early after initiating therapy with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Evidence is limited on how prior VKA experience affects bleeding risk when initiating novel oral anticoagulant therapy. We investigated this among patients with atrial fibrillation initiating dabigatran therapy. By using nationwide Danish prescription and patient registries, we identified 11,315 first-time dabigatran users with atrial fibrillation. Warfarin controls were matched in a 2:1 ratio according to VKA experience status. The average follow-up time was 13 months. Across the 6 combinations of treatment (dabigatran 110 mg, dabigatran 150 mg, and warfarin) and VKA experience status (naive or experienced), VKA-naïve warfarin initiators had the highest rate of any bleeding event. Cox regressions adjusted for baseline characteristics showed reductions relative to this group ranging from 19% for VKA-experienced dabigatran 110 mg users (hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-1.00) to 41% for VKA-experienced dabigatran 150 mg users (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.46-0.75). Among switchers to dabigatran from warfarin, when comparing with warfarin-persisting users, the rate of any bleeding was nonsignificantly decreased for switchers to dabigatran 150 mg (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.62-1.03) but not for switchers to dabigatran 110 mg (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.90-1.41). Results for major bleeding were similar. Crude rates of fatal, intracranial, and gastrointestinal bleeding were low. VKA-naïve warfarin initiators had the highest overall bleeding rate. We found no evidence of marked excess of overall bleeding events when comparing dabigatran with warfarin users, irrespective of prior VKA experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Australian pharmacies prevent potential adverse reactions in patients taking warfarin requesting over-the-counter analgesia.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Brett V; Bergin, Jenny K; Reeves, Peter; Matthews, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this article was to assess if Australian pharmacy staff prevent potential adverse reactions in warfarin patients requesting over-the-counter (OTC) analgesia. Mystery shoppers entered 170 pharmacies across Australia to request OTC analgesia for a hypothetical patient with a wrist injury who currently takes warfarin following a heart valve replacement. The request was made to the first pharmacist or non-pharmacist staff member to approach the mystery shopper. The interaction was audio-taped and assessed by a pharmacist. The OTC analgesic recommended was assessed for the potential to cause an adverse bleeding event. The quality of advice given with the OTC analgesic was assessed against determined criteria. Results were compared with scenarios of similar request type where the hypothetical patient was not taking warfarin. Mystery shoppers enquiring about taking OTC analgesics concomitantly with warfarin had access to the pharmacist in 97.0% of cases. All 170 pharmacies recommended OTC analgesics that were less likely to cause adverse events when taken with warfarin. The advice given and the communication between pharmacy staff and mystery shoppers were of high quality. Australian pharmacies support the quality use of medicines by patients taking warfarin by providing expeditious access to the pharmacist, appropriate recommendations of OTC analgesics, high standards of quality of advice and they communicate in a way to ensure ease of understanding by the consumer. The protocols used by pharmacy staff help prevent potentially serious adverse drug events. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Healthcare costs associated with rivaroxaban or warfarin use for the treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Craig I; Baugh, Christopher; Crivera, Concetta; Milentijevic, Dejan; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Lu, Lang; Nelson, Winnie W

    2017-02-01

    Rivaroxaban has been shown to have similar efficacy but less major bleeding than warfarin in randomized trials of patients experiencing venous thromboembolism (VTE). This report sought to assess healthcare costs up to 12-months following an index VTE in patients prescribed either rivaroxaban or warfarin. This study analyzed claims from the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database from November 2011-July 2015. It selected adults newly-diagnosed with VTE (deep vein thrombosis [DVT] or pulmonary embolism [PE]) if they had an outpatient prescription claim for rivaroxaban or warfarin within 7-days of the index event. Warfarin users were 2:1 propensity-score matched to rivaroxaban users and followed until the end of insurance coverage, end of data availability or 12-months of follow-up. Total per patient healthcare costs, including inpatient, outpatient, and overall pharmacy costs, were compared using a multivariable generalized linear model. In total, 10,929 rivaroxaban patients were matched to 21,858 warfarin patients. Mean follow-up for rivaroxaban and warfarin patients was 317- and 321-days for those experiencing an index DVT, and 313- and 318-days for those with PE. Mean overall treatment costs per patient were lower for rivaroxaban vs warfarin users (-$1,116, p = .0016). This cost difference was driven by lower inpatient (-$622) and outpatient (-$1,156) treatment costs, and the higher pharmacy costs ($661) were, therefore, fully offset. Results were similar when analysis was restricted to DVT patients. No significant difference in total costs was observed in patients experiencing an index PE. Claims databases are subject to inaccuracies and missing data. Prescription claims may not fully reflect actual medication utilization. Despite propensity-score matching and regression, residual confounding cannot be excluded. Rivaroxaban was associated with significantly lower total per patient VTE treatment costs, despite higher pharmacy costs. These savings

  2. The impact of pre-injury direct oral anticoagulants compared to warfarin in geriatric G-60 trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Barletta, J F; Hall, S; Sucher, J F; Dzandu, J K; Haley, M; Mangram, A J

    2017-08-01

    Pre-injury oral anticoagulants are associated with worse outcomes in geriatric (G-60) trauma patients, but there are limited data comparing warfarin with direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC). We sought to compare outcomes in G-60 trauma patients taking pre-injury DOACs vs. warfarin. All trauma patients, age ≥60 who were admitted to the hospital and taking an oral anticoagulant pre-injury were retrospectively identified. Patients were excluded if their reason for admission was a suicide attempt or penetrating extremity injury. Outcome measures included blood transfusions, hospital LOS, and mortality. A second analysis was performed, whereby patients were matched using ISS and age. There were 3,941 patients identified; 331 had documentation of anticoagulant use, pre-injury (warfarin, n = 237; DOAC, n = 94). Demographics were similar, but ISS [9 (4-13) vs. 8 (4-9), p = .027], initial INR [2.2 (1.8-2.9) vs. 1.2 (1.1-1.5), p < .001], and the use of pharmacologic reversal agents (48 vs. 14%, p < .001) were higher in the warfarin group. There was no difference in the use of blood transfusions (24 vs. 17%, p = .164) or mortality (5.9 vs. 4.3%, p = .789) between warfarin and DOAC groups, respectively. However, LOS was longer in the warfarin group [5 (3-7.5) vs. 4 (2-6.3) days, p = .02]. Matched analysis showed no difference in blood transfusions (23 vs. 17%, p = .276), mortality (2.1 vs. 4.3%, p = .682) or LOS [5 (3-7) vs. 4 (2-6.3) days, p = .158] between warfarin and DOAC groups, respectively. Pre-injury DOACs are not associated with worse clinical outcomes compared to warfarin in G-60 trauma patients. Higher use of pharmacologic reversal agents with warfarin may be related to differences in mechanism of action and effect on INR.

  3. Warfarin Initiation, Atrial Fibrillation, and Kidney Function: Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Warfarin in Older Adults With Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Jun, Min; James, Matthew T; Ma, Zhihai; Zhang, Jianguo; Tonelli, Marcello; McAlister, Finlay A; Manns, Braden J; Ravani, Pietro; Quinn, Robert R; Wiebe, Natasha; Perkovic, Vlado; Wilton, Stephen B; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2017-06-01

    The effectiveness and safety of warfarin use among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and reduced kidney function are uncertain. Community-based retrospective cohort study (May 1, 2003, to March 31, 2012) using province-wide laboratory and administrative data in Alberta, Canada. 14,892 adults 66 years or older with new AF and a measurement of kidney function. Long-term dialysis patients or kidney transplant recipients were excluded. Propensity scores were used to construct a matched-pairs cohort of patients with AF who did and did not have a warfarin prescription within a 60-day period surrounding their AF diagnosis. Within 1 year of initiating warfarin therapy (or the matched date for nonusers): (1) the composite of all-cause death, ischemic stroke, or transient ischemic attack (also assessed as separate end points) and (2) first hospitalization or emergency department visit for a major bleeding episode defined as an intracranial, upper or lower gastrointestinal, or other bleeding. Baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the CKD-EPI creatinine equation. Patients were matched within estimated GFR (eGFR) categories: ≥90, 60 to 89, 45 to 59, 30 to 44, and <30mL/min/1.73m 2 . Information for baseline characteristics (sociodemographics, comorbid conditions, and prescription drug use) was obtained. Across eGFR categories, warfarin therapy initiation was associated with lower risk for the composite outcome compared to nonuse (adjusted HRs [95% CI] for eGFR categories ≥ 90, 60-89, 45-59, 30-44, and <30mL/min/1.73m 2 : 0.59 [0.35-1.01], 0.61 [0.54-0.70], 0.55 [0.47-0.65], 0.54 [0.44-0.67], and 0.64 [0.47-0.87] mL/min/1.73m 2 , respectively). Compared to nonuse, warfarin therapy was not associated with higher risk for major bleeding except for those with eGFRs of 60 to 89mL/min/1.73m 2 (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.64). Selection bias. Among older adults with AF, warfarin therapy initiation was associated with a significantly lower 1-year risk

  4. Warfarin use and the risk of mortality, stroke, and bleeding in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Kai, Brandon; Bogorad, Yuliya; Nguyen, Leigh-Anh N; Yang, Su-Jau; Chen, Wansu; Spencer, Hillard T; Shen, Albert Y-J; Lee, Ming-Sum

    2017-05-01

    The optimal management of stroke prophylaxis in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of mortality, stroke, and bleeding associated with the use of warfarin in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation. This was a retrospective, population-based study of hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation between January 1, 2006, and September 30, 2015. Association of warfarin use with mortality, stroke, and bleeding was determined by propensity score-matched, Cox proportional hazard models. Among the 4286 patients with atrial fibrillation on hemodialysis, 989 (23%) were prescribed warfarin. Propensity score matching was used to identify 888 matched pairs with similar baseline characteristics. Warfarin use was associated with lower risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-0.84) and lower risk of ischemic stroke (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.52-0.91). Warfarin use was not associated with a higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.6-2.2) or gastrointestinal bleeding (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.77-1.2). The treatment effect was largest in the group with the best international normalized ratio control as measured by time in therapeutic range. Subgroup analyses showed warfarin use was associated with survival benefit in most subgroups. The 2 subgroups that did not benefit were patients with a history of hemorrhagic stroke and patients with concurrent aspirin use. Warfarin use is associated with lower all-cause mortality and ischemic stroke, without significantly increasing the risk of bleeding in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Outcomes of Dabigatran and Warfarin for Atrial Fibrillation in Contemporary Practice: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Go, Alan S; Singer, Daniel E; Toh, Sengwee; Cheetham, T Craig; Reichman, Marsha E; Graham, David J; Southworth, Mary Ross; Zhang, Rongmei; Izem, Rima; Goulding, Margie R; Houstoun, Monika; Mott, Katrina; Sung, Sue Hee; Gagne, Joshua J

    2017-12-19

    Dabigatran (150 mg twice daily) has been associated with lower rates of stroke than warfarin in trials of atrial fibrillation, but large-scale evaluations in clinical practice are limited. To compare incidence of stroke, bleeding, and myocardial infarction in patients receiving dabigatran versus warfarin in practice. Retrospective cohort. National U.S. Food and Drug Administration Sentinel network. Adults with atrial fibrillation initiating dabigatran or warfarin therapy between November 2010 and May 2014. Ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, extracranial bleeding, and myocardial infarction identified from hospital claims among propensity score-matched patients starting treatment with dabigatran or warfarin. Among 25 289 patients starting dabigatran therapy and 25 289 propensity score-matched patients starting warfarin therapy, those receiving dabigatran did not have significantly different rates of ischemic stroke (0.80 vs. 0.94 events per 100 person-years; hazard ratio [HR], 0.92 [95% CI, 0.65 to 1.28]) or extracranial hemorrhage (2.12 vs. 2.63 events per 100 person-years; HR, 0.89 [CI, 0.72 to 1.09]) but were less likely to have intracranial bleeding (0.39 vs. 0.77 events per 100 person-years; HR, 0.51 [CI, 0.33 to 0.79]) and more likely to have myocardial infarction (0.77 vs. 0.43 events per 100 person-years; HR, 1.88 [CI, 1.22 to 2.90]). However, the strength and significance of the association between dabigatran use and myocardial infarction varied in sensitivity analyses and by exposure definition (HR range, 1.13 [CI, 0.78 to 1.64] to 1.43 [CI, 0.99 to 2.08]). Older patients and those with kidney disease had higher gastrointestinal bleeding rates with dabigatran. Inability to examine outcomes by dabigatran dose (unacceptable covariate balance between matched patients) or quality of warfarin anticoagulation (few patients receiving warfarin had available international normalized ratio values). In matched adults with atrial fibrillation treated in

  6. Case Series Analysis of New Zealand Reports of Rapid Intense Potentiation of Warfarin by Roxithromycin.

    PubMed

    Savage, Ruth L; Tatley, Michael V

    2018-05-01

    We undertook an analysis of all the reports to the New Zealand Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring of a roxithromycin/warfarin interaction after two recent reports described intense rapid warfarin potentiation. The interaction was first published in 1995. Cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition has been the proposed mechanism but has limited biologic plausibility. There are suggestions that the clinical significance of the interaction may be increased by severe illness, polypharmacy, renal dysfunction, older age and increased warfarin sensitivity. To investigate the potentiating effect of warfarin on roxithromycin in this New Zealand case series, the reports were reviewed to identify patients at risk, compare the reporting pattern with published Australian data and evaluate the appropriateness of current prescribing advice. Thirty patient reports were identified. The age range was 23-88 years, mean 66.8, median 73.0 (standard deviation 17.7) and the international normalised ratios after roxithromycin commencement ranged from 3.6 to 16.7 (mean 7.6, median 7.6, standard deviation 3.6). For eight patients with measurements on day 3, international normalised ratios were 4.3-16.7 (mean 10.4, median 8.8, standard deviation 4.4). Four patients had serious haemorrhage. Indications for roxithromycin were a range of respiratory tract infections. Anticoagulation was stable for most patients prior to acute infection. Serious infection occurred in 54.5% (12 of 22 patients with information). Polypharmacy (five or more medicines daily) was used by 36.7% of patients long term, increasing acutely to 83.3%, including additional potentially interacting medicines. Warfarin daily dose (1.5-13.0 mg, mean 4.4, median 4.0, standard deviation 2.2) was moderate to low. Pre-roxithromycin international normalised ratio values ranged from 1.4 to 3.7, mean and median 2.5, standard deviation 0.5. A high proportion of interactions were observed between warfarin and roxithromycin compared with other

  7. Probable interaction between warfarin and rifaximin in a patient treated for small intestine bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Justin Thomas; Hartig, Christine; Sonbol, Eyman; Lang, Megan

    2011-05-01

    To report a case in which the anticoagulant effects of warfarin were attenuated during concomitant administration of rifaximin, possibly through induction of CYP3A4 following increased absorption of rifaximin in a patient with small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). A 49-year-old African American female had received effective anticoagulant therapy for 5 months with a target international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.0-3.5 on a warfarin regimen of 7.5 mg daily. Five days following initiation of rifaximin 400 mg 3 times daily to treat SIBO, her INR had fallen to 1.2 and remained suppressed throughout the duration of her rifaximin regimen despite incremental warfarin dosage increases (highest dose, 15 mg/day for 2 days, followed by 11.25 mg/day). Twelve days after completion of the rifaximin treatment course, the INR was supratherapeutic at 4.2, requiring titration to her baseline warfarin dosage to achieve an INR within the target range. Similar results were obtained following rechallenge with rifaximin. Rifaximin has been shown in vitro to induce the CYP3A4 enzyme for which the R-isomer of warfarin is a known substrate. The lack of in vivo CYP3A4 induction with rifaximin in other patient populations has repeatedly been attributed to its minimal oral bioavailability, while a recent study found that patients with SIBO had a clinically significant increase in intestinal permeability. In this patient population it is plausible that rifaximin bioavailability increases enough to induce CYP3A4, leading to clinically significant reductions in the bioavailability of CYP3A4 substrates, including R-warfarin. An objective causality assessment of this case revealed that a warfarin-rifaximin interaction was probable. No other drug dosages were altered during the timeframe in question, and the patient had an impeccable medication adherence history; we therefore ruled out these potential etiologies. To our knowledge, an interaction between warfarin and rifaximin has not been

  8. Costs of hospital visits among patients with deep vein thrombosis treated with rivaroxaban and LMWH/warfarin.

    PubMed

    Merli, Geno J; Hollander, Judd E; Lefebvre, Patrick; Laliberté, François; Raut, Monika K; Germain, Guillaume; Bookhart, Brahim; Pollack, Charles V

    2016-01-01

    For many years, the standard of care for patients diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has been low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) bridging to an oral Vitamin-K antagonist (VKA). The availability of new non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOAC) agents as monotherapy may reduce the likelihood of hospitalization for DVT patients. To compare hospital visit costs of DVT patients treated with rivaroxaban and LMWH/warfarin. A retrospective claim analysis was conducted using the MarketScan Hospital Drug Database for care provided between January 2011 and December 2013. Adult patients using rivaroxaban or LMWH/warfarin with a primary diagnosis of DVT during the first day of a hospital visit were identified (i.e., index hospital visit). Based on propensity-score methods, historical LMWH/warfarin patients (i.e., patients who received LMWH/warfarin before the approval of rivaroxaban) were matched 4:1 to rivaroxaban patients. The hospital-visit cost difference between these groups was evaluated for the index hospital visit, as well as for total hospital-visit costs (i.e., including index and subsequent hospital visit costs). All rivaroxaban users (n = 134) in the database were well-matched with four LMWH/warfarin users (n = 536). The mean hospital-visit costs were $5257 for the rivaroxaban cohort and $6764 in the matched-cohort of patients using LMWH/warfarin. The $1508 cost difference was statistically significant between cohorts (95% CI = [-$2296; -$580]; p-value = 0.002). Total hospital-visit costs were lower for rivaroxaban compared to LMWH/warfarin users within 1, 2, 3, and 6 months after index visit (significantly lower within 1 and 3 months, p-values <0.05) LIMITATIONS: Limitations were inherent to administrative-claims data, completeness of baseline characteristics, adjustments restricted to observational factors, and lastly the sample size of the rivaroxaban cohort. The availability of rivaroxaban significantly reduced the costs of hospital visits in

  9. Contribution of rivaroxaban to the international normalized ratio when switching to warfarin for anticoagulation as determined by simulation studies

    PubMed Central

    Siegmund, Hans-Ulrich; Burghaus, Rolf; Kubitza, Dagmar; Coboeken, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study evaluated the influence of rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily on international normalized ratio (INR) during the co-administration period when switching from rivaroxaban to warfarin. Methods We developed a calibrated coagulation model that was qualified with phase I clinical data. Prothrombin time and INR values were simulated by use of phospholipid concentrations that matched Neoplastin Plus® and Innovin® reagents. To simulate the combined effects of rivaroxaban and warfarin on INR during switching, warfarin initiation was simulated by adjusting the magnitude of the warfarin effect to reach the desired target INRs over the course of 21 days. The warfarin effect values (obtained every 6 h) and the desired rivaroxaban plasma concentrations were used. Nomograms were generated from rivaroxaban induced increases in INR. Results The simulation had good prediction quality. Rivaroxaban induced increases in the total INR from the warfarin attributed INR were seen, which increased with rivaroxaban plasma concentration. When the warfarin only INR was 2.0–3.0, the INR contribution of rivaroxaban with Neoplastin Plus® was 0.5–1.2, decreasing to 0.3–0.6 with Innovin® at median trough rivaroxaban plasma concentrations (38 μg l−1). Conclusions The data indicate that measuring warfarin induced changes in INR are best performed at trough rivaroxaban concentrations (24 h after rivaroxaban dosing) during the co-administration period when switching from rivaroxaban to warfarin. Furthermore, Innovin® is preferable to Neoplastin Plus® because of its substantially lower sensitivity to rivaroxaban, thereby reducing the influence of rivaroxaban on the measured INR. PMID:25510952

  10. Warfarin versus aspirin in patients with reduced cardiac ejection fraction (WARCEF): rationale, objectives, and design.

    PubMed

    Pullicino, Patrick; Thompson, John L P; Barton, Bruce; Levin, Bruce; Graham, Susan; Freudenberger, Ronald S

    2006-02-01

    Warfarin is widely prescribed for patients with heart failure without level 1 evidence, and an adequately powered randomized study is needed. The Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction study is a National Institutes of Health-funded, randomized, double-blind clinical trial with a target enrollment of 2860 patients. It is designed to test with 90% power the 2-sided primary null hypothesis of no difference between warfarin (International Normalized Ratio 2.5-3) and aspirin (325 mg) in 3- to 5-year event-free survival for the composite endpoint of death, or stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) among patients with cardiac ejection fraction < or =35% who do not have atrial fibrillation or mechanical prosthetic heart valves. Secondary analyses will compare warfarin and aspirin for reduction of all-cause mortality, ischemic stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI), balanced against the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage, among women and African Americans; and compare warfarin and aspirin for prevention of stroke alone. Randomization is stratified by site, New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart class (I vs II-IV), and stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) within 1 year before randomization versus no stroke or TIA in that period. NYHA class I patients will not exceed 20%, and the study has a target of 20% (or more) patients with stroke or TIA within 12 months. Randomized patients receive active warfarin plus placebo or active aspirin plus placebo, double-blind. The results should help guide the selection of optimum antithrombotic therapy for patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

  11. Drug interactions and risk of acute bleeding leading to hospitalisation or death in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation treated with warfarin.

    PubMed

    Gasse, Christiane; Hollowell, Jennifer; Meier, Christoph R; Haefeli, Walter E

    2005-09-01

    Although drug interactions with warfarin are an important cause of excessive anticoagulation, their impact on the risk of serious bleeding is unknown. We therefore performed a cohort study and a nested case-control analysis to determine the risk of serious bleeding in 4152 patients (aged 40-84 years) with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) taking long-term warfarin (> 3 months). The study population was drawn from the UK General Practice Research Database. More than half (58%) of eligible patients used potentially interacting drugs during continuous warfarin treatment. Among 45 identified cases of incident idiopathic bleeds (resulting in hospitalisation within 30 days or death within 7 days) and 143 matched controls, more cases than controls took > or = 1 potentially interacting drug within the preceding 30 days (62.2% vs. 35.7%) and used > 4 drugs (polypharmacy) within the preceding 90 days (80.0% vs. 66.4%). Conditional logistic regression analysis yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-8.5) for the risk of serious bleeding in patients treated with warfarin and > or = 1 drugs potentially increasing the effect of warfarin vs. warfarin alone adjusted for polypharmacy, diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, and thyroid disease; the adjusted OR for the combined use of warfarin and aspirin vs. warfarin alone was 4.5 (95% CI: 1.1-18.1). We conclude that concurrent use of potentially interacting drugs with warfarin is associated with a 3 to 4.5-fold increased risk of serious bleeding in long-term warfarin users.

  12. Integrated analysis of genetic variation and gene expression reveals novel variant for increased warfarin dose requirement in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, W; Gamazon, E R; Aquino-Michaels, K; Smithberger, E; O'Brien, T J; Harralson, A F; Tuck, M; Barbour, A; Cavallari, L H; Perera, M A

    2017-04-01

    Essentials Genetic variants controlling gene regulation have not been explored in pharmacogenomics. We tested liver expression quantitative trait loci for association with warfarin dose response. A novel predictor for increased warfarin dose response in African Americans was identified. Precision medicine must take into account population-specific variation in gene regulation. Background Warfarin is commonly used to control and prevent thromboembolic disorders. However, because of warfarin's complex dose-requirement relationship, safe and effective use is challenging. Pharmacogenomics-guided warfarin dosing algorithms that include the well-established VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms explain only a small proportion of inter-individual variability in African Americans (AAs). Objectives We aimed to assess whether transcriptomic analyses could be used to identify regulatory variants associated with warfarin dose response in AAs. Patients/Methods We identified a total of 56 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CALU derived from human livers and evaluated their association with warfarin dose response in two independent AA warfarin patient cohorts. Results We found that rs4889606, a strong cis-eQTL for VKORC1 (log 10 Bayes Factor = 12.02), is significantly associated with increased warfarin daily dose requirement (β = 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46 to 1.8) in the discovery cohort (n = 305) and in the replication cohort (β = 1.04; 95% CI 0.33 -1.7; n = 141) after conditioning on relevant covariates and the VKORC1 -1639G>A (rs9923231) variant. Inclusion of rs4889606 genotypes, along with CYP2C9 alleles, rs9923231 genotypes and clinical variables, explained 31% of the inter-patient variability in warfarin dose requirement. We demonstrate different linkage disequilibrium patterns in the region encompassing rs4889606 and rs9923231 between AAs and European Americans, which may explain the increased dose requirement found in AAs. Conclusion

  13. Warfarin time in therapeutic range and its impact on healthcare resource utilization and costs among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Deitelzweig, Steve; Evans, Michael; Hillson, Eric; Trocio, Jeffrey; Bruno, Amanda; Tan, Wilson; Lingohr-Smith, Melissa; Singh, Prianka; Lin, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Warfarin is efficacious for reducing stroke risk among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). However, the efficacy and safety of warfarin are influenced by its time in therapeutic range (TTR). To assess differences in healthcare resource utilization and costs among NVAF patients with low (<60%) and high (≥60%) warfarin TTRs in an integrated delivery network (IDN) setting. Patients with NVAF were identified from an electronic medical record database. Patients were required to have ≥6 international normalized prothrombin time ratio (INR) tests. NVAF patients were grouped into two cohorts: those with warfarin TTR <60% (low TTR) and those with warfarin TTR ≥60% (high TTR). Healthcare resource utilization and costs were evaluated during a 12 month follow-up period. Multivariable regressions were used to assess the impact of different warfarin TTRs on healthcare costs. Among the study population, greater than half (54%, n = 1595) had a low TTR, and 46% (n = 1356) had a high TTR. Total all-cause healthcare resource utilization was higher among patients in the low TTR cohort vs. the high TTR cohort (number of encounters: 70.2 vs. 56.1, p < 0.001). After adjusting for patient characteristics, total all-cause healthcare costs and stroke-related healthcare costs were $2398 (p < 0.001) and $687 (p = 0.02) higher, respectively, for patients in the low TTR cohort vs. the high TTR cohort. In this retrospective study, we were only able to evaluate the association and not the causality between healthcare resource utilization and costs with the different warfarin TTRs. Many warfarin-treated NVAF patients have a low warfarin TTR. NVAF patients with low vs. patients with high warfarin TTR used healthcare resources to a greater extent, which was reflected in higher healthcare costs.

  14. In Potential Stroke Patients on Warfarin, the International Normalized Ratio Predicts Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Cao, Cathy; Martinelli, Ashley; Spoelhof, Brian; Llinas, Rafael H; Marsh, Elisabeth B

    2017-01-01

    Stroke can occur in patients on warfarin despite anticoagulation. Patients with a low international normalized ratio (INR) should theoretically be at greater risk for ischemia than those who are therapeutic. Therefore, INR may be able to indicate whether new neurological deficits are more likely strokes or stroke mimics in patients on warfarin. This study evaluates the association and predictive value of INR in determining the likelihood of ischemia. Patients were identified using the acute stroke registry at a Primary Stroke Center from January 2013 through December 2014. All adult patients undergoing evaluation for acute stroke with prior documented use of warfarin and an INR level at presentation were included. Data were collected regarding patient demographics, medical comorbidities, stroke severity, reason for anticoagulation, and laboratory studies including INR. Student t tests and χ2 analysis were used to evaluate factors associated with increased likelihood of ischemia (stroke or transient ischemic attack) versus mimic. Significant results were entered into a multivariable regression analysis. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were conducted to determine the predictive value of INR for ischemic risk. 116 patients were included; 46 were diagnosed with ischemia, 70 were diagnosed as mimics. 75% of patients were on warfarin for atrial fibrillation versus 25% for venous thrombosis. A statistically significant difference in mean INR for patients with ischemia (n = 46) versus mimics (n = 70) was observed (1.7 vs. 2.8; p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, both sub-therapeutic INR (p < 0.001) and atrial fibrillation (p = 0.014) were predictors of ischemia. In patients with an INR ≥2, the predictive value of having a non-ischemic etiology was 79%. No patient with an INR of ≥3.6 was found to have ischemia. Sub-therapeutic INR and atrial fibrillation are strongly associated with ischemia in patients on warfarin presenting with acute neurologic symptoms

  15. [The randomized study of efficiency and safety of antithrombotic therapy in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: warfarin compared with aspirin].

    PubMed

    Hu, Da-yi; Zhang, He-ping; Sun, Yi-hong; Jiang, Li-qing

    2006-04-01

    To investigate whether warfarin is more effective and superior to aspirin for the prevention of thromboembolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in Chinese. In a multicenter randomized trial, the patients diagnosed as nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were randomized to receive aspirin 150 mg - 160 mg once daily or adjusted-dose warfarin (international normalized ratio, 2.0 - 3.0). We compared the effect of the two therapy on the primary end point of ischemic stroke or death from any cause and on the combined end-point (stroke, death, peripheral arteries embolism, TIA, acute myocardial infarction, serious bleeding) during a median follow-up period of 19 months. Of the 704 patients, 420 (59.7%) were male. The average patient age was (63.3 +/- 9.9) years. The median follow-up period is 19 months. The mean dose of warfarin was (3.2 +/- 0.7) mg. Compared with aspirin, the primary end point of death or ischemic stroke was reduced by warfarin (2.7% vs 6.0%, P = 0.03, OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.198 - 0.960) and the relative risk decreased by 56%. The thromboembolism event in the aspirin group was significantly higher than that in warfarin group (10.6% vs 5.4%, P = 0.01, OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.269 - 0.858). There was no significant differences of the mortality rate between the two groups (1.2% vs 2.2%, P > 0.05). The secondary end point was nonsignificantly reduced in warfarin group than that in aspirin group, while the combined end point is statistically decreased by adjusted-dose warfarin (8.4% vs 13.0%, P = 0.047). Warfarin treatment was associated with increased bleeding rate compared to aspirin (6.9% vs 2.4%, P < 0.05), although the major bleeding rate is rather low (1.5%). All the major bleeding events occurred with INR above 3.0. Randomized control study demonstrated that anticoagulation with adjusted-dosed warfarin (INR 2.0 - 3.0) can significantly reduced the risk of thromboembolism event with slightly increased hemorrhage, compared to aspirin in Chinese population. Under

  16. Prostate cancer-specific survival among warfarin users in the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Pete T T; Murtola, Teemu J; Talala, Kirsi; Taari, Kimmo; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi

    2017-08-29

    Venous thromboembolic events (VTE) are common in cancer patients and associated with higher mortality. In vivo thrombosis and anticoagulation might be involved in tumor growth and progression. We studied the association of warfarin and other anticoagulant use as antithrombotic medication and prostate cancer (PCa) death in men with the disease. The study included 6,537 men diagnosed with PCa during 1995-2009. Information on anticoagulant use was obtained from a national reimbursement registry. Cox regression with adjustment for age, PCa risk group, primary therapy and use of other medication was performed to compare risk of PCa death between warfarin users with 1) men using other types of anticoagulants and 2) non-users of anticoagulants. Medication use was analyzed as a time-dependent variable to minimize immortal time bias. In total, 728 men died from PCa during a median follow-up of 9 years. Compared to anticoagulant non-users, post-diagnostic use of warfarin was associated with an increased risk of PCa death (overall HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.13-1.93). However, this was limited to low-dose, low-intensity use. Otherwise, the risk was similar to anticoagulant non-users. Additionally, we found no risk difference between warfarin and other types of anticoagulants. Pre-diagnostic use of warfarin was not associated with the risk of PCa death. We found no reduction in risk of PCa death associated with warfarin use. Conversely, the risk was increased in short-term use, which is probably explained by a higher risk of thrombotic events prompting warfarin use in patients with terminal PCa.

  17. Reduced anticoagulation variability in patients on warfarin monitored with Fiix-prothrombin time associates with reduced thromboembolism: The Fiix-trial.

    PubMed

    Oskarsdóttir, Alma Rut; Gudmundsdottir, Brynja R; Indridason, Olafur S; Lund, Sigrun H; Arnar, David O; Bjornsson, Einar S; Magnusson, Magnus K; Jensdottir, Hulda M; Vidarsson, Brynjar; Francis, Charles W; Onundarson, Pall T

    2017-05-01

    Fiix-prothrombin time (Fiix-PT) differs from traditional PT in being affected by reduced factor (F) II or FX only. In the randomized controlled Fiix-trial, patients on warfarin monitored with Fiix-PT (Fiix-warfarin patients) had fewer thromboembolisms (TE), similar major bleeding (MB) and more stable anticoagulation than patients monitored with PT (PT-warfarin patients). In the current Fiix-trial report we analyzed how reduced anticoagulation variability during Fiix-PT monitoring was reflected in patients with TE or bleeding. Data from 1143 randomized patients was used. We analyzed the groups for anticoagulation intensity (time within target range; TTR), international normalized ratio (INR) variability (variance growth rate B 1 ; VGR) and dose adjustment frequency. We assessed how these parameters associated with clinically relevant vascular events (CRVE), ie TE or MB or clinically relevant non-MB. TTR was highest in Fiix-warfarin patients without CRVE (median 82%;IQR 72-91) and lowest in PT-warfarin patients with TE (62%;56-81). VGR was lowest in Fiix-warfarin patients without CRVE (median VGR B 1 0.17; 95% CI 0.08-0.38) and with TE (0.20;0.07-0.26) and highest in PT-warfarin patients with TE (0.50;0.27-0.90) or MB (0.59;0.07-1.36). The mean annual dose adjustment frequency was lowest in Fiix-warfarin patients with TE (mean 5.4;95% CI 3.9-7.3) and without CRVE (mean 6.0; 5.8-6.2) and highest in PT-warfarin patients with TE (14.2;12.2-16.3). Frequent dose changes predicted MB in both study arms. Compared to patients monitored with PT, high anticoagulation stability in Fiix-warfarin patients coincided with their low TE rate. Those with bleeding had high variability irrespective of monitoring method. Thus, although further improvements are needed to reduce bleeding, stabilization of anticoagulation by Fiix-PT monitoring associates with reduced TE.

  18. Influence of Successful Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Treatment with Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir on Warfarin Dosing Requirements in Four Veterans.

    PubMed

    Britnell, Sara R; Willets, Amy E; Vanderman, Adam J; Woodard, Catherine L; Britt, Rachel B

    2016-11-01

    To describe international normalized ratio (INR) trends and warfarin dosage adjustments required for four veterans who were receiving warfarin therapy and started treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin. Case series. Pharmacist-led anticoagulation clinic in a Veterans Affairs Health Care System. Four patients aged 59-66 years who were receiving warfarin and had stable, therapeutic INRs and started ledipasvir/sofosbuvir therapy with or without ribavirin for HCV infection. All four patients developed subtherapeutic INRs after the addition of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin. An increase in weekly warfarin dose ranging from 14-67% was required, with changes in warfarin doses starting 2-3 weeks after ledipasvir/sofosbuvir initiation. Two patients required dose reductions after HCV treatment completion, whereas the other two did not. Use of the Drug Interaction Probability Scale indicated that the interaction between warfarin and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir was doubtful (score of 1 [two patients]) or possible (score of 4 [two patients]). The mechanism of this interaction is unknown but may be related to improvements in hepatic function during HCV treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case series describing a possible drug interaction between warfarin and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (with or without ribavirin). Close monitoring is warranted when ledipasvir/sofosbuvir is initiated in patients receiving anticoagulation therapy with warfarin, especially those with evidence of cirrhosis prior to treatment. This is particularly important in the first month after starting treatment and the first month after completion. Failure to monitor and achieve therapeutic INR after HCV therapy completion may have the potential to result in adverse outcomes. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  19. Cost Effectiveness of Genotype-Guided Warfarin Dosing in Patients with Mechanical Heart Valve Replacement Under the Fee-for-Service System.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Jin; Kim, Ho-Sook; Oh, Minkyung; Kim, Eun-Young; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2017-10-01

    Although studies assessing the cost effectiveness of genotype-guided warfarin dosing for the management of atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism have been reported, no publications have addressed genotype-guided warfarin therapy in mechanical heart valve replacement (MHVR) patients or genotype-guided warfarin therapy under the fee-for-service (FFS) insurance system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of genotype-guided warfarin dosing in patients with MHVR under the FFS system from the Korea healthcare sector perspective. A decision-analytic Markov model was developed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of genotype-guided warfarin dosing compared with standard dosing. Estimates of clinical adverse event rates and health state utilities were derived from the published literature. The outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the range of plausible results. In a base-case analysis, genotype-guided warfarin dosing was associated with marginally higher QALYs than standard warfarin dosing (6.088 vs. 6.083, respectively), at a slightly higher cost (US$6.8) (year 2016 values). The ICER was US$1356.2 per QALY gained. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, there was an 82.7% probability that genotype-guided dosing was dominant compared with standard dosing, and a 99.8% probability that it was cost effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of US$50,000 per QALY gained. Compared with only standard warfarin therapy, genotype-guided warfarin dosing was cost effective in MHVR patients under the FFS insurance system.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pharmacogenetic-guided warfarin dosing in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chong, Huey Yi; Saokaew, Surasak; Dumrongprat, Kuntika; Permsuwan, Unchalee; Wu, David Bin-Chia; Sritara, Piyamitr; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2014-12-01

    Pharmacogenetic (PGx) test is a useful tool for guiding physician on an initiation of an optimal warfarin dose. To implement of such strategy, the evidence on the economic value is needed. This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of PGx-guided warfarin dosing compared with usual care (UC). A decision analytic model was used to compare projected lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) accrued to warfarin users through PGx or UC for a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 patients. The model was populated with relevant information from systematic review, and electronic hospital-database. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated based on healthcare system and societal perspectives. All costs were presented at year 2013. A series of sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the robustness of the findings. From healthcare system perspective, PGx increases QALY by 0.002 and cost by 2,959 THB (99 USD) compared with UC. Thus, the ICER is 1,477,042 THB (49,234 USD) per QALY gained. From societal perspective, PGx results in 0.002 QALY gained, and increases costs by 2,953 THB (98 USD) compared with UC (ICER 1,473,852 THB [49,128 USD] per QALY gained). Results are sensitive to the risk ratio (RR) of major bleeding in VKORC1 variant, the efficacy of PGx-guided dosing, and the cost of PGx test. Our finding suggests that PGx-guided warfarin dosing is unlikely to be a cost-effective intervention in Thailand. This evidence assists policy makers and clinicians in efficiently allocating scarce resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Patterns of Warfarin Use in Subgroups of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of 430 General Practices in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Marshall, Tom; Nirantharakumar, Krishnarajah; Stevens, Andrew; Fitzmaurice, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the proven efficacy of warfarin, its use in patients with Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is reportedly low. We investigated the underuse and overuse of warfarin in the management of AF in general practices in the United Kingdom (UK) against the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE, UK) guidelines whilst seeking to identify subgroups of AF patients to inform efforts to optimise warfarin use. Methodology A retrospective database analysis to determine warfarin prescribing using tree models based on 50361 patients with AF (classified as low, moderate and high risk of stroke using CHADS2) from 430 general practices in the UK. Results Over one-third (37.0%, 4573/12351) of low risk AF patients were on warfarin, compared with 47.1% (8349/17709) moderate risk AF patients and 54.9% (11142/20301) high risk AF patients. Clinical subgroups (n = 15 low risk subgroups, n = 15 medium risk subgroups, n = 22 high risk subgroups) were identified. Several factors not supported by current guidelines (age, BMI, dementia, gender) were associated with the use of warfarin. Gender and BMI were associated with warfarin use in low and medium risk AF patients but not in high risk AF patients. Conclusion Whilst NICE guidelines suggest that all high risk AF patients should be on warfarin, half of those at moderate risk should be on warfarin and none of those at low risk should be on warfarin, we found evidence of over and under use of warfarin. Interventions to optimise warfarin therapy tailored to and targeting specific subgroups of AF patients identified by the tree models are required. PMID:23658703

  2. Puerarin offsets the anticoagulation effect of warfarin in rats by inducing rCyps, upregulating vitamin K epoxide reductase and inhibiting thrombomodulin.

    PubMed

    Ge, Beikang; Zhang, Zhen; Lam, Teddy Taining; Zuo, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between warfarin and puerarin which is the most abundant component in Pueraria lobata (Gegen). In vivo and ex vivo rat models were used to reveal the underlying mechanisms of such interactions. Apart from one control group, five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with warfarin, oral puerarin, oral puerarin with warfarin, intravenous puerarin, intravenous puerarin with warfarin. The treatment lasted for 5 consecutive days. Thereafter, the levels of warfarin, warfarin metabolites and puerarin in plasma of these rats were monitored and compared. The rCyps activity and expression in rat livers of different treatment groups were assessed. The prothrombin time was observed. The vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) activity and expression in rat livers were evaluated. Thrombomodulin activity and expression in the rat lung and rat plasma were assessed. The soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) concentrations of different treatment groups were examined. Intravenously administered puerarin altered the pharmacokinetics of warfarin significantly by shortening t 1/2 , decreasing AUC 0-96 h and increasing the clearance of warfarin. Further mechanistic studies suggested that both oral and intravenous administration of puerarin significantly induced the activities and expressions of rCyp2b1, rCyp2c6 and rCyp1a1. In addition, co-administration of puerarin reduced the prothrombin time of rat plasma by enhancing VKOR and inhibiting thrombomodulin. Puerarin increased warfarin metabolism and offset warfarin anticoagulation by inducing rCyps, upregulating VKOR and inhibiting thrombomodulin in rats. The clinical impact of such potential interactions warrants further verification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Cost Differential Between Warfarin Versus Aspirin Treatment After a Fontan Procedure.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Chris; Dalziel, Kim; Iyengar, Ajay J; d'Udekem, Yves

    2017-08-01

    The use of aspirin versus warfarin for treatment of patients after a Fontan procedure remains contentious. Current preference-based models of treatment across Australia and New Zealand show variation in care that is unlikely to reflect patient differences and/or clinical risk. We combine data from the Australian and New Zealand Fontan Registry and a home INR (International Normalised Ratio) monitoring program (HINRMP) from the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) Melbourne, to estimate the cost difference for Fontan recipients receiving aspirin versus warfarin for 2015. We adopt a societal perspective to costing which includes cost to the health system (e.g. medical consults, pathology tests) and costs to patients and carers (e.g. travel and time), but excludes costs of adverse events. Costs are presented in Australian 2015 dollars; any costs from previous years have been inflated using appropriate rates from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. We find that warfarin patients face additional costs of $825 per annum, with the majority ($584 or 71%) of those borne by the patient or family. If aspirin is as clinically as effective as warfarin, Fontan recipients could be enjoying far less costly, invasive and time-consuming treatment. While achieving such clinical consensus can be difficult, economics shows us that there are large costs associated with a failure to achieve it. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Warfarin-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis in combination therapy of Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Katsuaki; Gotoh, Yoshimitsu; Kuroyanagi, Yoshiyuki; Nagano, China

    2017-07-14

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare life-threatening condition almost exclusively attributed to drugs. The main etiologic factors for TEN are sulphonamides, anticonvulsants, and antibiotics; however, there are no published reports of warfarin causing TEN. We present the case of a 3-year-old patient who developed TEN while receiving treatment for Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN). With multiple-drug therapy comprising prednisolone, mizoribine, dipyridamole, and warfarin, it is difficult to detect which drug is the causative agent. While in most cases, diagnosis of the causative drug is based on clinical history without a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), we performed the test three times and identified the causative drug as warfarin at the late phase. We continued HSPN treatment without warfarin, and results showed good renal function without life-threatening complications. To our knowledge, this is the first report about TEN caused by warfarin. Repeated LTTs could be useful for identifying TEN-causative drugs even in the late phase.

  5. Genetic variants associated with warfarin dose in African-American individuals: a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Perera, Minoli A; Cavallari, Larisa H; Limdi, Nita A; Gamazon, Eric R; Konkashbaev, Anuar; Daneshjou, Roxana; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Crawford, Dana C; Wang, Jelai; Liu, Nianjun; Tatonetti, Nicholas; Bourgeois, Stephane; Takahashi, Harumi; Bradford, Yukiko; Burkley, Benjamin M; Desnick, Robert J; Halperin, Jonathan L; Khalifa, Sherief I; Langaee, Taimour Y; Lubitz, Steven A; Nutescu, Edith A; Oetjens, Matthew; Shahin, Mohamed H; Patel, Shitalben R; Sagreiya, Hersh; Tector, Matthew; Weck, Karen E; Rieder, Mark J; Scott, Stuart A; Wu, Alan H B; Burmester, James K; Wadelius, Mia; Deloukas, Panos; Wagner, Michael J; Mushiroda, Taisei; Kubo, Michiaki; Roden, Dan M; Cox, Nancy J; Altman, Russ B; Klein, Teri E; Nakamura, Yusuke; Johnson, Julie A

    2013-08-31

    VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are important contributors to warfarin dose variability, but explain less variability for individuals of African descent than for those of European or Asian descent. We aimed to identify additional variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. We did a genome-wide association study of discovery and replication cohorts. Samples from African-American adults (aged ≥18 years) who were taking a stable maintenance dose of warfarin were obtained at International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) sites and the University of Alabama at Birmingham (Birmingham, AL, USA). Patients enrolled at IWPC sites but who were not used for discovery made up the independent replication cohort. All participants were genotyped. We did a stepwise conditional analysis, conditioning first for VKORC1 -1639G→A, followed by the composite genotype of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. We prespecified a genome-wide significance threshold of p<5×10(-8) in the discovery cohort and p<0·0038 in the replication cohort. The discovery cohort contained 533 participants and the replication cohort 432 participants. After the prespecified conditioning in the discovery cohort, we identified an association between a novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the CYP2C cluster on chromosome 10 (rs12777823) and warfarin dose requirement that reached genome-wide significance (p=1·51×10(-8)). This association was confirmed in the replication cohort (p=5·04×10(-5)); analysis of the two cohorts together produced a p value of 4·5×10(-12). Individuals heterozygous for the rs12777823 A allele need a dose reduction of 6·92 mg/week and those homozygous 9·34 mg/week. Regression analysis showed that the inclusion of rs12777823 significantly improves warfarin dose variability explained by the IWPC dosing algorithm (21% relative improvement). A novel CYP2C single nucleotide polymorphism exerts a clinically relevant effect on warfarin dose in African Americans, independent

  6. Impact of Body Mass Index and Genetics on Warfarin Major Bleeding Outcomes in a Community Setting.

    PubMed

    Hart, Ragan; Veenstra, David L; Boudreau, Denise M; Roth, Joshua A

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an association between body mass index (BMI) and warfarin therapeutic dose, but none evaluated the association of BMI with the clinically important outcome of major bleeding in a community setting. To address this evidence gap, we conducted a case-control study to evaluate the association between BMI and major bleeding risk among patients receiving warfarin. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the association between obesity (BMI >30.0 kg/m 2 ) and major bleeding risk among 265 cases and 305 controls receiving warfarin at Group Health, an integrated healthcare system in Washington State. Multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders derived from health plan records and a self-report survey. In exploratory analyses we evaluated the interaction between genetic variants potentially associated with warfarin bleeding (CYP2C9, VKORC1, and CYP4F2) and obesity on the risk of major bleeding. Overall, the sample was 55% male, 94% Caucasian, and mean age was 70 years. Cases and controls had an average of 3.4 and 3.7 years of warfarin use, respectively. Obese patients had significantly lower major bleeding risk relative to non-obese patients (odds ratio [OR] 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.92). The OR was 0.56 (95% CI 0.35-0.90) in patients with ≥1 year of warfarin use, and 0.78 (95% CI 0.40-1.54) in patients with <1 year of warfarin use. An exploratory analysis indicated a statistically significant interaction between CYP4F2*3 genetic status and obesity (P = .049), suggesting a protective effect of obesity on the risk of major bleeding among those wild type for CYP4F2*3, but not among variants. Our findings suggest that BMI is an important clinical factor in assessing and managing warfarin therapy. Future studies should confirm the major bleeding associations, including the interaction between obesity and CYP4F2*3 status identified in this study, and evaluate potential mechanisms

  7. Cost-effectiveness of apixaban vs warfarin for secondary stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Easton, J. Donald; Johnston, S. Claiborne; Kim, Anthony S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cost-effectiveness of apixaban vs warfarin for secondary stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Using standard methods, we created a Markov decision model based on the estimated cost of apixaban and data from the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial and other trials of warfarin therapy for AF. We quantified the cost and quality-adjusted life expectancy resulting from apixaban 5 mg twice daily compared with those from warfarin therapy targeted to an international normalized ratio of 2–3. Our base case population was a cohort of 70-year-old patients with no contraindication to anticoagulation and a history of stroke or TIA from nonvalvular AF. Results: Warfarin therapy resulted in a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 3.91 years at a cost of $378,500. In comparison, treatment with apixaban led to a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 4.19 years at a cost of $381,700. Therefore, apixaban provided a gain of 0.28 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) at an additional cost of $3,200, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $11,400 per QALY. Our findings were robust in univariate sensitivity analyses varying model inputs across plausible ranges. In Monte Carlo analysis, apixaban was cost-effective in 62% of simulations using a threshold of $50,000 per QALY and 81% of simulations using a threshold of $100,000 per QALY. Conclusions: Apixaban appears to be cost-effective relative to warfarin for secondary stroke prevention in patients with AF, assuming that it is introduced at a price similar to that of dabigatran. PMID:22993279

  8. A Novel Admixture-Based Pharmacogenetic Approach to Refine Warfarin Dosing in Caribbean Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Duconge, Jorge; Ramos, Alga S; Claudio-Campos, Karla; Rivera-Miranda, Giselle; Bermúdez-Bosch, Luis; Renta, Jessicca Y; Cadilla, Carmen L; Cruz, Iadelisse; Feliu, Juan F; Vergara, Cunegundo; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at developing a novel admixture-adjusted pharmacogenomic approach to individually refine warfarin dosing in Caribbean Hispanic patients. A multiple linear regression analysis of effective warfarin doses versus relevant genotypes, admixture, clinical and demographic factors was performed in 255 patients and further validated externally in another cohort of 55 individuals. The admixture-adjusted, genotype-guided warfarin dosing refinement algorithm developed in Caribbean Hispanics showed better predictability (R2 = 0.70, MAE = 0.72mg/day) than a clinical algorithm that excluded genotypes and admixture (R2 = 0.60, MAE = 0.99mg/day), and outperformed two prior pharmacogenetic algorithms in predicting effective dose in this population. For patients at the highest risk of adverse events, 45.5% of the dose predictions using the developed pharmacogenetic model resulted in ideal dose as compared with only 29% when using the clinical non-genetic algorithm (p<0.001). The admixture-driven pharmacogenetic algorithm predicted 58% of warfarin dose variance when externally validated in 55 individuals from an independent validation cohort (MAE = 0.89 mg/day, 24% mean bias). Results supported our rationale to incorporate individual's genotypes and unique admixture metrics into pharmacogenetic refinement models in order to increase predictability when expanding them to admixed populations like Caribbean Hispanics. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01318057.

  9. Weight and the vitamin K expoxide reductase 1 genotype primarily contribute to the warfarin dosing in pediatric patients with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhouping; Zhang, Li; Huang, Ping; Gu, Xiaoqiong; Xie, Xiaofei; Wang, Yanfei; Li, Wei; Zeng, Qiyi

    2018-05-08

    Warfarin therapy is recommended in children with giant coronary artery aneurysms (GCAAs) after Kawasaki disease (KD). Large individual variability makes it difficult to predict the warfarin dose. Polymorphisms in the vitamin K expoxide reductase 1 (VKORC1) and cytochrome P4502C9 (CYP2C9) genes have been reported to influence the warfarin dose. We investigated the effects of the VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes on the warfarin dose in pediatric patients with giant CAAs after KD. We attempted to create a dosing algorithm. The clinical and genetic data of patients were documented. VKORC1 (rs 9923231) and CYP2C9 *3 (rs 1057910) were genotyped using TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction. A linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the contribution of clinical and genetic factors to the warfarin maintenance dose. Forty-seven patients were enrolled. Patients with the CT or CC genotype of VKORC1 had a relatively higher warfarin dose than did those with the TT genotype (p < 0.05). Three patients with CYP2C9*1/*3 had a lower warfarin dose than did those with the wild CYP2C9*1/*1 genotype, but the difference did not reach significance (p > 0.05). Weight and the VKORC1 genotype predominantly contributed to the warfarin dose, with 33.0% and 11.2% of variability, respectively. The observed warfarin dose was correlated with the predicted dose based on the algorithm used in our study (r = 0.45, p < 0.01). Weight and the VKORC1 genotype primarily determined the warfarin dose in Chinese pediatric patients with KD. Further studies are warranted to verify the findings of our study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Apixaban versus Warfarin for the Prevention of Periprocedural Cerebral Thromboembolism in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: Multicenter Prospective Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Taishi; Abe, Mitsunori; Yamaki, Masaru; Fujieda, Hiroyuki; Abe, Yumiko; Hashimoto, Katsushi; Ishiba, Misako; Sakai, Hirotsuka; Hishikari, Keiichi; Takigawa, Masateru; Okubo, Kenji; Takagi, Katsumasa; Tanaka, Yasuaki; Nakajima, Jun; Takahashi, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    Stroke can be a life-threatening complication of atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation. Uninterrupted warfarin treatment contributes to minimizing the risk of stroke complications. This was a prospective, open-label, randomized, multicenter study assessing the safety and efficacy of apixaban for the prevention of cerebral thromboembolism complicating AF catheter ablation. Two hundred patients with drug-resistant AF were equally assigned to take either apixaban (5 mg or 2.5 mg twice daily) or warfarin (target international normalized ratio, 2-3) for at least 1 month before AF ablation. Neither drug regimen was interrupted throughout the operative period. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed for all patients to detect silent cerebral infarction (SCI) after the ablation. Primary outcomes were defined as the occurrence of stroke, transient ischemic attack, SCI, or major bleeding that required intervention. The secondary outcome was minor bleeding. The groups did not statistically differ in patients' backgrounds or procedural parameters. During AF ablation, the apixaban group required administration of more heparin to maintain an activated clotting time > 300 seconds than the warfarin group (apixaban, 14,000 ± 4,000 units; warfarin, 9,000 ± 3,000 units). Three primary outcome events occurred in each group (apixaban, 2 SCI and 1 major bleed; warfarin, 3 SCI, P = 1.00), and 3 and 4 secondary outcome events occurred in the apixaban and warfarin groups (P = 0.70), respectively. Apixaban has similar safety and effectiveness to warfarin for the prevention of cerebral thromboembolism during the periprocedural period of AF ablation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Validation and Application of a Simple UHPLC–MS-MS Method for the Enantiospecific Determination of Warfarin in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Alshogran, Osama Y.; Ocque, Andrew J.; Leblond, François A.; Pichette, Vincent; Nolin, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic–tandem mass spectrometric method has been developed and validated for the enantiospecific determination of R- and S-warfarin in human urine. Warfarin enantiomers were extracted from urine using methyl tert-butyl ether. Chromatographic separation of warfarin enantiomers and the internal standard d5-warfarin was achieved using a Astec Chirobiotic V column with gradient mobile phase at a flow rate of 400 µL/min over 10 min. Detection was performed on a TSQ Quantum Ultra triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with a heated electrospray ionization source. Analytes were detected in negative ionization mode using selected reaction monitoring. Calibration curves were linear with a correlation coefficient of ≥0.996 for both enantiomers over a concentration range of 5–500 ng/mL. The intra- and interday accuracy and precision for both analytes were within ±9.0%. Excellent extraction efficiency and negligible matrix effects were observed. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by successful measurement of warfarin enantiomers in urine of patients with kidney disease. The method is simple, accurate and reproducible and is currently being used to support warfarin pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:26657732

  12. Influence of warfarin therapy on the occurrence of postoperative endoleaks and aneurysm sac enlargement after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Seike, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Itonaga, Tatsuya; Morita, Yoshiaki; Oda, Tatsuya; Inoue, Yosuke; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Minatoya, Kenji; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to determine whether warfarin therapy influences the occurrence of endoleaks or aneurysm sac enlargement after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). A total of 367 patients who underwent EVAR for abdominal aortic aneurysm between 2007 and 2013 were recruited for this study. Satisfactory follow-up data including completed computed tomography scan follow-up for more than 2 years were available for 209 patients, and the mean follow-up time was 37 ± 12 months. Twenty-nine (16%) patients were on warfarin therapy (warfarin group), whereas 180 (84%) patients were not on warfarin therapy (control group). Two- and four-year freedom rates for persistent type II endoleaks were significantly lower in patients of the warfarin group compared with the control group (85 and 49% vs 93 and 91%, respectively; P = 0.0001). Similarly, 2- and 4-year freedom rates for sac enlargement (>5 mm) were significantly lower in patients of the warfarin group compared with the control group (83 and 61% vs 92 and 82%, respectively; P = 0.0036). Using Cox regression analysis, the warfarin therapy was identified to be an independent positive predictor of sac enlargement after EVAR [hazard ratio (HR): 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-5.40; P = 0.032], together with persistent type II endoleak. Warfarin therapy was also an independent predictor for persistent type II endoleak (HR: 3.7; 95% CI: 1.81-7.41; P < 0.0001) together with the number of patent lumbar arteries. Results suggested that warfarin therapy was significantly associated with an increased risk for persistent II endoleak and sac enlargement after EVAR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  13. Taking warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... MA: Elsevier; 2016:702-737. Bristol-Myers Squibb Company. Coumadin (warfarin sodium) Information. Updated September 2016. Bmsmedinfo. ... Hurd, MD, Professor of Endocrinology and Health Care Ethics, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH. Review provided by VeriMed ...

  14. Anticoagulation Use and Clinical Outcomes Following Major Bleeding on Dabigatran or Warfarin in Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Inmaculada; Zhang, Yuting; Brooks, Maria M.; Chin, Paul K.L.; Saba, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Little is known about the clinical outcomes associated with post-hemorrhage anticoagulation resumption for atrial fibrillation. This study had two objectives: first, to evaluate anticoagulation use after a first major bleed on warfarin or dabigatran; and second, to compare effectiveness and safety outcomes between patients discontinuing anticoagulation after a major bleed and patients restarting warfarin or dabigatran. Methods Using 2010-2012 Medicare Part D data, we identified atrial fibrillation patients who experienced a major bleeding event while using warfarin (n=1135) or dabigatran (n=404) and categorized them by their post-hemorrhage use of anticoagulation. We followed them until an ischemic stroke, recurrent hemorrhage, or death through December 31, 2012. We constructed logistic regression models to evaluate factors impacting anticoagulation resumption, and Cox Proportional Hazard models to compare the combined risk of ischemic stroke and all-cause mortality, and the risk of recurrent bleeding between treatment groups. Results Resumption of anticoagulation with warfarin (hazard ratio (HR) 0.76; 95%CI, 0.59-0.97) or dabigatran (HR0.66; 95%CI 0.44-0.99) was associated with lower combined risk of ischemic stroke and all-cause mortality than anticoagulation discontinuation. The incidence of recurrent major bleeding was higher for patients prescribed warfarin after the event than for those prescribed dabigatran (HR2.31; 95%CI, 1.19-4.76) or whose anticoagulation ceased (HR1.56; 95%CI, 1.10-2.22), but did not differ between patients restarting dabigatran and those discontinuing anticoagulation (HR0.66; 95% CI, 0.32-1.33). Conclusions Dabigatran was associated with a superior benefit/risk ratio than warfarin and anticoagulation discontinuation in the treatment of atrial fibrillation patients who have survived a major bleed. PMID:27909200

  15. Warfarin or aspirin in embolism prevention in patients with mitral valvulopathy and atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lavitola, Paulo de Lara; Sampaio, Roney Orismar; Oliveira, Walter Amorim de; Bôer, Berta Napchan; Tarasoutchi, Flavio; Spina, Guilherme Sobreira; Grinberg, Max

    2010-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) associated to rheumatic mitral valve disease (RMVD) increases the incidence of thromboembolism (TE), with warfarin being the standard therapy, in spite of difficulties in treatment adherence and therapeutic control. To compare the effectiveness of Aspirin vs Warfarin in TE prevention in patients with AF and RMVD. A total of 229 patients (pts) with AF and RMVD were followed in a prospective and randomized study. The first group consisted of 110 pts receiving Aspirin - 200 mg/day (Group Aspirin - GA) and the second group consisted of 119 pts receiving Warfarin at individually-adjusted doses (Group Warfarin - GW). There were 15 embolic events in GA and 24 in GW (p = 0.187), of which 21 presented INR < 2.0. Thus, after excluding patients with inadequate INR, there was a higher number of embolic events in GA than in GW (15 vs 3) (p < 0.0061). The GW showed lower treatment adherence (p = 0.001). Neither group presented episodes of major bleeding. Small bleeding episodes were more frequent in the GW (p < 0.01). Increased serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides constituted a risk factor for a higher number of thromboembolic events in the studied population, with no difference between the groups. In patients presenting RMVD with AF for less than a year and no previous embolism, Aspirin is little effective in preventing TE. Patients with lower-risk mitral valvulopathy (mitral regurgitation and mitral biological prosthesis), especially in cases presenting contraindication to or low adherence to Warfarin, Aspirin use can present some benefit in TE prevention.

  16. Renal function in atrial fibrillation patients switched from warfarin to a direct oral anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Anum S; Jiang, Qingmei; Gu, Xiaokui; Haymart, Brian; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Almany, Steve; Kozlowski, Jay; Krol, Gregory D; Kaatz, Scott; Froehlich, James B; Barnes, Geoffrey D

    2016-11-01

    All available direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are at least partially eliminated by the kidneys. These agents are increasingly being used as alternatives to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to identify changes in renal function and associated DOAC dosing implications in a multicenter cohort of atrial fibrillation patients switched from warfarin to DOAC treatment. We included all patients in the Michigan Anticoagulation Quality Improvement Initiative cohort who switched from warfarin to a DOAC with atrial fibrillation as their anticoagulant indication between 2009 and 2014, and who had at least two creatinine values. Compliance with FDA-recommended dosing based on renal function was assessed. Of the 189 patients switched from warfarin to a DOAC, 34 (18.0 %) had a baseline creatinine clearance <50 mL/min and 23 (12.2 %) experienced important fluctuations in renal function. Of these 23 patients, 6 (26.1 %) should have impacted the DOAC dosing, but only 1 patient actually received an appropriate dose adjustment. Additionally, 15 (7.9 %) of patients on DOACs had a dose change performed, but only one patient demonstrated a change in renal function to justify the dose adjustment. Most atrial fibrillation patients who switched from warfarin to a DOAC had stable renal function. However, the majority of patients who had a change in renal function did not receive the indicated dose change. As the use of DOACs expands, monitoring of renal function and appropriate dose adjustments are critical.

  17. Accuracy assessment of pharmacogenetically predictive warfarin dosing algorithms in patients of an academic medical center anticoagulation clinic.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Paul B; Donovan, Jennifer L; Tran, Maichi T; Lemon, Stephenie C; Burgwinkle, Pamela; Gore, Joel

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this retrospective cohort study are to evaluate the accuracy of pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing algorithms in predicting therapeutic dose and to determine if this degree of accuracy warrants the routine use of genotyping to prospectively dose patients newly started on warfarin. Seventy-one patients of an outpatient anticoagulation clinic at an academic medical center who were age 18 years or older on a stable, therapeutic warfarin dose with international normalized ratio (INR) goal between 2.0 and 3.0, and cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) genotypes available between January 1, 2007 and September 30, 2008 were included. Six pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing algorithms were identified from the medical literature. Additionally, a 5 mg fixed dose approach was evaluated. Three algorithms, Zhu et al. (Clin Chem 53:1199-1205, 2007), Gage et al. (J Clin Ther 84:326-331, 2008), and International Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Consortium (IWPC) (N Engl J Med 360:753-764, 2009) were similar in the primary accuracy endpoints with mean absolute error (MAE) ranging from 1.7 to 1.8 mg/day and coefficient of determination R (2) from 0.61 to 0.66. However, the Zhu et al. algorithm severely over-predicted dose (defined as >or=2x or >or=2 mg/day more than actual dose) in twice as many (14 vs. 7%) patients as Gage et al. 2008 and IWPC 2009. In conclusion, the algorithms published by Gage et al. 2008 and the IWPC 2009 were the two most accurate pharmacogenetically based equations available in the medical literature in predicting therapeutic warfarin dose in our study population. However, the degree of accuracy demonstrated does not support the routine use of genotyping to prospectively dose all patients newly started on warfarin.

  18. Evaluation of the Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Venetoclax, a Selective BCL-2 Inhibitor, and Warfarin in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Salem, Ahmed Hamed; Hu, Beibei; Freise, Kevin J; Agarwal, Suresh K; Sidhu, Dilraj S; Wong, Shekman L

    2017-03-01

    Venetoclax is a selective, B-cell lymphoma-2 inhibitor that has demonstrated clinical efficacy in a variety of hematological malignancies. In vitro data indicated weak cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 inhibition by venetoclax; however, it is not predicted to cause clinically relevant inhibition due to high plasma protein binding. A Phase 1 study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effect of venetoclax on warfarin pharmacokinetics. Subjects received a single oral dose of 5 mg warfarin on day 1 of both periods 1 and 2, separated by a 14 days washout. On day 1 of period 2, subjects concomitantly received a single 400 mg oral dose of venetoclax. Blood samples for warfarin concentration determination were collected after each dose administration for up to 9 days. Modest increases of 18 to 28% were observed in the maximum observed plasma concentration (C max ) and area under the curve from time zero to infinity (AUC ∞ ) of both R- and S-warfarin. Due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin, it is recommended that the international normalized ratio (INR) be monitored closely in patients receiving venetoclax and warfarin. Since similar increases in exposure were observed for both enantiomers, even though CYP2C9 is only involved in the metabolism of the S-enantiomer, and the half-life of both enantiomers remained the same, the interaction does not appear to be mediated via CYP2C9.

  19. Combined low-dose aspirin and warfarin anticoagulant therapy of postoperative atrial fibrillation following mechanical heart valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-tang; Dong, Ming-feng; Song, Guang-min; Ma, Zeng-shan; Ma, Sheng-jun

    2014-12-01

    The safety and efficacy of combined low dose aspirin and warfarin therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation after mechanical heart valve replacement were evaluated. A total of 1016 patients (620 females, mean age of 36.8±7.7 years) admitted for cardiac valve replacement and complicated with atrial fibrillation after surgery were randomly divided into study (warfarin plus 75-100 mg aspirin) or control (warfarin only) groups. International normalized ratio (INR) and prothrombin time were maintained at 1.8-2.5 and 1.5-2.0 times the normal values, respectively. Thromboembolic events and major bleedings were registered during the follow-up period. Patients were followed up for 24±9 months. The average dose of warfarin in the study and control groups was 2.91±0.83 mg and 2.88±0.76 mg, respectively (P>0.05). The incidence of overall thromboembolic events in study group was lower than that in control group (2.16% vs. 4.35%, P=0.049). No statistically significant differences were found in hemorrhage events (3.53% vs. 3.95%, P=0.722) or mortality (0.20% vs. 0.40%, P=0.559) between the two groups. Combined low dose aspirin and warfarin therapy in the patients with atrial fibrillation following mechanical heart valve replacement significantly decreased thromboembolic events as compared with warfarin therapy alone. This combined treatment was not associated with an increase in the risk of major bleeding or mortality.

  20. Effect of Genetic Variants, Especially CYP2C9 and VKORC1, on the Pharmacology of Warfarin

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Erik; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Belknap, Steven M.; O’Rourke, Daniel J.; Robb, John F.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Shworak, Nicholas W.; Moore, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    The genes encoding the cytochrome P450 2C9 enzyme (CYP2C9) and vitamin K-epoxide reductase complex unit 1 (VKORC1) are major determinants of anticoagulant response to warfarin. Together with patient demographics and clinical information, they account for approximately one-half of the warfarin dose variance in individuals of European descent. Recent prospective and randomized controlled trial data support pharmacogenetic guidance with their use in warfarin dose initiation and titration. Benefits from pharmacogenetics-guided warfarin dosing have been reported to extend beyond the period of initial dosing, with supportive data indicating benefits to at least 3 months. The genetic effects of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 in African and Asian populations are concordant with those in individuals of European ancestry; however, frequency distribution of allelic variants can vary considerably between major populations. Future randomized controlled trials in multiethnic settings using population-specific dosing algorithms will allow us to further ascertain the generalizability and cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetics-guided warfarin therapy. Additional genome-wide association studies may help us to improve and refine dosing algorithms and potentially identify novel biological pathways. PMID:23041981

  1. Effectiveness and Safety of Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban, and Apixaban Versus Warfarin in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaoxi; Abraham, Neena S; Sangaralingham, Lindsey R; Bellolio, M Fernanda; McBane, Robert D; Shah, Nilay D; Noseworthy, Peter A

    2016-06-13

    The introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants has been a major advance for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation; however, outcomes achieved in clinical trials may not translate to routine practice. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban by comparing each agent with warfarin. Using a large US insurance database, we identified privately insured and Medicare Advantage patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who were users of apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or warfarin between October 1, 2010, and June 30, 2015. We created 3 matched cohorts using 1:1 propensity score matching: apixaban versus warfarin (n=15 390), dabigatran versus warfarin (n=28 614), and rivaroxaban versus warfarin (n=32 350). Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we found that for stroke or systemic embolism, apixaban was associated with lower risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67, 95% CI 0.46-0.98, P=0.04), but dabigatran and rivaroxaban were associated with a similar risk (dabigatran: HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.76-1.26, P=0.98; rivaroxaban: HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.72-1.19, P=0.56). For major bleeding, apixaban and dabigatran were associated with lower risk (apixaban: HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.34-0.59, P<0.001; dabigatran: HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.67-0.94, P<0.01), and rivaroxaban was associated with a similar risk (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.90-1.20], P=0.60). All non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants were associated with a lower risk of intracranial bleeding. In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, apixaban was associated with lower risks of both stroke and major bleeding, dabigatran was associated with similar risk of stroke but lower risk of major bleeding, and rivaroxaban was associated with similar risks of both stroke and major bleeding in comparison to warfarin. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  2. Effect of Genotype-Guided Warfarin Dosing on Clinical Events and Anticoagulation Control Among Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Anne R.; Lin, Hannah; Woller, Scott C.; Stevens, Scott M.; Al-Hammadi, Noor; Li, Juan; Rodríguez, Tomás; Miller, J. Philip; McMillin, Gwendolyn A.; Pendleton, Robert C.; Jaffer, Amir K.; King, Cristi R.; Whipple, Brandi DeVore; Porche-Sorbet, Rhonda; Napoli, Lynnae; Merritt, Kerri; Thompson, Anna M.; Hyun, Gina; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Hollomon, Wesley; Barrack, Robert L.; Nunley, Ryan M.; Moskowitz, Gerard; Dávila-Román, Victor; Eby, Charles S.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Warfarin use accounts for more medication-related emergency department visits among older patients than any other drug. Whether genotype-guided warfarin dosing can prevent these adverse events is unknown. Objective To determine whether genotype-guided dosing improves the safety of warfarin initiation. Design, Setting, and Patients The randomized clinical Genetic Informatics Trial (GIFT) of Warfarin to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis included patients aged 65 years or older initiating warfarin for elective hip or knee arthroplasty and was conducted at 6 US medical centers. Enrollment began in April 2011 and follow-up concluded in October 2016. Interventions Patients were genotyped for the following polymorphisms: VKORC1-1639G>A, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, and CYP4F2 V433M. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, patients were randomized to genotype-guided (n = 831) or clinically guided (n = 819) warfarin dosing on days 1 through 11 of therapy and to a target international normalized ratio (INR) of either 1.8 or 2.5. The recommended doses of warfarin were open label, but the patients and clinicians were blinded to study group assignment. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary end point was the composite of major bleeding, INR of 4 or greater, venous thromboembolism, or death. Patients underwent a screening lower-extremity duplex ultrasound approximately 1 month after arthroplasty. Results Among 1650 randomized patients (mean age, 72.1 years [SD, 5.4 years]; 63.6% women; 91.0% white), 1597 (96.8%) received at least 1 dose of warfarin therapy and completed the trial (n = 808 in genotype-guided group vs n = 789 in clinically guided group). A total of 87 patients (10.8%) in the genotype-guided group vs 116 patients (14.7%) in the clinically guided warfarin dosing group met at least 1 of the end points (absolute difference, 3.9% [95% CI, 0.7%-7.2%], P = .02; relative rate [RR], 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56-0.95]). The numbers of individual events in the genotype

  3. Comparative safety of direct oral anticoagulants and warfarin in venous thromboembolism: multicentre, population based, observational study.

    PubMed

    Jun, Min; Lix, Lisa M; Durand, Madeleine; Dahl, Matt; Paterson, J Michael; Dormuth, Colin R; Ernst, Pierre; Yao, Shenzhen; Renoux, Christel; Tamim, Hala; Wu, Cynthia; Mahmud, Salaheddin M; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2017-10-17

    Objective  To determine the safety of direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) use compared with warfarin use for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. Design  Retrospective matched cohort study conducted between 1 January 2009 and 31 March 2016. Setting  Community based, using healthcare data from six jurisdictions in Canada and the United States. Participants  59 525 adults (12 489 DOAC users; 47 036 warfarin users) with a new diagnosis of venous thromboembolism and a prescription for a DOAC or warfarin within 30 days of diagnosis. Main outcome measures  Outcomes included hospital admission or emergency department visit for major bleeding and all cause mortality within 90 days after starting treatment. Propensity score matching and shared frailty models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios of the outcomes comparing DOACs with warfarin. Analyses were conducted independently at each site, with meta-analytical methods used to estimate pooled hazard ratios across sites. Results  Of the 59 525 participants, 1967 (3.3%) had a major bleed and 1029 (1.7%) died over a mean follow-up of 85.2 days. The risk of major bleeding was similar for DOAC compared with warfarin use (pooled hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 1.03), with the overall direction of the association favouring DOAC use. No difference was found in the risk of death (pooled hazard ratio 0.99, 0.84 to 1.16) for DOACs compared with warfarin use. There was no evidence of heterogeneity across centres, between patients with and without chronic kidney disease, across age groups, or between male and female patients. Conclusions  In this analysis of adults with incident venous thromboembolism, treatment with DOACs, compared with warfarin, was not associated with an increased risk of major bleeding or all cause mortality in the first 90 days of treatment. Trial registration  Clinical trials NCT02833987. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  4. The impact of non-genetic and genetic factors on a stable warfarin dose in Thai patients.

    PubMed

    Wattanachai, Nitsupa; Kaewmoongkun, Sutthida; Pussadhamma, Burabha; Makarawate, Pattarapong; Wongvipaporn, Chaiyasith; Kiatchoosakun, Songsak; Vannaprasaht, Suda; Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contributions of non-genetic and genetic factors on the variability of stable warfarin doses in Thai patients. A total of 250 Thai patients with stable warfarin doses were enrolled in the study. Demographics and clinical data, e.g., age, body mass index, indications for warfarin and concomitant medications, were documented. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the VKORC1 - 1639G > A, CYP2C9*3, CYP4F2 rs2108622, and UGT1A1 rs887829 genes were detected from gDNA using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. The patients with variant genotypes of VKORC1 - 1639G > A required significantly lower warfarin stable weekly doses (SWDs) than those with wild-type genotype (p < 0.001). Similarly, the patients with CYP2C9*3 variant allele required significantly lower warfarin SWDs than those with homozygous wild-type (p = 0.006). In contrast, there were no significant differences in the SWDs between the patients who carried variant alleles of CYP4F2 rs2108622 and UGT1A1 rs887829 as compared to wild-type allele carriers. Multivariate analysis, however, showed that CYP4F2 rs2108622 TT genotype accounted for a modest part of warfarin dose variability (1.2%). In contrast, VKORC1 - 1639G > A, CYP2C9*3, CYP4F2 rs2108622 genotypes and non-genetic factors accounted for 51.3% of dose variability. VKORC1 - 1639G > A, CYP2C9*3, and CYP4F2 rs2108622 polymorphisms together with age, body mass index, antiplatelet drug use, amiodarone use, and current smoker status explained 51.3% of individual variability in stable warfarin doses. In contrast, the UGT1A1 rs887829 polymorphism did not contribute to dose variability.

  5. A Bloody Mess: An Unusual Case of Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Because of Warfarin Overdose.

    PubMed

    Heffler, Enrico; Campisi, Raffaele; Ferri, Sebastian; Crimi, Nunzio

    2016-01-01

    We herein present the case of a patient with frank hemoptysis and hematuria, dyspnea, and cough. The patient was known to be affected by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and dilated cardiomyopathy with atrial fibrillation. For this latter condition, he was supposed to take 1.25 mg warfarin daily. Laboratory findings revealed very high levels of International Normalized Ratio (INR) (16), and the patient referred that he self-increased warfarin dose to 5 mg daily since 8 days before the onset of symptoms. Computed tomography scan revealed diffuse bilateral signs of alveolar hemorrhage with hydroaerial levels within emphysematous cysts. Wafarin was immediately stopped and changed with 220 mg dabigatran daily, and he was properly treated to restore a normal coagulation status. We concluded for a case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage because of warfarin overdose.

  6. Association of warfarin with congestive heart failure and peripheral artery occlusive disease in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hua; Li, Szu-Yuan; Liu, Jin-Sin; Huang, Chi-Ting; Chen, Ying-Ying; Lin, Yao-Ping; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2017-05-01

    The effect of warfarin on the risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease is unknown among chronic hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation (HD-AF). Population-based propensity score and prescription time-distribution matched cohort study including 6719 HD-AF patients with CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score ≥ 2 were divided into warfarin users and nonusers and followed-up for CV events and death. Warfarin treatment in HD-AF patients with AF preceding HD was associated with higher risks of developing congestive heart failure [hazard ratio (HR)=1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.29-2.58, p<0.01], peripheral artery occlusive disease (HR=3.42, 95% CI=1.86-6.31, p<0.01), and aortic valve stenosis (HR=3.20, 95% CI=1.02-9.98, p<0.05). Warfarin users were not associated with risks of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke and all-cause mortality as compared to nonusers. Warfarin may be associated with vascular calcification, increasing the risks of congestive heart failure and peripheral artery occlusive disease among HD-AF patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  7. Comparison of a Frail-Friendly Nomogram with Physician-Adjusted Warfarin Dosage for Prophylaxis after Orthopaedic Surgery on a Geriatric Rehabilitation Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freter, Susan; Bowles, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Warfarin dosing for thromboprophylaxis in post-operative patients is time-consuming. Warfarin-dosing nomograms can be used in post-operative arthroplasty patients, but warfarin requirements are lower in frail older people. We modified an existing post-arthroplasty nomogram to a frail-friendly version and evaluated its performance in a frail…

  8. Dabigatran etexilate versus warfarin as the oral anticoagulant of choice? A review of clinical data.

    PubMed

    Ma, Terry K W; Yan, Bryan P; Lam, Yat-Yin

    2011-02-01

    For many years, warfarin was the only effective oral anticoagulant to prevent and treat thromboembolism. Nevertheless, its clinical use is limited by a narrow therapeutic window, extensive drug interactions, need of strict dietary control and frequent monitoring. The pharmacological response is also unpredictable and highly variable among patients. Suboptimal anticoagulation can lead to detrimental thromboembolic events or life-threatening bleeding. Direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI) activity represents a new class of anticoagulant activity that was intended to replace warfarin. Ximelagatran was the first DTI shown to have similar efficacy to warfarin, but failed to replace it because of a high incidence of liver toxicity. Dabigatran etexilate is another novel DTI with a more predictable pharmacokinetic profile and fewer drug interactions compared with warfarin. Recent large-scaled, randomized studies have shown that it does not share ximelagatran's hepatotoxicity, and is as effective as conventional anticoagulants for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation (AF). These findings led to the approval of dabigatran etexilate for thromboprophylaxis following hip or knee replacement surgery in Europe, Canada and the United Kingdom. Here we summarize the latest evidence concerning the use of dabigatran etexilate in VTE (BISTRO, RE-MODEL, RE-NOVATE, RE-MOBILIZE and RECOVER) and AF (PETRO and RELY). Potential problems related to dabigatran use are also discussed to examine whether it can truly replace warfarin as the gold standard. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical Practice Recommendations on Genetic Testing of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Variants in Warfarin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kaitlyn; Amstutz, Ursula; Kim, Richard B; Lesko, Lawrence J; Turgeon, Jacques; Michaud, Veronique; Hwang, Soomi; Ito, Shinya; Ross, Colin; Carleton, Bruce C

    2015-08-01

    To systematically review evidence on genetic variants influencing outcomes during warfarin therapy and provide practice recommendations addressing the key questions: (1) Should genetic testing be performed in patients with an indication for warfarin therapy to improve achievement of stable anticoagulation and reduce adverse effects? (2) Are there subgroups of patients who may benefit more from genetic testing compared with others? (3) How should patients with an indication for warfarin therapy be managed based on their genetic test results? A systematic literature search was performed for VKORC1 and CYP2C9 and their association with warfarin therapy. Evidence was critically appraised, and clinical practice recommendations were developed based on expert group consensus. Testing of VKORC1 (-1639G>A), CYP2C9*2, and CYP2C9*3 should be considered for all patients, including pediatric patients, within the first 2 weeks of therapy or after a bleeding event. Testing for CYP2C9*5, *6, *8, or *11 and CYP4F2 (V433M) is currently not recommended. Testing should also be considered for all patients who are at increased risk of bleeding complications, who consistently show out-of-range international normalized ratios, or suffer adverse events while receiving warfarin. Genotyping results should be interpreted using a pharmacogenetic dosing algorithm to estimate the required dose. This review provides the latest update on genetic markers for warfarin therapy, clinical practice recommendations as a basis for informed decision making regarding the use of genotype-guided dosing in patients with an indication for warfarin therapy, and identifies knowledge gaps to guide future research.

  10. Comparison of Changes in Anxiety and Depression Level Between Dabigatran and Warfarin Use in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Turker, Yasin; Ekinozu, Ismail; Aytekin, Seda; Turker, Yasemin; Basar, Cengiz; Baltaci, Davut; Kaya, Ertugrul

    2017-03-01

    We hypothesized that patients taking warfarin require frequent hospital follow-up and they are at higher risk for complications, so the incidence of depression and anxiety is higher in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in the period of taking warfarin compared to the period of taking dabigatran. Fifty patients having AF without valvular diseases under treatment of warfarin in whom a transition to dabigatran was planned were consecutively enrolled in this study and followed up prospectively between July 2013 and July 2014. All patients completed Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS) at the initiation of study and 6 months after initiation of study. Of the patients enrolled in the study, age, gender, smoking status, and comorbidities were questioned. A total of 50 patients (28 women; mean age 74.6 ± 8.7 years) treated with warfarin in whom a transition to dabigatran was planned were included. Basal mean value of BDS (15.6 ± 7.8 vs 11.5 ± 4.8, P < .001) and HAS (16.8 ± 10.4 vs 12.6 ± 8.1, P < 0.001) was significantly higher in patients when they used warfarin than when they switched to dabigatran. In categorical analysis, frequency of patients with depression (mild, moderate, and severe) was significantly higher in period of warfarin use than after dabigatran transition (n = 24, 48% vs n = 14, 28%, P = .039). Our study demonstrates that patients with nonvalvular AF under treatment of dabigatran had lower BDS and HAS scores compared to warfarin. These findings suggest that dabigatran may increase quality of life and decrease morbidity and mortality due to reduction in anxiety and depression.

  11. Comparison of Direct Oral Anticoagulants and Warfarin in the Treatment of Deep Venous Thrombosis in the Chronic Phase.

    PubMed

    Wakakura, Shingo; Hara, Fumihiko; Fujino, Tadashi; Hamai, Asami; Ohara, Hiroshi; Kabuki, Takayuki; Harada, Masahiko; Ikeda, Takanori

    2018-01-27

    We assessed the efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the chronic phase through comparison with conventional warfarin therapy.A total of 807 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with having DVT in the chronic phase were included (484 patients to warfarin therapy and 323 patients to DOAC therapy). The condition of leg veins was assessed 3 to 6 months after starting the therapies by ultrasound examination. Major bleeding and mortality during the therapies were followed-up.There was no significant difference between the two groups in the thrombosis improvement rate (DOAC group: 91.2% versus warfarin group: 88.9%). There was no significant difference between the two groups in major bleeding (DOAC group: 1.8% versus warfarin group: 1.8%). In patients with active cancer, the DOAC group had a borderline higher thrombosis improvement rate than the warfarin group (92.1% versus 80.0%, P = 0.05). The proportion of major bleeding in the patients with active cancer was slightly higher in the warfarin group than in the DOAC group (4.3% versus 2.8%; P = 0.71). Active cancer was not an independent risk factor for major bleeding and recurrence in the DOAC group (OR 2.68, 95% CI 0.51-14.1; P = 0.24 and OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.20-2.07; P = 0.47).In treatment using oral anticoagulants for DVT in the chronic phase, DOACs exhibited equal efficacy and safety as warfarin did. Particularly DOACs appear to be an attractive therapeutic option for cancer-associated DVT in chronic phase, with relatively low anticipated rates of recurrence and major bleeding.

  12. Factor VII R353Q genetic polymorphism is associated with altered warfarin sensitivity among CYP2C9 *1/*1 carriers.

    PubMed

    Mlynarsky, Liat; Bejarano-Achache, Idit; Muszkat, Mordechai; Caraco, Yoseph

    2012-05-01

    Warfarin responsiveness is characterized by marked interindividual variability. A major portion of this variability is attributed to CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms, but almost 50% is still unaccounted for. This paper reports the first prospective study on the association between factor VII R353Q polymorphism and warfarin responsiveness during induction. Genotyping for factor VII R353Q and 323D/I polymorphisms was performed in a cohort consisting of 374 patients (198 CYP2C9*1/*1) treated with warfarin who were prospectively followed from warfarin initiation. Compared with *1/*1-R/R and *1/*1-R/Q genotype carriers, *1/*1-Q/Q homozygotes achieved higher International Normalized Ratio (INR) values while consuming lower warfarin doses. The greater sensitivity was illustrated by 82.1% higher Warfarin Sensitivity Index During Induction (WSIDI) (0.14 ± 0.11 vs. 0.08 ± 0.50 mg⁻¹ Mann-Whitney, P = 0.043). Multiple regression analysis consisting of both genetic and nongenetic factors explained 26% of WSIDI variability, with R353Q genetic polymorphism having a modest yet significant effect and accounting for 1.7% of the overall variability. Moreover, the incidence of overanticoagulation (i.e., INR > 4) was 6.94-fold higher among *1/*1-Q/Q vs. *1/*1-R/R&R/Q carriers during warfarin induction (Pearson chi-square, P = 0.005). These findings were not accounted for by a chance difference in the distribution of VKORC1 genotypes. Analysis of these parameters among the entire cohort, including CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 variant allele carriers, did not reach statistical significance. Warfarin responsiveness during induction was unrelated to factor VII 323D/I genetic polymorphism. The response to warfarin during induction is influenced by factor VII R353Q polymorphism. The prospective use of this polymorphism, along with CYP2C9 and VKORC1, may enhance the accuracy of warfarin loading. However, the impact of R353Q polymorphism on overall warfarin response is subtle, and it is therefore

  13. Effect of medication timing on anticoagulation stability in users of warfarin (the INRange RCT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Heran, Balraj S; Allan, G Michael; Green, Lee; Korownyk, Christina; Kolber, Michael; Olivier, Nicole; Flesher, Mary; Garrison, Scott

    2016-08-04

    Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant medication that disrupts the liver's production of clotting factors. While this medication is highly effective for the prevention of thromboembolic events, it also has a narrow therapeutic range and a vulnerability to interactions with other drugs and vitamin K-containing foods. Warfarin is commonly ingested at dinnertime, the same time of day that dietary vitamin K consumption (found largely in green leafy vegetables) is most variable. While the long half-life of warfarin might make this irrelevant, the ultra short half-life of vitamin K and the possibility of a hepatic first-pass effect for warfarin make it worth evaluating whether morning ingestion of warfarin, when vitamin K levels are consistently low, leads to greater stability of its anticoagulant effect. An examination of the timing of administration on the effectiveness of warfarin has never before been conducted. This is a 7-month Prospective Randomized Open Blinded End-point (PROBE) study in which established evening warfarin users (primary care managed Canadian outpatients in the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta) will be randomized to either switch to morning ingestion of warfarin (the intervention) or to continue with evening use (the control). The primary outcome is the percent change in the proportion of time spent outside the therapeutic range of the international normalized ratio (INR) blood test. Secondary outcomes include change in proportion of time spent within the therapeutic INR range (TTR), percentage of patients with TTR >75 %, percentage of patients with TTR <60 %, and major warfarin-related cardiovascular events (including all-cause mortality, hospitalization for stroke, hospitalization for GI bleeding, and deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism). We will also compare whether day-to-day variability in the consumption of high vitamin K-containing foods at baseline affects the baseline TTR in this cohort of evening warfarin users. This study

  14. Exposure to Non-Therapeutic INR in a High Risk Cardiovascular Patient: Potential Hazard Reduction with Genotype-guided Warfarin (Coumadin®) Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vélez, Rosángela; Ortiz-Rivera, Oscar J.; Bower, Bruce; Gorowski, Krystyna; Windemuth, Andreas; Villagra, David; Kocherla, Mohan; Seip, Richard L; D'Agostino, Darrin; Vergara, Cunegundo; Ruaño, Gualberto; Duconge, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    A case to illustrate the utility of genetic screening in warfarin (Coumadin®) management is reported. A 45 year-old woman of Puerto Rican ancestry was admitted to the emergency room twice within one month with chest pain. She was diagnosed with congestive heart failure, which was stabilized both times. At her second release, warfarin therapy was initiated at 5 mg/day to prevent thrombus formation and was lowered to 3.75 mg/day at day 7 by her primary physician. International Normalized Ratio (INR) test results in the follow-up period at days 1, 7, and 10 of warfarin therapy were 4.5, 6.5, and 7.3, respectively—far in excess of the therapeutic range, despite the lower dosage in effect from day 7 onward. the patient achieved target INR over the next 43 days after downward adjustment of the dose to a dose of 1.5 mg/day by trial and error. DNA-typing specific for the CYP2C9*2, *3, *4, *5, *6 alleles and seven variants in the VKORC1 gene, including the VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism, revealed the presence of combinatorial CYP2C9*2/*3 and VKORC1-1639 G/A genotypes in this patient. Entering the patient's demographic and genotype status data into independent algorithms available in the public domain to predict effective warfarin dose yielded predicted doses which ranged from 1.5 to 1.8 mg/day. Notably, the prediction of 1.5 mg/day, which was generated by the online resource www.warfarindosing.org, coincided with the patient's actual effective warfarin dose. We conclude that the rapid rise in INR observed upon the initiation of warfarin therapy and the final effective warfarin dose of 1.5 mg/day, are attributable in some part to the presence of two minor alleles in CYP2C9, which together significantly reduce warfarin metabolism. Warfarin genotyping can therefore inform the clinician of the predicted effective warfarin dose. the results highlight the potential for warfarin genetic testing to improve patient care. PMID:21261182

  15. A Novel Admixture-Based Pharmacogenetic Approach to Refine Warfarin Dosing in Caribbean Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Rivera-Miranda, Giselle; Bermúdez-Bosch, Luis; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Cruz, Iadelisse; Feliu, Juan F.; Vergara, Cunegundo; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study is aimed at developing a novel admixture-adjusted pharmacogenomic approach to individually refine warfarin dosing in Caribbean Hispanic patients. Patients & Methods A multiple linear regression analysis of effective warfarin doses versus relevant genotypes, admixture, clinical and demographic factors was performed in 255 patients and further validated externally in another cohort of 55 individuals. Results The admixture-adjusted, genotype-guided warfarin dosing refinement algorithm developed in Caribbean Hispanics showed better predictability (R2 = 0.70, MAE = 0.72mg/day) than a clinical algorithm that excluded genotypes and admixture (R2 = 0.60, MAE = 0.99mg/day), and outperformed two prior pharmacogenetic algorithms in predicting effective dose in this population. For patients at the highest risk of adverse events, 45.5% of the dose predictions using the developed pharmacogenetic model resulted in ideal dose as compared with only 29% when using the clinical non-genetic algorithm (p<0.001). The admixture-driven pharmacogenetic algorithm predicted 58% of warfarin dose variance when externally validated in 55 individuals from an independent validation cohort (MAE = 0.89 mg/day, 24% mean bias). Conclusions Results supported our rationale to incorporate individual’s genotypes and unique admixture metrics into pharmacogenetic refinement models in order to increase predictability when expanding them to admixed populations like Caribbean Hispanics. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01318057 PMID:26745506

  16. Genotyping three SNPs affecting warfarin drug response by isothermal real-time HDA assays.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Jortani, Saeed A; Ramey-Hartung, Bronwyn; Hudson, Elizabeth; Lemieux, Bertrand; Kong, Huimin

    2011-01-14

    The response to the anticoagulant drug warfarin is greatly affected by genetic polymorphisms in the VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genes. Genotyping these polymorphisms has been shown to be important in reducing the time of the trial and error process for finding the maintenance dose of warfarin thus reducing the risk of adverse effects of the drug. We developed a real-time isothermal DNA amplification system for genotyping three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence warfarin response. For each SNP, real-time isothermal Helicase Dependent Amplification (HDA) reactions were performed to amplify a DNA fragment containing the SNP. Amplicons were detected by fluorescently labeled allele specific probes during real-time HDA amplification. Fifty clinical samples were analyzed by the HDA-based method, generating a total of 150 results. Of these, 148 were consistent between the HDA-based assays and a reference method. The two samples with unresolved HDA-based test results were repeated and found to be consistent with the reference method. The HDA-based assays demonstrated a clinically acceptable performance for genotyping the VKORC1 -1639G>A SNP and two SNPs (430C>T and 1075A>C) for the CYP2C9 enzyme (CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3), all of which are relevant in warfarin pharmacogenentics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation and Application of a Simple UHPLC-MS-MS Method for the Enantiospecific Determination of Warfarin in Human Urine.

    PubMed

    Alshogran, Osama Y; Ocque, Andrew J; Leblond, François A; Pichette, Vincent; Nolin, Thomas D

    2016-04-01

    A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method has been developed and validated for the enantiospecific determination of R- and S-warfarin in human urine. Warfarin enantiomers were extracted from urine using methyl tert-butyl ether. Chromatographic separation of warfarin enantiomers and the internal standard d5-warfarin was achieved using a Astec Chirobiotic V column with gradient mobile phase at a flow rate of 400 µL/min over 10 min. Detection was performed on a TSQ Quantum Ultra triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with a heated electrospray ionization source. Analytes were detected in negative ionization mode using selected reaction monitoring. Calibration curves were linear with a correlation coefficient of ≥0.996 for both enantiomers over a concentration range of 5-500 ng/mL. The intra- and interday accuracy and precision for both analytes were within ±9.0%. Excellent extraction efficiency and negligible matrix effects were observed. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by successful measurement of warfarin enantiomers in urine of patients with kidney disease. The method is simple, accurate and reproducible and is currently being used to support warfarin pharmacokinetic studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. 12/15-Lipoxygenase Inhibition or Knockout Reduces Warfarin-Associated Hemorrhagic Transformation After Experimental Stroke.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zheng, Yi; Karatas, Hulya; Wang, Xiaoying; Foerch, Christian; Lo, Eng H; van Leyen, Klaus

    2017-02-01

    For stroke prevention, patients with atrial fibrillation typically receive oral anticoagulation. The commonly used anticoagulant warfarin increases the risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) when a stroke occurs; tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment is therefore restricted in these patients. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) inhibition would reduce HT in warfarin-treated mice subjected to experimental stroke. Warfarin was dosed orally in drinking water, and international normalized ratio values were determined using a Coaguchek device. C57BL6J mice or 12/15-LOX knockout mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion with 3 hours severe ischemia (model A) or 2 hours ischemia and tissue-type plasminogen activator infusion (model B), with or without the 12/15-LOX inhibitor ML351. Hemoglobin was determined in brain homogenates, and hemorrhage areas on the brain surface and in brain sections were measured. 12/15-LOX expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. Warfarin treatment resulted in reproducible increased international normalized ratio values and significant HT in both models. 12/15-LOX knockout mice suffered less HT after severe ischemia, and ML351 reduced HT in wild-type mice. When normalized to infarct size, ML351 still independently reduced hemorrhage. HT after tissue-type plasminogen activator was similarly reduced by ML351. In addition to its benefits in infarct size reduction, 12/15-LOX inhibition also may independently reduce HT in warfarin-treated mice. ML351 should be further evaluated as stroke treatment in anticoagulated patients suffering a stroke, either alone or in conjunction with tissue-type plasminogen activator. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Effectiveness and outcome of management strategies for dabigatran- or warfarin-related major bleeding events.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Ammar; Hwang, Hun-Gyu; Eikelboom, John W; Connolly, Stuart; Wallentin, Lars; Feuring, Martin; Brueckmann, Martina; Noack, Herbert; Yusuf, Salim; Schulman, Sam

    2016-04-01

    Strategies used for the management of dabigatran-related major bleeding events (MBEs), and their effectiveness have not been systematically evaluated. Reports on 1034 individuals experiencing 1121 MBEs (696 on dabigatran, and 425 on warfarin) in 5 phase III randomized controlled trials were assessed independently by two investigators. MBEs were managed either by drug discontinuation only (37%), or drug discontinuation with either transfusion of only red cell concentrates (38%), or plasma (23%). Few MBEs (2%) were treated with coagulation factor concentrates. The effectiveness of the management was assessed as good in significantly larger proportion of MBEs on dabigatran (91%) than on warfarin (84%, odds ratio [OR] 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.49), which was consistent with the lower 30-day mortality (OR (OR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-1.00)). The effectiveness of bleeding management in non-traumatic bleeding was better in patients with dabigatran than with warfarin (OR 1.82; 95% CI, 1.18-2.79) but was similar in traumatic bleeding (OR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.25-2.30). The relative effectiveness of management of bleeding and 30-day mortality rates across other key subgroups of patients or sites of bleeding, the use of platelet inhibitors, age-, sex- and renal function subgroups, were comparable in MBEs on dabigatran or warfarin. Despite the unavailability of a specific antidote at the time of these studies, bleeding in patients receiving dabigatran was managed in the overwhelming majority of patients without coagulation factor concentrates, with comparable or superior effectiveness and lower 30-day mortality rates versus those who bleed while receiving warfarin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Warfarin compared with aspirin for older Chinese patients with stable coronary heart diseases and atrial fibrillation complications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinbing; Huang, Hongman; Yu, Jianhua; Cao, Guoliang; Feng, Liuliu; Xu, Qitan; Zhang, Shufu; Zhou, Mingcheng; Li, Yigang

    2014-06-01

    To compare the therapeutic warfarin and aspirin efficacies for treatments of atrial fibrillation (AF) complicated with stable coronary heart disease particularly in older Chinese patients. In our prospective study 101 patients with AF and stable coronary heart disease older than 80 years were randomized into two groups. One group (n = 51) basically received 1.25 mg/day warfarin per os, followed by addition of 0.5 - 1.0 mg/day from day 3 - 5 if the international normalized ratio (INR) was initially < 1.5 and in order to achieve a maintained INR between 1.6 and 2.5 (warfarin group). The second group (n = 50) received 100 mg aspirin per day (control group). All patients were medicated and monitored for a period of 2 years. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism, and the composite secondary endpoint was non-fatal myocardial infarction and all causes of death. For safety evaluation, the hemorrhage rates were recorded. The warfarin medication was superior regarding the overall occurrence of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism as well as non-fatal myocardial infarction and all causes of death outcomes compared to aspirin administration during the 2 years of medication (17.6% vs. 36.0%, p = 0.03), while there was no significant difference of mild (5 vs. 4), severe (2 vs. 1), and fatal (1 vs. 1) hemorrhage incidences between the warfarin and aspirin groups (p > 0.05). Warfarin was found to be more efficacious than aspirin for an anticoagulation therapy of older Chinese patients with AF and stable coronary heart disease.

  1. Comparison of warfarin therapy clinical outcomes following implementation of an automated mobile phone-based critical laboratory value text alert system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Wen; Kang, Wen-Yi; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Lee, James; Wu, Fe-Lin; Chen, Chuen-Liang; Tseng, Yufeng J

    2014-01-01

    Computerized alert and reminder systems have been widely accepted and applied to various patient care settings, with increasing numbers of clinical laboratories communicating critical laboratory test values to professionals via either manual notification or automated alerting systems/computerized reminders. Warfarin, an oral anticoagulant, exhibits narrow therapeutic range between treatment response and adverse events. It requires close monitoring of prothrombin time (PT)/international normalized ratio (INR) to ensure patient safety. This study was aimed to evaluate clinical outcomes of patients on warfarin therapy following implementation of a Personal Handy-phone System-based (PHS) alert system capable of generating and delivering text messages to communicate critical PT/INR laboratory results to practitioners' mobile phones in a large tertiary teaching hospital. A retrospective analysis was performed comparing patient clinical outcomes and physician prescribing behavior following conversion from a manual laboratory result alert system to an automated system. Clinical outcomes and practitioner responses to both alert systems were compared. Complications to warfarin therapy, warfarin utilization, and PT/INR results were evaluated for both systems, as well as clinician time to read alert messages, time to warfarin therapy modification, and monitoring frequency. No significant differences were detected in major hemorrhage and thromboembolism, warfarin prescribing patterns, PT/INR results, warfarin therapy modification, or monitoring frequency following implementation of the PHS text alert system. In both study periods, approximately 80% of critical results led to warfarin discontinuation or dose reduction. Senior physicians' follow-up response time to critical results was significantly decreased in the PHS alert study period (46.3% responded within 1 day) compared to the manual notification study period (24.7%; P = 0.015). No difference in follow-up response time

  2. Quantitative Assessment of CYP2C9 Genetic Polymorphisms Effect on the Oral Clearance of S-Warfarin in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Shaul, Chanan; Blotnick, Simcha; Muszkat, Mordechai; Bialer, Meir; Caraco, Yoseph

    2017-02-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C9 account for 10-20% of the variability in warfarin dose requirement. As such CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms are commonly included in algorithms aimed to optimize warfarin therapy as a way to account for variability in warfarin responsiveness that is due to altered pharmacokinetics. However, most of the currently available pharmacokinetic data were derived from studies among patients on chronic warfarin therapy and therefore suffer from the confounding effects of disease states and drug interactions. The purpose of the present study was to provide an accurate quantitative estimate of S-warfarin oral clearance (CL S ) among healthy subjects carrying different CYP2C9 genotypes. Single dose of warfarin was administered to 150 non-smokers, age (mean ± SD) 23.3 ± 4.5 years, 60% male, non-obese, healthy subjects. Blood samples were taken for up to 168 h and urine was collected over the entire study period. Compared with carriers of the wild-type CYP2C9*1/*1 genotype (n = 69), CL S was reduced by 25, 39 and 47% among heterozygote for CYP2C9*2 (n = 41) CYP2C9*3 (n = 26) and carriers of 2 variant alleles (n = 14), respectively (p < 0.001). The corresponding decrease in the formation clearance of 6 and 7 S-hydroxy-warfarin was 45, 65 and 75%, respectively (p < 0.001). The current study provides an estimate concerning the effect of CYP2C9 polymorphisms on S-warfarin pharmacokinetics among healthy subjects. As such it is free of the confounding effects of disease states and drug interactions. Further research is needed to evaluate whether the incorporation of quantitative data obtained in the present study into pharmacogenetic warfarin algorithm may enhance its precision. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT00162474.

  3. Effect of Warfarin Treatment on Survival of Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) in the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL)

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Ioana R.; Roberts, Kari E.; Miller, Dave P.; Sen, Ginny P.; Selej, Mona; Benton, Wade W.; Hill, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Long-term anticoagulation is recommended in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). In contrast, limited data support anticoagulation in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc-PAH). We assessed the effect of warfarin anticoagulation on survival in IPAH and SSc-PAH patients enrolled in Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL), a longitudinal registry of group I PAH. Methods and Results— Patients who initiated warfarin on study (n=187) were matched 1:1 with patients never on warfarin, by enrollment site, etiology, and diagnosis status. Descriptive analyses were conducted to compare warfarin users and nonusers by etiology. Survival analyses with and without risk adjustment were performed from the time of warfarin initiation or a corresponding quarterly update in matched pairs to avoid immortal time bias. Time-varying covariate models were used as sensitivity analyses. Mean warfarin treatment was 1 year; mean international normalized ratios were 1.9 (IPAH) and 2.0 (SSc-PAH). Two-thirds of patients initiating warfarin discontinued treatment before the last study assessment. There was no survival difference with warfarin in IPAH patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.37; P=0.21) or in SSc-PAH patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.60; P=0.15) in comparison with matched controls. However, SSc-PAH patients receiving warfarin within the previous year (hazard ratio, 1.57; P=0.031) or any time postbaseline (hazard ratio, 1.49; P=0.046) had increased mortality in comparison with warfarin-naïve patients. Conclusions— No significant survival advantage was observed in IPAH patients who started warfarin. In SSc-PAH patients, long-term warfarin was associated with poorer survival than in patients not receiving warfarin, even after adjusting for confounders. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00370214. PMID:26510696

  4. Effect of Warfarin Treatment on Survival of Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) in the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL).

    PubMed

    Preston, Ioana R; Roberts, Kari E; Miller, Dave P; Sen, Ginny P; Selej, Mona; Benton, Wade W; Hill, Nicholas S; Farber, Harrison W

    2015-12-22

    Long-term anticoagulation is recommended in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). In contrast, limited data support anticoagulation in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc-PAH). We assessed the effect of warfarin anticoagulation on survival in IPAH and SSc-PAH patients enrolled in Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL), a longitudinal registry of group I PAH. Patients who initiated warfarin on study (n=187) were matched 1:1 with patients never on warfarin, by enrollment site, etiology, and diagnosis status. Descriptive analyses were conducted to compare warfarin users and nonusers by etiology. Survival analyses with and without risk adjustment were performed from the time of warfarin initiation or a corresponding quarterly update in matched pairs to avoid immortal time bias. Time-varying covariate models were used as sensitivity analyses. Mean warfarin treatment was 1 year; mean international normalized ratios were 1.9 (IPAH) and 2.0 (SSc-PAH). Two-thirds of patients initiating warfarin discontinued treatment before the last study assessment. There was no survival difference with warfarin in IPAH patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.37; P=0.21) or in SSc-PAH patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.60; P=0.15) in comparison with matched controls. However, SSc-PAH patients receiving warfarin within the previous year (hazard ratio, 1.57; P=0.031) or any time postbaseline (hazard ratio, 1.49; P=0.046) had increased mortality in comparison with warfarin-naïve patients. No significant survival advantage was observed in IPAH patients who started warfarin. In SSc-PAH patients, long-term warfarin was associated with poorer survival than in patients not receiving warfarin, even after adjusting for confounders. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00370214. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. Gastrointestinal bleeding with dabigatran, a comparative study with warfarin: a multicenter experience.

    PubMed

    Sherid, Muhammed; Sifuentes, Humberto; Sulaiman, Samian; Samo, Salih; Husein, Husein; Tupper, Ruth; Spurr, Charles; Sridhar, Subbaramiah

    2015-04-01

    The risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding with dabigatran when compared to warfarin has been controversial in the literature. The aim of our study was to assess this risk with the use of dabigatran. We examined the medical records of patients who were started on dabigatran or warfarin from October 2010 to October 2012. The study was conducted in two hospitals. A total of 417 patients were included (208 dabigatran vs. 209 warfarin). GI bleeding occurred in 10 patients (4.8%) in the dabigatran group compared to 21 patients (10.1%) in the warfarin group (p=0.0375). Multivariate analysis showed that patients who were on dabigatran for ≤ 100 days had a higher incidence of GI bleeding than those who were on it for >100 days (p=0.0007). The odds of GI bleeding in patients who were on dabigatran for ≤ 100 days was 8.2 times higher compared to those who were on the drug for >100 days. The incidence of GI bleeding in patients >65 years old was higher than in those <65 years old (p=0.0453, OR=3). History of previous GI bleeding was another risk factor for GI bleeding in the dabigatran group (p=0.036, OR=6.3). The lower GI tract was the most common site for GI bleeding in the dabigatran group (80.0% vs. 38.1%, p=0.014). The risk of GI bleeding was lower with dabigatran. The risk factors for GI bleeding with dabigatran were the first 100 days, age >65 years, and a history of previous GI bleeding.

  6. Direct Oral Anticoagulant- or Warfarin-Related Major Bleeding: Characteristics, Reversal Strategies, and Outcomes From a Multicenter Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Schulman, Sam; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Holbrook, Anne M; Simpson, Christopher S; Shepherd, Lois E; Wells, Philip S; Giulivi, Antonio; Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad; Khuu, Wayne; Frymire, Eliot; Johnson, Ana P

    2017-07-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have expanded the armamentarium for antithrombotic therapy. Although DOAC-related major bleeding was associated with favorable outcomes compared with warfarin in clinical trials, warfarin effects were reversed in < 40% of cases, raising concerns about the generalizability of this finding. Consecutive patients ≥ 66 years presented to five tertiary care hospitals across three cities in Ontario, Canada from October 2010 to March 2015 with diagnoses that included hemorrhage. Charts were screened for association with DOAC or warfarin use; eligible cases were abstracted and linked to administrative databases. Among 19,061 records screened, 2,002 (460 receiving DOAC, 1,542 receiving warfarin) were eligible. Reversal agents (72.9% vitamin K, 40.7% prothrombin complex concentrates) were frequently used in warfarin bleeding events. Red blood cell transfusions occurred more often in DOAC bleeding events than in warfarin events (52.0% vs 39.5%; adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.32; 95% CI, 1.19-2.47). However, units of blood products transfused were not different between the two groups. Thirty-four DOAC cases (7.4%) received activated prothrombin complex concentrates or recombinant factor VIIa. In-hospital mortality was lower following DOAC bleeding events (9.8% vs 15.2%; aRR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49-0.89), although differences in 30-day mortality did not reach statistical significance (12.6% vs 16.3%; aRR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.03). In this unselected cohort of patients with oral anticoagulant-related hemorrhage with high rates of warfarin reversal, in-hospital mortality was lower among DOAC-associated bleeding events. These findings support the safety of DOACs in routine care and present useful baseline measures for evaluations of DOAC-specific reversal agents. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics during the transition from warfarin to rivaroxaban: a randomized study in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kubitza, Dagmar; Becka, Michael; Mück, Wolfgang; Krätzschmar, Jöern

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study investigated relevant pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters during the transition from warfarin to rivaroxaban in healthy male subjects. Methods Ninety-six healthy men were randomized into the following three groups: warfarin [international normalized ratio (INR) 2.0–3.0] transitioned to rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily (od; group A); warfarin (INR 2.0–3.0) followed by placebo od (group B); and rivaroxaban alone 20 mg od (group C) for 4 days. Anti-factor Xa activity, inhibition of factor Xa activity, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time, HepTest, prothrombinase-induced clotting time, factor VIIa activity, factor IIa activity, endogenous thrombin potential and pharmacokinetics were measured. Results An additive effect was observed on the PT and PT/INR during the initial transition period. The mean maximal prolongation of PT was 4.39-fold [coefficient of variation (CV) 18.03%; range 3.39–6.50] of the baseline value in group A, compared with 1.88-fold (CV 10.35%; range 1.53–2.21) in group B and 1.57-fold (CV 9.98%; range 1.37–2.09) in group C. Rivaroxaban had minimal influence on the PT/INR at trough levels. Inhibition of factor Xa activity, activated partial thromboplastin time and endogenous thrombin potential were also enhanced, but to a lesser extent. In contrast, the effects of rivaroxaban on anti-factor Xa activity, HepTest and prothrombinase-induced clotting time were not affected by pretreatment with warfarin. Conclusions Changes in pharmacodynamics during the transition from warfarin to rivaroxaban vary depending on the test used. A supra-additive effect on PT/INR is expected during the initial period of transition, but pretreatment with warfarin does not influence the effect of rivaroxaban on anti-factor Xa activity. PMID:24528331

  8. Warfarin Dosing Algorithms Underpredict Dose Requirements in Patients Requiring ≥7 mg Daily: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Saffian, S M; Duffull, S B; Wright, Dfb

    2017-08-01

    There is preliminary evidence to suggest that some published warfarin dosing algorithms produce biased maintenance dose predictions in patients who require higher than average doses. We conducted a meta-analysis of warfarin dosing algorithms to determine if there exists a systematic under- or overprediction of dose requirements for patients requiring ≥7 mg/day across published algorithms. Medline and Embase databases were searched up to September 2015. We quantified the proportion of over- and underpredicted doses in patients whose observed maintenance dose was ≥7 mg/day. The meta-analysis included 47 evaluations of 22 different warfarin dosing algorithms from 16 studies. The meta-analysis included data from 1,492 patients who required warfarin doses of ≥7 mg/day. All 22 algorithms were found to underpredict warfarin dosing requirements in patients who required ≥7 mg/day by an average of 2.3 mg/day with a pooled estimate of underpredicted doses of 92.3% (95% confidence interval 90.3-94.1, I 2 = 24%). © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  9. Consequence of patient substitution of nattokinase for warfarin after aortic valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Maqsood M; Choi, Charles H; Konda, Subbareddy; Shake, Jay G

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a patient's self-substitution of nattokinase for the vitamin K antagonist warfarin after aortic valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. Nattokinase is an enzyme derived from a popular fermented soybean preparation in Japan (natto), which has fibrinolytic properties and is gaining popularity in nontraditional health journals and nonmedical health websites as an over-the-counter thrombolytic. After nearly a year of use of nattokinase without warfarin, the patient developed thrombus on the mechanical valve and underwent successful repeat valve replacement. We believe this is the first documented case of nattokinase being used as a substitute for warfarin after valve replacement, and we strongly discourage its use for this purpose.

  10. Consequence of patient substitution of nattokinase for warfarin after aortic valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Elahi, Maqsood M.; Choi, Charles H.; Konda, Subbareddy

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a patient's self-substitution of nattokinase for the vitamin K antagonist warfarin after aortic valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. Nattokinase is an enzyme derived from a popular fermented soybean preparation in Japan (natto), which has fibrinolytic properties and is gaining popularity in nontraditional health journals and nonmedical health websites as an over-the-counter thrombolytic. After nearly a year of use of nattokinase without warfarin, the patient developed thrombus on the mechanical valve and underwent successful repeat valve replacement. We believe this is the first documented case of nattokinase being used as a substitute for warfarin after valve replacement, and we strongly discourage its use for this purpose. PMID:25552810

  11. Quality of anticoagulation management with warfarin among outpatients in a tertiary hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fenta, Teferi Gedif; Assefa, Tamrat; Alemayehu, Bekele

    2017-06-06

    Warfarin is the most widely used anticoagulant in the world. The difficulty of managing warfarin contributes to great potential for patient harm, both from excessive anticoagulation and insufficient anticoagulation. This study assessed the International Normalized Ratio (INR) control outcome measures and warfarin dose adjustment practices at cardiology and hematology outpatient clinics at a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was based on a cross - sectional study design involving 360 retrospective patients' chart review among outpatients who received warfarin for its various indications. The mean frequency of INR monitoring per patient was 62.9 days (17.2-143.7 days). Patients spent 52.2%, 29.0% and 18.8% of the time in sub-therapeutic, therapeutic and supra-therapeutic ranges, respectively. The daily warfarin dose was increased 50.9% and 36.9% and decreased in 52.8% and 60.9% of the time for occurrences of sub-therapeutic and supra-therapeutic INRs to achieve target ranges of 2.0-3.0 and 2.5-3.5, respectively. The quality of anticoagulation management with warfarin among outpatients in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital was sub-optimal. This was reflected by low Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR), longer than recommended INR monitoring frequency, and minimal actions taken to adjust warfarin dose after occurrences of non-therapeutic INRs.

  12. Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure vs warfarin for atrial fibrillation: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vivek Y; Sievert, Horst; Halperin, Jonathan; Doshi, Shephal K; Buchbinder, Maurice; Neuzil, Petr; Huber, Kenneth; Whisenant, Brian; Kar, Saibal; Swarup, Vijay; Gordon, Nicole; Holmes, David

    2014-11-19

    While effective in preventing stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), warfarin is limited by a narrow therapeutic profile, a need for lifelong coagulation monitoring, and multiple drug and diet interactions. To determine whether a local strategy of mechanical left atrial appendage (LAA) closure was noninferior to warfarin. PROTECT AF was a multicenter, randomized (2:1), unblinded, Bayesian-designed study conducted at 59 hospitals of 707 patients with nonvalvular AF and at least 1 additional stroke risk factor (CHADS2 score ≥1). Enrollment occurred between February 2005 and June 2008 and included 4-year follow-up through October 2012. Noninferiority required a posterior probability greater than 97.5% and superiority a probability of 95% or greater; the noninferiority margin was a rate ratio of 2.0 comparing event rates between treatment groups. Left atrial appendage closure with the device (n = 463) or warfarin (n = 244; target international normalized ratio, 2-3). A composite efficacy end point including stroke, systemic embolism, and cardiovascular/unexplained death, analyzed by intention-to-treat. At a mean (SD) follow-up of 3.8 (1.7) years (2621 patient-years), there were 39 events among 463 patients (8.4%) in the device group for a primary event rate of 2.3 events per 100 patient-years, compared with 34 events among 244 patients (13.9%) for a primary event rate of 3.8 events per 100 patient-years with warfarin (rate ratio, 0.60; 95% credible interval, 0.41-1.05), meeting prespecified criteria for both noninferiority (posterior probability, >99.9%) and superiority (posterior probability, 96.0%). Patients in the device group demonstrated lower rates of both cardiovascular mortality (1.0 events per 100 patient-years for the device group [17/463 patients, 3.7%] vs 2.4 events per 100 patient-years with warfarin [22/244 patients, 9.0%]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.75; P = .005) and all-cause mortality (3.2 events per 100 patient

  13. Outcomes Associated With Resuming Warfarin Treatment After Hemorrhagic Stroke or Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Peter Brønnum; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Skjøth, Flemming; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-04-01

    The increase in the risk for bleeding associated with antithrombotic therapy causes a dilemma in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who sustain an intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). A thrombotic risk is present; however, a risk for serious harm associated with resumption of anticoagulation therapy also exists. To investigate the prognosis associated with resuming warfarin treatment stratified by the type of ICH (hemorrhagic stroke or traumatic ICH). This nationwide observational cohort study included patients with AF who sustained an incident ICH event during warfarin treatment from January 1, 1998, through February 28, 2016. Follow-up was completed April 30, 2016. Resumption of warfarin treatment was evaluated after hospital discharge. No oral anticoagulant treatment or resumption of warfarin treatment, included as a time-dependent exposure. One-year observed event rates per 100 person-years were calculated, and treatment strategies were compared using time-dependent Cox proportional hazards regression models with adjustment for age, sex, length of hospital stay, comorbidities, and concomitant medication use. A total of 2415 patients with AF in this cohort (1481 men [61.3%] and 934 women [38.7%]; mean [SD] age, 77.1 years [9.1 years]) sustained an ICH event. Of these events, 1325 were attributable to hemorrhagic stroke and 1090 were secondary to trauma. During the first year, 305 patients with a hemorrhagic stroke (23.0%) died, whereas 210 in the traumatic ICH group (19.3%) died. Among patients with hemorrhagic stroke, resuming warfarin therapy was associated with a lower rate of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism (SE) (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.49; 95% CI, 0.24-1.02) and an increased rate of recurrent ICH (AHR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.68-2.50) compared with not resuming warfarin therapy, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. For patients with traumatic ICH, resuming warfarin therapy also was associated with a lower rate of ischemic stroke

  14. Outcomes Associated With Resuming Warfarin Treatment After Hemorrhagic Stroke or Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Skjøth, Flemming; Lip, Gregory Y. H.

    2017-01-01

    Importance The increase in the risk for bleeding associated with antithrombotic therapy causes a dilemma in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who sustain an intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). A thrombotic risk is present; however, a risk for serious harm associated with resumption of anticoagulation therapy also exists. Objective To investigate the prognosis associated with resuming warfarin treatment stratified by the type of ICH (hemorrhagic stroke or traumatic ICH). Design, Setting, and Participants This nationwide observational cohort study included patients with AF who sustained an incident ICH event during warfarin treatment from January 1, 1998, through February 28, 2016. Follow-up was completed April 30, 2016. Resumption of warfarin treatment was evaluated after hospital discharge. Exposures No oral anticoagulant treatment or resumption of warfarin treatment, included as a time-dependent exposure. Main Outcomes and Measures One-year observed event rates per 100 person-years were calculated, and treatment strategies were compared using time-dependent Cox proportional hazards regression models with adjustment for age, sex, length of hospital stay, comorbidities, and concomitant medication use. Results A total of 2415 patients with AF in this cohort (1481 men [61.3%] and 934 women [38.7%]; mean [SD] age, 77.1 years [9.1 years]) sustained an ICH event. Of these events, 1325 were attributable to hemorrhagic stroke and 1090 were secondary to trauma. During the first year, 305 patients with a hemorrhagic stroke (23.0%) died, whereas 210 in the traumatic ICH group (19.3%) died. Among patients with hemorrhagic stroke, resuming warfarin therapy was associated with a lower rate of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism (SE) (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.49; 95% CI, 0.24-1.02) and an increased rate of recurrent ICH (AHR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.68-2.50) compared with not resuming warfarin therapy, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. For patients with

  15. Concurrent Use of Warfarin and Antibiotics and the Risk of Bleeding in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baillargeon, Jacques; Holmes, Holly M.; Lin, Yu-li; Raji, Mukaila A.; Sharma, Gulshan; Kuo, Yong-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotic medications are associated with an increased risk of bleeding among patients receiving warfarin. The recent availability of data from the Medicare Part D prescription drug program provides an opportunity to assess the association of antibiotic medications and the risk of bleeding in a national population of older adults receiving warfarin. Methods We conducted a case-control study nested within a cohort of 38,762 patients aged 65 years and older who were continuous warfarin users, using enrollment and claims data for a 5% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries with Part D benefits. Cases were defined as persons hospitalized for a primary diagnosis of bleeding and were matched with three control subjects on age, race, gender, and indication for warfarin. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of bleeding associated with prior exposure to antibiotic medications. Results Exposure to any antibiotic agent within the 15 days of the event/index date was associated with an increased risk of bleeding (aOR 2.01; 95% CI, 1.62-2.50). All six specific antibiotic drug classes examined [azole antifungals (aOR, 4.57; 95% CI, 1.90-11.03), macrolides (aOR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.08-3.21), quinolones (aOR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.09-2.62), cotrimoxazole (aOR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.46-5.05), penicillins (aOR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.21-2.07) and cephalosporins (aOR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.52-3.95) were associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Conclusion Among older continuous warfarin users, exposure to antibiotic agents—particularly azole antifungals—was associated with an increased risk of bleeding. PMID:22269622

  16. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline for Pharmacogenetics-Guided Warfarin Dosing: 2017 Update.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A; Caudle, K E; Gong, L; Whirl-Carrillo, M; Stein, C M; Scott, S A; Lee, M T; Gage, B F; Kimmel, S E; Perera, M A; Anderson, J L; Pirmohamed, M; Klein, T E; Limdi, N A; Cavallari, L H; Wadelius, M

    2017-09-01

    This document is an update to the 2011 Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guideline for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes and warfarin dosing. Evidence from the published literature is presented for CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, and rs12777823 genotype-guided warfarin dosing to achieve a target international normalized ratio of 2-3 when clinical genotype results are available. In addition, this updated guideline incorporates recommendations for adult and pediatric patients that are specific to continental ancestry. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  17. Management of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients anticoagulated with dabigatran compared with warfarin: a retrospective, comparative case review.

    PubMed

    Manatsathit, Wuttiporn; Al-Hamid, Hussein; Leelasinjaroen, Pornchai; Hashmi, Usman; McCullough, Peter A

    2014-06-01

    Dabigatran etexilate, was found to be effective for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Given its predictable pharmacodynamics, laboratory monitoring is not required. Moreover, the risks of overall bleeding, intracranial bleeding, and life-threatening hemorrhage from dabigatran were found to be lower than warfarin. However, a higher risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding caused by dabigatran from the randomized evaluation of long-term anticoagulant therapy (RE-LY) trial has raised the concern regarding clinical outcomes of patients with GI bleeding caused by dabigatran compared with warfarin. We retrospectively studied patients who were hospitalized for GI bleeding from dabigatran compared with warfarin with therapeutic anticoagulation monitoring during 2009 to 2012. Initial laboratory findings at presentation, number of transfused packed red blood cells (PRBCs), acute kidney injury, clinical outcomes (e.g., hypotension, tachycardia), length of stay, and death were compared. Thirteen patients taking dabigatran and 26 patients who were on warfarin with therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) were hospitalized during the study period. Demographic data and baseline parameters between the two groups were not significantly different except for concurrent aspirin use (84.6% vs. 50%, P=0.036). Fifty-four percent of patients taking dabigatran did not have activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) level performed at presentation (7/13). The patients with GI bleeding from warfarin received significantly more PRBC transfusions compared with the dabigatran group (1.92±2.2 vs. 0.69±1.1 units, P=0.024). After controlling for initial hemoglobin and history of chronic kidney disease by using multivariate analysis, the patients in the warfarin group were likely to receive more PRBC. Hypotension at presentation was more common in GI bleeding caused by warfarin than dabigatran but the P value was insignificant (30.8% vs. 7.7%, P=0

  18. Performance of commercial platforms for rapid genotyping of polymorphisms affecting warfarin dose.

    PubMed

    King, Cristi R; Porche-Sorbet, Rhonda M; Gage, Brian F; Ridker, Paul M; Renaud, Yannick; Phillips, Michael S; Eby, Charles

    2008-06-01

    Initiation of warfarin therapy is associated with bleeding owing to its narrow therapeutic window and unpredictable therapeutic dose. Pharmacogenetic-based dosing algorithms can improve accuracy of initial warfarin dosing but require rapid genotyping for cytochrome P-450 2C9 (CYP2C9) *2 and *3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) SNP. We evaluated 4 commercial systems: INFINITI analyzer (AutoGenomics, Carlsbad, CA), Invader assay (Third Wave Technologies, Madison, WI), Tag-It Mutation Detection assay (Luminex Molecular Diagnostics, formerly Tm Bioscience, Toronto, Canada), and Pyrosequencing (Biotage, Uppsala, Sweden). We genotyped 112 DNA samples and resolved any discrepancies with bidirectional sequencing. The INFINITI analyzer was 100% accurate for all SNPs and required 8 hours. Invader and Tag-It were 100% accurate for CYP2C9 SNPs, 99% accurate for VKORC1 -1639/3673 SNP, and required 3 hours and 8 hours, respectively. Pyrosequencing was 99% accurate for CYP2C9 *2, 100% accurate for CYP2C9 *3, and 100% accurate for VKORC1 and required 4 hours. Current commercial platforms provide accurate and rapid genotypes for pharmacogenetic dosing during initiation of warfarin therapy.

  19. A Case Report of a Patient Carrying CYP2C9*3/4 Genotype with Extremely Low Warfarin Dose Requirement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Youn; Nam, Myung-Hyun; Kim, June Soo

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of intolerance to warfarin dosing due to impaired drug metabolism in a patient with CYP2C9*3/*4. A 73-yr-old woman with atrial fibrilation was taking warfarin. She attained a high prothrombin time international normalized ratio (INR) at the standard doses during the induction of anticoagulation and extremely low dose of warfarin (6.5 mg/week) was finally chosen to reach the target INR. Genotyping for CYP2C9 revealed that this patient had a genotype CYP2C9*3/*4. This is the first Korean compound heterozygote for CYP2C9*3 and *4. This case suggests the clinical usefulness of pharmacogenetic testing for individualized dosage adjustments of warfarin. PMID:17596671

  20. A case report of a patient carrying CYP2C9*3/4 genotype with extremely low warfarin dose requirement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Youn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Kim, June Soo; Kim, Jong Won

    2007-06-01

    We report a case of intolerance to warfarin dosing due to impaired drug metabolism in a patient with CYP2C9*3/*4. A 73-yr-old woman with atrial fibrilation was taking warfarin. She attained a high prothrombin time international normalized ratio (INR) at the standard doses during the induction of anticoagulation and extremely low dose of warfarin (6.5 mg/week) was finally chosen to reach the target INR. Genotyping for CYP2C9 revealed that this patient had a genotype CYP2C9*3/*4. This is the first Korean compound heterozygote for CYP2C9*3 and *4. This case suggests the clinical usefulness of pharmacogenetic testing for individualized dosage adjustments of warfarin.

  1. NPC1L1 is a key regulator of intestinal vitamin K absorption and a modulator of warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Takada, Tappei; Yamanashi, Yoshihide; Konishi, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Takehito; Toyoda, Yu; Masuo, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2015-02-18

    Vitamin K (VK) is a micronutrient that facilitates blood coagulation. VK antagonists, such as warfarin, are used in the clinic to prevent thromboembolism. Because VK is not synthesized in the body, its intestinal absorption is crucial for maintaining whole-body VK levels. However, the molecular mechanism of this absorption is unclear. We demonstrate that Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) protein, a cholesterol transporter, plays a central role in intestinal VK uptake and modulates the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. In vitro studies using NPC1L1-overexpressing intestinal cells and in vivo studies with Npc1l1-knockout mice revealed that intestinal VK absorption is NPC1L1-dependent and inhibited by ezetimibe, an NPC1L1-selective inhibitor clinically used for dyslipidemia. In addition, in vivo pharmacological studies demonstrated that the coadministration of ezetimibe and warfarin caused a reduction in hepatic VK levels and enhanced the pharmacological effect of warfarin. Adverse events caused by the coadministration of ezetimibe and warfarin were rescued by oral VK supplementation, suggesting that the drug-drug interaction effects observed were the consequence of ezetimibe-mediated VK malabsorption. This mechanism was supported by a retrospective evaluation of clinical data showing that, in more than 85% of warfarin-treated patients, the anticoagulant activity was enhanced by cotreatment with ezetimibe. Our findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism of VK absorption. This new drug-drug interaction mechanism between ezetimibe (a cholesterol transport inhibitor) and warfarin (a VK antagonist and anticoagulant) could inform clinical care of patients on these medications, such as by altering the kinetics of essential, fat-soluble vitamins. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Evaluation of clinical outcomes among nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients treated with rivaroxaban or warfarin, stratified by renal function
.

    PubMed

    Weir, Matthew R; Haskell, Lloyd; Berger, Jeffrey S; Ashton, Veronica; Laliberté, François; Crivera, Concetta; Brown, Kip; Lefebvre, Patrick; Schein, Jeffrey

    2018-05-01

    Renal dysfunction increases the risk of thromboembolic and bleeding events in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Adult NVAF patients with ≥ 6 months prior to first warfarin or rivaroxaban dispensing were selected from the IMS Health Real-World Data Adjudicated Claims database (05/2011 - 06/2015) with electronic medical records. Ischemic stroke events, thromboembolic events (venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke), and major bleeding events were compared between patients by renal function identified by 1) relevant ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and 2) estimated creatinine clearance (eCrCl). Baseline confounders were adjusted using inverse probability of treatment weights. The diagnosis-based analysis included 39,872 rivaroxaban and 48,637 warfarin users (3,572 and 8,230 with renal dysfunction, respectively). The eCrCl-based analysis included 874 rivaroxaban and 1,069 warfarin users (66 and 208 with eCrCl < 60 mL/min, respectively). In the diagnosis-based analysis, rivaroxaban users with renal dysfunction had a significantly lower stroke rate (HR = 0.55, p = 0.0004) compared to warfarin users; rivaroxaban users with and without renal dysfunction had significantly lower thromboembolic event rates (HR = 0.62, p < 0.0001; and HR = 0.64, p < 0.0001, respectively), and similar major bleeding rates to warfarin users. In the eCrCl-based analysis, rivaroxaban users with eCrCl ≥ 60 mL/min had a significantly lower thromboembolic event rate, but other outcomes were not statistically significant. Rivaroxaban-treated NVAF patients with diagnosed renal dysfunction had a significantly lower stroke rate compared to warfarin-treated patients. Regardless of renal dysfunction diagnoses, rivaroxaban users had lower thromboembolic event rates compared to warfarin users, and a similar rate of major bleeding. eCrCl-based analysis was limited by a small sample size.
.

  3. Increased short-term risk of thrombo-embolism or death after interruption of warfarin treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Raunsø, Jakob; Selmer, Christian; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Charlot, Mette Gitz; Olsen, Anne-Marie S; Bretler, Ditte-Marie; Nielsen, Jørn Dalsgaard; Dominguez, Helena; Gadsbøll, Niels; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar H; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2012-08-01

    It is presently unknown whether patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at increased risk of thrombo-embolic adverse events after interruption of warfarin treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk and timing of thrombo-embolism after warfarin treatment interruption. A retrospective, nationwide cohort study of all patients in Denmark treated with warfarin after a first hospitalization with AF in the period 1997-2008. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of thrombo-embolic events and all-cause mortality were calculated using the Poisson regression analyses. In total, 48 989 AF patients receiving warfarin treatment were included. Of these, 35 396 patients had at least one episode of warfarin treatment interruption. In all, 8255 deaths or thrombo-embolic events occurred during treatment interruption showing an initial clustering of events with 2717, 835, 500, and 427 events occurring during 0-90, 91-180, 181-270, and 271-360 days after treatment interruption, respectively. Correspondingly, the crude incidence rates were 31.6, 17.7, 12.3, and 11.4 events per 100 patient-years. In a multivariable analysis, the first 90-day interval of treatment interruption was associated with a markedly higher risk of death or thrombo-embolism (IRR 2.5; 95% confidence interval 2.3-2.8) vs. the interval of 271-360 days. In patients with AF, an interruption of warfarin treatment is associated with a significantly increased short-term risk of death or thrombo-embolic events within the first 90 days of treatment interruption.

  4. Introduction of a carbon paste electrode based on nickel carbide for investigation of interaction between warfarin and vitamin K1.

    PubMed

    Torkashvand, Maryam; Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Taherpour, Avat Arman; Boochani, Arash; Akhtar, Arsalan

    2017-05-30

    In this paper a novel electrochemical sensor based on nickel carbide (Ni 3 C) nanoparticles as a new modifier was constructed. Ni 3 C nanoparticle was synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and first-principles study. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies confirmed the electrode modification. Afterwards, the new electrode for the first time was used for interaction study between vitamin K1 and warfarin as an anticoagulant drug by differential pulse voltammetry. The adduct formation between the drug and vitamin K1 was improved by decreasing in anodic peak current of warfarin in the presence of different amounts of vitamin K1. The binding constant between warfarin and vitamin K1 was obtained by voltammetric and UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. The molecular modeling method was also performed to explore the structural features and binding mechanism of warfarin to vitamin K1. The different aspects of modeling of vitamin K1 and warfarin and their adduct structures confirmed the adduct formation by hydrogen bonding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Secondary stroke prevention with ximelagatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: pooled analysis of SPORTIF III and V clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Akins, Paul T; Feldman, Harvey A; Zoble, Robert G; Newman, David; Spitzer, Stefan G; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Albers, Gregory W

    2007-03-01

    Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) are at high risk for recurrent stroke. We investigated whether ximelagatran was noninferior to warfarin in patients with prior stroke or TIA. We analyzed pooled data from the SPORTIF III and V trials in patients with prior stroke/TIA. The primary outcome was the composite annual rate of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes and systemic embolic events. Secondary analyses considered ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes separately, bleeding, and nonrandomized, concomitant therapy with aspirin < or =100 mg/d. Patients from SPORTIF III (n=3407) and SPORTIF V (n=3922) trials were categorized by prior stroke/TIA (21%) versus no prior stroke/TIA (79%) and by treatment group (ximelagatran vs warfarin). The primary event rate in patients with prior stroke/TIA was 2.83%/y with ximelagatran and 3.27%/y with warfarin (absolute difference, -0.44%; 95% CI, -1.88 to1.01; P=0.625). In those without prior stroke/TIA, the primary event rate was 1.31%/y with ximelagatran and 1.26%/y with warfarin (P=NS). Ischemic strokes outnumbered cerebral hemorrhages with both warfarin (31 of 36) and ximelagatran (30 of 32) treatment (difference between treatments was not significant). Combining aspirin with either anticoagulant was associated with higher rates of major bleeding (1.5%/y with warfarin and 4.95%/y with warfarin plus aspirin, P=0.004; 2.35%/y with ximelagatran and 5.09%/y with ximelagatran plus aspirin, P=0.046) but not lower rates of primary events. Ximelagatran was at least as effective as well-controlled warfarin for the secondary prevention of stroke. The nonrandomized, concomitant treatment with aspirin and anticoagulation was associated with increased bleeding without evidence of a reduction in primary outcome events.

  6. Effects of CYP4F2 polymorphism on response to warfarin during induction phase: a prospective, open-label, observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bejarano-Achache, Idit; Levy, Liran; Mlynarsky, Liat; Bialer, Meir; Muszkat, Mordechai; Caraco, Yoseph

    2012-04-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4F2 isozyme has been reported to metabolize vitamin K(1) in vitro, and the V433M polymorphism in the CYP4F2 gene has been associated with reduced vitamin K(1) metabolism and the need for a higher maintenance dosage in patients receiving warfarin. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of V433M polymorphism on warfarin response during the induction phase. Warfarin-naive white patients in whom warfarin was scheduled to be initiated with a target INR of 2 to 3 were enrolled into the study. On enrollment, a single blood sample for the genotyping of CYP4F2, CYP2C9, and VKORC1 was drawn. The international normalized ratio (INR) was followed daily during induction and twice weekly until stable anticoagulation was reached. The relationships between several markers of warfarin response during induction and CYP4F2 polymorphism were determined. The cohort consisted of 241 patients (115 men; mean [SD] age, 55.2 [19.4] years; weight, 79.5 [18.3] kg). Most of the patients were carriers of the CYP4F2 CC genotype (112 patients) or the CT genotype (104 patients). In carriers of the TT genotype (25 patients), INR >3 was >4-fold lower compared with that in carriers of the CC or CT genotype, suggesting that patients with the TT genotype were less sensitive to warfarin during induction. Also in TT carriers, the extent of excessive anticoagulation was >10-fold lower than in the other carriers. Both of these findings had a nominal P value of <0.05. After adjustment for false discovery rate, none of the findings remained significant at a threshold q value of <0.05. Among CC carriers, the concurrent use of a statin was associated with a 1-mg/d reduction in warfarin maintenance dosage. No similar effect was noted in the CT or TT carriers, suggesting a possible genetic influence on warfarin-statin interaction. These preliminary findings suggest that among white patients treated with warfarin, CYP4F2 polymorphism had a measurable effect on

  7. Association of the GGCX (CAA)16/17 repeat polymorphism with higher warfarin dose requirements in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Larisa H; Perera, Minoli; Wadelius, Mia; Deloukas, Panos; Taube, Gelson; Patel, Shitalben R; Aquino-Michaels, Keston; Viana, Marlos A G; Shapiro, Nancy L; Nutescu, Edith A

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about genetic contributors to higher than usual warfarin dose requirements, particularly for African Americans. This study tested the hypothesis that the γ-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) genotype contributes to warfarin dose requirements greater than 7.5 mg/day in an African American population. A total of 338 African Americans on a stable dose of warfarin were enrolled. The GGCX rs10654848 (CAA)n, rs12714145 (G>A), and rs699664 (p.R325Q); VKORC1 c.-1639G>A and rs61162043; and CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *8, *11, and rs7089580 genotypes were tested for their association with dose requirements greater than 7.5 mg/day alone and in the context of other variables known to influence dose variability. The GGCX rs10654848 (CAA)16 or 17 repeat occurred at a frequency of 2.6% in African Americans and was overrepresented among patients requiring greater than 7.5 mg/day versus those who required lower doses (12 vs. 3%, P=0.003; odds ratio 4.0, 95% confidence interval, 1.5-10.5). The GGCX rs10654848 genotype remained associated with high dose requirements on regression analysis including age, body size, and VKORC1 genotype. On linear regression, the GGCX rs10654848 genotype explained 2% of the overall variability in warfarin dose in African Americans. An examination of the GGCX rs10654848 genotype in warfarin-treated Caucasians revealed a (CAA)16 repeat frequency of only 0.27% (P=0.008 compared with African Americans). These data support the GGCX rs10654848 genotype as a predictor of higher than usual warfarin doses in African Americans, who have a 10-fold higher frequency of the (CAA)16/17 repeat compared with Caucasians.

  8. In situ detection of warfarin using time-correlated single-photon counting

    SciTech Connect

    Rosengren, Annika M.; Karlsson, Bjoern C.G.; Naeslund, Inga

    Highlights: {yields} Direct in situ measurement of specific isomeric forms of the anticoagulant warfarin. {yields} TCSPC spectroscopy in conjunction with synthetic Sudlow I binding site receptors. {yields} Development of sensor principle for use in clinical and environmental monitoring. -- Abstract: Here we report on a novel method for the direct in situ measurement of specific isomeric forms of the anticoagulant warfarin using time correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) spectroscopy in conjunction with synthetic Sudlow I binding site receptors. The method is highly robust over the clinically significant concentration range, and demonstrates the potential of the binding site mimics in conjunction withmore » the spectroscopic strategy employed here for the determination of this important pharmaceutical in clinical or even environmental samples.« less

  9. Are Evidence Standards Different for Genomic- vs. Clinical-Based Precision Medicine? A Quantitative Analysis of Individualized Warfarin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, D S; Guzauskas, G F; Carlson, J J; Basu, A; Veenstra, D L

    2017-11-01

    Evidence requirements for implementation of precision medicine (PM), whether informed by genomic or clinical data, are not well defined. Evidence requirements are driven by uncertainty and its attendant consequences; these aspects can be quantified by a novel technique in health economics: value of information analysis (VOI). We utilized VOI analysis to compare the evidence levels over time for warfarin dosing based on pharmacogenomic vs. amiodarone-warfarin drug-drug interaction information. The primary outcome was the expected value of perfect information (EVPI), which is an estimate of the upper limit of the societal value of conducting future research. Over the past decade, the EVPI for the pharmacogenomic strategy decreased from $1,550 to $140 vs. $1,220 to $280 per patient for the drug-interaction strategy. Evidence levels thus appear to be higher for pharmacogenomic-guided vs. drug-interaction-guided warfarin dosing. Clinical guidelines and reimbursement policies for warfarin PM could be informed by these findings. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  10. Atrial Fibrillation Patients Treated With Long-Term Warfarin Anticoagulation Have Higher Rates of All Dementia Types Compared With Patients Receiving Long-Term Warfarin for Other Indications.

    PubMed

    Bunch, T Jared; May, Heidi T; Bair, Tami L; Crandall, Brian G; Cutler, Michael J; Day, John D; Jacobs, Victoria; Mallender, Charles; Osborn, Jeffrey S; Stevens, Scott M; Weiss, J Peter; Woller, Scott C

    2016-07-11

    The mechanisms behind the association of atrial fibrillation (AF) and dementia are unknown. We previously found a significantly increased risk of dementia in AF patients taking warfarin with a low percentage of time in therapeutic range. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which AF itself increases dementia risk, in addition to long-term anticoagulation exposure. A total of 10 537 patients anticoagulated with warfarin (target INR 2-3), managed by the Clinical Pharmacist Anticoagulation Service with no history of dementia were included. Warfarin indication was for AF (n=4460), thromboembolism (n=5868), and mechanical heart valve(s) (n=209). Patients in the latter 2 categories were included only if they had no prior history of AF. The primary outcome was dementia. Patients with AF were older and had higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, and stroke. AF patients experienced higher rates of total dementia (5.8% versus 1.6%, P<0.0001), Alzheimer disease (2.8% versus 0.9%, P<0.0001), and vascular dementia (1.0% versus 0.2%, P<0.0001). A propensity analysis of 6030 patients was performed to account for baseline demographics differences. Long-term risk of dementia remained significant in AF patients compared with matched non-AF patients (total dementia: hazard ratio [HR]=2.42 [1.85-3.18], P<0.0001; Alzheimer: HR=2.04 [1.40-2.98], P<0.0001; senile: HR=2.46 [1.58-3.86], P<0.0001). Low percent therapeutic range compared with a higher percent therapeutic range was associated with dementia risk in both AF (26-50% versus >75%: HR=2.51, P=0.005) and non-AF groups (≤25% versus >75%: HR=3.92, P<0.0001). The presence of AF significantly increases risk of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, compared with matched patients receiving warfarin anticoagulation for other reasons. Quality of anticoagulation management remains an important risk factor for dementia in all patients. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  11. Patients' Perceptions of a Game About Warfarin and Vitamin K: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Faddoul, Badia; Kelemen, Arpad; Connerney, Ingrid; Grover, Brian; Hoffman, Janice

    2012-10-01

    Digital games to promote healthy behaviors are rapidly expanding in the healthcare industry. One area where health game can be useful is in educating patients about oral anticoagulants such as warfarin. The goal of this pilot study was to develop a game about warfarin and vitamin K interactions and evaluate its usability among adult patients receiving warfarin therapy. The game was developed by an interdisciplinary team. The content of the game was based on published evidence-based practice about anticoagulation education. Kolb's experiential learning theory served as the theoretical foundation of the game, which we developed in Flash and Actionscript 2(®) (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) programming and scripting languages, and it is playable on various platforms, including Windows and Macintosh, via Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, and Safari Web browsers. Twenty patients were surveyed using a 7-point Likert scale to evaluate their experience on the Perceived Health Web Site Usability Questionnaire (PHWSUQ). The PHWSUQ measures satisfaction, ease of learning the site, and usefulness. Possible responses ranged from 1 (very unsatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied) and from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (7). The overall mean score on the PHWSUQ was 53.6 out of 70 (SD, 11.3), or 76.6 percent. The mean scores for "satisfaction," "ease of use," and "usefulness" subscales were 80.2 percent, 71.2 percent, and 77.4 percent, respectively. The findings suggest that patients were satisfied with the game, which indicates that adult patients on warfarin are open to game use as an educational tool to learn health information.

  12. Theory-based pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of S- and R-warfarin and effects on international normalized ratio: influence of body size, composition and genotype in cardiac surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Holford, Nick; Ding, Xiao-Liang; Shen, Zhen-Ya; Huang, Chen-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Guo, Zhe-Ning; Xie, Cheng; Zhou, Ling; Chen, Zhi-Yao; Liu, Lin-Sheng; Miao, Li-Yan

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this study are to apply a theory-based mechanistic model to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of S- and R-warfarin. Clinical data were obtained from 264 patients. Total concentrations for S- and R-warfarin were measured by ultra-high performance liquid tandem mass spectrometry. Genotypes were measured using pyrosequencing. A sequential population PK parameter with data method was used to describe the international normalized ratio (INR) time course. Data were analyzed with NONMEM. Model evaluation was based on parameter plausibility and prediction-corrected visual predictive checks. Warfarin PK was described using a one-compartment model. CYP2C9 *1/*3 genotype had reduced clearance for S-warfarin, but increased clearance for R-warfarin. The in vitro parameters for the relationship between prothrombin complex activity (PCA) and INR were markedly different (A = 0.560, B = 0.386) from the theory-based values (A = 1, B = 0). There was a small difference between healthy subjects and patients. A sigmoid E max PD model inhibiting PCA synthesis as a function of S-warfarin concentration predicted INR. Small R-warfarin effects was described by competitive antagonism of S-warfarin inhibition. Patients with VKORC1 AA and CYP4F2 CC or CT genotypes had lower C50 for S-warfarin. A theory-based PKPD model describes warfarin concentrations and clinical response. Expected PK and PD genotype effects were confirmed. The role of predicted fat free mass with theory-based allometric scaling of PK parameters was identified. R-warfarin had a minor effect compared with S-warfarin on PCA synthesis. INR is predictable from 1/PCA in vivo. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Theory‐based pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of S‐ and R‐warfarin and effects on international normalized ratio: influence of body size, composition and genotype in cardiac surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ling; Holford, Nick; Ding, Xiao‐liang; Shen, Zhen‐ya; Huang, Chen‐rong; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Jing‐jing; Guo, Zhe‐ning; Xie, Cheng; Zhou, Ling; Chen, Zhi‐yao; Liu, Lin‐sheng

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study are to apply a theory‐based mechanistic model to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of S‐ and R‐warfarin. Methods Clinical data were obtained from 264 patients. Total concentrations for S‐ and R‐warfarin were measured by ultra‐high performance liquid tandem mass spectrometry. Genotypes were measured using pyrosequencing. A sequential population PK parameter with data method was used to describe the international normalized ratio (INR) time course. Data were analyzed with NONMEM. Model evaluation was based on parameter plausibility and prediction‐corrected visual predictive checks. Results Warfarin PK was described using a one‐compartment model. CYP2C9 *1/*3 genotype had reduced clearance for S‐warfarin, but increased clearance for R‐warfarin. The in vitro parameters for the relationship between prothrombin complex activity (PCA) and INR were markedly different (A = 0.560, B = 0.386) from the theory‐based values (A = 1, B = 0). There was a small difference between healthy subjects and patients. A sigmoid Emax PD model inhibiting PCA synthesis as a function of S‐warfarin concentration predicted INR. Small R‐warfarin effects was described by competitive antagonism of S‐warfarin inhibition. Patients with VKORC1 AA and CYP4F2 CC or CT genotypes had lower C50 for S‐warfarin. Conclusion A theory‐based PKPD model describes warfarin concentrations and clinical response. Expected PK and PD genotype effects were confirmed. The role of predicted fat free mass with theory‐based allometric scaling of PK parameters was identified. R‐warfarin had a minor effect compared with S‐warfarin on PCA synthesis. INR is predictable from 1/PCA in vivo. PMID:27763679

  14. Results of a Regional Effort to Improve Warfarin Management.

    PubMed

    Rose, Adam J; Park, Angela; Gillespie, Christopher; Van Deusen Lukas, Carol; Ozonoff, Al; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Reisman, Joel I; Borzecki, Ann M; Benedict, Ashley J; Lukesh, William N; Schmoke, Timothy J; Jones, Ellen A; Morreale, Anthony P; Ourth, Heather L; Schlosser, James E; Mayo-Smith, Michael F; Allen, Arthur L; Witt, Daniel M; Helfrich, Christian D; McCullough, Megan B

    2017-05-01

    Improved anticoagulation control with warfarin reduces adverse events and represents a target for quality improvement. No previous study has described an effort to improve anticoagulation control across a health system. To describe the results of an effort to improve anticoagulation control in the New England region of the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Our intervention encompassed 8 VA sites managing warfarin for more than 5000 patients in New England (Veterans Integrated Service Network 1 [VISN 1]). We provided sites with a system to measure processes of care, along with targeted audit and feedback. We focused on processes of care associated with site-level anticoagulation control, including prompt follow-up after out-of-range international normalized ratio (INR) values, minimizing loss to follow-up, and use of guideline-concordant INR target ranges. We used a difference-in-differences (DID) model to examine changes in anticoagulation control, measured as percentage time in therapeutic range (TTR), as well as process measures and compared VISN 1 sites with 116 VA sites located outside VISN 1. VISN 1 sites improved on TTR, our main indicator of quality, from 66.4% to 69.2%, whereas sites outside VISN 1 improved from 65.9% to 66.4% (DID 2.3%, P < 0.001). Improvement in TTR correlated strongly with the extent of improvement on process-of-care measures, which varied widely across VISN 1 sites. A regional quality improvement initiative, using performance measurement with audit and feedback, improved TTR by 2.3% more than control sites, which is a clinically important difference. Improving relevant processes of care can improve outcomes for patients receiving warfarin.

  15. Patients with Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Impact of Preinjury Platelet Inhibitor or Warfarin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Marie Hexeberg; Vik, Anne; Skandsen, Toril; Sandrød, Oddrun; Deane, Susan Frances; Rao, Vidar; Moen, Kent Gøran

    2018-06-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of preinjury antithrombotic medication on clinical and radiologic neuroworsening in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and study the effect on outcome. A total of 184 consecutive patients ≥50 years old with moderate and severe TBI admitted to a level 1 trauma center were included. Neuroworsening was assessed clinically by using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and radiologically by using the Rotterdam CT score on repeated time points. Functional outcome was assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended 6 months after injury. The platelet inhibitor group (mean age, 77.3 years; n = 43) and the warfarin group (mean age, 73.2 years; n = 20) were significantly older than the nonuser group (mean age, 63.7 years; n = 121; P ≤ 0.001). In the platelet inhibitor group 74% and in the warfarin group, 85% were injured by falls. Platelet inhibitors were not significantly associated with clinical or radiologic neuroworsening (P = 0.37-1.00), whereas warfarin increased the frequency of worsening in GCS score (P = 0.001-0.028) and Rotterdam CT score (P = 0.004). In-hospital mortality was higher in the platelet inhibitor group (28%; P = 0.030) and the warfarin group (50%; P < 0.001) compared with the nonuser group (13%). Platelet inhibitors did not predict mortality or worse outcome after adjustment for age, preinjury disability, GCS score, and Rotterdam CT score, whereas warfarin predicted both mortality and worse outcome. In this study of patients with moderate and severe TBI, preinjury platelet inhibitors did not cause neuroworsening or predict higher mortality or worse outcome. In contrast, preinjury warfarin caused neuroworsening and was an independent risk factor for mortality and worse outcome at 6 months. Hence, fall prevention and liberal use of computed tomography examinations is important in this patient group. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Out-of-range INR values and outcomes among new warfarin patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Winnie W; Wang, Li; Baser, Onur; Damaraju, Chandrasekharrao V; Schein, Jeffrey R

    2015-02-01

    Although efficacious in stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation, many warfarin patients are sub-optimally managed. To evaluate the association of international normalized ratio control and clinical outcomes among new warfarin patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Adult non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients (≥18 years) initiating warfarin treatment were selected from the US Veterans Health Administration dataset between 10/2007 and 9/2012. Valid international normalized ratio values were examined from the warfarin initiation date through the earlier of the first clinical outcome, end of warfarin exposure or death. Each patient contributed multiple in-range and out-of-range time periods. The relative risk ratios of clinical outcomes associated with international normalized ratio control were estimated. 34,346 patients were included for analysis. During the warfarin exposure period, the incidence of events per 100 person-years was highest when patients had international normalized ratio <2:13.66 for acute coronary syndrome; 10.30 for ischemic stroke; 2.93 for transient ischemic attack; 1.81 for systemic embolism; and 4.55 for major bleeding. Poisson regression confirmed that during periods with international normalized ratio <2, patients were at increased risk of developing acute coronary syndrome (relative risk ratio: 7.9; 95 % confidence interval 6.9-9.1), ischemic stroke (relative risk ratio: 7.6; 95 % confidence interval 6.5-8.9), transient ischemic attack (relative risk ratio: 8.2; 95 % confidence interval 6.1-11.2), systemic embolism (relative risk ratio: 6.3; 95 % confidence interval 4.4-8.9) and major bleeding (relative risk ratio: 2.6; 95 % confidence interval 2.2-3.0). During time periods with international normalized ratio >3, patients had significantly increased risk of major bleeding (relative risk ratio: 1.5; 95 % confidence interval 1.2-2.0). In a Veterans Health Administration non-valvular atrial fibrillation population

  17. No Dose Adjustment is Recommended for Digoxin, Warfarin, Atorvastatin or a Combination Oral Contraceptive When Coadministered with Dulaglutide.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, Amparo; Cui, Xuewei; Geiser, Jeanne; Loghin, Corina

    2017-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to delay gastric emptying (GE). The potential effect of the GLP-1 RA dulaglutide on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of four orally administered drugs and on the pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of warfarin was investigated. In four separate clinical pharmacology studies, digoxin, warfarin, atorvastatin and Ortho-Cyclen ® were orally administered to healthy subjects with and without a subcutaneous dose of dulaglutide 1.5 mg. The effect of dulaglutide coadministration was assessed based on the PK parameters of key analytes. For warfarin PD, the effect of dulaglutide on the international normalized ratio (INR) was evaluated. Areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) with and without dulaglutide were similar for all analytes except atorvastatin, where it was reduced by 21%. Maximum concentrations (C max ) were generally lower following coadministration with dulaglutide, with statistically significant reductions (90% confidence intervals of geometric least squares means ratios outside 0.80-1.25) for all analytes except R-warfarin. For all analytes, there was a general trend for the time to C max (t max ) to increase following coadministration with dulaglutide. For warfarin, dulaglutide coadministration had no statistically significant effect on the maximum INR (INR max ); however, a 2% increase in area under the INR curve (AUC INR ) was observed. Dulaglutide did not affect the absorption of the tested medications to a clinically relevant degree. Based on the PK and PD evaluations, no dose adjustments for digoxin, warfarin, atorvastatin and Ortho-Cyclen ® are recommended when coadministered with dulaglutide. NCT01458210, NCT01436201, NCT01432938, and NCT01250834.

  18. Warfarin Anticoagulation Therapy in Caribbean Hispanics of Puerto Rico: A Candidate Gene Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Labastida, Aurora; Ramos, Alga; Gaedigk, Andrea; Renta-Torres, Jessicca; Padilla, Dariana; Rivera-Miranda, Giselle; Scott, Stuart A.; Ruaño, Gualberto; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Duconge-Soler, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Existing algorithms account for ~50% of observed variance in warfarin dose requirements after including common polymorphisms. However, they do not perform as well in populations other than Caucasians, in part because some ethno-specific genetic variants are overlooked. The objective of the present study was to identify genetic polymorphisms that can explain variability in warfarin dose requirements among Caribbean Hispanics of Puerto Rico. Next-Generation Sequencing of candidate genes CYP2C9 and VKORC1 and genotyping by DMET® Plus Assay of cardiovascular patients were performed. We also aimed at characterizing the genomic structure and admixture pattern of this study cohort. Our study used the Extreme Discordant Phenotype approach to perform a case-control association analysis. The CYP2C9 variant rs2860905, which was found in all the major haplotypes occurring in the Puerto Rican population, showed stronger association with warfarin sensitivity (<4 mg/day) than common variants CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. Although, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 are separately contained within two of the haplotypes, 10 subjects with the sensitive phenotype were carriers of only the CYP2C9 rs2860905 variant. Other polymorphisms in CES2 and ABCB1 were found to be associated with warfarin resistance. Incorporation of rs2860905 in a regression model (R2 = 0.63, MSE = 0.37) that also includes additional genetics (i.e., VKORC1-1639 G>A; CYP2C9 rs1856908; ABCB1 c.IVS9-44A>G/ rs10276036; CES2 c.269-965A>G/ rs4783745) and non-genetic factors (i.e., hypertension, diabetes and age) showed better prediction of warfarin dose requirements than CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 combined (partial R2 = 0.132 vs. 0.023 and 0.007, respectively, p < 0.001). The genetic background of Puerto Ricans in the study cohort showed a tri-hybrid admixture pattern, with a slightly higher than expected contribution of Native American ancestry (25%). The genomic diversity of Puerto Ricans is highlighted by the presence of four different

  19. Warfarin Anticoagulation Therapy in Caribbean Hispanics of Puerto Rico: A Candidate Gene Association Study.

    PubMed

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Labastida, Aurora; Ramos, Alga; Gaedigk, Andrea; Renta-Torres, Jessicca; Padilla, Dariana; Rivera-Miranda, Giselle; Scott, Stuart A; Ruaño, Gualberto; Cadilla, Carmen L; Duconge-Soler, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Existing algorithms account for ~50% of observed variance in warfarin dose requirements after including common polymorphisms. However, they do not perform as well in populations other than Caucasians, in part because some ethno-specific genetic variants are overlooked. The objective of the present study was to identify genetic polymorphisms that can explain variability in warfarin dose requirements among Caribbean Hispanics of Puerto Rico. Next-Generation Sequencing of candidate genes CYP2C9 and VKORC1 and genotyping by DMET® Plus Assay of cardiovascular patients were performed. We also aimed at characterizing the genomic structure and admixture pattern of this study cohort. Our study used the Extreme Discordant Phenotype approach to perform a case-control association analysis. The CYP2C9 variant rs2860905, which was found in all the major haplotypes occurring in the Puerto Rican population, showed stronger association with warfarin sensitivity (<4 mg/day) than common variants CYP2C9 * 2 and CYP2C9 * 3 . Although, CYP2C9 * 2 and CYP2C9 * 3 are separately contained within two of the haplotypes, 10 subjects with the sensitive phenotype were carriers of only the CYP2C9 rs2860905 variant. Other polymorphisms in CES2 and ABCB1 were found to be associated with warfarin resistance. Incorporation of rs 2860905 in a regression model ( R 2 = 0.63, MSE = 0.37) that also includes additional genetics (i.e., VKORC1 -1639 G>A; CYP2C9 rs1856908; ABCB1 c.IVS9-44A>G/ rs10276036; CES2 c.269-965A>G/ rs4783745) and non-genetic factors (i.e., hypertension, diabetes and age) showed better prediction of warfarin dose requirements than CYP2C9 * 2 and CYP2C9 * 3 combined (partial R 2 = 0.132 vs. 0.023 and 0.007, respectively, p < 0.001). The genetic background of Puerto Ricans in the study cohort showed a tri-hybrid admixture pattern, with a slightly higher than expected contribution of Native American ancestry (25%). The genomic diversity of Puerto Ricans is highlighted by the presence of

  20. Comparison of hospital length of stay and hospitalization costs among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation treated with apixaban or warfarin: An early view.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lin; Vo, Lien; Keshishian, Allison; Price, Kwanza; Singh, Prianka; Mardekian, Jack; Bruno, Amanda; Baser, Onur; Kim, Jully; Tan, Wilson; Trocio, Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    To quantify and compare hospital length of stay (LOS) and costs between hospitalized non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients treated with either apixaban or warfarin via a large claims database. Adult patients hospitalized with AF were selected from the Premier Perspective Claims Database (01JAN2013-31MARCH2014). Patients with evidence of valvular heart disease, valve replacement procedures, or pregnancy during the index hospitalization were excluded. Patients treated with apixaban or warfarin during hospitalization were identified. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to control for baseline imbalances between patients treated with apixaban or warfarin. Primary outcomes were hospital LOS (days), post-medication administration LOS, and index hospitalization costs, and were compared using paired t-tests in the matched sample. Before PSM, 2894 apixaban and 124,174 warfarin patients were identified. Patients treated with warfarin were older and sicker compared to those treated with apixaban. After applying PSM, a total of 2886 patients were included in each cohort, and baseline characteristics were balanced. The mean (standard deviation [SD] and median) hospital LOS was significantly (p = 0.002) shorter for patients treated with apixaban for 5.1 days (5.7 and 3) compared to warfarin for 5.5 days (4.8 and 4). The trend appeared consistent in the hospital LOS from point of apixaban or warfarin administration to discharge (4.5 vs 4.7 days, p = 0.051). Patients administered apixaban incurred significantly lower hospitalization costs compared to those administered warfarin ($11,262 vs $12,883; p < 0.001). Among NVAF patients, apixaban treatment was associated with significantly shorter hospital LOS and lower costs when compared to warfarin treatment.

  1. Population Impact of Drug Interactions with Warfarin: A Real-World Data Approach.

    PubMed

    Martín-Pérez, Mar; Gaist, David; de Abajo, Francisco J; Rodríguez, Luis A García

    2018-03-01

     To investigate the population impact of previously reported interactions between warfarin and other drugs on international normalized ratio (INR) levels.  Using The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a United Kingdom primary care database, a cohort of warfarin users between 2005 and 2013 ( N  = 121,962) was followed until the first qualifying prescription for the potential interacting drugs was evaluated. Sixteen sub-cohorts, one for each study drug, and a control sub-cohort of warfarin were ascertained. Short-term changes in INR levels were assessed by comparing INR values measured before and after initiation of the interacting drug with paired Student's t -test. We also evaluated the proportion of patients with INR values outside the therapeutic range (INR: 2-3).  Miconazole use was associated with the highest mean increase in INR (+3.35), followed by amiodarone (+1.28), fluconazole (+0.79), metronidazole (+0.75) and nystatin (+0.65). After subtracting the natural INR variation observed in the control sub-cohort, supra-therapeutic levels (INR > 3) were found in 53.2% (miconazole), 45.5% (amiodarone), 23.3% (metronidazole), 23.2% (fluconazole) and 17.6% (nystatin) of patients initiating treatment with these drugs. Carbamazepine use was associated with a mean INR decrease of -0.63 and infra-therapeutic levels (INR < 2) were observed in 46.2% of patients initiating carbamazepine. For all other drugs, the change was small to moderate, in absolute INR units (+0.23 to +0.55) and in the proportion of patients with INR levels out of therapeutic range (<16%).  Clinically potentially important interactions were observed in several study drugs. The majority of them, although confirmed, had little impact after adjusting for standard INR variability in the general population of warfarin users. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  2. Lipase-supported metal-organic framework bioreactor catalyzes warfarin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Ling; Yang, Ni-Shin; Chen, Ya-Ting; Lirio, Stephen; Wu, Cheng-You; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2015-01-02

    A green and sustainable strategy synthesizes clinical medicine warfarin anticoagulant by using lipase-supported metal-organic framework (MOF) bioreactors (see scheme). These findings may be beneficial for future studies in the industrial production of chemical, pharmaceutical, and agrochemical precursors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Fluorescence Determination of Warfarin Using TGA-capped CdTe Quantum Dots in Human Plasma Samples.

    PubMed

    Dehbozorgi, A; Tashkhourian, J; Zare, S

    2015-11-01

    In this study, some effort has been performed to provide low temperature, less time consuming and facile routes for the synthesis of CdTe quantum dots using ultrasound and water soluble capping agent thioglycolic acid. TGA-capped CdTe quantum dots were characterized through x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. The prepared quantum dots were used for warfarin determination based on the quenching of the fluorescence intensity in aqueous solution. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of quantum dots fluorescence intensity versus the concentration of warfarin was 0.1-160.0 μM, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9996 and a limit of detection of 77.5 nM. There was no interference to coexisting foreign substances. The selectivity of the sensor was also tested and the results show that the developed method possesses a high selectivity for warfarin.

  4. Serious Bleeding Events due to Warfarin and Antibiotic Co-prescription In a Cohort of Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Michael A.; Zeringue, Angelique; McDonald, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotics may interact with warfarin, increasing the risk for significant bleeding events. Methods Retrospective cohort study of veterans prescribed warfarin for ≥ 30 days without interruption through the VA between October 1, 2002 and September 1, 2008. Antibiotics considered to be high-risk for interaction with warfarin include: trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, fluiconazole, azithromycin, and clarithromycin. Low-risk antibiotics include: clindamycin and cephalexin. Risk of bleeding event within 30 days of antibiotic exposure was measured using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions and receipt of other medications interacting with warfarin. Results A total of 22,272 patients met inclusion criteria with 14,078 and 8,194 receiving high- and low-risk antibiotics, respectively. There were 93 and 36 bleeding events in the high- and low-risk groups, respectively. Receipt of a high-risk antibiotic (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.00-2.19) and azithromycin (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.13-3.30) were associated with increased risk of bleeding as a primary diagnosis. TMP/SMX (HR 2.09, 95% CI 1.45-3.02), ciprofloxacin (HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.42-2.50), levofloxacin (HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.22-2.50), azithromycin (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.33), and clarithromycin (HR 2.40, 95% CI 1.16-4.94) were associated with serious bleeding as a primary or secondary diagnosis. INR alterations were common; 9.7% of patients prescribed fluconazole had INR value >6. Patients who had INR performed 3-14 days of co-prescription were at a decrease risk of serious bleeding (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42-0.88). Conclusions Warfarin users who are prescribed high-risk antibiotics are at higher risk for serious bleeding events. Early INR evaluation may mitigate this risk. PMID:24657899

  5. Predictive factors for bleeding during treatment with rivaroxaban and warfarin in Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation - Subgroup analysis of J-ROCKET AF.

    PubMed

    Hori, Masatsugu; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Tanahashi, Norio; Momomura, Shin-Ichi; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Goto, Shinya; Izumi, Tohru; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Kajikawa, Mariko; Kato, Masaharu; Cavaliere, Mary; Iekushi, Kazuma; Yamanaka, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Results from the J-ROCKET AF study revealed that rivaroxaban was non-inferior to warfarin with respect to the principal safety outcomes in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. This subgroup analysis evaluated whether non-major clinically relevant bleeding (NMCRB) could be a predictive factor for major bleeding (MB). Other predictive factors for MB were also obtained in both rivaroxaban and warfarin treatment groups. The temporal incidence of MB was compared between the rivaroxaban and warfarin treatment groups. Assessment was made whether MB events were often preceded by NMCRB. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify any independent predictive factors for MB in both treatment groups. The incidences of MB and NMCRB were 18.04% (138/639 patients) in the rivaroxaban arm, and 16.42% in the warfarin arm (124/639 patients). NMCRB preceded MB in only four patients in each treatment group (rivaroxaban: 4/117 and warfarin: 4/98). Multivariate analysis identified predictive factors for bleeding events: anemia with warfarin treatment and concomitant use of antiplatelet agents with rivaroxaban treatment. Results from this subgroup analysis, particularly the fact that there was no repeated or sequential pattern between NMCRB and MB occurrences in both treatment groups, suggests that NMCRB might not be a predictive factor for MB. On the contrary, anemia and concomitant use of antiplatelet therapy were likely predictive factors for bleeding with warfarin and rivaroxaban treatment, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potentiation of the anticoagulation effect of warfarin by the herbal remedy Shu-Jing-Hwo-Shiee-Tang in rats: The dosing regimen and pharmacokinetic interaction.

    PubMed

    Ueng, Yune-Fang; Lu, Chung-Kuang; Yang, Sien-Hung; Wang, Hong-Jaan; Huang, Chiung-Chiao

    2017-02-01

    The herbal remedy Shu-Jing-Hwo-Shiee-Tang (SJHST) has been used in traditional Chinese medical care for the treatment of osteoarthritis. This study aims to examine the influence of SJHST on the oxidation and anticoagulation effect of warfarin in male rats. In three SJHST preparations (S1-S3), hesperidin, gentiopicrin, and paeoniflorin were identified as chemical marker ingredients. The inhibition of liver microsomal warfarin 7-hydroxylation (WOH) activity by 50% methanolic extracts of SJHST was potentiated by β-glucosidase pretreatment, but not by NADPH-fortified microsomal preincubation. Among various ingredients and their β-glucosidase-hydrolyzed products, hesperetin caused the most potent inhibition of WOH. Oral administration of S2 to rats at 2 h after warfarin treatment (WS2 2-h post ), but not co-treatment (WS2 co ), decreased warfarin clearance and increased the maximal plasma concentration and the area under the curve (AUC 0-t , AUC 0-∞ ) of plasma concentration versus time of warfarin administration. S2 and S3 did not change the coagulation parameters. At 24 h after warfarin administration, the WS2 2-h post and WS3 2-h post groups had a prothrombin time longer than that of the warfarin group. These results demonstrate that a 2-h post-treatment of rats with SJHST caused pharmacokinetic interaction with warfarin, resulting in prothrombin time prolongation. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms in the interethnic variability of warfarin dose in Malaysian populations.

    PubMed

    Gan, Gin Gin; Phipps, Maude E; Lee, Michael M T; Lu, Liang S; Subramaniam, Rajallectchumy Y; Bee, Ping C; Chang, Sean H

    2011-06-01

    Within the Asian populations, Indian patients had been reported to require higher warfarin dose compared with the Chinese and Malay patients, and this could not entirely be explained by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 gene variants. Genetic variants of vitamin K epoxide oxidase reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) has been well established as one of key determinants in the different responses of warfarin amongst patients. Adult patients who attended an anticoagulation clinic with stable INR were recruited. VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotype were sequenced, and clinical characteristics were assessed. A total of 91 Malays, 96 Chinese, and 46 Indian patients were recruited. The mean age was 55 years and 51.5% were males. The mean dose of warfarin for all patients was 3.7 mg, and the mean daily dose of warfarin was significantly higher in Indians compared with the Chinese and Malay patients, 4.9 versus 3.5 and 3.3 mg, respectively (p < 0.001). VKORC1 GG genotype was more commonly seen in Indian patients. The mean warfarin dose in patients with GG genotype required a significant higher warfarin dose compared with those with AG and AA genotype (4.9 vs. 3.7 vs. 3.1 mg, respectively; p < 0.001). CYP2C9*2 and *3 is associated with a lower maintenance dose, 2.9 versus 3.7 mg in CYP2C9*1; p < 0.01. In multivariate analysis, age, ethnic groups, and genotypes had a significant influence on the required warfarin dose. In conclusion, VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphism contribute to the difference dose requirement amongst the patients but other additional possible factors may play a role in the Indian race.

  8. Warfarin pharmacogenetics: a single VKORC1 polymorphism is predictive of dose across 3 racial groups.

    PubMed

    Limdi, Nita A; Wadelius, Mia; Cavallari, Larisa; Eriksson, Niclas; Crawford, Dana C; Lee, Ming-Ta M; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Motsinger-Reif, Alison; Sagreiya, Hersh; Liu, Nianjun; Wu, Alan H B; Gage, Brian F; Jorgensen, Andrea; Pirmohamed, Munir; Shin, Jae-Gook; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Kimmel, Stephen E; Johnson, Julie A; Klein, Teri E; Wagner, Michael J

    2010-05-06

    Warfarin-dosing algorithms incorporating CYP2C9 and VKORC1 -1639G>A improve dose prediction compared with algorithms based solely on clinical and demographic factors. However, these algorithms better capture dose variability among whites than Asians or blacks. Herein, we evaluate whether other VKORC1 polymorphisms and haplotypes explain additional variation in warfarin dose beyond that explained by VKORC1 -1639G>A among Asians (n = 1103), blacks (n = 670), and whites (n = 3113). Participants were recruited from 11 countries as part of the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium effort. Evaluation of the effects of individual VKORC1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes on warfarin dose used both univariate and multi variable linear regression. VKORC1 -1639G>A and 1173C>T individually explained the greatest variance in dose in all 3 racial groups. Incorporation of additional VKORC1 SNPs or haplotypes did not further improve dose prediction. VKORC1 explained greater variability in dose among whites than blacks and Asians. Differences in the percentage of variance in dose explained by VKORC1 across race were largely accounted for by the frequency of the -1639A (or 1173T) allele. Thus, clinicians should recognize that, although at a population level, the contribution of VKORC1 toward dose requirements is higher in whites than in nonwhites; genotype predicts similar dose requirements across racial groups.

  9. Polypharmacy and effects of apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: post hoc analysis of the ARISTOTLE trial

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Marc A; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Thomas, Laine; Lopes, Renato D; Washam, Jeffrey B; Lanas, Fernando; Xavier, Denis; Husted, Steen; Wallentin, Lars; Alexander, John H; Granger, Christopher B; Verheugt, Freek W A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the treatment effect of apixaban versus warfarin differs with increasing numbers of concomitant drugs used by patients with atrial fibrillation. Design Post hoc analysis performed in 2015 of results from ARISTOTLE (apixaban for reduction in stroke and other thromboembolic events in atrial fibrillation)—a multicentre, double blind, double dummy trial that started in 2006 and ended in 2011. Participants 18 201 ARISTOTLE trial participants. Interventions In the ARISTOTLE trial, patients were randomised to either 5 mg apixaban twice daily (n=9120) or warfarin (target international normalised ratio range 2.0-3.0; n=9081). In the post hoc analysis, patients were divided into groups according to the number of concomitant drug treatments used at baseline (0-5, 6-8, ≥9 drugs) with a median follow-up of 1.8 years. Main outcome measures Clinical outcomes and treatment effects of apixaban versus warfarin (adjusted for age, sex, and country). Results Each patient used a median of six drugs (interquartile range 5-9); polypharmacy (≥5 drugs) was seen in 13 932 (76.5%) patients. Greater numbers of concomitant drugs were used in older patients, women, and patients in the United States. The number of comorbidities increased across groups of increasing numbers of drugs (0-5, 6-8, ≥9 drugs), as did the proportions of patients treated with drugs that interact with warfarin or apixaban. Mortality also rose significantly with the number of drug treatments (P<0.001), as did rates of stroke or systemic embolism (1.29, 1.48, and 1.57 per 100 patient years, for 0-5, 6-8, and ≥9 drugs, respectively) and major bleeding (1.91, 2.46, and 3.88 per 100 patient years, respectively). Relative risk reductions in stroke or systemic embolism for apixaban versus warfarin were consistent, regardless of the number of concomitant drugs (Pinteraction=0.82). A smaller reduction in major bleeding was seen with apixaban versus warfarin with increasing numbers

  10. Safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in patients undergoing peripheral arterial procedures.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Anjan; Wang, S Keisin; Czosnowski, Lauren; Mokraoui, Nassim; Gupta, Alok; Fajardo, Andres; Dalsing, Michael; Motaganahalli, Raghu

    2017-10-01

    Rivaroxaban is a United States Food and Drug Administration-approved oral anticoagulant for venous thromboembolic disease; however, there is no information regarding the safety and its efficacy to support its use in patients after open or endovascular arterial interventions. We report the safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban vs warfarin in patients undergoing peripheral arterial interventions. This single-institution retrospective study analyzed all sequential patients from December 2012 to August 2014 (21 months) who were prescribed rivaroxaban or warfarin after a peripheral arterial procedure. Our study population was then compared using American College of Chest Physicians guidelines with patients then stratified as low, medium, or high risk for bleeding complications. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student t-test and χ 2 test to compare demographics, readmissions because of bleeding, and the need for secondary interventions. Logistic regression models were used for analysis of variables associated with bleeding complications and secondary interventions. The Fisher exact test was used for power analysis. There were 44 patients in the rivaroxaban group and 50 patients in the warfarin group. Differences between demographics and risk factors for bleeding between groups or reintervention rate were not statistically significant (P = .297). However, subgroup evaluation of the safety profile suggests that patients who were aged ≤65 years and on warfarin had an overall higher incidence of major bleeding (P = .020). Patients who were aged >65 years, undergoing open operation, had a significant risk for reintervention (P = .047) when they received rivaroxaban. Real-world experience using rivaroxaban and warfarin in patients after peripheral arterial procedures suggests a comparable safety and efficacy profile. Subgroup analysis of those requiring an open operation demonstrated a decreased bleeding risk when rivaroxaban was used (in those aged <65

  11. Venous thromboembolic prophylaxis after simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty: aspirin versus warfarin.

    PubMed

    Goel, R; Fleischman, A N; Tan, T; Sterbis, E; Huang, R; Higuera, C; Parvizi, J; Rothman, R H

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of two agents, aspirin and warfarin, for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (SBTKA), and to elucidate the risk of VTE conferred by this procedure compared with unilateral TKA (UTKA). A retrospective, multi-institutional study was conducted on 18 951 patients, 3685 who underwent SBTKA and 15 266 who underwent UTKA, using aspirin or warfarin as VTE prophylaxis. Each patient was assigned an individualised baseline VTE risk score based on a system using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Symptomatic VTE, including pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), were identified in the first 90 days post-operatively. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression accounting for baseline VTE risk. The adjusted incidence of PE following SBTKA was 1.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 1.2) with aspirin and 2.2% (95% CI 2.0 to 2.4) with warfarin. Similarly, the adjusted incidence of VTE following SBTKA was 1.6% (95% CI 1.1 to 2.3) with aspirin and 2.5% (95% CI 1.9 to 3.3) with warfarin. The risk of PE and VTE were reduced by 66% (odds ratio (OR) 0.44, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.78) and 38% (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.0), respectively, using aspirin. In addition, the risk of PE was 204% higher for patients undergoing SBTKA relative to those undergoing UTKA. For each ten-point increase in baseline VTE risk, the risk of PE increased by 25.5% for patients undergoing SBTKA compared with 10.5% for those undergoing UTKA. Patients with a history of myocardial infarction or peripheral vascular disease had the greatest increase in risk from undergoing SBTKA instead of UTKA. Aspirin is more effective than warfarin for the prevention of VTE following SBTKA, and serves as the more appropriate agent for VTE prophylaxis for patients in all risk categories. Furthermore, patients undergoing SBTKA are at a substantially increased risk of VTE, even more so for

  12. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in Japanese patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation for the secondary prevention of stroke: a subgroup analysis of J-ROCKET AF.

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Norio; Hori, Masatsugu; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Momomura, Shin-ichi; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Goto, Shinya; Izumi, Tohru; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Kajikawa, Mariko; Kato, Masaharu; Ueda, Hitoshi; Iwamoto, Kazuya; Tajiri, Masahiro

    2013-11-01

    The overall analysis of the rivaroxaban versus warfarin in Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation (J-ROCKET AF) trial revealed that rivaroxaban was not inferior to warfarin with respect to the primary safety outcome. In addition, there was a strong trend for a reduction in the rate of stroke/systemic embolism with rivaroxaban compared with warfarin. In this subanalysis of the J-ROCKET AF trial, we investigated the consistency of safety and efficacy profile of rivaroxaban versus warfarin among the subgroups of patients with previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or non-central nervous system systemic embolism (secondary prevention group) and those without (primary prevention group). Patients in the secondary prevention group were 63.6% of the overall population of J-ROCKET AF. In the secondary prevention group, the rate of the principal safety outcome (% per year) was 17.02 in rivaroxaban-treated patients and 18.26 in warfarin-treated patients (hazard ratio [HR] 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-1.29), while the rate of the primary efficacy endpoint was 1.66 in rivaroxaban-treated patients and 3.25 in warfarin-treated patients (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.23-1.14). There were no significant interactions in the principal safety and the primary efficacy endpoints of rivaroxaban compared to warfarin between the primary and secondary prevention groups (P=.090 and .776 for both interactions, respectively). The safety and efficacy profile of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin was consistent among patients in the primary prevention group and those in the secondary prevention group. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative effectiveness of rivaroxaban versus warfarin or dabigatran for the treatment of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Norby, Faye L; Bengtson, Lindsay G S; Lutsey, Pamela L; Chen, Lin Y; MacLehose, Richard F; Chamberlain, Alanna M; Rapson, Ian; Alonso, Alvaro

    2017-09-06

    Rivaroxaban is an oral anticoagulant approved in the US for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). We determined the effectiveness and associated risks of rivaroxaban versus other oral anticoagulants in a large real-world population. We selected NVAF patients initiating oral anticoagulant use in 2010-2014 enrolled in MarketScan databases. Rivaroxaban users were matched with warfarin and dabigatran users by age, sex, enrolment date, anticoagulant initiation date, and high-dimensional propensity score. Study endpoints, including ischemic stroke, intracranial bleeding (ICB), myocardial infarction (MI), and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, were identified from inpatient diagnostic codes. Multivariable Cox models were used to assess associations between type of anticoagulant and outcomes. The analysis included 44,340 rivaroxaban users matched to 89,400 warfarin and 16,957 dabigatran users (38% female, mean age 70) with 12 months of mean follow-up. Anticoagulant-naïve rivaroxaban initiators, but not those switching from warfarin, had lower risk of ischemic stroke [hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.75 (0.62, 0.91)] and ICB [HR (95%CI): 0.55, (0.39, 0.78)] than warfarin users. In contrast, anticoagulant-experienced rivaroxaban initiators had higher risk of GI bleeding than warfarin users [HR (95%CI): 1.55 (1.32, 1.83)]. Endpoint rates were similar when comparing anticoagulant-naïve rivaroxaban and dabigatran initiators, with the exception of higher GI bleeding risk in rivaroxaban users [HR (95%CI) 1.28 (1.06, 1.54)]. There were no significant differences in the risk of MI among the comparison groups. In this large real-world sample of NVAF patients, effectiveness and risks of rivaroxaban versus warfarin differed by prior anticoagulant status, while effectiveness of rivaroxaban versus dabigatran differed in GI bleeding risk.

  14. Cytochrome P450 2C9 gene polymorphism and warfarin maintenance dosage in pediatric patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhua; Tian, Lihong; Huang, Jinlong; Huang, Sihan; Chai, Tingting; Shen, Jianzhen

    2017-02-01

    To assess the effect of Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) gene polymorphism on pediatric warfarin maintenance dosage requirement. A previously developed search strategy was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Eligible studies published prior to January 27, 2016, were identified and compared against strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. Required data were extracted, and researchers were consulted for additional data if needed. Review Manager version 5.2.3 software was used to analyze the relationship between CYP2C9 polymorphisms and warfarin maintenance doses in pediatric patients. Eight articles with a combined total of 507 pediatric patients were included in the meta-analysis. Maintenance warfarin doses in patients with CYP2C9 *1/*2 genotype, CYP2C9 *1/*3 genotype, and CYP2C9 variant carriers which contain at least one variant allele (*2 or *3) were from 15% to 41% lower than doses in patients with the wild-type allele (CYP2C9 *1/*1): All differences were significant with P-values <.05. The Fontan procedure as a medical indication for anticoagulation was also associated with a lower warfarin maintenance dose; however, target INR range was not. We found that CYP2C9 gene polymorphism (referring to the presence of *1/*2, *1/*3, and variant genotypes in the population in addition to the wild type) was significantly associated with decreased warfarin maintenance dose requirements. Additionally, a specific indication for warfarin, the Fontan procedure, was associated with a lower daily warfarin dose. However, the results of our study require confirmation from more research with larger numbers of pediatric patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Influence of NR3C1 and VDR polymorphisms on stable warfarin dose in patients with mechanical cardiac valves.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Chung, Jee Eun; Yi, Boram; Cho, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Gwan Yung; Kim, Joo Hee; Chang, Byung Chul; Gwak, Hye Sun

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between polymorphisms of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2, NR3C1 and VDR genes and stable warfarin doses in Korean patients with mechanical heart valves. Seventeen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 204 patients with stable warfarin dose were analyzed: VKORC1 (rs9934438), CYP2C9 (rs1057910), CYP4F2 (rs2108622), NR3C1 (rs41423247, rs1800445, rs56149945, rs10052957, rs6198, rs33388, rs6196, and rs244465), and VDR (rs1544410, rs11568820, rs731236, rs757343, rs7975232, and rs2228570). Statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations of gene variations with stable warfarin dose. Number needed to genotype was obtained by calculating the percentage of patients whose predicted dose was at least 20% higher or lower than the actual stable dose. The combined genotypes of rs7975232 and rs2228570 of the VDR gene revealed a significant association with stable warfarin dose, along with VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 polymorphisms. Patients with the genotype combination GT,TT/CT,CC of VDR rs7975232/rs2228570 required significantly higher stable warfarin dose (5.79±2.02mg) than those with the other genotypic combinations (5.19±1.78mg, p=0.034). Multivariate analysis showed that VDR rs7975232/rs2228570 explained 2.0% of the 47.5% variability in overall warfarin dose. Adding VDR SNP combinations to the base model including non-genetic variables (age, sex, and body weight) and genetic variables (VKORC1 rs9934438, CYP2C9 rs1057910, and CYP4F2 rs2108622) gave a number needed to genotype of 41. This study showed that stable warfarin dose is associated with VDR SNPs along with VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 SNPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nontraumatic Retroperitoneal Hematoma After Warfarin Administration: Fatal Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Marzieh; Hosseinzadeh, Amin; Raufian, Kasra; Hedjazi, Arya

    2015-12-01

    Spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma after warfarin therapy is an extremely rare event. Here, we report a 25-year-old man who was brought in to the emergency service with confusion. On arrival, the patient had hypotension, tachycardia, tachypnea, low-grade fever, and Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12. Abdominal examination revealed distention and mild tenderness in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. The patient had a history of aortic valve replacement surgery and was on warfarin treatment at an international normalized ratio of 2.4. Our patient progressed to cardiorespiratory arrest. The resuscitation was initiated promptly. Despite all resuscitation measures, including transfusion and administration of high doses of catecholamine, the patient died of hypovolemic shock 3 hours after admission. At autopsy, the external surface of the abdominal great vessels (descending aorta and mesenteric vessels) showed scattered petechial hemorrhages without any visible site of perforation. After comprehensive exploration of the abdomen, no evidence of traumatic event was identified and the cause of internal blood loss was noted as warfarin adverse effect.

  17. Warfarin Management and Outcomes in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Within an Integrated Health Care System.

    PubMed

    An, JaeJin; Niu, Fang; Zheng, Chengyi; Rashid, Nazia; Mendes, Robert A; Dills, Diana; Vo, Lien; Singh, Prianka; Bruno, Amanda; Lang, Daniel T; Le, Paul T; Jazdzewski, Kristin P; Aranda, Gustavus

    2017-06-01

    Warfarin is a common treatment option to manage patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in clinical practice. Understanding current pharmacist-led anticoagulation clinic management patterns and associated outcomes is important for quality improvement; however, currently little evidence associating outcomes with management patterns exists. To (a) describe warfarin management patterns and (b) evaluate associations between warfarin treatment and clinical outcomes for patients with NVAF in an integrated health care system. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among NVAF patients with warfarin therapy between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, using Kaiser Permanente Southern California data, and followed until December 31, 2013. Management patterns related to international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring, anticoagulation clinic pharmacist intervention (consultation), and warfarin dose adjustments were investigated along with yearly attrition rates, time-in-therapeutic ranges (TTRs), and clinical outcomes (stroke or systemic embolism and major bleeding). Descriptive statistics and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine associations between TTR and clinical outcomes. A total of 32,074 NVAF patients on warfarin treatment were identified and followed for a median of 3.8 years. About half (49%) of the patients were newly initiating warfarin therapy. INR monitoring and pharmacist interventions were conducted roughly every 3 weeks after 6 months of warfarin treatment. Sixty-three percent of the study population had ≥ 1 warfarin dose adjustments with a mean (SD) of 6.7 (6.3) annual dose adjustments. Warfarin dose adjustments occurred at a median of 1 day (interquartile ranges [IQR] 1-3) after the INR measurement. Yearly attrition rate was from 3.3% to 6.3% during the follow-up, and median (IQR) TTR was 61% (46%-73%). Patients who received frequent INR monitoring (≥ 27 times per year), pharmacist interventions (≥ 24

  18. Preoperative warfarin reversal for early hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Moores, Thomas Steven; Beaven, Alastair; Cattell, Andrew Edwin; Baker, Charles; Roberts, Philip John

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate our hospital protocol of low-dose vitamin K titration for preoperative warfarin reversal for early hip fracture surgery. Records of 16 men and 33 women aged 63 to 93 (mean, 81) years who were taking warfarin for atrial fibrillation (n=40), venous thromboembolism (n=9), cerebrovascular accident (n=3), and prosthetic heart valve (n=3) and underwent surgery for hip fractures were reviewed. The 3 patients with a prosthetic heart valve were deemed high risk for thromboembolism and the remainder low-risk. The international normalised ratio (INR) of patients was checked on admission and 6 hours after administration of vitamin K; an INR of <1.7 was considered safe for surgery. No patient developed venous thromboembolism within one year. The 30-day and one-year mortality was 8.2% and 32.6%, respectively. For the 46 low-risk patients, the mean INR on admission was 2.6 (range, 1.1-4.6) and decreased to <1.7 after a mean of 2.2 (range, 0-4) administrations of 2 mg of vitamin K. Their INR was <1.7 within 18 hours (mean, 14 hours). 78% of patients underwent surgery within 36 hours. In the 22% of patients who did not undergo surgery within 36 hours, the delay was due to insufficient operative time or the patient being medically unfit for surgery. The 3 high-risk patients underwent bridging therapy of low-molecular-weight heparin and received no vitamin K; their mean INR on admission was 3.2 (range, 3.1-3.3) and the mean time to surgery was 5.3 (range, 3-8) days. Two low-risk patients and one high-risk patient died within 5 days of surgery. The low-dose intravenous vitamin K protocol is safe and effective in reversing warfarin within 18 hours. Hip fracture surgery within 36 to 48 hours of admission improves morbidity and mortality.

  19. Effects of Regional Differences in Asia on Efficacy and Safety of Edoxaban Compared With Warfarin--Insights From the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 Trial.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yuichi J; Yamashita, Takeshi; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Kimura, Tetsuya; Abe, Kenji; Sasaki, Shunichi; Mercuri, Michele; Ruff, Christian T; Giugliano, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    In 21,105 patients with atrial fibrillation in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial, edoxaban was non-inferior to warfarin in preventing thromboembolic events while reducing bleeding. We compared results in Japan with the rest of East Asia (EA), including China, Korea, and Taiwan. We compared baseline characteristics, time-in-therapeutic range (TTR) for warfarin, and outcomes (efficacy: stroke or systemic embolic events [SEE], safety: major bleeding). Interaction P values were used to assess for effect modification of treatment (higher-dose edoxaban [HDE, 60 mg/30 mg] vs. warfarin; lower-dose edoxaban [LDE, 30 mg/15 mg] vs. warfarin) by region with adjustments for baseline characteristics. Fewer patients in Japan (n=1,010) were female, taking aspirin or amiodarone, naïve to warfarin (P<0.001 for each), had a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack (P=0.02), and more patients needed dose reduction (P<0.001) compared with EA (n=933). The mean TTR was higher in Japan (70% vs. 56%, P<0.001). Evidence for statistical interactions was observed for HDE vs. warfarin by region for stroke/SEE (adjusted P-int=0.052) and major bleeding (adjusted P-int=0.048) with greater relative efficacy and safety with HDE in EA compared with Japan. No interactions were observed for LDE vs. warfarin after adjustment. HDE had a greater relative efficacy and safety in EA compared with Japan that was only partially explained by differences in baseline characteristics and TTR.

  20. Prevalence of combinatorial CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes in Puerto Ricans: implications for warfarin management in Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Duconge, Jorge; Cadilla, Carmen L; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Gorowski, Krystyna; Seip, Richard L; Bogaard, Kali; Renta, Jessica Y; Piovanetti, Paola; D'Agostino, Darrin; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro J; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) genes significantly alter the effective warfarin dose. We determined the frequencies of alleles, single carriers, and double carriers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes in a Puerto Rican cohort and gauged the impact of these polymorphisms on warfarin dosage using a published algorithm. A total of 92 DNA samples were genotyped using Luminex x-MAP technology. The polymorphism frequencies were 6.52%, 5.43% and 28.8% for CYP2C9 *2, *3 and VKORC1-1639 C>A polymorphisms, respectively. The prevalence of combinatorial genotypes was 16% for carriers of both the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms, 9% for carriers of CYP2C9 polymorphisms, 35% for carriers of the VKORC1 polymorphism, and the remaining 40% were non-carriers for either gene. Based on a published warfarin dosing algorithm, single, double and triple carriers of functionally deficient polymorphisms predict reductions of 1.0-1.6, 2.0-2.9, and 2.9-3.7 mg/day, respectively, in warfarin dose. Overall, 60% of the population carried at least a single polymorphism predicting deficient warfarin metabolism or responsiveness and 13% were double carriers with polymorphisms in both genes studied. Combinatorial genotyping of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 can allow for individualized dosing of warfarin among patients with gene polymorphisms, potentially reducing the risk of stroke or bleeding.

  1. PREVALENCE OF COMBINATORIAL CYP2C9 AND VKORC1 GENOTYPES IN PUERTO RICANS: IMPLICATIONS FOR WARFARIN MANAGEMENT IN HISPANICS

    PubMed Central

    Duconge, Jorge; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Gorowski, Krystyna; Seip, Richard L.; Bogaard, Kali; Renta, Jessica Y.; Piovanetti, Paola; D’Agostino, Darrin; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro J.; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2010-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) genes significantly alter the effective warfarin dose. We determined the frequencies of alleles, single carriers, and double carriers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes in a Puerto Rican cohort and gauged the impact of these polymorphisms on warfarin dosage using a published algorithm. A total of 92 DNA samples were genotyped using Luminex® x-MAP technology. The polymorphism frequencies were 6.52%, 5.43% and 28.8% for CYP2C9 *2, *3 and VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphisms, respectively. The prevalence of combinatorial genotypes was 16% for carriers of both the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms, 9% for carriers of CYP2C9 polymorphisms, 35% for carriers of the VKORC1 polymorphism, and the remaining 40% were non-carriers for either gene. Based on a published warfarin dosing algorithm, single, double and triple carriers of functionally deficient polymorphisms predict reductions of 1.0–1.6, 2.0–2.9, and 2.9–3.7 mg/day, respectively, in warfarin dose. Overall, 60% of the population carried at least a single polymorphism predicting deficient warfarin metabolism or responsiveness and 13% were double carriers with polymorphisms in both genes studied. Combinatorial genotyping of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 can allow for individualized dosing of warfarin among patients with gene polymorphisms, potentially reducing the risk of stroke or bleeding. PMID:20073138

  2. Methodological challenges in assessment of current use of warfarin among patients with atrial fibrillation using dispensation data from administrative health care databases.

    PubMed

    Sinyavskaya, Liliya; Matteau, Alexis; Johnson, Sarasa; Durand, Madeleine

    2018-06-05

    Algorithms to define current exposure to warfarin using administrative data may be imprecise. Study objectives were to characterize dispensation patterns, to measure gaps between expected and observed refill dates for warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Retrospective cohort study using administrative health care databases of the Régie de l'assurance-maladie du Québec. We identified every dispensation of warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban for patients with AF initiating oral anticoagulants between 2010 and 2015. For each dispensation, we extracted date and duration. Refill gaps were calculated as difference between expected and observed dates of successive dispensation. Refill gaps were summarized using descriptive statistics. To account for repeated observations nested within patients and to assess the components of variance of refill gaps, we used unconditional multilevel linear models. We identified 61 516 new users. Majority were prescribed warfarin (60.3%), followed by rivaroxaban (16.4%), dabigatran (14.5%), apixaban (8.8%). Most frequent recorded duration of dispensation was 7 days, suggesting use of pharmacist-prepared weekly pillboxes. The average refill gap from multilevel model was higher for warfarin (9.28 days, 95%CI:8.97-9.59) compared with DOACs (apixaban 3.08 days, 95%CI: 2.96-3.20, dabigatran 3.70, 95%CI: 3.56-3.84, rivaroxaban 3.15, 95%CI: 3.03-3.27). The variance of refill gaps was greater among warfarin users than among DOAC users. Greater refill gaps for warfarin may reflect inadequate capture of the period covered by the number of dispensed pills recorded in administrative data. A time-dependent definition of exposure using dispensation data would lead to greater misclassification of warfarin than DOACs use. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. One-year adherence to warfarin treatment for venous thromboembolism in high-risk patients and its association with long-term risk of recurrent events.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Yin; Wu, Ning; Gulseth, Michael; LaMori, Joyce; Bookhart, Brahim K; Boulanger, Luke; Fields, Larry; Schein, Jeff

    2013-05-01

    Warfarin is the predominant oral anticoagulant used for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) events. However, its long-term use is complicated by the need to manage the drug within a narrow therapeutic range and by possible food and drug interactions. To examine the association between 1-year adherence, measured through compliance with and persistence on warfarin treatment for VTE, and long-term risk of recurrent events among patients at high risk. Medical and pharmacy claims for patients with commercial or Medicare supplemental insurance in the Thomson Reuters MarketScan database were analyzed. Adult patients with medical claims with an associated VTE diagnosis between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2008, were identified. The index date was defined as the date of the first observed VTE claim or the date of discharge if the index event was a hospital stay. High-risk patients (patients with cancer, or noncancer patients who did not have reversible risk factors during the 3-month period prior to the index date) who filled a warfarin prescription within 2 weeks of the index date were included. Persistence was evaluated in terms of discontinuation, defined as a 90-day gap in warfarin supply during a 1-year assessment period following the index date. Compliance was measured by the proportion of days covered (PDC) over the 1-year assessment period, with PDC less than 0.8 defined as noncompliance. Recurrent VTE events were identified as hospitalizations where VTE was the primary diagnosis after the 1-year assessment period and until patients were lost to follow-up. The association between adherence to warfarin therapy and VTE recurrence was evaluated descriptively via Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted for patient demographic and clinical characteristics. A similar analysis using the medication possession ratio (MPR) as a measure of compliance was also performed in a subset of patients who had filled at least 2 warfarin

  4. Discontinuation risk comparison among 'real-world' newly anticoagulated atrial fibrillation patients: Apixaban, warfarin, dabigatran, or rivaroxaban.

    PubMed

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Pan, Xianying; Kamble, Shital; Kawabata, Hugh; Mardekian, Jack; Masseria, Cristina; Phatak, Hemant

    2018-01-01

    Discontinuation of oral anticoagulants may expose non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients to an increased risk of stroke. This study describes the real-world discontinuation rates and compared the risk of drug discontinuation among NVAF patients initiating apixaban, warfarin, dabigatran, or rivaroxaban. This retrospective cohort study evaluated newly-anticoagulated NVAF patients in the MarketScan® data population from 01/01/2012 through 12/31/2014. Discontinuation was defined as a lack of subsequent prescription of the index drug within 30 days after the last supply day of the last prescription. A Cox model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of discontinuation, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities. Among 45,361 eligible NVAF patients, 15,461 (34.1%) initiated warfarin; 7,438 (16.4%) apixaban; 4,661 (10.3%) dabigatran; and 17,801 (39.2%) initiated rivaroxaban treatment. Compared to warfarin, patients who initiated dabigatran (adjusted HR [aHR]: 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.80-0.87, P<0.001), rivaroxaban (aHR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.68-0.73, P<0.001), or apixaban (aHR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.55-0.60, P<0.001) were 16%, 30%, and 43% less likely to discontinue treatment, respectively. When compared to apixaban, patients who initiated dabigatran (aHR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.38-1.54, P<0.001) or rivaroxaban (aHR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.17-1.28, P<0.001) were more likely to discontinue treatment. Among newly-anticoagulated NVAF patients in the real-world setting, initiation on rivaroxaban, dabigatran, or apixaban was associated with a significantly lower risk of discontinuation compared to warfarin. When compared to apixaban, patients who initiated treatment with warfarin, dabigatran, or rivaroxaban were more likely to discontinue treatment.

  5. Comparison of the Safety and Effectiveness of Apixaban versus Warfarin in Patients with Severe Renal Impairment.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Brooke E; Barasch, Naomi S; Tellor, Katie B

    2017-04-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of the use of apixaban in patients with a creatinine clearance (CrCl) of < 15 ml/minute or in those receiving dialysis is based only on pharmacokinetic data as clinical trials of apixaban excluded patients with a CrCl of < 25 ml/minute or a serum creatinine concentration (SCr) of > 2.5 mg/dl. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of apixaban versus warfarin in patients with severe renal impairment. Retrospective, matched-cohort study. Community hospital. A total of 146 adults who received at least one dose of apixaban (73 patients) or warfarin (73 patients) while hospitalized between January 30, 2014, and December 31, 2015, and had a CrCl of < 25 ml/minute or SCr of > 2.5 mg/dl, or who received peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis, were included. Patients who were taking warfarin and had a therapeutic international normalized ratio on admission were matched consecutively in a 1:1 fashion in chronologic order to patients taking apixaban based on renal function and indication for anticoagulation. The primary outcome was major bleeding. Secondary outcomes included the composite of bleeding (major bleeding, clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and minor bleeding) in addition to documented ischemic stroke or recurrent venous thromboembolism. A nonsignificant difference in the occurrence of major bleeding and composite bleeding was observed between patients who received apixaban compared with those who received warfarin (9.6% vs 17.8%, p=0.149, and 21.9% vs 27.4%, p=0.442, respectively). The occurrence of stroke was similar between the groups (7.5% in each group), and no recurrent venous thromboembolism events were noted in either group during the study period. Apixaban appears to be a reasonable alternative to warfarin in patients with severe renal impairment. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  6. Evaluation of SAMe-TT2R2 Score on Predicting Success With Extended-Interval Warfarin Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Andrew Y; Carris, Nicholas W; Dietrich, Eric A; Gums, John G; Smith, Steven M

    2018-06-01

    In patients with stable international normalized ratios, 12-week extended-interval warfarin monitoring can be considered; however, predictors of success with this strategy are unknown. The previously validated SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score (considering sex, age, medical history, treatment, tobacco, and race) predicts anticoagulation control during standard follow-up (every 4 weeks), with lower scores associated with greater time in therapeutic range. To evaluate the ability of the SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score in predicting success with extended-interval warfarin follow-up in patients with previously stable warfarin doses. In this post hoc analysis of a single-arm feasibility study, baseline SAMe-TT 2 R 2 scores were calculated for patients with ≥1 extended-interval follow-up visit. The primary analysis assessed achieved weeks of extended-interval follow-up according to baseline SAMe-TT 2 R 2 scores. A total of 47 patients receiving chronic anticoagulation completed a median of 36 weeks of extended-interval follow-up. The median baseline SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score was 1 (range 0-5). Lower SAMe-TT 2 R 2 scores appeared to be associated with greater duration of extended-interval follow-up achieved, though the differences between scores were not statistically significant. No individual variable of the SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score was associated with achieved weeks of extended-interval follow-up. Analysis of additional patient factors found that longer duration (≥24 weeks) of prior stable treatment was significantly associated with greater weeks of extended-interval follow-up completed ( P = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance: This pilot study provides limited evidence that the SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score predicts success with extended-interval warfarin follow-up but requires confirmation in a larger study. Further research is also necessary to establish additional predictors of successful extended-interval warfarin follow-up.

  7. Computational investigation of potential dosing schedules for a switch of medication from warfarin to rivaroxaban—an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Burghaus, Rolf; Coboeken, Katrin; Gaub, Thomas; Niederalt, Christoph; Sensse, Anke; Siegmund, Hans-Ulrich; Weiss, Wolfgang; Mueck, Wolfgang; Tanigawa, Takahiko; Lippert, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The long-lasting anticoagulant effect of vitamin K antagonists can be problematic in cases of adverse drug reactions or when patients are switched to another anticoagulant therapy. The objective of this study was to examine in silico the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban, an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor, combined with the residual effect of discontinued warfarin. Our simulations were based on the recommended anticoagulant dosing regimen for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. The effects of the combination of discontinued warfarin plus rivaroxaban were simulated using an extended version of a previously validated blood coagulation computer model. A strong synergistic effect of the two distinct mechanisms of action was observed in the first 2–3 days after warfarin discontinuation; thereafter, the effect was close to additive. Nomograms for the introduction of rivaroxaban therapy after warfarin discontinuation were derived for Caucasian and Japanese patients using safety and efficacy criteria described previously, together with the coagulation model. The findings of our study provide a mechanistic pharmacologic rationale for dosing schedules during the therapy switch from warfarin to rivaroxaban and support the switching strategies as outlined in the Summary of Product Characteristics and Prescribing Information for rivaroxaban. PMID:25426077

  8. Computational investigation of potential dosing schedules for a switch of medication from warfarin to rivaroxaban-an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Burghaus, Rolf; Coboeken, Katrin; Gaub, Thomas; Niederalt, Christoph; Sensse, Anke; Siegmund, Hans-Ulrich; Weiss, Wolfgang; Mueck, Wolfgang; Tanigawa, Takahiko; Lippert, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The long-lasting anticoagulant effect of vitamin K antagonists can be problematic in cases of adverse drug reactions or when patients are switched to another anticoagulant therapy. The objective of this study was to examine in silico the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban, an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor, combined with the residual effect of discontinued warfarin. Our simulations were based on the recommended anticoagulant dosing regimen for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. The effects of the combination of discontinued warfarin plus rivaroxaban were simulated using an extended version of a previously validated blood coagulation computer model. A strong synergistic effect of the two distinct mechanisms of action was observed in the first 2-3 days after warfarin discontinuation; thereafter, the effect was close to additive. Nomograms for the introduction of rivaroxaban therapy after warfarin discontinuation were derived for Caucasian and Japanese patients using safety and efficacy criteria described previously, together with the coagulation model. The findings of our study provide a mechanistic pharmacologic rationale for dosing schedules during the therapy switch from warfarin to rivaroxaban and support the switching strategies as outlined in the Summary of Product Characteristics and Prescribing Information for rivaroxaban.

  9. UNUSUAL WARFARIN DOSE TO ACHIEVE THERAPEUTIC INR IN A 4-MONTH OLD CHILD: NON-GENETICS RISK FACTORS ARE STILL A CHALLENGE.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Lucas Miyake; Negretto, Giovanna Webster; Carvalho, Clarissa Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    To report a case of a 4-month old girl that required 0.7 mg/kg/day (5 mg) of warfarin and discuss relevant risk factors for requiring higher doses. In November 2015, a 5 kg female infant (36-week preterm) was admitted to the hospital due to status epilepticus and fever. Diazepam, phenytoin and ceftriaxone were prescribed. Cerebrospinal fluid contained 7 leukocytes, 150 mg/dL proteins, 1 mg/dL glucose and gram positive cocci were observed. Cranial tomography suggested hypodense signs in the cerebellum, right temporal lobe and left basal nuclei, which was consistent with pneumococcal meningitis-induced infectious vasculitis. She required low molecular weight heparin and warfarin for post-encephalitis thrombosis. About 10 days were required to achieve therapeutic INR, and warfarin was adjusted five times since the initial prescription. The risk factors for higher warfarin doses were age and enteral tube feeding. Phenobarbital and prednisone might also have contributed with one of the highest warfarin dose ever reported. Despite current importance given to genetics testing, clinicians should attempt to identify common contributing factors for prolonged non-therapeutic INR, to minimize the risk of coagulation, and to reduce costs of hospital stay and laboratory exams.

  10. Polypharmacy and effects of apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: post hoc analysis of the ARISTOTLE trial.

    PubMed

    Jaspers Focks, Jeroen; Brouwer, Marc A; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Thomas, Laine; Lopes, Renato D; Washam, Jeffrey B; Lanas, Fernando; Xavier, Denis; Husted, Steen; Wallentin, Lars; Alexander, John H; Granger, Christopher B; Verheugt, Freek W A

    2016-06-15

     To determine whether the treatment effect of apixaban versus warfarin differs with increasing numbers of concomitant drugs used by patients with atrial fibrillation.  Post hoc analysis performed in 2015 of results from ARISTOTLE (apixaban for reduction in stroke and other thromboembolic events in atrial fibrillation)-a multicentre, double blind, double dummy trial that started in 2006 and ended in 2011.  18 201 ARISTOTLE trial participants.  In the ARISTOTLE trial, patients were randomised to either 5 mg apixaban twice daily (n=9120) or warfarin (target international normalised ratio range 2.0-3.0; n=9081). In the post hoc analysis, patients were divided into groups according to the number of concomitant drug treatments used at baseline (0-5, 6-8, ≥9 drugs) with a median follow-up of 1.8 years.  Clinical outcomes and treatment effects of apixaban versus warfarin (adjusted for age, sex, and country).  Each patient used a median of six drugs (interquartile range 5-9); polypharmacy (≥5 drugs) was seen in 13 932 (76.5%) patients. Greater numbers of concomitant drugs were used in older patients, women, and patients in the United States. The number of comorbidities increased across groups of increasing numbers of drugs (0-5, 6-8, ≥9 drugs), as did the proportions of patients treated with drugs that interact with warfarin or apixaban. Mortality also rose significantly with the number of drug treatments (P<0.001), as did rates of stroke or systemic embolism (1.29, 1.48, and 1.57 per 100 patient years, for 0-5, 6-8, and ≥9 drugs, respectively) and major bleeding (1.91, 2.46, and 3.88 per 100 patient years, respectively). Relative risk reductions in stroke or systemic embolism for apixaban versus warfarin were consistent, regardless of the number of concomitant drugs (Pinteraction=0.82). A smaller reduction in major bleeding was seen with apixaban versus warfarin with increasing numbers of concomitant drugs (Pinteraction=0.017). Patients with interacting

  11. A comparative analysis of warfarin and low-dose heparin as thromboembolism prophylaxis in total hip replacement patinets.

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, M A; HamiltonCW

    1975-01-01

    Warfarin, low-dose heparin, or a combination of low-dose heparin and hydrocortisone was administered to 300 patients undergoing total hip replacement. The lowest incidence of thromboembolic (5 per cent) was attained with Warfarin. Further investigation into the method of administration of low-dose heparin is necessary before it can be used effectively as thromboembolism prophylaxis in total hip replacement patients. The addition of hydrocortisone was not found useful. PMID:1138642

  12. Nrf2 activator ameliorates hemorrhagic transformation in focal cerebral ischemia under warfarin anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takahiko; Takagi, Toshinori; Kitashoji, Akira; Yamauchi, Keita; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    Oxidative stress has been reported to be a main cause of neuronal cell death in ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important factor involved in anti-oxidative responses. We previously reported that bardoxolone methyl (BARD), an Nrf2 activator, prevented damage induced by IRI. In this study, we investigated the effect of BARD on hemorrhagic transformation in the context of blood brain barrier (BBB) protection. Mice received pre-treatment with warfarin (4.0 mg/kg, p.o.). IRI was subsequently induced 18 h after the warfarin administration by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 6 h. BARD (0.06, 0.2, 0.6 or 2.0 mg/kg) or saline was injected intravenously immediately after reperfusion. The infarct volume, neurological score, intracranial hemorrhage volume, and BBB permeability were evaluated 24 h after MCAO. The survival rate and behavioral functional recovery were evaluated for 7 days following IRI. Furthermore, the effects of BARD on BBB components were investigated by western blotting and immunostaining analysis. BARD suppressed warfarin-mediated increases in the intracranial hemorrhage volume without affecting the infarct volume. BBB permeability was also suppressed by administration of BARD. Western blotting showed that BARD increased expression of BBB components such as endothelial cells, pericytes, and tight junction proteins. Furthermore, immunostaining showed that BARD induced localization of Nrf2 to endothelial cells and pericytes. BARD suppressed the exacerbation hemorrhage caused by warfarin pretreatment and ameliorated BBB disruption by protecting endothelial cells, pericytes, and tight junction protein expressions. These results indicate that Nrf2 activators may be an effective therapy against hemorrhagic transformation caused by anticoagulant drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of warfarin and low-dose aspirin on the outcomes of geriatric patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage resulting from ground-level fall.

    PubMed

    Inamasu, Joji; Nakatsukasa, Masashi; Miyatake, Satoru; Hirose, Yuichi

    2012-10-01

    Ground-level fall is the most common cause of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (TICH) in the elderly, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in that population. A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate whether the use of warfarin/low-dose aspirin (LDA) is predictive of unfavorable outcomes in geriatric patients who sustain a fall-induced TICH. Charts of 76 geriatric patients (≥ 65 years-of-age) with fall-induced TICH were reviewed. The number of patients taking warfarin and LDA was 12 and 21, respectively, whereas the other 43 took neither medication (non-user group). The frequency of patients with unfavorable outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3) at discharge was calculated. Furthermore, variables predictive of unfavorable outcomes were identified by logistic regression analysis. The frequency of patients with unfavorable outcomes was 75% in the warfarin group, 33% in the LDA group and 27% in the non-user group, respectively. The risk of having unfavorable outcomes was significantly higher in the warfarin group compared with the LDA group (P = 0.03) and non-user group (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that variables predictive of unfavorable outcomes were: age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 13 and presence of midline shift ≥ 5 mm. The use of warfarin, but not of LDA, might be associated with unfavorable outcomes in elderly with fall-induced TICH. The risk of TICH should be communicated properly to elderly taking warfarin. The information might be important not only to trauma surgeons who take care of injured elderly, but also to geriatric physicians who prescribe warfarin/LDA to them. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Effect of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of oral contraceptives, warfarin, and digoxin in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Manitpisitkul, Prasarn; Vaccaro, Nicole; Bernard, Apexa; Skee, Donna; Mamidi, Rao N V S; Tian, Hong; Weiner, Sveta; Stieltjes, Hans; Sha, Sue; Rothenberg, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions between canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor approved for the management of type-2 diabetes mellitus, and an oral contraceptive (OC), warfarin, and digoxin were evaluated in three phase 1 studies in healthy participants. All studies were open-label; study 1 included a fixed-sequence design, and studies 2 and 3 used a crossover design. Regimens were: study 1: OC (levonorgestrel (150 μg) + ethinyl estradiol (30 μg))/day (day 1), canagliflozin 200 mg/day (days 4 - 8), and canagliflozin with OC (day 9); study 2: canagliflozin 300 mg/day (days 1 - 12) with warfarin 30 mg/day (day 6) in period 1, and only warfarin 30 mg/day (day 1) in period 2, or vice versa; study 3: digoxin alone (0.5 mg/day (day 1) + 0.25 mg/day (days 2 - 7)) in period 1, and with canagliflozin 300 mg/day (days 1 - 7) in period 2, or vice versa. Pharmacokinetics (PK) were assessed at prespecified intervals; OC: days 1 and 9, canagliflozin: days 8 - 9 (study 1); warfarin: days 6 (period 1) and 1 (period 2) (study 2); and digoxin: days 5 - 7 (periods 1 and 2) (study 3). Warfarin's pharmacodynamics (PD; International Normalized Ratio (INR)) was assessed on days 6 (period 1) and 1 (period 2). Canagliflozin increased the plasma exposure of OC (maximum plasma concentration (Cmax): 22%, area under the curve (AUC): 6%) and digoxin (Cmax: 36%, AUC: 20%); but did not alter warfarin'€™s PK and PD. No clinically relevant safety findings (including hypoglycemia) were noted. Canagliflozin can be coadministered with OC, warfarin, or digoxin without dose adjustments. All treatments were well-tolerated.

  15. Abacavir and warfarin modulate allosterically kinetics of NO dissociation from ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Ascenzi, Paolo; National Institute for Infectious Diseases I.R.C.C.S. 'Lazzaro Spallanzani', Via Portuense 292, I-00149 Roma; Imperi, Francesco

    Human serum albumin (HSA) participates to heme scavenging, in turn HSA-heme binds gaseous diatomic ligands at the heme-Fe-atom. Here, the effect of abacavir and warfarin on denitrosylation kinetics of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., k{sub off}) is reported. In the absence of drugs, the value of k{sub off} is (1.3 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}. Abacavir and warfarin facilitate NO dissociation from HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO, the k{sub off} value increases to (8.6 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}. From the dependence of k{sub off} on the drug concentration, values of the dissociation equilibrium constant for the abacavir and warfarin binding to HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NOmore » (i.e., K = (1.2 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -3} M and (6.2 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -5} M, respectively) were determined. The increase of k{sub off} values reflects the stabilization of the basic form of HSA-heme-Fe by ligands (e.g., abacavir and warfarin) that bind to Sudlow's site I. This event parallels the stabilization of the six-coordinate derivative of the HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO atom. Present data highlight the allosteric modulation of HSA-heme-Fe(II) reactivity by heterotropic effectors.« less

  16. Rivaroxaban Versus Dabigatran or Warfarin in Real-World Studies of Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Deng, Hai; Shantsila, Alena; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban in real-world practice compared with effectiveness and safety of dabigatran or warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation through meta-analyzing observational studies. Seventeen studies were included after searching in PubMed for studies reporting the comparative effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus dabigatran (n=3), rivaroxaban versus Warfarin (n=11), or both (n=3) for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Overall, the risks of stroke/systematic thromboembolism with rivaroxaban were similar when compared with those with dabigatran (stroke/thromboembolism: hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.13; I 2 =70.2%, N=5), but were significantly reduced when compared with those with warfarin (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.85; I 2 =45.1%, N=9). Major bleeding risk was significantly higher with rivaroxaban than with dabigatran (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.49; I 2 =26.1%, N=5), but similar to that with warfarin (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.07; I 2 =0.0%, N=6). Rivaroxaban was associated with increased all-cause mortality and gastrointestinal bleeding, but similar risk of acute myocardial infarction and intracranial hemorrhage when compared with dabigatran. When compared with warfarin, rivaroxaban was associated with similar risk of any bleeding, mortality, and acute myocardial infarction, but a higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and lower risk of intracranial hemorrhage. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, rivaroxaban was as effective as dabigatran, but was more effective than warfarin for the prevention of stroke/thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation patients. Major bleeding risk was significantly higher with rivaroxaban than with dabigatran, as was all-cause mortality and gastrointestinal bleeding. Rivaroxaban was comparable to warfarin for major bleeding, with an

  17. Effect of Genotype-Guided Warfarin Dosing on Clinical Events and Anticoagulation Control Among Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Arthroplasty: The GIFT Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Gage, Brian F; Bass, Anne R; Lin, Hannah; Woller, Scott C; Stevens, Scott M; Al-Hammadi, Noor; Li, Juan; Rodríguez, Tomás; Miller, J Philip; McMillin, Gwendolyn A; Pendleton, Robert C; Jaffer, Amir K; King, Cristi R; Whipple, Brandi DeVore; Porche-Sorbet, Rhonda; Napoli, Lynnae; Merritt, Kerri; Thompson, Anna M; Hyun, Gina; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Hollomon, Wesley; Barrack, Robert L; Nunley, Ryan M; Moskowitz, Gerard; Dávila-Román, Victor; Eby, Charles S

    2017-09-26

    Warfarin use accounts for more medication-related emergency department visits among older patients than any other drug. Whether genotype-guided warfarin dosing can prevent these adverse events is unknown. To determine whether genotype-guided dosing improves the safety of warfarin initiation. The randomized clinical Genetic Informatics Trial (GIFT) of Warfarin to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis included patients aged 65 years or older initiating warfarin for elective hip or knee arthroplasty and was conducted at 6 US medical centers. Enrollment began in April 2011 and follow-up concluded in October 2016. Patients were genotyped for the following polymorphisms: VKORC1-1639G>A, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, and CYP4F2 V433M. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, patients were randomized to genotype-guided (n = 831) or clinically guided (n = 819) warfarin dosing on days 1 through 11 of therapy and to a target international normalized ratio (INR) of either 1.8 or 2.5. The recommended doses of warfarin were open label, but the patients and clinicians were blinded to study group assignment. The primary end point was the composite of major bleeding, INR of 4 or greater, venous thromboembolism, or death. Patients underwent a screening lower-extremity duplex ultrasound approximately 1 month after arthroplasty. Among 1650 randomized patients (mean age, 72.1 years [SD, 5.4 years]; 63.6% women; 91.0% white), 1597 (96.8%) received at least 1 dose of warfarin therapy and completed the trial (n = 808 in genotype-guided group vs n = 789 in clinically guided group). A total of 87 patients (10.8%) in the genotype-guided group vs 116 patients (14.7%) in the clinically guided warfarin dosing group met at least 1 of the end points (absolute difference, 3.9% [95% CI, 0.7%-7.2%], P = .02; relative rate [RR], 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56-0.95]). The numbers of individual events in the genotype-guided group vs the clinically guided group were 2 vs 8 for major bleeding (RR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0

  18. [Dabigatran versus warfarin for the prevention of stroke in Chinese patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: Chinese subpopulation analysis of RE-LY].

    PubMed

    Gao, X; Yang, Y M; Zhu, J; Dai, Y; Tan, H Q

    2016-11-24

    Objective: This analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy in stroke prevention and safety of dabigatran in Chinese nonvalvular atrial fibrillation(NVAF) patients enrolled in RE-LY trial. Methods: RE-LY was an prospective, open-label, randomized, multicenter study. From March 2006 to March 2009, 541 atrial fibrillation patients at risk of stroke were recruited from 13 medical centers in China. Patients randomly received, in a blinded fashion, fixed doses of dabigatran-110 mg or 150 mg twice daily or, in an unblinded fashion, adjusted-dose warfarin. The primary efficacy endpoint was stroke or systemic embolism. The primary safety endpoint was major bleeding. Results: The incidence of stroke in the Chinese subpopulation was 1.94% per year(7 cases) in the group that received 110 mg of dabigatran (dabigatran 110) and 1.10% per year(4 cases) in the group that received 150 mg of dabigatran (dabigatran 150), as compared with 2.87% per year (10 cases) in warfarin group . Incidence of ischemic stroke was 1.11% per year(4 patients) in dabigatran 110 group, 0.82% per year(3 cases) in dabigatran 150 group and 2.01% per year(7 patients) in warfarin group. Incidence of hemorrhagic stroke was 0.28% per year(1 case) in dabigatran 110 group, 0.27% per year(1 case) in dabigatran 150 group and 0.57% per year(2 cases) in warfarin group. All-cause mortality was similar among the three treatment groups: 3.33% per year(12 cases) in dabigatran 110, 2.19% per year(8 cases) in dabigatran 150 and 2.58% per year(9 cases) in warfarin group. Incidence of major bleeding event was 0.56% per year(2 cases) in both dabigatran groups, as compared with 1.43% per year(5 cases) in warfarin group. Gastrointestinal disorders such as dyspepsia occurred in 12.8% patients of both dabigatran groups, and in 5.6% patients of warfarin group. Conclusions: Despite the descriptive statistical analysis in nature of present study due to the limited number of subjects, our subgroup analysis implies that like

  19. Net clinical benefit of dabigatran vs. warfarin in venous thromboembolism: analyses from RE-COVER®, RE-COVER™ II, and RE-MEDY™.

    PubMed

    Feuring, Martin; Schulman, Sam; Eriksson, Henry; Kakkar, Ajay J; Schellong, Sebastian; Hantel, Stefan; Schueler, Elke; Kreuzer, Jörg; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2017-05-01

    The direct oral anticoagulants, e.g., dabigatran etexilate (DE), are effective and well tolerated treatments for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Net clinical benefit (NCB) is a useful concept in weighing potential benefits against potential harm of comparator drugs. The NCB of DE vs. warfarin in VTE treatment was compared. Post-hoc analyses were performed on pooled data from the 6-month RE-COVER® and RE-COVER™ II trials, and data from the RE-MEDY™ trial (up to 36 months), to compare the NCB of DE (150 mg twice daily) and warfarin [target international normalized ratio (INR) 2.0-3.0]. Patients (≥18 years old) had symptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism. NCB was the composite of cardiovascular endpoints (non-fatal events of recurrent VTE, myocardial infarction, stroke or systemic embolism), all-cause death, and bleeding outcomes, all weighted equally. A broad definition of NCB included major bleeding events (MBE) and clinically relevant non-major bleeding events as bleeding outcomes, while a narrow definition included just MBE. The pooled dataset totalled 5107 patients from RE-COVER/RE-COVER II and 2856 patients from RE-MEDY. When NCB was narrowly defined, NCB was similar between DE and warfarin. When broadly defined, NCB was superior with DE vs. warfarin [RE-COVER/RE-COVER II, hazard ratio (HR) 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.95 and RE-MEDY, HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59-0.91]. These findings were unaffected by warfarin time in therapeutic range. The NCB of DE was similar or superior to warfarin, depending on the NCB definition used, regardless of the quality of INR control.

  20. A new warfarin dosing algorithm including VKORC1 3730 G > A polymorphism: comparison with results obtained by other published algorithms.

    PubMed

    Cini, Michela; Legnani, Cristina; Cosmi, Benilde; Guazzaloca, Giuliana; Valdrè, Lelia; Frascaro, Mirella; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2012-08-01

    Warfarin dosing is affected by clinical and genetic variants, but the contribution of the genotype associated with warfarin resistance in pharmacogenetic algorithms has not been well assessed yet. We developed a new dosing algorithm including polymorphisms associated both with warfarin sensitivity and resistance in the Italian population, and its performance was compared with those of eight previously published algorithms. Clinical and genetic data (CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, VKORC1 -1639 G > A, and VKORC1 3730 G > A) were used to elaborate the new algorithm. Derivation and validation groups comprised 55 (58.2% men, mean age 69 years) and 40 (57.5% men, mean age 70 years) patients, respectively, who were on stable anticoagulation therapy for at least 3 months with different oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT) indications. Performance of the new algorithm, evaluated with mean absolute error (MAE) defined as the absolute value of the difference between observed daily maintenance dose and predicted daily dose, correlation with the observed dose and R(2) value, was comparable with or slightly lower than that obtained using the other algorithms. The new algorithm could correctly assign 53.3%, 50.0%, and 57.1% of patients to the low (≤25 mg/week), intermediate (26-44 mg/week) and high (≥ 45 mg/week) dosing range, respectively. Our data showed a significant increase in predictive accuracy among patients requiring high warfarin dose compared with the other algorithms (ranging from 0% to 28.6%). The algorithm including VKORC1 3730 G > A, associated with warfarin resistance, allowed a more accurate identification of resistant patients who require higher warfarin dosage.

  1. Pharmacogenetic versus clinical dosing of warfarin in individuals of Chinese and African-American ancestry: assessment using data simulation.

    PubMed

    Syn, Nicholas L X; Lee, Soo-Chin; Brunham, Liam R; Goh, Boon-Cher

    2015-10-01

    Clinical trials of genotype-guided dosing of warfarin have yielded mixed results, which may in part reflect ethnic differences among study participants. However, no previous study has compared genotype-guided versus clinically guided or standard-of-care dosing in a Chinese population, whereas those involving African-Americans were underpowered to detect significant differences. We present a preclinical strategy that integrates pharmacogenetics (PG) and pharmacometrics to predict the outcome or guide the design of dosing strategies for drugs that show large interindividual variability. We use the example of warfarin and focus on two underrepresented groups in warfarin research. We identified the parameters required to simulate a patient population and the outcome of dosing strategies. PG and pharmacogenetic plus loading (PG+L) algorithms that take into account a patient's VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotype status were considered and compared against a clinical (CA) algorithm for a simulated Chinese population using a predictive Monte Carlo and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic framework. We also examined a simulated population of African-American ancestry to assess the robustness of the model in relation to real-world clinical trial data. The simulations replicated similar trends observed with clinical data in African-Americans. They further predict that the PG+L regimen is superior to both the CA and the PG regimen in maximizing percentage time in therapeutic range in a Chinese cohort, whereas the CA regimen poses the highest risk of overanticoagulation during warfarin initiation. The findings supplement the literature with an unbiased comparison of warfarin dosing algorithms and highlights interethnic differences in anticoagulation control.

  2. Microbial models of mammalian metabolism: production of novel alpha-diketone metabolites of warfarin and phenprocoumon using Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, J D; Davis, P J

    1988-12-01

    1. The coumarin anticoagulants warfarin and phenprocoumon were metabolized by Aspergillus niger via oxidative ring cleavage to yield the corresponding alpha-diketone metabolites. 2. Structural identification was based upon physical, spectral, and chromatographic comparisons of isolated metabolites and synthetic standards generated by the oxidative cleavage of warfarin or phenprocoumon with pyridinium chlorochromate. 3. This pathway of metabolism has been previously observed for coumarin anticoagulants in mammalian systems.

  3. Effect of vitamin K2 on the anticoagulant activity of warfarin during the perioperative period of catheter ablation: Population analysis of retrospective clinical data.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi; Yano, Ikuko; Odaka, Sumiko; Morita, Yosuke; Shizuta, Satoshi; Hayano, Mamoru; Kimura, Takeshi; Akaike, Akinori; Inui, Ken-Ichi; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Catheter ablation is a non-medication therapy for atrial fibrillation, and during the procedure, warfarin is withdrawn in the preoperative period to prevent the risk of bleeding. In case of emergency, vitamin K2 can be intravenously administered to antagonize the anticoagulant activity of warfarin. The aims of this study were to conduct population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling for retrospective clinical data and to investigate the effect of vitamin K2 on the anticoagulant activity of warfarin in the perioperative period of catheter ablation. A total of 579 international normalized ratio (INR) values of prothrombin time from 100 patients were analyzed using the nonlinear mixed-effects modeling program NONMEM. A 1-compartment model was adapted to the pharmacokinetics of warfarin and vitamin K2, and the indirect response model was used to investigate the relationship between plasma concentration and the pharmacodynamic response of warfarin and vitamin K2. Since no plasma concentration data for warfarin and vitamin K2 were available, 3 literally available pharmacokinetic parameters were used to simultaneously estimate 1 pharmacokinetic parameter and 5 pharmacodynamic parameters. The population parameters obtained not only successfully explained the observed INR values, but also indicated an increase in sensitivity to warfarin in patients with reduced renal function. Simulations using these parameters indicated that vitamin K2 administration of more than 20 mg caused a slight dose-dependent decrease in INR on the day of catheter ablation and a delayed INR elevation after warfarin re-initiation. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was successfully built to explain the retrospective INR data during catheter ablation. Simulation studies suggest that vitamin K2 should be administered with care and that more than 20 mg is unnecessary in the preoperative period of catheter ablation.

  4. Prospective randomized evaluation of the watchman left atrial appendage closure device in patients with atrial fibrillation versus long-term warfarin therapy: The PREVAIL trial.

    PubMed

    Belgaid, Djouhar Roufeida; Khan, Zara; Zaidi, Mariam; Hobbs, Adrian

    2016-09-15

    Assessing the safety and effectiveness of left atrial appendage (LAA) (pouch found in the upper chambers of the heart) occlusion, using the Watchman device compared to long term warfarin therapy (drug that reduces clot formation), in preventing the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (most common type of irregular heart beat). 90% of strokes in atrial fibrillation arise from clots forming in this pouch. By mechanically blocking it using the device less clots are suggested to be formed. This is an alternative to taking warfarin especially in patients who cannot take it. 50 sites in the United States enrolled 407 participants. After being randomly allocated, the device group had 269 participants and warfarin group (comparator)had 138 participants. Patients with atrial fibrillation and at high risk of stroke were randomly allocated a group after they were deemed eligible. Patients in the device group had to take warfarin and aspirin for 45days till the complete closure of the LAA. The oral anticoagulant was followed by dual antiplatelet therapy until 6months and then ASA. Patients in the warfarin group have to take it for life and were continually monitored. The study ran for 26months. The trial assessed the rate of adverse events using three endpoints: The PREVAIL trial was not designed to show superiority, but non-inferiority. It met the safety endpoint and one efficacy endpoint for the watchman device compared to long term warfarin for overall efficacy of the device. The results established that LAA occlusion is not worse than warfarin intake for the prevention of stroke more than 1week after randomization. Compared to previous trials, the safety of the device has also improved. LAA occlusion is a reasonable alternative to chronic warfarin therapy in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of major bleeding events in patients treated with rivaroxaban vs. warfarin: results from the ROCKET AF trial.

    PubMed

    Piccini, Jonathan P; Garg, Jyotsna; Patel, Manesh R; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Goodman, Shaun G; Becker, Richard C; Berkowitz, Scott D; Breithardt, Günter; Hacke, Werner; Halperin, Jonathan L; Hankey, Graeme J; Nessel, Christopher C; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Singer, Daniel E; Califf, Robert M; Fox, Keith A A

    2014-07-21

    There are no data regarding management and outcomes of major bleeding events in patients treated with oral factor Xa inhibitors. Using data from ROCKET AF, we analysed the management and outcomes of major bleeding overall and according to the randomized treatment. During a median follow-up of 1.9 years, 779 (5.5%) patients experienced major bleeding at a rate of 3.52 events/100 patient-years with a similar event rate in each arm (n = 395 rivaroxaban vs. n = 384 warfarin). The median number of transfused packed red blood cells (PRBC) per episode was similar in both arms [2 (25th, 75th: 2, 4) units]. Overall, few transfusions of whole blood (n = 14), platelets (n = 10), or cryoprecipitate (n = 2) were used. Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was significantly less in the rivaroxaban arm (n = 45 vs. n = 81 units) after adjustment for covariates [odds ratio (OR) 0.43 (95% CI 0.29-0.66); P < 0.0001]. Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) were administered less in the rivaroxaban arm (n = 4 vs. n = 9). Outcomes after major bleeding, including stroke or non-central nervous system embolism (4.7% rivaroxaban vs. 5.4% warfarin; HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.42-1.88) and all-cause death (20.4% rivaroxaban vs. 26.1% warfarin; HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.46-1.04) were similar in patients treated with rivaroxaban and warfarin (interaction P = 0.51 and 0.11). Among high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation who experienced major bleeding in ROCKET AF, the use of FFP and PCC was less among those allocated rivaroxaban compared with warfarin. However, use of PRBCs and outcomes after bleeding were similar among patients randomized to rivaroxaban or to warfarin. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. On-Treatment Outcomes in Patients With Worsening Renal Function With Rivaroxaban Compared With Warfarin: Insights From ROCKET AF.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, Christopher B; Hellkamp, Anne S; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Lindner, Samuel M; Piccini, Jonathan P; Becker, Richard C; Berkowitz, Scott D; Breithardt, Günter; Fox, Keith A A; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Nessel, Christopher C; Singer, Daniel E; Patel, Manesh R

    2016-07-05

    Despite rapid clinical adoption of novel anticoagulants, it is unknown whether outcomes differ among patients with worsening renal function (WRF) taking these new drugs compared with warfarin. We aimed to determine whether the primary efficacy (stroke or systemic embolism) and safety (major bleeding and nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding) end points from the ROCKET AF trial (Rivaroxaban Once-Daily, Oral, Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation trial) differed among participants with WRF taking rivaroxaban and those taking warfarin. After excluding patients without at least 1 follow-up creatinine measurement (n=1624), we included all remaining patients (n=12 612) randomly assigned to either rivaroxaban or dose-adjusted warfarin. On-treatment WRF (a decrease of >20% from screening creatinine clearance measurement at any time point during the study) was evaluated as a time-dependent covariate in Cox proportional hazards models. Baseline characteristics were generally similar between patients with stable renal function (n=9292) and WRF (n=3320). Rates of stroke or systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, and bleeding were also similar, but WRF patients experienced a higher incidence of vascular death versus stable renal function (2.21 versus 1.41 events per 100 patient-years; P=0.026). WRF patients who were randomized to receive rivaroxaban had a reduction in stroke or systemic embolism compared with those taking warfarin (1.54 versus 3.25 events per 100 patient-years) that was not seen in patients with stable renal function who were randomized to receive rivaroxaban (P=0.050 for interaction). There was no difference in major or nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding among WRF patients randomized to warfarin versus rivaroxaban. Among patients with on-treatment WRF, rivaroxaban was associated with lower rates of stroke and systemic embolism compared with warfarin, without an

  7. Stroke risks and patterns of warfarin therapy among atrial fibrillation patients post radiofrequency ablation: A real-world experience.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Liu, Xingpeng; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yin, Xiandong; Wang, Yanjiang; Lu, Xiaoying; Yang, Xinchun

    2017-11-01

    We assessed the thromboembolic risks of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients who had undergone radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using the CHADS2-VASc risk scoring system and further investigated the patterns of warfarin use for thromboprophylaxis according to patient thromboembolic risk scores.In this study, we analyzed the stroke risks of patients who had undergone RFA for AF at our hospital between March 2014 and June 2016 using the CHADS2, CHADS2-VASc, and Hypertension, Abnormal renal/liver function, Stroke, Bleeding history or predisposition, Labile international normalized ratio, Elderly (> 65 years) (HAS-BLED) scoring systems. We retrieved medications, co-morbidities, and initial warfarin dosage data. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients initiated with warfarin therapy for stroke prophylaxis in AF who had a CHADS2-VASc score of 0.Totally, 309 patients were initiated with warfarin therapy for stroke prophylaxis in AF post-RFA. The baseline warfarin dosage was 2.76 ± 0.61 mg. The baseline CHADS2-VASC score was 2.93 ± 1.96 and 40 (12.95%) had a CHADS2-VASC score of 0, 42 (13.6%) had a CHADS2-VASCscore of 1, and 227 (73.5%) had a CHADS2-VASC score ≥2. The baseline CHADS2 score was 2.17 ± 1.55 and 48 (15.5%) had a CHADS2 score of 0, 68 (22.0%) had a CHADS2 score of 1, and 193 (62.5%) had a CHADS2 score ≥2. The baseline HAS-BLED score was 1.25 ± 0.91 and 69 (22.3%) had a HAS-BLED score of 0, 121 (39.2%) had a HAS-BLED score of 1, and 119 (38.5%) had a HAS-BLED score ≥2. Patients aged <65 years or 65 years, male and female patients, patients with or without hypertension, coronary heart disease, or diabetes mellitus, and patients with or without previous stroke/transient ischemic attack differed significantly in stroke risks by CHADS2-VASC, CHADS2, and HAS-BLED scores for stroke risks. Patients with different baseline international normalized ratio differed significantly in CHADS2-VASC scores. Furthermore, angiotensin

  8. Bleeding risk of apixaban, dabigatran, and low-dose rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in Japanese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a propensity matched analysis of administrative claims data.

    PubMed

    Kohsaka, Shun; Murata, Tatsunori; Izumi, Naoko; Katada, Jun; Wang, Feng; Terayama, Yasuo

    2017-11-01

    There is scarce evidence comparing novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with warfarin in real-world settings in Japan. This study compared the risk of bleeding events among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) initiating treatment with NOACs versus warfarin. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a de-identified electronic health record based database of health claims and Diagnosis Procedure Combination data from 275 consenting hospitals in Japan. NVAF patients newly initiated on oral anticoagulants were eligible. Based on the first prescription, patients were assigned to 5/2.5 mg BID apixaban, 150/110 mg BID dabigatran, 15/10 mg QD rivaroxaban (approved dose lower in Japan compared to Western countries [20/15 mg QD]) or warfarin groups. One-to-one propensity score matching (PSM) was used to balance patient characteristics between warfarin and each NOAC. Patients were followed up to 1 year post-first prescription. Among 38,662 eligible patients, a total of 5977, 5090, and 6726 matched pairs were identified for warfarin versus apixaban, warfarin versus dabigatran, and warfarin versus rivaroxaban, respectively after PSM. Compared to warfarin, apixaban (hazard ratio [HR] 0.586; 95% CI 0.421-0.815), dabigatran (HR 0.617; 0.425-0.895) and rivaroxaban (HR 0.693; 0.514-0.933) were associated with a significantly lower risk of major bleeding. The risk of any bleeding was significantly lower for apixaban (HR 0.782; 0.682-0.896), but not for dabigatran (HR 0.988; 0.860-1.135) or rivaroxaban (HR 0.938; 0.832-1.057) when comparing to warfarin. Among Japanese patients with NVAF, treatment with apixaban 5/2.5 mg BID was associated with a significantly lower risk of major bleeding and any bleeding when compared to warfarin. Treatment with dabigatran 150/110 mg BID or rivaroxaban 15/10 mg QD was associated with a significantly lower risk of major bleeding, but not any bleeding, than warfarin. The potential benefit of individual NOACs in real

  9. Management and Outcomes of Bleeding Events in Patients in the Emergency Department Taking Warfarin or a Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Singer, Adam J; Quinn, Adam; Dasgupta, Neil; Thode, Henry C

    2017-01-01

    Most comparisons of bleeding patients who are taking warfarin or a non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) have been limited to admitted patients and major bleeding events in well-controlled, clinical trial settings. We describe the clinical characteristics, interventions, and outcomes in patients who are taking warfarin or a NOAC who presented to the emergency department (ED) with any bleeding event. We conducted a structured, retrospective, observational study of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, pulmonary embolism, or deep vein thrombosis warfarin- or NOAC-treated patients presenting with any bleeding event to a large, academic ED between January 2012 and March 2015. We used descriptive statistics to summarize baseline characteristics, treatments, and outcomes and performed subgroup analyses based on the type of anticoagulant and site of bleeding. The electronic search yielded 95 cases of patients taking a NOAC (i.e., dabigatran [33], rivaroxaban [32], or abixaban [30]) and 342 patients taking warfarin. Reversal agents were rarely used in all anticoagulant groups. Case fatality rates were similar among warfarin- and NOAC-treated patients for gastrointestinal bleeding (7% vs. 7%) and intracranial hemorrhage (18% vs. 4%), respectively. After adjustment for other factors, only intracranial hemorrhage (odds ratio 4.4; 95% confidence interval 1.4-13.3) was associated with mortality. Despite the rare use of reversal strategies, mortality was low and outcomes were comparable among patients with bleeding events presenting to the ED while taking a NOAC compared with warfarin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dabigatran exhibits low intensity of left atrial spontaneous echo contrast in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation as compared with warfarin.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Shinoda, Yukinori; Ikeoka, Kuniyasu; Inui, Hirooki; Fukuoka, Hidetada; Sunaga, Akihiro; Kanda, Takashi; Uematsu, Masaaki; Hoshida, Shiro

    2017-03-01

    The presence of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) in the left atrium has been reported to be an independent predictor of thromboembolic risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Dabigatran was associated with lower rates of stroke and systemic embolism as compared with warfarin when administered at a higher dose. Between July 2011 and October 2015, nonvalvular AF patients treated with warfarin or dabigatran who had transesophageal echocardiography prior to ablation therapy for AF were enrolled. The intensity of SEC was classified into four grades, from 0 to 3. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to analyze factors associated with SEC. Sixty-five patients were on dabigatran and 65 were on warfarin, with the prothrombin time in therapeutic range. There were no significant differences in the age, CHADS2 score, left atrial dimension, and left atrial appendage flow between the two groups. However, there were more grade 2 or higher patients with left atrial SEC in the warfarin group (n = 20) than in the dabigatran group (n = 2) (p < 0.001). When multivariate regression analysis was performed, grade 2 or higher left atrial SEC was independently associated with no dabigatran usage in addition to high brain natriuretic peptide level and high incidence of diabetes mellitus or persistent AF. Thus, dabigatran exhibited low intensity of left atrial SEC in nonvalvular AF patients as compared with warfarin.

  11. A cellular system for quantitation of vitamin K cycle activity: structure-activity effects on vitamin K antagonism by warfarin metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Jamil A.; McDonald, Matthew G.; Kulman, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin and other 4-hydroxycoumarins inhibit vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) by depleting reduced vitamin K that is required for posttranslational modification of vitamin K–dependent clotting factors. In vitro prediction of the in vivo potency of vitamin K antagonists is complicated by the complex multicomponent nature of the vitamin K cycle. Here we describe a sensitive assay that enables quantitative analysis of γ-glutamyl carboxylation and its antagonism in live cells. We engineered a human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293–derived cell line (HEK 293-C3) to express a chimeric protein (F9CH) comprising the Gla domain of factor IX fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions of proline-rich Gla protein 2. Maximal γ-glutamyl carboxylation of F9CH required vitamin K supplementation, and was dose-dependently inhibited by racemic warfarin at a physiologically relevant concentration. Cellular γ-glutamyl carboxylation also exhibited differential VKOR inhibition by warfarin enantiomers (S > R) consistent with their in vivo potencies. We further analyzed the structure-activity relationship for inhibition of γ-glutamyl carboxylation by warfarin metabolites, observing tolerance to phenolic substitution at the C-5 and especially C-6, but not C-7 or C-8, positions on the 4-hydroxycoumarin nucleus. After correction for in vivo concentration and protein binding, 10-hydroxywarfarin and warfarin alcohols were predicted to be the most potent inhibitory metabolites in vivo. PMID:24297869

  12. Design and rationale for the WARFA trial: a randomized controlled cross-over trial testing the therapeutic equivalence of branded and generic warfarin in atrial fibrillation patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carolina Gomes; Walsh, Michael; Atallah, Álvaro Nagib

    2017-06-07

    Warfarin is a commonly used anticoagulant. Whether a given dose of the different formulations of Brazilian warfarin will result in the same effect on the international normalized ratio (INR) is uncertain. The aim of the WARFA trial is to determine whether the branded and two generic warfarins available in Brazil differ in their effect on the INR. WARFA is a cross-over RCT comparing three warfarins. The formulations tested are the branded Marevan® (Uniao Quimica/Farmoquimica) and two generic warfarin (manufactured respectively by Uniao Quimica Farmaceutica Nacional and Laboratorio Teuto Brasileiro). All of them were manufactured in Brazil, are available in all settings of the Brazilian healthcare system and were purchased from retail drugstores. Eligible participants had atrial fibrillation or flutter, had been using warfarin for at least 2 months with a therapeutic range of 2.0-3.0 and had low variability in INR results during the 1st period of the trial. Our primary outcome, for which we have an equality hypothesis, is the difference between warfarins in the mean absolute difference between two INR results, obtained after three and 4 weeks with each drug. Our secondary outcomes, that will be tested for inequality (except for the mean INR, which will be tested for equality), include the difference in the warfarin dose, and time in therapeutic range. Clinical events and adherence were also recorded and will be reported. To our knowledge, WARFA will be the first comparison of the more readily applicable INR results between branded and generic warfarins in Brazil. WARFA is important because warfarins are commonly switched between in the course of a chronic treatment in Brazil. Final results of WARFA are expected in May 2017. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02017197 . Registered 11 December 2013.

  13. Monotherapy of aspirin or warfarin for prevention of ischemic stroke in low-risk atrial fibrillation: A Easter Asian population-based study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chieh-Yu; Chen, Hui-Chun

    2018-05-02

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of monotherapy aspirin and warfarin for stroke prevention in low-risk atrial fibrillation (AF) by using a population-based cohort study in Taiwan. A newly diagnosed low-risk AF patient cohort were identified by using National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan in 2008. The study cohort was observed with a follow-up of 2 years to examine the onset of ischemic stroke (IS) (to 2010). The longitudinal data were analyzed by using generalized estimation equations (GEE). A total of 8,065 newly-diagnosed low-risk AF patients were identified in 2008. 7.4% were prescribed with aspirin and 4.6% were prescribed with warfarin. The GEE results showed that low-risk AF patients with hypertension who received warfarin were associated with a statistically significant 58.4% reduction of IS risk (OR = 0.416, p = 0.024, 95% CI 0.194-0.891). Additionally, low-risk AF patients with hyperlipidemia who received warfarin were associated with a 69.3% reduction of IS risk (OR = 0.307, p = 0.044, 95% CI 0.097-0.969). Warfarin is suggested to be prescribed in preventing ischemic stroke for low-stroke-risk atrial fibrillation patients with hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

  14. Risk of long-term anticoagulation under sustained severe arterial hypertension: A translational study comparing warfarin and the new oral anticoagulant apixaban

    PubMed Central

    Pfeilschifter, Waltraud; Steinstraesser, Thurid; Paulus, Patrick; Zeiner, Pia Susan; Bohmann, Ferdinand; Theisen, Alf; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard; Penski, Cornelia; Wagner, Marlies; Mittelbronn, Michel

    2016-01-01

    New oral anticoagulants for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation have recently been introduced. In this translational study, we explored the risk of long-term anticoagulation on intracerebral hemorrhage under sustained severe arterial hypertension. We initiated anticoagulation with warfarin or apixaban in spontaneously hypertensive rats prone to develop severe hypertension and subsequent intracerebral bleeding complications. A non-anticoagulated group served as control. During an 11-week-study period, blood pressure, anticoagulation parameters, and clinical status were determined regularly. The incidence of histopathologically proven intracerebral hemorrhage was defined as the primary endpoint. Both warfarin and apixaban anticoagulation was fairly stable during the study period, and all rats developed severe hypertension. Intracerebral hemorrhage was determined in 29% (4/14) of warfarin rats and in 10% (1/10) of apixaban rats. Controls did not show cerebral bleeding complications (chi-square not significant). Mortality rate at study termination was 33% (2/6) in controls, 43% (6/14) in the warfarin group, and 60% (6/10) in the apixaban group. Animals died from extracerebral complications in most cases. Our study describes an experimental intracerebral hemorrhage model in the context of sustained hypertension and long-term anticoagulation. Extracerebral bleeding complications occurred more often in warfarin-treated animals compared with apixaban and control rats. PMID:27189904

  15. A Green, Enantioselective Synthesis of Warfarin for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Terence C.; Sultana, Camille M.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of drugs is of fundamental importance in the pharmaceutical industry. In this experiment, students synthesize either enantiomer of warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, in a single step from inexpensive starting materials. Stereoselectivity is induced by a commercial organocatalyst, ("R","R")- or…

  16. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Genotypes and Warfarin Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, JA; Gong, L; Whirl-Carrillo, M; Gage, BF; Scott, SA; Stein, CM; Anderson, JL; Kimmel, SE; Lee, MTM; Pirmohamed, M; Wadelius, M; Klein, TE; Altman, RB

    2011-01-01

    Warfarin is a widely used anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic index and large interpatient variability in the dose required to achieve target anticoagulation. Common genetic variants in the cytochrome P450-2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K–epoxide reductase complex (VKORC1) enzymes, in addition to known nongenetic factors, account for ~50% of warfarin dose variability. The purpose of this article is to assist in the interpretation and use of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 geno-type data for estimating therapeutic warfarin dose to achieve an INR of 2–3, should genotype results be available to the clinician. The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) of the National Institutes of Health Pharmacogenomics Research Network develops peer-reviewed gene–drug guidelines that are published and updated periodically on http://www.pharmgkb.org based on new developments in the field.1 PMID:21900891

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Apixaban, Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban, and Warfarin for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chieh-Yu; Chen, Hui-Chun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for stroke prevention among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients by incorporating Taiwanese demographic information derived from a population-based database, the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), into cost-effectiveness analysis. From 1 January to 31 December 2012, 98,213 AF patients were selected from the NHIRD database. A Markov model was constructed that combined published secondary data with the Taiwan NHIRD to compare the cost and incremental cost effectiveness of apixaban 5 mg twice daily, dabigatran 110 or 150 mg twice daily, rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily, and warfarin. The lifetime costs of warfarin, dabigatran 110 mg, dabigatran 150 mg, rivaroxaban 20 mg, and apixaban 5 mg were US$10,660, US$13,693, US$13,426, US$13,455, US$15,965, respectively. Apixaban resulted in an incremental cost effectiveness of US$39,351, US$27,039, US$41,298, and US$48,896 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) compared with warfarin, dabigatran 110 mg, dabigatran 150 mg, and rivaroxaban 20 mg, respectively. In Monte-Carlo analyses, apixaban 5 mg, rivaroxaban 20 mg, warfarin, and dabigatran 110 mg were cost effective in 83, 10.4, 7, and 0.8%, respectively, of the simulations using a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of US$50,000 per QALY. Apixaban was more cost effective than warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in patients with AF. Among the anticoagulant therapies, the WTP threshold of apixaban was about US$50,000 per QALY gained. These cost-effectiveness estimations provide useful information to aid clinical decision making in stroke prevention for AF patients.

  18. Warfarin Safety: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Factors Associated with the Consumption of Medicinal Plants in a Brazilian Anticoagulation Clinic.

    PubMed

    Leite, Paula Mendonça; de Freitas, Aline A; Mourão, Aline de O Magalhães; Martins, Maria A P; Castilho, Rachel O

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze factors associated with the consumption of medicinal plants by patients being treated with warfarin in a Brazilian anticoagulation clinic and to study the safety of medicinal plant use in patients on warfarin therapy. The study was performed as an observational cross-sectional analysis. Study participants were outpatients on long-term warfarin therapy for at least 2 months for atrial fibrillation or prosthetic cardiac valves. Interviews were carried out concerning information about the habits of medicinal herb consumption, and logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the consumption of herbs. The scientific names of the medicinal plants were identified to search for information on the effects on the hemostasis of the interactions between the medicinal herbs reported and warfarin. The mean age of the 273 patients included was 60.8 years; 58.7% were women. Medicinal plants were used by 67% of the participants. No association between demographic and clinical data and the use of medicinal plants was identified. Patients reported a total of 64 different plants, primarily consumed in the form of tea. The plants were mainly used to treat respiratory tract and central nervous system disorders. About 40% of the plants cited have been reported to potentially interfere with the anticoagulation therapy, principally by potentiating the effects of warfarin, which could, increase the risk of bleeding. The use of medicinal plants was highly common and widespread in patients receiving warfarin as an anticoagulation therapy. Univariate analysis of variables associated with the consumption of herbs showed no statistically significant difference in the consumption of medicinal plants for any of the sociodemographic and clinical data. The medicinal plants that were reportedly consumed by the patients could affect hemostasis. This study reinforces the need for further studies evaluating the habits of patients

  19. Rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack: a subgroup analysis of ROCKET AF.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Graeme J; Patel, Manesh R; Stevens, Susanna R; Becker, Richard C; Breithardt, Günter; Carolei, Antonio; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Halperin, Jonathan L; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Mas, Jean-Louis; Massaro, Ayrton; Norrving, Bo; Nessel, Christopher C; Paolini, John F; Roine, Risto O; Singer, Daniel E; Wong, Lawrence; Califf, Robert M; Fox, Keith A A; Hacke, Werner

    2012-04-01

    In ROCKET AF, rivaroxaban was non-inferior to adjusted-dose warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to investigate whether the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin is consistent among the subgroups of patients with and without previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). In ROCKET AF, patients with AF who were at increased risk of stroke were randomly assigned (1:1) in a double-blind manner to rivaroxaban 20 mg daily or adjusted dose warfarin (international normalised ratio 2·0-3·0). Patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Between Dec 18, 2006, and June 17, 2009, 14 264 patients from 1178 centres in 45 countries were randomly assigned. The primary endpoint was the composite of stroke or non-CNS systemic embolism. In this substudy we assessed the interaction of the treatment effects of rivaroxaban and warfarin among patients with and without previous stroke or TIA. Efficacy analyses were by intention to treat and safety analyses were done in the on-treatment population. ROCKET AF is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00403767. 7468 (52%) patients had a previous stroke (n=4907) or TIA (n=2561) and 6796 (48%) had no previous stroke or TIA. The number of events per 100 person-years for the primary endpoint in patients treated with rivaroxaban compared with warfarin was consistent among patients with previous stroke or TIA (2·79% rivaroxaban vs 2·96% warfarin; hazard ratio [HR] 0·94, 95% CI 0·77-1·16) and those without (1·44%vs 1·88%; 0·77, 0·58-1·01; interaction p=0·23). The number of major and non-major clinically relevant bleeding events per 100 person-years in patients treated with rivaroxaban compared with warfarin was consistent among patients with previous stroke or TIA (13·31% rivaroxaban vs 13·87% warfarin; HR 0·96, 95% CI 0·87-1·07) and those without (16·69%vs 15·19%; 1·10, 0·99-1·21; interaction p=0·08

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Apixaban versus Warfarin in Chinese Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Real-Life and Modelling Analyses.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Tse, Vicki C; Lau, Wallis C Y; Cheung, Bernard M Y; Lip, Gregory Y H; Wong, Ian C K; Chan, Esther W

    2016-01-01

    Many of the cost-effectiveness analyses of apixaban against warfarin focused on Western populations but Asian evidence remains less clear. The present study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of apixaban against warfarin in Chinese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) from a public institutional perspective in Hong Kong. We used a Markov model incorporating 12 health state transitions, and simulated the disease progression of NVAF in 1,000 hypothetical patients treated with apixaban/warfarin. Risks of clinical events were based on the ARISTOTLE trial and were adjusted with local International Normalized Ratio control, defined as the time in therapeutic range. Real-life input for the model, including patients' demographics and clinical profiles, post-event treatment patterns, and healthcare costs, were determined by a retrospective cohort of 40,569 incident patients retrieved from a Hong Kong-wide electronic medical database. Main outcome measurements included numbers of thromboembolic and bleeding events, life years, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and direct healthcare cost. When comparing apixaban and warfarin, treatment with incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) less than one local GDP per capita (USD 33,534 in 2014) was defined to be cost-effective. In the lifetime simulation, fewer numbers of events were estimated for the apixaban group, resulting in reduced event-related direct medical costs. The estimated ICER of apixaban was USD 7,057 per QALY at base-case analysis and ranged from USD 1,061 to 14,867 per QALY under the 116 tested scenarios in deterministic sensitivity analysis. While in probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the probability of apixaban being the cost-effective alternative to warfarin was 96% and 98% at a willingness to pay threshold of USD 33,534 and 100,602 per QALY, respectively. Apixaban is likely to be a cost-effective alternative to w