Science.gov

Sample records for warm blooded animals

  1. Hands-On Science: Cool Ways to Teach about Warm-Blooded Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Presents three activities for teaching elementary students about the built-in mechanisms that help warm-blooded animals maintain constant internal body temperatures. The activities help students understand why humans sweat, why dogs pant, and why blubber keeps whales warm in frigid water. (SM)

  2. [Specific features of 2-methyl hydroxybenzene and 3-methyl hydroxybenzene distribution in the organism of warm-blooded animals].

    PubMed

    Shormanov, B K; Grishenko, V K; Astashkina, A P; Elizarova, M K

    2013-01-01

    The present work was designed to study the specific features of 2-methyl hydroxybezene and 3-methyl hydroxybenzene distribution after intragastric administration of these toxicants to warm-blooded animals (rats). They were detected in the unmetabolized form in the internal organs and blood of the animals. The levels of 2-methyl hydroxybezene were especially high in the stomach and blood whereas the maximum content of 3-methyl hydroxybenzene was found in brain, blood, small intestines of the poisoned rats.

  3. Thermodynamic Limits of Body Dimension of Warm Blooded Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlborn, Boye K.

    2000-05-01

    The metabolic rates Г o = aoM 0.73 [W], a 0 = 3.6, of animals of different body masses M [kg] determines their heat production Q' and their mechanical power output P. The metabolic heat production of small warm blooded animals living in a cold environment sets lower size limits for the body mass of birds and terrestrial mammals of Mt,b ≥ 0.01 kg and Maq ≥ 10 kg for fast aquatic mammals. Birds must travel at the speed υfl = 15M 1/6 [m/s] in order to stay aloft, but their muscles only generate the metabolic velocity υ Г ≤≈ 50M -0.25 [m/s]. These conditions yield an upper body size limit for flying birds: Mb ,max ≤ 15 kg. Walking speeds scale with body mass as υ walk ∝ M 1/6, while propagation speeds for endurance running are nearly independent of body mass. This makes walking faster than endurance running for animals with body masses M ≥ 600 kg.

  4. The potential for behavioral thermoregulation to buffer "cold-blooded" animals against climate warming.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Michael; Shine, Richard; Porter, Warren P

    2009-03-10

    Increasing concern about the impacts of global warming on biodiversity has stimulated extensive discussion, but methods to translate broad-scale shifts in climate into direct impacts on living animals remain simplistic. A key missing element from models of climatic change impacts on animals is the buffering influence of behavioral thermoregulation. Here, we show how behavioral and mass/energy balance models can be combined with spatial data on climate, topography, and vegetation to predict impacts of increased air temperature on thermoregulating ectotherms such as reptiles and insects (a large portion of global biodiversity). We show that for most "cold-blooded" terrestrial animals, the primary thermal challenge is not to attain high body temperatures (although this is important in temperate environments) but to stay cool (particularly in tropical and desert areas, where ectotherm biodiversity is greatest). The impact of climate warming on thermoregulating ectotherms will depend critically on how changes in vegetation cover alter the availability of shade as well as the animals' capacities to alter their seasonal timing of activity and reproduction. Warmer environments also may increase maintenance energy costs while simultaneously constraining activity time, putting pressure on mass and energy budgets. Energy- and mass-balance models provide a general method to integrate the complexity of these direct interactions between organisms and climate into spatial predictions of the impact of climate change on biodiversity. This methodology allows quantitative organism- and habitat-specific assessments of climate change impacts.

  5. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma warming device is a...

  6. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma warming device is a...

  7. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma warming device is a...

  8. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma warming device is a...

  9. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma warming device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma warming device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma warming device is a...

  10. Warm fresh whole blood and thoracic traumain iraq and afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Keneally, Ryan J; Parsons, Andrew M; Willett, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic trauma occurred in 10% of the patients seen at US military treatment facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan and 52% of those patients were transfused. Among those transfused, 281 patients received warm fresh whole blood. A previous report documented improved survival with warm fresh whole blood in patients injured in combat without stratification by injury pattern. A later report described an increase in acute lung injuries after its administration. Survivorship and warm fresh whole blood have never been analyzed in a subpopulation at highest risk for lung injuries, such as patients with thoracic trauma. There may be a heterogeneous relationship between whole blood and survival based on likelihood of a concomitant pulmonary injury. In this report, the relationship between warm fresh whole blood and survivorship was analyzed among patients at highest risk for concomitant pulmonary injuries. Patients with thoracic trauma who received a transfusion were identified in the Joint Theater Trauma Registry. Gross mortality rates were compared between whole blood recipients and patients transfused with component therapy only. The association between each blood component and mortality was determined in a regression model. The overall mortality risk was compared between warm fresh whole blood recipients and non-recipients. Patients transfused with warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy had a higher mortality rate than patients transfused only separated blood components (21.3% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001). When controlling for covariates, transfusion of warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy was not associated with increased mortality risk compared with the transfusion of component therapy only (OR 1.247 [95% CI 0.760-2.048], P = 0.382). Patients with combat related thoracic trauma transfused with warm fresh whole blood were not at increased risk for mortality compared to those who received component therapy alone when controlling for covariates.

  11. Performance comparison of improvised prehospital blood warming techniques and a commercial blood warmer.

    PubMed

    Milligan, James; Lee, Anna; Gill, Martin; Weatherall, Andrew; Tetlow, Chloe; Garner, Alan A

    2016-08-01

    Prehospital transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBC) may be life saving for hypovolaemic trauma patients. PRBCs should preferably be warmed prior to administration but practical prehospital devices have only recently become available. The effectiveness of purpose designed prehospital warmers compared with previously used improvised methods of warming has not previously been described. Expired units of PRBCs were randomly assigned to a warming method in a bench study. Warming methods were exposure to body heat of an investigator, leaving the blood in direct sunlight on a dark material, wrapping the giving set around gel heat pads or a commercial fluid warmer (Belmont Buddy Lite). Methods were compared with control units that were run through the fluid circuit with no active warming strategy. The mean temperature was similar for all methods on removal from the fridge (4.5°C). The mean temperatures (degrees centigrade) for all methods were higher than the control group at the end of the circuit (all P≤0.001). For each method the mean (95% CI) temperature at the end of the circuit was; body heat 17.2 (16.4-18.0), exposure to sunlight 20.2 (19.4-21.0), gel heat pads 18.8 (18.0-19.6), Buddy Lite 35.2 (34.5-36.0) and control group 14.7 (13.9-15.5). All of the warming methods significantly warmed the blood but only the Buddy Lite reliably warmed the blood to a near normal physiological level. Improvised warming methods therefore cannot be recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Warm Rivers Play Role in Arctic Sea Ice Melt Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-05

    This frame from a NASA MODIS animation depicts warming sea surface temperatures in the Arctic Beaufort Sea after warm waters from Canada Mackenzie River broke through a shoreline sea ice barrier in summer 2012, enhancing the melting of sea ice.

  13. The Warm-Blooded Plant of the Swamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camazine, Scott

    1986-01-01

    Describes remarkable characteristics of the skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) which make it an interesting swamp plant to study in February and March: its warm-blooded nature, unpleasant skunky odor, and peculiar root system. (NEC)

  14. Effect of warming and flow rate conditions of blood warmers on red blood cell integrity.

    PubMed

    Poder, T G; Pruneau, D; Dorval, J; Thibault, L; Fisette, J-F; Bédard, S K; Jacques, A; Beauregard, P

    2016-11-01

    Fluid warmers are routinely used to reduce the risk of hypothermia and cardiac complications associated with the infusion of cold blood products. However, warming blood products could generate haemolysis. This study was undertaken to compare the impact of temperature of blood warmers on the per cent haemolysis of packed red blood cells (RBCs) heated at different flow rates as well as non-flow conditions. Infusion warmers used were calibrated at 41·5°C ± 0·5°C and 37·5°C ± 0·5°C. Cold RBC units stored at 4°C in AS-3 (n = 30), aged 30-39 days old, were divided into half units before being allocated under two different scenarios (i.e. infusion pump or syringe). Blood warmers were effective to warm cold RBCs to 37·5°C or 41·5°C when used in conjunction with an infusion pump at flow rate up to 600 ml/h. However, when the warmed blood was held in a syringe for various periods of time, such as may occur in neonatal transfusions, the final temperature was below the expected requirements with measurement as low as 33·1°C. Increasing the flow with an infusion pump increased haemolysis in RBCs from 0·2% to up to 2·1% at a flow rate of 600 ml/h regardless of the warming device used (P < 0·05). No relevant increase of haemolysis was observed using a syringe. The use of a blood warmer adjusted to 41·5°C is probably the best choice for reducing the risk of hypothermia for the patient without generating haemolysis. However, we should be cautious with the use of an infusion pump for RBC transfusion, particularly at high flow rates. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Post-warm-up muscle temperature maintenance: blood flow contribution and external heating optimisation.

    PubMed

    Raccuglia, Margherita; Lloyd, Alex; Filingeri, Davide; Faulkner, Steve H; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George

    2016-02-01

    Passive muscle heating has been shown to reduce the drop in post-warm-up muscle temperature (Tm) by about 25% over 30 min, with concomitant sprint/power performance improvements. We sought to determine the role of leg blood flow in this cooling and whether optimising the heating procedure would further benefit post-warm-up T m maintenance. Ten male cyclists completed 15-min sprint-based warm-up followed by 30 min recovery. Vastus lateralis Tm (Tmvl) was measured at deep-, mid- and superficial-depths before and after the warm-up, and after the recovery period (POST-REC). During the recovery period, participants wore water-perfused trousers heated to 43 °C (WPT43) with either whole leg heating (WHOLE) or upper leg heating (UPPER), which was compared to heating with electrically heated trousers at 40 °C (ELEC40) and a non-heated control (CON). The blood flow cooling effect on Tmvl was studied comparing one leg with (BF) and without (NBF) blood flow. Warm-up exercise significantly increased Tmvl by ~3 °C at all depths. After the recovery period, BF Tmvl was lower (~0.3 °C) than NBF Tmvl at all measured depths, with no difference between WHOLE versus UPPER. WPT43 reduced the post-warm-up drop in deep-Tmvl (-0.12 °C ± 0.3 °C) compared to ELEC40 (-1.08 ± 0.4 °C) and CON (-1.3 ± 0.3 °C), whereas mid- and superficial-Tmvl even increased by 0.15 ± 0.3 and 1.1 ± 1.1 °C, respectively. Thigh blood flow contributes to the post-warm-up Tmvl decline. Optimising the external heating procedure and increasing heating temperature of only 3 °C successfully maintained and even increased T mvl, demonstrating that heating temperature is the major determinant of post-warm-up Tmvl cooling in this application.

  16. 9 CFR 95.16 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal...

  17. 9 CFR 95.16 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal...

  18. 9 CFR 95.16 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal...

  19. Blood warming, pump heating and haemolysis in low-flow extracorporeal life support; an in vitro study using freshly donated human blood.

    PubMed

    Kusters, R W J; Simons, A P; Lancé, M D; Ganushchak, Y M; Bekers, O; Weerwind, P W

    2017-01-01

    Low-flow extracorporeal life support can be used for cardiopulmonary support of paediatric and neonatal patients and is also emerging as a therapy for patients suffering from exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, pump heating and haemolysis have proven to negatively affect the system and outcome. This in vitro study aimed at gaining insight into blood warming, pump heating and haemolysis related to the performance of a new low-flow centrifugal pump. Pump performance in the 400-1,500 ml/min flow range was modulated using small-sized dual-lumen catheters and freshly donated human blood. Measurements included plasma free haemoglobin, blood temperature, pump speed, pump pressure, blood flow and thermographic imaging. Blood warming (ΔT max =0.5°C) had no relationship with pump performance or haemolysis (R 2 max =0.05). Pump performance-related parameters revealed no relevant relationships with haemolysis (R 2 max =0.36). Thermography showed no relevant heat zones in the pump (T max =36°C). Concerning blood warming, pump heating and haemolysis, we deem the centrifugal pump applicable for low-flow extracorporeal circulation.

  20. Is cold or warm blood cardioplegia superior for myocardial protection?

    PubMed Central

    Abah, Udo; Roberts, Patrick Garfjeld; Ishaq, Muhammad; De Silva, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether the use of warm or cold blood cardioplegia has superior myocardial protection. More than 192 papers were found using the reported search, of which 20 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date, country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. A good breadth of high-level evidence addressing this clinical dilemma is available, including a recent meta-analysis and multiple large randomized clinical trials. Yet despite this level of evidence, no clear significant clinical benefit has been demonstrated by warm or cold blood cardioplegia. This suggests that neither method is significantly superior and that both provide similar efficacy of myocardial protection. The meta-analysis, including 41 randomized control trials (5879 patients in total), concluded that although a lower cardiac enzyme release and improved postoperative cardiac index was demonstrated in the warm cardioplegia group, this benefit was not reflected in clinical outcomes, which were similar in both groups. This theme of benefit in biochemical markers, physiological metrics and non-fatal postoperative events in the warm cardioplegia group ran throughout the literature, in particular the ‘Warm Heart investigators’ who conducted a randomized trial of 1732 patients, demonstrated a reduction in postoperative low output syndrome (6.1 versus 9.3%, P = 0.01) in the warm cardioplegia group, but no significant drop in 30-day all-cause mortality (1.4 versus 2.5%, P = 0.12). However, their later follow-up indicates non-fatal postoperative events predict reduced late survival, independent of cardioplegia. A minority of studies suggested a benefit of cold cardioplegia over warm in particular patient subgroups: One group conducted a retrospective study of 520 patients who

  1. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming.

    PubMed

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-02-26

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  2. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming

    PubMed Central

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-01-01

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  3. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.15 Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted...

  4. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.15 Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted...

  5. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.15 Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted...

  6. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.15 Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted...

  7. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.15 Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted...

  8. Global farm animal production and global warming: impacting and mitigating climate change.

    PubMed

    Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

    2008-05-01

    The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. An analysis of meat, egg, and milk production encompasses not only the direct rearing and slaughtering of animals, but also grain and fertilizer production for animal feed, waste storage and disposal, water use, and energy expenditures on farms and in transporting feed and finished animal products, among other key impacts of the production process as a whole. Immediate and far-reaching changes in current animal agriculture practices and consumption patterns are both critical and timely if GHGs from the farm animal sector are to be mitigated.

  9. Husbandry of animals on land and in water: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Shell, E W

    1991-10-01

    The husbandry of aquatic animals originated in China in approximately 1,100 B.C., thousands of years after the beginning of animal agriculture. The practice did not reach Europe until the Middle Ages. Aquaculture apparently was not very important in Western Europe. The early immigrants from that region did not include fish with the other food animals that they brought with them to the New World. The practice of aquaculture finally came to the United States in the mid-nineteenth century, where it was used for the production of trout for stocking coldwater ponds and streams for sport fishing. Later, cultural practices were extended to warmwater species such as the largemouth black bass and the channel catfish. Thus, aquaculture in the United States was derived from recreational fishing rather than from food production, and from fisheries management rather than from animal science. There are important differences in the hydrosphere and atmosphere as cultural environments. Differences in composition, density, response to physical force, latent heat of fusion, specific heat, transparency, viscosity, and erosiveness of air and water result in different problems for land animal and aquatic animal culturists. Aquaculturists work primarily with "cold-blooded" ("lower") animals, whereas agriculturists work with "warm-blooded" ("higher") animals. In comparison with warm-blooded land animals, cold-blooded aquatic animals are less independent of changes in their environment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Issues related to the use of blood in food and animal feed.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Jack A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2014-01-01

    Blood has traditionally been used as a high protein ingredient in both human food and animal feed, with resulting economic, environmental and nutritional benefits. However, potentially serious health and safety issues related to blood consumption, particularly the risk of pathogenic or harmful metabolic materials, the infectivity of prion diseases, and the presence of identified allergens such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), are causing many consumers to shy away from any product containing either animal blood or ingredients derived from animal blood. Thus, despite the significant volumes of blood produced by slaughterhouses, blood is currently underutilized as a food ingredient. This article reviews the use of animal blood as an ingredient in food intended for human consumption or for animal feed and discusses the related consumer concerns.

  11. Augmentation of blood circulation to the fingers by warming distant body areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Leon, G. R.; Paul, S.; Tranchida, D.; Linder, I. V.

    2000-01-01

    Future activities in space will require greater periods of time in extreme environments in which the body periphery will be vulnerable to chilling. Maintaining the hands and fingers in comfortable conditions enhances finger flexibility and dexterity, and thus effects better work performance. We have evaluated the efficacy of promoting heat transfer and release by the extremities by increasing the blood flow to the periphery from more distant parts of the body. The experimental garment paradigm developed by the investigators was used to manipulate the temperature of different body areas. Six subjects, two females and four males, were evaluated in a stage-1 baseline condition, with the inlet temperature of the circulating water in the liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) at 33 degrees C. At stage 2 the total LCWG water inlet temperature was cooled to 8 degrees C, and at stage 3 the inlet water temperature in specific segments of the LCWG was warmed (according to protocol) to 45 degrees C, while the inlet temperature in the rest of the LCWG was maintained at 8 degrees C. The following four body-area-warming conditions were studied in separate sessions: (1) head, (2) upper torso/arm, (3) upper torso/arm/head, and (4) legs/feet. Skin temperature, heat flux and blood perfusion of the fingers, and subjective perception of thermal sensations and overall physical comfort were assessed. Finger temperature (T(fing)) analyses showed a statistically significant condition x stage interaction. Post-hoc comparisons (T(fing)) indicated that at stage 3, the upper torso/arm/head warming condition was significantly different from the head, upper torso/arm and legs/feet conditions, showing an increase in T(fing). There was a significant increase in blood perfusion in the fingers at stage 3 in all conditions. Subjective perception of hand warmth, and overall physical comfort level significantly increased in the stage 3 upper torso/arm/head condition. The findings indicate that

  12. Sarcocystosis of animals and humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Species of Sarcocystosis, single-celled protozoan parasites in the Phylum Apicomplexa, are widespread in warm-blooded animals. Completion of the life cycle requires two host species: an intermediate (or prey) host and a definitive (or predator) host. Hosts can harbor more than one species of Sarcocy...

  13. [Identification of Animal Whole Blood Based on Near Infrared Transmission Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiong; Wang, Jian; Liu, Peng-xi; Zhang, Ting-ting

    2016-01-01

    The inspection and classification for blood products are important but complicated in import-export ports or inspection and quarantine departments. For the inspection of whole blood products, open sampling can cause pollution and virulence factors in bloods samples may even endanger inspectors. Thus non-contact classification and identification methods for whole bloods of animals are needed. Spectroscopic techniques adopted in the flowcytometry need sampling blood cells during the detection; therefore they can not meet the demand of non-contact identification and classification for whole bloods of animals. Infrared absorption spectroscopy is a technique that can be used to analyze the molecular structure and chemical bonds of detected samples under the condition of non-contact. To find a feasible spectroscopic approach of non-contact detection for the species variation in whole blood samples, a near infrared transmitted spectra (NITS, 4 497.669 - 7 506.4 cm(-1)) experiment of whole blood samples of three common animals including chickens, dogs and cats has been conducted. During the experiment, the spectroscopic resolution is 5 cm(-1), and each spectrogram is an average of 5 measured spectral data. Experimental results show that all samples have a sharp absorption peak between 5 184 and 5 215 cm(-1), and a gentle absorption peak near 7 000 cm(-1). Besides, the NITS curves of different samples of same animals are similar, and only have slight differences in the whole transmittance. A correlation coefficient (CC) is induced to distinguish the differences of the three animals' whole bloods in NITS curves, and the computed CCs between NITS curves of different samples of the same animals, are greater than 0.99, whereas CCs between NITS curves of the whole bloods of different animals are from 0.509 48 to 0.916 13. Among which CCs between NITS curves of the whole bloods of chickens and cats are from 0.857 23 to 0.912 44, CCs between NITS curves of the whole bloods of

  14. Toxoplasmosis in animals and humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    T. gondii is one of the most studied parasites.It causes disease in virtually all warm blooded animals Many scientists use T. gondii to investigate problems in cell biology and genetics. The book is divided into 19 chapters. Chapter 1 deals with biology. Chapter 2, which deals with toxoplasmosis...

  15. Heat Exchnage in the Black Skipjack, and the Blood-Gas Relationship of Warm-Bodied Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jeffrey B.

    1973-01-01

    The black skipjack, Euthynnus lineatus, uses a centrally located vascular heat exchanger to maintain core body temperatures warmer than ambient sea water. The heat exchanger is composed of the dorsal aorta, the posterior cardinal vein, and a large vertical rete. The dorsal aorta is embedded in the posterior cardinal vein and is completely bathed in venous blood. Skipjack hemoglobin appears similar to that of the bluefin tuna in that oxygen capacity is unaffected by changing temperature. Temperature-insensitive hemoglobin may function in warm-bodied fishes to prevent the premature dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin as blood is warmed en route to the muscles. Images PMID:16592097

  16. Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Claudio R M; Schneider, Fabio K; Dos Santos, Leonilda Correia

    2010-01-01

    An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter observer visual counting method, i.e., around 10%. Smaller errors (e.g., 3%) can be obtained in regions with less grid artifacts. These promising results allow the use of the proposed method either as a complete automatic counting tool in laboratories for wild animal's blood analysis or as a first counting stage in a semi-automatic counting tool.

  17. Solubility of Haloether Anesthetics in Human and Animal Blood

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Joao H. N.; Brosnan, Robert J.; Fukushima, Fabíola B.; Hodges, Joanne; Liu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background Anesthetic blood solubility predicts pharmacokinetics for inhaled agents and is essential for determination of blood anesthetic concentrations from end-tidal gas concentrations using Henry’s Law. Though used to model anesthetic effects in humans, there are limited interspecies solubility comparisons that include modern haloethers. This study aimed to measure hematocrit-adjusted blood:gas anesthetic partition coefficients (λB:G) for desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and methoxyflurane in humans and animals. Methods Whole blood was collected from 20 rats, 8 horses, and 4 each of cats, cattle, humans, dogs, goats, pigs, rabbits, and sheep. Plasma or cell volume was removed to adjust all samples to a packed cell volume of 40%. A single agent calibration gas headspace was added to blood in a glass syringe and was mixed and equilibrated at 37°C for 2 hours. Agent concentrations in the calibration gas and syringe headspace were measured using gas chromatography. Anesthetic solubility in saline, citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine, and olive oil were similarly measured. Results Except for goats, all animal species had at least one λB:G measurement that differed significantly from humans. For each agent, λB:G positively correlated with serum triglyceride concentrations, but this only explained 25% of interspecies variability. Desflurane was significantly less soluble in blood than sevoflurane in some species (e.g., humans) but not in others (e.g., rabbits). Conclusions Anesthetic partition coefficients differ significantly between humans and most animals for haloether anesthetics. Because of their similar λB:G values, goats may be a better animal model for inhaled anesthetic pharmacokinetics in people. PMID:22510863

  18. Solubility of haloether anesthetics in human and animal blood.

    PubMed

    Soares, Joao H N; Brosnan, Robert J; Fukushima, Fabíola B; Hodges, Joanne; Liu, Hong

    2012-07-01

    Anesthetic blood solubility predicts pharmacokinetics for inhaled agents and is essential for determination of blood anesthetic concentrations from end-tidal gas concentrations using Henry's Law. Though used to model anesthetic effects in humans, there are limited interspecies solubility comparisons that include modern haloethers. This study aimed to measure hematocrit-adjusted blood:gas anesthetic partition coefficients (λ B:G) for desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and methoxyflurane in humans and animals. Whole blood was collected from 20 rats, 8 horses, and 4 each of cats, cattle, humans, dogs, goats, pigs, rabbits, and sheep. Plasma or cell volume was removed to adjust all samples to a packed cell volume of 40%. A single-agent calibration gas headspace was added to blood in a glass syringe and was mixed and equilibrated at 37°C for 2 h. Agent concentrations in the calibration gas and syringe headspace were measured using gas chromatography. Anesthetic solubility in saline, citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine, and olive oil were similarly measured. Except for goats, all animal species had at least one λ B:G measurement that differed significantly from humans. For each agent, λ B:G positively correlated with serum triglyceride concentrations, but this only explained 25% of interspecies variability. Desflurane was significantly less soluble in blood than sevoflurane in some species (e.g., humans) but not in others (e.g., rabbits). Anesthetic partition coefficients differ significantly between humans and most animals for haloether anesthetics. Because of their similar λ B:G values, goats may be a better animal model for inhaled anesthetic pharmacokinetics in people.

  19. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The potential for behavioral thermoregulation to buffer “cold-blooded” animals against climate warming

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Michael; Shine, Richard; Porter, Warren P.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing concern about the impacts of global warming on biodiversity has stimulated extensive discussion, but methods to translate broad-scale shifts in climate into direct impacts on living animals remain simplistic. A key missing element from models of climatic change impacts on animals is the buffering influence of behavioral thermoregulation. Here, we show how behavioral and mass/energy balance models can be combined with spatial data on climate, topography, and vegetation to predict impacts of increased air temperature on thermoregulating ectotherms such as reptiles and insects (a large portion of global biodiversity). We show that for most “cold-blooded” terrestrial animals, the primary thermal challenge is not to attain high body temperatures (although this is important in temperate environments) but to stay cool (particularly in tropical and desert areas, where ectotherm biodiversity is greatest). The impact of climate warming on thermoregulating ectotherms will depend critically on how changes in vegetation cover alter the availability of shade as well as the animals' capacities to alter their seasonal timing of activity and reproduction. Warmer environments also may increase maintenance energy costs while simultaneously constraining activity time, putting pressure on mass and energy budgets. Energy- and mass-balance models provide a general method to integrate the complexity of these direct interactions between organisms and climate into spatial predictions of the impact of climate change on biodiversity. This methodology allows quantitative organism- and habitat-specific assessments of climate change impacts. PMID:19234117

  1. Global warming effects: future feasibility of current cooling equipment for animal houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiño, V.; Perdigones, A.; García, J. L.; de La Plaza, S.

    2009-04-01

    Interest in global warming effects on the agricultural systems is currently high, especially in areas which are likely to be more affected by this temperature rising, i.e. the Mediterranean area (IPCC, 2008). According to this report, the model projections of surface warming predict a temperature increase between 0.5°C to 1.5°C in the European area by the period 2020-2029. The aim of the present work was to assess the future consequences of the global warming effect on the feasibility of the cooling equipment in animal houses. Several equipment combinations were compared by means of modelling the inside climate in fattening pig houses, including forced ventilation and cooling pad. The modelling was carried out for six different European locations: Spain, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Germany and the United Kingdom, for the today conditions; secondly, the global warming effect in the inside climate was considered in a second set of simulations, and a mean temperature rising of 2°C was taken into account. Climate data. The six European locations were: Madrid (Spain); Aliartos (Greece); Bedford (The United Kingdom); Schipol (The Netherlands); Milan (Italy); and Stuttgart (Germany). From every location, the available climate data were monthly mean temperature (To; °C); monthly mean relative humidity (HRo, %) and monthly mean solar irradiation on horizontal surface (So; W m-2). From these monthly values, hourly means were calculated resulting in 24 data for a typical day, each month. Climate model. In this study, cooling strategies resulted from the combination of natural ventilation, mechanical ventilation and cooling pads. The climate model was developed taking into account the following energy fluxes: solar radiation, ventilation (Seginer, 2002), animal heat losses (Blanes and Pedersen, 2005), and loss of energy due to the cooling pads (Seginer, 2002). Results for the present work, show a comparative scene of the inside climate by using different cooling

  2. All about Mammals. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In this videotape, students learn more about the characteristics of common warm-blooded mammals and what makes them different from other animals. Children also find out how humans are more advanced in structure than other mammals, but how they still share the same basic traits. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education…

  3. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals.

    PubMed

    de Hoog, G S; Vicente, V A; Najafzadeh, M J; Harrak, M J; Badali, H; Seyedmousavi, S

    2011-12-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions. Hosts are mainly fish, frogs, toads, turtles or crabs, all sharing smooth, moist or mucous skins and waterborne or amphibian lifestyles; occasionally superficial infections in humans are noted. Cold-blooded animals with strictly terrestrial life styles, such as reptiles and birds are missing. It is concluded that animals with moist skins, i.e. those being waterborne and those possessing sweat glands, are more susceptible to black yeast infection. Melanin and the ability to assimilate alkylbenzenes are purported general virulence factors. Thermotolerance influences the choice of host. Exophiala species in ocean water mostly have maximum growth temperatures below 30 °C, whereas those able to grow until 33(-36) °C are found in shallow waters and occasionally on humans. Tissue responses vary with the phylogenetic position of the host, the lower animals showing poor granulome formation. Species circumscriptions have been determined by multilocus analyses involving partial ITS, TEF1, BT2 and ACT1.

  4. Effect of transient warming of red blood cells for up to 24 h: in vitro characteristics in CPD/saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol environment.

    PubMed

    Gulliksson, H; Nordahl-Källman, A-S

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on transient warming of red blood cells (RBCs). Occasional storage outside restricted temperature range often results in destroying of the RBC unit, even after a short period of time due to national guidelines. This study evaluates the in vitro effects associated with such accidental warming on RBCs stored in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) and prepared within 8 h after blood collection. This study includes both repeated short-term exposure of RBCs to room temperature for 6 h as wells as warming for either 6, 12, 18 or 24 h after 1 week or after 3 weeks of storage in two separate studies. RBCs were stored for 42 days. We weekly measured pH, K(+) , glucose, lactate, haemolysis, red cell ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. The lowest individual ATP value observed in any of the groups of warmed units was 2·6 μmol/g haemoglobin. Increased haemolysis in warmed units was noted in two of the studies. None of the individual units exceeded the European maximum limit of 0·8% haemolysis. Our results suggest that quality of RBCs after transient warming will be maintained at acceptable levels specified in standards and in previous studies. However, increased haemolysis was observed when transient warming occurred during the second part of the storage period of 6 weeks suggesting that RBCs are more vulnerable to warming by the end of storage. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. The contribution of skin blood flow in warming the skin after the application of local heat; the duality of the Pennes heat equation.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Paluso, Dominic; Anderson, Devyn; Swan, Kristin; Yim, Jong Eun; Murugesan, Vengatesh; Chindam, Tirupathi; Goraksh, Neha; Alshammari, Faris; Lee, Haneul; Trivedi, Moxi; Hudlikar, Akshay N; Katrak, Vahishta

    2011-04-01

    As predicted by the Pennes equation, skin blood flow is a major contributor to the removal of heat from an external heat source. This protects the skin from erythema and burns. But, for a person in a thermally neutral room, the skin is normally much cooler than arterial blood. Therefore, if skin blood flow (BF) increases, it should initially warm the skin paradoxically. To examine this phenomenon, 10 young male and female subjects participated in a series of experiments to examine the contribution of skin blood flow in the initial warming the skin after the application of local heat. Heat flow was measured by the use of a thermode above the brachioradialis muscle. The thermode was warmed by constant temperature water at 44°C entering the thermode at a water flow rate of 100 cm(3)/min. Skin temperature was measured by a thermistor and blood flow in the underlying skin was measured by a laser Doppler imager in single point mode. The results of the experiments showed that, when skin temperature is cool (31-32°C), the number of calories being transferred to the skin from the thermode cannot account for the rise in skin temperature alone. A significant portion of the rise in skin temperature is due to the warm arterialized blood traversing the skin from the core areas of the body. However, as skin temperature approaches central core temperature, it becomes less of a heat source and more of a heat sync such that when skin temperature is at or above core temperature, the blood flow to the skin, as predicted by Pennes, becomes a heat sync pulling heat from the thermode. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Allowable warm ischemic time and morphological and biochemical changes in uterine ischemia/reperfusion injury in cynomolgus macaque: a basic study for uterus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kisu, Iori; Umene, Kiyoko; Adachi, Masataka; Emoto, Katsura; Nogami, Yuya; Banno, Kouji; Itagaki, Iori; Kawamoto, Ikuo; Nakagawa, Takahiro; Narita, Hayato; Yoshida, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Aoki, Daisuke

    2017-10-01

    How long is the allowable warm ischemic time of the uterus and what morphological and biochemical changes are caused by uterine ischemia/reperfusion injury in cynomolgus macaques? Warm ischemia in the uterus of cynomolgus macaques is tolerated for up to 4 h and reperfusion after uterine ischemia caused no further morphological and biochemical changes. Uterus transplantation is a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility. The allowable warm ischemic time and ischemia/reperfusion injury of the uterus in humans and non-human primates is unknown. This experimental study included 18 female cynomolgus macaques with periodic menstruation. Animals were divided into six groups of three monkeys each: a control group and groups with uterine ischemia for 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h. Biopsies of uterine tissues were performed before blood flow blockage, after each blockage time, and after reperfusion for 3 h. Blood sampling was performed after each blockage time, and after reperfusion for 5, 15 and 30 min for measurement of biochemical data. Resumption of menstruation was monitored after the surgical procedure. Morphological, physiological and biochemical changes after ischemia and reperfusion were evaluated. Mild muscle degeneration and zonal degeneration were observed in all animals subjected to warm ischemia for 4 or 8 h, but there were no marked differences in the appearance of specimens immediately after ischemia and after reperfusion for 3 h in animals subjected to 4 or 8 h of warm ischemia. There were no significant changes in any biochemical parameters at any time point in each group. Periodical menstruation resumed in all animals with warm ischemia up to 4 h, but did not recover in animals with warm ischemia for 8 h with atrophic uteri. Warm ischemia in actual transplantation was not exactly mimicked in this study because uteri were not perfused, cooled, transplanted or reanastomosed with vessels. Results in non-human primates cannot always be extrapolated to

  7. To what extent is water responsible for the maintenance of the life for warm-blooded organisms?

    PubMed

    Fisenko, Anatoliy I; Malomuzh, Nikolay P

    2009-05-22

    In this work, attention is mainly focused on those properties of water which are essentially changed in the physiological temperature range of warm-blooded organisms. Studying in detail the half-width of the diffusion peak in the quasi-elastic incoherent neutron scattering, the behavior of the entropy and the kinematic shear viscosity, it is shown that the character of the translational and rotational thermal motions in water radically change near T(H) ~ 315 K, which can be interpreted as the temperature of the smeared dynamic phase transition. These results for bulk pure water are completed by the analysis of the isothermic compressibility and the NMR-spectra for water-glycerol solutions. It was noted that the non-monotone temperature dependence of the isothermic compressibility (beta(T)) takes also place for the water-glycerol solutions until the concentration of glycerol does not exceed 30 mol%. At that, the minimum of beta(T) shifts at left when the concentration increases. All these facts give us some reasons to assume that the properties of the intracellular and extracellular fluids are close to ones for pure water. Namely therefore, we suppose that the upper temperature limit for the life of warm-blooded organisms [T(D) = (315 +/- 3) K] is tightly connected with the temperature of the dynamic phase transition in water. This supposition is equivalent to the assertion that the denaturation of proteins at T > or = T(H) is mainly provoked by the rebuilding of the H-bond network in the intracellular and extracellular fluids, which takes place at T > or = T(H). A question why the heavy water cannot be a matrix for the intracellular and extracellular fluids is considered. The lower physiological pH limit for the life of warm-blooded organisms is discussed.

  8. 'Doing good by proxy': human-animal kinship and the 'donation' of canine blood.

    PubMed

    Ashall, Vanessa; Hobson-West, Pru

    2017-07-01

    This article demonstrates the relevance of animals to medical sociology by arguing that pet owners' accounts of veterinary decision-making can highlight key sociological themes which are important to both human and animal health. Based on semi-structured interviews, the article argues that interspecies 'kinship' allows for the extension of sociological claims regarding altruism, self-interest and mutuality from human blood donation to companion animal blood 'donation'. Furthermore, this study extends sociological understanding of the human-animal bond by showing how the dog's status as kin meant they were expected to donate blood, and that the act of donation itself represents an important opportunity for family 'display'. However, owners who do not or cannot donate blood themselves describe pet blood donation as an opportunity to lessen associated feelings of guilt or obligation through 'doing good by proxy'. These findings raise critical sociological and ethical questions concerning the risks and benefits of donation, and for how we understand third-party decision making. Finally, the article argues for the close entanglement of human and animal health, and concludes that sociologists of health and medicine should explore the radical possibility that decision-making in healthcare more generally might be influenced by experiences at the veterinary clinic, and vice versa. (A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC_979cmCmR9rLrKuD7z0ycA). © 2017 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  9. Animal health aspects of adaptation to climate change: beating the heat and parasites in a warming Europe.

    PubMed

    Skuce, P J; Morgan, E R; van Dijk, J; Mitchell, M

    2013-06-01

    Weather patterns in northern European regions have changed noticeably over the past several decades, featuring warmer, wetter weather with more extreme events. The climate is projected to continue on this trajectory for the foreseeable future, even under the most modest warming scenarios. Such changes will have a significant impact on livestock farming, both directly through effects on the animals themselves, and indirectly through changing exposure to pests and pathogens. Adaptation options aimed at taking advantage of new opportunities and/or minimising the risks of negative impacts will, in themselves, have implications for animal health and welfare. In this review, we consider the potential consequences of future intensification of animal production, challenges associated with indoor and outdoor rearing of animals and aspects of animal transportation as key examples. We investigate the direct and indirect effects of climate change on the epidemiology of important livestock pathogens, with a particular focus on parasitic infections, and the likely animal health consequences associated with selected adaptation options. Finally, we attempt to identify key gaps in our knowledge and suggest future research priorities.

  10. Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in cold-blooded animals, are frequently subcutaneous or cerebral, and bear much similarity to human primary disorders. Infections of the nervous system are mostly fatal, and the source and route of infection are currently unknown. A third epidemiological situation corresponds to pseudoepidemics, i.e., infection of a large host population due to a common source. It is often observed and generally hypothesized that the susceptible animals are under stress, e.g., due to poor housing conditions of mammals or to a change of basins in the case of fishes. The descriptions in this article represent an overview of the more commonly reported and recurring black fungi and the corresponding diseases in different types of animals. PMID:23297257

  11. [Warming acupuncture combined with conventional acupuncture for diabetic peripheral neuropathy with syndrome of yang deficiency and cold coagulation, obstruction of collaterals and blood stasis].

    PubMed

    Ma, Guoqing; Ye, Ting; Sun, Zhongren

    2018-03-12

    To compare the clinical efficacy differences between warming acupuncture and conventional acupuncture for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) with syndrome of yang deficiency and cold coagulation, obstruction of collaterals and blood stasis. A total of 64 patients were randomly divided into a warming acupuncture group and a conventional acupuncture group, 32 cases in each one. Based on basic treatment of blood glucose regulation, warming acupuncture was applied at Pishu (BL 20), Shenshu (BL 23), Guanyuanshu (BL 26), Zusanli (ST 36), Chongyang (ST 42), Quchi (LI 11) and Hegu (LI 4) in the warming acupuncture group, while acupuncture was applied at the identical acupoints in the conventional acupuncture group. Both the treatments were given once a day with an interval of one day every six days; totally the treatment was given for 4 weeks. The TCM symptom score, Toronto clinical scoring system (TCSS) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) before and after treatment were compared in the two groups. After treatment, the TCM symptom scores in the two groups were significantly reduced (both P <0.01); the improvement of TCM symptom in the warming acupuncture group was superior to that in the conventional acupuncture group ( P <0.05). After treatment, the TCSS scores in the two groups were significantly reduced (both P <0.01); the TCSS score in the warming acupuncture group was significantly lower than that in the conventional acupuncture group ( P <0.05). After treatment, the NCV of motor nerve of tibial nerve and nervus peroneus communis, as well as sensory nerve of tibial nerve and sural nerve was improved in the warming acupuncture group (all P <0.05), while only the NCV of motor nerve and sensory nerve of tibial nerve was improved in the conventional acupuncture group (both P <0.05); there were no significant difference between the two groups (all P >0.05). Warming acupuncture and conventional acupuncture could both increase TCM symptom score, improve NCV in patients of

  12. Warm-up: A Psychophysiological Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Richard; Dausman, Cindy

    1981-01-01

    The effectiveness of warm-up as an aid to athletic performance is related to an interaction of both psychological and physiological factors. Benefits of warm-up include an increase in blood and muscle temperatures and an increased muscular endurance. (JN)

  13. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. Dried blood or blood meal, lungs or other organs, tankage, meat meal, wool waste, wool manure, and...

  14. Differences in iron concentration in whole blood of animal models using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahovschi, V.; Zamboni, C. B.; Lopes Silva, L. F. F.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA) was applied to determine Fe concentration in whole blood samples of several animal models such as: mice (Mus musculus), Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Wistar rats, Albinic Rabbits of New Zealand, Golden Retriever dogs and Crioulabreed horses. These results were compared with human whole blood estimation to check their similarities.

  15. Exploring the pattern of blood donor beliefs in first-time, novice, and experienced donors: differentiating reluctant altruism, pure altruism, impure altruism, and warm glow.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Atsma, Femke; de Kort, Wim; Veldhuizen, Ingrid

    2012-02-01

    Using constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior and theories of altruism, this article explores how multiple motivations and beliefs for blood donation are clustered and change across the donor career. In so doing important distinctions, for blood donation, between impure altruism, pure altruism, and warm glow are explored. Measures of intentions, cognitive and affective attitudes, role merger, pure altruism, trust, self-efficacy, subjective and moral norms, and habit formation were assessed in a sample of 12,580 whole blood donors. Analyses showed that a distinction between first-time, novice (one to four donations), and experienced donors (five or more donations) is justified. Principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analytic Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Causal models were used to compare models across these groups. A cognition-behavior (CB) factor, including intentions, was common to all groups. First-time and novice donors were marked by a newly identified motivational factor: "reluctant altruism" (i.e., the motivation to donate because of a lack of trust in others). First-time donors exhibited an impure altruism factor whereas for experienced donors warm glow and pure altruism factors were observed. For first-time donors impure altruism and reluctant altruism were both associated with the CB factor in females and impure altruism only in males. For both sexes reluctant altruism was associated of the CB factor in novice donors and warm glow and pure altruism for experienced donors. New avenues for intervention are suggested by the emergence of reluctant altruism for novice donors and warm glow for experienced donors. The importance of distinguishing aspects of altruism is highlighted. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Optical coherence tomography technique for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: phantom, animal, and human studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Larina, Irina V.; Petrova, Irina Y.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-06-01

    Continuous noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration can improve management of Diabetes Mellitus, reduce mortality, and considerably improve quality of life of diabetic patients. Recently, we proposed to use the OCT technique for noninvasive glucose monitoring. In this paper, we tested noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the OCT technique in phantoms, animals, and human subjects. An OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. Phantom studies performed on aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk showed 3.2% decrease of exponential slope of OCT signals when glucose concentration increased from 0 to 100 mM. Theoretical calculations based on the Mie theory of scattering support the results obtained in phantoms. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping experiments were performed in animals (New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs). Good correlation between changes in the OCT signal slope and actual blood glucose concentration were observed in these experiments. First studies were performed in healthy human subjects (using oral glucose tolerance tests). Dependence of the slope of the OCT signals on the actual blood glucose concentration was similar to that obtained in animal studies. Our studies suggest that the OCT technique can potentially be used for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring.

  17. Detection of carotenoids present in blood of various animal species using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaqat, Maryam; Younus, Ayesha; Saleem, Muhammad; Rashid, Imaad; Yaseen, Maria; Jabeen, Saher

    Raman spectroscopy is simple stable powerful diagnostic tool for body fluids, tissues and other biomolecules. Human blood possesses different kind of carotenoids that play a key role for protecting the cells from damaging by different viral and bacterial diseases. Carotenoids are antioxidative components which are capable to overcome the attack of different free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids are not prepared by human body, therefore it is recommended to eat carotenoids enrich vegetable foods. No standard data is available on the concentration of useful carotenoids component in non-vegetable consumed items. In present research work, Raman spectroscopy is used to compare various blood components like plasma, serum, carotenoids present in blood of different animal species like goat, sheep, cow and buffalo consumed by human. Especially beta carotene is investigated. The Raman shift ranges from 600-1700 cm-1 for samples. Different characteristic peaks of the blood components are found which are not characterized before in animal samples. Doctrate Student in Photonics Deparatment of Electrical Engineering.

  18. Warm blood cardioplegia versus cold crystalloid cardioplegia for myocardial protection during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Paolo; Pisano, Calogera; Bertoldo, Fabio; Vacirca, Sara R; Saitto, Guglielmo; Costantino, Antonino; Bovio, Emanuele; Pellegrino, Antonio; Ruvolo, Giovanni

    2018-12-01

    We retrospectively analyzed early results of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery using two different types of cardioplegia for myocardial protection: antegrade intermittent warm blood or cold crystalloid cardioplegia. From January 2015 to October 2016, 330 consecutive patients underwent isolated on-pump CABG. Cardiac arrest was obtained with use of warm blood cardioplegia (WBC group, n  = 297) or cold crystalloid cardioplegia (CCC group, n  = 33), according to the choice of the surgeon. Euroscore II and preoperative characteristics were similar in both groups, except for the creatinine clearance, slightly lower in WBC group (77.33 ± 27.86 mL/min versus 88.77 ± 51.02 mL/min) ( P  < 0.05). Complete revascularization was achieved in both groups. In-hospital mortality was 2.0% ( n  = 6) in WBC group, absent in CCC group. The required mean number of cardioplegia's doses per patient was higher in WBC group (2.3 ± 0.8) versus CCC group (2.0 ± 0.7) ( P  = 0.045), despite a lower number of distal coronary artery anastomoses (2.7 ± 0.8 versus 3.2 ± 0.9) ( P  = 0.0001). Cardiopulmonary and aortic cross-clamp times were similar in both groups. The incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction (WBC group 3.4% versus CCC group 3.0%) and low cardiac output syndrome (4.4% versus 3.0%) were similar in both groups. As compared with WBC group, in CCC group CK-MB/CK ratio >10% was lower during each time points of evaluation, with a statistical significant difference at time 0 (4% ± 1.6% versus 5% ± 2.5%) ( P  = 0.021). In presence of complete revascularization, despite the value of CK-MB/CK ratio >10% was less in the CCC group, clinical results were not affected by both types of cardioplegia adopted to myocardial protection. As compared with cold crystalloid, warm blood cardioplegia requires a shorter interval of administration to achieve better myocardial protection.

  19. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.14 Blood meal.... Dried blood or blood meal, lungs or other organs, tankage, meat meal, wool waste, wool manure, and...

  20. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.14 Blood meal.... Dried blood or blood meal, lungs or other organs, tankage, meat meal, wool waste, wool manure, and...

  1. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.14 Blood meal.... Dried blood or blood meal, lungs or other organs, tankage, meat meal, wool waste, wool manure, and...

  2. Blood glucose regulation mechanism in depressive disorder animal model during hyperglycemic states.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Min; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-06-01

    Depression is more common among diabetes people than in the general population. In the present study, blood glucose change in depression animal model was characterized by various types of hyperglycemia models such as d-glucose-fed-, immobilization stress-, and drug-induced hyperglycemia models. First, the ICR mice were enforced into chronic restraint stress for 2h daily for 2 weeks to produce depression animal model. The animals were fed with d-glucose (2g/kg), forced into restraint stress for 30min, or administered with clonidine (5μg/5μl) supraspinally or spinally to produce hyperglycemia. The blood glucose level in depression group was down-regulated compared to that observed in the normal group in d-glucose-fed-, restraint stress-, and clonidine-induced hyperglycemia models. The up-regulated corticosterone level induced by d-glucose feeding or restraint stress was reduced in the depression group while the up-regulation of plasma corticosterone level is further elevated after i.t. or i.c.v. clonidine administration in the depression group. The up-regulated insulin level induced by d-glucose feeding or restraint stress was reduced in the depression group. On the other hand, blood corticosterone level in depression group was up-regulated compared to the normal group after i.t. or i.c.v. clonidine administration. Whereas the insulin level in depression group was not altered when mice were administered clonidine i.t. or i.c.v. Our results suggest that the blood glucose level in depression group is down-regulated compared to the normal group during d-glucose-fed-, immobilization stress-, and clonidine-induced hyperglycemia in mice. The down-regulation of the blood glucose level might be one of the important pathophysiologic changes in depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple taxon multiple locality approach to providing oxygen isotope evidence for warm-blooded theropod dinosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Henry C.; Rogers, Raymond R.

    2000-09-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of fossil remains of coexisting taxa from several different localities can be used to help investigate dinosaur thermoregulation. Focusing on the Late Cretaceous, oxygen isotope ratios of crocodile tooth enamel from four separate localities exhibit less of a decrease with latitude than do ratios of tooth enamel from coexisting theropod dinosaurs. A shallower latitudinal gradient for crocodiles is consistent with how oxygen isotope ratios should vary for heterothermic animals having body temperatures coupled with their environments (“cold blooded”), while a steeper gradient for theropods is consistent with how these ratios should vary for homeothermic animals having constant body temperatures independent of their environments (“warm blooded”). This inferred homoethermy in theropods is likely due to higher rates of metabolic heat production relative to crocodiles and is not an artifact of body size.

  4. Semiochemicals released from five bacteria identified from animal wounds infested by primary screwworms and their effects on fly behavioral activity.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background The Primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is a serious pest feeding on living flesh of any warm-blooded animal, including humans. It was eradicated from the United States in the early 1980s using the sterile male technique. However, it was recently detected in populations...

  5. Change in permeability of the plasma membrane of blood cells in irradiated animals

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, A.S.; Kobyalko, V.O.; Lazarev, N.M.

    1994-11-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear disaster showed the exposure of the thyroid gland to radioactive iodine is an important factor of radiation damage to animals. Examination of domestic animals showed a marked inhibition of thyroid hormone secretion and changes in red cell membrane permeability for calcium in the absence of marked hematological shifts. At the same time the disturbed thyroid statis is associated with changes in some structural and functional parameters of blood cells. This research on calves shows that radiation damage to the thyroid produces a modifying effect on blood cell membrane permeability for calcium during both the acute and latemore » periods following exposure to 131I. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  6. Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses of adult healthy warm-blooded mares following feeding with Jerusalem artichoke meal.

    PubMed

    Glatter, M; Bochnia, M; Goetz, F; Gottschalk, J; Koeller, G; Mielenz, N; Hillegeist, D; Greef, J M; Einspanier, A; Zeyner, A

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of the supplementation of a pre-biotic compound [Jerusalem artichoke meal (JAM)] on the glycaemic and insulinaemic response in healthy, non-obese warm-blooded horses. Six adult mares [mean body weight (bwt) 529 ± 38.7 kg; body condition score 5.1 ± 0.49/9] were used. In two equal meals per day, the horses received crushed oat grains (1 g starch/kg bwt per day) and meadow hay (2 kg/100 kg bwt per day) which together were likely to meet the energy recommendation for light work (GfE, ). Additionally, they received either 0.15 g fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin (FOS+INU)/kg bwt per day via commercial JAM or maize cob meal without grains as control (CON) in 2 × 3-week periods according to a crossover design. Blood was collected on d21 of the feeding period at different ante- and postprandial (PP) time points (-60, 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min), and the plasma glucose and serum insulin levels were determined. Feeding JAM vs. CON did not change the PP peak of glucose or insulin (glucose: 6.3 ± 0.40 vs. 7.0 ± 0.87 mmol/l; insulin: 0.508 ± 0.087 vs. 0.476 ± 0.082 nmol/l) nor did it cause different AUCs until 120 and 300 min PP for glucose and insulin, respectively (AUC 120 , glucose: 997 ± 41.6 vs. 1015 ± 41.63 mmol/l per minute, insulin: 49 ± 6.3 vs. 42 ± 6.3 nmol/l per minute; AUC 300 , glucose: 1943 ± 142.3 vs. 2115 ± 142.3 mmol/l per minute, insulin: 94 ± 14.8 vs. 106 ± 14.8 nmol/l per minute; p > 0.05). Following JAM vs. CON feeding, glucose and insulin levels declined more rapidly until 240 min PP and tended to be lower (p = 0.053 and p = 0.056, respectively) at this time point. This result might be promising and should further be studied more detailed. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Ocean acidification ameliorates harmful effects of warming in primary consumer.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Hanssen, Anja Elise

    2018-01-01

    Climate change-induced warming and ocean acidification are considered two imminent threats to marine biodiversity and current ecosystem structures. Here, we have for the first time examined an animal's response to a complete life cycle of exposure to co-occurring warming (+3°C) and ocean acidification (+1,600 μatm CO 2 ), using the key subarctic planktonic copepod, Calanus finmarchicus , as a model species. The animals were generally negatively affected by warming, which significantly reduced the females' energy status and reproductive parameters (respectively, 95% and 69%-87% vs. control). Unexpectedly, simultaneous acidification partially offset the negative effect of warming in an antagonistic manner, significantly improving reproductive parameters and hatching success (233%-340% improvement vs. single warming exposure). The results provide proof of concept that ocean acidification may partially offset negative effects caused by warming in some species. Possible explanations and ecological implications for the observed antagonistic effect are discussed.

  8. What happens during vocal warm-up?

    PubMed

    Elliot, N; Sundberg, J; Gramming, P

    1995-03-01

    Most singers prefer to warm up their voices before performing. Although the subjective effect is often considerable, the underlying physiological effects are largely unknown. Because warm-up tends to increase blood flow in muscles, it seems likely that vocal warm-up might induce decreased viscosity in the vocal folds. According to the theory of vocal-fold vibration, such a decrease should lead to a lower phonation threshold pressure. In this investigation the effect of vocal warm-up on the phonation threshold pressure was examined in a group of male and female singers. The effect varied considerably between subjects, presumably because the vocal-fold viscosity was not a dominating factor for the phonation-threshold pressure.

  9. EVIDENCE FOR EFFECTS OF CHRONIC LEAD EXPOSURE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information obtained in a number of experimental studies conducted over the last forty years on the effects of lead on blood pressure is reviewed. Differences in animal species, age at beginning of exposure, level of lead exposure, indices of lead burden, and blood pressure effec...

  10. Weird Warm Spot on Exoplanet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-19

    This frame from an animation based on NASA Spitzer Space Telescope data illustrates an unexpected warm spot on the surface of a gaseous exoplanet.The bright orange patches are the hottest part of the planet.

  11. CT perfusion for determination of pharmacologically mediated blood flow changes in an animal tumor model.

    PubMed

    Hakimé, Antoine; Peddi, Himaja; Hines-Peralta, Andrew U; Wilcox, Carol J; Kruskal, Jonathan; Lin, Shezhang; de Baere, Thierry; Raptopoulos, Vassilios D; Goldberg, S Nahum

    2007-06-01

    To prospectively compare single- and multisection computed tomographic (CT) perfusion for tumor blood flow determination in an animal model. All animal protocols and experiments were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee before the study was initiated. R3230 mammary adenocarcinoma was implanted in 11 rats. Tumors (18-20 mm) were scanned with dynamic 16-section CT at baseline and after administration of arsenic trioxide, which is known to cause acute reduction in blood flow. The concentration of arsenic was titrated (0-6 mg of arsenic per kilogram of body weight) to achieve a defined blood flow reduction (0%-75%) from baseline levels at 60 minutes, as determined with correlative laser Doppler flowmetry. The mean blood flow was calculated for each of four 5-mm sections that covered the entire tumor, as well as for the entire tumor after multiple sections were processed. Measurements obtained with both methods were correlated with laser Doppler flowmetry measurements. Interobserver agreement was determined for two blinded radiologists, who calculated the percentage of blood flow reduction for the "most representative" single sections at baseline and after arsenic administration. These results were compared with the interobserver variability of the same radiologists obtained by summing blood flow changes for the entire tumor volume. Overall correlations for acute blood flow reduction were demonstrated between laser Doppler flowmetry and the two CT perfusion approaches (single-section CT, r=0.85 and r(2)=0.73; multisection CT, r=0.93 and r(2)=0.87; pooled data, P=.01). CT perfusion disclosed marked heterogeneity of blood flow, with variations of 36% +/- 13 between adjacent 5-mm sections. Given these marked differences, interobserver agreement was much lower for single-section CT (standard deviation, 0.22) than for multisection CT (standard deviation, 0.10; P=.01). Multisection CT perfusion techniques may provide an accurate and more reproducible

  12. [Correlations between functional activity of animal blood lymphocytes and change in solar activity].

    PubMed

    Karnaukhova, N A; Sergievich, L A

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that increase of Solar activity as measurement of the intensity of solar radio emissions at frequency of 2804 MHz leads to the reducing of the functional activity of immunocompetent cells in animal blood defining by parameter alpha.

  13. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and... controlled risk or undetermined risk for BSE of processed animal protein derived from animals other than... protein derived from animals other than ruminants is prohibited importation into the United States unless...

  14. Large animal evaluation of riboflavin and ultraviolet light-treated whole blood transfusion in a diffuse, nonsurgical bleeding porcine model.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Obi T; Reddy, Heather; Wong, Monica D; Doane, Suzann; Resnick, Shelby; Karamanos, Efstathios; Skiada, Dimitra; Goodrich, Raymond; Inaba, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    The Mirasol system has been demonstrated to effectively inactivate white blood cells (WBCs) and reduce pathogens in whole blood in vitro. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of Mirasol-treated fresh whole blood (FWB) to untreated FWB in an in vivo model of surgical bleeding. A total of 18 anesthetized pigs (40 kg) underwent a 35% total blood volume bleed, cooling to 33°C, and a standardized liver injury. Animals were then randomly assigned to resuscitation with either Mirasol-treated or untreated FWB, and intraoperative blood loss was measured. After abdominal closure, the animals were observed for 14 days, after which the animals were euthanized and tissues were obtained for histopathologic examination. Mortality, tissue near-infrared spectroscopy, red blood cell (RBC) variables, platelets (PLTs), WBCs, and coagulation indices were analyzed. Total intraoperative blood loss was similar in test and control arms (8.3 ± 3.2 mL/kg vs. 7.7 ± 3.9 mL/kg, p = 0.720). All animals survived to Day 14. Trended values over time did not show significant differences-tissue oxygenation (p = 0.605), hemoglobin (p = 0.461), PLTs (p = 0.807), WBCs (p = 0.435), prothrombin time (p = 0.655), activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.416), thromboelastography (TEG)-reaction time (p = 0.265), or TEG-clot formation time (p = 0.081). Histopathology did not show significant differences between arms. Mirasol-treated FWB did not impact survival, blood loss, tissue oxygen delivery, RBC indices, or coagulation variables in a standardized liver injury model. These data suggest that Mirasol-treated FWB is both safe and efficacious in vivo. © 2015 AABB.

  15. Thyroid storm and warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joseph A; Gliga, Louise; Nagalla, Srikanth

    2017-08-01

    Graves' disease is often associated with other autoimmune disorders, including rare associations with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). We describe a unique presentation of thyroid storm and warm AIHA diagnosed concurrently in a young female with hyperthyroidism. The patient presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and altered mental status. Laboratory studies revealed hemoglobin 3.9g/dL, platelets 171×10 9 L -1 , haptoglobin <5mg/dL, reticulocytosis, and positive direct antiglobulin test (IgG, C3d, warm). Additional workup revealed serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) <0.01μIU/mL and serum free-T4 (FT4) level 7.8ng/dL. Our patient was diagnosed with concurrent thyroid storm and warm AIHA. She was started on glucocorticoids to treat both warm AIHA and thyroid storm, as well as antithyroid medications, propranolol and folic acid. Due to profound anemia and hemodynamic instability, the patient was transfused two units of uncrossmatched packed red blood cells slowly and tolerated this well. She was discharged on methimazole as well as a prolonged prednisone taper, and achieved complete resolution of the thyrotoxicosis and anemia at one month. Hyperthyroidism can affect all three blood cell lineages of the hematopoietic system. Anemia can be seen in 10-20% of patients with thyrotoxicosis. Several autoimmune processes can lead to anemia in Graves' disease, including pernicious anemia, celiac disease, and warm AIHA. This case illustrates a rarely described presentation of a patient with Graves' disease presenting with concurrent thyroid storm and warm AIHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Warm-Ups: The Key to the Beginning of a Great Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Alisa R.; Collier, Douglas H.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, traditional pre-lesson warm-ups in physical education have consisted of callisthenic exercises such as jumping jacks, pushups, sit-ups, and running laps, as well as static stretching activities. These warm-ups are used to increase core body temperature and to assist blood flow to the working muscles. Although the traditional warm-up…

  17. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

    2012-04-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the

  19. Rationale for Implementation of Warm Cardiac Surgery in Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Durandy, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac surgery was developed thanks to the introduction of hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass in the early 1950s. The deep hypothermia protective effect has been essential to circulatory arrest complex cases repair. During the early times of open-heart surgery, a major concern was to decrease mortality and to improve short-term outcomes. Both mortality and morbidity dramatically decreased over a few decades. As a consequence, the drawbacks of deep hypothermia, with or without circulatory arrest, became more and more apparent. The limitation of hypothermia was particularly evident for the brain and regional perfusion was introduced as a response to this problem. Despite a gain in popularity, the results of regional perfusion were not fully convincing. In the 1990s, warm surgery was introduced in adults and proved to be safe and reliable. This option eliminates the deleterious effect of ischemia–reperfusion injuries through a continuous, systemic coronary perfusion with warm oxygenated blood. Intermittent warm blood cardioplegia was introduced later, with impressive results. We were convinced by the easiness, safety, and efficiency of warm surgery and shifted to warm pediatric surgery in a two-step program. This article outlines the limitations of hypothermic protection and the basic reasons that led us to implement pediatric warm surgery. After tens of thousands of cases performed across several centers, this reproducible technique proved a valuable alternative to hypothermic surgery. PMID:27200324

  20. Rationale for Implementation of Warm Cardiac Surgery in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Durandy, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac surgery was developed thanks to the introduction of hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass in the early 1950s. The deep hypothermia protective effect has been essential to circulatory arrest complex cases repair. During the early times of open-heart surgery, a major concern was to decrease mortality and to improve short-term outcomes. Both mortality and morbidity dramatically decreased over a few decades. As a consequence, the drawbacks of deep hypothermia, with or without circulatory arrest, became more and more apparent. The limitation of hypothermia was particularly evident for the brain and regional perfusion was introduced as a response to this problem. Despite a gain in popularity, the results of regional perfusion were not fully convincing. In the 1990s, warm surgery was introduced in adults and proved to be safe and reliable. This option eliminates the deleterious effect of ischemia-reperfusion injuries through a continuous, systemic coronary perfusion with warm oxygenated blood. Intermittent warm blood cardioplegia was introduced later, with impressive results. We were convinced by the easiness, safety, and efficiency of warm surgery and shifted to warm pediatric surgery in a two-step program. This article outlines the limitations of hypothermic protection and the basic reasons that led us to implement pediatric warm surgery. After tens of thousands of cases performed across several centers, this reproducible technique proved a valuable alternative to hypothermic surgery.

  1. Population sensitivities of animals to chronic ionizing radiation-model predictions from mice to elephant.

    PubMed

    Sazykina, Tatiana G

    2018-02-01

    Model predictions of population response to chronic ionizing radiation (endpoint 'morbidity') were made for 11 species of warm-blooded animals, differing in body mass and lifespan - from mice to elephant. Predictions were made also for 3 bird species (duck, pigeon, and house sparrow). Calculations were based on analytical solutions of the mathematical model, simulating a population response to low-LET ionizing radiation in an ecosystem with a limiting resource (Sazykina, Kryshev, 2016). Model parameters for different species were taken from biological and radioecological databases; allometric relationships were employed for estimating some parameter values. As a threshold of decreased health status in exposed populations ('health threshold'), a 10% reduction in self-repairing capacity of organisms was suggested, associated with a decline in ability to sustain environmental stresses. Results of the modeling demonstrate a general increase of population vulnerability to ionizing radiation in animal species of larger size and longevity. Populations of small widespread species (mice, house sparrow; body mass 20-50 g), which are characterized by intensive metabolism and short lifespan, have calculated 'health thresholds' at dose rates about 6.5-7.5 mGy day -1 . Widespread animals with body mass 200-500 g (rat, common pigeon) - demonstrate 'health threshold' values at 4-5 mGy day -1 . For populations of animals with body mass 2-5 kg (rabbit, fox, raccoon), the indicators of 10% health decrease are in the range 2-3.4 mGy day -1 . For animals with body mass 40-100 kg (wolf, sheep, wild boar), thresholds are within 0.5-0.8 mGy day -1 ; for herbivorous animals with body mass 200-300 kg (deer, horse) - 0.5-0.6 mGy day -1 . The lowest health threshold was estimated for elephant (body mass around 5000 kg) - 0.1 mGy day -1 . According to the model results, the differences in population sensitivities of warm-blooded animal species to ionizing radiation are generally

  2. Red blood cell deformability and aggregation behaviour in different animal species.

    PubMed

    Plasenzotti, R; Stoiber, B; Posch, M; Windberger, U

    2004-01-01

    Comparative animal studies showed the wide variation of whole blood and plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte aggregation among mammalian species. Whole blood viscosity and red blood cell aggregation is influenced by red cell fluidity. To evaluate differences in erythrocyte deformability in mammals, three species were investigated, whose erythrocytes have a different aggregation property: horse, as a species with high, dog with medium, and sheep with almost unmeasurable aggregation tendency. Erythrocyte deformability was tested ektacytometrically (Elongation Index [EI], LORCA, Mechatronics, Hoorn, Netherlands) at shear stresses from 0.30 to 53.06 Pa. Equine erythrocytes showed EI-values from 0.047 at low shear stress to 0.541 at high shear stress. The EI from dog's erythrocytes ranged from 0.035 to 0.595. Sheep's erythrocytes had an EI of 0.005 at low and 0.400 at high shear stress. Although it might be presumed from the aggregation property that horse had the highest EI among the three species, the EI of canine erythrocytes exceeded the value in horses by 10% at high shear stress. Further, equine erythrocytes started to deform at higher shear stresses (1.69 Pa) than did canine and ovine cells, whose EI increased continuously with increasing shear stress. At moderate shear stress (1-5 Pa) deformability was even higher in the sheep than in the horse. However, at shear stresses higher than 5.34 Pa, equine red cell elongation clearly exceeded the values of sheep. We conclude that erythrocyte elongation is different between the animal species, not clearly linked with the aggregation property, and that the degree of deformability at various shear stresses is species-specific.

  3. Effect of cholera toxin administered supraspinally or spinally on the blood glucose level in pain and d-glucose fed animal models.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Choi, Seong-Soo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, the effect of intrathecal (i.t.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration with cholera toxin (CTX) on the blood glucose level was examined in ICR mice. The i.t. treatment with CTX alone for 24 h dose-dependently increased the blood glucose level. However, i.c.v. treatment with CTX for 24 h did not affect the blood glucose level. When mice were orally fed with D-glucose (2 g/kg), the blood glucose level reached to a maximum level at 30 min and almost returned to the control level at 120 min after D-glucose feeding. I.c.v. pretreatment with CTX increased the blood glucose level in a potentiative manner, whereas i.t. pretreatment with CTX increased the blood glucose level in an additive manner in a D-glucose fed group. In addition, the blood glucose level was increased in formalin-induced pain animal model. I.c.v. pretreatment with CTX enhanced the blood glucose level in a potentiative manner in formalin-induced pain animal model. On the other hand, i.t. pretreatment with CTX increased the blood glucose level in an additive manner in formalin-induced pain animal model. Our results suggest that CTX administered supraspinally or spinally differentially modulates the regulation of the blood glucose level in D-glucose fed model as well as in formalin-induced pain model.

  4. Warm-up and performance in competitive swimming.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marinho, Daniel A

    2014-03-01

    Warm-up before physical activity is commonly accepted to be fundamental, and any priming practices are usually thought to optimize performance. However, specifically in swimming, studies on the effects of warm-up are scarce, which may be due to the swimming pool environment, which has a high temperature and humidity, and to the complexity of warm-up procedures. The purpose of this study is to review and summarize the different studies on how warming up affects swimming performance, and to develop recommendations for improving the efficiency of warm-up before competition. Most of the main proposed effects of warm-up, such as elevated core and muscular temperatures, increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to muscle cells and higher efficiency of muscle contractions, support the hypothesis that warm-up enhances performance. However, while many researchers have reported improvements in performance after warm-up, others have found no benefits to warm-up. This lack of consensus emphasizes the need to evaluate the real effects of warm-up and optimize its design. Little is known about the effectiveness of warm-up in competitive swimming, and the variety of warm-up methods and swimming events studied makes it difficult to compare the published conclusions about the role of warm-up in swimming. Recent findings have shown that warm-up has a positive effect on the swimmer's performance, especially for distances greater than 200 m. We recommend that swimmers warm-up for a relatively moderate distance (between 1,000 and 1,500 m) with a proper intensity (a brief approach to race pace velocity) and recovery time sufficient to prevent the early onset of fatigue and to allow the restoration of energy reserves (8-20 min).

  5. Detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Machado, Gustavo Puglia; Cruvinel, Tatiane Morosini de Andrade; Cruvinel, Ciro Alexandre; Langoni, Helio

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, that affects all warm-blooded animals, including wild animals. The increased number of cases of parasitic infections is mainly due to the destruction of environmental conservation areas, which is driving wild animals out of their habitats and towards urban areas. In this study, the occurrence of T. gondii infection was investigated by the modified agglutination test (MAT) in 26 different species of run over and injured wild animals that were treated at a Brazilian university veterinary hospital, from June 2007 to August 2008. Of the studied animals, six (23.1%; CI95% 11.1-42.2%) had T. gondii antibodies, with titers equal to 10 (4; 66.7%) and 40 (2; 33.3%). The species Pseudalopex vetulus, Cerdocyon thous, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and Tapyrus terrestris had titers of 10, while Alouatta caraya and Puma concolor had titers of 40. There was no significant association regarding age, gender or purpose of care (p > 0.05). Carnivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous wild animals are potential sentinels of human toxoplasmosis, especially when wild felids are present, maintaining the environmental contamination.

  6. Estimation of concentration of radionuclides in skeletal muscle from blood, based on the data from abandoned animals in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tomokazu

    2018-06-01

    The damage caused by the earthquake on 11 March, 2011 resulted in a serious nuclear accident in Japan. Due to the damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment. In particular, one of the largest safety concerns is radioactive cesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs). Due to the FNPP nuclear accident, a 20 km area was restricted from human activity, and various types of domestic animals were left in the zone. We collected the organs and tissues from sacrificed animals to obtain scientific data to evaluate the internal deposition of radioactive compounds. At first, we found there is a strong correlation between blood 137 Cs and organ 137 Cs with data from 44 cattle, indicating that skeletal muscle is the target organ of deposition of radioactive cesium. Second, we analyzed the relationship between blood 137 Cs and muscle 137 Cs within relatively lower radioactive concentration, suggesting that estimation of concentration of 137 Cs is possible from blood concentration of 137 Cs. Finally, we developed computer software to estimate the muscle 137 Cs concentration from blood samples. Our study contributes to the food safety of livestock products. © 2018 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Cold crystalloid versus warm blood cardioplegia in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Paolo; Vacirca, Sara R; Russo, Marco; Colella, Dionisio F; Bassano, Carlo; Scafuri, Antonio; Pellegrino, Antonio; Melino, Gerry; Ruvolo, Giovanni

    2018-03-01

    Myocardial protection techniques during cardiac arrest have been extensively investigated in the clinical setting of coronary revascularization. Fewer studies have been carried out of patients affected by left ventricular hypertrophy, where the choice of type and temperature of cardioplegia remain controversial. We have retrospectively investigated myocardial injury and short-term outcome in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement plus or minus coronary artery bypass grafting with using cold crystalloid cardioplegia (CCC) or warm blood cardioplegia (WBC). From January 2015 to October 2016, 191 consecutive patients underwent aortic valve replacement plus or minus coronary artery bypass grafting in normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Cardiac arrest was obtained with use of intermittent antegrade CCC group (n=32) or WBC group (n=159), according with the choice of the surgeon. As compared with WBC group, in CCC group creatine-kinase-MB (CK-MB), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) release, and their peak levels, were lower during each time points of evaluation, with the greater statistically significant difference at time 0 (P<0.05, for all comparisons). A time 0, CK-MB/CK ratio >10% was 5.9% in CCC group versus 7.8% in WBC group (P<0.0001). At time 0 CK-MB/CK ratio >10% in patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement was 6.0% in CCC group versus 8.0% in WBC group (P<0.01). No any difference was found in perioperative myocardial infarction (0% versus 3.8%), postoperative (PO) major complications (15.6% versus 16.4%), in-hospital mortality (3.1% versus 1.3%). In aortic valve surgery a significant decrease of myocardial enzymes release is observed in favor of CCC, but this difference does not translate into different clinical outcome. However, this study suggests that in presence of cardiac surgical conditions associated with significant left ventricular hypertrophy, i.e., the aortic valve disease, a better myocardial protection can

  8. Novel method to leukoreduce murine blood for transfusion: how to reduce animal usage.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dania; Büssow, Julian; Meybohm, Patrick; Zacharowski, Kai; Jennewein, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Basic research on the pathomechanisms of transfusion-related adverse events depends on murine transfusion models, in which leukoreduction (LR) is a prevalent standard. The commonly used neonatal LR filter (LRF) is associated with considerable animal numbers. A more efficient method would help support the guiding principles of "replacement, reduction, refinement" (3Rs). Blood from C57BL/6 and C57BL/6-Tg(UBC-GFP)30Scha/J mice was leukoreduced using (1) a neonatal LRF, (2) a syringe LRF, or (3) CD45 microbeads. Product quality was assessed according to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards. White blood cell numbers were analyzed by flow cytometry; hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit were measured and in vivo posttransfusion recoveries were determined after 2 weeks of storage. Using the neonatal filter, a LR of 99.56% was achieved with wastage of 12.4 mL in comparison to 99.68% and 1-mL hold-up volume with the syringe filter and 99.11 ± 0.24% LR and 0.1-mL wastage using microbeads. All techniques achieved FDA quality standards, apart from posttransfusion recovery rate, which was only reached by the microbeads-based technique. LR with CD45 microbeads not only reduces animal usage but also provides a more efficacious method regarding posttransfusion red blood cell recovery and, hence, provides a promising alternative to commonly used methods. © 2015 AABB.

  9. Animal models for studying transport across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Bonate, P L

    1995-01-01

    There are many reasons for wishing to determine the rate of uptake of a drug from blood into brain parenchyma. However, when faced with doing so for the first time, choosing a method can be a formidable task. There are at least 7 methods from which to choose: indicator dilution, brain uptake index, microdialysis, external registration, PET scanning, in situ perfusion, and compartmental modeling. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. Some methods require very little equipment while others require equipment that can cost millions of dollars. Some methods require very little technical experience whereas others require complex surgical manipulation. The mathematics alone for the various methods range from simple algebra to complex integral calculus and differential equations. Like most things in science, as the complexity of the technique increases, so does the quantity of information it provides. This review is meant to serve as a starting point for the researcher who wishes to study transport and uptake across the blood-brain barrier in animal models. An overview of the mathematical theory, as well as an introduction to the techniques, is presented.

  10. Temperature-dependent body size effects determine population responses to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Lindmark, Max; Huss, Magnus; Ohlberger, Jan; Gårdmark, Anna

    2018-02-01

    Current understanding of animal population responses to rising temperatures is based on the assumption that biological rates such as metabolism, which governs fundamental ecological processes, scale independently with body size and temperature, despite empirical evidence for interactive effects. Here, we investigate the consequences of interactive temperature- and size scaling of vital rates for the dynamics of populations experiencing warming using a stage-structured consumer-resource model. We show that interactive scaling alters population and stage-specific responses to rising temperatures, such that warming can induce shifts in population regulation and stage-structure, influence community structure and govern population responses to mortality. Analysing experimental data for 20 fish species, we found size-temperature interactions in intraspecific scaling of metabolic rate to be common. Given the evidence for size-temperature interactions and the ubiquity of size structure in animal populations, we argue that accounting for size-specific temperature effects is pivotal for understanding how warming affects animal populations and communities. © 2017 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Bacteria isolated from companion animals in Japan (2014-2016) by blood culture.

    PubMed

    Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Kurita, Goro; Murata, Yoshiteru; Takahashi, Takashi

    2018-02-24

    We aimed to identify microorganisms isolated by blood culture (BC) from companion animals and to determine antimicrobial resistance of these isolates during 2014-2016 at veterinary laboratory, in comparison with those during 2010-2013, in Japan. Clinical data (animal species, visiting animals/hospitalized animals, and others except for disease type and clinical course including history of antimicrobial agent use) on ill animals at veterinary clinics or hospitals were obtained. We retrospectively analyzed animal-origin BC results extracted from the database in 2014-2016 and those obtained in 2010-2013. BC-positive samples were from most of dogs (n = 174 in 2014-2016 and n = 86 in 2010-2013). Escherichia coli (n = 50, 25.1%) and Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) bacteria (n = 23, 11.6%) were most prevalent in 2014-2016, while the percentages of E. coli (n = 22, 25.3%) and SIG (n = 9, 10.3%) in 2010-2013 were similar to those in 2014-2016. Percentages of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) rate of SIG bacteria isolated in 2014-2016 were 28.0% and 69.6% (vs. 22.7% and 44.4% in 2010-2013), respectively. Fourteen ESBL-producing E. coli in 2014-2016 were isolated from 7 visiting animals and 7 hospitalized ones, whereas the sixteen MRS of SIG were from 7 visiting animals and 9 hospitalized ones. Our observations support the prevalent microorganisms isolated by BC and their antimicrobial resistance patterns for two study periods. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Houqiang; Li, Kun; Zhang, Hui; Gan, Ping; Shahzad, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoxing; Lan, Yanfang; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%), 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%), and 4 of 35 cattle (11%) were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province. © H. Luo et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Houqiang; Li, Kun; Zhang, Hui; Gan, Ping; Shahzad, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoxing; Lan, Yanfang; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%), 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%), and 4 of 35 cattle (11%) were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province. PMID:28224883

  14. The role of disturbed blood flow in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension: lessons from preclinical animal models.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Michael G; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Borgdorff, Marinus A J; Berger, Rolf M F

    2013-07-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive pulmonary vasoproliferative disorder characterized by the development of unique neointimal lesions, including concentric laminar intima fibrosis and plexiform lesions. Although the histomorphology of neointimal lesions is well described, the pathogenesis of PAH and neointimal development is largely unknown. After three decades of PAH pathobiology research the focus has shifted from vasoconstriction towards a mechanism of cancer-like angioproliferation. In this concept the role of disturbed blood flow is seen as an important trigger in the development of vascular remodeling. For instance, in PAH associated with congenital heart disease, increased pulmonary blood flow (i.e., systemic-to-pulmonary shunt) is an essential trigger for the occurrence of neointimal lesions and PAH development. Still, questions remain about the exact role of these blood flow characteristics in disease progression. PAH animal models are important for obtaining insight in new pathobiological processes and therapeutical targets. However, as for any preclinical model the pathophysiological mechanism and clinical course has to be comparable to the human disease that it mimics. This means that animal models mimicking human PAH ideally are characterized by: a hit recognized in human disease (e.g., altered pulmonary blood flow), specific vascular remodeling resembling human neointimal lesions, and disease progression that leads to right ventriclular dysfunction and death. A review that underlines the current knowledge of PAH due to disturbed flow is still lacking. In this review we will summarize the current knowledge obtained from PAH animal models associated with disturbed pulmonary blood flow and address questions for future treatment strategies for PAH.

  15. Blood-feeding Behaviors of Anopheles stephensi But Not Phlebotomus papatasi are Influenced by Actively Warming Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) Under General Anesthesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    response in mosquitoes. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:8026–8029. Davis EE, Sokolove PG. 1975. Temperature responses of antennal receptors of the mosquito, Aedes ...books/NBK54050/ Peterson D, Brown A. 1951. Studies of the responses of the female Aedes mosquito. Part III. The response of Aedes aegypti (L.) to a warm...Hyg 33:1232–1238. Walker ED, Edman JD. 1985. Feeding-site selection and blood-feeding behavior of Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) on rodent

  16. Effects of perfluorohexane vapor on relative blood flow distribution in an animal model of surfactant-depleted lung injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubler, Matthias; Souders, Jennifer E.; Shade, Erin D.; Polissar, Nayak L.; Bleyl, Jorg U.; Hlastala, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that treatment with vaporized perfluorocarbon affects the relative pulmonary blood flow distribution in an animal model of surfactant-depleted acute lung injury. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: A university research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Fourteen New Zealand White rabbits (weighing 3.0-4.5 kg). INTERVENTIONS: The animals were ventilated with an FIO(2) of 1.0 before induction of acute lung injury. Acute lung injury was induced by repeated saline lung lavages. Eight rabbits were randomized to 60 mins of treatment with an inspiratory perfluorohexane vapor concentration of 0.2 in oxygen. To compensate for the reduced FIO(2) during perfluorohexane treatment, FIO(2) was reduced to 0.8 in control animals. Change in relative pulmonary blood flow distribution was assessed by using fluorescent-labeled microspheres. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Microsphere data showed a redistribution of relative pulmonary blood flow attributable to depletion of surfactant. Relative pulmonary blood flow shifted from areas that were initially high-flow to areas that were initially low-flow. During the study period, relative pulmonary blood flow of high-flow areas decreased further in the control group, whereas it increased in the treatment group. This difference was statistically significant between the groups (p =.02) as well as in the treatment group compared with the initial injury (p =.03). Shunt increased in both groups over time (control group, 30% +/- 10% to 63% +/- 20%; treatment group, 37% +/- 20% to 49% +/- 23%), but the changes compared with injury were significantly less in the treatment group (p =.03). CONCLUSION: Short treatment with perfluorohexane vapor partially reversed the shift of relative pulmonary blood flow from high-flow to low-flow areas attributable to surfactant depletion.

  17. Acute vascular effects of carbonated warm water lower leg immersion in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Nagaoka, Ryohei; Mizuno, Takamasa; Kimura, Shohei; Shidahara, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Tomomi; Kudoh, Michinari; Iwamoto, Erika

    2016-12-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity; however, this dysfunction may be ameliorated by several therapies. For example, it has been reported that heat-induced increases in blood flow and shear stress enhance endothelium-mediated vasodilator function. Under these backgrounds, we expect that carbon dioxide (CO 2 )-rich water-induced increase in skin blood flow improves endothelium-mediated vasodilation with less heat stress. To test our hypothesis, we measured flow-mediated dilation (FMD) before and after acute immersion of the lower legs and feet in mild warm (38°C) normal or CO 2 -rich tap water (1000 ppm) for 20 min in 12 subjects. Acute immersion of the lower legs and feet in mild warm CO 2 -rich water increased FMD (P < 0.01) despite the lack of change in this parameter upon mild warm normal water immersion. In addition, FMD was positively correlated with change in skin blood flow regardless of conditions (P < 0.01), indicating that an increase in skin blood flow improves endothelial-mediated vasodilator function. Importantly, the temperature of normal tap water must reach approximately 43°C to achieve the same skin blood flow level as that obtained during mild warm CO 2 -rich water immersion (38°C). These findings suggest that CO 2 -rich water-induced large increases in skin blood flow may improve endothelial-mediated vasodilator function while causing less heat stress. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  18. Acclimation to cold and warm temperatures is associated with differential expression of male carp blood proteins involved in acute phase and stress responses, and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Mariola A; Hliwa, Piotr; Adamek, Mikołaj; Steinhagen, Dieter; Karol, Halina; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2018-05-01

    The environmental temperature affects plasma biochemical indicators, antioxidant status and hematological and immunological parameters in fish. So far, only single blood proteins have been identified in response to temperature changes. The aim of this study was to compare the proteome of carp blood plasma from males acclimated to warm (30 °C) and cold (10 °C) temperatures by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 47 spots were found to be differentially regulated by temperature (>1.2-fold change, p < 0.05): 25 protein spots were more abundant in warm-acclimated males and 22 were enriched in cold-acclimated males. The majority of differentially regulated proteins were associated with acute phase response signalling involved in: i) activation of the complement system (complement C3-H1), ii) neutralization of proteolytic enzymes (inter-alpha inhibitor H3, fetuin, serpinA1, antithrombin, alpha2-macroglobulin), iii) scavenging of free hemoglobin and radicals (haptoglobin, Wap65 kDa), iv) clot-formation (fibrinogen beta and alpha chain, T-kininogen) and v) the host's immune response modulation (ApoA1 and ApoA2). However, quite different sets of these proteins or proteoforms were involved in response to cold and warm temperatures. In addition, cold acclimation seems to be related to the proteins involved in lipid metabolism (apolipoproteins A and 14 kDa) and stress response (corticosteroid binding globulin). We discovered a strongly regulated protein Cap31 upon cold acclimation, which can serve as a potential blood biomarker of cold response in carp. These studies significantly extend our knowledge concerning mechanisms underlying thermal adaptation in poikilotherms. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Alkyl phospholipid antihypertensive agents in method of lowering blood pressure

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Fred L.; Blank, Merle L.; Muirhead, Ernest E.; Leach, deceased, Byron E.; Byers, Lawrence W.

    1988-01-01

    The composition of this invention is 1-O-alkyl-2-acetoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, having the ionic structural formula; ##STR1## wherein R is saturated alkyl having 9-21 carbon atoms, or salts or hydrates of the composition. Preferably R has 13-19 carbon atoms and most preferably R has 15 carbon atoms. The composition of this invention is useful for reducing hypertension in warm-blooded animals, including humans, when administered either orally or by injection or innoculation, e.g., intravenous injection. The composition can be prepared from naturally occurring lipids or synthetically from commercially available material.

  20. Using dried blood spot sampling to improve data quality and reduce animal use in mouse pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Wickremsinhe, Enaksha R; Perkins, Everett J

    2015-03-01

    Traditional pharmacokinetic analysis in nonclinical studies is based on the concentration of a test compound in plasma and requires approximately 100 to 200 μL blood collected per time point. However, the total blood volume of mice limits the number of samples that can be collected from an individual animal-often to a single collection per mouse-thus necessitating dosing multiple mice to generate a pharmacokinetic profile in a sparse-sampling design. Compared with traditional methods, dried blood spot (DBS) analysis requires smaller volumes of blood (15 to 20 μL), thus supporting serial blood sampling and the generation of a complete pharmacokinetic profile from a single mouse. Here we compare plasma-derived data with DBS-derived data, explain how to adopt DBS sampling to support discovery mouse studies, and describe how to generate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data from a single mouse. Executing novel study designs that use DBS enhances the ability to identify and streamline better drug candidates during drug discovery. Implementing DBS sampling can reduce the number of mice needed in a drug discovery program. In addition, the simplicity of DBS sampling and the smaller numbers of mice needed translate to decreased study costs. Overall, DBS sampling is consistent with 3Rs principles by achieving reductions in the number of animals used, decreased restraint-associated stress, improved data quality, direct comparison of interanimal variability, and the generation of multiple endpoints from a single study.

  1. Continuous monitoring of myocardial acid-base status during intermittent warm blood cardioplegia.

    PubMed

    Graffigna, A C L; Nollo, G; Pederzolli, C; Ferrari, P; Widesott, L; Antolini, R

    2002-06-01

    Intermittent warm blood cardioplegia (IWBC) is a well-established technique for myocardial protection during cardiac operations. According to standardized protocols, IWBC administration is currently performed every 15-20 min regardless of any individual variable and in the absence of any instrumental monitoring. We devised a new system for continuous measurement of the acid-base status of coronary sinus blood for on-line evaluation of myocardial oxygenation during IWBC. In 19 patients undergoing cardiac surgery for coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve surgery and receiving IWBC (34-37 degrees C) by antegrade induction (3 min) and retrograde or antegrade maintenance (2 min) every 15 min, continuous monitoring of myocardial oxygenation and acid/base status was performed by means of a multiparameter PO(2), PCO(2), pH, and temperature sensor (Paratrend7 (R), Philips Medical System) inserted into the coronary sinus. Mean cross-clamping time was 76+/-26 min; ischemic time was 13+/-0.2 min. pH decline was not linear, showing an initial fast decline, a point of flexus, and a progressive slow decline. After every ischemic period, the pH adaptation curve showed a complex pattern reaching step-by-step lower minimum levels (7.28+/-0.14 during the first ischemic period, to 7.16+/-0.19 during the third ischemic period - P=0.003). PO(2) decreased rapidly at 90% in 5.0+/-1.2 min after every reperfusion. During ischemia, PCO(2) increased steadily at 1.6+/-0.1 mmHg per minute, with progressively incomplete removal after successive reperfusion, and progressive increase of maximal level (42+/-12 mmHg during the first ischemic period, to 53+/-23 mmHg during the third ischemic period - P=0.05). Myocardial oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH show marked changes after repeated IWBC. Myocardial ischemia is not completely reversed by standardized reperfusions, as reflected by steady deterioration of PCO(2) and pH after each reperfusion. Progressive increase of reperfusion durations or

  2. How did Humans Adapt in the Eastern Farming-pastoral zone during the Medieval Warm Period?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, X.

    2017-12-01

    With its extremely warm climate, the "medieval warm period" is considered analogous to the climate change humans are likely to face due to future global warming. Thus, the ability of humans to adapt to an extremely warm climate during the medieval period in Eurasia's farming-pastoral zone has attracted some attention. The warmth of the climate during this period (900-1300 BC) is demonstrated by evidence of bamboo in charcoal remains and phytoliths found in the settlement sites and tomb murals of the Western Liao river basin in Northeast China. This warmth probably promoted agricultural diversification, as the presence of foxtail millet, broomcorn millet, wheat, barley, soybean, hemp, and buckwheat in this region can be seen in plant seeds and phytoliths found in archaeological sites. The bones of deer and birds also provide evidence of hunting, and the practice of animal husbandry is indicated in pig, dog, cattle, ovicaprid, horse and camel bones. Diversity in food structures is also shown in stable isotopes from human and animal bones. Competence in animal husbandry and hunting, and the availability of stable food resources may have contributed to the rise of the Liao people in military prowess and power, and promoted the expansion of Khitan-Liao culture.

  3. Potential large animal models for gene therapy of human genetic diseases of immune and blood cell systems.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Thomas R; Adler, Rima L; Hickstein, Dennis D

    2009-01-01

    Genetic mutations involving the cellular components of the hematopoietic system--red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets--manifest clinically as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Although gene targeting has recapitulated many of these diseases in mice, these murine homologues are limited as translational models by their small size and brief life span as well as the fact that mutations induced by gene targeting do not always faithfully reflect the clinical manifestations of such mutations in humans. Many of these limitations can be overcome by identifying large animals with genetic diseases of the hematopoietic system corresponding to their human disease counterparts. In this article, we describe human diseases of the cellular components of the hematopoietic system that have counterparts in large animal species, in most cases carrying mutations in the same gene (CD18 in leukocyte adhesion deficiency) or genes in interacting proteins (DNA cross-link repair 1C protein and protein kinase, DNA-activated catalytic polypeptide in radiation-sensitive severe combined immunodeficiency). Furthermore, we describe the potential of these animal models to serve as disease-specific preclinical models for testing the efficacy and safety of clinical interventions such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or gene therapy before their use in humans with the corresponding disease.

  4. Global transcriptomic profiling using small volumes of whole blood: a cost-effective method for translational genomic biomarker identification in small animals.

    PubMed

    Fricano, Meagan M; Ditewig, Amy C; Jung, Paul M; Liguori, Michael J; Blomme, Eric A G; Yang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Blood is an ideal tissue for the identification of novel genomic biomarkers for toxicity or efficacy. However, using blood for transcriptomic profiling presents significant technical challenges due to the transcriptomic changes induced by ex vivo handling and the interference of highly abundant globin mRNA. Most whole blood RNA stabilization and isolation methods also require significant volumes of blood, limiting their effective use in small animal species, such as rodents. To overcome these challenges, a QIAzol-based RNA stabilization and isolation method (QSI) was developed to isolate sufficient amounts of high quality total RNA from 25 to 500 μL of rat whole blood. The method was compared to the standard PAXgene Blood RNA System using blood collected from rats exposed to saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The QSI method yielded an average of 54 ng total RNA per μL of rat whole blood with an average RNA Integrity Number (RIN) of 9, a performance comparable with the standard PAXgene method. Total RNA samples were further processed using the NuGEN Ovation Whole Blood Solution system and cDNA was hybridized to Affymetrix Rat Genome 230 2.0 Arrays. The microarray QC parameters using RNA isolated with the QSI method were within the acceptable range for microarray analysis. The transcriptomic profiles were highly correlated with those using RNA isolated with the PAXgene method and were consistent with expected LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The present study demonstrated that the QSI method coupled with NuGEN Ovation Whole Blood Solution system is cost-effective and particularly suitable for transcriptomic profiling of minimal volumes of whole blood, typical of those obtained with small animal species.

  5. Upper temperature limits of tropical marine ectotherms: global warming implications.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khanh Dung T; Morley, Simon A; Lai, Chien-Houng; Clark, Melody S; Tan, Koh Siang; Bates, Amanda E; Peck, Lloyd S

    2011-01-01

    Animal physiology, ecology and evolution are affected by temperature and it is expected that community structure will be strongly influenced by global warming. This is particularly relevant in the tropics, where organisms are already living close to their upper temperature limits and hence are highly vulnerable to rising temperature. Here we present data on upper temperature limits of 34 tropical marine ectotherm species from seven phyla living in intertidal and subtidal habitats. Short term thermal tolerances and vertical distributions were correlated, i.e., upper shore animals have higher thermal tolerance than lower shore and subtidal animals; however, animals, despite their respective tidal height, were susceptible to the same temperature in the long term. When temperatures were raised by 1°C hour(-1), the upper lethal temperature range of intertidal ectotherms was 41-52°C, but this range was narrower and reduced to 37-41°C in subtidal animals. The rate of temperature change, however, affected intertidal and subtidal animals differently. In chronic heating experiments when temperature was raised weekly or monthly instead of every hour, upper temperature limits of subtidal species decreased from 40°C to 35.4°C, while the decrease was more than 10°C in high shore organisms. Hence in the long term, activity and survival of tropical marine organisms could be compromised just 2-3°C above present seawater temperatures. Differences between animals from environments that experience different levels of temperature variability suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying thermal sensitivity may vary at different rates of warming.

  6. [Comparative evaluation of heat state in workers exposed to heating microclimate during cold and warm seasons].

    PubMed

    Afanas'eva, R F; Prokopenko, L V; Kiladze, N A; Konstantinov, E I

    2009-01-01

    The authors demonstrated differences in heat state among workers exposed to heating microclimate during cold and warm seasons. Same external thermal load in cold season induces more humidity loss, lower weighted average skin temperature, higher pulse rate, increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. With that, heat discomfort was more in cold season, than in warm one, this necessitates decrease of thermal load in cold season vs. the warm one.

  7. Line-Scanning Particle Image Velocimetry: An Optical Approach for Quantifying a Wide Range of Blood Flow Speeds in Live Animals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tyson N.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Chen, Yeni; Conolly, Steven M.; Schaffer, Chris B.; Liepmann, Dorian; Wang, Rong A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The ability to measure blood velocities is critical for studying vascular development, physiology, and pathology. A key challenge is to quantify a wide range of blood velocities in vessels deep within living specimens with concurrent diffraction-limited resolution imaging of vascular cells. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) has shown tremendous promise in analyzing blood velocities hundreds of micrometers deep in animals with cellular resolution. However, current analysis of TPLSM-based data is limited to the lower range of blood velocities and is not adequate to study faster velocities in many normal or disease conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed line-scanning particle image velocimetry (LS-PIV), which used TPLSM data to quantify peak blood velocities up to 84 mm/s in live mice harboring brain arteriovenous malformation, a disease characterized by high flow. With this method, we were able to accurately detect the elevated blood velocities and exaggerated pulsatility along the abnormal vascular network in these animals. LS-PIV robustly analyzed noisy data from vessels as deep as 850 µm below the brain surface. In addition to analyzing in vivo data, we validated the accuracy of LS-PIV up to 800 mm/s using simulations with known velocity and noise parameters. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, these blood velocity measurements are the fastest recorded with TPLSM. Partnered with transgenic mice carrying cell-specific fluorescent reporters, LS-PIV will also enable the direct in vivo correlation of cellular, biochemical, and hemodynamic parameters in high flow vascular development and diseases such as atherogenesis, arteriogenesis, and vascular anomalies. PMID:22761686

  8. Management of animal botulism outbreaks: from clinical suspicion to practical countermeasures to prevent or minimize outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Fiore, Alfonsina; Löfström, Charlotta; Skarin, Hanna; Auricchio, Bruna; Woudstra, Cédric; Bano, Luca; Segerman, Bo; Koene, Miriam; Båverud, Viveca; Hansen, Trine; Fach, Patrick; Tevell Aberg, Annica; Hedeland, Mikael; Olsson Engvall, Eva; De Medici, Dario

    2013-09-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease that affects humans, all warm-blooded animals, and some fishes. The disease is caused by exposure to toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other botulinum toxin-producing clostridia. Botulism in animals represents a severe environmental and economic concern because of its high mortality rate. Moreover, meat or other products from affected animals entering the food chain may result in a public health problem. To this end, early diagnosis is crucial to define and apply appropriate veterinary public health measures. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings eliminating other causes of neuromuscular disorders and on the absence of internal lesions observed during postmortem examination. Since clinical signs alone are often insufficient to make a definitive diagnosis, laboratory confirmation is required. Botulinum antitoxin administration and supportive therapies are used to treat sick animals. Once the diagnosis has been made, euthanasia is frequently advisable. Vaccine administration is subject to health authorities' permission, and it is restricted to a small number of animal species. Several measures can be adopted to prevent or minimize outbreaks. In this article we outline all phases of management of animal botulism outbreaks occurring in wet wild birds, poultry, cattle, horses, and fur farm animals.

  9. High Blood Pressure and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... fact sheet on high blood pressure . Watch interactive animations of how blood pressure works . See all the ... Matter • Find Tools & Resources HBP Resources Risk Calculator Animation Library Track Your Blood Pressure: Print (PDF) | Online ...

  10. Hyperactivity in anorexia nervosa: to warm or not to warm. That is the question (a translational research one).

    PubMed

    Carrera, Olaia; Gutiérrez, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    In the Editorial 'Is the neglect of exercise in anorexia nervosa research a case of "running out" of ideas or do we need to take a "LEAP" of faith into the future?' these authors express their doubts concerning the suitability of keeping patients warm as a beneficial treatment option in managing excessive activity in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients. The case for warming as an adjunctive treatment for AN patients is based on strong experimental evidence gathered from research on animals with Activity-Based Anorexia (ABA). We posit that the beneficial effect of heat results, at least in part, from heat blocking the vicious cycle that hyperactivity plays on AN. Hyperactivity decreases caloric intake by interfering with feeding and increases energy expenditure through excess motor activity which in turn increases emaciation that further strengthens anorexic thinking.

  11. Effects of Global Warming on Vibrio Ecology.

    PubMed

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global warming, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean warming on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean warming and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause.

  12. Efficacy of Wrist/Palm Warming as an EVA Countermeasure to Maintain Finger Comfort in Cold Conditions During EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Trevino, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of local wrist/palm warming as a potential countermeasure for providing finger comfort during extended duration EVA. Methods: Six subjects (5 males and 1 female) were evaluated in a sagitally divided liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) with modified liquid cooling/warming (LCW) gloves in three different experimental conditions. Condition 1: Stage 1- no LCWG; chamber adaptation with LCW glove inlet water temperature 33 C; Stage 2-LCW glove inlet water temperature cooled to 8 C; Stage 3-LCW glove inlet water temperature warmed to 45 C; Condition 2: Stage1-LCWG and LCW glove inlet water temperature 33 C; Stage 2-LCWG inlet temperature cooled to 31 C, LCW gloves, 8 C; Stage 3-LCWG inlet water temperature remains at 31 C, LCW glove inlet water temperature warmed to 45 C; Condition 3: Stage l -LCWG and LCW gloves 33 C; Stage 2-LCWG inlet water temperature cooled to 28 C, LCW gloves, 8 C; Stage 3-LCWG remains at 28 C, LCW glove water temperature warmed to 45 C. Results: Wrist/palm area warming significantly increased finger temperature (Tfing) and blood perfusion in Stage 3 compared to Stage 2. The LCW gloves were most effective in increasing Stage 3 Tfing in Condition 1; and in increasing blood perfusion in Conditions 1 and 2 compared to Condition 3. Ratings of subjective perception of heat in the hand and overall body heat were higher at Stage 3 than Stage 2, with no significant differences across Conditions. Conclusions: Local wrist/palm warming was effective in increasing blood circulation to the distal extremities, suggesting the potential usefulness of this technique for increasing astronaut thermal comfort during EVA while decreasing power requirements. The LCW gloves were effective in heating the highly cooled fingers when the overall body was in a mild heat deficit.

  13. Feasibility of Using the Mosquito Blood Meal for Rapid and Efficient Human and Animal Virus Surveillance and Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Garver, Lindsey S.; Bingham, Karen M.; Hang, Jun; Jochim, Ryan C.; Davidson, Silas A.; Richardson, Jason H.; Jarman, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito blood meals taken from humans and animals potentially represent a useful source of blood for the detection of blood-borne pathogens. In this feasibility study, Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were fed with blood meals spiked with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) and harvested at serial time points. These mosquitoes are not competent vectors, and the virus is not expected to replicate. Ingested blood was spotted on Whatman FTA cards and stored at room temperature. Mosquito abdomens were removed and stored at −80°C. Control blood meal aliquots were stored in vials or applied onto FTA cards. After 4 weeks of storage, the samples were extracted using beadbeating and QIAamp Viral RNA kit (Qiagen Sciences, Germantown, MD). Recovered viral RNA was analyzed by DENV-2 TaqMan RT-PCR assay and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Overall viral RNA recovery efficiency was 15% from the directly applied dried blood spots and approximately 20% or higher for dried blood spots made by blotting mosquito midgut on FTA cards. Viral RNA in mosquito-ingested blood decreases over time, but remains detectable 24 hours after blood feeding. The viral sequences in FTA-stored specimens can be maintained at room temperature. The strategy has the potential utility in expedited zoonotic virus discovery and blood-borne pathogen surveillance. PMID:26416112

  14. Effects of warm-up intensity on oxygen transport during supramaximal exercise in horses.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kazutaka; Hiraga, Atsushi; Eto, Daisuke; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Hada, Tetsuro; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Jones, James H

    2008-05-01

    To determine whether warm-up exercise at different intensities alters kinetics and total contribution of aerobic power to total metabolic power in subsequent supramaximal exercise in horses. 11 horses. Horses ran at a sprint until fatigued at 115% of maximal oxygen consumption rate (VO(2max)), beginning at 10 minutes following each of 3 warm-up protocols: no warmup (NoWU), 1 minute at 70% VO(2max) (moderate-intensity warm-up [MoWU]), or 1 minute at 115% VO(2max) (high-intensity warm-up [HiWU]). Cardiopulmonary and blood gas variables were measured during exercise. The VO(2) was significantly higher in HiWU and MoWU than in NoWU throughout the sprint exercise period. Blood lactate accumulation rate in the first 60 seconds was significantly lower in MoWU and HiWU than in NoWU. Specific cardiac output after 60 seconds of sprint exercise was not significantly different among the 3 protocols; however, the arterial mixed-venous oxygen concentration difference was significantly higher in HiWU than in NoWU primarily because of decreased mixed-venous saturation and tension. Run time to fatigue following MoWU was significantly greater than that with NoWU, and there was no difference in time to fatigue between MoWU and HiWU. HiWU and MoWU increased peak values for VO(2) and decreased blood lactate accumulation rate during the first minute of intense exercise, suggesting a greater use of aerobic than net anaerobic power during this period.

  15. Effect of concentrate level on feeding behavior and rumen and blood parameters in dairy goats: relationships between behavioral and physiological parameters and effect of between-animal variability.

    PubMed

    Giger-Reverdin, S; Rigalma, K; Desnoyers, M; Sauvant, D; Duvaux-Ponter, C

    2014-07-01

    This work aimed first to compare 2 diets differing in their percentage of concentrate [low (LO): 30% concentrate vs. High (HI): 60% concentrate] by measuring simultaneously feeding behavior, rumen parameters, blood and plasma parameters, and milk yield and composition in 8 mid-lactation goats. The second aim was to study the interrelationships between these variables and to analyze the between-animal variability to better understand the between-animal differences in acidosis susceptibility. All of the animals received the 2 diets ad libitum as total mixed ration according to a crossover design of two 4-wk periods. Mean daily DMI was similar between the 2 diets but the variability was higher for the HI than for the LO diet. Goats produced more milk when fed the HI diet compared with the LO diet but with a lower fat:protein ratio (0.81 vs. 0.99). They ate more rapidly the HI than the LO diet but stopped eating sooner after the afternoon feed allowance, and spent less time chewing. The increase in concentrate percentage modified rumen parameters: the pH and acetate:propionate ratio decreased and total VFA, ammonia, and soluble carbohydrate concentrations increased. Hematocrit, plasma NEFA, and blood K and Ca concentrations decreased but glycemia and uremia increased. Other parameters were not modified: milk fat content, blood pH, and bicarbonate and Na concentrations. A large between-animal variability was detected for all the measured parameters, especially for feeding behavior, with important consequences on rumen and blood parameters. This work confirmed the effects of a high percentage of concentrate on feeding behavior, rumen and blood parameters, and milk production, and some known relationships such as the positive link between rumen pH and chewing index. It also pointed out other relationships between parameters seldom measured at the same time, such as rumen redox potential or blood pH and chewing index, or the negative link between blood and rumen pH. When

  16. Lied Animal Shelter Animal campus Renewable Energy Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Randy Spitzmesser, AIA

    2005-11-22

    The Animal Shelter campus plan includes a new adoption center coupled with a dog adoption park, a wellness/veterinary technician education center, a show arena, and an addition to the existing shelter that will accommodate all animal control and sheltering for the Las Vegas Valley. The new facility will provide a sophisticated and innovative presentation of the animals to be adopted in an attempt to improve the public's perception of shelter animals. Additionally, the Regional Animal Campus will be a ''green building'', embodying a design intent on balancing environmental responsiveness, resource efficiency and cultural and community sensitivity. Designing an energy-efficient buildingmore » helps reduce pollution from burning fossil fuels, reduce disturbance of natural habitats for the harvesting of resources and minimizes global warming. The project will be a leader in the use of renewable energy by relying on photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, and solar collectors to produce a portion of the project's energy needs The building will operate more efficiently in comparison to a typical shelter through the use of monitoring and specialized cooling/heating equipment. Windows bringing in natural daylight will reduce the center's demand for electricity.« less

  17. Post-treatment with Ma-Huang-Tang ameliorates cold-warm-cycles induced rat lung injury.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meng-Meng; Pan, Chun-Shui; Liu, Yu-Ying; Ma, Li-Qian; Yan, Li; Fan, Jing-Yu; Wang, Chuan-She; Huang, Rong; Han, Jing-Yan

    2017-03-22

    Frequent and drastic ambient temperature variation may cause respiratory diseases such as common cold and pneumonia, the mechanism for which is not fully understood, however, due to lack of appropriate animal models. Ma-Huang-Tang (MHT) is widely used in China for treatment of respiratory diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of MHT on temperature alternation induced rat lung injury and explore underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a cold environment for 1 h and then shifted to a warm environment for 30 min. This cold and warm alteration cycled 4 times. Rats were administrated with MHT (1.87 g/kg) by gavage 6 h after cold-warm-cycles. Cold-warm-cycles induced pulmonary microcirculatory disorders, lung edema and injury, decrease in the expression of tight junction proteins, increase in VE-cadherin activation, increase in the expression and activation of Caveolin-1, Src and NF-κB, and NADPH oxidase subunits p47 phox , p40 phox and p67 phox membrane translocation and inflammatory cytokines production. All alterations were significantly ameliorated by post-treatment with MHT. This study showed that rats subjected to cold-warm-cycles may be used as an animal model to investigate ambient temperature variation-induced lung injury, and suggested MHT as a potential strategy to combat lung injury induced by temperature variation.

  18. Effects of Short or Long Warm-up on Intermediate Running Performance.

    PubMed

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Vatten, Tormod; von Heimburg, Erna

    2017-01-01

    van den Tillaar, R, Vatten, T, and von Heimburg, E. Effects of short or long warm-up on intermediate running performance. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 37-44, 2017-The aim of the study was to compare the effects of a long warm-up (general + specific) and a short warm-up (specific) on intermediate running performance (3-minute run). Thirteen experienced endurance-trained athletes (age 23.2 ± 2.3 years, body mass 79.8 ± 8.2 kg, body height 1.82 ± 0.05 m) conducted 2 types of warm-ups in a crossover design with 1 week in between: a long warm-up (10 minutes, 80% maximal heart rate, and 8 × 60 m sprint with increasing intensity and 1 minute rest in between) and a short warm-up (8 × 60 m sprint with increasing intensity and 1 minute rest in between). Each warm-up was followed by a 3-minute running test on a nonmotorized treadmill. Total running distance, running velocity at each 30 seconds, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, oxygen uptake, and rate of perceived exertion were measured. No significant differences in running performance variables and physiological parameters were found between the 2 warm-up protocols, except for the rate of perceived exertion and heart rate, which were higher after the long warm-up and after the 3-minute running test compared with the short warm-up. It was concluded that a short warm-up is as effective as a long warm-up for intermediate performance. Therefore, athletes can choose for themselves if they want to include a general part in their warm-up routines, even though it would not enhance their running performance more compared with only using a short, specific warm-up. However, to increase efficiency of time for training or competition, these short, specific warm-ups should be performed instead of long warm-ups.

  19. More losers than winners in a century of future Southern Ocean seafloor warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Huw J.; Meijers, Andrew J. S.; Bracegirdle, Thomas J.

    2017-10-01

    The waters of the Southern Ocean are projected to warm over the coming century, with potential adverse consequences for native cold-adapted organisms. Warming waters have caused temperate marine species to shift their ranges poleward. The seafloor animals of the Southern Ocean shelf have long been isolated by the deep ocean surrounding Antarctica and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, with little scope for southward migration. How these largely endemic species will react to future projected warming is unknown. By considering 963 invertebrate species, we show that within the current century, warming temperatures alone are unlikely to result in wholesale extinction or invasion affecting Antarctic seafloor life. However, 79% of Antarctica's endemic species do face a significant reduction in suitable temperature habitat (an average 12% reduction). Our findings highlight the species and regions most likely to respond significantly (negatively and positively) to warming and have important implications for future management of the region.

  20. Blood Warming and Hemolysis: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Poder, Thomas G; Nonkani, Wendyam G; Tsakeu Leponkouo, Élyonore

    2015-07-01

    The use of fluid warmers during blood transfusion is recommended to avoid inducing hypothermia and its harmful effects. Fluid warmers offered by manufacturers can reach temperatures of 43°C. However, the recommendations of national regulatory organizations do not clearly indicate the maximum heating temperature in relation to the risk of hemolysis. To fill this gap, we conducted a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis. To match clinical practice, this review was limited to fluid warmers that used contact heating; thus, studies that used radiofrequency or microwave heating were excluded. Twenty-four observational studies were included, 17 of which were the subject of a meta-analysis. A preliminary descriptive analysis indicated that multiple factors can influence the level of hemolysis during blood heating with a liquid warmer, including blood age, anticoagulant type, duration of exposure to heat, stirring the blood during heating, and various elements of the circuit through which blood flows (eg, type of infusion pump with pressure and flow, type of microfilter, and type of tubing). Moreover, the duration between sampling and hemolysis assay was a source of heterogeneity among studies, as were the initial free hemoglobin levels in the various experiments. In general, the increase generated by each of these factors other than temperature appears to have been limited except for blood age, which is an important parameter of hemolysis, the length of exposure to heat, and, in some studies, the type of infusion pump used. Regarding the meta-analysis, at temperatures at or less than 43°C and even up to 45-46°C, it appears that blood heating is safe and causes hemolysis only in clinically negligible proportions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of cerebral blood flow autoregulation (CBF AR) with rheoencephalography (REG): studies in animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Djordje; Bodo, Michael; Pearce, Frederick; van Albert, Stephen; Garcia, Alison; Settle, Tim; Armonda, Rocco

    2013-04-01

    The ability of cerebral vasculature to regulate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the face of changes in arterial blood pressure (SAP) or intracranial pressure (ICP) is an important guard against secondary ischemia in acute brain injuries, and official guidelines recommend that therapeutic decisions be guided by continuous monitoring of CBF autoregulation (AR). The common method for CBF AR monitoring, which rests on real-time derivation of the correlation coefficient (PRx) between slow oscillations in SAP and ICP is, however, rarely used in clinical practice because it requires invasive ICP measurements. This study investigated whether the correlation coefficient between SAP and the pulsatile component of the non-invasive transcranial bioimpedance signal (rheoencephalography, REG) could be used to assess the state and lower limit of CBF AR. The results from pigs and rhesus macaques affirm the utility of REG; however, additional animal and clinical studies are warranted to assess selectivity of automatic REG-based evaluation of CBF AR.

  2. Livers from fasted rats acquire resistance to warm and cold ischemia injury.

    PubMed

    Sumimoto, R; Southard, J H; Belzer, F O

    1993-04-01

    Successful liver transplantation is dependent upon many factors, one of which is the quality of the donor organ. Previous studies have suggested that the donor nutritional status may affect the outcome of liver transplantation and starvation, due to prolonged stay in the intensive care unit, may adversely affect the liver. In this study we have used the orthotopic rat liver transplant model to measure how fasting the donor affects the outcome of liver transplantation. Rat livers were preserved with UW solution either at 37 degrees C (warm ischemia for 45-60 min) or at 4 degrees C (cold ischemia for 30 or 44 hr). After preservation the livers were orthotopically transplanted and survival (for 7 days) was measured, as well as liver functions 6 hr after transplantation. After 45 min of warm ischemia 50% (3 of 6) animals survived when the liver was obtained from a fed donor about 80% (4 of 5) survived when the liver was obtained from a three-day-fasted donor. After 60 min warm ischemia no animal survived (0 of 8, fed group). However, if the donor was fasted for 3 days 89% (8 of 9) of the animals survived for 7 days. Livers cold-stored for 30 hr were 50% viable (3 of 6) and fasting for 1-3 days did not affect this outcome. However, if the donor was fasted for 4 days 100% (9 of 9) survival was obtained. After 44-hr preservation only 29% (2/7) of the recipients survived for 7 days. If the donor was fasted for 4 days, survival increased to 83% (5/6). Liver functions, bile production, and serum enzymes were better in livers from the fasted rats than from the fed rats. Fasting caused a 95% decrease in liver glycogen content. Even with this low concentration of glycogen, liver viability (animal survival) after warm or cold ischemia was not affected, and livers with a low glycogen content were fully viable. Thus liver glycogen does not appear to be important in liver preservation. This study shows that fasting the donor does not cause injury to the liver after warm or cold

  3. Constraining the trigger for an ancient warming episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    The Paleocene epoch (˜66-56 million years ago) was sandwiched between sudden climate shifts and mass extinctions. The boundary between the end of the Paleocene and the beginning of the Eocene (the P-E boundary) saw the global average temperature soar by 5°C over a few thousand years, leading to a pronounced reorganization of both terrestrial and oceanic plant and animal communities. The P-E boundary warming was triggered by an influx of atmospheric carbon dioxide, but the influx's ultimate trigger is still being debated. Other prominent warming events within the Paleogene (˜66-23 million years ago), the broad time span that encompasses the Paleocene and Eocene, have been linked to regularly recurring changes in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit that take place on 100,000- and 405,000-year cycles. Proponents of this view suggest that an alignment of the two cycles could lead to the warming of deep ocean waters, melting frozen methane and triggering an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, some studies have suggested that the P-E boundary warming was instead the product of geological processes, where carbon-rich rocks were baked by injected magma, which eventually liberated the carbon to the atmosphere. Deciding between proposed explanations for the cause of the P-E warming, whether they are astronomical or geological, depends on accurately pinning the event in time. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi:10.1029/2010GC003426, 2011)

  4. Warm partner contact is related to lower cardiovascular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Grewen, Karen M; Anderson, Bobbi J; Girdler, Susan S; Light, Kathleen C

    2003-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between brief warm social and physical contact among cohabitating couples and blood pressure (BP) reactivity to stress in a sample of healthy adults (66 African American, 117 Caucasian; 74 women, 109 men). Prior to stress, the warm contact group underwent a 10-minute period of handholding while viewing a romantic video. Followed by a 20-second hug with their partner, while the no contact group rested quietly for 10 minutes and 20 seconds. In response to a public speaking task, individuals receiving prestress partner contact demonstrated lower systolic BP diastolic BP, and heart rate increases compared with the no contact group. The effects of warm contact were comparable for men and women and were greater for African Americans compared with Caucasians. These findings suggest that affectionate relationships with a supportive partner may contribute to lower reactivity to stressful life events and may partially mediate the benefit of marital support on better cardiovascular health.

  5. Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho

    2015-05-12

    Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical-ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future warming experiments using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse warming can amplify Arctic surface warming considerably. The warming-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton warms the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic warming further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes.

  6. Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical–ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future warming experiments using a fully coupled ocean−atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse warming can amplify Arctic surface warming considerably. The warming-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton warms the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic warming further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes. PMID:25902494

  7. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors mitigate red blood cell lysis during freezing, transient warming and thawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briard, Jennie G.; Poisson, Jessica S.; Turner, Tracey R.; Capicciotti, Chantelle J.; Acker, Jason P.; Ben, Robert N.

    2016-03-01

    During cryopreservation, ice recrystallization is a major cause of cellular damage. Conventional cryoprotectants such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol function by a number of different mechanisms but do not mitigate or control ice recrystallization at concentrations utilized in cryopreservation procedures. In North America, cryopreservation of human red blood cells (RBCs) utilizes high concentrations of glycerol. RBC units frozen under these conditions must be subjected to a time-consuming deglycerolization process after thawing in order to remove the glycerol to <1% prior to transfusion thus limiting the use of frozen RBC units in emergency situations. We have identified several low molecular mass ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) that are effective cryoprotectants for human RBCs, resulting in 70-80% intact RBCs using only 15% glycerol and slow freezing rates. These compounds are capable of reducing the average ice crystal size of extracellular ice relative to a 15% glycerol control validating the positive correlation between a reduction in ice crystal size and increased post-thaw recovery of RBCs. The most potent IRI from this study is also capable of protecting frozen RBCs against the large temperature fluctuations associated with transient warming.

  8. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors mitigate red blood cell lysis during freezing, transient warming and thawing

    PubMed Central

    Briard, Jennie G.; Poisson, Jessica S.; Turner, Tracey R.; Capicciotti, Chantelle J.; Acker, Jason P.; Ben, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    During cryopreservation, ice recrystallization is a major cause of cellular damage. Conventional cryoprotectants such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol function by a number of different mechanisms but do not mitigate or control ice recrystallization at concentrations utilized in cryopreservation procedures. In North America, cryopreservation of human red blood cells (RBCs) utilizes high concentrations of glycerol. RBC units frozen under these conditions must be subjected to a time-consuming deglycerolization process after thawing in order to remove the glycerol to <1% prior to transfusion thus limiting the use of frozen RBC units in emergency situations. We have identified several low molecular mass ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) that are effective cryoprotectants for human RBCs, resulting in 70–80% intact RBCs using only 15% glycerol and slow freezing rates. These compounds are capable of reducing the average ice crystal size of extracellular ice relative to a 15% glycerol control validating the positive correlation between a reduction in ice crystal size and increased post-thaw recovery of RBCs. The most potent IRI from this study is also capable of protecting frozen RBCs against the large temperature fluctuations associated with transient warming. PMID:27021850

  9. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors mitigate red blood cell lysis during freezing, transient warming and thawing.

    PubMed

    Briard, Jennie G; Poisson, Jessica S; Turner, Tracey R; Capicciotti, Chantelle J; Acker, Jason P; Ben, Robert N

    2016-03-29

    During cryopreservation, ice recrystallization is a major cause of cellular damage. Conventional cryoprotectants such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol function by a number of different mechanisms but do not mitigate or control ice recrystallization at concentrations utilized in cryopreservation procedures. In North America, cryopreservation of human red blood cells (RBCs) utilizes high concentrations of glycerol. RBC units frozen under these conditions must be subjected to a time-consuming deglycerolization process after thawing in order to remove the glycerol to <1% prior to transfusion thus limiting the use of frozen RBC units in emergency situations. We have identified several low molecular mass ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) that are effective cryoprotectants for human RBCs, resulting in 70-80% intact RBCs using only 15% glycerol and slow freezing rates. These compounds are capable of reducing the average ice crystal size of extracellular ice relative to a 15% glycerol control validating the positive correlation between a reduction in ice crystal size and increased post-thaw recovery of RBCs. The most potent IRI from this study is also capable of protecting frozen RBCs against the large temperature fluctuations associated with transient warming.

  10. Effect of inspiratory muscle warm-up on submaximal rowing performance.

    PubMed

    Arend, Mati; Mäestu, Jarek; Kivastik, Jana; Rämson, Raul; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2015-01-01

    Performing inspiratory muscle warm-up might increase exercise performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of inspiratory muscle warm-up to submaximal rowing performance and to find if there is an effect on lactic acid accumulation and breathing parameters. Ten competitive male rowers aged between 19 and 27 years (age, 23.1 ± 3.8 years; height, 188.1 ± 6.3 cm; body mass, 85.6 ± 6.6 kg) were tested 3 times. During the first visit, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) assessment and the incremental rowing test were performed to measure maximal oxygen consumption and maximal aerobic power (Pamax). A submaximal intensity (90% Pamax) rowing test was performed twice with the standard rowing warm-up as test 1 and with the standard rowing warm-up and specific inspiratory muscle warm-up as test 2. During the 2 experimental tests, distance, duration, heart rate, breathing frequency, ventilation, peak oxygen consumption, and blood lactate concentration were measured. The only value that showed a significant difference between the test 1 and test 2 was breathing frequency (52.2 ± 6.8 vs. 53.1 ± 6.8, respectively). Heart rate and ventilation showed a tendency to decrease and increase, respectively, after the inspiratory muscle warm-up (p < 0.1). Despite some changes in respiratory parameters, the use of 40% MIP intensity warm-up is not suggested if the mean intensity of the competition is at submaximal level (at approximately 90% maximal oxygen consumption). In conclusion, the warm-up protocol of the respiratory muscles used in this study does not have a significant influence on submaximal endurance performance in highly trained male rowers.

  11. Molecular identification of trypanosomatids in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Tenório, M S; Oliveira e Sousa, L; Alves-Martin, M F; Paixão, M S; Rodrigues, M V; Starke-Buzetti, W A; Araújo Junior, J P; Lucheis, S B

    2014-06-16

    Diverse wild animal species can be reservoirs of zoonotic flagellate parasites, which can cause pathologic Chagas disease. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of flagellate parasites through direct microscopic examination of the parasites in blood samples and through PCR of whole blood and blood culture (haemoculture) samples from 38 captive and 65 free-living wild animals in the Centre for Conservation of Wild Fauna (CCWF), an area endemic for leishmaniasis. For this study, PCR was accomplished using primers for the ribosomal region (ITS-1) of the flagellate parasites. The amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced to identify DNA of the Trypanosomatid parasite species, observed in blood cultures from 3.9% (04/103) of the animals. Through these techniques, Trypanosoma cruzi was identified in haemoculture samples of the following three free-living species: common agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). Furthermore, Trypanosoma minasense was identified in whole blood samples from 01 (0.9%) captive animal (black howler monkey-Alouatta caraya). These results demonstrated the first report of T. cruzi isolation in wild species from the CCWF using blood culture, which can be applied in addition to molecular tools for epidemiological studies and to identify trypanosomatids in wild animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hileman, Bette

    1989-01-01

    States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)

  13. How does the dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus respond to global warming?

    PubMed

    Jia, Pengfei; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Jin; Lu, Liang; Liu, Qiyong; Tan, Xiaoyue

    2017-03-11

    Global warming has a marked influence on the life cycle of epidemic vectors as well as their interactions with human beings. The Aedes albopictus mosquito as the vector of dengue fever surged exponentially in the last decade, raising ecological and epistemological concerns of how climate change altered its growth rate and population dynamics. As the global warming pattern is considerably uneven across four seasons, with a confirmed stronger effect in winter, an emerging need arises as to exploring how the seasonal warming effects influence the annual development of Ae. albopictus. The model consolidates a 35-year climate dataset and designs fifteen warming patterns that increase the temperature of selected seasons. Based on a recently developed mechanistic population model of Ae. albopictus, the model simulates the thermal reaction of blood-fed adults by systematically increasing the temperature from 0.5 to 5 °C at an interval of 0.5 °C in each warming pattern. The results show the warming effects are different across seasons. The warming effects in spring and winter facilitate the development of the species by shortening the diapause period. The warming effect in summer is primarily negative by inhibiting mosquito development. The warming effect in autumn is considerably mixed. However, these warming effects cannot carry over to the following year, possibly due to the fact that under the extreme weather in winter the mosquito fully ceases from development and survives in terms of diapause eggs. As the historical pattern of global warming manifests seasonal fluctuations, this study provides corroborating and previously ignored evidence of how such seasonality affects the mosquito development. Understanding this short-term temperature-driven mechanism as one chain of the transmission events is critical to refining the thermal reaction norms of the epidemic vector under global warming as well as developing effective mosquito prevention and control strategies.

  14. Efficient Warm-ups: Creating a Warm-up That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauffenburger, Sandra Kay

    1992-01-01

    Proper warm-up is important for any activity, but designing an effective warm-up can be time consuming. An alternative approach is to take a cue from Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) and consider movement design from the perspective of space and planes of motion. Efficient warm-up exercises using LMA are described. (SM)

  15. Relative roles of differential SST warming, uniform SST warming and land surface warming in determining the Walker circulation changes under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Most of CMIP5 models projected a weakened Walker circulation in tropical Pacific, but what causes such change is still an open question. By conducting idealized numerical simulations separating the effects of the spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) warming, extra land surface warming and differential SST warming, we demonstrate that the weakening of the Walker circulation is attributed to the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon and South America land effects. The effect of the uniform SST warming is through so-called "richest-get-richer" mechanism. In response to a uniform surface warming, the WNP monsoon is enhanced by competing moisture with other large-scale convective branches. The strengthened WNP monsoon further induces surface westerlies in the equatorial western-central Pacific, weakening the Walker circulation. The increase of the greenhouse gases leads to a larger land surface warming than ocean surface. As a result, a greater thermal contrast occurs between American Continent and equatorial Pacific. The so-induced zonal pressure gradient anomaly forces low-level westerly anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and weakens the Walker circulation. The differential SST warming also plays a role in driving low-level westerly anomalies over tropical Pacific. But such an effect involves a positive air-sea feedback that amplifies the weakening of both east-west SST gradient and Pacific trade winds.

  16. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-03-07

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatment significantly decreased soil nematodes density, and night-time warming treatment marginally affected the density. The response of bacterivorous nematode and fungivorous nematode to experimental warming showed the same trend with the total density. Redundancy analysis revealed an opposite effect of soil moisture and soil temperature, and the most important of soil moisture and temperature in night-time among the measured environment factors, affecting soil nematode community. Our findings suggested that daily minimum temperature and warming induced drying are most important factors affecting soil nematode community under the current global asymmetric warming.

  17. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-03-20

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatment significantly decreased soil nematodes density, and night-time warming treatment marginally affected the density. The response of bacterivorous nematode and fungivorous nematode to experimental warming showed the same trend with the total density. Redundancy analysis revealed an opposite effect of soil moisture and soil temperature, and the most important of soil moisture and temperature in night-time among the measured environment factors, affecting soil nematode community. Our findings suggested that daily minimum temperature and warming induced drying are most important factors affecting soil nematode community under the current global asymmetric warming.

  18. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-01-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatment significantly decreased soil nematodes density, and night-time warming treatment marginally affected the density. The response of bacterivorous nematode and fungivorous nematode to experimental warming showed the same trend with the total density. Redundancy analysis revealed an opposite effect of soil moisture and soil temperature, and the most important of soil moisture and temperature in night-time among the measured environment factors, affecting soil nematode community. Our findings suggested that daily minimum temperature and warming induced drying are most important factors affecting soil nematode community under the current global asymmetric warming. PMID:28317914

  19. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-03-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatment significantly decreased soil nematodes density, and night-time warming treatment marginally affected the density. The response of bacterivorous nematode and fungivorous nematode to experimental warming showed the same trend with the total density. Redundancy analysis revealed an opposite effect of soil moisture and soil temperature, and the most important of soil moisture and temperature in night-time among the measured environment factors, affecting soil nematode community. Our findings suggested that daily minimum temperature and warming induced drying are most important factors affecting soil nematode community under the current global asymmetric warming.

  20. Fatal warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a child due to IgM-type autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Fumiko; Sakuma, Hiroyuki; Sato, Mutsumi; Inaba, Shoichi; Kai, Sumio

    2016-08-01

    Herein is described a case of immunoglobulin M (IgM) warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in a child who consequently died within 3 days of clinical onset. A previously healthy 11-year-old boy presented with fever, anemia, jaundice, and deteriorating consciousness. On direct agglutination test against group O red blood cells, agglutination was seen even at 37°C in saline, which was abolished on dithiothreitol treatment of the serum, indicating that the responsible autoantibody was IgM and had a warm-reactive capacity. A diagnosis of IgM warm AIHA was therefore made. Hemagglutination in the visceral capillaries was considered as the direct cause of organ dysfunction. The patient died due to respiratory failure. IgM warm AIHA is a very severe condition that is difficult to reverse in an advanced state. Both prompt, definite diagnosis and intervention are therefore vital to prevent severe multi-organ dysfunction in cases of IgM warm AIHA. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. Inactivation of Orientia tsutsugamushi in red blood cells, plasma, and platelets with riboflavin and light, as demonstrated in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Rentas, Francisco; Harman, Ronald; Gomez, Charlotte; Salata, Jeanne; Childs, Joseph; Silva, Tonya; Lippert, Lloyd; Montgomery, Joshua; Richards, Allen; Chan, Chye; Jiang, Ju; Reddy, Heather; Li, John; Goodrich, Raymond

    2007-02-01

    Treatment of blood products with riboflavin and light has been used to reduce the number of certain pathogens. Orientia (formerly Rickettsia) tsutsugamushi, the scrub typhus agent, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that grows free in the cytoplasm of infected cells. This study evaluated the capability of riboflavin and light to inactivate O. tsutsugamushi in red blood cells (RBCs), platelets (PLTs), and plasma, as measured by mouse infectivity. A total of 108 mice, equally divided into groups receiving RBCs, plasma, and PLTs, received untreated products infected with 10(0) to 10(5) organisms. Eighteen mice received products infected with 10(5) organisms and were subsequently treated with riboflavin and light. Mice were monitored daily for up to 17 days for signs and symptoms of infection (e.g., lethargy, labored breathing, rough coat) and killed upon appearance of symptoms or on Day 17 after infection. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on blood and Giemsa stains from peritoneal exudates were performed. A total of 102 of 108 mice receiving the untreated products developed signs and symptoms of infection and had positive PCR and Giemsa stain results. None of the 18 animals receiving riboflavin and light-treated blood products exhibited signs or symptoms of infection, nor was infection observed by PCR testing or Giemsa staining. Riboflavin and light are effective in reducing O. tsutsugamushi. Mice injected with blood products inoculated with 10(5) organisms and treated with riboflavin and light did not experience any signs or symptoms of infection, 17 days after inoculation. A 5-log reduction of this organism in blood was achieved as assayed in an animal model.

  2. [Effects of the of renal warm ischemia time on the recovery of filtration function in the experiment].

    PubMed

    Guseinov, R G; Popov, S V; Gorshkov, A N; Sivak, K V; Martov, A G

    2017-12-01

    To investigate experimentally ultrastructural and biochemical signs of acute injury to the renal parenchyma after warm renal ischemia of various duration and subsequent reperfusion. The experiments were performed on 44 healthy conventional female rabbits of the "Chinchilla" breed weighted 2.6-2.7 kg, which were divided into four groups. In the first, control, group included pseudo-operated animals. In the remaining three groups, an experimental model of warm ischemia of renal tissue was created, followed by a 60-minute reperfusion. The renal warm ischemia time was 30, 60 and 90 minutes in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups, respectively. Electron microscopy was used to study ultrastructural disturbances of the renal parenchyma. Biochemical signs of acute kidney damage were detected by measuring the following blood serum and/or urine analytes: NGAL, cystatin C, KIM-1, L-FABP, interleukin-18. The glomerular filtration was evaluated by creatinine clearance, which was determined on days 1, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 35 of follow-up. A 30-minute renal warm ischemia followed by a 60-minute reperfusion induced swelling and edema of the brush membrane, vacuolation of the cytoplasm of the endothelial cells of the proximal tubules, and microvilli restructuring. The observed disorders were reversible, and the epithelial cells retained their viability. After 60 minutes of ischemia and 60 minutes of reperfusion, the observed changes in the ultrastructure of the epithelial cells were much more pronounced, some of the epithelial cells were in a state of apoptosis. 90 min of ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion resulted in electron-microscopic signs of the mass cellular death of the tubular epithelium. Concentration in serum and/or biochemical urine markers of acute renal damage increased sharply after ischemic-reperfusion injury. Restoration of indicators was observed only in cases when the renal warm ischemia time did not exceed 60 minutes. The decrease in creatinine clearance occurred in the

  3. Methods for study of cardiovascular adaptation of small laboratory animals during exposure to altered gravity. [hypothermia for cardiovascular control and cancer therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, V.

    1973-01-01

    Several new techniques are reported for studying cardiovascular circulation in small laboratory animals kept in metabolic chambers. Chronical cannulation, miniaturized membrane type heart-lung machines, a prototype walking chamber, and a fluorocarbon immersion method to simulate weightlessness are outlined. Differential hypothermia work on rat cancers provides localized embedding of radionuclides and other chemotherapeutical agents in tumors and increases at the same time blood circulation through the warmed tumor as compared to the rest of the cold body. Some successful clinical applications of combined chemotherapy and differential hypothermia in skin cancer, mammary tumors, and brain gliomas are described.

  4. Accelerated increase in the Arctic tropospheric warming events surpassing stratospheric warming events during winter: Accelerated Increase in Arctic Warming

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S. -Y. Simon; Lin, Yen-Heng; Lee, Ming-Ying

    In January 2016, a robust reversal of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) took place associated with a rapid tropospheric warming in the Arctic region; this was followed by the occurrence of a classic sudden stratospheric warming in March-April. The succession of these two distinct Arctic warming events provides a stimulating opportunity to examine their characteristics in terms of similarities and differences. Historical cases of these two types of Arctic warming were identified and validated based upon tropical linkages with the Madden-Julian Oscillation and El Niño as well as those documented in previous studies. Our results indicate a recent and accelerated increasemore » in the tropospheric warming type versus a flat trend in stratospheric warming type. Given that tropospheric warming events occur twice as fast than the stratospheric warming type, the noted increase in the former implies further intensification in midlatitude winter weather extremes similar to those experienced in early 2016. Forced simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model suggest that the reduced Arctic sea ice contributes to the observed increase in the tropospheric warming events and associated impact on the anomalously cold Siberia.« less

  5. Liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and dried blood spot sampling applied to pharmacokinetics studies in animals: Correlation of classic and block design.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Matías N; Angeli, Emmanuel; Gareis, Natalia C; Hunzicker, Gabriel A; Murguía, Marcelo C; Ortega, Hugo H; Hein, Gustavo J

    2018-04-01

    A relative bioavailability study (RBA) of two phenytoin (PHT) formulations was conducted in rabbits, in order to compare the results obtained from different matrices (plasma and blood from dried blood spot (DBS) sampling) and different experimental designs (classic and block). The method was developed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in plasma and blood samples. The different sample preparation techniques, plasma protein precipitation and DBS, were validated according to international requirements. The analytical method was validated with ranges 0.20-50.80 and 0.12-20.32 µg ml -1 , r > 0.999 for plasma and blood, respectively. Accuracy and precision were within acceptance criteria for bioanalytical assay validation (< 15 for bias and CV% and < 20 for limit of quantification (LOQ)). PHT showed long-term stability, both for plasma and blood, and under refrigerated and room temperature conditions. Haematocrit values were measured during the validation process and RBA study. Finally, the pharmacokinetic parameters (C max , T max and AUC 0-t ) obtained from the RBA study were tested. Results were highly comparable for matrices and experimental designs. A matrix correlation higher than 0.975 and a ratio of (PHT blood) = 1.158 (PHT plasma) were obtained. The results obtained herein show that the use of classic experimental design and DBS sampling for animal pharmacokinetic studies should be encouraged as they could help to prevent the use of a large number of animals and also animal euthanasia. Finally, the combination of DBS sampling with LC-MS/MS technology showed to be an excellent tool not only for therapeutic drug monitoring but also for RBA studies.

  6. The importance of warm season warming to western U.S. streamflow changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Cayan, D.R.; Vano, J.A.; Lettenmaier, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Warm season climate warming will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. Warm season (April-September) warming reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) warming, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent warm season. A uniform warm season warming of 3C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same warming applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Simultaneous imaging of oxygen tension and blood flow in animals using a digital micromirror device.

    PubMed

    Ponticorvo, Adrien; Dunn, Andrew K

    2010-04-12

    In this study we present a novel imaging method that combines high resolution cerebral blood flow imaging with a highly flexible map of absolute pO(2). In vivo measurements of pO(2) in animals using phosphorescence quenching is a well established method, and is preferable over electrical probes which are inherently invasive and are limited to single point measurements. However, spatially resolved pO(2) measurements using phosphorescence lifetime quenching typically require expensive cameras to obtain images of pO(2) and often suffer from poor signal to noise. Our approach enables us to retain the high temporal resolution and sensitivity of single point detection of phosphorescence by using a digital micromirror device (DMD) to selectively illuminate arbitrarily shaped regions of tissue. In addition, by simultaneously using Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) to measure relative blood flow, we can better examine the relationship between blood flow and absolute pO(2). We successfully used this instrument to study changes that occur during ischemic conditions in the brain with enough spatial resolution to clearly distinguish different regions. This novel instrument will provide researchers with an inexpensive and improved technique to examine multiple hemodynamic parameters simultaneously in the brain as well as other tissues.

  8. Development of an animal-borne blood sample collection device and its deployment for the determination of cardiovascular and stress hormones in phocid seals.

    PubMed

    Takei, Yoshio; Suzuki, Ippei; Wong, Marty K S; Milne, Ryan; Moss, Simon; Sato, Katsufumi; Hall, Ailsa

    2016-10-01

    An animal-borne blood sampler with data-logging functions was developed for phocid seals, which collected two blood samples for the comparison of endocrinological/biochemical parameters under two different conditions. The sampler can be triggered by preset hydrostatic pressure, acceleration (descending or ascending), temperature, and time, and also manually by light. The sampling was reliable with 39/50 (78%) successful attempts to collect blood samples. Contamination of fluids in the tubing to the next blood sample was <1%, following the prior clearance of the tubing to a waste syringe. In captive harbor seals ( Phoca vitulina ), the automated blood-sampling method was less stressful than direct blood withdrawal, as evidenced by lower levels of stress hormones ( P < 0.05 for ACTH and P = 0.078 for cortisol). HPLC analyses showed that both cortisol and cortisone were circulating in seal blood. Using the sampler, plasma levels of cardiovascular hormones, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), AVP, and ANG II were compared in grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus ), between samples collected when the animals were on land and in the water. HPLC analyses determined that [Met 12 ] ANP (1-28) and various forms of angiotensins (ANG II, III, and IV) were circulating in seal blood. Although water immersion profoundly changes the plasma levels of cardiovascular hormones in terrestrial mammals, there were only tendencies toward an increase in ANP ( P = 0.069) and a decrease in AVP ( P = 0.074) in the seals. These results suggest that cardiovascular regulation in phocid seals may have undergone adaptation during evolution of the carnivore to a semiaquatic lifestyle. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Animal source food intake and association with blood cholesterol, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in a northern Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Igl, Wilmar; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Johansson, Asa; Liebisch, Gerhard; Gnewuch, Carsten; Schmitz, Gerd; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    The high intake of game meat in populations with a subsistence-based diet may affect their blood lipids and health status. To examine the association between diet and circulating levels of blood lipid levels in a northern Swedish population. We compared a group with traditional lifestyle (TLS) based on reindeer herding (TLS group) with those from the same area with a non-traditional lifestyle (NTLS) typical of more industrialized regions of Sweden (NTLS group). The analysis was based on self-reported intake of animal source food (i.e. non-game meat, game meat, fish, dairy products and eggs) and the serum blood level of a number of lipids [total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triglycerides (TG), glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids]. The TLS group had higher cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels than the reference group. Of the TLS group, 65% had cholesterol levels above the threshold for increased risk of coronary heart disease (≥ 240 mg/dl), as compared to 38% of the NTLS group. Self-reported consumption of game meat was positively associated with TC and LDL. The high game meat consumption of the TLS group is associated with increased cholesterol levels. High intake of animal protein and fat and low fibre is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but other studies of the TLS in northern Sweden have shown comparable incidences of cardiovascular disease to the reference (NTLS) group from the same geographical area. This indicates that factors other than TC influence disease risk. One such possible factor is dietary phospholipids, which are also found in high amounts specifically in game meat and have been shown to inhibit cholesterol absorption.

  10. Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground warming in the B4WarmED (Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.

    PubMed

    Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B

    2015-06-01

    Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves warming of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air warming experiment called Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger (B4WarmED) that addresses the potential for projected climate warming to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil warming (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). Warming was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed warming. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil warming to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the warming approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The isolated blood-perfused pig ear: an inexpensive and animal-saving model for skin penetration studies.

    PubMed

    de Lange, J; van Eck, P; Elliott, G R; de Kort, W L; Wolthuis, O L

    1992-04-01

    To overcome most of the disadvantages of current models to investigate percutaneous penetration of drugs or toxic substances, a model is proposed here based on the isolated pig ear, which is obtained at the slaughterhouse, and perfused with oxygenated blood from the same pig. To determine the viability of the preparations, we measured glucose consumption and lactate production as metabolic parameters, Na+ and K+ ions, as well as lactate dehydrogenase activity in blood as markers for cell damage, whereas vasomotor reactivity was assessed by administering noradrenaline and isoxsuprine. After 60 min of equilibration, only insignificant changes in these parameters were observed during the subsequent 3-hr test period (longer periods were not tested). A slight weight increase was noted during the total period 4 hr, presumably due to slight edema formation. On the basis of several types of measurements, such as in vivo blood flow and ear temperature and in vitro glucose metabolism, standard procedures were developed. It is concluded that this technique offers an easy to handle, cost-efficient, and animal-saving model for skin penetration studies that lacks most of the disadvantages of existing models.

  12. Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linna; Zhang, Shengzhao; Sun, Meixiu; Li, Hongxiao; Li, Yingxin; Fu, Zhigang; Guan, Yang; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-03-01

    Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood is crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. Current methods are usually destructive, complicated and time-consuming. We had previously demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize human blood discrimination. In that research, the spectra were measured with the fiber probe under the surface of blood samples. However, open sampling may pollute the blood samples. Virulence factors in blood samples can also endanger inspectors. In this paper, we explored the classification effect with the blood samples measured in the original containers-vacuum blood vessel. Furthermore, we studied the impact of different conditions of blood samples, such as coagulation and hemolysis, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. The calibration model built with blood samples in different conditions displayed a satisfactory prediction result. This research demonstrated that visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method was potential for noncontact discrimination of human blood.

  13. Mammoth ecosystem: Climatic areal, animal's density and cause of extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, S.; Zimov, N.; Zimova, G.; Chapin, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    During the last glaciations Mammoth Ecosystem (ME) occupied territory from present-day France to Canada and from the Arctic islands to China. This ecosystem played major role in global carbon cycle and human settling around the planet. Causes of extinction of this ecosystem are debatable. Analyses of hundreds of radiocarbon dates of ME animal fossil remains showed that warming and moistening of climate wasn't accompanied by animal extinction. On the opposite, on the north right after the warming rise of herbivore population was observed. Reconstruction of ME climatic areal showed that its climatic optimum lies within range of annual precipitation of 200-350 mm and average summer temperatures of +8-+12oC which corresponds with modern climate of Northern Siberia. Analyses of bones and skeletons concentrations in permafrost of Northern Siberia showed that animal density in ME was similar to African savannah. That was a high productive ecosystem that could sustain in wide variety of climates because numerous herbivores maintained there pastures themselves.

  14. Effects of three warm-up regimens of equal distance on VO2 kinetics during supramaximal exercise in Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Mukai, K; Hiraga, A; Takahashi, T; Ohmura, H; Jones, J H

    2010-11-01

    Several studies have indicated that even low-intensity warm-up increases O(2) transport kinetics and that high-intensity warm-up may not be needed in horses. However, conventional warm-up exercise for Thoroughbred races is more intense than those utilised in previous studies of equine warm-up responses. To test the hypothesis that warm-up exercise at different intensities alters the kinetics and total contribution of aerobic power to total metabolic power in subsequent supramaximal (sprint) exercise in Thoroughbred horses. Nine well-trained Thoroughbreds ran until fatigue at 115% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) 10 min after warming-up under each of 3 protocols of equal running distance: 400 s at 30% VO2max (LoWU), 200 s at 60% VO2max (MoWU) and 120 s at 100% VO2max (HiWU). Variables measured during exercise were rates of O(2) and CO(2) consumption/production (VO2,VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate, blood lactate concentration and accumulation rate and blood gas variables. VO2 was significantly higher in HiWU than in LoWU at the onset of the sprint exercise and HR was significantly higher in HiWU than in LoWU throughout the sprint. Accumulation of blood lactate, RER, P(a)CO(2) and PvCO2 in the first 60 s were significantly lower in HiWU than in LoWU and MoWU. There were no significant differences in stroke volume, run time or arterial-mixed venous O(2) concentration. These results suggest HiWU accelerates kinetics and reduces reliance on net anaerobic power compared with LoWU at the onset of the subsequent sprint. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Institutional transparency improves public perception of lab animal technicians and support for animal research.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katelyn E; Han, Zetta; Robbins, Jesse; Weary, Daniel M

    2018-01-01

    The use of animals in research is controversial and often takes place under a veil of secrecy. Lab animal technicians responsible for the care of animals at research institutions are sometimes described as performing 'dirty work' (i.e. professions that are viewed as morally tainted), and may be stigmatized by negative perceptions of their job. This study assessed if transparency affects public perceptions of lab animal technicians and support for animal research. Participants (n = 550) were randomly assigned to one of six scenarios (using a 3x2 design) that described identical research varying only the transparency of the facility (low, high) and the species used (mice, dogs, cows). Participants provided Likert-type and open-ended responses to questions about the personal characteristics (warmth, competence) of a hypothetical lab technician 'Cathy' and their support for the described research. Quantitative analysis showed participants in the low-transparency condition perceived Cathy to be less warm and were less supportive of the research regardless of animal species. Qualitative responses varied greatly, with some participants expressing support for both Cathy and the research. These results suggest that increasing transparency in lab animal institutions could result in a more positive perception of lab animal researchers and the work that they do.

  16. Institutional transparency improves public perception of lab animal technicians and support for animal research

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katelyn E.; Han, Zetta; Robbins, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    The use of animals in research is controversial and often takes place under a veil of secrecy. Lab animal technicians responsible for the care of animals at research institutions are sometimes described as performing ‘dirty work’ (i.e. professions that are viewed as morally tainted), and may be stigmatized by negative perceptions of their job. This study assessed if transparency affects public perceptions of lab animal technicians and support for animal research. Participants (n = 550) were randomly assigned to one of six scenarios (using a 3x2 design) that described identical research varying only the transparency of the facility (low, high) and the species used (mice, dogs, cows). Participants provided Likert-type and open-ended responses to questions about the personal characteristics (warmth, competence) of a hypothetical lab technician ‘Cathy’ and their support for the described research. Quantitative analysis showed participants in the low-transparency condition perceived Cathy to be less warm and were less supportive of the research regardless of animal species. Qualitative responses varied greatly, with some participants expressing support for both Cathy and the research. These results suggest that increasing transparency in lab animal institutions could result in a more positive perception of lab animal researchers and the work that they do. PMID:29466425

  17. Using Dried Blood Spot Sampling to Improve Data Quality and Reduce Animal Use in Mouse Pharmacokinetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wickremsinhe, Enaksha R; Perkins, Everett J

    2015-01-01

    Traditional pharmacokinetic analysis in nonclinical studies is based on the concentration of a test compound in plasma and requires approximately 100 to 200 µL blood collected per time point. However, the total blood volume of mice limits the number of samples that can be collected from an individual animal—often to a single collection per mouse—thus necessitating dosing multiple mice to generate a pharmacokinetic profile in a sparse-sampling design. Compared with traditional methods, dried blood spot (DBS) analysis requires smaller volumes of blood (15 to 20 µL), thus supporting serial blood sampling and the generation of a complete pharmacokinetic profile from a single mouse. Here we compare plasma-derived data with DBS-derived data, explain how to adopt DBS sampling to support discovery mouse studies, and describe how to generate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data from a single mouse. Executing novel study designs that use DBS enhances the ability to identify and streamline better drug candidates during drug discovery. Implementing DBS sampling can reduce the number of mice needed in a drug discovery program. In addition, the simplicity of DBS sampling and the smaller numbers of mice needed translate to decreased study costs. Overall, DBS sampling is consistent with 3Rs principles by achieving reductions in the number of animals used, decreased restraint-associated stress, improved data quality, direct comparison of interanimal variability, and the generation of multiple endpoints from a single study. PMID:25836959

  18. Differential Impact of Plasma Proteins on the Adhesion Efficiency of Vascular-Targeted Carriers (VTCs) in Blood of Common Laboratory Animals.

    PubMed

    Namdee, Katawut; Sobczynski, Daniel J; Onyskiw, Peter J; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2015-12-16

    Vascular-targeted carrier (VTC) interaction with human plasma is known to reduce targeted adhesion efficiency in vitro. However, the role of plasma proteins on the adhesion efficiency of VTCs in laboratory animals remains unknown. Here, in vitro blood flow assays are used to explore the effects of plasma from mouse, rabbit, and porcine on VTC adhesion. Porcine blood exhibited a strong negative plasma effect on VTC adhesion while no significant plasma effect was found with rabbit and mouse blood. A brush density poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on VTCs was effective at improving adhesion of microsized, but not nanosized, VTCs in porcine blood. Overall, the results suggest that porcine models, as opposed to mouse, can serve as better models in preclinical research for predicting the in vivo functionality of VTCs for use in humans. These considerations hold great importance for the design of various pharmaceutical products and development of reliable drug delivery systems.

  19. Semiochemicals released from five bacteria identified from animal wounds infested by primary screwworms and their effects on fly behavioral activity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junwei J; Chaudhury, Muhammad F; Durso, Lisa M; Sagel, Agustin; Skoda, Steven R; Jelvez-Serra, Nadia S; Santanab, Euzebio Goulart

    2017-01-01

    The Primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is a serious pest feeding on living flesh of any warm-blooded animal, including humans. It was eradicated from the United States in the early 1980s using the sterile male technique. However, it was recently detected in populations of wild deer and pets in the Florida Keys of the US. For monitoring purposes, screwworm flies are normally trapped using attractant bait with liver. However, there has been little effort to develop an efficient monitoring system for detection of screwworm flies using a specific synthetic attractant blend. Several studies have shown that odors from animal wound fluids attract screwworm adults, particularly gravid females. Bacteria associated with animal wounds have been identified that act as a major source for this attraction. To understand what volatiles attract screwworms we inoculated bovine blood with previously identified bacteria. We identified volatile chemicals released from the inoculated blood and other selected media over time and assessed the effect of those chemicals on behavioral activity of adult screwworm flies. A total of 7 volatile compounds were collected from bacteria incubated in either broth or blood using solid-phase microextraction, and their chemical structures were identified by their characteristic mass spectrum fragments and confirmed by retention times in comparison to those of synthetic standards via gas chromatograph combined mass spectrometry analyses. Five major volatiles including dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol and indole were detected from a mixture of 5 bacteria incubated in blood. The ratios of volatiles released differed among different incubation media, time and individual bacteria. A synthetic mixture containing the five compounds was demonstrated to be attractive to adult screwworm flies both in laboratory assays and field trapping trials. The results obtained from this study may assist in developing an efficient

  20. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE... animal production facility means a hatchery, fish farm, or other facility which meets the criteria in... any warm or cold water aquatic animal production facility as a concentrated aquatic animal production...

  1. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE... animal production facility means a hatchery, fish farm, or other facility which meets the criteria in... any warm or cold water aquatic animal production facility as a concentrated aquatic animal production...

  2. [Thermal stability of rhodopsins and opsins in warm- and cold-blooded vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Berman, A L; Suvorov, S A; Parnova, R G; Gracheva, O A; Rychkova, M P

    1981-01-01

    Thermal stability of rhodopsins and opsins has been studied in endothermic (sheep, cattle, pig, rat) and ectothermic (frog) animals under two different conditions -- in the intact photoreceptor membranes (PM) and after substitution of the lipid surrounding of rhodopsins by molecules of a detergent Triton X-100. Lipid composition of PM in these animals was also studied, as well as the effect of proteases (pronase and papaine) upon thermal stability of rhodopsins in PM and in 1% Triton X-100 solutions. The thermal resistance of rhodopsins in PM was found to vary in the animals used to a great extent. The maximal differences in thermal stability of rhodopsins in ecto- and endothermic animals were due to the properties of photoreceptor protein itself, whereas in ectothermic animals they resulted mainly from differences in the lipid composition of PM. PM of endothermic animals differ from those of ectothermic ones by a lower content of polyenoic fatty acids and by a higher amount of phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The thermal stability of rhodopsins is not due to rhodopsin molecule as a whole, and depends mainly on its part which is directly bound to 11-cis retinal, located in hydrophobic region of PM and inaccessible to protease attack.

  3. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  4. Disinhibiting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus delays the onset of exertional fatigue and exhaustion in rats exercising in a warm environment.

    PubMed

    Zaretsky, Dmitry V; Kline, Hannah; Zaretskaia, Maria V; Brown, Mary Beth; Durant, Pamela J; Alves, Nathan J; Rusyniak, Daniel E

    2018-06-15

    Stimulants cause hyperthermia, in part, by increasing heat generation through exercise. Stimulants also delay the onset of fatigue and exhaustion allowing animals to exercise longer. If used in a warm environment, this combination (increased exercise and decreased fatigue) can cause heat stroke. The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) is involved in mediating locomotion from stimulants. Furthermore, inhibiting the DMH decreases locomotion and prevents hyperthermia in rats given stimulants in a warm environment. Whether the DMH is involved in mediating exercise-induced fatigue and exhaustion is not known. We hypothesized that disinhibiting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) would delay the onset of fatigue and exhaustion in animals exercising in a warm environment. To test this hypothesis, we used automated video tracking software to measure fatigue and exhaustion. In rats, using wearable mini-pumps, we demonstrated that disinhibiting the DMH, via bicuculline perfusion (5 µM), increased the duration of exercise in a warm environment as compared to control animals (25 ± 3 min vs 15 ± 2 min). Bicuculline-perfused animals also had higher temperatures at exhaustion (41.4 ± 0.2 °C vs 40.0 ± 0.4 °C). Disinhibiting neurons in the DMH also increased the time to fatigue. Our data show that the same region of the hypothalamus that is involved in mediating locomotion to stimulants, is also involved in controlling exhaustion and fatigue. These findings have implications for understanding the cause and treatment of stimulant-induced-hyperthermia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Submaximal Warm-up Exercise on Exercise-induced Asthma in African School Children.

    PubMed

    Mtshali, B F; Mokwena, K; Oguntibeju, O O

    2015-03-01

    Regular physical activity has long been regarded as an important component of a healthy lifestyle. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is one of the major problems interfering with the performance of exercise. A warm-up exercise programme has been cited as a non-pharmacologic means of reducing EIA, but its effect has not been fully elucidated. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of unrecognized EIA in Pretoria primary school children, determine the effect of a warm-up exercise programme on EIA and to establish the relationship between history of allergy, family history of asthma and EIA. A random sample of 640 school children was selected. The study was divided into three phases. In phase one, a descriptive cross-sectional study was done using the standardized European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire. In phase two, non-asthmatic participants that returned a completed questionnaire were included in the field study. Pre-test and post-test experimental designs were used, where peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured at baseline and within ten minutes after exercise. A total of 340 subjects completed the Free Running Asthma Screening Test (FRAST); EIA was defined as a decrease in baseline PEFR ≥ 10% after exercise and 75 children (22%) had EIA. In phase three, 29 of the 75 subjects participated in the warm-up programme which was performed in the laboratory and subjects acted as their own controls. Predefined protocols for the study were followed. Seventy-five (22%) of the 340 participants had EIA. The mean age, height and weight were 10.51 years, 139.26 cm and 33.45 kg, respectively. Exercise-induced asthma symptoms were cough (25%), chest pain (16%), wheeze (12%) and chest tightness (12%). The history of allergy was 75%, family history of allergy 40% and positive history of allergy when near animals, feathers or in dusty areas 38%. Wheezing during or after exercise, wheezing when near animals, feathers or in dusty areas

  6. The effects of warmed intravenous fluids, combined warming (warmed intravenous fluids with humid-warm oxygen), and pethidine on the severity of shivering in general anesthesia patients in the recovery room

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Ahmad; Akbari, Ayob; Sharifzade, GholamReza; Derakhshan, Pooya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shivering is a common complication of general and epidural anesthesia. Warming methods and many drugs are used for control of shivering in the recovery room. The present study is a randomized clinical trial aimed to investigate the effects of two interventions in comparison with pethidine which is the routine treatment on shivering in patients undergoing abdominal surgery with general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven patients undergoing abdominal surgery by general anesthesia were randomly assigned to three groups (two intervention groups in comparison with pethidine as routine). Patients in warmed intravenous fluids group received pre-warmed Ringer serum (38°C), patients in combined warming group received pre-warmed Ringer serum (38°C) accompanied by humid-warm oxygen, and patients in pethidine group received intravenous pethidine routinely. The elapsed time of shivering and some hemodynamic parameters of the participants were assessed for 20 min postoperatively in the recovery room. Then the collected data were analyzed by software SPSS (v. 16) with the significance level being P < 0.05. Results: The mean of elapsed time in the warmed intravenous serum group, the combined warming group, and the pethidine group were 7 (1.5) min, 6 (1.5) min, and 2.8 (0.7) min, respectively, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The body temperatures in both combined warming and pethidine groups were increased significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Combined warming can be effective in controlling postoperative shivering and body temperature increase. PMID:26793258

  7. Warming influences Mg2+ content, while warming and acidification influence calcification and test strength of a sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Maria; Smith, Abigail M; West, Samantha; Collard, Marie; Dubois, Philippe; Graba-landry, Alexia; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2014-11-04

    We examined the long-term effects of near-future changes in temperature and acidification on skeletal mineralogy, thickness, and strength in the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla reared in all combinations of three pH (pH 8.1, 7.8, 7.6) and three temperatures (22 °C, 25 °C, 28 °C) from the early juvenile to adult, over 146 days. As the high-magnesium calcite of the echinoderm skeleton is a biomineral form highly sensitive to acidification, and influenced by temperature, we documented the MgCO3 content of the spines, test plates, and teeth. The percentage of MgCO3 varied systematically, with more Mg2+ in the test and spines. The percentage of MgCO3 in the test and teeth, but not the spines increased with temperature. Acidification did not change the percentage MgCO3. Test thickness increased with warming and decreased at pH 7.6, with no interaction between these factors. In crushing tests live urchins mostly ruptured at sutures between the plates. The force required to crush a live urchin was reduced in animals reared in low pH conditions but increased in those reared in warm conditions, a result driven by differences in urchin size. It appears that the interactive effects of warming and acidification on the Mg2+ content and protective function of the sea urchin skeleton will play out in a complex way as global climatic change unfolds.

  8. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...

  9. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...

  10. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...

  11. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...

  12. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...

  13. Independent effects of heart-head distance and caudal blood pooling on blood pressure regulation in aquatic and terrestrial snakes.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; Arndt, Joachim O

    2004-03-01

    Changes in orientation in a gravitational field markedly alter the patterns of blood pressure and flow in animals, especially tall or long ones such as giraffes or snakes. Vertical orientation tends to reduce blood flow and pressure in the head for two major reasons. First, the increased vertical blood column above the heart creates a gravitational hydrostatic pressure against which the heart must work. Second, expansion of dependent vessels in the lower extremities causes blood pooling and reduces return of venous blood to the heart, thereby lowering flow and pressure. For most animals, it is difficult to separate these two effects, but snakes offer the possibility of bending the animal in the region of the heart and manipulating the two ends of the body independently. We studied baroregulatory responses in terrestrial pythons (Liasis fuscus) and aquatic file snakes (Acrochordus arafurae) by tilting only the front or rear parts and then the whole animal. Changes in head blood pressure during partial tilts added up to the change during full tilt. The vertical distance to the head had twice as much influence on head blood pressure than did blood pooling in the pythons and four times as much in file snakes. This accounts for the cephalad location of the heart in terrestrial species compared with aquatic ones.

  14. Warm-adapted microbial communities enhance their carbon-use efficiency in warmed soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousk, Johannes; Frey, Serita

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystem models predict that climate warming will stimulate microbial decomposition of soil carbon (C), resulting in a positive feedback to increasing temperatures. The current generation of models assume that the temperature sensitivities of microbial processes do not respond to warming. However, recent studies have suggested that the ability of microbial communities to adapt to warming can lead both strengthened and weakened feedbacks. A further complication is that the balance between microbial C used for growth to that used for respiration - the microbial carbon-use efficiency (CUE) - also has been shown through both modelling and empirical study to respond to warming. In our study, we set out to assess how chronic warming (+5°C over ambient during 9 years) of a temperate hardwood forest floor (Harvard Forest LTER, USA) affected temperature sensitivities of microbial processes in soil. To do this, we first determined the temperature relationships for bacterial growth, fungal growth, and respiration in plots exposed to warmed or ambient conditions. Secondly, we parametrised the established temperature functions microbial growth and respiration with plot-specific measured soil temperature data at a hourly time-resolution over the course of 3 years to estimate the real-time variation of in situ microbial C production and respiration. To estimate the microbial CUE, we also divided the microbial C production with the sum of microbial C production and respiration as a proxy for substrate use. We found that warm-adapted bacterial and fungal communities both shifted their temperature relationships to grow at higher rates in warm conditions which coincided with reduced rates at cool conditions. As such, their optimal temperature (Topt), minimum temperature (Tmin) and temperature sensitivity (Q10) were all increased. The temperature relationship for temperature, in contrast, was only marginally shifted in the same direction, but at a much smaller effect size, with

  15. Protection of pulmonary graft from thrombosis in donation after cardiac death: effect of warm ischaemia versus cold ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Leif; Lindstedt, Sandra; Ingemansson, Richard

    2016-11-01

    The use of donation after cardiac death (DCD) to overcome organ shortage is slowly moving into the clinic. In this study, we compare the protective effect of warm ischaemia versus cold ischaemia on thrombotic formation in non-heparinized pulmonary grafts. Twelve Landrace pigs were randomized into two groups: warm ischaemia and cold ischaemia. Ventricular fibrillation without the administration of heparin was induced to mimick an uncontrolled DCD situation. The animals were then exposed to either 1 h of cold ischaemia (insertion of drain and installation of cold fluid in the pleuras) or warm ischaemia (body temperature). After 1 h, the pulmonary artery was opened and the pulmonary arterial branches were then macroscopically studied for thrombotic material. After 60 min, the temperature was 36.6 ± 0.0°C in the warm ischaemic group and 14.6 ± 0.1°C in the cold ischaemic group (P < 0.001). In the warm ischaemic group, no thrombotic material could be found in the pulmonary artery in the animals examined and in the cold ischaemic group 6.8 ± 0.2 ml thrombotic material was found in the pulmonary artery (P < 0.001). In the warm ischaemic group, no thrombotic material could be found in the arterial branches of the pulmonary artery and in the cold ischaemic group 2.3 ± 0.1 ml thrombotic material was found in the arterial branches of the pulmonary artery (P < 0.001). Warm ischaemia rather than cold ischaemia seems to protect the pulmonary graft from thrombosis in uncontrolled non-heparinized DCD pigs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-climatic thermal adaptation: implications for species' responses to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Marshall, David J; McQuaid, Christopher D; Williams, Gray A

    2010-10-23

    There is considerable interest in understanding how ectothermic animals may physiologically and behaviourally buffer the effects of climate warming. Much less consideration is being given to how organisms might adapt to non-climatic heat sources in ways that could confound predictions for responses of species and communities to climate warming. Although adaptation to non-climatic heat sources (solar and geothermal) seems likely in some marine species, climate warming predictions for marine ectotherms are largely based on adaptation to climatically relevant heat sources (air or surface sea water temperature). Here, we show that non-climatic solar heating underlies thermal resistance adaptation in a rocky-eulittoral-fringe snail. Comparisons of the maximum temperatures of the air, the snail's body and the rock substratum with solar irradiance and physiological performance show that the highest body temperature is primarily controlled by solar heating and re-radiation, and that the snail's upper lethal temperature exceeds the highest climatically relevant regional air temperature by approximately 22°C. Non-climatic thermal adaptation probably features widely among marine and terrestrial ectotherms and because it could enable species to tolerate climatic rises in air temperature, it deserves more consideration in general and for inclusion into climate warming models.

  17. Earlier flowering did not alter pollen limitation in an early flowering shrub under short-term experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Pan, Cheng-Chen; Feng, Qi; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Liu, Lin-De; Li, Yu-Lin; Li, Yu-Qiang; Zhang, Tong-Hui; Yu, Xiao-Ya

    2017-06-05

    In animal pollinated plants, phenological shifts caused by climate change may have important ecological consequences. However, no empirical evidence exists at present on the consequences that flowering phenology shifts have on the strength of pollen limitation under experimental warming. Here, we investigated the effects of experimental warming on flowering phenology, flower density, reproductive success, and pollen limitation intensity in Caragana microphylla and evaluated whether earlier flowering phenology affected plant reproduction and the level of pollen limitation using warmed and unwarmed open top chambers in the Horqin Sandy Land of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The results of this study indicated that artificial warming markedly advanced flower phenology rather than extending the duration of the flowering. Additionally, warming was found to significantly reduce flower density which led to seed production reduction, since there were insignificant effects observed on fruit set and seed number per fruit. Experimental floral manipulations showed that warming did not affect pollen limitation. These results revealed the negative effects of advanced phenology induced by warming on flower density and reproductive output, as well as the neutral effects on reproductive success and pollen limitation intensity of long surviving plants.

  18. PROCESS FOR CONTROLLING ANIMAL GROWTH RATE

    DOEpatents

    Visek, W.J.

    1962-04-10

    A method of injecting growing animals with the enzyme urease subcutaneously in increasing dosages is described; this generates within the blood anti-urease which enters the intestinal tract and inhibits the enzymatic decomposition of urea by urease in that location. Ammonia, one of the decomposition products, is thereby kept from diffusing through the intestinal walls into the blood, and this greatly reduces the energy requirements of the liver for removing the ammonia, thereby increasing the feeding efficiency of the animals. (AEC)

  19. Accelerated increase in the Arctic tropospheric warming events surpassing stratospheric warming events during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Lin, Yen-Heng; Lee, Ming-Ying; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Meyer, Jonathan D. D.; Rasch, Philip J.

    2017-04-01

    In January 2016, a robust reversal of the Arctic Oscillation took place associated with a rapid tropospheric warming in the Arctic region; this was followed by the occurrence of a classic sudden stratospheric warming in March. The succession of these two distinct Arctic warming events provides a stimulating opportunity to examine their characteristics in terms of similarities and differences. Historical cases of these two types of Arctic warming were identified and validated based upon tropical linkages with the Madden-Julian Oscillation and El Niño as documented in previous studies. The analysis indicates a recent and seemingly accelerated increase in the tropospheric warming type versus a flat trend in stratospheric warming type. The shorter duration and more rapid transition of tropospheric warming events may connect to the documented increase in midlatitude weather extremes, more so than the route of stratospheric warming type. Forced simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model suggest that the reduced Arctic sea ice contributes to the observed increase in the tropospheric warming events and associated remarkable strengthening of the cold Siberian high manifest in 2016.

  20. Tourniquet application after local forearm warming to improve venodilation for peripheral intravenous cannulation in young and middle-aged adults: A single-blind prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Yuki; Tomita, Kohei; Tsujimoto, Tomomi; Inoue, Tomoko

    2017-07-01

    Local forearm warming before tourniquet application is often used to promote venodilation for peripheral intravenous cannulation; however, few studies have compared the effect of tourniquet application with and without local warming on vein size. To evaluate the effectiveness of tourniquet application after local forearm warming with that of tourniquet application alone in young and middle-aged adults. A single-blind, prospective, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. A national university in Japan. Seventy-two volunteers aged 20-64 years. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: tourniquet application for 30s after forearm application of a heat pack warmed to 40°C±2°C for 15min (active warming group; n=36) or tourniquet application for 30s after applying a non-warmed heat pack for 15min (passive warming group; n=36). The primary outcomes were vein cross-sectional area on the forearm, measured after the intervention by blinded research assistants using ultrasound. Secondary outcomes were shortest diameter, and longest diameter of vein on the forearm, forearm skin temperature, body temperature, pulse, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. All outcomes were assessed at the same site before and immediately after the intervention, once per participant. Vein cross-sectional area, shortest vein diameter, and longest vein diameter were significantly increased in the active warming group compared with the passive warming group (p <0.01). Tourniquet application after local warming was superior to tourniquet application alone in increasing vein cross-sectional, shortest diameter, and longest diameter (between-group differences of 2.2mm 2 , 0.5mm, and 0.5mm, respectively), and in raising skin temperature (between-group difference: 5.2°C). However, there were no significant differences in body temperature, pulse, or systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the groups. There were no adverse events associated with either

  1. Comparison of PCR-Based Diagnosis with Centrifuged-Based Enrichment Method for Detection of Borrelia persica in Animal Blood Samples.

    PubMed

    Naddaf, S R; Kishdehi, M; Siavashi, Mr

    2011-01-01

    The mainstay of diagnosis of relapsing fever (RF) is demonstration of the spirochetes in Giemsa-stained thick blood smears, but during non fever periods the bacteria are very scanty and rarely detected in blood smears by microscopy. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of different methods developed for detection of low-grade spirochetemia. Animal blood samples with low degrees of spirochetemia were tested with two PCRs and a nested PCR targeting flaB, GlpQ, and rrs genes. Also, a centrifuged-based enrichment method and Giemsa staining were performed on blood samples with various degrees of spirochetemia. The flaB-PCR and nested rrs-PCR turned positive with various degrees of spirochetemia including the blood samples that turned negative with dark-field microscopy. The GlpQ-PCR was positive as far as at least one spirochete was seen in 5-10 microscopic fields. The sensitivity of GlpQ-PCR increased when DNA from Buffy Coat Layer (BCL) was used as template. The centrifuged-based enrichment method turned positive with as low concentration as 50 bacteria/ml blood, while Giemsa thick staining detected bacteria with concentrations ≥ 25000 bacteria/ml. Centrifuged-based enrichment method appeared as much as 500-fold more sensitive than thick smears, which makes it even superior to some PCR assays. Due to simplicity and minimal laboratory requirements, this method can be considered a valuable tool for diagnosis of RF in rural health centers.

  2. Association between antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from food animals and blood stream isolates from humans in Europe: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Antonio R; Collignon, Peter; Aarestrup, Frank M; McEwen, Scott A; Hendriksen, Rene S; Hald, Tine; Wegener, Henrik C

    2011-12-01

    In addition to medical antimicrobial usage, the use of antimicrobials in food animals contributes to the occurrence of resistance among some bacterial species isolated from infections in humans. Recently, several studies have indicated that a large proportion of Escherichia coli causing infections in humans, especially those resistant to antimicrobials, have an animal origin. We analyzed the correlation between the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections in humans and in E. coli isolates from poultry, pigs, and cattle between 2005 and 2008 for 11 countries, using available surveillance data. We also assessed the correlation between human antimicrobial usage and the occurrence of resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections. Strong and significant correlations between prevalences of resistance to ampicillin (r=0.94), aminoglycosides (r=0.72), third-generation cephalosporins (r=0.76), and fluoroquinolones (r=0.68) were observed for human and poultry E. coli isolates. Similar significant correlations were observed for ampicillin (r=0.91), aminoglycosides (r=0.73), and fluoroquinolone resistance (r=0.74) in pig and human isolates. In cattle isolates, only ampicillin resistance (r=0.72) was significantly correlated to human isolates. When usage of antimicrobials in humans was analyzed with antimicrobial resistance among human isolates, only correlations between fluoroquinolones (r=0.90) and third-generation cephalosporins (r=0.75) were significant. Resistance in E. coli isolates from food animals (especially poultry and pigs) was highly correlated with resistance in isolates from humans. This supports the hypothesis that a large proportion of resistant E. coli isolates causing blood stream infections in people may be derived from food sources.

  3. Physiological constraints to climate warming in fish follow principles of plastic floors and concrete ceilings.

    PubMed

    Sandblom, Erik; Clark, Timothy D; Gräns, Albin; Ekström, Andreas; Brijs, Jeroen; Sundström, L Fredrik; Odelström, Anne; Adill, Anders; Aho, Teija; Jutfelt, Fredrik

    2016-05-17

    Understanding the resilience of aquatic ectothermic animals to climate warming has been hindered by the absence of experimental systems experiencing warming across relevant timescales (for example, decades). Here, we examine European perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.) from the Biotest enclosure, a unique coastal ecosystem that maintains natural thermal fluctuations but has been warmed by 5-10 °C by a nuclear power plant for over three decades. We show that Biotest perch grow faster and display thermally compensated resting cardiorespiratory functions compared with reference perch living at natural temperatures in adjacent waters. However, maximum cardiorespiratory capacities and heat tolerance limits exhibit limited or no thermal compensation when compared with acutely heated reference perch. We propose that while basal energy requirements and resting cardiorespiratory functions (floors) are thermally plastic, maximum capacities and upper critical heat limits (ceilings) are much less flexible and thus will limit the adaptive capacity of fishes in a warming climate.

  4. Warm up I: potential mechanisms and the effects of passive warm up on exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David

    2003-01-01

    Despite limited scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness, warm-up routines prior to exercise are a well-accepted practice. The majority of the effects of warm up have been attributed to temperature-related mechanisms (e.g. decreased stiffness, increased nerve-conduction rate, altered force-velocity relationship, increased anaerobic energy provision and increased thermoregulatory strain), although non-temperature-related mechanisms have also been proposed (e.g. effects of acidaemia, elevation of baseline oxygen consumption (.VO(2)) and increased postactivation potentiation). It has also been hypothesised that warm up may have a number of psychological effects (e.g. increased preparedness). Warm-up techniques can be broadly classified into two major categories: passive warm up or active warm up. Passive warm up involves raising muscle or core temperature by some external means, while active warm up utilises exercise. Passive heating allows one to obtain the increase in muscle or core temperature achieved by active warm up without depleting energy substrates. Passive warm up, although not practical for most athletes, also allows one to test the hypothesis that many of the performance changes associated with active warm up can be largely attributed to temperature-related mechanisms.

  5. Towards an animal model of ovarian cancer: cataloging chicken blood proteins using combinatorial peptide ligand libraries coupled with shotgun proteomic analysis for translational research.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingying; Sun, Zeyu; de Matos, Ricardo; Zhang, Jing; Odunsi, Kunle; Lin, Biaoyang

    2014-05-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecological cancer around the world, with high morbidity in industrialized countries. Early diagnosis is key in reducing its morbidity rate. Yet, robust biomarkers, diagnostics, and animal models are still limited for ovarian cancer. This calls for broader omics and systems science oriented diagnostics strategies. In this vein, the domestic chicken has been used as an ovarian cancer animal model, owing to its high rate of developing spontaneous epithelial ovarian tumors. Chicken blood has thus been considered a surrogate reservoir from which cancer biomarkers can be identified. However, the presence of highly abundant proteins in chicken blood has compromised the applicability of proteomics tools to study chicken blood owing to a lack of immunodepletion methods. Here, we demonstrate that a combinatorial peptide ligand library (CPLL) can efficiently remove highly abundant proteins from chicken blood samples, consequently doubling the number of identified proteins. Using an integrated CPLL-1DGE-LC-MSMS workflow, we identified a catalog of 264 unique proteins. Functional analyses further suggested that most proteins were coagulation and complement factors, blood transport and binding proteins, immune- and defense-related proteins, proteases, protease inhibitors, cellular enzymes, or cell structure and adhesion proteins. Semiquantitative spectral counting analysis identified 10 potential biomarkers from the present chicken ovarian cancer model. Additionally, many human homologs of chicken blood proteins we have identified have been independently suggested as diagnostic biomarkers for ovarian cancer, further triangulating our novel observations reported here. In conclusion, the CPLL-assisted proteomic workflow using the chicken ovarian cancer model provides a feasible platform for translational research to identify ovarian cancer biomarkers and understand ovarian cancer biology. To the best of our knowledge, we report here

  6. The physiology of dinosaurs: circulatory and respiratory function in the largest animals ever to walk the earth.

    PubMed

    Pierson, David J

    2009-07-01

    The cardiopulmonary physiology of dinosaurs-and especially of the long-necked sauropods, which grew much larger than any land animals before or since-should be inherently fascinating to anyone involved in respiratory care. What would the blood pressure be in an animal 12 m (40 ft) tall? How could airway resistance and dead space be overcome while breathing through a trachea 9 m (30 ft) long? The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in evidence bearing on these questions. Insight has come not only from new fossil discoveries but also from comparative studies of living species, clarification of evolutionary relationships, new evaluation techniques, computer modeling, and discoveries about the earth's ancient atmosphere. Pumping a vertical column of blood 8 m (26 ft) above the heart would probably require an arterial blood pressure > 600 mm Hg, and the implications of this for cardiac size and function have led to the proposal of several alternative cardiopulmonary designs. Diverse lines of evidence suggest that the giant sauropods were probably warm-blooded and metabolically active when young, but slowed their metabolism as they approached adult size, which diminished the load on the circulatory system. Circulatory considerations leave little doubt that the dinosaurs had 4-chambered hearts. Birds evolved from dinosaurs, and the avian-type air-sac respiratory system, which is more efficient than its mammalian counterpart, may hold the answer to the breathing problems posed by the sauropods' very long necks. Geochemical and other data indicate that, at the time the dinosaurs first appeared, the atmospheric oxygen concentration was only about half of what it is today, and development of the avian-type respiratory system may have been key in the dinosaurs' evolutionary success, enabling them to out-compete the mammals and dominate the land for 150 million years.

  7. Evaluation of Stem Cell-Derived Red Blood Cells as a Transfusion Product Using a Novel Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sandeep N; Gelderman, Monique P; Lewis, Emily M A; Farrel, John; Wood, Francine; Strader, Michael Brad; Alayash, Abdu I; Vostal, Jaroslav G

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on volunteer blood donors can lead to transfusion product shortages, and current liquid storage of red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with biochemical changes over time, known as 'the storage lesion'. Thus, there is a need for alternative sources of transfusable RBCs to supplement conventional blood donations. Extracorporeal production of stem cell-derived RBCs (stemRBCs) is a potential and yet untapped source of fresh, transfusable RBCs. A number of groups have attempted RBC differentiation from CD34+ cells. However, it is still unclear whether these stemRBCs could eventually be effective substitutes for traditional RBCs due to potential differences in oxygen carrying capacity, viability, deformability, and other critical parameters. We have generated ex vivo stemRBCs from primary human cord blood CD34+ cells and compared them to donor-derived RBCs based on a number of in vitro parameters. In vivo, we assessed stemRBC circulation kinetics in an animal model of transfusion and oxygen delivery in a mouse model of exercise performance. Our novel, chronically anemic, SCID mouse model can evaluate the potential of stemRBCs to deliver oxygen to tissues (muscle) under resting and exercise-induced hypoxic conditions. Based on our data, stem cell-derived RBCs have a similar biochemical profile compared to donor-derived RBCs. While certain key differences remain between donor-derived RBCs and stemRBCs, the ability of stemRBCs to deliver oxygen in a living organism provides support for further development as a transfusion product.

  8. Fostering secure attachment: experiences of animal companions in the foster home.

    PubMed

    Carr, Sam; Rockett, Ben

    2017-06-01

    This study sought to use attachment theory as a lens through which to explore children's relationships with animal companions in the context of long-term foster care. Inductive and deductive thematic analyses of longitudinal case study data from eight children and their foster families suggested (a) that children's relationships with animal companions satisfied attachment-related functions in their own right and (b) that animal companions also helped to soften perceptions of foster caregivers, facilitating opportunities for the development of closeness. Animals in the foster home may therefore play an important part in helping children to find and develop secure, warm, and loving relationships.

  9. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...

  10. Warming shifts 'worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B

    2014-11-03

    Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration.

  11. Accelerated Increase in the Arctic Tropospheric Warming Events Surpassing StratosphericWarming Events During Winter

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Simon; Lin, Yen-Heng; Lee, Ming-Ying

    2017-04-22

    In January 2016, a robust reversal of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) took place associated with a rapid tropospheric warming in the Arctic region; this was followed by the occurrence of a classic sudden stratospheric warming in March-April. The succession of these two distinct Arctic warming events provides a stimulating opportunity to examine their characteristics in terms of similarities and differences. Historical cases of these two types of Arctic warming were identified and validated based upon tropical linkages with the Madden-Julian Oscillation and El Niño as well as those documented in previous studies. Our results indicate a recent and accelerated increasemore » in the tropospheric warming type versus a flat trend in stratospheric warming type. Given that tropospheric warming events occur twice as fast than the stratospheric warming type, the noted increase in the former implies further intensification in midlatitude winter weather extremes similar to those experienced in early 2016. Forced simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model suggest that the reduced Arctic sea ice contributes to the observed increase in the tropospheric warming events and associated impact on the anomalously cold Siberia.« less

  12. Strong Delayed Interactive Effects of Metal Exposure and Warming: Latitude-Dependent Synergisms Persist Across Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Debecker, Sara; Dinh, Khuong V; Stoks, Robby

    2017-02-21

    As contaminants are often more toxic at higher temperatures, predicting their impact under global warming remains a key challenge for ecological risk assessment. Ignoring delayed effects, synergistic interactions between contaminants and warming, and differences in sensitivity across species' ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and low-latitude populations. By integrating these mechanisms into a single study, we could identify two novel patterns. First, during exposure zinc did not affect survival, whereas it induced mild to moderate postexposure mortality in the larval stage and at metamorphosis, and very strongly reduced adult lifespan. This severe delayed effect across metamorphosis was especially remarkable in high-latitude animals, as they appeared almost insensitive to zinc during the larval stage. Second, the well-known synergism between metals and warming was manifested not only during the larval stage but also after metamorphosis, yet notably only in low-latitude damselflies. These results highlight that a more complete life-cycle approach that incorporates the possibility of delayed interactions between contaminants and warming in a geographical context is crucial for a more realistic risk assessment in a warming world.

  13. Substantial Metabolic Activity of Human Brown Adipose Tissue during Warm Conditions and Cold-Induced Lipolysis of Local Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Weir, Graeme; Ramage, Lynne E; Akyol, Murat; Rhodes, Jonathan K; Kyle, Catriona J; Fletcher, Alison M; Craven, Thomas H; Wakelin, Sonia J; Drake, Amanda J; Gregoriades, Maria-Lena; Ashton, Ceri; Weir, Nick; van Beek, Edwin J R; Karpe, Fredrik; Walker, Brian R; Stimson, Roland H

    2018-06-05

    Current understanding of in vivo human brown adipose tissue (BAT) physiology is limited by a reliance on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanning, which has measured exogenous glucose and fatty acid uptake but not quantified endogenous substrate utilization by BAT. Six lean, healthy men underwent 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT scanning to localize BAT so microdialysis catheters could be inserted in supraclavicular BAT under CT guidance and in abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). Arterial and dialysate samples were collected during warm (∼25°C) and cold exposure (∼17°C), and blood flow was measured by 133 xenon washout. During warm conditions, there was increased glucose uptake and lactate release and decreased glycerol release by BAT compared with WAT. Cold exposure increased blood flow, glycerol release, and glucose and glutamate uptake only by BAT. This novel use of microdialysis reveals that human BAT is metabolically active during warm conditions. BAT activation substantially increases local lipolysis but also utilization of other substrates such as glutamate. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ocean Depths: The Mesopelagic and Implications for Global Warming.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark J; Breyer, Sean

    2017-01-09

    The mesopelagic or 'twilight zone' of the oceans occurs too deep for photosynthesis, but is a major part of the world's carbon cycle. Depth boundaries for the mesopelagic have now been shown on a global scale using the distribution of pelagic animals detected by compiling echo-soundings from ships around the world, and been used to predict the effect of global warming on regional fish production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Warming of infusion syringes caused by electronic syringe pumps.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, A; Frey, B; Neff, T A; Gerber, A C; Weiss, M

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate inadvertent warming of the infusion syringe in four different types of electronic syringe pumps. Ambient temperature and syringe surface temperature were simultaneously measured by two electronic temperature probes in four different models of commercially available syringe pumps. Experiments were performed at an infusion rate of 1 ml h(-1) using both battery-operated and main power-operated pumps. Measurements were repeated four times with two pumps from each of the four syringe pump types at a room temperature of approximately 23 degrees C. Differences among the four syringe pump brands regarding ambient to syringe temperature gradient were compared using ANOVA. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Syringe warming differed significantly between the four syringe brands for both the battery-operated and main power-operated mode (ANOVA, P< 0.001 for both modes). Individual differences between syringe surface and ambient temperature ranged from 0.3 to 1.9 degrees C for battery operation and from 0.5 to 11.2 degrees C during main-power operation. Infusion solutions can be significantly warmed by syringe pumps. This has potential impact on bacterial growth and the stability of drug solutions and blood products infused, as well as on the susceptibility to hydrostatic pressure changes within the infusion syringe.

  16. Global Warming and Its Health Impact.

    PubMed

    Rossati, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients. Direct exposure to natural disasters has also an impact on mental health and, although too complex to be quantified, a link has even been established between climate and civil violence. Over time, climate change can reduce agricultural resources through reduced availability of water, alterations and shrinking arable land, increased pollution, accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain, and creation of habitats suitable to the transmission of human and animal pathogens. People living in low-income countries are particularly vulnerable. Climate change scenarios include a change in distribution of infectious diseases with warming and changes in outbreaks associated with weather extreme events. After floods, increased cases of leptospirosis, campylobacter infections and cryptosporidiosis are reported. Global warming affects water heating, rising the transmission of water-borne pathogens. Pathogens transmitted by vectors are particularly sensitive to climate change because they spend a good part of their life cycle in a cold-blooded host invertebrate whose temperature is similar to the environment. A warmer climate presents more favorable conditions for the survival and the completion of the life cycle of the vector, going as far as to speed it up

  17. Warm-up for Sprint Swimming: Race-Pace or Aerobic Stimulation? A Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Viana, João L; Teixeira, Ana M; Marinho, Daniel A

    2017-09-01

    Neiva, HP, Marques, MC, Barbosa, TM, Izquierdo, M, Viana, JL, Teixeira, AM, and Marinho, DA. Warm-up for sprint swimming: race-pace or aerobic stimulation? A randomized study. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2423-2431, 2017-The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 2 different warm-up intensities on 100-m swimming performance in a randomized controlled trial. Thirteen competitive swimmers performed two 100-m freestyle time-trials on separate days after either control or experimental warm-up in a randomized design. The control warm-up included a typical race-pace set (4 × 25 m), whereas the experimental warm-up included an aerobic set (8 × 50 m at 98-102% of critical velocity). Cortisol, testosterone, blood lactate ([La]), oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate, core (Tcore and Tcorenet) and tympanic temperatures, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Stroke length (SL), stroke frequency (SF), stroke index (SI), and propelling efficiency (ηp) were assessed for each 50-m lap. We found that V[Combining Dot Above]O2, heart rate, and Tcorenet were higher after experimental warm-up (d > 0.73), but only the positive effect for Tcorenet was maintained until the trial. Performance was not different between conditions (d = 0.07). Experimental warm-up was found to slow SF (mean change ±90% CL = 2.06 ± 1.48%) and increase SL (1.65 ± 1.40%) and ηp (1.87 ± 1.33%) in the first lap. After the time-trials, this warm-up had a positive effect on Tcorenet (d = 0.69) and a negative effect on [La] (d = 0.56). Although the warm-ups had similar outcomes in the 100-m freestyle, performance was achieved through different biomechanical strategies. Stroke length and efficiency were higher in the first lap after the experimental warm-up, whereas SF was higher after control warm-up. Physiological adaptations were observed mainly through an increased Tcore after experimental warm-up. In this condition, the lower [La] after the trial suggests lower

  18. Global Warming: A Reduced Threat?.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Stooksbury, David E.

    1992-10-01

    One popular and apocalyptic vision of the world influenced by increasing concentrations of infrared-absorbing trace gases is that of ecological disaster brought about by rapidly rising temperatures, sea level, and evaporation rates. This vision developed from a suite of climate models that have since considerably changed in both their dynamics and their estimates of prospective warming. Observed temperatures indicate that much more warming should already have taken place than predicted by earlier models in the Northern Hemisphere, and that night, rather than day, readings in that hemisphere show a relative warming. A high-latitude polar-night warming or a general night warming could be either benign or beneficial. A large number of plant species show both increased growth and greater water-use efficiency under enhanced carbon dioxide.An extensive body of evidence now indicates that anthropo-generated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the warming, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, warming. The sulfate emissions, though, are not sufficient to explain all of the night warming. However, the sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted warming, could drastically alter the debate on global warming in favor of less expensive policies.

  19. Influence of Dai-kenchu-to (DKT) on human portal blood flow.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Takashi; Morine, Yuji; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Imura, Satoru; Fujii, Masahiko; Soejima, Yuji; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Dai-kenchu-to (DKT) is known as an herbal medicine used for postoperative ileus. However, no report exists about the effect of DKT on portal blood flow. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of DKT on portal blood flow. To healthy volunteers (Healthy; n = 6), cirrhotic patients (Cirrhosis; n = 7) and liver-transplant patients (LTx; n = 3), DKT (2.5g) with 100mL of warm water was orally administrated in the DKT group, and only warm water was administrated in the control group. The portal blood flow rate (M-VEL: cm/sec.) and portal blood flow (Flow volume: mL/min.) was measured each time after administration using an ultrasonic Doppler method. Furthermore, the arterial blood pressure and heart rate was measured at the same time points. In the DKT group, a significant increase of M-VEL (120%) and flow volume (150%) 30 minutes after administration was observed in both Healthy and Cirrhosis in comparison with the control group. In LTx, there was also a significant increase of flow volume (128%) 30 minutes after administration. However, there was no change in average blood pressure and heart rate in all groups. DKT increases portal blood flow in early phase after oral administration without any significant changes in the blood pressure and heart rate.

  20. Measurement of radioactivity concentration in blood by using newly developed ToT LuAG-APD based small animal PET tomograph.

    PubMed

    Malik, Azhar H; Shimazoe, Kenji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain plasma time activity curve (PTAC), input function for almost all quantitative PET studies, patient blood is sampled manually from the artery or vein which has various drawbacks. Recently a novel compact Time over Threshold (ToT) based Pr:LuAG-APD animal PET tomograph is developed in our laboratory which has 10% energy resolution, 4.2 ns time resolution and 1.76 mm spatial resolution. The measured value of spatial resolution shows much promise for imaging the blood vascular, i.e; artery of diameter 2.3-2.4mm, and hence, to measure PTAC for quantitative PET studies. To find the measurement time required to obtain reasonable counts for image reconstruction, the most important parameter is the sensitivity of the system. Usually small animal PET systems are characterized by using a point source in air. We used Electron Gamma Shower 5 (EGS5) code to simulate a point source at different positions inside the sensitive volume of tomograph and the axial and radial variations in the sensitivity are studied in air and phantom equivalent water cylinder. An average sensitivity difference of 34% in axial direction and 24.6% in radial direction is observed when point source is displaced inside water cylinder instead of air.

  1. Liquid Cooling/Warming Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Dancisak, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) currently in use was developed over 40 years ago. With the commencement of a greater number of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) procedures with the construction of the International Space Station, problems of astronaut comfort, as well as the reduction of the consumption of energy, became more salient. A shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG) has been developed based on physiological principles comparing the efficacy of heat transfer of different body zones; the capability of blood to deliver heat; individual muscle and fat body composition as a basis for individual thermal profiles to customize the zonal sections of the garment; and the development of shunts to minimize or redirect the cooling/warming loop for different environmental conditions, physical activity levels, and emergency situations. The SLCWG has been designed and completed, based on extensive testing in rest, exercise, and antiorthostatic conditions. It is more energy efficient than the LCVG currently used by NASA. The total length of tubing in the SLCWG is approximately 35 percent less and the weight decreased by 20 percent compared to the LCVG. The novel features of the innovation are: 1. The efficiency of the SLCWG to maintain thermal status under extreme changes in body surface temperatures while using significantly less tubing than the LCVG. 2. The construction of the garment based on physiological principles of heat transfer. 3. The identification of the body areas that are most efficient in heat transfer. 4. The inclusion of a hood as part of the garment. 5. The lesser consumption of energy.

  2. Warming shifts ‘worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633

  3. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  4. Warming and Acidification Induced Mass Mortality of a Coastal Keystone predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melzner, F.; Findeisen, U.

    2016-02-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterized by low salinity and pronounced fluctuations in pCO2. On-line monitoring of pCO2 in 2014 in Kiel Fjord demonstrated occurrence of peak values of >2,000 µatm in summer and autumn and average values >750 µatm. We assessed the impacts of elevated temperature (ambient temperature, ambient +3°C) and pCO2 (500, 1,500, 2,400 µatm) on the keystone species Asterias rubens in a fully crossed long - term experiment (N=5 replicate tanks each, 1 year duration). During spring and early summer (February - June), high temperature animals ingested significantly more food and spawned significantly earlier (April 30th) than ambient acclimated animals (May 23rd). Elevated pCO2 led to comparatively minor reductions in food intake and scope for growth during that period. During summer (June - August), elevated temperature >25°C caused negative energy budgets and >95% mortality in the warm acclimated groups, while mortality was low in the ambient temperature groups. Our results indicate that A. rubens may benefit from increased temperature during colder months, yet dramatically suffer during summer heat waves in warm years. Meaningful experimental approaches to assess species vulnerability to climate change need to encompass all seasons and realistic abiotic stressor levels.

  5. The effect of warm-ups with stretching on the isokinetic moments of collegiate men.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung-Kil; Jung, Min-Kyung; Park, Eunkyung; Lee, Chang-Young; Jee, Yong-Seok; Eun, Denny; Cha, Jun-Youl; Yoo, Jaehyun

    2018-02-01

    Performing warm-ups increases muscle temperature and blood flow, which contributes to improved exercise performance and reduced risk of injuries to muscles and tendons. Stretching increases the range of motion of the joints and is effective for the maintenance and enhancement of exercise performance and flexibility, as well as for injury prevention. However, stretching as a warm-up activity may temporarily decrease muscle strength, muscle power, and exercise performance. This study aimed to clarify the effect of stretching during warm-ups on muscle strength, muscle power, and muscle endurance in a nonathletic population. The subjects of this study consisted of 13 physically active male collegiate students with no medical conditions. A self-assessment questionnaire regarding how well the subjects felt about their physical abilities was administered to measure psychological readiness before and after the warm-up. Subjects performed a non-warm-up, warm-up, or warm-up regimen with stretching prior to the assessment of the isokinetic moments of knee joints. After the measurements, the respective variables were analyzed using nonparametric tests. First, no statistically significant intergroup differences were found in the flexor and extensor peak torques of the knee joints at 60°/sec, which were assessed to measure muscle strength. Second, no statistically significant intergroup differences were found in the flexor and extensor peak torques of the knee joints at 180°/sec, which were assessed to measure muscle power. Third, the total work of the knee joints at 240°/sec, intended to measure muscle endurance, was highest in the aerobic-stretch-warm-ups (ASW) group, but no statistically significant differences were found among the groups. Finally, the psychological readiness for physical activity according to the type of warm-up was significantly higher in ASW. Simple stretching during warm-ups appears to have no effect on variables of exercise physiology in nonathletes

  6. Monoclonal antibodies specific to heat-treated porcine blood.

    PubMed

    Raja Nhari, Raja Mohd Hafidz; Hamid, Muhajir; Rasli, Nurmunirah Mohamad; Omar, Abdul Rahman; El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2016-05-01

    Porcine blood is potentially being utilized in food as a binder, gelling agent, emulsifier or colorant. However, for certain communities, the usage of animal blood in food is strictly prohibited owing to religious concerns and health reasons. This study reports the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against heat-treated soluble proteins (HSPs) of autoclaved porcine blood; characterization of MAbs against blood, non-blood and plasma from different animal species using qualitative indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and immunoblotting of antigenic components in HSPs of porcine blood. Fifteen MAbs are specific to heat-treated and raw porcine blood and not cross-reacted with other animal blood and non-blood proteins (meat and non-meat). Twelve MAbs are specific to porcine plasma, while three MAbs specific to porcine plasma are cross-reacted with chicken plasma. Immunoblotting revealed antigenic protein bands (∼60, ∼85-100 and ∼250 kDa) in porcine blood and plasma recognized by the MAbs. Selection of MAbs that recognized 60 kDa HSPs of porcine blood and plasma as novel monoclonal antibodies would be useful for detection of porcine plasma in processed food using the immunoassay method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The effect of prolonged of warm ischaemic injury on renal function in an experimental ex vivo normothermic perfusion system.

    PubMed

    Hosgood, Sarah A; Shah, K; Patel, M; Nicholson, M L

    2015-06-30

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidney transplants inevitably sustain a degree of warm ischaemic injury, which is manifested clinically as delayed graft function. The aim of this study was to define the effects of prolonged periods of warm ischaemic injury on renal function in a normothermic haemoperfused kidney model. Porcine kidneys were subjected to 15, 60, 90 (n = 6 per group) and 120 min (n = 4) of in situ warm ischaemia (WI) and then retrieved, flushed with cold preservation fluid and stored in ice for 2 h. Kidneys then underwent 3 h of normothermic reperfusion with a whole blood-based perfusate using an ex vivo circuit developed from clinical grade cardiopulmonary bypass technology. Creatinine clearance, urine output and fractional excretion of sodium deteriorated sequentially with increasing warm time. Renal function was severely compromised after 90 or 120 min of WI but haemodynamic, metabolic and histological parameters demonstrated the viability of kidneys subjected to prolonged warm ischaemia. Isolated kidney perfusion using a warm, oxygenated, red cell-based perfusate allows an accurate ex vivo assessment of the potential for recovery from warm ischaemic injury. Prolonged renal warm ischaemic injury caused a severe decrement in renal function but was not associated with tissue necrosis.

  8. Ocean acidification and global warming impair shark hunting behaviour and growth.

    PubMed

    Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rossi, Tullio; Olmos, Maxime; Connell, Sean D

    2015-11-12

    Alterations in predation pressure can have large effects on trophically-structured systems. Modification of predator behaviour via ocean warming has been assessed by laboratory experimentation and metabolic theory. However, the influence of ocean acidification with ocean warming remains largely unexplored for mesopredators, including experimental assessments that incorporate key components of the assemblages in which animals naturally live. We employ a combination of long-term laboratory and mesocosm experiments containing natural prey and habitat to assess how warming and acidification affect the development, growth, and hunting behaviour in sharks. Although embryonic development was faster due to temperature, elevated temperature and CO2 had detrimental effects on sharks by not only increasing energetic demands, but also by decreasing metabolic efficiency and reducing their ability to locate food through olfaction. The combination of these effects led to considerable reductions in growth rates of sharks held in natural mesocosms with elevated CO2, either alone or in combination with higher temperature. Our results suggest a more complex reality for predators, where ocean acidification reduces their ability to effectively hunt and exert strong top-down control over food webs.

  9. Ocean acidification and global warming impair shark hunting behaviour and growth

    PubMed Central

    Pistevos, Jennifer C. A.; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rossi, Tullio; Olmos, Maxime; Connell, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in predation pressure can have large effects on trophically-structured systems. Modification of predator behaviour via ocean warming has been assessed by laboratory experimentation and metabolic theory. However, the influence of ocean acidification with ocean warming remains largely unexplored for mesopredators, including experimental assessments that incorporate key components of the assemblages in which animals naturally live. We employ a combination of long-term laboratory and mesocosm experiments containing natural prey and habitat to assess how warming and acidification affect the development, growth, and hunting behaviour in sharks. Although embryonic development was faster due to temperature, elevated temperature and CO2 had detrimental effects on sharks by not only increasing energetic demands, but also by decreasing metabolic efficiency and reducing their ability to locate food through olfaction. The combination of these effects led to considerable reductions in growth rates of sharks held in natural mesocosms with elevated CO2, either alone or in combination with higher temperature. Our results suggest a more complex reality for predators, where ocean acidification reduces their ability to effectively hunt and exert strong top-down control over food webs. PMID:26559327

  10. Warm Mix Asphalt

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-04-17

    State of Alaska State of Alaska - Warm Mix Project Warm Mix Project: Location - Petersburg, Alaska which is Petersburg, Alaska which is located in the heart of Southeast Alaska located in the heart of Southeast Alaska's Inside Passage at the tip of M...

  11. Hematology, cytochemistry and ultrastructure of blood cells in fishing cat (Felis viverrina).

    PubMed

    Prihirunkit, Kreangsak; Salakij, Chaleow; Apibal, Suntaree; Narkkong, Nual Anong

    2007-06-01

    Hematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural features of blood cells in fishing cat (Felis viverrina) were evaluated using complete blood cell counts with routine and cytochemical blood stains, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. No statistically significant difference was found in different genders of this animal. Unique features of blood cells in this animal were identified in hematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies. This study contributes to broaden hematological resources in wildlife animals and provides a guideline for identification of blood cells in the fishing cat.

  12. Emergency Whole Blood Use in the Field: A Simplified Protocol for Collection and Transfusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    renewed interest in the reintroduction of fresh whole blood and cold- stored whole blood to patient care in austere environments. There is scant...blood use in the treat- ment of exsanguinating hemorrhage and have renewed interest in the reintroduction of warm whole blood (WWB) stored at 22-C for...data pro- vide a biological rationale for whole-blood use in the treatment of exsanguinating hemorrhage and have renewed interest in the reintroduction

  13. Blood culture results from healthy captive and free-ranging elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Harris, Brigita; Wilborn, Rachel E; Young, Forrest A

    2007-09-01

    Blood culture is a diagnostic tool used in confirming bacterial disease in teleostean and elasmobranch fishes. Unlike teleosts, elasmobranchs have a normal microflora in multiple organs, but their blood has generally been considered to be sterile. In regular exams of elasmobranchs conducted at a public aquarium, occasional blood samples have tested positive on culture. This finding prompted a blood culture survey of healthy captive and wild elasmobranchs (sharks and stingrays), which showed that 26.7% of all animals were positive. Stingrays alone showed a 50% occurrence of positive blood cultures, although the total number of animals was low and freshwater species were included in this number. When elasmobranchs other than stingrays were evaluated according to metabolic category, pelagic animals had a higher percentage of positive cultures than nonpelagic animals (38.7% versus 13.9%). These results indicate that a single positive blood culture without other corroborating diagnostics is not sufficient to confirm septicemia in elasmobranchs.

  14. Responses of arthropod populations to warming depend on latitude: evidence from urban heat islands.

    PubMed

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Ernst, Andrew F; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2017-04-01

    Biological effects of climate change are expected to vary geographically, with a strong signature of latitude. For ectothermic animals, there is systematic latitudinal variation in the relationship between climate and thermal performance curves, which describe the relationship between temperature and an organism's fitness. Here, we ask whether these documented latitudinal patterns can be generalized to predict arthropod responses to warming across mid- and high temperate latitudes, for taxa whose thermal physiology has not been measured. To address this question, we used a novel natural experiment consisting of a series of urban warming gradients at different latitudes. Specifically, we sampled arthropods from a single common street tree species across temperature gradients in four US cities, located from 35.8 to 42.4° latitude. We captured 6746 arthropods in 34 families from 111 sites that varied in summer average temperature by 1.7-3.4 °C within each city. Arthropod responses to warming within each city were characterized as Poisson regression coefficients describing change in abundance per °C for each family. Family responses in the two midlatitude cities were heterogeneous, including significantly negative and positive effects, while those in high-latitude cities varied no more than expected by chance within each city. We expected high-latitude taxa to increase in abundance with warming, and they did so in one of the two high-latitude cities; in the other, Queens (New York City), most taxa declined with warming, perhaps due to habitat loss that was correlated with warming in this city. With the exception of Queens, patterns of family responses to warming were consistent with predictions based on known latitudinal patterns in arthropod physiology relative to regional climate. Heterogeneous responses in midlatitudes may be ecologically disruptive if interacting taxa respond oppositely to warming. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Global warming leads to more uniform spring phenology across elevations.

    PubMed

    Vitasse, Yann; Signarbieux, Constant; Fu, Yongshuo H

    2018-01-30

    One hundred years ago, Andrew D. Hopkins estimated the progressive delay in tree leaf-out with increasing latitude, longitude, and elevation, referred to as "Hopkins' bioclimatic law." What if global warming is altering this well-known law? Here, based on ∼20,000 observations of the leaf-out date of four common temperate tree species located in 128 sites at various elevations in the European Alps, we found that the elevation-induced phenological shift (EPS) has significantly declined from 34 d⋅1,000 m -1 conforming to Hopkins' bioclimatic law in 1960, to 22 d⋅1,000 m -1 in 2016, i.e., -35%. The stronger phenological advance at higher elevations, responsible for the reduction in EPS, is most likely to be connected to stronger warming during late spring as well as to warmer winter temperatures. Indeed, under similar spring temperatures, we found that the EPS was substantially reduced in years when the previous winter was warmer. Our results provide empirical evidence for a declining EPS over the last six decades. Future climate warming may further reduce the EPS with consequences for the structure and function of mountain forest ecosystems, in particular through changes in plant-animal interactions, but the actual impact of such ongoing change is today largely unknown.

  16. How warm days increase belief in global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

    2014-02-01

    Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local warming effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global warming attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global warming.

  17. Efficacy of Warm Showers on Postpartum Fatigue Among Vaginal-Birth Taiwanese Women: A Quasi-Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Hsing; Chen, Chien-Lan; Chung, Feng-Fang; Lin, Su-Ying

    2017-05-01

    Postpartum fatigue is one of the most common complaints among women following childbirth. As a postpartum ritual practice, Taiwanese women refrain from taking showers while "doing the month." However, warm showers are the systemic application of moist heat, and they maintain physical hygiene, stimulate blood circulation, mitigate discomfort, and provide relaxation. As Taiwanese society becomes increasingly receptive to scientific and contemporary health care practice, more and more women choose to take warm showers after childbirth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of warm showers on postpartum fatigue among vaginal-birth women in Taiwan. This was a two-group quasi-experimental design. Women took showers in warm water with temperatures ranging between 40 °C and 43 °C for approximately 20 minutes. Postpartum women's fatigue is measured using the 10-item Postpartum Fatigue Scale (PFS). The intervention effect was analyzed using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model. The study population consisted of 358 vaginal-birth postpartum Taiwanese women aged 20-43 years. Postpartum women who took warm showers showed improvements from their pretest to posttest mean scores of postpartum fatigue compared to postpartum women who did not take warm showers. Warm showers helped to reduce postpartum fatigue among vaginal-birth women during the study period. Nurses have the unique opportunity to provide the intervention to Taiwanese women who have vaginal birth to help them relieve postpartum fatigue with warm showers while "doing the month" without the taboo of no-showering customary practices in the early postpartum period.

  18. Hematology, cytochemistry and ultrastructure of blood cells in fishing cat (Felis viverrina)

    PubMed Central

    Salakij, Chaleow; Apibal, Suntaree; Narkkong, Nual-Anong

    2007-01-01

    Hematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural features of blood cells in fishing cat (Felis viverrina) were evaluated using complete blood cell counts with routine and cytochemical blood stains, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. No statistically significant difference was found in different genders of this animal. Unique features of blood cells in this animal were identified in hematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies. This study contributes to broaden hematological resources in wildlife animals and provides a guideline for identification of blood cells in the fishing cat. PMID:17519570

  19. Global warming and the regional persistence of a temperate-zone insect (Tenodera sinensis)

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, T.P.; Smith, A.T.; Hurd, L.E.

    Models based on the paleoecological record predict that animals in temperate regions will respond to global warming by migrating poleward to remain within their temperature tolerance ranges. The effect of global warming on invertebrates is of great concern because of their critical role in ecosystem structure and function. Migration poses a problem for many species because of their limited dispersal abilities. The life cycle of a typical temperature zone univoltine insect. Tenodera sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae) is constrained by degree-days per season: too few prevent maturation before the killing frost in the autumn; too many allow egg hatch before a killingmore » frost. We used field and laboratory observation on the life history and ecology of this species to predict the effect of global warming on the regional distribution of this insect by the end of the next century. Based on the simplified, best-case, biological assumptions of our model, the geographical range of T. sinensis in eastern North America would be compressed toward the northern part of its present contiguous regional distribution. This and other univoltine temperate species with long maturation periods and low vagility could face regional extinction if global warming predictions are accurate. 61 refs., 3 figs.« less

  20. The relationship between renal warm ischemia time and glomerular loss. An experimental study in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Damasceno-Ferreira, José Aurelino; Bechara, Gustavo Ruschi; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco Aurélio; Sampaio, Francisco José Barcellos; Souza, Diogo Benchimol De

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the glomerular number after different warm ischemia times. Thirty two pigs were assigned into four groups. Three groups (G10, G20, and G30) were treated with 10, 20, and 30 minutes of left renal warm ischemia. The sham group underwent the same surgery without renal ischemia. The animals were euthanized after 3 weeks, and the kidneys were collected. Right kidneys were used as controls. The kidney weight, volume, cortical-medullar ratio, glomerular volumetric density, volume-weighted mean glomerular volume, and the total number of glomeruli per kidney were obtained. Serum creatinine levels were assessed pre and postoperatively. Serum creatinine levels did not differ among the groups. All parameters were similar for the sham, G10, and G20 groups upon comparison of the right and left organs. The G30 group pigs' left kidneys had lower weight, volume, and cortical-medullar ratio and 24.6% less glomeruli compared to the right kidney. A negative correlation was found between warm ischemia time and glomerular number. About one quarter of glomeruli was lost after 30 minutes of renal warm ischemia. No glomeruli loss was detected before 20 minutes of warm ischemia. However, progressive glomerular loss was associated with increasing warm ischemia time.

  1. First-aid with warm water delays burn progression and increases skin survival.

    PubMed

    Tobalem, M; Harder, Y; Tschanz, E; Speidel, V; Pittet-Cuénod, B; Wettstein, R

    2013-02-01

    First aid treatment for thermal injuries with cold water removes heat and decreases inflammation. However, perfusion in the ischemic zone surrounding the coagulated core can be compromised by cold-induced vasoconstriction and favor burn progression. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of local warming on burn progression in the rat comb burn model. 24 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either no treatment (control) or application of cold (17 °C) or warm (37 °C) water applied for 20 min. Evolution of burn depth, interspace necrosis, and microcirculatory perfusion were assessed with histology, planimetry, respectively with Laser Doppler flowmetry after 1 h, as well as 1, 4, and 7 days. Consistent conversion from a superficial to a deep dermal burn within 24 h was obtained in control animals. Warm and cold water significantly delayed burn depth progression, however after 4 days the burn depth was similar in all groups. Interspace necrosis was significantly reduced by warm water treatment (62±4% vs. 69±5% (cold water) and 82±3% (control); p<0.05). This was attributed to the significantly improved perfusion after warming, which was present 1 h after burn induction and was maintained thereafter (103±4% of baseline vs. 91±3% for cold water and 80±2% for control, p<0.05). In order to limit damage after burn injury, burn progression has to be prevented. Besides delaying burn progression, the application of warm water provided an additional benefit by improving the microcirculatory perfusion, which translated into increased tissue survival. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement of hepatic microhemodynamics by N-acetylcysteine after warm ischemia.

    PubMed

    Koeppel, T A; Thies, J C; Lehmann, T; Gebhard, M M; Herfarth, C; Otto, G; Post, S

    1996-01-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the hepatic microcirculation after warm ischemia by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Clamping of the left liver lobe was performed in 20 male Wistar rats for 70 min. The treatment group (n = 10) received 400 mg NAC/kg body weight 20 min prior to clamping. After reperfusion, acinar and sinusoidal perfusions were observed as well as the leukocyte-endothelium interaction. Phagocytic activity was assessed after application of latex beads. NAC reduced the number of nonperfused sinusoids in all acinar zones. A reduction in zone 1 (portal) was achieved from 15.5 to 7.1% (p < 0.0001), in zone 2 (midzonal) from 14.6 to 6.1% (p < 0.0001) and in zone 3 (central) from 11.9 to 2.9% (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in leukocyte adherence as well as in phagocytic activity detectable. We conclude that NAC improves hepatic microcirculation after warm ischemia by increasing sinusoidal blood flow.

  3. [South American camelids in Switzerland. II. Reference values for blood parameters].

    PubMed

    Hengrave Burri, I; Tschudi, P; Martig, J; Liesegang, A; Meylan, M

    2005-08-01

    In order to establish reference values for blood parameters of South American camelids in Switzerland, 273 blood samples were collected from 141 llamas and 132 alpacas. These animals were classified in three categories (young animals < six months, adult females and males). Forty-one parameters were measured (red blood cell count, white blood cell count, electrolytes, metabolites and enzymes). Significant differences between llamas and alpacas were evident for 26 parameters. This study also showed that differences between young animals, females and males must be taken into consideration. A comparison of blood values with the results of fecal analysis for parasite eggs showed that an infestation with Dicrocoelium dendriticum was associated with elevated activity of two liver enzymes (GLDH and gamma-GT) in the serum. In contrast, no differences were found in the results of blood analyses between animals shedding eggs of gastrointestinal strongyles or not.

  4. Uptake and transmission of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by migratory filter-feeding fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous parasitic protozoan known to cause disease and death in warm-blooded animals. Bottlenose dolphins, walruses, sea otters, and other marine animals worldwide have died from toxoplasmosis, but the source of this parasite in the marine environment h...

  5. Microgravity Experiments On Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, B. P.; Leon, H.; Hogan, R.; Clarke, B.; Tollinger, D.

    1991-01-01

    Paper describes experiments on animal subjects planned for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 mission. Laboratory equipment evaluated, and physiological experiments performed. Represents first step in establishing technology for maintaining and manipulating rodents, nonhuman primates, amphibians, and plants during space flight without jeopardizing crew's environment. In addition, experiments focus on effects of microgravity on cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems; on regulation of volume of blood and production of red blood cells; and on calcium metabolism and gravity receptors.

  6. 9 CFR 71.21 - Tissue and blood testing at slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.21 Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. (a) Any person moving livestock or... this section 9 within their facility for blood and tissue sample collection; 9 FSIS also has equipment...

  7. 9 CFR 71.21 - Tissue and blood testing at slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.21 Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. (a) Any person moving livestock or... in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section 9 within their facility for blood and tissue sample...

  8. 9 CFR 71.21 - Tissue and blood testing at slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.21 Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. (a) Any person moving livestock or... in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section 9 within their facility for blood and tissue sample...

  9. 9 CFR 71.21 - Tissue and blood testing at slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.21 Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. (a) Any person moving livestock or... in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section 9 within their facility for blood and tissue sample...

  10. 21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Animal and human sera. 864.2800 Section 864.2800...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification. Animal and human sera are biological products, obtained from the blood...

  11. 21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Animal and human sera. 864.2800 Section 864.2800...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification. Animal and human sera are biological products, obtained from the blood...

  12. 21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Animal and human sera. 864.2800 Section 864.2800...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification. Animal and human sera are biological products, obtained from the blood...

  13. 21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Animal and human sera. 864.2800 Section 864.2800...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification. Animal and human sera are biological products, obtained from the blood...

  14. Effects of experimental warming on survival, phenology and morphology of an aquatic insect (Odonata)

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Shannon J.; Hammond, John I.; Frances, Dachin N.; Mabry, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    1. Organisms can respond to changing climatic conditions in multiple ways including changes in phenology, body size or morphology, and range shifts. Understanding how developmental temperatures affect insect life-history timing and morphology is crucial because body size and morphology affect multiple aspects of life history, including dispersal ability, while phenology can shape population performance and community interactions. 2. We experimentally assessed how developmental temperatures experienced by aquatic larvae affected survival, phenology, and adult morphology of dragonflies (Pachydiplax longipennis). Larvae were reared under 3 environmental temperatures: ambient, +2.5 °C, and +5 °C, corresponding to temperature projections for our study area 50 and 100 years in the future, respectively. Experimental temperature treatments tracked naturally-occurring variation. 3. We found clear effects of temperature in the rearing environment on survival and phenology: dragonflies reared at the highest temperatures had the lowest survival rates, and emerged from the larval stage approximately 3 weeks earlier than animals reared at ambient temperatures. There was no effect of rearing temperature on overall body size. Although neither the relative wing nor thorax size was affected by warming, a non-significant trend towards an interaction between sex and warming in relative thorax size suggests that males may be more sensitive to warming than females, a pattern that should be investigated further. 4. Warming strongly affected survival in the larval stage and the phenology of adult emergence. Understanding how warming in the developmental environment affects later life-history stages is critical to interpreting the consequences of warming for organismal performance. PMID:26028806

  15. Warm Up to a Good Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovey, David C.

    1977-01-01

    Most choral directors in schools today have been exposed to a variety of warm-up procedures. Yet, many do not use the warm-up time effectively as possible. Considers the factors appropriate to a warm-up exercise and three basic warm-up categories. (Author/RK)

  16. Developmental adaptations to gravity in animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.

    1991-01-01

    Terrestrial animals have adapted to a constant gravitational stress over millions of years. Tissues of the cardiovascular system and lumbar spine in tall species of animals such as the giraffe are particularly well adapted to high and variable vectors of gravitational force. Swelling of the leg tissues in the giraffe is prevented by a variety of physiological mechanisms including (1) a natural 'antigravity suit', (2) impermeable capillaries, (3) arterial-wall hypertrophy, (4) variable blood pressures during normal activity, and (5) a large-capacity lymphatic system. These adaptations, as well as a natural hypertension, maintain blood perfusion to the giraffe's brain. The intervertebral disk is another tissue that is uniquely adapted to gravitational stress. Tall and large terrestrial animals have higher swelling pressures than their smaller or aquatic counterparts. Finally, the meniscus of the rabbit knee provides information on the effects of aging and load-bearing on cartilaginous tissues. Such tissues within the joints of animals are important for load-bearing on Earth; these connective tissues may degenerate during long-duration space flight.

  17. Committed warming inferred from observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten; Pincus, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Due to the lifetime of CO2, the thermal inertia of the oceans, and the temporary impacts of short-lived aerosols and reactive greenhouse gases, the Earth’s climate is not equilibrated with anthropogenic forcing. As a result, even if fossil-fuel emissions were to suddenly cease, some level of committed warming is expected due to past emissions as studied previously using climate models. Here, we provide an observational-based quantification of this committed warming using the instrument record of global-mean warming, recently improved estimates of Earth’s energy imbalance, and estimates of radiative forcing from the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Compared with pre-industrial levels, we find a committed warming of 1.5 K (0.9-3.6, 5th-95th percentile) at equilibrium, and of 1.3 K (0.9-2.3) within this century. However, when assuming that ocean carbon uptake cancels remnant greenhouse gas-induced warming on centennial timescales, committed warming is reduced to 1.1 K (0.7-1.8). In the latter case there is a 13% risk that committed warming already exceeds the 1.5 K target set in Paris. Regular updates of these observationally constrained committed warming estimates, although simplistic, can provide transparent guidance as uncertainty regarding transient climate sensitivity inevitably narrows and the understanding of the limitations of the framework is advanced.

  18. Military Implications of Global Warming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-20

    U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United

  19. Specific inspiratory muscle warm-up enhances badminton footwork performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua; Tong, Tom Kwokkeung; Huang, Chuanye; Nie, Jinlei; Lu, Kui; Quach, Binh

    2007-12-01

    The effects of inspiratory muscle (IM) warm-up on IM function and on the maximum distance covered in a subsequent incremental badminton-footwork test (FWmax) were examined. Ten male badminton players were recruited to perform identical tests in three different trials in a random order. The control trial did not involve an IM warm-up, whereas the placebo and experimental trials did involve an IM warm-up consisting of two sets of 30-breath manoeuvres with an inspiratory pressure-threshold load equivalent to 15% (PLA) and 40% (IMW) maximum inspiratory mouth pressure, respectively. In the IMW trial, IM function was improved with 7.8%+/-4.0% and 6.9%+/-3.5% increases from control found in maximal inspiratory pressure at zero flow (P0) and maximal rate of P0 development (MRPD), respectively (p<0.05). FWmax was enhanced 6.8%+/-3.7%, whereas the slope of the linear relationship of the increase in the rating of perceived breathlessness for every minute (RPB/min) was reduced (p<0.05). Reduction in blood lactate ([La-]b) accumulation was observed when the test duration was identical to that of the control trial (P<0.05). In the PLA trial, no parameter was changed from control. For the changes (Delta) in parameters in IMW (n=10), negative correlations were found between DeltaP0 and DeltaRPB/min (r2=0.58), DeltaMRPD and DeltaRPB/min (r2=0.48), DeltaRPB/min, and DeltaFWmax (r2=0.55), but not between Delta[La-]b accumulation and DeltaFWmax. Such findings suggest that the IM-specific warm-up improved footwork performance in the subsequent maximum incremental badminton-footwork test. The improved footwork was partly attributable to the reduced breathless sensation resulting from the enhanced IM function, whereas the contribution of the concomitant reduction in [La-]b accumulation was relatively minor.

  20. Identification of a Novel Indoline Derivative for in Vivo Fluorescent Imaging of Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) can occur in various pathophysiological conditions. Administration of extraneous tracers that can pass the disrupted, but not the intact, BBB and detection of the extravasation have been widely used to assess BBB disruption in animal models. Although several fluorescent tracers have been successfully used, the administration of these tracers basically requires intravascular injection, which can be laborious when using small animals such as zebrafish. To identify fluorescent tracers that could be easily administered into various animal models and visualize the BBB disruption in vivo, we prepared nine structurally related indoline derivatives (IDs) as a minimum set of diverse fluorescent compounds. We found that one ID, ZMB741, had the highest affinity for serum albumin and emitted the strongest fluorescence in the presence of serum albumin of the nine IDs tested. The affinity to serum albumin and the fluorescence intensity was superior to those of Evans blue and indocyanine green that have been conventionally used to assess the BBB disruption. We showed that ZMB741 could be administered into zebrafish by static immersion or mice by intraperitoneal injection and visualizes the active disruption of their BBB. These results suggest that ZMB741 can be a convenient and versatile tool for in vivo fluorescent imaging of BBB disruption in various animal models. The strategy used in this study can also be applied to diversity-oriented libraries to identify novel fluorescent tracers that may be superior to ZMB741. PMID:23668665

  1. Toxoplasma

    EPA Science Inventory

    T. gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect all warm blooded animals ranging from: humans, pets, livestock, to marine aquatic animals. The definitive host is the feline species (both domestic and wild cats), where the sexual stage of the life cycle o...

  2. Feedback attribution of the land-sea warming contrast in a global warming simulation of the NCAR CCSM4

    DOE PAGES

    Sejas, Sergio A.; Albert, Oriene S.; Cai, Ming; ...

    2014-12-02

    One of the salient features in both observations and climate simulations is a stronger land warming than sea. This paper provides a quantitative understanding of the main processes that contribute to the land-sea warming asymmetry in a global warming simulation of the NCAR CCSM4. The CO 2 forcing alone warms the surface nearly the same for both land and sea, suggesting that feedbacks are responsible for the warming contrast. Our analysis on one hand confirms that the principal contributor to the above-unity land-to-sea warming ratio is the evaporation feedback; on the other hand the results indicate that the sensible heatmore » flux feedback has the largest land-sea warming difference that favors a greater ocean than land warming. Furthermore, the results uniquely highlight the importance of other feedbacks in establishing the above-unity land-to-sea warming ratio. Particularly, the SW cloud feedback and the ocean heat storage in the transient response are key contributors to the greater warming over land than sea.« less

  3. Feedback attribution of the land-sea warming contrast in a global warming simulation of the NCAR CCSM4

    SciTech Connect

    Sejas, Sergio A.; Albert, Oriene S.; Cai, Ming

    One of the salient features in both observations and climate simulations is a stronger land warming than sea. This paper provides a quantitative understanding of the main processes that contribute to the land-sea warming asymmetry in a global warming simulation of the NCAR CCSM4. The CO 2 forcing alone warms the surface nearly the same for both land and sea, suggesting that feedbacks are responsible for the warming contrast. Our analysis on one hand confirms that the principal contributor to the above-unity land-to-sea warming ratio is the evaporation feedback; on the other hand the results indicate that the sensible heatmore » flux feedback has the largest land-sea warming difference that favors a greater ocean than land warming. Furthermore, the results uniquely highlight the importance of other feedbacks in establishing the above-unity land-to-sea warming ratio. Particularly, the SW cloud feedback and the ocean heat storage in the transient response are key contributors to the greater warming over land than sea.« less

  4. Effect of warming rate on the critical thermal maxima of crabs, shrimp and fish.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Catarina; Leal, Inês; Mendonça, Vanessa; Flores, Augusto A V

    2015-01-01

    The threat of global warming has prompted numerous recent studies on the thermal tolerance of marine species. A widely used method to determine the upper thermal limit has been the Critical Thermal Maximum (CTMax), a dynamic method, meaning that temperature is increased gradually until a critical point is reached. This method presents several advantages over static methods, however, there is one main issue that hinders interpretation and comparison of CTMax results: the rate at which the temperature is increased. This rate varies widely among published protocols. The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of warming rate on CTMax values, using different animal groups. The influence of the thermal niche occupied by each species (intertidal vs subtidal) and habitat (intertidal vs subtidal) was also investigated. CTMax were estimated at three different rates: 1°Cmin(-1), 1°C30min(-1) and 1°Ch(-1), in two species of crab, Eurypanopeus abbreviatus and Menippe nodifrons, shrimp Palaemon northropi and Hippolyte obliquimanus and fish Bathygobius soporator and Parablennius marmoreus. While there were significant differences in the effect of warming rates for some species, for other species warming rate produced no significant differences (H. obliquimanus and B. soporator). While in some species slower warming rates lead to lower CTMax values (P. northropi and P. marmoreus) in other species the opposite occurred (E. abbreviatus and M. nodifrons). Biological group has a significant effect with crabs' CTMax increasing at slower warming rates, which did not happen for shrimp and fish. Subtidal species presented lower CTMax, at all warming rates tested. This study highlights the importance of estimating CTMax values at realistic rates that species encounter in their environment and thus have an ecological value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  6. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcculley, Rebecca; Bush, Lowell; Carlisle, Anna; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim

    2014-10-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009 - 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue

  7. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    McCulley, Rebecca L.; Bush, Lowell P.; Carlisle, Anna E.; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim A.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue's ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause “fescue toxicosis” in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3°C) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009–2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30–40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue

  8. Irrigation enhances local warming with greater nocturnal warming effects than daytime cooling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing; Jeong, Su-Jong

    2018-02-01

    To meet the growing demand for food, land is being managed to be more productive using agricultural intensification practices, such as the use of irrigation. Understanding the specific environmental impacts of irrigation is a critical part of using it as a sustainable way to provide food security. However, our knowledge of irrigation effects on climate is still limited to daytime effects. This is a critical issue to define the effects of irrigation on warming related to greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study shows that irrigation led to an increasing temperature (0.002 °C year-1) by enhancing nighttime warming (0.009 °C year-1) more than daytime cooling (-0.007 °C year-1) during the dry season from 1961-2004 over the North China Plain (NCP), which is one of largest irrigated areas in the world. By implementing irrigation processes in regional climate model simulations, the consistent warming effect of irrigation on nighttime temperatures over the NCP was shown to match observations. The intensive nocturnal warming is attributed to energy storage in the wetter soil during the daytime, which contributed to the nighttime surface warming. Our results suggest that irrigation could locally amplify the warming related to GHGs, and this effect should be taken into account in future climate change projections.

  9. Relative sensitivity of conventional and real-time PCR assays for detection of SFG Rickettsia in blood and tissue samples from laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Zemtsova, Galina E; Montgomery, Merrill; Levin, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the natural transmission cycles of zoonotic pathogens and the reservoir competence of vertebrate hosts require methods for reliable diagnosis of infection in wild and laboratory animals. Several PCR-based applications have been developed for detection of infections caused by Spotted Fever group Rickettsia spp. in a variety of animal tissues. These assays are being widely used by researchers, but they differ in their sensitivity and reliability. We compared the sensitivity of five previously published conventional PCR assays and one SYBR green-based real-time PCR assay for the detection of rickettsial DNA in blood and tissue samples from Rickettsia- infected laboratory animals (n = 87). The real-time PCR, which detected rickettsial DNA in 37.9% of samples, was the most sensitive. The next best were the semi-nested ompA assay and rpoB conventional PCR, which detected as positive 18.4% and 14.9% samples respectively. Conventional assays targeting ompB, gltA and hrtA genes have been the least sensitive. Therefore, we recommend the SYBR green-based real-time PCR as a tool for the detection of rickettsial DNA in animal samples due to its higher sensitivity when compared to more traditional assays.

  10. Fat induced hypertension in rabbits. Effects of dietary fibre on blood pressure and blood lipid concentration.

    PubMed

    Burstyn, P G; Husbands, D R

    1980-04-01

    Rabbits were fed diets containing 200 g.kg-1 coconut oil, palm oil, or safflower oil. Some of the diets also contained 200 g.kg-1 cellulose. The blood pressure was measured daily by a non-invasive technique for the 2 month duration of the experiment. Blood samples were drawn after an overnight fast at intervals during the experiment and analysed for lipids. Blood pressure was always increased by a fat-enriched diet. This effect was diminished and delayed by adding cellulose to the diets, though cellulose itself had no effect on the blood pressure in the absence of fat. There was a modest negative correlation between fasting serum triglyceride concentration and the blood pressure in animals fed fat enriched diets without added cellulose, but not in animals fed diets containing both fat and cellulose. These results coupled with those of Wright, Burstyn and Gibney may serve partly to explain the observation that vegetarians have lower blood pressures than omnivores, the latter consuming diets which are relatively richer in fats and poorer in fibre than the former.

  11. Thermal tolerance and climate warming sensitivity in tropical snails.

    PubMed

    Marshall, David J; Rezende, Enrico L; Baharuddin, Nursalwa; Choi, Francis; Helmuth, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Tropical ectotherms are predicted to be especially vulnerable to climate change because their thermal tolerance limits generally lie close to current maximum air temperatures. This prediction derives primarily from studies on insects and lizards and remains untested for other taxa with contrasting ecologies. We studied the HCT (heat coma temperatures) and ULT (upper lethal temperatures) of 40 species of tropical eulittoral snails (Littorinidae and Neritidae) inhabiting exposed rocky shores and shaded mangrove forests in Oceania, Africa, Asia and North America. We also estimated extremes in animal body temperature at each site using a simple heat budget model and historical (20 years) air temperature and solar radiation data. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that HCT and ULT exhibit limited adaptive variation across habitats (mangroves vs. rocky shores) or geographic locations despite their contrasting thermal regimes. Instead, the elevated heat tolerance of these species (HCT = 44.5 ± 1.8°C and ULT = 52.1 ± 2.2°C) seems to reflect the extreme temperature variability of intertidal systems. Sensitivity to climate warming, which was quantified as the difference between HCT or ULT and maximum body temperature, differed greatly between snails from sunny (rocky shore; Thermal Safety Margin, TSM = -14.8 ± 3.3°C and -6.2 ± 4.4°C for HCT and ULT, respectively) and shaded (mangrove) habitats (TSM = 5.1 ± 3.6°C and 12.5 ± 3.6°C). Negative TSMs in rocky shore animals suggest that mortality is likely ameliorated during extreme climatic events by behavioral thermoregulation. Given the low variability in heat tolerance across species, habitat and geographic location account for most of the variation in TSM and may adequately predict the vulnerability to climate change. These findings caution against generalizations on the impact of global warming across ectothermic taxa and highlight how the consideration of nonmodel animals, ecological transitions

  12. Dynamic changes in scope for heart rate and cardiac autonomic control during warm acclimation in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Andreas; Hellgren, Kim; Gräns, Albin; Pichaud, Nicolas; Sandblom, Erik

    2016-04-15

    Time course studies are critical for understanding regulatory mechanisms and temporal constraints in ectothermic animals acclimating to warmer temperatures. Therefore, we investigated the dynamics of heart rate and its neuro-humoral control in rainbow trout ( ITALIC! Onchorhynchus mykissL.) acclimating to 16°C for 39 days after being acutely warmed from 9°C. Resting heart rate was 39 beats min(-1)at 9°C, and increased significantly when fish were acutely warmed to 16°C ( ITALIC! Q10=1.9), but then declined during acclimation ( ITALIC! Q10=1.2 at day 39), mainly due to increased cholinergic inhibition while the intrinsic heart rate and adrenergic tone were little affected. Maximum heart rate also increased with warming, although a partial modest decrease occurred during the acclimation period. Consequently, heart rate scope exhibited a complex pattern with an initial increase with acute warming, followed by a steep decline and then a subsequent increase, which was primarily explained by cholinergic inhibition of resting heart rate. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Ocean warming and spread of pathogenic vibrios in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Colwell, Rita R; Pruzzo, Carla

    2013-05-01

    Vibrios are among the most common bacteria that inhabit surface waters throughout the world and are responsible for a number of severe infections both in humans and animals. Several reports recently showed that human Vibrio illnesses are increasing worldwide including fatal acute diarrheal diseases, such as cholera, gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia. Many scientists believe this increase may be associated with global warming and rise in sea surface temperature (SST), although not enough evidence is available to support a causal link between emergence of Vibrio infections and climate warming. The effect of increased SST in promoting spread of vibrios in coastal and brackish waters is considered a causal factor explaining this trend. Field and laboratory studies carried out over the past 40 years supported this hypothesis, clearly showing temperature promotes Vibrio growth and persistence in the aquatic environment. Most recently, a long-term retrospective microbiological study carried out in the coastal waters of the southern North Sea provided the first experimental evidence for a positive and significant relationship between SST and Vibrio occurrence over a multidecadal time scale. As a future challenge, macroecological studies of the effects of ocean warming on Vibrio persistence and spread in the aquatic environment over large spatial and temporal scales would conclusively support evidence acquired to date combined with studies of the impact of global warming on epidemiologically relevant variables, such as host susceptibility and exposure. Assessing a causal link between ongoing climate change and enhanced growth and spread of vibrios and related illness is expected to improve forecast and mitigate future outbreaks associated with these pathogens.

  14. Prolonged warm ischemia time is associated with graft failure and mortality after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tennankore, Karthik K; Kim, S Joseph; Alwayn, Ian P J; Kiberd, Bryce A

    2016-03-01

    Warm ischemia time is a potentially modifiable insult to transplanted kidneys, but little is known about its effect on long-term outcomes. Here we conducted a study of United States kidney transplant recipients (years 2000-2013) to determine the association between warm ischemia time (the time from organ removal from cold storage to reperfusion with warm blood) and death/graft failure. Times under 10 minutes were potentially attributed to coding error. Therefore, the 10-to-under-20-minute interval was chosen as the reference group. The primary outcome was mortality and graft failure (return to chronic dialysis or preemptive retransplantation) adjusted for recipient, donor, immunologic, and surgical factors. The study included 131,677 patients with 35,901 events. Relative to the reference patients, times of 10 to under 20, 20 to under 30, 30 to under 40, 40 to under 50, 50 to under 60, and 60 and more minutes were associated with hazard ratios of 1.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.15), 1.13 (1.06-1.22), 1.17 (1.09-1.26), 1.20 (1.12-1.30), and 1.23 (1.15-1.33) for the composite event, respectively. Association between prolonged warm ischemia time and death/graft failure persisted after stratification by donor type (living vs. deceased donor) and delayed graft function status. Thus, warm ischemia time is associated with adverse long-term patient and graft survival after kidney transplantation. Identifying strategies to reduce warm ischemia time is an important consideration for future study. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Continuous blood densitometry - Fluid shifts after graded hemorrhage in animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid fluid shifts in four pigs and two dogs subjected to graded hemorrhage are investigated. Arterial blood density (BD), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), arterial plasma density (PD), hematocrit (Hct) and erythrocyte density were measured. The apparatus and mechancial oscillator technique for measuring density are described. Fluid shifts between red blood cells and blood plasma and alterations in the whole-body-to-large vessel Hct, F(cell) are studied using two models. The bases of the model calculations are discussed. A decrease in MAP, CVP, and BP is detected at the beginning of hemorrhaging; continued bleeding results in further BD decrease correlating with volume displacement. The data reveal that at 15 ml/kg blood loss the mean PD and BD dropped by 0.99 + or - 0.15 and 2.42 + or 0.26 g/liter, respectively, and the Hct dropped by 2.40 + or 0.47 units. The data reveal that inward-shifted fluid has a higher density than normal ultrafiltrate and/or there is a rise in the F(cell) ratio. It is noted that rapid fluid replacement ranged from 5.8 + or - 0.8 to 10.6 + or - 2.0 percent of the initial plasma volume.

  16. Seasonal greening of an Arctic ecosystem in response to early snowmelt and climate warming: do plant community responses differ from species responses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steltzer, H.; Weintraub, M. N.; Sullivan, P.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Schimel, J.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Shory, R.; Livensperger, C.; Melle, C.; Segal, A. D.; Daly, K.; Tsosie, T.

    2011-12-01

    In the Arctic and around the world, earlier plant growth and a longer growing season are indications that warmer temperatures or other global changes are changing the seasonality of the Earth's ecosystems. These changes in plant life histories have multi-trophic level consequences that affect food webs and biogeochemical cycles. Both the response of the plant community and of individual species can affect food and habitat resources for animals or nutrient resources for microbes. Our aim was to determine if the response of an Arctic plant community differs from individual species responses to climate change. For two years in an early snowmelt and climate warming experiment in moist acidic tussock tundra, we observed the seasonal greening of the ecosystem through near-surface measurements of surface greenness and through direct observations of the timing of plant life history events for five to eight common species that differ in growth form. In 2010 when snowmelt was accelerated by 4 days, earlier snowmelt alone or in combination with climate warming extended the life history of the dominant graminoids (E. vaginatum and C. bigelowii) and willow (S. pulchra) by 3 to 4 days. For these species, new leaf production began earlier, while the timing of senescence was similar to the controls. The effect of earlier snowmelt on the life histories of birch (B. nana) and cranberry (V. vitis-idaea) was less, but warming alone tended to increase life history duration. Warming led to earlier leaf expansion for birch and delayed senescence for cranberry. We found that the onset of greening for the plant community began four days earlier, due to the earlier loss of snow cover, and that warming accelerated the rate of greening. Peak season ended 4 days earlier in response to earlier snowmelt and climate warming, due to earlier senescence by birch. In 2011, our manipulation of the snowpack by increasing energy absorption accelerated snowmelt by 15 days and control plots were snowfree

  17. Blood in the gastric lumen increases splanchnic blood flow and portal pressure in portal-hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Groszmann, R J

    1996-10-01

    In portal-hypertensive humans, portal blood flow and pressure increase after a meal. These hemodynamic changes may increase variceal rupture risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether blood in the stomach lumen increases splanchnic flow and portal pressure (PP) in portal-hypertensive rats. superior mesenteric artery flow and PP were measured in conscious, unrestrained, fasted partial portal vein-ligated rats with chronically implanted Doppler flow probes or portal vein catheters before and after gavage with heparinized, warmed blood from donor rats, air, standard meal, or empty tube. Percentage of changes in flow and pressure from baseline were significantly greater after gavage with blood (an increase of 22.6% +/- 3.5% and an increase of 16.4% +/- 3.1%, respectively) than empty tube (an increase of 3.4% +/- 0.6% and a decrease of 5.4% +/- 3.5%, respectively) (P < 0.005). Percentage of changes in flow and pressure were slightly but insignificantly greater after gavage with air vs. empty tube (P < 0.005). In portal-hypertensive rats, blood in the stomach lumen significantly increases splanchnic blood flow and PP. Splanchnic hyperemia from absorption of blood's calories probably contributes to these hemodynamic changes. In patients with variceal hemorrhage, blood in the stomach may increase the risk of persistent variceal bleeding or rebleeding.

  18. Recent Warming of Lake Kivu

    PubMed Central

    Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Hecky, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730

  19. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    PubMed

    Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A; Crowe, Sean A; Hecky, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  20. An animal model for the analysis of cochlear blood flow [corrected] disturbance and hearing threshold in vivo.

    PubMed

    Canis, Martin; Arpornchayanon, Warangkana; Messmer, Catalina; Suckfuell, Markus; Olzowy, Bernhard; Strieth, Sebastian

    2010-02-01

    Impairment of cochlear blood flow (CBF) is considered to be important in inner ear pathology. However, direct measurement of CBF is difficult and has not been investigated in combination with hearing function. Six guinea pigs were used to show feasibility of an animal model for the analysis of cochlear microcirculation by intravital microscopy in combination with investigation of the hearing threshold by brainstem response audiometry (ABR). By the application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), CBF was increased over 30 min. Reproducibility of measurements was shown by retest measurements. Mean baseline velocity of CBF was 109 +/- 19 mum/s. Vessel diameters had a mean value of 9.4 +/- 2.7 mum. Mean hearing threshold was 19 +/- 6 dB. In response to SNP, CBF velocity increased significantly to 161 +/- 26 mum/s. Mean arterial pressure decreased significantly to 36 +/- 11 mmHg. After the end of the application, CBF velocity recovered to a minimum of 123 +/- 17 microm/s. Within the retest, CBF velocity significantly increased to a maximum of 160 +/- 31 microm/s. Second recovery of CBF velocity was 125 +/- 14 mum/s. Within the second retest, CBF increased significantly to 157 +/- 25 microm/s. ABR thresholds did not change significantly. The increase in blood flow velocity occurred in spite of substantial hypotension as induced by a vasodilator. This may explain the fact that ABR threshold remained unchanged reflecting a maintained blood supply in this part of the brain. This technique can be used to evaluate effects of treatments aimed at cochlear microcirculation in inner ear pathologies.

  1. G-warm inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Ramón

    2017-05-01

    A warm inflationary universe in the context of Galileon model or G-model is studied. Under a general formalism we study the inflationary dynamics and the cosmological perturbations considering a coupling of the form G(phi,X)=g(phi) X. As a concrete example, we consider an exponential potential together with the cases in which the dissipation and Galilean coefficients are constants. Also, we study the weak regime given by the condition R<1+3gHdot phi, and the strong regime in which 1warm inflation, assuming the condition for warm inflation in which the temperature T>H, the conditions or the weak and strong regimes, together with the consistency relation r=r(ns) from Planck data.

  2. Long-term effects of ocean warming on vibrios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruzzo, C.; Pezzati, E.; Brettar, I.; Reid, P. C.; Colwell, R.; Höfle, M. G.; vezzulli, L.

    2012-12-01

    Vibrios are a major source of human disease, play an important role in the ecology and health of marine animals and are regarded as an abundant fraction of culturable bacteria of the ocean. There has been a considerable global effort to reduce the risk of Vibrio infections and yet in most countries both human and non-human illnesses associated with these bacteria are increasing. The cause of this increase is not known, but since vibrios are strongly thermodependant there is good reason to believe that global warming may have contributed. To investigate this possibility we examined historical samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) archive using advanced molecular analysis and pyrosequencing. For the first time we were able to recover environmental DNA from CPR samples that had been stored for up to ~50 years in a formalin-fixed format, which is suitable for molecular analyses of the associated prokaryotic community. To overcome the problem of DNA degradation due to the sample age and storage in formalin we develop an unbiased index of abundance for Vibrio quantification in CPR samples termed a 'relative Vibrio Abundance Index' (VAI). VAI is defined as the ratio of Vibrio spp. cells to total bacterial cells assessed by Real-Time PCR using genus-specific and universal primers, respectively, producing small amplicons of similar size (~100bp). We assessed VAI index on 55 samples (each representing 10 nautical miles tow equal to 3 m3 of filtered sewater) collected in August by the CPR survey in the North Sea from off the Rhine and Humber estuaries between 1961 to 2005 showing that the genus Vibrio has increased in prevalence in the last 44 years and that this increase is correlated significantly, during the same period, with warming sea surface temperature. In addition, by applying deep sequencing analysis of a subset of these samples we provide evidence that bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio, including the human pathogen V. cholerae, not only increased

  3. Heterotopic Ossification Following Extremity Blast Amputation: An Animal Model in the Sprague Dawley Rat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Buprenorphine (0.05 mg/kg) and 12 enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously for preemptive analgesia and 13 prophylactic antibacterial...cage with warmed bedding and was monitored until awakening from anesthesia. 19 Animals received antibiotics ( enrofloxacin , 5 mg/kg administered

  4. Global warming and obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    An, R; Ji, M; Zhang, S

    2018-02-01

    Global warming and the obesity epidemic are two unprecedented challenges mankind faces today. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO and Scopus for articles published until July 2017 that reported findings on the relationship between global warming and the obesity epidemic. Fifty studies were identified. Topic-wise, articles were classified into four relationships - global warming and the obesity epidemic are correlated because of common drivers (n = 21); global warming influences the obesity epidemic (n = 13); the obesity epidemic influences global warming (n = 13); and global warming and the obesity epidemic influence each other (n = 3). We constructed a conceptual model linking global warming and the obesity epidemic - the fossil fuel economy, population growth and industrialization impact land use and urbanization, motorized transportation and agricultural productivity and consequently influences global warming by excess greenhouse gas emission and the obesity epidemic by nutrition transition and physical inactivity; global warming also directly impacts obesity by food supply/price shock and adaptive thermogenesis, and the obesity epidemic impacts global warming by the elevated energy consumption. Policies that endorse deployment of clean and sustainable energy sources, and urban designs that promote active lifestyles, are likely to alleviate the societal burden of global warming and obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  5. Increasing occurrence of cold and warm extremes during the recent global warming slowdown.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nathaniel C; Xie, Shang-Ping; Kosaka, Yu; Li, Xichen

    2018-04-30

    The recent levelling of global mean temperatures after the late 1990s, the so-called global warming hiatus or slowdown, ignited a surge of scientific interest into natural global mean surface temperature variability, observed temperature biases, and climate communication, but many questions remain about how these findings relate to variations in more societally relevant temperature extremes. Here we show that both summertime warm and wintertime cold extreme occurrences increased over land during the so-called hiatus period, and that these increases occurred for distinct reasons. The increase in cold extremes is associated with an atmospheric circulation pattern resembling the warm Arctic-cold continents pattern, whereas the increase in warm extremes is tied to a pattern of sea surface temperatures resembling the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. These findings indicate that large-scale factors responsible for the most societally relevant temperature variations over continents are distinct from those of global mean surface temperature.

  6. Intact blood-brain barrier transport of small molecular drugs in animal models of amyloid beta and alpha-synuclein pathology.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Sofia; Lindström, Veronica; Ingelsson, Martin; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta; Syvänen, Stina

    2018-01-01

    Pathophysiological impairment of the neurovascular unit, including the integrity and dynamics of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), has been denoted both a cause and consequence of neurodegenerative diseases. Pathological impact on BBB drug delivery has also been debated. The aim of the present study was to investigate BBB drug transport, by determining the unbound brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (K p,uu,brain ), in aged AβPP-transgenic mice, α-synuclein transgenic mice, and wild type mice. Mice were dosed with a cassette of five compounds, including digoxin, levofloxacin (1 mg/kg, s.c.), paliperidone, oxycodone, and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, s.c.). Brain and blood were collected at 0.5, 1, or 3 h after dosage. Drug concentrations were measured using LC-MS/MS. The total brain-to-plasma concentration ratio was calculated and equilibrium dialysis was used to determine the fraction of unbound drug in brain and plasma for all compounds. Together, these three measures were used to determine the K p,uu,brain value. Despite Aβ or α-synuclein pathology in the current animal models, no difference was observed in the extent of drug transport across the BBB compared to wild type animals for any of the compounds investigated. Hence, the present study shows that the concept of a leaking barrier within neurodegenerative conditions has to be interpreted with caution when estimating drug transport into the brain. The capability of the highly dynamic BBB to regulate brain drug exposure still seems to be intact despite the presence of pathology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Authropogenic Warming in North Alaska?.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Sappington, David E.; Stooksbury, David E.

    1988-09-01

    Using permafrost boreholes, Lachenbruch and Marshall recently reported evidence for a 2°-4°C warming in North Alaska occurring at some undetermined time during the last century. Popular accounts suggest their findings are evidence for anthropogenic warming caused by trace gases. Analyses of North Alaskan 1000-500 mb thickness onwards back to 1948 indicate that the warming was prior to that date. Relatively sparse thermometric data for the early twentieth century from Jones et al. are too noisy to support any trend since the data record begins in 1910, or to apply to any subperiod of climatic significance. Any warming detected from the permafrost record therefore occurred before the major emissions of thermally active trace gases.

  8. Characterization of blood drawn rapidly for use in blood volume expansion studies: An animal model for simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenault, V. Michelle; Lynch, Colleen D.; Morris, Mariana; Clodfelter, Jill; Hutchins, Phillip M.

    1990-01-01

    It was demonstrated that up to 8ml of blood can be drawn from donar rats without significantly increasing volume and stress sensitive hormones, and thus can be used for volume expansion studies. Infusion of whole blood allows more physiological changes that can be seen with volume expansion by saline or other ionic solutions. The infusion of whole blood to induce hypervolemia may provide an improved model to study the fluid balance and control mechanisms operative in weightlessness. Blood samples were drawn as quickly as possible from femoral artery catheters chronically implanted in Sprague Dawley rats and analyzed for hematocrit, plasma sodium, potassium, osmolality, corticosterone, epinepherine, norepinephrine, and vasopressin. The levels were found to be comparable to those of normal rats.

  9. Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-06-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

  10. What's New, Dinosaur?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prime, Carol Spirkoff; Cox, Judy

    1987-01-01

    Activities and information relating to dinosaurs are presented, including: study of warm- and cold-blooded animals; research about recent dinosaur discoveries; track-making; studying and making fossils; and extinction theories. (CB)

  11. Emergency sternal intraosseous access for warm fresh whole blood transfusion in damage control resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Bjerkvig, Christopher Kalhagen; Fosse, Theodor Kaurin; Apelseth, Torunn Oveland; Sivertsen, Joar; Braathen, Hanne; Eliassen, Håkon Skogrand; Guttormsen, Anne Berit; Cap, Andrew P; Strandenes, Geir

    2018-06-01

    Intraosseous (IO) vascular access is increasingly used as an emergency tool for achieving access to the systemic circulation in critically ill patients. The role of IO transfusion of blood in damage control resuscitation is however questionable due to possible inadequate flow rate and hemolysis. Some experts claim that IO transfusion is contraindicated. In this study, we have challenged this statement by looking at flow rates of autologous fresh whole blood reinfusion and hemolysis using two of the commonly used Food and Drug Administration-approved and Conformité Européenne (CE)-marked sternal needles. Additionally, the success rate of sternal access between the two devices is evaluated. Volunteer professional military personnel, were enrolled prospectively in a nonrandomized observational study design. We collected 450 mL of autologous whole blood from each participant. Participants were divided into the following three groups of 10: Tactically Advanced Lifesaving IO Needle (T.A.L.O.N.) IO, FAST1 IO, and intravenous group. The reinfusion was done by gravity only. Blood sampling was performed before blood collection and 30 minutes after reinfusion. Investigation of hemolysis was performed by measurements of haptoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase. Success rate was evaluated by correct aspiration of bone marrow. Median reinfusion rate was 46.2 mL/min in the FAST1 group, 32.4 mL/min in the T.A.L.O.N. group, and 74.1 mL/min in the intravenous group. Blood samples from all participants were within normal ranges. There was no statistically significant difference in haptoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase between the groups. In the FAST1 group, 1 (9%) of 11 procedures failed. In the T.A.L.O.N. group, 4 (29%) of 14 procedures failed. Although preferable, achieving peripheral venous access in the bleeding patient is a major problem. Our findings suggest that fresh whole-blood transfusion through the IO route is safe, reliable, and provide sufficient flow for resuscitation

  12. Relative Sensitivity of Conventional and Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection of SFG Rickettsia in Blood and Tissue Samples from Laboratory Animals

    PubMed Central

    Zemtsova, Galina E.; Montgomery, Merrill; Levin, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the natural transmission cycles of zoonotic pathogens and the reservoir competence of vertebrate hosts require methods for reliable diagnosis of infection in wild and laboratory animals. Several PCR-based applications have been developed for detection of infections caused by Spotted Fever group Rickettsia spp. in a variety of animal tissues. These assays are being widely used by researchers, but they differ in their sensitivity and reliability. We compared the sensitivity of five previously published conventional PCR assays and one SYBR green-based real-time PCR assay for the detection of rickettsial DNA in blood and tissue samples from Rickettsia- infected laboratory animals (n = 87). The real-time PCR, which detected rickettsial DNA in 37.9% of samples, was the most sensitive. The next best were the semi-nested ompA assay and rpoB conventional PCR, which detected as positive 18.4% and 14.9% samples respectively. Conventional assays targeting ompB, gltA and hrtA genes have been the least sensitive. Therefore, we recommend the SYBR green-based real-time PCR as a tool for the detection of rickettsial DNA in animal samples due to its higher sensitivity when compared to more traditional assays. PMID:25607846

  13. Animation of Sequoia Forest Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Continued hot, dry weather in the American west contributed to the spread of numerous fires over the weekend of July 29-30, 2000. This is the most active fire season in the United States since 1988, when large portions of Yellowstone National Park burned. One of the largest fires currently burning has consumed more than 63,000 acres in Sequoia National Forest. This NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) image shows the fire on the afternoon of July 30, 2000. Note the clouds above the smoke plume. These often form during large fires because updrafts lift warm air near the ground high into the atmosphere, cooling the air and causing the water vapor it contains to condense into droplets. The soot particles in the smoke also act as condensation nuclei for the droplets. View the animation of GOES data to see the smoke forming clouds. Image and Animation by Robert Simmon and Marit-Jentoft Nilsen, NASA GSFC, based on data from NOAA.

  14. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  15. Multi-species collapses at the warm edge of a warming sea

    PubMed Central

    Rilov, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Even during the current biodiversity crisis, reports on population collapses of highly abundant, non-harvested marine species were rare until very recently. This is starting to change, especially at the warm edge of species’ distributions where populations are more vulnerable to stress. The Levant basin is the southeastern edge of distribution of most Mediterranean species. Coastal water conditions are naturally extreme, and are fast warming, making it a potential hotspot for species collapses. Using multiple data sources, I found strong evidence for major, sustained, population collapses of two urchins, one large predatory gastropod and a reef-building gastropod. Furthermore, of 59 molluscan species once-described in the taxonomic literature as common on Levant reefs, 38 were not found in the present-day surveys, and there was a total domination of non-indigenous species in molluscan assemblages. Temperature trends indicate an exceptional warming of the coastal waters in the past three decades. Though speculative at this stage, the fast rise in SST may have helped pushing these invertebrates beyond their physiological tolerance limits leading to population collapses and possible extirpations. If so, these collapses may indicate the initiation of a multi-species range contraction at the Mediterranean southeastern edge that may spread westward with additional warming. PMID:27853237

  16. Mountain-climbing bears protect cherry species from global warming through vertical seed dispersal.

    PubMed

    Naoe, Shoji; Tayasu, Ichiro; Sakai, Yoichiro; Masaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Nakajima, Akiko; Sato, Yoshikazu; Yamazaki, Koji; Kiyokawa, Hiroki; Koike, Shinsuke

    2016-04-25

    In a warming climate, temperature-sensitive plants must move toward colder areas, that is, higher latitude or altitude, by seed dispersal [1]. Considering that the temperature drop with increasing altitude (-0.65°C per 100 m altitude) is one hundred to a thousand times larger than that of the equivalent latitudinal distance [2], vertical seed dispersal is probably a key process for plant escape from warming temperatures. In fact, plant geographical distributions are tracking global warming altitudinally rather than latitudinally, and the extent of tracking is considered to be large in plants with better-dispersed traits (e.g., lighter seeds in wind-dispersed plants) [1]. However, no study has evaluated vertical seed dispersal itself due to technical difficulty or high cost. Here, we show using a stable oxygen isotope that black bears disperse seeds of wild cherry over several hundred meters vertically, and that the dispersal direction is heavily biased towards the mountain tops. Mountain climbing by bears following spring-to-summer plant phenology is likely the cause of this biased seed dispersal. These results suggest that spring- and summer-fruiting plants dispersed by animals may have high potential to escape global warming. Our results also indicate that the direction of vertical seed dispersal can be unexpectedly biased, and highlight the importance of considering seed dispersal direction to understand plant responses to past and future climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood harmane concentrations and dietary protein consumption in essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Louis, E D; Zheng, W; Applegate, L; Shi, L; Factor-Litvak, P

    2005-08-09

    Beta-carboline alkaloids (e.g., harmane) are highly tremorogenic chemicals. Animal protein (meat) is the major dietary source of these alkaloids. The authors previously demonstrated that blood harmane concentrations were elevated in patients with essential tremor (ET) vs controls. Whether this difference is due to greater animal protein consumption by patients or their failure to metabolize harmane is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with ET and controls differ with regard to 1) daily animal protein consumption and 2) the correlation between animal protein consumption and blood harmane concentration. Data on current diet were collected with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and daily calories and consumption of animal protein and other food types was calculated. Blood harmane concentrations were log-transformed (logHA). The mean logHA was higher in 106 patients than 161 controls (0.61 +/- 0.67 vs 0.43 +/- 0.72 g(-10)/mL, p = 0.035). Patients and controls consumed similar amounts of animal protein (50.2 +/- 19.6 vs 49.4 +/- 19.1 g/day, p = 0.74) and other food types (animal fat, carbohydrates, vegetable fat) and had similar caloric intakes. In controls, logHA was correlated with daily consumption of animal protein (r = 0.24, p = 0.003); in patients, there was no such correlation (r = -0.003, p = 0.98). The similarity between patients and controls in daily animal protein consumption and the absence of the normal correlation between daily animal protein consumption and logHA in patients suggests that another factor (e.g., a metabolic defect) may be increasing blood harmane concentration in patients.

  18. G-warm inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Ramón, E-mail: ramon.herrera@pucv.cl

    A warm inflationary universe in the context of Galileon model or G-model is studied. Under a general formalism we study the inflationary dynamics and the cosmological perturbations considering a coupling of the form G (φ, X )= g (φ) X . As a concrete example, we consider an exponential potential together with the cases in which the dissipation and Galilean coefficients are constants. Also, we study the weak regime given by the condition R <1+3 gH φ-dot , and the strong regime in which 1< R +3 gH φ-dot . Additionally, we obtain constraints on the parameters during the evolutionmore » of G-warm inflation, assuming the condition for warm inflation in which the temperature T > H , the conditions or the weak and strong regimes, together with the consistency relation r = r ( n {sub s} ) from Planck data.« less

  19. Goat meat does not cause increased blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01) than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01). The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01) after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal's blood pressure

  20. Improvement and application of an acute blood stasis rat model aligned with the 3Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement) of humane animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuai; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yin-Ye; Shang, Ming-Ying; Wang, Chao-Qun; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2014-12-23

    To establish a novel cardiocentesis method for withdrawing venous blood from the right atrium, and to improve an acute blood stasis rat model using an ice bath and epinephrine hydrochloride (Epi) while considering the 3Rs (reduction, refinement, and replacement) of humane animal experimentation. An acute blood stasis model was established in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection (s.c.) Epi (1.2 mg/kg) administration at 0 h, followed by a 5-min exposure to an ice-bath at 2 h and s.c. Epi administration at 4 h. Control rats received physiological saline. Rats were fasted overnight and treated with Angelicae Sinensis Lateralis Radix (ASLR) and Pheretima the following day. Venous blood was collected using our novel cardiocentesis method and used to test whole blood viscosity (WBV), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen (FIB) content. The rats survived the novel cardiocentesis technique; WBV value returned to normal while hematological parameters such as hemoglobin level and red blood cell count were restored to >94% of the corresponding values in normal rats following a 14-day recovery. Epi (1.2 mg/kg, s.c.) combined with a 5-min exposure to the ice bath replicated the acute blood stasis rat model and was associated with the highest WBV value. In rats showing acute blood stasis, ASLR treatment [4 g/(kg·d) for 8 days] decreased WBV by 9.98%, 11.09%, 9.34%, 9.00%, 7.66%, and 7.03% (P<0.05), while Pheretima treatment [2.6 g/(kg·d), for 8 days] decreased WBV by 25.49%, 25.94%, 16.28%, 17.76%, 11.07%, and 7.89% (P<0.01) at shear rates of 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, and 180 s -1 , respectively. Furthermore, Pheretima treatment increased APTT significantly (P<0.01). We presented a stable, reproducible, and improved acute blood stasis rat model, which could be applied to screen drugs for promoting blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis.

  1. Recently amplified arctic warming has contributed to a continual global warming trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianbin; Zhang, Xiangdong; Zhang, Qiyi; Lin, Yanluan; Hao, Mingju; Luo, Yong; Zhao, Zongci; Yao, Yao; Chen, Xin; Wang, Lei; Nie, Suping; Yin, Yizhou; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Jiansong

    2017-12-01

    The existence and magnitude of the recently suggested global warming hiatus, or slowdown, have been strongly debated1-3. Although various physical processes4-8 have been examined to elucidate this phenomenon, the accuracy and completeness of observational data that comprise global average surface air temperature (SAT) datasets is a concern9,10. In particular, these datasets lack either complete geographic coverage or in situ observations over the Arctic, owing to the sparse observational network in this area9. As a consequence, the contribution of Arctic warming to global SAT changes may have been underestimated, leading to an uncertainty in the hiatus debate. Here, we constructed a new Arctic SAT dataset using the most recently updated global SATs2 and a drifting buoys based Arctic SAT dataset11 through employing the `data interpolating empirical orthogonal functions' method12. Our estimate of global SAT rate of increase is around 0.112 °C per decade, instead of 0.05 °C per decade from IPCC AR51, for 1998-2012. Analysis of this dataset shows that the amplified Arctic warming over the past decade has significantly contributed to a continual global warming trend, rather than a hiatus or slowdown.

  2. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  3. 9 CFR 310.20 - Saving of blood from livestock as an edible product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Saving of blood from livestock as an... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.20 Saving of blood from livestock as an edible product. Blood may be saved for edible purposes at official establishments provided...

  4. 9 CFR 310.20 - Saving of blood from livestock as an edible product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Saving of blood from livestock as an... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.20 Saving of blood from livestock as an edible product. Blood may be saved for edible purposes at official establishments provided...

  5. 9 CFR 310.20 - Saving of blood from livestock as an edible product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Saving of blood from livestock as an... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.20 Saving of blood from livestock as an edible product. Blood may be saved for edible purposes at official establishments provided...

  6. 9 CFR 310.20 - Saving of blood from livestock as an edible product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Saving of blood from livestock as an... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.20 Saving of blood from livestock as an edible product. Blood may be saved for edible purposes at official establishments provided...

  7. 9 CFR 310.20 - Saving of blood from livestock as an edible product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Saving of blood from livestock as an... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.20 Saving of blood from livestock as an edible product. Blood may be saved for edible purposes at official establishments provided...

  8. Climatic warming destabilizes forest ant communities

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Sarah E.; Nichols, Lauren M.; Pelini, Shannon L.; Penick, Clint A.; Barber, Grace W.; Cahan, Sara Helms; Dunn, Robert R.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    How will ecological communities change in response to climate warming? Direct effects of temperature and indirect cascading effects of species interactions are already altering the structure of local communities, but the dynamics of community change are still poorly understood. We explore the cumulative effects of warming on the dynamics and turnover of forest ant communities that were warmed as part of a 5-year climate manipulation experiment at two sites in eastern North America. At the community level, warming consistently increased occupancy of nests and decreased extinction and nest abandonment. This consistency was largely driven by strong responses of a subset of thermophilic species at each site. As colonies of thermophilic species persisted in nests for longer periods of time under warmer temperatures, turnover was diminished, and species interactions were likely altered. We found that dynamical (Lyapunov) community stability decreased with warming both within and between sites. These results refute null expectations of simple temperature-driven increases in the activity and movement of thermophilic ectotherms. The reduction in stability under warming contrasts with the findings of previous studies that suggest resilience of species interactions to experimental and natural warming. In the face of warmer, no-analog climates, communities of the future may become increasingly fragile and unstable. PMID:27819044

  9. Climatic warming destabilizes forest ant communities.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Sarah E; Nichols, Lauren M; Pelini, Shannon L; Penick, Clint A; Barber, Grace W; Cahan, Sara Helms; Dunn, Robert R; Ellison, Aaron M; Sanders, Nathan J; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2016-10-01

    How will ecological communities change in response to climate warming? Direct effects of temperature and indirect cascading effects of species interactions are already altering the structure of local communities, but the dynamics of community change are still poorly understood. We explore the cumulative effects of warming on the dynamics and turnover of forest ant communities that were warmed as part of a 5-year climate manipulation experiment at two sites in eastern North America. At the community level, warming consistently increased occupancy of nests and decreased extinction and nest abandonment. This consistency was largely driven by strong responses of a subset of thermophilic species at each site. As colonies of thermophilic species persisted in nests for longer periods of time under warmer temperatures, turnover was diminished, and species interactions were likely altered. We found that dynamical (Lyapunov) community stability decreased with warming both within and between sites. These results refute null expectations of simple temperature-driven increases in the activity and movement of thermophilic ectotherms. The reduction in stability under warming contrasts with the findings of previous studies that suggest resilience of species interactions to experimental and natural warming. In the face of warmer, no-analog climates, communities of the future may become increasingly fragile and unstable.

  10. Urban warming reduces aboveground carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Emily; Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2016-10-12

    A substantial amount of global carbon is stored in mature trees. However, no experiments to date test how warming affects mature tree carbon storage. Using a unique, citywide, factorial experiment, we investigated how warming and insect herbivory affected physiological function and carbon sequestration (carbon stored per year) of mature trees. Urban warming increased herbivorous arthropod abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon sequestration. Instead, urban warming was associated with an estimated 12% loss of carbon sequestration, in part because photosynthesis was reduced at hotter sites. Ecosystem service assessments that do not consider urban conditions may overestimate urban tree carbon storage. Because urban and global warming are becoming more intense, our results suggest that urban trees will sequester even less carbon in the future. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Impacts of warming revealed by linking resource growth rates with consumer functional responses.

    PubMed

    West, Derek C; Post, David M

    2016-05-01

    Warming global temperatures are driving changes in species distributions, growth and timing, but much uncertainty remains regarding how climate change will alter species interactions. Consumer-Resource interactions in particular can be strongly impacted by changes to the relative performance of interacting species. While consumers generally gain an advantage over their resources with increasing temperatures, nonlinearities can change this relation near temperature extremes. We use an experimental approach to determine how temperature changes between 5 and 30 °C will alter the growth of the algae Scenedesmus obliquus and the functional responses of the small-bodied Daphnia ambigua and the larger Daphnia pulicaria. The impact of warming generally followed expectations, making both Daphnia species more effective grazers, with the increase in feeding rates outpacing the increases in algal growth rate. At the extremes of our temperature range, however, warming resulted in a decrease in Daphnia grazing effectiveness. Between 25 and 30 °C, both species of Daphnia experienced a precipitous drop in feeding rates, while algal growth rates remained high, increasing the likelihood of algal blooms in warming summer temperatures. Daphnia pulicaria performed significantly better at cold temperatures than D. ambigua, but by 20 °C, there was no significant difference between the two species, and at 25 °C, D. ambigua outperformed D. pulicaria. Warming summer temperatures will favour the smaller D. ambigua, but only over a narrow temperature range, and warming beyond 25 °C could open D. ambigua to invasion from tropical species. By fitting our results to temperature-dependent functions, we develop a temperature- and density-dependent model, which produces a metric of grazing effectiveness, quantifying the grazer density necessary to halt algal growth. This approach should prove useful for tracking the transient dynamics of other density-dependent consumer

  12. Global warming 2007. An update to global warming: the balance of evidence and its policy implications.

    PubMed

    Keller, Charles F

    2007-03-09

    In the four years since my original review (Keller[25]; hereafter referred to as CFK03), research has clarified and strengthened our understanding of how humans are warming the planet. So many of the details highlighted in the IPCC's Third Assessment Report[21] and in CFK03 have been resolved that I expect many to be a bit overwhelmed, and I hope that, by treating just the most significant aspects of the research, this update may provide a road map through the expected maze of new information. In particular, while most of CFK03 remains current, there are important items that have changed: Most notable is the resolution of the conundrum that mid-tropospheric warming did not seem to match surface warming. Both satellite and radiosonde (balloon-borne sensors) data reduction showed little warming in the middle troposphere (4-8 km altitude). In the CFK03 I discussed potential solutions to this problem, but at that time there was no clear resolution. This problem has now been solved, and the middle troposphere is seen to be warming apace with the surface. There have also been advances in determinations of temperatures over the past 1,000 years showing a cooler Little Ice Age (LIA) but essentially the same warming during medieval times (not as large as recent warming). The recent uproar over the so-called "hockey stick" temperature determination is much overblown since at least seven other groups have made relatively independent determinations of northern hemisphere temperatures over the same time period and derived essentially the same results. They differ on how cold the LIA was but essentially agree with the Mann's hockey stick result that the Medieval Warm Period was not as warm as the last 25 years. The question of the sun's influence on climate continues to generate controversy. It appears there is a growing consensus that, while the sun was a major factor in earlier temperature variations, it is incapable of having caused observed warming in the past quarter

  13. The effects of hypoxemia on myocardial blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Paridon, S M; Bricker, J T; Dreyer, W J; Reardon, M; Smith, E O; Porter, C B; Michael, L; Fisher, D J

    1989-03-01

    We evaluated the adequacy of regional and transmural blood flow during exercise and rapid pacing after 1 wk of hypoxemia. Seven mature mongrel dogs were made hypoxemic (mean O2 saturation = 72.4%) by anastomosis of left pulmonary artery to left atrial appendage. Catheters were placed in the left atrium, right atrium, pulmonary artery, and aorta. Atrial and ventricular pacing wires were placed. An aortic flow probe was placed to measure cardiac output. Ten nonshunted dogs, similarly instrumented, served as controls. Recovery time was approximately 1 wk. Cardiac output, mean aortic pressure, and oxygen saturation were measured at rest, with ventricular pacing, atrial pacing, and with treadmill exercise. Ventricular and atrial pace and exercise were at a heart rate of 200. Right ventricular free wall, left ventricular free wall, and septal blood flow were measured with radionuclide-labeled microspheres. Cardiac output, left atrial blood pressure, and aortic blood pressure were similar between the two groups of dogs in all testing states. Myocardial blood flow was significantly higher in the right and left ventricular free wall in the hypoxemic animals during resting and exercise testing states. Myocardial oxygen delivery was similar between the two groups of animals. Pacing resulted in an increase in myocardial blood flow in the control animals but not the hypoxemic animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. BLOOD CHEMISTRY AND HEMATOLOGY VALUES IN HEALTHY AND REHABILITATED ROUGH-TOOTHED DOLPHINS ( STENO BREDANENSIS).

    PubMed

    Manire, Charles A; Reiber, C Melanie; Gaspar, Cécile; Rhinehart, Howard L; Byrd, Lynne; Sweeney, Jay; West, Kristi L

    2018-01-01

    Rehabilitation efforts for live stranded marine mammals are guided by diagnostic measures of blood chemistry and hematology parameters obtained from each individual undergoing treatment. Despite the widespread use of blood parameters, reference values are not available in the literature from healthy rough-toothed dolphins ( Steno bredanensis) with which to infer the health status of an animal. We examined serum or plasma chemistry and hematology data from 17 rough-toothed dolphins either housed at Dolphin Quest French Polynesia or during their rehabilitation at the Dolphin and Whale Hospital in Sarasota, Florida, US between 1994 and 2005. Blood parameters were compared among healthy animals, rehabilitation animals that were eventually released, and rehabilitation animals that died. This study indicated significant differences in many blood parameters for the poorly known rough-toothed dolphin that are likely to vary between healthy and sick animals. These included aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, bicarbonate, and globulins, which were greater in sick dolphins, and alkaline phosphatase and total protein which were greater in healthy individuals. Total white blood cell counts were lower in healthy animals as were the absolute numbers of neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils. Analysis of first blood sample levels for glucose, sodium, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate may have value for triage and prognostic evaluation.

  15. Blood harmane concentrations and dietary protein consumption in essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Louis, E.D.; Zheng, W.; Applegate, L.; Shi, L.; Factor-Litvak, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background β-Carboline alkaloids (e.g., harmane) are highly tremorogenic chemicals. Animal protein (meat) is the major dietary source of these alkaloids. The authors previously demonstrated that blood harmane concentrations were elevated in patients with essential tremor (ET) vs controls. Whether this difference is due to greater animal protein consumption by patients or their failure to metabolize harmane is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with ET and controls differ with regard to 1) daily animal protein consumption and 2) the correlation between animal protein consumption and blood harmane concentration. Methods Data on current diet were collected with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and daily calories and consumption of animal protein and other food types was calculated. Blood harmane concentrations were log-transformed (logHA). Results The mean logHA was higher in 106 patients than 161 controls (0.61 ± 0.67 vs 0.43 ± 0.72 g−10/mL, p = 0.035). Patients and controls consumed similar amounts of animal protein (50.2 ± 19.6 vs 49.4 ± 19.1 g/day, p = 0.74) and other food types (animal fat, carbohydrates, vegetable fat) and had similar caloric intakes. In controls, logHA was correlated with daily consumption of animal protein (r = 0.24, p = 0.003); in patients, there was no such correlation (r = −0.003, p = 0.98). Conclusions The similarity between patients and controls in daily animal protein consumption and the absence of the normal correlation between daily animal protein consumption and logHA in patients suggests that another factor (e.g., a metabolic defect) may be increasing blood harmane concentration in patients. PMID:16087903

  16. The Tropical Western Hemisphere Warm Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Enfield, D. B.

    2002-12-01

    The paper describes and examines variability of the tropical Western Hemisphere warm pool (WHWP) of water warmer than 28.5oC. The WHWP is the second-largest tropical warm pool on Earth. Unlike the Eastern Hemisphere warm pool in the western Pacific, which straddles the equator, the WHWP is entirely north of the equator. At various stages of development the WHWP extends over parts of the eastern North Pacific, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, and the western tropical North Atlantic. It has a large seasonal cycle and its interannual fluctuations of area and intensity are significant. Surface heat fluxes warm the WHWP through the boreal spring to an annual maximum of SST and WHWP area in the late summer/early fall, associated with eastern North Pacific and Atlantic hurricane activities and rainfall from northern South America to the southern tier of the United States. Observations suggest that a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback operating through longwave radiation and associated cloudiness seems to operate in the WHWP. During winter preceding large warm pool, there is an alteration of the Walker and Hadley circulation cells that serves as a "tropospheric bridge" for transferring Pacific ENSO effects to the Atlantic sector and inducing initial warming of warm pool. Associated with the warm SST anomalies is a decrease in sea level pressure anomalies and an anomalous increase in atmospheric convection and cloudiness. The increase in convective activity and cloudiness results in less net longwave radiation loss from the sea surface, which then reinforces SST anomalies.

  17. Biomarkers of animal health: integrating nutritional ecology, endocrine ecophysiology, ecoimmunology, and geospatial ecology.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W; Proudfoot, Glenn A; Crespi, Erica J

    2015-02-01

    Diverse biomarkers including stable isotope, hormonal, and ecoimmunological assays are powerful tools to assess animal condition. However, an integrative approach is necessary to provide the context essential to understanding how biomarkers reveal animal health in varied ecological conditions. A barrier to such integration is a general lack of awareness of how shared extraction methods from across fields can provide material from the same animal tissues for diverse biomarker assays. In addition, the use of shared methods for extracting differing tissue fractions can also provide biomarkers for how animal health varies across time. Specifically, no study has explicitly illustrated the depth and breadth of spacial and temporal information that can be derived from coupled biomarker assessments on two easily collected tissues: blood and feathers or hair. This study used integrated measures of glucocorticoids, stable isotopes, and parasite loads in the feathers and blood of fall-migrating Northern saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus) to illustrate the wealth of knowledge about animal health and ecology across both time and space. In feathers, we assayed deuterium (δD) isotope and corticosterone (CORT) profiles, while in blood we measured CORT and blood parasite levels. We found that while earlier migrating owls had elevated CORT levels relative to later migrating birds, there was also a disassociation between plasma and feather CORT, and blood parasite loads. These results demonstrate how these tissues integrate time periods from weeks to seasons and reflect energetic demands during differing life stages. Taken together, these findings illustrate the potential for integrating diverse biomarkers to assess interactions between environmental factors and animal health across varied time periods without the necessity of continually recapturing and tracking individuals. Combining biomarkers from diverse research fields into an integrated framework hold great promise for

  18. Toxoplasma gondii infection in meat animals from Africa: Systematic review and meta-analysis of sero-epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Tonouhewa, Aretas Babatoundé Nounnagnon; Akpo, Yao; Sessou, Philippe; Adoligbe, Camus; Yessinou, Eric; Hounmanou, Yaovi Gildas; Assogba, Marc Napoléon; Youssao, Issaka; Farougou, Souaïbou

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Toxoplasma gondii is an ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite which causes toxoplasmosis in humans and animals. Felids especially cats are definitive hosts and almost all warm-blooded mammals, including livestock and human can serve as intermediate hosts. Food animals can be reservoirs for T. gondii and act as one of the sources for parasite transmission to humans. The objective of this study is to collect serological data on the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody, and risk factors for certain food animals from Africa to provide a quantitative estimate of T. gondii infection among these species from different African countries. Materials and Methods: Four databases were used to search seroepidemiological data on the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody in food animals between 1969 and 2016 from African countries. The search focused on data obtained by serologic test in food animals and meta-analyses were performed per species. Results: A total of 30,742 individual samples from 24 countries, described in 68 articles were studied. The overall estimated prevalence for toxoplasmosis in chicken, camel, cattle, sheep, goat, pig were 37.4% (29.2-46.0%), 36% (18-56%), 12% (8-17%), 26.1% (17.0-37.0%), 22.9% (12.3-36.0%), and 26.0% (20-32.0%), respectively. Moreover, major risk factor of infection was age, farming system, and farm location. Conclusions: A significant variation in the seroepidemiological data was observed within each species and country. The results can aid in an updated epidemiological analysis but also can be used as an important input in quantitative microbial risk assessment models. Further studies are required for a better and continual evaluation of the occurrence of this zoonotic infection. PMID:28344403

  19. Antagonism of soluble guanylyl cyclase attenuates cutaneous vasodilation during whole body heat stress and local warming in humans

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Joan L.; Wu, Yubo; Johnson, John M.

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that nitric oxide activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) participates in cutaneous vasodilation during whole body heat stress and local skin warming. We examined the effects of the sGC inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), on reflex skin blood flow responses to whole body heat stress and on nonreflex responses to increased local skin temperature. Blood flow was monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry, and blood pressure by Finapres to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Intradermal microdialysis was used to treat one site with 1 mM ODQ in 2% DMSO and Ringer, a second site with 2% DMSO in Ringer, and a third site received Ringer. In protocol 1, after a period of normothermia, whole body heat stress was induced. In protocol 2, local heating units warmed local skin temperature from 34 to 41°C to cause local vasodilation. In protocol 1, in normothermia, CVC did not differ among sites [ODQ, 15 ± 3% maximum CVC (CVCmax); DMSO, 14 ± 3% CVCmax; Ringer, 17 ± 6% CVCmax; P > 0.05]. During heat stress, ODQ attenuated CVC increases (ODQ, 54 ± 4% CVCmax; DMSO, 64 ± 4% CVCmax; Ringer, 63 ± 4% CVCmax; P < 0.05, ODQ vs. DMSO or Ringer). In protocol 2, at 34°C local temperature, CVC did not differ among sites (ODQ, 17 ± 2% CVCmax; DMSO, 18 ± 4% CVCmax; Ringer, 18 ± 3% CVCmax; P > 0.05). ODQ attenuated CVC increases at 41°C local temperature (ODQ, 54 ± 5% CVCmax; DMSO, 86 ± 4% CVCmax; Ringer, 90 ± 2% CVCmax; P < 0.05 ODQ vs. DMSO or Ringer). sGC participates in neurogenic active vasodilation during heat stress and in the local response to direct skin warming. PMID:21292837

  20. Animal serial killing: The first criminal conviction for animal cruelty in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Salvagni, Fernanda Auciello; de Siqueira, Adriana; Fukushima, Andre Rinaldi; Landi, Marina Frota de Albuquerque; Ponge-Ferreira, Heidi; Maiorka, Paulo Cesar

    2016-10-01

    Animal cruelty is a known behavior of psychopaths, and although the serial killing of humans is widely acknowledged worldwide, this type of crime against animals is seldom discussed. This report describes the necropsy and toxicological findings of 37 dogs and cats, which were found dead in plastic bags in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The animals had all been in the care of an alleged animal rescuer and were to be referred for adoption before being found dead. In the necropsy, the animals showed varying degrees of putrefaction, indicating different periods of death, as well as single or multiple perforations on the thorax. The perforations reached the heart, lungs or large thoracic vessels, culminating in hemopericardium and hemothorax that led to death by circulatory failure and cardiac tamponade. Blood from the heart and thoracic cavity was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and tested positive for ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic. The suspect declared that she had killed only five of the animals and that they had all been fatally sick. The necropsy proved that all 37 animals were killed in the same way, that none of the animals had any terminal diseases and that a restricted drug was used. The suspect was sentenced to 12 years, 6 months and 14days of prison for the killing of the 37 animals. This was the first conviction for the crime of animal cruelty in Brazil. The combined role of police, forensic veterinary pathologists and prosecutors were essential to the conviction, which was a great historical occasion in the fight against animal cruelty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Alternatives to allogenous blood transfusion].

    PubMed

    Cernea, Daniela; Vlădoianu, Alice; Stoica, Maria; Novac, M; Berteanu, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Blood transfusion is usually meant to lower morbidity and mortality rates. Allogenous blood transfusion implies certain risks that can be avoided by autologous blood transfusions techniques including: preoperatory autologous blood donation, acute normovolemic hemodilution, intraoperatory and postoperatory blood salvage. Preoperatory blood donation and acute normovolemic hemodilution are used for planned interventions with an estimated blood loss higher than 20% of blood volume. These methods imply Erythropoietin and iron treatment. Intraoperatory and postoperatory blood salvage is performed by personnel trained in blood donation, handling and storage. Autologous blood transfusions are used for certain surgical procedures that commonly require transfusions: orthopedic surgery, radical prostatectomy, cardiovascular surgery, organ transplantation. An alternative to allogenous blood transfusion is the use of artificial oxygen transporters: human or animal hemoglobin solutions or pefluorocarbonate solutions. These solutions do not require cross reactions, do not carry diseases and are generally well tolerated and easily stored in the operating room, ambulance and other transport means. They have however a slight degree of toxicity.

  2. Decadal evolution of the surface energy budget during the fast warming and global warming hiatus periods in the ERA-interim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaoming; Sejas, Sergio A.; Cai, Ming; Taylor, Patrick C.; Deng, Yi; Yang, Song

    2018-05-01

    The global-mean surface temperature has experienced a rapid warming from the 1980s to early-2000s but a muted warming since, referred to as the global warming hiatus in the literature. Decadal changes in deep ocean heat uptake are thought to primarily account for the rapid warming and subsequent slowdown. Here, we examine the role of ocean heat uptake in establishing the fast warming and warming hiatus periods in the ERA-Interim through a decomposition of the global-mean surface energy budget. We find the increase of carbon dioxide alone yields a nearly steady increase of the downward longwave radiation at the surface from the 1980s to the present, but neither accounts for the fast warming nor warming hiatus periods. During the global warming hiatus period, the transfer of latent heat energy from the ocean to atmosphere increases and the total downward radiative energy flux to the surface decreases due to a reduction of solar absorption caused primarily by an increase of clouds. The reduction of radiative energy into the ocean and the surface latent heat flux increase cause the ocean heat uptake to decrease and thus contribute to the slowdown of the global-mean surface warming. Our analysis also finds that in addition to a reduction of deep ocean heat uptake, the fast warming period is also driven by enhanced solar absorption due predominantly to a decrease of clouds and by enhanced longwave absorption mainly attributed to the air temperature feedback.

  3. Identification of specific bovine blood biomarkers with a non-targeted approach using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lecrenier, M C; Marbaix, H; Dieu, M; Veys, P; Saegerman, C; Raes, M; Baeten, V

    2016-12-15

    Animal by-products are valuable protein sources in animal nutrition. Among them are blood products and blood meal, which are used as high-quality material for their beneficial effects on growth and health. Within the framework of the feed ban relaxation, the development of complementary methods in order to refine the identification of processed animal proteins remains challenging. The aim of this study was to identify specific biomarkers that would allow the detection of bovine blood products and processed animal proteins using tandem mass spectrometry. Seventeen biomarkers were identified: nine peptides for bovine plasma powder; seven peptides for bovine haemoglobin powder, including six peptides for bovine blood meal; and one peptide for porcine blood. They were not detected in several commercial compound feed or feed materials, such as blood by-products of other animal origins, milk-derived products and fish meal. These biomarkers could be used for developing a species-specific and blood-specific detection method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Climatic influence on anthrax suitability in warming northern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael G; de Smalen, Allard W; Mor, Siobhan M

    2018-06-18

    Climate change is impacting ecosystem structure and function, with potentially drastic downstream effects on human and animal health. Emerging zoonotic diseases are expected to be particularly vulnerable to climate and biodiversity disturbance. Anthrax is an archetypal zoonosis that manifests its most significant burden on vulnerable pastoralist communities. The current study sought to investigate the influence of temperature increases on geographic anthrax suitability in the temperate, boreal, and arctic North, where observed climate impact has been rapid. This study also explored the influence of climate relative to more traditional factors, such as livestock distribution, ungulate biodiversity, and soil-water balance, in demarcating risk. Machine learning was used to model anthrax suitability in northern latitudes. The model identified climate, livestock density and wild ungulate species richness as the most influential features in predicting suitability. These findings highlight the significance of warming temperatures for anthrax ecology in northern latitudes, and suggest potential mitigating effects of interventions targeting megafauna biodiversity conservation in grassland ecosystems, and animal health promotion among small to midsize livestock herds.

  5. Changes of blood biochemistry in the rabbit animal model in atherosclerosis research; a time- or stress-effect

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rabbits are widely used in biomedical research and especially as animal models in atherosclerosis studies. Blood biochemistry is used to monitor progression of disease, before final evaluation including pathology of arteries and organs. The aim of the present study was to assess the consistency of the biochemical profile of New Zealand White rabbits on standard diet from 3 to 6 months of age, during which they are often used experimentally. Methods and results Eight conventional male 3-month-old New Zealand White rabbits were used. Blood samples were taken at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 months later. Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol concentrations, and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase activities and malondialdehyde were measured. Statistically significant time-related changes were observed in glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol, which were not correlated with aortic lesions at 6 months of age. Similarly, hepatic enzyme activity had significant time-related changes, without a corresponding liver pathology. Conclusions Age progression and stress due to single housing may be the underlying reasons for these biochemistry changes. These early changes, indicative of metabolic alterations, should be taken into account even in short-term lipid/atherosclerosis studies, where age and standard diet are not expected to have an effect on the control group of a study. PMID:21838924

  6. Experimental winter warming modifies thermal performance and primes acorn ants for warm weather.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Heidi J; Penick, Clint A; Dunn, Robert R; Diamond, Sarah E

    2017-07-01

    The frequency of warm winter days is increasing under global climate change, but how organisms respond to warmer winters is not well understood. Most studies focus on growing season responses to warming. Locomotor performance is often highly sensitive to temperature, and can determine fitness outcomes through a variety of mechanisms including resource acquisition and predator escape. As a consequence, locomotor performance, and its impacts on fitness, may be strongly affected by winter warming in winter-active species. Here we use the acorn ant, Temnothorax curvispinosus, to explore how thermal performance (temperature-driven plasticity) in running speed is influenced by experimental winter warming of 3-5°C above ambient in a field setting. We used running speed as a measure of performance as it is a common locomotor trait that influences acquisition of nest sites and food in acorn ants. Experimental winter warming significantly altered thermal performance for running speed at high (26 and 36°C) but not low test temperatures (6 and 16°C). Although we saw little differentiation in thermal performance at cooler test temperatures, we saw a marked increase in running speed at the hotter test temperatures for ants that experienced warmer winters compared with those that experienced cooler winters. Our results provide evidence that overwintering temperatures can substantially influence organismal performance, and suggest that we cannot ignore overwintering effects when forecasting organismal responses to environmental changes in temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Blood circulation in the ascidian tunicate Corella inflata (Corellidae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The body of the ascidian tunicate Corella inflata is relatively transparent. Thus, the circulatory system can be visualized by injecting high molecular weight fluorescein labeled dextran into the heart or the large vessels at the ends of the heart without surgery to remove the body wall. In addition, after staining with neutral red, the movement of blood cells can be easily followed to further characterize the circulatory system. The heart is two gently curved concentric tubes extending across the width of the animal. The inner myocardial tube has a partial constriction approximately in the middle. As in other tunicates, the heart is peristaltic and periodically reverses direction. During the branchial phase blood leaves the anterior end of the heart by two asymmetric vessels that connect to the two sides of the branchial basket. Blood then flows in both transverse directions through a complex system of ducts in the basket into large ventral and dorsal vessels which carry blood back to the visceral organs in the posterior of the animal. During the visceral phase blood leaves the posterior end of the heart in two vessels that repeatedly bifurcate and fan into the stomach and gonads. Blood velocity, determined by following individual cells in video frames, is high and pulsatory near the heart. A double peak in velocity at the maximum may be due to the constriction in the middle of the heart tube. Blood velocity progressively decreases with distance from the heart. In peripheral regions with vessels of small diameter blood cells frequently collide with vessel walls and cell motion is erratic. The estimated volume of blood flow during each directional phase is greater than the total volume of the animal. Circulating blood cells are confined to vessels or ducts in the visible parts of the animal and retention of high molecular weight dextran in the vessels is comparable to that seen in vertebrates. These are characteristics of a closed circulatory system. PMID:27994977

  8. Sustained acceleration of soil carbon decomposition observed in a 6-year warming experiment in a warm-temperate forest in southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Munemasa; Liang, Naishen; Takagi, Masahiro; Zeng, Jiye; Grace, John

    2016-10-17

    To examine global warming's effect on soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition in Asian monsoon forests, we conducted a soil warming experiment with a multichannel automated chamber system in a 55-year-old warm-temperate evergreen broadleaved forest in southern Japan. We established three treatments: control chambers for total soil respiration, trenched chambers for heterotrophic respiration (R h ), and warmed trenched chambers to examine warming effect on R h . The soil was warmed with an infrared heater above each chamber to increase soil temperature at 5 cm depth by about 2.5 °C. The warming treatment lasted from January 2009 to the end of 2014. The annual warming effect on R h (an increase per °C) ranged from 7.1 to17.8% °C -1 . Although the warming effect varied among the years, it averaged 9.4% °C -1 over 6 years, which was close to the value of 10.1 to 10.9% °C -1 that we calculated using the annual temperature-efflux response model of Lloyd and Taylor. The interannual warming effect was positively related to the total precipitation in the summer period, indicating that summer precipitation and the resulting soil moisture level also strongly influenced the soil warming effect in this forest.

  9. Multicommuted flow system for the determination of glucose in animal blood serum exploiting enzymatic reaction and chemiluminescence detection

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Cherrine K.; Martelli, Patrícia B.; Lima, José L. F. C.; Saraiva, Maria Lúcia M. F. S.

    2003-01-01

    An automatic flow procedure based on multicommutation dedicated for the determination of glucose in animal blood serum using glucose oxidase with chemiluminescence detection is described. The flow manifold consisted of a set of three-way solenoid valves assembled to implement multicommutation. A microcomputer furnished with an electronic interface and software written in Quick BASIC 4.5 controlled the manifold and performed data acquisition. Glucose oxidase was immobilized on porous silica beads (glass aminopropyl) and packed in a minicolumn (15 × 5 mm). The procedure was based on the enzymatic degradation of glucose, producing hydrogen peroxide, which oxidized luminol in the presence of hexacyanoferrate(III), causing the chemiluminescence. The system was tested by analysing a set of serum animal samples without previous treatment. Results were in agreement with those obtained with the conventional method (LABTEST Kit) at the 95% confidence level. The detection limit and variation coefficient were estimated as 12.0 mg l−1 (99.7% confidence level) and 3.5% (n = 20), respectively. The sampling rate was about 60 determinations h−1 with sample concentrations ranging from 50 to 600 mg l−1 glucose. The consumptions of serum sample, hexacyanoferrate(III) and luminol were 46 μl, 10.0 mg and 0.2 mg/determination, respectively. PMID:18924619

  10. The administration of renoprotective agents extends warm ischemia in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jacob; Dorai, Thambi; Ding, Cheng; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Grasso, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Extended warm ischemia time during partial nephrectomy leads to considerable renal injury. Using a rat model of renal ischemia, we examined the ability of a unique renoprotective cocktail to ameliorate warm ischemia-reperfusion injury and extend warm ischemia time. A warm renal ischemia model was developed using Sprague-Dawley rats, clamping the left renal artery for 40, 50, 60, and 70 minutes, followed by 48 hours of reperfusion. An improved renoprotective cocktail referred to as I-GPM (a mixture of specific renoprotective growth factors, porphyrins, and mitochondria-protecting amino acids) was administered -24 hours, 0 hours, and +24 hours after surgery. At 48 hours, both kidneys were harvested and examined with hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff stains for the analysis of renal tubular necrosis. Creatinine, protein, and gene expression levels were also analyzed to evaluate several ischemia-specific and antioxidant response markers. I-GPM treated kidneys showed significant reversal of morphologic changes and a significant reduction in specific ischemic markers lipocalin-2, galectin-3, GRP-78, and HMGB1 compared with ischemic controls. These experiments also showed an upregulation of the stress response protein, heat shock protein (HSP)-70, as well as the phosphorylated active form of the transcription factor, heat shock factor (HSF)-1. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed a robust upregulation of several antioxidant pathway response genes in I-GPM treated animals. By histopathologic and several molecular measures, our unique renoprotective cocktail mitigated ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our cocktail minimized oxidative stress in an ischemic kidney rat model while at the same time protecting the global parenchymal function during extended periods of ischemia.

  11. Respiratory muscle specific warm-up and elite swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emma E; McKeever, Tricia M; Lobb, Claire; Sherriff, Tom; Gupta, Luke; Hearson, Glenn; Martin, Neil; Lindley, Martin R; Shaw, Dominick E

    2014-05-01

    Inspiratory muscle training has been shown to improve performance in elite swimmers, when used as part of routine training, but its use as a respiratory warm-up has yet to be investigated. To determine the influence of inspiratory muscle exercise (IME) as a respiratory muscle warm-up in a randomised controlled cross-over trial. A total of 15 elite swimmers were assigned to four different warm-up protocols and the effects of IME on 100 m freestyle swimming times were assessed.Each swimmer completed four different IME warm-up protocols across four separate study visits: swimming-only warm-up; swimming warm-up plus IME warm-up (2 sets of 30 breaths with a 40% maximum inspiratory mouth pressure load using the Powerbreathe inspiratory muscle trainer); swimming warm-up plus sham IME warm-up (2 sets of 30 breaths with a 15% maximum inspiratory mouth pressure load using the Powerbreathe inspiratory muscle trainer); and IME-only warm-up. Swimmers performed a series of physiological tests and scales of perception (rate of perceived exertion and dyspnoea) at three time points (pre warm-up, post warm-up and post time trial). The combined standard swimming warm-up and IME warm-up were the fastest of the four protocols with a 100 m time of 57.05 s. This was significantly faster than the IME-only warm-up (mean difference=1.18 s, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.92, p<0.01) and the swim-only warm-up (mean difference=0.62 s, 95% CI 0.001 to 1.23, p=0.05). Using IME combined with a standard swimming warm-up significantly improves 100 m freestyle swimming performance in elite swimmers.

  12. An Environmental Health Assessment: Fecal Coliform Contamination in San Francisco Waterbodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devillier, K. N.; Devine, M.; Negrete, R.; Rawley, A. L.; Neiss, J.

    2007-12-01

    Fecal coliform is a group of bacteria that exists in the digestive system and excrement of warm-blooded animals. It enters aquatic environments through fecal contamination of water. In the urban environment, contamination can occur not only by direct input from warm-blooded animals but also from storm water run-off and municipal sewer overflow. Fecal coliform itself does not cause disease but it is an indicator of the presence of pathogens that exist in the wastes of humans and animals that are a hazard to human health. We examined 12 locations in San Francisco for fecal coliform and recorded the types of human contact with water at each location. We found low levels of coliform in areas open to the San Francisco Bay and Pacific Ocean and high levels of coliform in inland lakes and ponds. Using Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for fecal coliform concentrations, we found all sites at acceptable levels for the recreational and human activities we observed.

  13. Assessment of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model after Localized Brain Cooling in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kwon, Mi Jung; Lee, Phil Hye; Ju, Young-Su; Yoon, Dae Young; Kim, Hye Jeong; Lee, Kwan Seop

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of localized brain cooling on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats, by using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each: control group, localized cold-saline (20℃) infusion group, and localized warm-saline (37℃) infusion group. The left middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded for 1 hour in anesthetized rats, followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. In the localized saline infusion group, 6 mL of cold or warm saline was infused through the hollow filament for 10 minutes after MCA occlusion. DCE-MRI investigations were performed after 3 hours and 24 hours of reperfusion. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the extended Tofts-Kety model were calculated for each DCE-MRI. In addition, rotarod testing was performed before tMCAO, and on days 1-9 after tMCAO. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) immunohisto-chemistry was performed to identify infiltrating neutrophils associated with the inflammatory response in the rat brain. Permeability parameters showed no statistical significance between cold and warm saline infusion groups after 3-hour reperfusion 0.09 ± 0.01 min(-1) vs. 0.07 ± 0.02 min(-1), p = 0.661 for K(trans); 0.30 ± 0.05 min(-1) vs. 0.37 ± 0.11 min(-1), p = 0.394 for kep, respectively. Behavioral testing revealed no significant difference among the three groups. However, the percentage of MPO-positive cells in the cold-saline group was significantly lower than those in the control and warm-saline groups (p < 0.05). Localized brain cooling (20℃) does not confer a benefit to inhibit the increase in BBB permeability that follows transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in an animal model, as compared with localized warm-saline (37℃) infusion group.

  14. Frequency of Deep Convective Clouds and Global Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Teixeira, Joao

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effect of global warming on the formation of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC). It concludes that nature responds to global warming with an increase in strong convective activity. The frequency of DCC increases with global warming at the rate of 6%/decade. The increased frequency of DCC with global warming alone increases precipitation by 1.7%/decade. It compares the state of the art climate models' response to global warming, and concludes that the parametrization of climate models need to be tuned to more closely emulate the way nature responds to global warming.

  15. Gravitational waves from warm inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xi-Bin; Wang, He; Zhu, Jian-Yang

    2018-03-01

    A fundamental prediction of inflation is a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of gravitational wave. The features of such a signal provide extremely important information about the physics of the early universe. In this paper, we focus on several topics about warm inflation. First, we discuss the stability property about warm inflation based on nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, which gives more fundamental physical illustrations to thermal property of such model. Then, we calculate the power spectrum of gravitational waves generated during warm inflation, in which there are three components contributing to such spectrum: thermal term, quantum term, and cross term combining the both. We also discuss some interesting properties about these terms and illustrate them in different panels. As a model different from cold inflation, warm inflation model has its individual properties in observational practice, so we finally give a discussion about the observational effect to distinguish it from cold inflation.

  16. Forced-Air Warming During Pediatric Surgery: A Randomized Comparison of a Compressible with a Noncompressible Warming System.

    PubMed

    Triffterer, Lydia; Marhofer, Peter; Sulyok, Irene; Keplinger, Maya; Mair, Stefan; Steinberger, Markus; Klug, Wolfgang; Kimberger, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Perioperative hypothermia is a common problem, challenging the anesthesiologist and influencing patient outcome. Efficient and safe perioperative active warming is therefore paramount; yet, it can be particularly challenging in pediatric patients. Forced-air warming technology is the most widespread patient-warming option, with most forced-air warming systems consisting of a forced-air blower connected to a compressible, double layer plastic and/or a paper blanket with air holes on the patient side. We compared an alternative, forced-air, noncompressible, under-body patient-warming mattress (Baby/Kleinkinddecke of MoeckWarmingSystems, Moeck und Moeck GmbH; group MM) with a standard, compressible warming mattress system (Pediatric Underbody, Bair Hugger, 3M; group BH). The study included 80 patients aged <2 years, scheduled for elective surgery. After a preoperative core temperature measurement, the patients were placed on the randomized mattress in the operation theater and 4 temperature probes were applied rectally and to the patients' skin. The warming devices were turned on as soon as possible to the level for pediatric patients as recommended by the manufacturer (MM = 40°C, BH = 43°C). There was a distinct difference of temperature slope between the 2 groups: core temperatures of patients in the group MM remained stable and mean of the core temperature of patients in the group BH increased significantly (difference: +1.48°C/h; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-2.15°C/h; P = 0.0001). The need for temperature downregulation occurred more often in the BH group, with 22 vs 7 incidences (RR, 3.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-6.52; P = 0.0006). Skin temperatures were all lower in the MM group. Perioperatively, no side effects related to a warming device were observed in any group. Both devices are feasible choices for active pediatric patient warming, with the compressible mattress system being better suited to increase core temperature. The use of lower pediatric

  17. Potentially Extreme Population Displacement and Concentration in the Tropics Under Non-Extreme Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, Solomon M.; Sobel, Adam H.

    2016-06-01

    Evidence increasingly suggests that as climate warms, some plant, animal, and human populations may move to preserve their environmental temperature. The distances they must travel to do this depends on how much cooler nearby surfaces temperatures are. Because large-scale atmospheric dynamics constrain surface temperatures to be nearly uniform near the equator, these displacements can grow to extreme distances in the tropics, even under relatively mild warming scenarios. Here we show that in order to preserve their annual mean temperatures, tropical populations would have to travel distances greater than 1000 km over less than a century if global mean temperature rises by 2 °C over the same period. The disproportionately rapid evacuation of the tropics under such a scenario would cause migrants to concentrate in tropical margins and the subtropics, where population densities would increase 300% or more. These results may have critical consequences for ecosystem and human wellbeing in tropical contexts where alternatives to geographic displacement are limited.

  18. Efficacy of external warming in attenuation of hypothermia in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Zeba, Snjezana; Surbatović, Maja; Marjanović, Milan; Jevdjić, Jasna; Hajduković, Zoran; Karkalić, Radovan; Jovanović, Dalibor; Radaković, Sonja

    2016-06-01

    Hypothermia in surgical patients can be the consequence of long duration of surgical intervention, general anaesthesia and low temperature in operating room. Postoperative hypothermia contributes to a number of postoperative complications such as arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, hypertension, bleeding, wound infection, coagulopathy, and prolonged effect of muscle relaxants. External heating procedures are used to prevent this condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of external warming system in alleviation of cold stress and hypothermia in patients who underwent major surgical procedures. The study was conducted in the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade. A total of 30 patients of both genders underwent abdominal surgical procedures, randomly divided into two equal groups: the one was externally warmed using warm air mattress (W), while in the control group (C) surgical procedure was performed in regular conditions, without additional warming. Oesophageal temperature (Te) was used as indicator of changes in core temperature, during surgery and awakening postoperative period, and temperature of control sites on the right hand (Th) and the right foot (Tf) reflected the changes in skin temperatures during surgery. Te and skin temperatures were monitored during the intraoperative period, with continuous measurement of Te during the following 90 minutes of the postoperative period. Heart rates and blood pressures were monitored continuously during the intraoperative and awakening period. In the W group, the average Te, Tf and Th did not change significantly during the intraoperative as well as the postoperative period. In the controls, the average Te significantly decreased during the intraoperative period (from 35.61 ± 0.35 °C at 0 minute to 33.86 ± 0.51°C at 120th minute). Compared to the W group, Te in the C group was significantly lower in all the observed periods. Average values of Tf and Th significantly decreased in the C group (from

  19. Hyperactivity in Anorexia Nervosa: Warming Up Not Just Burning-Off Calories

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Olaia; Adan, Roger A. H.; Gutierrez, Emilio; Danner, Unna N.; Hoek, Hans W.; van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Kas, Martien J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive physical activity is a common feature in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) that interferes with the recovery process. Animal models have demonstrated that ambient temperature modulates physical activity in semi-starved animals. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of ambient temperature on physical activity in AN patients in the acute phase of the illness. Thirty-seven patients with AN wore an accelerometer to measure physical activity within the first week of contacting a specialized eating disorder center. Standardized measures of anxiety, depression and eating disorder psychopathology were assessed. Corresponding daily values for ambient temperature were obtained from local meteorological stations. Ambient temperature was negatively correlated with physical activity (p = −.405) and was the only variable that accounted for a significant portion of the variance in physical activity (p = .034). Consistent with recent research with an analogous animal model of the disorder, our findings suggest that ambient temperature is a critical factor contributing to the expression of excessive physical activity levels in AN. Keeping patients warm may prove to be a beneficial treatment option for this symptom. PMID:22848634

  20. [The investigation of blood cells of middle and old age in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by atomic force microscopy. Similarities and differences with the biological animal model].

    PubMed

    Zabiniakov, N A; Prashchayeu, K I; Ryzhak, G A; Poltorackij, A N; Anosova, E I; Azarow, K S

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of reactive changes of blood cells in such diseases as COPD or asthma in people of different age groups is the very difficult problem. Simulating the same conditions in animals that occur in humans with these diseases can serve as a reliable practical model. It is possible because the changes which take places at the cellular level in animals might reflect a similar trend in the human body.

  1. Predator contributions to belowground responses to warming

    SciTech Connect

    Maran, A. M.; Pelini, S. L.

    Identifying the factors that control soil CO 2 emissions will improve our ability to predict the magnitude of climate change–soil ecosystem feedbacks. Despite the integral role of invertebrates in belowground systems, they are excluded from climate change models. Soil invertebrates have consumptive and nonconsumptive effects on microbes, whose respiration accounts for nearly half of soil CO 2 emissions. By altering the behavior and abundance of invertebrates that interact with microbes, invertebrate predators may have indirect effects on soil respiration. We examined the effects of a generalist arthropod predator on belowground respiration under different warming scenarios. Based on research suggesting invertebratesmore » may mediate soil CO 2 emission responses to warming, we predicted that predator presence would result in increased emissions by negatively affecting these invertebrates. We altered the presence of wolf spiders ( Pardosa spp.) in mesocosms containing a forest floor community. To simulate warming, we placed mesocosms of each treatment in ten open-top warming chambers ranging from 1.5° to 5.5°C above ambient at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. As expected, CO 2 emissions increased under warming and we found an interactive effect of predator presence and warming, although the effect was not consistent through time. The interaction between predator presence and warming was the inverse of our predictions: Mesocosms with predators had lower respiration at higher levels of warming than those without predators. Carbon dioxide emissions were not significantly associated with microbial biomass. Here, we did not find evidence of consumptive effects of predators on the invertebrate community, suggesting that predator presence mediates response of microbial respiration to warming through nonconsumptive means. In our system, we found a significant interaction between warming and predator presence that warrants further research into mechanism and

  2. Predator contributions to belowground responses to warming

    DOE PAGES

    Maran, A. M.; Pelini, S. L.

    2016-09-26

    Identifying the factors that control soil CO 2 emissions will improve our ability to predict the magnitude of climate change–soil ecosystem feedbacks. Despite the integral role of invertebrates in belowground systems, they are excluded from climate change models. Soil invertebrates have consumptive and nonconsumptive effects on microbes, whose respiration accounts for nearly half of soil CO 2 emissions. By altering the behavior and abundance of invertebrates that interact with microbes, invertebrate predators may have indirect effects on soil respiration. We examined the effects of a generalist arthropod predator on belowground respiration under different warming scenarios. Based on research suggesting invertebratesmore » may mediate soil CO 2 emission responses to warming, we predicted that predator presence would result in increased emissions by negatively affecting these invertebrates. We altered the presence of wolf spiders ( Pardosa spp.) in mesocosms containing a forest floor community. To simulate warming, we placed mesocosms of each treatment in ten open-top warming chambers ranging from 1.5° to 5.5°C above ambient at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. As expected, CO 2 emissions increased under warming and we found an interactive effect of predator presence and warming, although the effect was not consistent through time. The interaction between predator presence and warming was the inverse of our predictions: Mesocosms with predators had lower respiration at higher levels of warming than those without predators. Carbon dioxide emissions were not significantly associated with microbial biomass. Here, we did not find evidence of consumptive effects of predators on the invertebrate community, suggesting that predator presence mediates response of microbial respiration to warming through nonconsumptive means. In our system, we found a significant interaction between warming and predator presence that warrants further research into mechanism and

  3. Ethics of animal research in human disease remediation, its institutional teaching; and alternatives to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Cheluvappa, Rajkumar; Scowen, Paul; Eri, Rajaraman

    2017-08-01

    Animals have been used in research and teaching for a long time. However, clear ethical guidelines and pertinent legislation were instated only in the past few decades, even in developed countries with Judeo-Christian ethical roots. We compactly cover the basics of animal research ethics, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation across the developed world, "our" fundamentals of institutional animal research ethics teaching, and emerging alternatives to animal research. This treatise was meticulously constructed for scientists interested/involved in animal research. Herein, we discuss key animal ethics principles - Replacement/Reduction/Refinement. Despite similar undergirding principles across developed countries, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation vary. The chronology and evolution of mandatory institutional ethical reviewing of animal experimentation (in its pioneering nations) are summarised. This is followed by a concise rendition of the fundamentals of teaching animal research ethics in institutions. With the advent of newer methodologies in human cell-culturing, novel/emerging methods aim to minimise, if not avoid the usage of animals in experimentation. Relevant to this, we discuss key extant/emerging alternatives to animal use in research; including organs on chips, human-derived three-dimensional tissue models, human blood derivates, microdosing, and computer modelling of various hues. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. Sustained acceleration of soil carbon decomposition observed in a 6-year warming experiment in a warm-temperate forest in southern Japan

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Munemasa; Liang, Naishen; Takagi, Masahiro; Zeng, Jiye; Grace, John

    2016-01-01

    To examine global warming’s effect on soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition in Asian monsoon forests, we conducted a soil warming experiment with a multichannel automated chamber system in a 55-year-old warm-temperate evergreen broadleaved forest in southern Japan. We established three treatments: control chambers for total soil respiration, trenched chambers for heterotrophic respiration (Rh), and warmed trenched chambers to examine warming effect on Rh. The soil was warmed with an infrared heater above each chamber to increase soil temperature at 5 cm depth by about 2.5 °C. The warming treatment lasted from January 2009 to the end of 2014. The annual warming effect on Rh (an increase per °C) ranged from 7.1 to17.8% °C−1. Although the warming effect varied among the years, it averaged 9.4% °C−1 over 6 years, which was close to the value of 10.1 to 10.9% °C−1 that we calculated using the annual temperature–efflux response model of Lloyd and Taylor. The interannual warming effect was positively related to the total precipitation in the summer period, indicating that summer precipitation and the resulting soil moisture level also strongly influenced the soil warming effect in this forest. PMID:27748424

  5. Climate warming and humans played different roles in triggering Late Quaternary extinctions in east and west Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xinru

    2017-01-01

    Climate change and humans are proposed as the two key drivers of total extinction of many large mammals in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene, but disentangling their relative roles remains challenging owing to a lack of quantitative evaluation of human impact and climate-driven distribution changes on the extinctions of these large mammals in a continuous temporal–spatial dimension. Here, our analyses showed that temperature change had significant effects on mammoth (genus Mammuthus), rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae), horse (Equidae) and deer (Cervidae). Rapid global warming was the predominant factor driving the total extinction of mammoths and rhinos in frigid zones from the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. Humans showed significant, negative effects on extirpations of the four mammalian taxa, and were the predominant factor causing the extinction or major extirpations of rhinos and horses. Deer survived both rapid climate warming and extensive human impacts. Our study indicates that both the current rates of warming and range shifts of species are much faster than those from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene. Our results provide new insight into the extinction of Late Quaternary megafauna by demonstrating taxon-, period- and region-specific differences in extinction drivers of climate change and human disturbances, and some implications about the extinction risk of animals by recent and ongoing climate warming. PMID:28330916

  6. Southern Hemisphere and deep-sea warming led deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise and tropical warming.

    PubMed

    Stott, Lowell; Timmermann, Axel; Thunell, Robert

    2007-10-19

    Establishing what caused Earth's largest climatic changes in the past requires a precise knowledge of both the forcing and the regional responses. We determined the chronology of high- and low-latitude climate change at the last glacial termination by radiocarbon dating benthic and planktonic foraminiferal stable isotope and magnesium/calcium records from a marine core collected in the western tropical Pacific. Deep-sea temperatures warmed by approximately 2 degrees C between 19 and 17 thousand years before the present (ky B.P.), leading the rise in atmospheric CO2 and tropical-surface-ocean warming by approximately 1000 years. The cause of this deglacial deep-water warming does not lie within the tropics, nor can its early onset between 19 and 17 ky B.P. be attributed to CO2 forcing. Increasing austral-spring insolation combined with sea-ice albedo feedbacks appear to be the key factors responsible for this warming.

  7. Acetaminophen Modulates P-Glycoprotein Functional Expression at the Blood-Brain Barrier by a Constitutive Androstane Receptor–Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Brandon J.; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Zhang, Yifeng; Laracuente, Mei-Li; Vanderah, Todd W.; Ronaldson, Patrick T.; Davis, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Effective pharmacologic treatment of pain with opioids requires that these drugs attain efficacious concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A primary determinant of CNS drug permeation is P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an endogenous blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporter that is involved in brain-to-blood transport of opioid analgesics (i.e., morphine). Recently, the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) has been identified as a regulator of P-gp functional expression at the BBB. This is critical to pharmacotherapy of pain/inflammation, as patients are often administered acetaminophen (APAP), a CAR-activating ligand, in conjunction with an opioid. Our objective was to investigate, in vivo, the role of CAR in regulation of P-gp at the BBB. Following APAP treatment, P-gp protein expression was increased up to 1.4–1.6-fold in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, APAP increased P-gp transport of BODIPY-verapamil in freshly isolated rat brain capillaries. This APAP-induced increase in P-gp expression and activity was attenuated in the presence of CAR pathway inhibitor okadaic acid or transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D, suggesting P-gp regulation is CAR-dependent. Furthermore, morphine brain accumulation was enhanced by P-gp inhibitors in APAP-treated animals, suggesting P-gp–mediated transport. A warm-water (50°C) tail-flick assay revealed a significant decrease in morphine analgesia in animals treated with morphine 3 or 6 hours after APAP treatment, as compared with animals treated concurrently. Taken together, our data imply that inclusion of APAP in a pain treatment regimen activates CAR at the BBB and increases P-gp functional expression, a clinically significant drug-drug interaction that modulates opioid analgesic efficacy. PMID:24019224

  8. Health professionals' roles in animal agriculture, climate change, and human health.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha Z; Greger, Michael; Ferdowsian, Hope; Frank, Erica

    2009-02-01

    What we eat is rapidly becoming an issue of global concern. With food shortages, the rise in chronic disease, and global warming, the impact of our dietary choices seems more relevant today than ever. Globally, a transition is taking place toward greater consumption of foods of animal origin, in lieu of plant-based diets. With this transition comes intensification of animal agriculture that in turn is associated with the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases, environmental degradation, and the epidemics of chronic disease and obesity. Health professionals should be aware of these trends and consider them as they promote healthier and more environmentally-sustainable diets.

  9. Arctic Security in a Warming World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    2009). 3 Map based on: “Northwest Passage - Map of Arctic Sea Ice: Global Warming is Opening Canada’s Arctic” http://geology.com/articles/northwest...War College, February 17, 2009) 3. 5 Scott G. Borgerson, “Arctic Meltdown: the Economic and Security Implications of Global Warming ”, Foreign Affairs...april/kirkpatrick.pdf (accessed February 10, 2010). 45 Thomas R. McCarthy, Jr., Global Warming Threatens National Interests in the Arctic, Strategy

  10. Development of a high-sensitivity BGO well counter for small animal PET studies.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Watabe, Tadashi; Imaizumi, Masao; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun

    2012-01-01

    In quantitative measurements of small animal PET studies, blood sampling is limited due to the small amounts of blood such animals can provide. In addition, injection doses are quite limited. In this situation, a high-sensitivity well counter would be useful for reducing the amount of the blood sample needed from small animals. Bismuth germinate (BGO) has a high stopping power for high-energy gamma rays compared to NaI(Tl), which is commonly used for conventional well counters. We have developed a BGO well counter and have tested it for blood-sampling measurements in small animals. The BGO well counter uses a square BGO block (59 × 59 × 50 mm) with a square open space (27 × 27 × 34 mm) in the center of the block. The BGO block was optically coupled to a 59-mm square-shaped photomultiplier tube (PMT). Signals from the PMT were digitally processed for the integration and energy window setting. The results showed that the energy spectrum of the BGO well counter measured with a Na-22 point source provided counts that were about 6 times higher for a 1022-keV (511 keV × 2) gamma peak than the spectrum of a 2-in. NaI(Tl) well counter. The relative sensitivity of the developed BGO well counter was 3.4 times higher than that of a NaI(Tl) well counter. The time activity curve of arterial blood was obtained successfully with the BGO well counter for a F-18-FDG study on rat. The BGO well counter will contribute to reducing the amount of sampled blood and to improving the throughput of quantitative measurements in small animal PET studies.

  11. Ocean warming and acidification modulate energy budget and gill ion regulatory mechanisms in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Kreiss, C M; Michael, K; Lucassen, M; Jutfelt, F; Motyka, R; Dupont, S; Pörtner, H-O

    2015-10-01

    Ocean warming and acidification are threatening marine ecosystems. In marine animals, acidification is thought to enhance ion regulatory costs and thereby baseline energy demand, while elevated temperature also increases baseline metabolic rate. Here we investigated standard metabolic rates (SMR) and plasma parameters of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after 3-4 weeks of exposure to ambient and future PCO2 levels (550, 1200 and 2200 µatm) and at two temperatures (10, 18 °C). In vivo branchial ion regulatory costs were studied in isolated, perfused gill preparations. Animals reared at 18 °C responded to increasing CO2 by elevating SMR, in contrast to specimens at 10 °C. Isolated gills at 10 °C and elevated PCO2 (≥1200 µatm) displayed increased soft tissue mass, in parallel to increased gill oxygen demand, indicating an increased fraction of gill in whole animal energy budget. Altered gill size was not found at 18 °C, where a shift in the use of ion regulation mechanisms occurred towards enhanced Na(+)/H(+)-exchange and HCO3 (-) transport at high PCO2 (2200 µatm), paralleled by higher Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities. This shift did not affect total gill energy consumption leaving whole animal energy budget unaffected. Higher Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities in the warmth might have compensated for enhanced branchial permeability and led to reduced plasma Na(+) and/or Cl(-) concentrations and slightly lowered osmolalities seen at 18 °C and 550 or 2200 µatm PCO2 in vivo. Overall, the gill as a key ion regulation organ seems to be highly effective in supporting the resilience of cod to effects of ocean warming and acidification.

  12. Kinetic bottlenecks to chemical exchange rates for deep-sea animals - Part 1: Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. F.; Peltzer, E. T.; Brewer, P. G.

    2012-10-01

    Ocean warming will reduce dissolved oxygen concentrations which can pose challenges to marine life. Oxygen limits are traditionally reported simply as a static concentration thresholds with no temperature, pressure or flow rate dependency. Here we treat the oceanic oxygen supply potential for heterotrophic consumption as a dynamic molecular exchange problem analogous to familiar gas exchange processes at the sea surface. A combination of the purely physico-chemical oceanic properties temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and oxygen concentration defines the ability of the ocean to supply oxygen to any given animal. This general oceanic oxygen supply potential is modulated by animal specific properties such as the diffusive boundary layer thickness to define and limit maximal oxygen supply rates. Here we combine all these properties into formal, mechanistic equations defining novel oceanic properties that subsume various relevant classical oceanographic parameters to better visualize, map, comprehend, and predict the impact of ocean deoxygenation on aerobic life. By explicitly including temperature and hydrostatic pressure into our quantities, various ocean regions ranging from the cold deep-sea to warm, coastal seas can be compared. We define purely physico-chemical quantities to describe the oceanic oxygen supply potential, but also quantities that contain organism-specific properties which in a most generalized way describe general concepts and dependencies. We apply these novel quantities to example oceanic profiles around the world and find that temperature and pressure dependencies of diffusion and partial pressure create zones of greatest physical constriction on oxygen supply typically at around 1000 m depth, which coincides with oxygen concentration minimum zones. In these zones, which comprise the bulk of the world ocean, ocean warming and deoxygenation have a clear negative effect for aerobic life. In some shallow and warm waters the enhanced diffusion and

  13. Warm Hands and Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Comfort Products, Inc. was responsible for the cold weather glove and thermal boots, adapted from a spacesuit design that kept astronauts warm or cool in the temperature extremes of the Apollo Moon Mission. Gloves and boots are thermally heated. Batteries are worn inside wrist of glove or sealed in sole of skiboot and are rechargeable hundreds of times. They operate flexible resistance circuit which is turned on periodically when wearer wants to be warm.

  14. Animal model of neuropathic tachycardia syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, R. P.; Appalsamy, M.; Diedrich, A.; Davis, T. L.; Robertson, D.

    2001-01-01

    Clinically relevant autonomic dysfunction can result from either complete or partial loss of sympathetic outflow to effector organs. Reported animal models of autonomic neuropathy have aimed to achieve complete lesions of sympathetic nerves, but incomplete lesions might be more relevant to certain clinical entities. We hypothesized that loss of sympathetic innervation would result in a predicted decrease in arterial pressure and a compensatory increase in heart rate. Increased heart rate due to loss of sympathetic innervation is seemingly paradoxical, but it provides a mechanistic explanation for clinical autonomic syndromes such as neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome. Partially dysautonomic animals were generated by selectively lesioning postganglionic sympathetic neurons with 150 mg/kg 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored using radiotelemetry. Systolic blood pressure decreased within hours postlesion (Delta>20 mm Hg). Within 4 days postlesion, heart rate rose and remained elevated above control levels. The severity of the lesion was determined functionally and pharmacologically by spectral analysis and responsiveness to tyramine. Low-frequency spectral power of systolic blood pressure was reduced postlesion and correlated with the diminished tyramine responsiveness (r=0.9572, P=0.0053). The tachycardia was abolished by treatment with the beta-antagonist propranolol, demonstrating that it was mediated by catecholamines acting on cardiac beta-receptors. Partial lesions of the autonomic nervous system have been hypothesized to underlie many disorders, including neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome. This animal model may help us better understand the pathophysiology of autonomic dysfunction and lead to development of therapeutic interventions.

  15. Serological and Molecular Detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia microti in the Blood of Rescued Wild Animals in Gangwon-do (Province), Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hee-Jong; Jeong, Young-Il; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Jong-Tak; Lee, Sang-Eun

    2017-04-01

    Infections of Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia microti are reported in many wild animals worldwide, but information on their incidence and molecular detection in Korean wild fields is limited. In this study, the prevalence of T. gondii and B. microti infection in blood samples of 5 animal species (37 Chinese water deer, 23 raccoon dogs, 6 roe deer, 1 wild boar, and 3 Eurasian badgers) was examined during 2008-2009 in Gangwon-do (Province), the Republic of Korea (=Korea) by using serological and molecular tests. The overall seropositivity of T. gondii was 8.6% (6/70); 10.8% in Chinese water deer, 4.3% in raccoon dogs, and 16.7% in roe deer. PCR revealed only 1 case of T. gondii infection in Chinese water deer, and phylogenic analysis showed that the positive isolate was practically identical to the highly pathogenetic strain type I. In B. microti PCR, the positive rate was 5.7% (4/70), including 2 Chinese water deer and 2 Eurasian badgers. Phylogenetic analysis results of 18S rRNA and the β-tubulin gene showed that all positive isolates were US-type B. microti . To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. microti detected in Chinese water deer and Eurasian badger from Korea. These results indicate a potentially high prevalence of T. gondii and B. microti in wild animals of Gangwon-do, Korea. Furthermore, Chinese water deer might act as a reservoir for parasite infections of domestic animals.

  16. Serological and Molecular Detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia microti in the Blood of Rescued Wild Animals in Gangwon-do (Province), Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hee-Jong; Jeong, Young-Il; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Jong-Tak; Lee, Sang-Eun

    2017-01-01

    Infections of Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia microti are reported in many wild animals worldwide, but information on their incidence and molecular detection in Korean wild fields is limited. In this study, the prevalence of T. gondii and B. microti infection in blood samples of 5 animal species (37 Chinese water deer, 23 raccoon dogs, 6 roe deer, 1 wild boar, and 3 Eurasian badgers) was examined during 2008–2009 in Gangwon-do (Province), the Republic of Korea (=Korea) by using serological and molecular tests. The overall seropositivity of T. gondii was 8.6% (6/70); 10.8% in Chinese water deer, 4.3% in raccoon dogs, and 16.7% in roe deer. PCR revealed only 1 case of T. gondii infection in Chinese water deer, and phylogenic analysis showed that the positive isolate was practically identical to the highly pathogenetic strain type I. In B. microti PCR, the positive rate was 5.7% (4/70), including 2 Chinese water deer and 2 Eurasian badgers. Phylogenetic analysis results of 18S rRNA and the β-tubulin gene showed that all positive isolates were US-type B. microti. To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. microti detected in Chinese water deer and Eurasian badger from Korea. These results indicate a potentially high prevalence of T. gondii and B. microti in wild animals of Gangwon-do, Korea. Furthermore, Chinese water deer might act as a reservoir for parasite infections of domestic animals. PMID:28506045

  17. Warm-up strategy and high-intensity endurance performance in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peter M; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of warm-up exercise intensity and subsequent recovery on intense endurance performance, selected blood variables, and the oxygen-uptake (VO2) response. Twelve highly trained male cyclists (VO2max 72.4 ± 8.0 mL · min-1 · kg-1, incremental-test peak power output (iPPO) 432 ± 31 W; mean ± SD) performed 3 warm-up strategies lasting 20 min before a 4-min maximal-performance test (PT). Strategies consisted of moderate-intensity exercise (50%iPPO) followed by 6 min of recovery (MOD6) or progressive high-intensity exercise (10-100%iPPO and 2 × 20-s sprints) followed by recovery for 6 min (HI6) or 20 min (HI20). Before PT venous pH was lower (P < .001) in HI6 (7.27 ± 0.05) than in HI20 (7.34 ± 0.04) and MOD6 (7.35 ± 0.03). At the same time, differences (P < .001) existed for venous lactate in HI6 (8.2 ± 2.0 mmol/L), HI20 (5.1 ± 1.7 mmol/L), and MOD6 (1.4 ± 0.4 mmol/L), as well as for venous bicarbonate in HI6 (19.3 ± 2.6 mmol/L), HI20 (22.6 ± 2.3 mmol/L), and MOD6 (26.0 ± 1.4 mmol/L). Mean power in PT in HI6 (402 ± 38 W) tended to be lower (P = .11) than in HI20 (409 ± 34 W) and was lower (P = .007) than in MOD6 (416 ± 32 W). Total VO2 (15-120 s in PT) was higher in HI6 (8.18 ± 0.86 L) than in HI20 (7.85 ± 0.82 L, P = .008) and MOD6 (7.90 ± 0.74 L, P = .012). Warm-up exercise including race-pace and sprint intervals combined with short recovery can reduce subsequent performance in a 4-min maximal test in highly trained cyclists. Thus, a reduced time at high exercise intensity, a reduced intensity in the warm-up, or an extension of the recovery period after an intense warm-up is advocated.

  18. Plant inputs, microbial carbon use in soil and decomposition under warming: effects of warming are depth dependent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendall, E.; Carrillo, Y.; Dijkstra, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    Future climate will include warmer conditions but impacts on soil C cycling remain uncertain and so are the potential warming-driven feedbacks. Net impacts will depend on the balance of effects on microbial activity and plant inputs. Soil depth is likely to be a critical factor driving this balance as it integrates gradients in belowground biomass, microbial activity and environmental variables. Most empirical studies focus on one soil layer and soil C forecasting relies on broad assumptions about effects of depth. Our limited understanding of the use of available C by soil microbes under climate change across depths is a critical source of uncertainty. Long-term labelling of plant biomass with C isotopic tracers in intact systems allows us to follow the dynamics of different soil C pools including the net accumulation of newly fixed C and the net loss of native C. These can be combined with concurrent observations of microbial use of C pools to explore the impacts of depth on the relationships between plant inputs and microbial C use. We evaluated belowground biomass, in-situ root decomposition and incorporation of plant-derived C into soil C and microbial C at 0-5 cm and 5-15 cmover 7 years at the Prairie Heating And CO2 Enrichment experiment. PHACE was a factorial manipulation of CO2 and warming in a native mixed grass prairie in Wyoming, USA. We used the continuous fumigation with labelled CO2 in the elevated CO2 treatments to study the C dynamics under unwarmed and warmed conditions. Shallower soils had three times the density of biomass as deeper soils. Warming increased biomass in both depths but this effect was weaker in deeper soils. Root litter mass loss in deeper soil was one third that of the shallow and was not affected by warming. Consistent with biomass distribution, incorporation of plant-derived C into soil and microbial C was lower in deeper soils and higher with warming. However, in contrast to the effect of warming on biomass, the effect of

  19. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  20. [Whole-blood transfusion for hemorrhagic shock resuscitation: two cases in Djibouti].

    PubMed

    Cordier, P Y; Eve, O; Dehan, C; Topin, F; Menguy, P; Bertani, A; Massoure, P L; Kaiser, E

    2012-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock requires early aggressive treatment, including transfusion of packed red blood cells and hemostatic resuscitation. In austere environments, when component therapy is not available, warm fresh whole-blood transfusion is a convenient treatment. It provides red blood cells, clotting factors, and functional platelets. Therefore it is commonly used in military practice to treat hemorrhagic shock in combat casualties. At Bouffard Hospital Center in Djibouti, the supply of packed red blood cells is limited, and apheresis platelets are unavailable. We used whole blood transfusion in two civilian patients with life-threatening non-traumatic hemorrhages. One had massive bleeding caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation due to septic shock; the second was a 39 year-old pregnant woman with uterine rupture. In both cases, whole blood transfusion (twelve and ten 500 mL bags respectively), combined with etiological treatment, enabled coagulopathy correction, hemorrhage control, and satisfactory recovery.

  1. Warming trends: Adapting to nonlinear change

    DOE PAGES

    Jonko, Alexandra K.

    2015-01-28

    As atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise, some regions are expected to warm more than others. Research suggests that whether warming will intensify or slow down over time also depends on location.

  2. Research Advances in the Screwworm Eradication Program over the Past 25 Years

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Calliphoridae: Chrysomyinae), are devastating pests of warm blooded animals that cause significant economic damage to livestock. The successful campaign to eradicate screwworms from continental North America using the sterile insect technique, led by t...

  3. A progression of molecular genetic tools for identifying screwworm myiasis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a devastating pest of all warm blooded animals. Successful eradication of the screwworm has been achieved from continental North America. Maintaining a barrier against reinfestation by screwworms requires rapid, accurate ident...

  4. Mechanism of altruism approach to blood donor recruitment and retention: a review and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, E

    2015-08-01

    Why do people donate blood? Altruism is the common answer. However, altruism is a complex construct and to answer this question requires a systematic analysis of the insights from the biology, economics and psychology of altruism. I term this the mechanism of altruism (MOA) approach and apply it here for understanding blood donor motivation. The answer also has enormous implications for the type of interventions we choose to adopt as a society. A MOA approach so far shows that blood donors are a mixture of (i) warm-glow givers (donation is emotionally rewarding) and (ii) reluctant altruists (cooperate rather than defect when free-riding is high). Donors also show 'saintly sinning' with the extra 'moral currency' form blood donation allowing them to be less generous in other contexts. The MOA approach suggests why financial incentives, in terms of gifts/lottery tickets, are effective and suggests a number of novel interventions for donor recruitment: 'voluntary reciprocal altruism' and 'charitable incentivisation'. The MOA approach also highlights the need for an intervention developed specifically for recipients to allow them to show their gratitude to donors and for society to celebrate blood donation. It is suggests a 'Monument to Blood Donors' will achieve this. The approach suggests a number of novel research questions into (i) donor self-selection effects, (ii) conditional cooperation and (iii) construct overlap with Theory of Planned Behaviour (e.g. affective attitudes and warm-glow). The MOA offers a powerful way to understand blood donor motivations around altruism and develop theoretically driven interventions. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  5. The intrinsic growth rate as a predictor of population viability under climate warming.

    PubMed

    Amarasekare, Priyanga; Coutinho, Renato M

    2013-11-01

    become negative, causing population extinction, well before 100 years when warming is fast (e.g. 0.1°C per year). The Euler-Lotka equation predicts a slower decrease in rm when warming is slow and a longer persistence time when warming is fast, with the deviation between the two metrics increasing with increasing developmental period. These results suggest that predictions of ectotherm population viability based on rm may be valid only for species with short developmental delays, and even then, only over short time-scales and under slow warming regimes. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  6. Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Michael E; Wang, George; Huey, Raymond B

    2010-10-07

    Documented shifts in geographical ranges, seasonal phenology, community interactions, genetics and extinctions have been attributed to recent global warming. Many such biotic shifts have been detected at mid- to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere-a latitudinal pattern that is expected because warming is fastest in these regions. In contrast, shifts in tropical regions are expected to be less marked because warming is less pronounced there. However, biotic impacts of warming are mediated through physiology, and metabolic rate, which is a fundamental measure of physiological activity and ecological impact, increases exponentially rather than linearly with temperature in ectotherms. Therefore, tropical ectotherms (with warm baseline temperatures) should experience larger absolute shifts in metabolic rate than the magnitude of tropical temperature change itself would suggest, but the impact of climate warming on metabolic rate has never been quantified on a global scale. Here we show that estimated changes in terrestrial metabolic rates in the tropics are large, are equivalent in magnitude to those in the north temperate-zone regions, and are in fact far greater than those in the Arctic, even though tropical temperature change has been relatively small. Because of temperature's nonlinear effects on metabolism, tropical organisms, which constitute much of Earth's biodiversity, should be profoundly affected by recent and projected climate warming.

  7. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Birck, Malene M; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-10-11

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.

  8. Global warming: Clouds cooled the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten

    2016-12-01

    The slow instrumental-record warming is consistent with lower-end climate sensitivity. Simulations and observations now show that changing sea surface temperature patterns could have affected cloudiness and thereby dampened the warming.

  9. [Startup mechanism of moxibustion warming and dredging function].

    PubMed

    Huang, Kaiyu; Liang, Shuang; Sun, Zheng; Zhang, Jianbin

    2017-09-12

    With "moxibustion" and "warm stimulation" as the keywords, the literature on moxibustion mechanism of warming and dredging from June 1st, 1995 to June 1st, 2016 was collected from PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang database. The startup mechanism of moxibustion warming and dredging function was analyzed in terms of moxibustion warming stimulation. The results were found that moxibustion was based on local rising temperature of acupoint. It activated local specific receptors, heat sensitive immune cells, heat shock proteins and so on to start the warming and dredging function and produce various local effects. The warming stimulation signals as well as subsequent effects through nerve and body fluid pathways induced the effects of further specific target organs and body systems.

  10. Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01) than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01). The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01) after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal’s blood pressure

  11. Why tropical forest lizards are vulnerable to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Huey, Raymond B; Deutsch, Curtis A; Tewksbury, Joshua J; Vitt, Laurie J; Hertz, Paul E; Alvarez Pérez, Héctor J; Garland, Theodore

    2009-06-07

    Biological impacts of climate warming are predicted to increase with latitude, paralleling increases in warming. However, the magnitude of impacts depends not only on the degree of warming but also on the number of species at risk, their physiological sensitivity to warming and their options for behavioural and physiological compensation. Lizards are useful for evaluating risks of warming because their thermal biology is well studied. We conducted macrophysiological analyses of diurnal lizards from diverse latitudes plus focal species analyses of Puerto Rican Anolis and Sphaerodactyus. Although tropical lowland lizards live in environments that are warm all year, macrophysiological analyses indicate that some tropical lineages (thermoconformers that live in forests) are active at low body temperature and are intolerant of warm temperatures. Focal species analyses show that some tropical forest lizards were already experiencing stressful body temperatures in summer when studied several decades ago. Simulations suggest that warming will not only further depress their physiological performance in summer, but will also enable warm-adapted, open-habitat competitors and predators to invade forests. Forest lizards are key components of tropical ecosystems, but appear vulnerable to the cascading physiological and ecological effects of climate warming, even though rates of tropical warming may be relatively low.

  12. Why tropical forest lizards are vulnerable to climate warming

    PubMed Central

    Huey, Raymond B.; Deutsch, Curtis A.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Vitt, Laurie J.; Hertz, Paul E.; Álvarez Pérez, Héctor J.; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Biological impacts of climate warming are predicted to increase with latitude, paralleling increases in warming. However, the magnitude of impacts depends not only on the degree of warming but also on the number of species at risk, their physiological sensitivity to warming and their options for behavioural and physiological compensation. Lizards are useful for evaluating risks of warming because their thermal biology is well studied. We conducted macrophysiological analyses of diurnal lizards from diverse latitudes plus focal species analyses of Puerto Rican Anolis and Sphaerodactyus. Although tropical lowland lizards live in environments that are warm all year, macrophysiological analyses indicate that some tropical lineages (thermoconformers that live in forests) are active at low body temperature and are intolerant of warm temperatures. Focal species analyses show that some tropical forest lizards were already experiencing stressful body temperatures in summer when studied several decades ago. Simulations suggest that warming will not only further depress their physiological performance in summer, but will also enable warm-adapted, open-habitat competitors and predators to invade forests. Forest lizards are key components of tropical ecosystems, but appear vulnerable to the cascading physiological and ecological effects of climate warming, even though rates of tropical warming may be relatively low. PMID:19324762

  13. Morphological peculiarities of respiratory compartments of arctic animal lungs.

    PubMed

    Shishkin, G S; Ustyuzhaninova, N V

    1997-04-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural peculiarities of interalveolar septa in endemic arctic animals (reindeer, polar fox, lemming) are compared with laboratory animals (rat,dog). For light microscopy, tissue samples were taken from the central and peripheral sections of all lobes of the right lung. They were fixed in 10% neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin. For electron microscopy, samples were taken from subpleural sections of the caudal lobe of the right lung, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for 24 hours, subsequently postfixed in 2% OsO4. for 2.0 hours. Samples were dehydrated in acetone and embedded in a mixture of Epon 812 and Araldite. Ultrathin sections were photographed at a magnification of x4,000. For each interalveolar septum, lengths and diameters were recorded and the squares of septa surface, air-blood barrier surface and the number of the structures were determined. The topography of capillaries and the ultrastructure of interstitium were described. Acini in the arctic animals (reindeer, polar fox, lemming) are compact. In all lobes they are fully expanded and uniformly filled with air. There is no physiological atelectasis. Alveoli appear straight and homogeneous in form and size. In the polar fox, the quantity of interalveolar pores of Kohn is twice that in the dog. The number of pores in the lemming are similar to those in the rat but their size is 1.6 times greater in diameter. In arctic animals more capillaries connect with both alveolar surfaces by an air-blood barrier and simultaneously participate in the gas exchange of two adjoining alveoli. In the polar fox and lemming the thickness of the air-blood barrier is 1.3-1.4 times less than that in the dog and rat. The set of morpho-functional peculiarities of the acini of arctic animals allows for an increase in gas exchange in the respiratory compartments of the lungs and provides necessary oxygenation of arterial blood at a low partial pressure of oxygen in the alveolar gas.

  14. Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric warmings)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The details of the stratospheric warming processes as to time, area, and intensity were established, and the warmings with other terrestrial and solar phenomena occurring at satellite platform altitudes, or observable from satellite platforms, were correlated. Links were sought between the perturbed upper atmosphere (mesosphere and thermosphere) and the stratosphere that might explain stratospheric warmings.

  15. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... about Bayer Consumer Health. HBP Resources Risk Calculator Animation Library Track Your Blood Pressure: Print (PDF) | Online ... Pressure Tracker Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  16. Climate change and animal diseases in South America.

    PubMed

    Pinto, J; Bonacic, C; Hamilton-West, C; Romero, J; Lubroth, J

    2008-08-01

    Climate strongly affects agriculture and livestock production and influences animal diseases, vectors and pathogens, and their habitat. Global warming trends predicted in the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) report for South America are likely to change the temporal and geographical distribution of infectious diseases, including those that are vector-borne such as bluetongue, West Nile fever, vesicular stomatitis and New World screwworm. Changes in distribution will be partially modulated by El Niño Southern Oscillation events, which will become more frequent and lead to a greater frequency of droughts and floods. Active disease surveillance for animal diseases in South America, particularly for vector-borne diseases, is very poor. Disease reporting is often lacking, which affects knowledge of disease distribution and impact, and preparedness for early response. Improved reporting for animal diseases that may be affected by climate change is needed for better prevention and intervention measures in susceptible livestock, wildlife and vectors in South America. This requires contributions from multidisciplinary experts, including meteorologists, epidemiologists, biologists and ecologists, and from local communities.

  17. Qualitative assessment for Toxoplasma gondii exposure risk associated with consumption of meat products in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms after postnatally-acquired infection, severe illness does occur in immunocompromised individuals. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that c...

  18. Scaling Potential Evapotranspiration with Greenhouse Warming (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheff, J.; Frierson, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is a supply-independent measure of the evaporative demand of a terrestrial climate, of basic importance in climatology, hydrology, and agriculture. Future increases in PET from greenhouse warming are often cited as key drivers of global trends toward drought and aridity. The present work computes recent and business-as-usual-future Penman-Monteith (i.e. physically-based) PET fields at 3-hourly resolution in 14 modern global climate models. The %-change in local annual-mean PET over the upcoming century is almost always positive, modally low double-digit in magnitude, usually increasing with latitude, yet quite divergent between models. These patterns are understood as follows. In every model, the global field of PET %-change is found to be dominated by the direct, positive effects of constant-relative-humidity warming (via increasing vapor pressure deficit and increasing Clausius-Clapeyron slope.) This direct-warming term very accurately scales as the PET-weighted (warm-season daytime) local warming, times 5-6% per degree (related to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation), times an analytic factor ranging from about 0.25 in warm climates to 0.75 in cold climates, plus a small correction. With warming of several degrees, this product is of low double-digit magnitude, and the strong temperature dependence gives the latitude dependence. Similarly, the inter-model spread in the amount of warming gives most of the spread in this term. Additional spread in the total change comes from strong disagreement on radiation, relative-humidity, and windspeed changes, which make smaller yet substantial contributions to the full PET %-change fields.

  19. Drinking a hot blood meal elicits a protective heat shock response in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Joshua B; Lopez-Martinez, Giancarlo; Patrick, Kevin R; Phillips, Zachary P; Krause, Tyler B; Denlinger, David L

    2011-05-10

    The mosquito's body temperature increases dramatically when it takes a blood meal from a warm-blooded, vertebrate host. By using the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, we demonstrate that this boost in temperature following a blood meal prompts the synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). This response, elicited by the temperature of the blood meal, is most robust in the mosquito's midgut. When RNA interference is used to suppress expression of hsp70, protein digestion of the blood meal is impaired, leading to production of fewer eggs. We propose that Hsp70 protects the mosquito midgut from the temperature stress incurred by drinking a hot blood meal. Similar increases in hsp70 were documented immediately after blood feeding in two other mosquitoes (Culex pipiens and Anopheles gambiae) and the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, suggesting that this is a common protective response in blood-feeding arthropods.

  20. Blodgett Forest Warming Experiment 1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Pries, Caitlin Hicks (ORCID:0000000308132211); Castanha, Cristina; Porras, Rachel; Torn, Margaret

    2017-03-24

    Carbon stocks and density fractions from soil pits used to characterize soils of the Blodgett warming experiment as well as gas well CO2, 13C, and 14C data from experimental plots. The experiment consisted of 3 control and heated plot pairs. The heated plots are warmed +4°C above the control from 10 to 100 cm.

  1. Mixing processes following the final stratospheric warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Peter G.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is made of the dynamics responsible for the mixing and dissolution of the polar vortex during the final stratospheric warmings. The dynamics and transport during a Northern Hemisphere final stratospheric warming are simulated via a GCM and an associated offline N2O transport model. The results are compared with those obtained from LIMS data for the final warming of 1979, with emphasis on the potential vorticity evolution in the two datasets, the modeled N2O evolution, and the observed O3 evolution. Following each warming, the remnants of the originally intact vortex are found to gradually homogenize with the atmosphere at large. Two processes leading to this homogenization are identified following the final warmings, namely, the potential vorticity field becomes decorrelated from that of the chemical tracer, and the vortex remnants begin to tilt dramatically in a vertical direction.

  2. Content of lipids in blood and tissues of animals during hypodynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federov, I. V.; Rylnikov, Y. P.; Lobova, T. M.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments on 97 rats and 50 rabbits were undertaken to study the influence of hypodynamia on the lipid content in the blood, liver, heart, and in the aorta. Reduction of muscular activity contributed to the increase of cholesterol and beta lipoprotein levels in the blood and to accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and the heart. The total lipid content in these tissues decreased. In the aorta the total lipid content increased, while lecithin and cephalin figures went down. The character of biochemical changes in hypodynamia resembles in many ways the lipid metabolism changes in atherosclerosis.

  3. Warm Arctic-cold Siberia: comparing the recent and the early 20th-century Arctic warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Zolina, Olga

    2018-02-01

    The Warm Arctic-cold Siberia surface temperature pattern during recent boreal winter is suggested to be triggered by the ongoing decrease of Arctic autumn sea ice concentration and has been observed together with an increase in mid-latitude extreme events and a meridionalization of tropospheric circulation. However, the exact mechanism behind this dipole temperature pattern is still under debate, since model experiments with reduced sea ice show conflicting results. We use the early twentieth-century Arctic warming (ETCAW) as a case study to investigate the link between September sea ice in the Barents-Kara Sea (BKS) and the Siberian temperature evolution. Analyzing a variety of long-term climate reanalyses, we find that the overall winter temperature and heat flux trend occurs with the reduction of September BKS sea ice. Tropospheric conditions show a strengthened atmospheric blocking over the BKS, strengthening the advection of cold air from the Arctic to central Siberia on its eastern flank, together with a reduction of warm air advection by the westerlies. This setup is valid for both the ETCAW and the current Arctic warming period.

  4. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Climate change is probably the most important environmental issue of our time. Raising animals for food contributes to the production of greenhouse gases implicated in the global warming that is causing climate change. To combat this ecological disaster, a number of mitigation strategies involving changes to agricultural practices have been proposed. However, some of these changes will impact the welfare of farmed animals. This paper reviews selected climate change mitigation strategies and explains how different approaches could have negative or positive effects. Abstract The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture. PMID:26479240

  5. Energy storage and fecundity explain deviations from ecological stoichiometry predictions under global warming and size-selective predation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Jansen, Mieke; De Meester, Luc; Stoks, Robby

    2016-11-01

    A key challenge for ecologists is to predict how single and joint effects of global warming and predation risk translate from the individual level up to ecosystem functions. Recently, stoichiometric theory linked these levels through changes in body stoichiometry, predicting that both higher temperatures and predation risk induce shifts in energy storage (increases in C-rich carbohydrates and reductions in N-rich proteins) and body stoichiometry (increases in C : N and C : P). This promising theory, however, is rarely tested and assumes that prey will divert energy away from reproduction under predation risk, while under size-selective predation, prey instead increase fecundity. We exposed the water flea Daphnia magna to 4 °C warming and fish predation risk to test whether C-rich carbohydrates increase and N-rich proteins decrease, and as a result, C : N and C : P increase under warming and predation risk. Unexpectedly, warming decreased body C : N, which was driven by reductions in C-rich fat and sugar contents while the protein content did not change. This reflected a trade-off where the accelerated intrinsic growth rate under warming occurred at the cost of a reduced energy storage. Warming reduced C : N less and only increased C : P and N : P in the fish-period Daphnia. These evolved stoichiometric responses to warming were largely driven by stronger warming-induced reductions in P than in C and N and could be explained by the better ability to deal with warming in the fish-period Daphnia. In contrast to theory predictions, body C : N decreased under predation risk due to a strong increase in the N-rich protein content that offsets the increase in C-rich fat content. The higher investment in fecundity (more N-rich eggs) under predation risk contributed to this stronger increase in protein content. Similarly, the lower body C : N of pre-fish Daphnia also matched their higher fecundity. Warming and predation risk independently shaped body

  6. Current spring warming as a driver of selection on reproductive timing in a wild passerine.

    PubMed

    Marrot, Pascal; Charmantier, Anne; Blondel, Jacques; Garant, Dany

    2018-05-01

    Evolutionary adaptation as a response to climate change is expected for fitness-related traits affected by climate and exhibiting genetic variance. Although the relationship between warmer spring temperature and earlier timing of reproduction is well documented, quantifications and predictions of the impact of global warming on natural selection acting on phenology in wild populations remain rare. If global warming affects fitness in a similar way across individuals within a population, or if fitness consequences are independent of phenotypic variation in key-adaptive traits, then no evolutionary response is expected for these traits. Here, we quantified the selection pressures acting on laying date during a 24-year monitoring of blue tits in southern Mediterranean France, a hot spot of climate warming. We explored the temporal fluctuation in annual selection gradients and we determined its temperature-related drivers. We first investigated the month-specific warming since 1970 in our study site and tested its influence on selection pressures, using a model averaging approach. Then, we quantified the selection strength associated with temperature anomalies experienced by the blue tit population. We found that natural selection acting on laying date significantly fluctuated both in magnitude and in sign across years. After identifying a significant warming in spring and summer, we showed that warmer daily maximum temperatures in April were significantly associated with stronger selection pressures for reproductive timing. Our results indicated an increase in the strength of selection by 46% for every +1°C anomaly. Our results confirm the general assumption that recent climate change translates into strong selection favouring earlier breeders in passerine birds. Our findings also suggest that differences in fitness among individuals varying in their breeding phenology increase with climate warming. Such climate-driven influence on the strength of directional

  7. Effect of laser irradiation for healing of the skin-muscle wounds of animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapina, Victoria A.; Veremei, Eduard I.; Pancovets, Evgeniy A.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to study the medical effect of low-intensity laser influence on healing of skin- muscle wounds of agricultural animals. We used the laser radiation of low intensity for cub's therapy: to sucking-pigs after herniotomy and castration, to cattle cubs after skin- muscle wounds. The animals were kept under clinical observation up to their recovery. The recuperation dynamic was observed by changing of blood quotients, leukograms, sizes of inflammatory edema, general behavior of animals. The positive dynamic of blood quotients of the experimental animal groups was really higher than that in control. The analysis of wound healing after laser influence shows that wound surface of experimental group was to a great extent smaller in comparison with control group of animals. So, these facts testify about anti-inflammatory action of laser radiation, which hastens regenerative and rehabilitative processes. Analysis of the obtained experimental data has revealed the positive influence of laser irradiation on the dynamics of wound adhesion of agricultural animals.

  8. What happened to screwworms anyway and what are you doing about them now?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Myiasis caused by screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is devastating to warm-blooded animals. Application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) has successfully eradicated screwworms from the U.S., Mexico, Central America and some Caribbean Islands. Annual benefits to livestock producers...

  9. Seagrass ecophysiological performance under ocean warming and acidification.

    PubMed

    Repolho, Tiago; Duarte, Bernardo; Dionísio, Gisela; Paula, José Ricardo; Lopes, Ana R; Rosa, Inês C; Grilo, Tiago F; Caçador, Isabel; Calado, Ricardo; Rosa, Rui

    2017-02-01

    Seagrasses play an essential ecological role within coastal habitats and their worldwide population decline has been linked to different types of anthropogenic forces. We investigated, for the first time, the combined effects of future ocean warming and acidification on fundamental biological processes of Zostera noltii, including shoot density, leaf coloration, photophysiology (electron transport rate, ETR; maximum PSII quantum yield, F v /F m ) and photosynthetic pigments. Shoot density was severely affected under warming conditions, with a concomitant increase in the frequency of brownish colored leaves (seagrass die-off). Warming was responsible for a significant decrease in ETR and F v /F m (particularly under control pH conditions), while promoting the highest ETR variability (among experimental treatments). Warming also elicited a significant increase in pheophytin and carotenoid levels, alongside an increase in carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio and De-Epoxidation State (DES). Acidification significantly affected photosynthetic pigments content (antheraxanthin, β-carotene, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin), with a significant decrease being recorded under the warming scenario. No significant interaction between ocean acidification and warming was observed. Our findings suggest that future ocean warming will be a foremost determinant stressor influencing Z. noltii survival and physiological performance. Additionally, acidification conditions to occur in the future will be unable to counteract deleterious effects posed by ocean warming.

  10. Seagrass ecophysiological performance under ocean warming and acidification

    PubMed Central

    Repolho, Tiago; Duarte, Bernardo; Dionísio, Gisela; Paula, José Ricardo; Lopes, Ana R.; Rosa, Inês C.; Grilo, Tiago F.; Caçador, Isabel; Calado, Ricardo; Rosa, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Seagrasses play an essential ecological role within coastal habitats and their worldwide population decline has been linked to different types of anthropogenic forces. We investigated, for the first time, the combined effects of future ocean warming and acidification on fundamental biological processes of Zostera noltii, including shoot density, leaf coloration, photophysiology (electron transport rate, ETR; maximum PSII quantum yield, Fv/Fm) and photosynthetic pigments. Shoot density was severely affected under warming conditions, with a concomitant increase in the frequency of brownish colored leaves (seagrass die-off). Warming was responsible for a significant decrease in ETR and Fv/Fm (particularly under control pH conditions), while promoting the highest ETR variability (among experimental treatments). Warming also elicited a significant increase in pheophytin and carotenoid levels, alongside an increase in carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio and De-Epoxidation State (DES). Acidification significantly affected photosynthetic pigments content (antheraxanthin, β-carotene, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin), with a significant decrease being recorded under the warming scenario. No significant interaction between ocean acidification and warming was observed. Our findings suggest that future ocean warming will be a foremost determinant stressor influencing Z. noltii survival and physiological performance. Additionally, acidification conditions to occur in the future will be unable to counteract deleterious effects posed by ocean warming. PMID:28145531

  11. All Clinically-Relevant Blood Components Transmit Prion Disease following a Single Blood Transfusion: A Sheep Model of vCJD

    PubMed Central

    de Wolf, Christopher; Tan, Boon Chin; Smith, Antony; Groschup, Martin H.; Hunter, Nora; Hornsey, Valerie S.; MacGregor, Ian R.; Prowse, Christopher V.; Turner, Marc; Manson, Jean C.

    2011-01-01

    Variant CJD (vCJD) is an incurable, infectious human disease, likely arising from the consumption of BSE-contaminated meat products. Whilst the epidemic appears to be waning, there is much concern that vCJD infection may be perpetuated in humans by the transfusion of contaminated blood products. Since 2004, several cases of transfusion-associated vCJD transmission have been reported and linked to blood collected from pre-clinically affected donors. Using an animal model in which the disease manifested resembles that of humans affected with vCJD, we examined which blood components used in human medicine are likely to pose the greatest risk of transmitting vCJD via transfusion. We collected two full units of blood from BSE-infected donor animals during the pre-clinical phase of infection. Using methods employed by transfusion services we prepared red cell concentrates, plasma and platelets units (including leucoreduced equivalents). Following transfusion, we showed that all components contain sufficient levels of infectivity to cause disease following only a single transfusion and also that leucoreduction did not prevent disease transmission. These data suggest that all blood components are vectors for prion disease transmission, and highlight the importance of multiple control measures to minimise the risk of human to human transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion. PMID:21858015

  12. Climate warming and humans played different roles in triggering Late Quaternary extinctions in east and west Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xinru; Zhang, Zhibin

    2017-03-29

    Climate change and humans are proposed as the two key drivers of total extinction of many large mammals in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene, but disentangling their relative roles remains challenging owing to a lack of quantitative evaluation of human impact and climate-driven distribution changes on the extinctions of these large mammals in a continuous temporal-spatial dimension. Here, our analyses showed that temperature change had significant effects on mammoth (genus Mammuthus ), rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae), horse (Equidae) and deer (Cervidae). Rapid global warming was the predominant factor driving the total extinction of mammoths and rhinos in frigid zones from the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. Humans showed significant, negative effects on extirpations of the four mammalian taxa, and were the predominant factor causing the extinction or major extirpations of rhinos and horses. Deer survived both rapid climate warming and extensive human impacts. Our study indicates that both the current rates of warming and range shifts of species are much faster than those from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene. Our results provide new insight into the extinction of Late Quaternary megafauna by demonstrating taxon-, period- and region-specific differences in extinction drivers of climate change and human disturbances, and some implications about the extinction risk of animals by recent and ongoing climate warming. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Global Warming And Meltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratu, S.

    2012-04-01

    In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of

  14. Delayed warming hiatus over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Wenling; Hou, Shugui; Hu, Yongyun; Wu, Shuangye

    2017-03-01

    A reduction in the warming rate for the global surface temperature since the late 1990s has attracted much attention and caused a great deal of controversy. During the same time period, however, most previous studies have reported enhanced warming over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In this study we further examined the temperature trend of the TP and surrounding areas based on the homogenized temperature records for the period 1980-2014, we found that for the TP regions lower than 4000 m the warming rate has started to slow down since the late 1990s, a similar pattern consistent with the whole China and the global temperature trend. However, for the TP regions higher than 4000 m, this reduction in warming rate did not occur until the mid-2000s. This delayed warming hiatus could be related to changes in regional radiative, energy, and land surface processes in recent years.

  15. Global Warming: How Much and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanouette, William

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the history of the study of global warming and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global warming, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)

  16. Extracorporeal gas exchange with the DeltaStream rotary blood pump in experimental lung injury.

    PubMed

    Dembinski, Rolf; Kopp, Rüdger; Henzler, Dietrich; Hochhausen, Nadine; Oslender, Nicole; Max, Martin; Rossaint, Rolf; Kuhlen, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    In most severe cases of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to facilitate gas exchange. However, the clinical use is limited due to the size and the concomitant risk of severe adverse events of conventionally-used centrifugal blood pumps with high extracorporeal blood volumes. The DeltaStream blood pump is a small-sized rotary blood pump that may reduce extracorporeal blood volume, foreign surfaces, contact activation of the coagulation system, and blood trauma. The aim of the present study was to test the safety and efficacy of the DeltaStream pump for ECMO in animals with normal lung function and experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Therefore, veno-venous ECMO was performed for 6 hours in mechanically ventilated pigs with normal lung function (n=6) and with ALI induced by repeated lung lavage (n=6) with a blood flow of 30% of the cardiac output. Gas flow with a FiO2 of 1.0 was set to equal blood flow. With a mean activated clotting time of 121 +/- 22 s, no circulatory impairment or thrombus formation was revealed during ECMO. Furthermore, free plasma Hb did not increase. In controls, hemodynamics and gas exchange remained unchanged. In animals with ALI, hemodynamics remained stable and gas transfer across the extracorporeal oxygenators was optimal, but only in 2 animals was a marked increase in PaO2 observed. CO2 removal was efficacious in all animals. We concluded that the DeltaStream blood pump may be used for veno-venous ECMO without major blood damage or hemodynamic impairment.

  17. Compact telemetry package for remote monitoring of neutron responses in animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    Battery-powered telemeter includes FM transmitter and is light enough to be mounted on animal's head. Animal has complete freedom of movement while its neuron responses are transmitted to receiver in laboratory. Construction may also be applied to monitor blood pressure, body temperature, and different muscular signals.

  18. Global Warming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

  19. Does Warm-Up Training in a Virtual Reality Simulator Improve Surgical Performance? A Prospective Randomized Analysis.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, José Arnaldo Shiomi; Dos Reis, Sabrina Thalita; Cunha Frati, Rodrigo Marcus; Duarte, Ricardo Jordão; Nguyen, Hiep; Srougi, Miguel; Passerotti, Carlo Camargo

    Virtual reality surgical simulators (VRSS) have been showing themselves as a valuable tool in laparoscopy training and education. Taking in consideration the effectiveness of the VRSS, new uses for this tool have been purposed. In sports, warming up before exercise clearly shows benefit in performance. It is hypothesized that warming up in the VRSS before going to the operating room may show benefit in surgical performance. Verify whether there is benefit in surgical performance with preoperatory warm-up using a VRSS. A total of 20 medical students with basic knowledge in laparoscopy were divided in 2 groups (I and II). Group I performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a porcine model. Group II performed preoperative warm-up in a VRSS and then performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a porcine model. The performance between both groups was compared regarding quantitative parameters (time for dissection of the gallbladder pedicle, time for clipping the pedicle, time for cutting the pedicle, time for gallbladder removal, total operative time, and aspirated blood loss) and qualitative parameters (depth perception, bimanual dexterity, efficiency, tissue handling, and autonomy) based on a previously validated score system, in which the higher the score, the better the result. Data were analyzed with level of significance of 5%. The group that underwent preoperative warm-up (group II) showed significantly superior results as to the time for dissection of the gallbladder pedicle (11.91 ± 9.85 vs. 4.52 ± 2.89min, p = 0.012), time for clipping the pedicle (5.51 ± 2.36 vs. 2.89 ± 2.76min, p = 0.004), time for cutting the pedicle (1.84 ± 0.7 vs. 1.13 ± 0.51, p = 0.019), aspirated blood loss (171 ± 112 vs. 57 ± 27.8ml, p = 0.006), depth perception (4.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.3 ± 0.67, p = 0.004), bianual dexterity (4.2 ± 0.78 vs. 3.3 ± 0.67, p = 0.004), tissue handling (4.2 ± 0.91 vs. 3.6 ± 0.66, p = 0.012), and autonomy (4.9 ± 0.31 vs. 3.6 ± 0.96, p = 0.028). There

  20. Detection of BVDV persistently infected animals in Belgium: evaluation of the strategy implemented.

    PubMed

    Letellier, C; De Meulemeester, L; Lomba, M; Mijten, E; Kerkhofs, P

    2005-11-15

    Until now, no official bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV) control program has been implemented in Belgium. The only legislation dealing with the detection of BVDV-infected animals concerns the purchase of animals. A strategy of control, based on the identification and elimination of persistently infected (PI) animals and the vaccination of cows before insemination has been designed in both the Northern and the Southern part of the country. The strategy of detection of PI animals relies on PCR testing of pools of blood. Individual blood samples corresponding to the positive pools are then tested by BVDV-antigen ELISA. A first evaluation of the measures already applied in Belgium is presented. Data obtained in 2003 are presented and discussed regarding the validation of the laboratory strategy, the prevalence of positive herds, the genotype of circulating viruses, the outcome of antigen positive animals and the need for improvement of the current legislation.

  1. Observational constraints on monomial warm inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Visinelli, Luca, E-mail: Luca.Visinelli@studio.unibo.it

    Warm inflation is, as of today, one of the best motivated mechanisms for explaining an early inflationary period. In this paper, we derive and analyze the current bounds on warm inflation with a monomial potential U ∝ φ {sup p} , using the constraints from the PLANCK mission. In particular, we discuss the parameter space of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and the potential coupling λ of the monomial warm inflation in terms of the number of e-folds. We obtain that the theoretical tensor-to-scalar ratio r ∼ 10{sup −8} is much smaller than the current observational constrain r ∼< 0.12, despitemore » a relatively large value of the field excursion Δ φ ∼ 0.1 M {sub Pl}. Warm inflation thus eludes the Lyth bound set on the tensor-to-scalar ratio by the field excursion.« less

  2. Systems for animal exposure in full-scale fire tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Two systems for exposing animals in full-scale fire tests are described. Both systems involve the simultaneous exposure of two animal species, mice and rats, in modular units; determination of mortality, morbidity, and behavioral response; and analysis of the blood for carboxyhemoglobin. The systems described represent two of many possible options for obtaining bioassay data from full-scale fire tests. In situations where the temperatures to which the test animals are exposed can not be controlled, analytical techniques may be more appropriate than bioassay techniques.

  3. Warm water aquaculture using waste heat and water from zero discharge power plants in the Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Heckmann, R.A.; Winget, R.N.; Infanger, R.C.

    1984-01-31

    Two series of experiments were completed to determine (a) toxicity of waste water from power plants on warm water fish and (b) multiple use of waste heat and water for aquatic animal and plant production. All three types of waste water from a typical coal-fired power plant are acceptable for growing catfish and tilapia following aeration. This growth was compared with fish raised in spring water. Closed, recirculating polyculture systems using evaporation pond water operated efficiently for plant (duckweed) and animal (fish and freshwater prawns) production. Duckweed is an excellent supplement for fish feed. Tilapia and freshwater prawns grew rapidlymore » in the tanks containing duckweed only. 10 references, 13 tables.« less

  4. Responses of spring phenology to climate warming reduced over the past decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yongshuo. H.; Zhao, hongfang; piao, Shilong; Peaucelle, Marc; Peng, Shushi; Zhou, Guiyun; Ciais, Philippe; Huang, Mengtian; Menzel, Annette; Penuelas, Josep; Song, Yang; Vitasse, Yann; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Janssens, Ivan. A.

    2016-04-01

    The phenology of spring leaf unfolding is one of the key indicators of the climate change on ecosystems, and influences regional and hemispheric-scale carbon balances and plant-animal interactions. Changes in the phenology of spring leaf unfolding can also exert biophysical feedbacks on climate by modifying the surface albedo and energy budget. Recent studies have reported significant advances in spring phenology as a result of warming in most northern hemisphere regions. Climate warming is projected to further increase, but the future evolution of the phenology of spring leaf unfolding remains uncertain - in view of the imperfect understanding of how the underlying mechanisms respond to environmental stimuli. In addition, the relative contributions of each environmental stimulus, which together define the apparent temperature sensitivity of the phenology of spring leaf unfolding (advances in days per degree Celsius warming, ST), may also change over time. An improved characterization of the variation in phenological responses to spring temperature is thus valuable, provided that it addresses temporal and spatial scales relevant for regional projections. Using long-term in situ observations of leaf unfolding for seven dominant European tree species at 1,245 sites, we show here that the apparent response of leaf unfolding to climate warming (ST, expressed in days advance per ° C) has significantly decreased from 1980 to 2013 in all monitored tree species. Averaged across all species and sites, ST decreased by 40% from 4.0 ± 1.8 days ° C-1 during 1980-1994 to 2.3 ± 1.6 days ° C-1 during 1999-2013. The declining ST was also simulated by chilling-based phenology models, albeit with a weaker decline (24%-30%) than observed in situ. The reduction in ST is likely to be partly attributable to reduced chilling. Nonetheless, other mechanisms may also play a role, such as 'photoperiod limitation' mechanisms that may become ultimately limiting when leaf unfolding dates

  5. Warming and Chilling: Assessing Aspects of Changing Plant Ecology with Continental-scale Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. D.; Hanes, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Many recent ecological studies have concentrated on the direct impacts of climate warming, such as modifications to seasonal plant and animal life cycle events (phenology). There are many examples, with most indicating earlier onset of spring plant growth and delayed onset of autumn senescence. However, the implication of continued warming for plant species’ chilling requirements has received comparatively less attention. Temperate zone woody plants often require a certain level of cool season "chilling" (accumulated time at temperatures below a specific threshold) to break dormancy and prepare to respond to springtime warming. Thus, the potential impacts of insufficient chilling must be included in a comprehensive assessment of plant species' responses to climate warming. Vegetation phenological data, when collected for specific plant species at continental-scale, can be used to extract information relating to the combined impacts of reduced chilling and warming on plant species physiology. In a recent study, we demonstrated that common lilac first leaf and first bloom phenology (collected from multiple locations in the western United States and matched with air temperature records) can estimate the species' chilling requirement (in this case 1748 chilling hours, below a base temperature of 7.2°C) and highlight the changing impact of warming on the plant's phenological response in light of that requirement. Specifically, when chilling is above the requirement, lilac first leaf dates advance at a rate of -5.0 days per 100 hour chilling accumulation reduction, and lilac first bloom dates advance at a rate of -4.2 days per 100 hour chilling accumulation reduction. In contrast, when chilling is below the requirement, the lilac event dates advance at a much reduced rate of -1.6 days per 100 hour reduction for first leaf date and -2.2 days per 100 hour reduction for first bloom date. Overall, these encouraging results for common lilac suggest that similar continental

  6. Nonlinear regional warming with increasing CO2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Peter; Lowe, Jason A.; Andrews, Timothy; Wiltshire, Andrew; Chadwick, Robin; Ridley, Jeff K.; Menary, Matthew B.; Bouttes, Nathaelle; Dufresne, Jean Louis; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Schaller, Nathalie; Shiogama, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    When considering adaptation measures and global climate mitigation goals, stakeholders need regional-scale climate projections, including the range of plausible warming rates. To assist these stakeholders, it is important to understand whether some locations may see disproportionately high or low warming from additional forcing above targets such as 2 K (ref. ). There is a need to narrow uncertainty in this nonlinear warming, which requires understanding how climate changes as forcings increase from medium to high levels. However, quantifying and understanding regional nonlinear processes is challenging. Here we show that regional-scale warming can be strongly superlinear to successive CO2 doublings, using five different climate models. Ensemble-mean warming is superlinear over most land locations. Further, the inter-model spread tends to be amplified at higher forcing levels, as nonlinearities grow--especially when considering changes per kelvin of global warming. Regional nonlinearities in surface warming arise from nonlinearities in global-mean radiative balance, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, surface snow/ice cover and evapotranspiration. For robust adaptation and mitigation advice, therefore, potentially avoidable climate change (the difference between business-as-usual and mitigation scenarios) and unavoidable climate change (change under strong mitigation scenarios) may need different analysis methods.

  7. Body-on-a-chip systems for animal-free toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Gretchen J; Esch, Mandy B; Stokol, Tracy; Hickman, James J; Shuler, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Body-on-a-chip systems replicate the size relationships of organs, blood distribution and blood flow, in accordance with human physiology. When operated with tissues derived from human cell sources, these systems are capable of simulating human metabolism, including the conversion of a prodrug to its effective metabolite, as well as its subsequent therapeutic actions and toxic side-effects. The system also permits the measurement of human tissue electrical and mechanical reactions, which provide a measure of functional response. Since these devices can be operated with human tissue samples or with in vitro tissues derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), they can play a significant role in determining the success of new pharmaceuticals, without resorting to the use of animals. By providing a platform for testing in the context of human metabolism, as opposed to animal models, the systems have the potential to eliminate the use of animals in preclinical trials. This article will review progress made and work achieved as a direct result of the 2015 Lush Science Prize in support of animal-free testing. 2016 FRAME.

  8. Reconciling controversies about the 'global warming hiatus'.

    PubMed

    Medhaug, Iselin; Stolpe, Martin B; Fischer, Erich M; Knutti, Reto

    2017-05-03

    Between about 1998 and 2012, a time that coincided with political negotiations for preventing climate change, the surface of Earth seemed hardly to warm. This phenomenon, often termed the 'global warming hiatus', caused doubt in the public mind about how well anthropogenic climate change and natural variability are understood. Here we show that apparently contradictory conclusions stem from different definitions of 'hiatus' and from different datasets. A combination of changes in forcing, uptake of heat by the oceans, natural variability and incomplete observational coverage reconciles models and data. Combined with stronger recent warming trends in newer datasets, we are now more confident than ever that human influence is dominant in long-term warming.

  9. Forced-air warming and ultra-clean ventilation do not mix: an investigation of theatre ventilation, patient warming and joint replacement infection in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    McGovern, P D; Albrecht, M; Belani, K G; Nachtsheim, C; Partington, P F; Carluke, I; Reed, M R

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the capacity of patient warming devices to disrupt the ultra-clean airflow system. We compared the effects of two patient warming technologies, forced-air and conductive fabric, on operating theatre ventilation during simulated hip replacement and lumbar spinal procedures using a mannequin as a patient. Infection data were reviewed to determine whether joint infection rates were associated with the type of patient warming device that was used. Neutral-buoyancy detergent bubbles were released adjacent to the mannequin's head and at floor level to assess the movement of non-sterile air into the clean airflow over the surgical site. During simulated hip replacement, bubble counts over the surgical site were greater for forced-air than for conductive fabric warming when the anaesthesia/surgery drape was laid down (p = 0.010) and at half-height (p < 0.001). For lumbar surgery, forced-air warming generated convection currents that mobilised floor air into the surgical site area. Conductive fabric warming had no such effect. A significant increase in deep joint infection, as demonstrated by an elevated infection odds ratio (3.8, p = 0.024), was identified during a period when forced-air warming was used compared to a period when conductive fabric warming was used. Air-free warming is, therefore, recommended over forced-air warming for orthopaedic procedures.

  10. Area-wide control of insects with screwworm as an example

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), are devastating pests of warm blooded animals. They have been eradicated from continental North America using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Proper implementation of SIT is an example of the requirements of area-wide control of insect pests. Area-...

  11. Screwworms eating living flesh – not just another Halloween tale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were devastating pests to all warm blooded animals in the United States and the rest of North America. Successful eradication of screwworms was achieved by using the unique approach called the sterile insect technique. Here we ...

  12. Serological Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in five species of bats in China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect almost all warm-blooded animals and humans with a worldwide distribution. Bats are reservoirs for an increasing number of emerging zoonotic viruses, such as henipaviruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) c...

  13. Screwworm ecology from field observations to satellite imagery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in its larval stage is a parasite of warm-blooded animals. Screwworm has been successfully eradicated from the United Sates and Central America using the sterile insect technique. Here we present how the field observations o...

  14. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with T. gondii is considered an important source of infection in humans. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), the most ...

  15. Molecular genetics for identification and population studies of screwworms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were devastating pests to all warm blooded animals in the United States and the rest of North America. Successful eradication of screwworms was achieved by using the sterile insect technique. Here we discussed the development a...

  16. Seroepidemiologic study on the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. infections in black bears (Ursus americanus) in Pennsylvania, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii and the metazoan Trichinella spp. infect virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. Both parasitic infections can cause serious illness in human beings and can be acquired by ingesting under-cooked meat harbouring infec...

  17. Light accelerates plant responses to warming.

    PubMed

    De Frenne, Pieter; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; De Schrijver, An; Coomes, David A; Hermy, Martin; Vangansbeke, Pieter; Verheyen, Kris

    2015-08-17

    Competition for light has profound effects on plant performance in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems. Nowhere is this more evident than in forests, where trees create environmental heterogeneity that shapes the dynamics of forest-floor communities(1-3). Observational evidence suggests that biotic responses to both anthropogenic global warming and nitrogen pollution may be attenuated by the shading effects of trees and shrubs(4-9). Here we show experimentally that tree shade is slowing down changes in below-canopy communities due to warming. We manipulated levels of photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and nitrogen, alone and in combination, in a temperate forest understorey over a 3-year period, and monitored the composition of the understorey community. Light addition, but not nitrogen enrichment, accelerated directional plant community responses to warming, increasing the dominance of warmth-preferring taxa over cold-tolerant plants (a process described as thermophilization(6,10-12)). Tall, competitive plants took greatest advantage of the combination of elevated temperature and light. Warming of the forest floor did not result in strong community thermophilization unless light was also increased. Our findings suggest that the maintenance of locally closed canopy conditions could reduce, at least temporarily, warming-induced changes in forest floor plant communities.

  18. Consistency of the tachyon warm inflationary universe models

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiao-Min; Zhu, Jian-Yang, E-mail: zhangxm@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhujy@bnu.edu.cn

    2014-02-01

    This study concerns the consistency of the tachyon warm inflationary models. A linear stability analysis is performed to find the slow-roll conditions, characterized by the potential slow-roll (PSR) parameters, for the existence of a tachyon warm inflationary attractor in the system. The PSR parameters in the tachyon warm inflationary models are redefined. Two cases, an exponential potential and an inverse power-law potential, are studied, when the dissipative coefficient Γ = Γ{sub 0} and Γ = Γ(φ), respectively. A crucial condition is obtained for a tachyon warm inflationary model characterized by the Hubble slow-roll (HSR) parameter ε{sub H}, and the conditionmore » is extendable to some other inflationary models as well. A proper number of e-folds is obtained in both cases of the tachyon warm inflation, in contrast to existing works. It is also found that a constant dissipative coefficient (Γ = Γ{sub 0}) is usually not a suitable assumption for a warm inflationary model.« less

  19. Animal studies with the Carmat bioprosthetic total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Latrémouille, Christian; Duveau, Daniel; Cholley, Bernard; Zilberstein, Luca; Belbis, Guillaume; Boughenou, Marie-Fazia; Meleard, Denis; Bruneval, Patrick; Adam, Clovis; Neuschwander, Arthur; Perles, Jean-Christophe; Jansen, Piet; Carpentier, Alain

    2015-05-01

    The Carmat bioprosthetic total artificial heart (TAH) contains bioprosthetic blood-contacting surfaces, and is designed for orthotopic cardiac replacement. In preparation for clinical studies, we evaluated the TAH performance and its effects on end-organ function in an animal model. Twelve female Charolais calves, 2-3 months of age and weighing 102-122 kg, were implanted with the TAH through a mid-sternotomy to ensure an adequate anatomic fit. The intended support duration was 4-10 days. Haematological values, creatinine, bilirubin and lactate levels were measured and mean arterial and central venous pressure, central venous oxygen saturation and TAH parameters were monitored. The calves were placed in a cage immediately postoperatively, and extubated on postoperative day 1 in most cases. Average support duration was 3 days, with 4 of 12 calves supported for 4, 4, 8 and 10 days. The initial procedures were used to refine surgical techniques and postoperative care. Pump output ranged from 7.3 to 10 l/min. Haemodynamic parameters and blood analysis were within acceptable ranges. No device failures occurred. No anticoagulation was used in the postoperative phase. The calves were euthanized in case of discomfort compromising the animal well-being, such as respiratory dysfunction, severe blood loss and cerebral dysfunction. Device explant analysis showed no thrombus formation inside the blood cavities. Histological examination of kidneys showed isolated micro-infarction in 2/12 animals; brain histology revealed no thromboembolic depositions. The Carmat bioprosthetic TAH implanted in calves up to 10 days provided adequate blood flow to organs and tissues. Low levels of haemolysis and no visible evidence of thromboembolic depositions in major organs and device cavities, without the use of anticoagulation, may indicate early-phase haemocompatibility of the TAH. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio

  20. [Establishment of the experimental animal model of Babesia microti].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Cai, Yu-Chun; Chen, Shao-Hong; Chen, Jia-Xu; Guo, Jian; Chen, Mu-Xin; Ai, Lin; Chu, Yan-Hong; Chen, Zhuo; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-12-30

    To establish the experimental animal model for the study of Babesia microti. BALB/c mice, immunosuppressive BALB/c mice, SCID mice and NOD-SCID mice were inoculated with B. microti-infected red blood cells (RBC) by intraperitoneal injection respectively. After inoculation, thin blood smears were prepared every day, stained with Giemsa staining and examined for the presence of parasitemia. Three mice were dissected to examine the infectivity in bone marrow, brain, spleen, heart, lung, kidney and liver tissues. The infection rate of erythrocytes in different tissues was recorded, and the relationship between the infectivity of tissues and infection rate in peripheral blood was analyzed. Blood samples infected with B. microti were preserved in liquid nitrogen with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 2 months. The thawed parasitized blood was injected into the BALB/c mice by same route and the parasitemia was monitored. The four kinds of mice were all infected by B. microti with parasitemia. The percentage of parasitized red blood cells from peripheral blood were 82.4% (BALB/c mice, d7), 73.2% (immunosuppressive BALB/c mice, d5), 86.4% (SCID mice, d8) and 72.5% (NOD-SCID mice, d8) at the maximum, respectively. Parasitemia decreased rapidly in BALB/c mice, whereas decreased slowly in immunosuppressive BALB/c mice. Only the parasitemia in SCID mice and NOD-SCID mice decreased significantly and tended to picking up again. The parasites were observed in RBCs from bone marrow, brain, spleen, heart, lung, kidney and liver tissues. The infection rate of erythrocytes in tissues increased with an increase of infection in peripheral blood. After cryopreservation, the parasites proliferated in BALB/c mice. Parasitemia appeared after inoculation with frozen infected blood two days later than that of fresh infected blood. The infection rate reached its peak after inoculation with frozen infected blood one day later than that of fresh infected blood. The experimental animal model of B

  1. The whole-soil carbon flux in response to warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks Pries, Caitlin E.; Castanha, C.; Porras, R. C.; Torn, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    Soil organic carbon harbors three times as much carbon as Earth’s atmosphere, and its decomposition is a potentially large climate change feedback and major source of uncertainty in climate projections. The response of whole-soil profiles to warming has not been tested in situ. In a deep warming experiment in mineral soil, we found that CO2 production from all soil depths increased with 4°C warming; annual soil respiration increased by 34 to 37%. All depths responded to warming with similar temperature sensitivities, driven by decomposition of decadal-aged carbon. Whole-soil warming reveals a larger soil respiration response than many in situ experiments (most of which only warm the surface soil) and models.

  2. Could cirrus clouds have warmed early Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kasting, James F.

    2017-01-01

    The presence of the ancient valley networks on Mars indicates that the climate at 3.8 Ga was warm enough to allow substantial liquid water to flow on the martian surface for extended periods of time. However, the mechanism for producing this warming continues to be debated. One hypothesis is that Mars could have been kept warm by global cirrus cloud decks in a CO2sbnd H2O atmosphere containing at least 0.25 bar of CO2 (Urata and Toon, 2013). Initial warming from some other process, e.g., impacts, would be required to make this model work. Those results were generated using the CAM 3-D global climate model. Here, we use a single-column radioactive-convective climate model to further investigate the cirrus cloud warming hypothesis. Our calculations indicate that cirrus cloud decks could have produced global mean surface temperatures above freezing, but only if cirrus cloud cover approaches ∼75 - 100% and if other cloud properties (e.g., height, optical depth, particle size) are chosen favorably. However, at more realistic cirrus cloud fractions, or if cloud parameters are not optimal, cirrus clouds do not provide the necessary warming, suggesting that other greenhouse mechanisms are needed.

  3. Effect of prolonged hypokinesia on tissue blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levites, Z. P.; Fedotova, V. F.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of hypokinesia on the blood flow in the tissues of rabbits was studied. Motor activity of animals was restricted during 90 days and blood flow recorded through resorption rate of NaI-131. Perfusion of tissues under the influence of hypokinesia was found to be reduced.

  4. Effects of experimental throughfall reduction and soil warming on fine root biomass and its decomposition in a warm temperate oak forest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchun; Liu, Shirong; Wan, Shiqiang; Wang, Jingxin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Kuan

    2017-01-01

    Fine root dynamics play a critical role in regulating carbon (C) cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Examining responses of fine root biomass and its decomposition to altered precipitation pattern and climate warming is crucial to understand terrestrial C dynamics and its feedback to climate change. Fine root biomass and its decomposition rate were investigated in a warm temperate oak forest through a field manipulation experiment with throughfall reduction and soil warming conducted. Throughfall reduction significantly interacted with soil warming in affecting fine root biomass and its decomposition. Throughfall reduction substantially increased fine root biomass and its decomposition in unheated plots, but negative effects occurred in warmed plots. Soil warming significantly enhanced fine root biomass and its decomposition under ambient precipitation, but the opposite effects exhibited under throughfall reduction. Different responses in fine root biomass among different treatments could be largely attributed to soil total nitrogen (N), while fine root decomposition rate was more depended on microbial biomass C and N. Our observations indicate that decreased precipitation may offset the positive effect of soil warming on fine root biomass and decomposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutrition, feeding, and behavior of fish.

    PubMed

    Lall, Santosh P; Tibbetts, Sean M

    2009-05-01

    Nutrition and feeding influence growth, reproduction, and health of fish and their response to physiologic and environmental stressors and pathogens. The basics of fish metabolism are similar to those of warm-blooded animals in that they involve food intake, digestion, absorption, and transport of nutrients to the various tissues. Fish, however, being the most primitive form of vertebrates, possess some distinguishing features which will be discussed. Unlike warm-blooded animals, which are homoeothermic, fish are poikilothermic, so their body temperature and metabolic rate depends on the water temperature and this has practical implications for the nutrition, feeding and health of fish. Several behavioral responses have been linked to methods of feeding, feeding habits, frequency of feeding, mechanisms of food detection, and food preferences. Fish are also unique among vertebrates in their ability to absorb minerals not only from their diets but also from water through their gills and skin.

  6. Change of ENSO characteristics in response to global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X.; Xia, Y.; Yan, Y.; Feng, W.; Huang, F.; Yang, X. Q.

    2017-12-01

    By using datasets of HadISST monthly SST from 1895 to 2014 and 600-year simulations of two CESM model experiments with/without doubling of CO2 concentration, ENSO characteristics are compared pre- and post- global warming. The main results are as follows. Due to global warming, the maximum climatological SST warming occurs in the tropical western Pacific (La Niña-like background warming) and the tropical eastern Pacific (El Niño-like background warming) for observations and model, respectively, resulting in opposite zonal SST gradient anomalies in the tropical Pacific. The La Niña-like background warming induces intense surface divergence in the tropical central Pacific, which enhances the easterly trade winds in the tropical central-western Pacific and shifts the strongest ocean-atmosphere coupling westward, correspondingly. On the contrary, the El Niño-like background warming causes westerly winds in the whole tropical Pacific and moves the strongest ocean-atmosphere coupling eastward. Under the La Niña-like background warming, ENSO tends to develop and mature in the tropical central Pacific, because the background easterly wind anomaly weakens the ENSO-induced westerly wind anomaly in the tropical western Pacific, leading to the so-called "Central Pacific ENSO (CP ENSO)". However, the so-called "Eastern Pacific ENSO (EP ENSO)" is likely formed due to increased westerly wind anomaly by the El Niño-like background warming. ENSO lifetime is significantly extended under both the El Niño-like and the La Niña-like background warmings, and especially, it can be prolonged by up to 3 months in the situation of El Niño-like background warming. The prolonged El Nino lifetime mainly applies to extreme El Niño events, which is caused by earlier outbreak of the westerly wind bursts, shallower climatological thermocline depth and weaker "discharge" rate of the ENSO warm signal in response to global warming. Results from both observations and the model also show that

  7. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitsos, D. E.; Hoteit, I.; Prihartato, P. K.; Chronis, T.; Triantafyllou, G.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  8. Oxygen free radical induced damage in kidneys subjected to warm ischemia and reperfusion. Protective effect of superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, G L; Corry, R J; Autor, A P

    1985-01-01

    Superoxide anion free radical (O2-.) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of tissue injury consequent to ischemia/reperfusion in several different organs, including heart and bowel. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme free radical scavenger specific for O2-., has been used successfully to protect these organs from structural damage during reoxygenation of ischemic tissue. It has been suggested that the catalytic action of xanthine oxidase in injured tissue is an important source of O2-. during reoxygenation. In order to evaluate the potential of SOD to protect against kidney damage resulting from transient ischemia followed by reperfusion with oxygenated blood, a model of warm renal ischemia was studied. LBNF1 rats underwent right nephrectomy and occlusion of the left renal artery for 45 minutes. Survival in the group of ischemic untreated rats (N = 30) was 56% at 7 days and serum creatinine was greatly elevated (p less than 0.01) in rats remaining alive over the full 7-day period. In strong contrast to these results, all of the animals treated with SOD before reperfusion (N = 18) were alive after 7 days similar to sham operated control rats (N = 8). Serum creatinine in the SOD treated rats was significantly elevated only to postoperative day 3 and thereafter returned to normal. Rats treated with inactive SOD (N = 4) or SOD before ischemia (N = 4) had decreased survival rates compared to ischemic untreated animals and prolonged elevation of serum creatinine. When the ischemia time was extended to 60 minutes, only 19% of the untreated animals (N = 16) survived at 7 days whereas nearly 60% of the SOD-treated animals survived (N = 19). Serum creatinine was greatly elevated during the full 7-day observation period in all surviving rats in the untreated ischemic group, whereas serum creatinine returned to normal (p less than 0.05) after 4 days in the surviving rats treated with SOD. To test whether the action of xanthine oxidase contributed to the kidney damage

  9. Population risk perceptions of global warming in Australia.

    PubMed

    Agho, Kingsley; Stevens, Garry; Taylor, Mel; Barr, Margo; Raphael, Beverley

    2010-11-01

    According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), global warming has the potential to dramatically disrupt some of life's essential requirements for health, water, air and food. Understanding how Australians perceive the risk of global warming is essential for climate change policy and planning. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and socio-demographic factors associated with, high levels of perceived likelihood that global warming would worsen, concern for self and family and reported behaviour changes. A module of questions on global warming was incorporated into the New South Wales Population Health Survey in the second quarter of 2007. This Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) was completed by a representative sample of 2004 adults. The weighted sample was comparable to the Australian population. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted to examine the socio-demographic and general health factors. Overall 62.1% perceived that global warming was likely to worsen; 56.3% were very or extremely concerned that they or their family would be directly affected by global warming; and 77.6% stated that they had made some level of change to the way they lived their lives, because of the possibility of global warming. After controlling for confounding factors, multivariate analyses revealed that those with high levels of psychological distress were 2.17 (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.17; CI: 1.16-4.03; P=0.015) times more likely to be concerned about global warming than those with low psychological distress levels. Those with a University degree or equivalent and those who lived in urban areas were significantly more likely to think that global warming would worsen compared to those without a University degree or equivalent and those who lived in the rural areas. Females were significantly (AOR=1.69; CI: 1.23-2.33; P=0.001) more likely to report they had made changes to the way they lived their lives due to the risk of

  10. Renal histopathology features according to various warm ischemia times in porcine laparoscopic and open surgery model

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Robert; Chawla, Arun; Tisdale, Britton; Kwan, Kevin; Chatterjee, Suman; Kwiecien, Jacek M.; Kapoor, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Background Thirty minutes has been considered as the threshold for tolerable warm ischemic time (WIT). Recent reports demonstrate recovery of renal function after longer WIT. We assessed renal histology according to different WIT in a 2-kidney porcine model. Methods Twelve female pigs were randomized to an open or laparoscopic group. Each pig was further randomized within each group to clamping the left renal artery for 5, 15, 30, 45, 60 or 180 minutes. Preclamping left renal biopsies were performed on each pig. The contralateral kidney in each animal was used as an individual control. On postoperative day 14, all animals underwent bilateral nephrectomies. Preclamping left renal biopsies and all renal specimens were evaluated by a blinded veterinary pathologist. Results One pig died in the open group after 180 minutes of clamping. Histopathology did not show any significant changes between the two groups and across clamp times from 5 to 60 minutes. After 180 minutes of laparoscopic clamping, there was evidence of diffuse necrosis. Interpretation Sixty minutes of ischemia did not show any permanent renal damage in both groups. Further studies are needed to verify these findings in humans. A prolonged ischemic time without permanent renal damage would be helpful in partial nephrectomy. Warm ischemic time of 180 minutes exceeded the renal ischemic burden based on histological features. PMID:21470513

  11. The Aachen miniaturized heart-lung machine--first results in a small animal model.

    PubMed

    Schnoering, Heike; Arens, Jutta; Sachweh, Joerg S; Veerman, Melanie; Tolba, Rene; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Vazquez-Jimenez, Jaime F

    2009-11-01

    Congenital heart surgery most often incorporates extracorporeal circulation. Due to foreign surface contact and the administration of foreign blood in many children, inflammatory response and hemolysis are important matters of debate. This is particularly an issue in premature and low birth-weight newborns. Taking these considerations into account, the Aachen miniaturized heart-lung machine (MiniHLM) with a total static priming volume of 102 mL (including tubing) was developed and tested in a small animal model. Fourteen female Chinchilla Bastard rabbits were operated on using two different kinds of circuits. In eight animals, a conventional HLM with Dideco Kids oxygenator and Stöckert roller pump (Sorin group, Milan, Italy) was used, and the Aachen MiniHLM was employed in six animals. Outcome parameters were hemolysis and blood gas analysis including lactate. The rabbits were anesthetized, and a standard median sternotomy was performed. The ascending aorta and the right atrium were cannulated. After initiating cardiopulmonary bypass, the aorta was cross-clamped, and cardiac arrest was induced by blood cardioplegia. Blood samples for hemolysis and blood gas analysis were drawn before, during, and after cardiopulmonary bypass. After 1 h aortic clamp time, all animals were weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Blood gas analysis revealed adequate oxygenation and perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass, irrespective of the employed perfusion system. The use of the Aachen MiniHLM resulted in a statistically significant reduced decrease in fibrinogen during cardiopulmonary bypass. A trend revealing a reduced increase in free hemoglobin during bypass in the MiniHLM group could also be observed. This newly developed Aachen MiniHLM with low priming volume, reduced hemolysis, and excellent gas transfer (O(2) and CO(2)) may reduce circuit-induced complications during heart surgery in neonates.

  12. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Fred L.; Blank, Merle L.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated ether-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood pressure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  13. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1984-10-26

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  14. Gingival blood flow measurement with a non-contact laser flowmeter.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, M; Xu, Y B; Nagasawa, T

    2001-07-01

    A non-contact laser flowmeter was used to measure the changing of the gingival blood flow. Five university students with healthy oral condition were selected in this study. The blood flow measurement on the extensor digitorum (above the head of third metacarpal), with the changing of distance and angle between the probe and the tissue was used as a pre-study experiment. Blood flow rate was determined in the labial gingiva (2 mm above the cervical line) of upper central incisor using a stent fixing the probe at a 3-mm distance from the tissue. A basal level of gingival blood flow was taken two times each day for 5 days. The effects of water of different temperatures on the gingival blood flow are discussed. With the changing of distance, the blood flow rate became smaller, but there was no significant effect from the angle. The reproducibility was acceptable through the 5-day measurement. After stimulating with warm and body temperature water, the blood flow first increased significantly and then went back to the basal line (faster with the body temperature water). With cold water, different reactions between the subjects were observed.

  15. Soil warming, carbon–nitrogen interactions, and forest carbon budgets

    PubMed Central

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Butler, Sarah; Johnson, Jennifer; Mohan, Jacqueline; Steudler, Paul; Lux, Heidi; Burrows, Elizabeth; Bowles, Francis; Smith, Rose; Scott, Lindsay; Vario, Chelsea; Hill, Troy; Burton, Andrew; Zhou, Yu-Mei; Tang, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Soil warming has the potential to alter both soil and plant processes that affect carbon storage in forest ecosystems. We have quantified these effects in a large, long-term (7-y) soil-warming study in a deciduous forest in New England. Soil warming has resulted in carbon losses from the soil and stimulated carbon gains in the woody tissue of trees. The warming-enhanced decay of soil organic matter also released enough additional inorganic nitrogen into the soil solution to support the observed increases in plant carbon storage. Although soil warming has resulted in a cumulative net loss of carbon from a New England forest relative to a control area over the 7-y study, the annual net losses generally decreased over time as plant carbon storage increased. In the seventh year, warming-induced soil carbon losses were almost totally compensated for by plant carbon gains in response to warming. We attribute the plant gains primarily to warming-induced increases in nitrogen availability. This study underscores the importance of incorporating carbon–nitrogen interactions in atmosphere–ocean–land earth system models to accurately simulate land feedbacks to the climate system. PMID:21606374

  16. Methane Cycling in a Warming Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyce, G. L.; Megonigal, P.; Rich, R.; Kirwan, M. L.; Herbert, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands are global hotspots of carbon (C) storage, but the future of these systems is uncertain. In June 2016, we initiated an in-situ, active, whole-ecosystem warming experiment in the Smithsonian's Global Change Research Wetland to quantify how warming and elevated CO2 affect the stability of coastal wetland soil C pools and contemporary rates of C sequestration. Transects are located in two plant communities, dominated by C3 sedges or C4 grasses. The experiment has a gradient design with air and soil warming treatments ranging from ambient to +5.1 °C and heated plots consistently maintain their target temperature year-round. In April 2017, an elevated CO2 treatment was crossed with temperature in the C3community. Ongoing measurements include soil elevation, C fluxes, porewater chemistry and redox potential, and above- and below-ground growth and biomass. In both years, warming increased methane (CH4) emissions (measured at 3-4 week intervals) from spring through fall at the C3 site, but had little effect on emissions from the C4 site. Winter (Dec-Mar) emissions showed no treatment effect. Stable isotope analysis of dissolved CH4 and DIC also indicated that warming had differing effects on CH4 pathways in the two vegetation communities. To better understand temperature effects on rates of CH4 production and oxidation, 1 m soil cores were collected from control areas of the marsh in summer 2017 and incubated at temperatures ranging from 4 °C to 35 °C. Warming increased CH4 production and oxidation rates in surface samples and oxidation rates in the rooting zone samples from both sites, but temperature responses in deep (1 m) soil samples were minimal. In the surface and rooting zone samples, production rates were also consistently higher in C3 soils compared to C4 soils, but, contrary to our expectations, the temperature response was stronger in the C4 soils. However, oxidation in C3 rooting zone samples did have a strong temperature response. The

  17. Precompetition warm-up in elite and subelite rhythmic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Laura; Di Cagno, Alessandra; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Battaglia, Claudia; Piazza, Marina; Baldari, Carlo

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which precompetition warm-up methodologies resulted in the best overall performance in rhythmic gymnastics. The coaches of national and international clubs (60 elite and 90 subelite) were interviewed. The relationship between sport performance and precompetition warm-up routines was examined. A total of 49% of the coaches interviewed spent more than 1 hour to prepare their athletes for the competition, including 45 minutes dedicated to warm-up exercises. In spite of previous studies' suggestions, the time between the end of warm-up and the beginning of competition was more than 5 minutes for 68% of those interviewed. A slow run was the activity of choice used to begin the warm-up (96%). Significant differences between elite and subelite gymnasts were found concerning the total duration of warm-up, duration of slow running, utilization of rhythmic steps and leaps during the warm-up, the use of dynamic flexibility exercises, competition performances repetition (p < 0.01), and utilization of imagery (p < 0.05). A precompetition warm-up in rhythmic gymnastics would include static stretching exercises at least 60 minutes prior to the competition starting time and the active stretching exercises alternated with analytic muscle strengthening aimed at increasing muscle temperature. Rhythmic gymnastics coaches at all levels can use this data as a review of precompetition warm-up practices and a possible source of new ideas.

  18. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    PubMed Central

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K−1 decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558

  19. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  20. Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this…

  1. Exploration of warm-up period in conceptual hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kue Bum; Kwon, Hyun-Han; Han, Dawei

    2018-01-01

    One of the important issues in hydrological modelling is to specify the initial conditions of the catchment since it has a major impact on the response of the model. Although this issue should be a high priority among modelers, it has remained unaddressed by the community. The typical suggested warm-up period for the hydrological models has ranged from one to several years, which may lead to an underuse of data. The model warm-up is an adjustment process for the model to reach an 'optimal' state, where internal stores (e.g., soil moisture) move from the estimated initial condition to an 'optimal' state. This study explores the warm-up period of two conceptual hydrological models, HYMOD and IHACRES, in a southwestern England catchment. A series of hydrologic simulations were performed for different initial soil moisture conditions and different rainfall amounts to evaluate the sensitivity of the warm-up period. Evaluation of the results indicates that both initial wetness and rainfall amount affect the time required for model warm up, although it depends on the structure of the hydrological model. Approximately one and a half months are required for the model to warm up in HYMOD for our study catchment and climatic conditions. In addition, it requires less time to warm up under wetter initial conditions (i.e., saturated initial conditions). On the other hand, approximately six months is required for warm-up in IHACRES, and the wet or dry initial conditions have little effect on the warm-up period. Instead, the initial values that are close to the optimal value result in less warm-up time. These findings have implications for hydrologic model development, specifically in determining soil moisture initial conditions and warm-up periods to make full use of the available data, which is very important for catchments with short hydrological records.

  2. [Pharmacokinetic study of rifampicin in the body of pregnant animals].

    PubMed

    Subbotina, N A; Griaznov, N S; Beliavskaia, I V; Chugunova, V I; Sazykin, Iu O

    1979-09-01

    The study on distribution of 14C-rifampicin administered intramuscularly to pregnent animals showed that its concentrations in the blood, liver, kidneys, lungs and other organs did not practically change from those in nonpregnant animals. The concentration of 14C-rifampicin in the fetus organs was much lower than that in the organs of the adult animals. The liver and kidneys of the pregnant animals, as well as the fetus though to a less extent had a capacity for metabolism of 14C-rifampicin. The following products of biotransformation were detected: N-oxide of rifampicin, 25-deacetylrifampicin, 3-formylrifamycin SV and rifamycin SV.

  3. Warm-Up Strategies for Sport and Exercise: Mechanisms and Applications.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Courtney J; Pyne, David B; Thompson, Kevin G; Rattray, Ben

    2015-11-01

    It is widely accepted that warming-up prior to exercise is vital for the attainment of optimum performance. Both passive and active warm-up can evoke temperature, metabolic, neural and psychology-related effects, including increased anaerobic metabolism, elevated oxygen uptake kinetics and post-activation potentiation. Passive warm-up can increase body temperature without depleting energy substrate stores, as occurs during the physical activity associated with active warm-up. While the use of passive warm-up alone is not commonplace, the idea of utilizing passive warming techniques to maintain elevated core and muscle temperature throughout the transition phase (the period between completion of the warm-up and the start of the event) is gaining in popularity. Active warm-up induces greater metabolic changes, leading to increased preparedness for a subsequent exercise task. Until recently, only modest scientific evidence was available supporting the effectiveness of pre-competition warm-ups, with early studies often containing relatively few participants and focusing mostly on physiological rather than performance-related changes. External issues faced by athletes pre-competition, including access to equipment and the length of the transition/marshalling phase, have also frequently been overlooked. Consequently, warm-up strategies have continued to develop largely on a trial-and-error basis, utilizing coach and athlete experiences rather than scientific evidence. However, over the past decade or so, new research has emerged, providing greater insight into how and why warm-up influences subsequent performance. This review identifies potential physiological mechanisms underpinning warm-ups and how they can affect subsequent exercise performance, and provides recommendations for warm-up strategy design for specific individual and team sports.

  4. Assessment of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model after Localized Brain Cooling in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Soo; Kwon, Mi Jung; Lee, Phil Hye; Ju, Young-Su; Yoon, Dae Young; Kim, Hye Jeong; Lee, Kwan Seop

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of localized brain cooling on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats, by using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. Materials and Methods Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each: control group, localized cold-saline (20℃) infusion group, and localized warm-saline (37℃) infusion group. The left middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded for 1 hour in anesthetized rats, followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. In the localized saline infusion group, 6 mL of cold or warm saline was infused through the hollow filament for 10 minutes after MCA occlusion. DCE-MRI investigations were performed after 3 hours and 24 hours of reperfusion. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the extended Tofts-Kety model were calculated for each DCE-MRI. In addition, rotarod testing was performed before tMCAO, and on days 1-9 after tMCAO. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) immunohisto-chemistry was performed to identify infiltrating neutrophils associated with the inflammatory response in the rat brain. Results Permeability parameters showed no statistical significance between cold and warm saline infusion groups after 3-hour reperfusion 0.09 ± 0.01 min-1 vs. 0.07 ± 0.02 min-1, p = 0.661 for Ktrans; 0.30 ± 0.05 min-1 vs. 0.37 ± 0.11 min-1, p = 0.394 for kep, respectively. Behavioral testing revealed no significant difference among the three groups. However, the percentage of MPO-positive cells in the cold-saline group was significantly lower than those in the control and warm-saline groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Localized brain cooling (20℃) does not confer a benefit to inhibit the increase in BBB permeability that follows transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in an animal model, as compared with localized warm-saline (37℃) infusion group. PMID:27587960

  5. Resistance and the control of lice on humans and production animals.

    PubMed

    Levot, G

    2000-03-01

    Phthiraptera (lice) are specialised insects adapted to parasitise many warm-blooded vertebrates, including domestic animals and humans. Often, attempts by the host to alleviate the irritation created by lice, causes derangement of the hair/fur coat. Unless treated, this derangement may cause economic losses due to hide damage and/or downgrading of wool/hair/fur. In 1981, application of aqueous insecticide solutions (dipping) for the control of sheep body lice (Bovicola ovis) was largely superseded by off-shears pyrethroid "pour-on" treatments. By 1985, several field failures with these products were found to be due to low-level (20x) insecticide resistance. In 1990, high-level (640x) resistance was diagnosed in a New South Wales population. However, despite 30+years use, organophosphate-based products are still usually effective. Until recently, cattle lice caused little concern. Treatments were applied mainly for aesthetic reasons when cattle were to be presented for sale, and also to prevent damage to fences by rubbing cattle. However, the introduction of quality-management programmes have raised awareness of the economic losses due to hide damage associated with lice infestations. Emerging industries such as emu and alpaca farming have raised the pest status of other louse species, and necessitated insecticidal intervention. In humans, attempts to control head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, infestations have repeatedly failed around the world.

  6. Effects of adenosine on intraocular pressure, optic nerve head blood flow, and choroidal blood flow in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Polska, Elzbieta; Ehrlich, Paulina; Luksch, Alexandra; Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, Gabriele; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2003-07-01

    There is evidence from a variety of animal studies that the adenosine system plays a role in the control of intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular blood flow. However, human data on the effect of adenosine on IOP and choroidal and optic nerve blood flow are not available. The effect of stepwise increases in doses of adenosine (10, 20, and 40 micro g/kg per minute, 30 minutes per infusion step) on optic nerve head blood flow, choroidal blood flow, and IOP was determined in a placebo-controlled double-masked clinical trial in 12 healthy male volunteers. Blood flow in the optic nerve head and choroid was measured with laser Doppler flowmetry. In addition, fundus pulsation amplitude in the macula (FPAM) and the optic nerve head (FPAO) were assessed with laser interferometry. Adenosine induced a small but significant decrease in IOP (at 40 microg/kg per minute: 12% +/- 13%), which was significant versus placebo (P = 0.046). In addition, adenosine induced a significant increase in choroidal blood flow (P < 0.001) and optic nerve head blood flow (P = 0.037), and FPAM (P = 0.0014) and tended to increase FPAO (P = 0.057). At the highest administered dose, the effect on choroidal hemodynamic parameters between 14% and 17%, whereas the effect on optic nerve hemodynamic parameters was between 3% and 11%. These data are consistent with adenosine inducing choroidal and optic nerve head vasodilatation and reducing IOP in healthy humans. Considering the neuroprotective properties of adenosine described in previous animal experiments the adenosine system is an attractive target system for therapeutic approaches in glaucoma.

  7. USDA ARS research on the screwworm fly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screwworm myiasis is devastating to warm blooded animals. Eradication of the screwworm from mainland North America using the sterile insect technique is an unprecedented achievement; reinvasion is prevented by maintenance of a barrier at the Panama – Colombia border. Here we update research progress...

  8. Research on Screwworms: male-only strains, Cryopreservation and reducing ammonia in mass rearing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screwworm myiasis is devastating to warm blooded animals. The eradication of screwworms from mainland North America using the sterile insect technique (SIT) is an unprecedented achievement; re-invasion is prevented by maintenance of a barrier at the Panama – Colombia border. Several potential advant...

  9. The screwworm eradication program: From an unlikely dream to an outstanding reality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was a devastating pest to all warm blooded animals in the United States and the rest of North America. Successful eradication of the screwworm was achieved by using the unique approach called the sterile insect technique. He...

  10. THE DETERMINATION OF PYRETHROID AND PRETHRIN INSECTICIDES IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethrins, and the more light stable synthetic pyrethroids, are insecticides that are effective against many pests. They have been used for many years and are relatively non-toxic to warm blooded animals. The residue analysis of pyrethrins and pyrethroids is of interest to the...

  11. PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli is a bacterial species which inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of man and warm-blooded animals. Because of the ubiquity of this bacterium in the intestinal flora, it serves as an important indicator organism of fecal contamination. E. coli, aside from serving a...

  12. Blood platelet counts, morphology and morphometry in lions, Panthera leo.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, L

    2009-09-01

    Due to logistical problems in obtaining sufficient blood samples from apparently healthy animals in the wild in order to establish normal haematological reference values, only limited information regarding the blood platelet count and morphology of free-living lions (Panthera leo) is available. This study provides information on platelet counts and describes their morphology with particular reference to size in two normal, healthy and free-ranging lion populations. Blood samples were collected from a total of 16 lions. Platelet counts, determined manually, ranged between 218 and 358 x 10(9)/l. Light microscopy showed mostly activated platelets of various sizes with prominent granules. At the ultrastructural level the platelets revealed typical mammalian platelet morphology. However, morphometric analysis revealed a significant difference (P < 0.001) in platelet size between the two groups of animals. Basic haematological information obtained in this study may be helpful in future comparative studies between animals of the same species as well as in other felids.

  13. Managing animal disease risk in Australia: the impact of climate change.

    PubMed

    Black, P F; Murray, J G; Nunn, M J

    2008-08-01

    Climate change is one of a number of factors that are likely to affect the future of Australian agriculture, animal production and animal health, particularly when associated with other factors such as environmental degradation, intensive animal production, an increasing human population, and expanding urbanisation. Notwithstanding the harshness and variability of Australia's climate, significant livestock industries have been developed, with the majority of products from such industries exported throughout the world. A critical factor in achieving market access has been an enviable animal health status, which is underpinned by first class animal health services with a strong legislative basis, well-trained staff, engagement of industry, effective surveillance, good scientific and laboratory support, effective emergency management procedures, a sound quarantine system, and strong political support. However, enhancements still need to be made to Australia's animal health system, for example: re-defining the science-policy interface; refining foresight, risk analysis, surveillance, diagnostics, and emergency management; improving approaches to education, training, technology transfer, communications and awareness; and engaging more with the international community in areas such as capacity building, the development of veterinary services, and disease response systems. A 'one health' approach will be adopted to bring together skills in the fields of animal, public, wildlife and environmental health. These initiatives, if managed correctly, will minimise the risks resulting from global warming and other factors predisposing to disease.

  14. Animal Models of Hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Sabatino, Denise E.; Nichols, Timothy C.; Merricks, Elizabeth; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Herzog, Roland W.; Monahan, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia is caused by mutations in coagulation factor VIII (hemophilia A) or factor IX (hemophilia B). Unless prophylactic treatment is provided, patients with severe disease (less than 1% clotting activity) typically experience frequent spontaneous bleeds. Current treatment is largely based on intravenous infusion of recombinant or plasma-derived coagulation factor concentrate. More effective factor products are being developed. Moreover, gene therapies for sustained correction of hemophilia are showing much promise in pre-clinical studies and in clinical trials. These advances in molecular medicine heavily depend on availability of well-characterized small and large animal models of hemophilia, primarily hemophilia mice and dogs. Experiments in these animals represent important early and intermediate steps of translational research aimed at development of better and safer treatments for hemophilia, such a protein and gene therapies or immune tolerance protocols. While murine models are excellent for studies of large groups of animals using genetically defined strains, canine models are important for testing scale-up and for longer-term follow-up as well as for studies that require larger blood volumes. PMID:22137432

  15. Warm-up before laparoscopic surgery is not essential.

    PubMed

    Weston, Maree K; Stephens, Jacqueline H; Schafer, Amy; Hewett, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that warming up prior to surgery may improve surgical performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether warming up prior to laparoscopic surgery improves surgical performance or reduces surgery duration. Between August 2011 and January 2012, a randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare two warm-up modalities to no warm-up. The study was conducted at a single site, with nine surgeons performing 72 laparoscopic cholecystectomies and 37 laparoscopic appendicectomies. Prior to surgery, surgeons were randomized to either laparoscopic trainer box warm-up, PlayStation 2 warm-up or no warm-up. The activity was performed within 30 min of surgery commencing. Patients provided informed consent for the surgery to be digitally recorded. Digital videodiscs (DVDs) were reviewed by an independent and blinded assessor. Data were collected on duration of surgery, level of training and perceived surgical difficulty. Surgical performance was graded using a validated scoring system. From the 109 operations performed, there were 75 usable DVDs. Overall, there were no statistical differences in the demographics of patients and surgeons in the three treatment groups, nor in the subset that had useable DVDs. There were no statistical differences in the duration of surgery or surgeon's perceived surgical difficulty. There was no statistical difference in surgical performance. This study suggests that warm-up prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy or appendicectomy is not essential, acknowledging that there are several study limitations that preclude definitive conclusion. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. Anthropogenic warming has increased drought risk in California.

    PubMed

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Swain, Daniel L; Touma, Danielle

    2015-03-31

    California is currently in the midst of a record-setting drought. The drought began in 2012 and now includes the lowest calendar-year and 12-mo precipitation, the highest annual temperature, and the most extreme drought indicators on record. The extremely warm and dry conditions have led to acute water shortages, groundwater overdraft, critically low streamflow, and enhanced wildfire risk. Analyzing historical climate observations from California, we find that precipitation deficits in California were more than twice as likely to yield drought years if they occurred when conditions were warm. We find that although there has not been a substantial change in the probability of either negative or moderately negative precipitation anomalies in recent decades, the occurrence of drought years has been greater in the past two decades than in the preceding century. In addition, the probability that precipitation deficits co-occur with warm conditions and the probability that precipitation deficits produce drought have both increased. Climate model experiments with and without anthropogenic forcings reveal that human activities have increased the probability that dry precipitation years are also warm. Further, a large ensemble of climate model realizations reveals that additional global warming over the next few decades is very likely to create ∼ 100% probability that any annual-scale dry period is also extremely warm. We therefore conclude that anthropogenic warming is increasing the probability of co-occurring warm-dry conditions like those that have created the acute human and ecosystem impacts associated with the "exceptional" 2012-2014 drought in California.

  17. Experimental whole-stream warming alters community size structure.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Daniel; Benstead, Jonathan P; Huryn, Alexander D; Cross, Wyatt F; Hood, James M; Johnson, Philip W; Junker, James R; Gíslason, Gísli M; Ólafsson, Jón S

    2017-07-01

    How ecological communities respond to predicted increases in temperature will determine the extent to which Earth's biodiversity and ecosystem functioning can be maintained into a warmer future. Warming is predicted to alter the structure of natural communities, but robust tests of such predictions require appropriate large-scale manipulations of intact, natural habitat that is open to dispersal processes via exchange with regional species pools. Here, we report results of a two-year whole-stream warming experiment that shifted invertebrate assemblage structure via unanticipated mechanisms, while still conforming to community-level metabolic theory. While warming by 3.8 °C decreased invertebrate abundance in the experimental stream by 60% relative to a reference stream, total invertebrate biomass was unchanged. Associated shifts in invertebrate assemblage structure were driven by the arrival of new taxa and a higher proportion of large, warm-adapted species (i.e., snails and predatory dipterans) relative to small-bodied, cold-adapted taxa (e.g., chironomids and oligochaetes). Experimental warming consequently shifted assemblage size spectra in ways that were unexpected, but consistent with thermal optima of taxa in the regional species pool. Higher temperatures increased community-level energy demand, which was presumably satisfied by higher primary production after warming. Our experiment demonstrates how warming reassembles communities within the constraints of energy supply via regional exchange of species that differ in thermal physiological traits. Similar responses will likely mediate impacts of anthropogenic warming on biodiversity and ecosystem function across all ecological communities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Noxious heat and scratching decrease histamine-induced itch and skin blood flow.

    PubMed

    Yosipovitch, Gil; Fast, Katharine; Bernhard, Jeffrey D

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of thermal stimuli or distal scratching on skin blood flow and histamine-induced itch in healthy volunteers. Twenty-one healthy volunteers participated in the study. Baseline measurements of skin blood flow were obtained on the flexor aspect of the forearm. These measurements were compared with skin blood flow after various stimuli: heating the skin, cooling the skin, noxious cold 2 degrees C, noxious heat 49 degrees C, and scratching via a brush with controlled pressure. Afterwards histamine iontophoresis was performed and skin blood flow and itch intensity were measured immediately after the above-mentioned stimuli. Scratching reduced mean histamine-induced skin blood flow and itch intensity. Noxious heat pain increased basal skin blood flow but reduced histamine-induced maximal skin blood flow and itch intensity. Cold pain and cooling reduced itch intensity, but neither affected histamine-induced skin blood flow. Sub-noxious warming the skin did not affect the skin blood flow or itch intensity. These findings suggest that heat pain and scratching may inhibit itch through a neurogenic mechanism that also affects skin blood flow.

  19. Versions of the Waste Reduction Model (WARM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides a brief chronology of changes made to EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM), organized by WARM version number. The page includes brief summaries of changes and updates since the previous version.

  20. Versions of the Waste Reduction Model (WARM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-14

    This page provides a brief chronology of changes made to EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM), organized by WARM version number. The page includes brief summaries of changes and updates since the previous version.

  1. The recent warming of permafrost in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterkamp, T. E.

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports results of an experiment initiated in 1977 to determine the effects of climate on permafrost in Alaska. Permafrost observatories with boreholes were established along a north-south transect of Alaska in undisturbed permafrost terrain. The analysis and interpretation of annual temperature measurements in the boreholes and daily temperature measurements of the air, ground and permafrost surfaces made with automated temperature loggers are reported. Permafrost temperatures warmed along this transect coincident with a statewide warming of air temperatures that began in 1977. At two sites on the Arctic Coastal Plain, the warming was seasonal, greatest during "winter" months (October through May) and least during "summer" months (June through September). Permafrost temperatures peaked in the early 1980s and then decreased in response to slightly cooler air temperatures and thinner snow covers. Arctic sites began warming again typically about 1986 and Interior Alaska sites about 1988. Gulkana, the southernmost site, has been warming slowly since it was drilled in 1983. Air temperatures were relatively warm and snow covers were thicker-than-normal from the late 1980s into the late 1990s allowing permafrost temperatures to continue to warm. Temperatures at some sites leveled off or cooled slightly at the turn of the century. Two sites (Yukon River Bridge and Livengood) cooled during the period of observations. The magnitude of the total warming at the surface of the permafrost (through 2003) was 3 to 4 °C for the Arctic Coastal Plain, 1 to 2 °C for the Brooks Range including its northern and southern foothills, and 0.3 to 1 °C south of the Yukon River. While the data are sparse, permafrost is warming throughout the region north of the Brooks Range, southward along the transect from the Brooks Range to the Chugach Mountains (except for Yukon River and Livengood), in Interior Alaska throughout the Tanana River region, and in the region south of the

  2. [Assessment of efficiency of use of the developed supplement containing selenium on laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Bazhenova, B A; Aslaliev, A D; Danilov, M B; Badmaeva, T M; Vtorushina, I A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the effectiveness of wheat flour containing selenium in organic form. The organic form of trace element was achieved by transformation of selenium in selenium-methionine (Se-Met) at germination of wheat grains, moistened with a solution of sodium selenite. To determine the effectiveness of selenium- containing supplements experimental investigations were carried out on Long white rats with initial body weight 50 ± 2 g. The duration of the experiment was 30 days. The research model included four groups of animals: control group--animals were fed a complete vivarium diet; group 1--a model of selenium deficiency, which was achieved by feeding selenium-deficient food (grain growh in the Chita region of the Trans-Baikal Territory Zabaikalsky Krai); group 2--animals were administered selenium supplement in the form of enriched flour (0.025 µg Se per 50 g body weight of the animal) on the background of selenium-deficient diet; group 3--animals were treated with a high dose of selenium in the form of a solution of sodium selenite intragastrically through a tube (0.15 µg Se per 50 g body weight). Selenium-containing additive on the background of selenium-deficient diet had a positive impact on the appearance and behavior of animals, the body weight gain per head after 10 days in group 2 amounted to 47.9 g that was 4 fold larger than in rats of group 1. The study of selenium content showed that in the blood, liver, lungs and heart of rats treated with the additive on the background of selenium-deficient diet (group 2), selenium level did not differ from those in the control group and was within physiological norms. The experiment showed that selenium deficiency and rich in selenium rich diet has a significantly different effect on the studied parameters of oxidative-antioxidative status. The activity of blood glutathione peroxidase in animals of group 2 (did not differ from that in group 3) was almost 2 fold higher than in

  3. Incubation under climate warming affects learning ability and survival in hatchling lizards.

    PubMed

    Dayananda, Buddhi; Webb, Jonathan K

    2017-03-01

    Despite compelling evidence for substantial individual differences in cognitive performance, it is unclear whether cognitive ability influences fitness of wild animals. In many animals, environmental stressors experienced in utero can produce substantial variation in the cognitive abilities of offspring. In reptiles, incubation temperatures experienced by embryos can influence hatchling brain function and learning ability. Under climate warming, the eggs of some lizard species may experience higher temperatures, which could affect the cognitive abilities of hatchlings. Whether such changes in cognitive abilities influence the survival of hatchlings is unknown. To determine whether incubation-induced changes in spatial learning ability affect hatchling survival, we incubated velvet gecko, Amalosia lesueurii , eggs using two fluctuating temperature regimes to mimic current (cold) versus future (hot) nest temperatures. We measured the spatial learning ability of hatchlings from each treatment, and released individually marked animals at two field sites in southeastern Australia. Hatchlings from hot-incubated eggs were slower learners than hatchlings from cold-incubated eggs. Survival analyses revealed that hatchlings with higher learning scores had higher survival than hatchlings with poor learning scores. Our results show that incubation temperature affects spatial learning ability in hatchling lizards, and that such changes can influence the survival of hatchlings in the wild. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. The effects of core and peripheral warming methods on temperature and physiologic variables in injured children.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, L M; Gardner, M J; Lucke, J; Ford, H

    2001-04-01

    Injured children are at risk for thermoregulatory compromise, where temperature maintenance mechanisms are overwhelmed by severe injury, environmental exposure, and resuscitation measures. Adequate thermoregulation can be maintained, and heat loss can be prevented, by core (administration of warmed intravenous fluid) and peripheral (application of convective air warming) methods. It is not known which warming method is better to maintain thermoregulation and prevent heat loss in injured children during their trauma resuscitations. The purpose of this feasibility study was to compare the effects of core and peripheral warming measures on body temperature and physiologic changes in a small sample of injured children during their initial emergency department (ED) treatment. A prospective, randomized experimental design was used. Eight injured children aged 3 to 14 years (mean = 6.87, SD = 3.44 ) treated in the ED of Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh were enrolled. Physiologic responses (eg, heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, arterial oxygen saturation, core, peripheral temperatures) and level of consciousness were continuously measured and recorded every 5 minutes to detect early thermoregulatory compromise and to determine the child's response to warming. Data were collected throughout the resuscitation period, including transport to CT scan, the inpatient nursing unit, intensive care unit, operating room or discharge to home. Core warming was accomplished with the Hotline Fluid Warmer (Sims Level 1, Inc., Rockland, MA), and peripheral warming was accomplished with the Snuggle Warm Convective Warming System (Sins Level 1, Inc., Rockland, MA). Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups on age (t = -0.485, P = 0.645); weight (t = -0.005, P = 0.996); amount of prehospital intravenous (IV) fluid (t = 0314, P = 0.766); temperature on ED arrival (t = 0.287, P = 0

  5. Vertical structure of recent Arctic warming.

    PubMed

    Graversen, Rune G; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Tjernström, Michael; Källén, Erland; Svensson, Gunilla

    2008-01-03

    Near-surface warming in the Arctic has been almost twice as large as the global average over recent decades-a phenomenon that is known as the 'Arctic amplification'. The underlying causes of this temperature amplification remain uncertain. The reduction in snow and ice cover that has occurred over recent decades may have played a role. Climate model experiments indicate that when global temperature rises, Arctic snow and ice cover retreats, causing excessive polar warming. Reduction of the snow and ice cover causes albedo changes, and increased refreezing of sea ice during the cold season and decreases in sea-ice thickness both increase heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. Changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, as well as cloud cover, have also been proposed to cause Arctic temperature amplification. Here we examine the vertical structure of temperature change in the Arctic during the late twentieth century using reanalysis data. We find evidence for temperature amplification well above the surface. Snow and ice feedbacks cannot be the main cause of the warming aloft during the greater part of the year, because these feedbacks are expected to primarily affect temperatures in the lowermost part of the atmosphere, resulting in a pattern of warming that we only observe in spring. A significant proportion of the observed temperature amplification must therefore be explained by mechanisms that induce warming above the lowermost part of the atmosphere. We regress the Arctic temperature field on the atmospheric energy transport into the Arctic and find that, in the summer half-year, a significant proportion of the vertical structure of warming can be explained by changes in this variable. We conclude that changes in atmospheric heat transport may be an important cause of the recent Arctic temperature amplification.

  6. Cryopreservation of animal oocytes and embryos: Current progress and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Mandawala, A A; Harvey, S C; Roy, T K; Fowler, K E

    2016-10-15

    Cryopreservation describes techniques that permit freezing and subsequent warming of biological samples without loss of viability. The application of cryopreservation in assisted reproductive technology encompasses the freezing of gametes, embryos, and primordial germ cells. Whilst some protocols still rely on slow-freezing techniques, most now use vitrification, or ultra-rapid freezing, for both oocytes and embryos due to an associated decreased risk of damage caused by the lack of ice crystal formation, unlike in slow-freezing techniques. Vitrification has demonstrated its use in many applications, not only following IVF procedures in human embryology clinics but also following in vitro production of embryos in agriculturally important, or endangered animal species, before embryo transfer. Here, we review the various cryopreservation and vitrification technologies that are used in both humans and other animals and discuss the most recent innovations in vitrification with a particular emphasis on their applicability to animal embryology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  8. Singer and listener perception of vocal warm-up.

    PubMed

    Moorcroft, Lynda; Kenny, Dianna T

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated changes perceived by singers and listeners after the singers had vocally warmed up. The study used a repeated measures within-subject design to assess changes in vibrato quality from pre (nonwarmed-up voice) to post (warmed-up voice) test. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to assess singers' self-ratings pre- and posttest and intra- and interlistener rater reliability. Twelve classically trained female singers recorded and self-rated their performance of an eight bar solo before and after 25 minutes of vocal warm-up exercises. Six experienced listeners assessed the vocal samples for pre- to posttest differences in tone quality and for each singer's warm-up condition. Perceptual judgements were also compared with pre- to posttest changes in vibrato. All singers perceived significant changes in tone quality, psychophysiological factors, proprioceptive feedback and technical command. Significant pre- to posttest differences in tone quality and correct appraisal of the singer's warm-up condition from most of the listeners were only observed for singers who moderated extremely fast or extremely slow vibrato after warming up. The findings reveal the divide between listeners' and singers' perceptions of the warmed-up voice and highlight the importance of enhanced vibrato quality to listener perception of an improvement in vocal quality. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Revisiting CMB constraints on warm inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, Richa; Dasgupta, Arnab; Goswami, Gaurav; Prasad, Jayanti; Rangarajan, Raghavan

    2018-02-01

    We revisit the constraints that Planck 2015 temperature, polarization and lensing data impose on the parameters of warm inflation. To this end, we study warm inflation driven by a single scalar field with a quartic self interaction potential in the weak dissipative regime. We analyse the effect of the parameters of warm inflation, namely, the inflaton self coupling λ and the inflaton dissipation parameter QP on the CMB angular power spectrum. We constrain λ and QP for 50 and 60 number of e-foldings with the full Planck 2015 data (TT, TE, EE + lowP and lensing) by performing a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo analysis using the publicly available code CosmoMC and obtain the joint as well as marginalized distributions of those parameters. We present our results in the form of mean and 68 % confidence limits on the parameters and also highlight the degeneracy between λ and QP in our analysis. From this analysis we show how warm inflation parameters can be well constrained using the Planck 2015 data.

  10. Global warming in the public sphere.

    PubMed

    Corfee-Morlot, Jan; Maslin, Mark; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2007-11-15

    Although the science of global warming has been in place for several decades if not more, only in the last decade and a half has the issue moved clearly into the public sphere as a public policy issue and a political priority. To understand how and why this has occurred, it is essential to consider the history of the scientific theory of the greenhouse effect, the evidence that supports it and the mechanisms through which science interacts with lay publics and other elite actors, such as politicians, policymakers and business decision makers. This article reviews why and how climate change has moved from the bottom to the top of the international political agenda. It traces the scientific discovery of global warming, political and institutional developments to manage it as well as other socially mediated pathways for understanding and promoting global warming as an issue in the public sphere. The article also places this historical overview of global warming as a public issue into a conceptual framework for understanding relationships between society and nature with emphasis on the co-construction of knowledge.

  11. What to eat in a warming world: do increased temperatures necessitate hazardous duty pay?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, L. Embere; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary climate change affects nearly all biomes, causing shifts in animal distributions and resource availability. Changes in resource selection may allow individuals to offset climatic stress, thereby providing a mechanism for persistence amidst warming conditions. Whereas the role of predation risk in food choice has been studied broadly, the extent to which individuals respond to thermoregulatory risk by changing resource preferences is unclear. We addressed whether individuals compensated for temperature-related reductions in foraging time by altering forage preferences, using the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as a model species. We tested two hypotheses: (1) food-quality hypothesis—individuals exposed to temperature extremes should select higher-quality vegetation in return for accepting a physiologically riskier feeding situation; and (2) food-availability hypothesis—individuals exposed to temperature extremes should prioritize foraging quickly, thereby decreasing selection for higher-quality food. We quantified the composition and quality (% moisture, % nitrogen, and fiber content) of available and harvested vegetation, and deployed a network of temperature sensors to measure in situ conditions for 30 individuals, during July–Sept., 2015. Individuals exposed to more extreme daytime temperatures showed increased selection for high-nitrogen and for low-fiber vegetation, demonstrating strong support for the food-quality hypothesis. By contrast, pikas that experienced warmer conditions did not reduce selection for any of the three vegetation-quality metrics, as predicted by the food-availability hypothesis. By shifting resource-selection patterns, temperature-limited animals may be able to proximately buffer some of the negative effects associated with rapidly warming environments, provided that sufficient resources remain on the landscape.

  12. The increase in fat content in the warm-acclimated striped hamsters is associated with the down-regulated metabolic thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Song; Wen, Jing; Shi, Lu-Lu; Wang, Chun-Ming; Wang, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2016-11-01

    It has been well known that metabolic thermogenesis plays an important role in the thermoregulation of small mammals under different temperatures, while its role in fat accumulation is far from clear. In the present study, several physiological, hormonal, and biochemical measures indicative of metabolic thermogenesis were measured in the weaning striped hamsters after acclimated to a warm condition (30°C) for 1, 3 and 4months. The warm-acclimated groups significantly decreased energy intake, and simultaneously decreased nonshivering thermogenesis compared to those housed at 21°C. Body fat content increased by 29.9%, 22.1% and 19.6% in the hamsters acclimated to 1, 3 or 4months, respectively relative to their counterparts maintain at 21°C (P<0.05). The cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity of brain, liver, heart and skeletal muscle, and the ratio of serum tri-iodothyronine to thyroxine significantly decreased in warm-acclimated groups compared with 21°C group. COX activity and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA expression of brown adipose tissue (BAT) were significantly down-regulated under the warm conditions. COX activity of BAT, liver, heart and muscle were significantly negatively correlated with body fat content, and the correlation between UCP1 expression and body fat content tended to be negative. These findings suggest that the decrease in the energy spent on metabolic thermogenesis plays an important role in the fat accumulation. The attenuation of COX and UCP1-based BAT activity may be involved in body fat accumulation in animals under warm conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Resources for Students

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) can be used by students. The page includes a brief summary of uses of WARM for the audience and links to other resources.

  14. Tethered-restraint system for blood collection from ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.K.; Kieffer, V.A.; Sauber, J.S.

    The laboratory ferret, Mustela putorius furo, recently has come into prominence as a laboratory animal for use in biomedical research. This laboratory has adopted the use of this species because the ferret's emetic response to radiation occurs at a lower dose and has a more rapid onset than that of dogs. One approach for determining the physiological basis of this response is to measure serum levels of various circulating substances before and after irradiation. However, blood collection from the ferret can be difficult because the lack of easily accessible veins and seasonal accumulation of subcutaneous body fat. This report describesmore » a method of tethered-restraint for the ferret in which an in-dwelling venous jugular catheter is implanted for withdrawing blood samples. No interference with the animal's normal activities occurs during the sampling procedure. Each animal is conditioned to the tethered-restraint prior to surgical placement of the catheter. The technique provides a minimally stressful method of restraint. A similar tethering system has been used successfully on several other animal species, such as non-human primates and rats.« less

  15. Plausible rice yield losses under future climate warming.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chuang; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Xuhui; Huang, Yao; Ciais, Philippe; Elliott, Joshua; Huang, Mengtian; Janssens, Ivan A; Li, Tao; Lian, Xu; Liu, Yongwen; Müller, Christoph; Peng, Shushi; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-12-19

    Rice is the staple food for more than 50% of the world's population 1-3 . Reliable prediction of changes in rice yield is thus central for maintaining global food security. This is an extraordinary challenge. Here, we compare the sensitivity of rice yield to temperature increase derived from field warming experiments and three modelling approaches: statistical models, local crop models and global gridded crop models. Field warming experiments produce a substantial rice yield loss under warming, with an average temperature sensitivity of -5.2 ± 1.4% K -1 . Local crop models give a similar sensitivity (-6.3 ± 0.4% K -1 ), but statistical and global gridded crop models both suggest less negative impacts of warming on yields (-0.8 ± 0.3% and -2.4 ± 3.7% K -1 , respectively). Using data from field warming experiments, we further propose a conditional probability approach to constrain the large range of global gridded crop model results for the future yield changes in response to warming by the end of the century (from -1.3% to -9.3% K -1 ). The constraint implies a more negative response to warming (-8.3 ± 1.4% K -1 ) and reduces the spread of the model ensemble by 33%. This yield reduction exceeds that estimated by the International Food Policy Research Institute assessment (-4.2 to -6.4% K -1 ) (ref. 4). Our study suggests that without CO 2 fertilization, effective adaptation and genetic improvement, severe rice yield losses are plausible under intensive climate warming scenarios.

  16. Unabated global surface temperature warming: evaluating the evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T. R.; Arguez, A.

    2015-12-01

    New insights related to time-dependent bias corrections in global surface temperatures have led to higher rates of warming over the past few decades than previously reported in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (2014). Record high global temperatures in the past few years have also contributed to larger trends. The combination of these factors and new analyses of the rate of temperature change show unabated global warming since at least the mid-Twentieth Century. New time-dependent bias corrections account for: (1) differences in temperatures measured from ships and drifting buoys; (2) improved corrections to ship measured temperatures; and (3) the larger rates of warming in polar regions (particularly the Arctic). Since 1951, the period over which IPCC (2014) attributes over half of the observed global warming to human causes, it is shown that there has been a remarkably robust and sustained warming, punctuated with inter-annual and decadal variability. This finding is confirmed through simple trend analysis and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). Trend analysis however, especially for decadal trends, is sensitive to selection bias of beginning and ending dates. EMD has no selection bias. Additionally, it can highlight both short- and long-term processes affecting the global temperature times series since it addresses both non-linear and non-stationary processes. For the new NOAA global temperature data set, our analyses do not support the notion of a hiatus or slowing of long-term global warming. However, sub-decadal periods of little (or no warming) and rapid warming can also be found, clearly showing the impact of inter-annual and decadal variability that previously has been attributed to both natural and human-induced non-greenhouse forcings.

  17. Global lake response to the recent warming hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, Luke A.; Leach, Taylor H.; Rose, Kevin C.

    2018-05-01

    Understanding temporal variability in lake warming rates over decadal scales is important for understanding observed change in aquatic systems. We analyzed a global dataset of lake surface water temperature observations (1985‑2009) to examine how lake temperatures responded to a recent global air temperature warming hiatus (1998‑2012). Prior to the hiatus (1985‑1998), surface water temperatures significantly increased at an average rate of 0.532 °C decade‑1 (±0.214). In contrast, water temperatures did not change significantly during the hiatus (average rate ‑0.087 °C decade‑1 ±0.223). Overall, 83% of lakes in our dataset (129 of 155) had faster warming rates during the pre-hiatus period than during the hiatus period. These results demonstrate that lakes have exhibited decadal-scale variability in warming rates coherent with global air temperatures and represent an independent line of evidence for the recent warming hiatus. Our analyses provide evidence that lakes are sentinels of broader climatological processes and indicate that warming rates based on datasets where a large proportion of observations were collected during the hiatus period may underestimate longer-term trends.

  18. Regional seasonal warming anomalies and land-surface feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Significant seasonal variations in warming are projected in some regions, especially central Europe, the southeastern U.S., and central South America. Europe in particular may experience up to 2°C more warming during June, July, and August than in the annual mean, enhancing the risk of extreme summertime heat. Previous research has shown that heat waves in Europe and other regions are tied to seasonal soil moisture variations, and that in general land-surface feedbacks have a strong effect on seasonal temperature anomalies. In this study, we show that the seasonal anomalies in warming are also due in part to land-surface feedbacks. We find that in regions with amplified warming during the hot season, surface soil moisture levels generally decline and Bowen ratios increase as a result of a preferential partitioning of incoming energy into sensible vs. latent. The CMIP5 model suite shows significant variability in the strength of land-atmosphere coupling and in projections of future precipitation and soil moisture. Due to the dependence of seasonal warming on land-surface processes, these inter-model variations influence the projected summertime warming amplification and contribute to the uncertainty in projections of future extreme heat.

  19. Comparison of Distal Limb Warming With Fluidotherapy and Warm Water Immersion for Mild Hypothermia Rewarming.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Parveen; McDonald, Gerren K; Chitkara, Radhika; Steinman, Alan M; Gardiner, Phillip F; Giesbrecht, Gordon G

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of Fluidotherapy rewarming through the distal extremities for mildly hypothermic, vigorously shivering subjects. Fluidotherapy is a dry heat modality in which cellulose particles are suspended by warm air circulation. Seven subjects (2 female) were cooled on 3 occasions in 8˚C water for 60 minutes, or to a core temperature of 35°C. They were then dried and rewarmed in a seated position by 1) shivering only; 2) Fluidotherapy applied to the distal extremities (46 ± 1°C, mean ± SD); or 3) water immersion of the distal extremities (44 ± 1°C). The order of rewarming followed a balanced design. Esophageal temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, oxygen consumption, and heat flux were measured. The warm water produced the highest rewarming rate, 6.1°C·h(-1), 95% CI: 5.3-6.9, compared with Fluidotherapy, 2.2°C·h(-1), 95% CI: 1.4-3.0, and shivering only, 2.0°C·h(-1), 95% CI: 1.2-2.8. The Fluidotherapy and warm water conditions increased skin temperature and inhibited shivering heat production, thus reducing metabolic heat production (166 ± 42 W and 181 ± 45 W, respectively), compared with shivering only (322 ± 142 W). Warm water provided a significantly higher net heat gain (398.0 ± 52 W) than shivering only (288.4 ± 115 W). Fluidotherapy was not as effective as warm water for rewarming mildly hypothermic subjects. Although Fluidotherapy is more portable and technically simpler, it provides a lower rate of rewarming that is similar to shivering only. It does help decrease shivering heat production, lowering energy expenditure and cardiac work, and could be considered in a hospital setting, if convenient. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Documentation for the Waste Reduction Model (WARM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes the WARM documentation files and provides links to all documentation files associated with EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The page includes a brief summary of the chapters documenting the greenhouse gas emission and energy factors.

  1. Reconciling Warming Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew T.; Tsigaridis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Climate models projected stronger warming over the past 15 years than has been seen in observations. Conspiring factors of errors in volcanic and solar inputs, representations of aerosols, and El NiNo evolution, may explain most of the discrepancy.

  2. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of the modified agglutination test and bioassay for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals worldwide. Serological tests, including the modified agglutination test (MAT), are often used to determine exposure to the parasite. The MAT can be used for all hosts because it does not need species-specific reagents and has been shown to...

  3. All about neosporosis in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite with canids as the definitive hosts and many warm blooded animals as intermediate hosts. Until late 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii when it was named and distinguished from T. gondii. Although these parasites are structurally similar they are b...

  4. Toxoplasma gondii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasma gondii is perhaps the most widespread protozoan parasite affecting humans with an estimated 1-2 billion of the world’s population currently infected. T. gondii, which is the only species of this genus, also infects virtually all warm blooded animals including humans, livestock, birds, an...

  5. Host mitochondrial association evolved in the human parasite Toxoplasma gondii via neofunctionalization of a gene duplicate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite of humans and other warm-blooded animals, the ability to associate with host mitochondria (HMA) is driven by a locally expanded gene family that encodes multiple mitochondrial association factor 1 (MAF1) proteins. The importance of copy number in the e...

  6. Toxoplasma gondii infection in llama (Llama glama): acute visceral disseminated lesions, diagnosis, and development of tissue cysts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clinical toxoplasmosis has been reported in many species of warm-blooded animals, but is rare in camelids. Here we report acute fatal systemic toxoplasmosis involving heart, thyroid gland, stomach, intestine, diaphragm, adrenal glands, and liver of a 13-mo-old llama (Llama glama). Many Toxoplasma go...

  7. Characterizing biological variability in livestock blood cholinesterase activity for biomonitoring organophosphate nerve agent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Shugart, L.R.; Watson, A.P.

    1992-09-01

    A biomonitoring protocol, using blood cholinesterase (ChE) activity in livestock as a monitor of potential organophosphate nerve agent exposure during the planned destruction of US unitary chemical warfare agent stockpiles, is described. The experimental design included analysis of blood ChE activity in individual healthy sheep, horses, and dairy and beef cattle during a 10- to 12-month period. Castrated and sexually intact males, pregnant and lactating females, and adult and immature animals were examined through at least one reproductive cycle. The same animals were used throughout the period of observation and were not exposed to ChE-inhibiting organophosphate or carbamate compounds. Amore » framework for an effective biomonitoring protocol within a monitoring area includes establishing individual baseline blood ChE activity for a sentinel group of 6 animals on the bases of blood samples collected over a 6-month period, monthly collection of blood samples for ChE-activity determination during monitoring, and selection of adult animals as sentinels. Exposure to ChE-inhibiting compounds would be suspected when all blood ChE activity of all animals within the sentinel group are decreased greater than 20% from their own baseline value. Sentinel species selection is primarily a logistical and operational concern; however, sheep appear to be the species of choice because within-individual baseline ChE activity and among age and gender group ChE activity in sheep had the least variability, compared with data from other species. This protocol provides an effective and efficient means for detecting abnormal depressions in blood ChE activity in livestock and can serve as a valuable indicator of the extent of actual plume movement and/or deposition in the event of organophosphate nerve agent release.« less

  8. ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER : VII. DEMONSTRATION OF LEPTOSPIRA ICTEROIDES IN THE BLOOD, TISSUES, AND URINE OF YELLOW FEVER PATIENTS AND OF ANIMALS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH THE ORGANISM.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H

    1919-08-01

    Examinations of fresh blood from yellow fever patients by means of the dark-field microscope, made in more than twenty-seven cases, revealed in three cases the presence of Leptospira icteroides. In no instance was a large number of organisms found, a long search being required before one was encountered. The injection of the blood into guinea pigs from two of the three positive cases induced in the animals a fatal infection, while the blood from the third positive case failed to infect the guinea pigs fatally. Careful but by no means exhaustive dark-field searches for the leptospira with fresh specimens of blood from the remaining cases of yellow fever ended without positive findings, although four of the specimens, when injected into guinea pigs, caused a fatal leptospira infection. Stained blood film preparations from the corresponding cases were also examined, but the percentage showing the leptospira in the blood was no greater than that found by examination in the fresh state with the dark-field microscope. In fact, owing to the defective stains that were available at the time of the investigation a great many slides did not take the proper coloration with Giemsa's or Wright's stain and could not be relied upon. Regarding the presence of Leptospira icteroides in various organs both dark-field and stained films were examined. In only one instance so far a few organisms were detected in the emulsion of liver taken shortly after death from a case dying on the 4th day of yellow fever. This part of the work will be reported later upon completion. Examinations of the urine from different cases of yellow fever were made both by dark-field microscope and by inoculation into guinea pigs. The results were totally negative in thirteen cases, including many convalescents, but in one case one of the guinea pigs inoculated with 10 cc. of the urine came down on the 15th day with suggestive symptoms (suspicion of jaundice, and some hemorrhagic and parenchymatous lesions of

  9. Quantitative blood flow measurements in the small animal cardiopulmonary system using digital subtraction angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Mingde; Marshall, Craig T.; Qi, Yi

    Purpose: The use of preclinical rodent models of disease continues to grow because these models help elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and provide robust test beds for drug development. Among the major anatomic and physiologic indicators of disease progression and genetic or drug modification of responses are measurements of blood vessel caliber and flow. Moreover, cardiopulmonary blood flow is a critical indicator of gas exchange. Current methods of measuring cardiopulmonary blood flow suffer from some or all of the following limitations--they produce relative values, are limited to global measurements, do not provide vasculature visualization, are not able to measure acute changes, aremore » invasive, or require euthanasia. Methods: In this study, high-spatial and high-temporal resolution x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used to obtain vasculature visualization, quantitative blood flow in absolute metrics (ml/min instead of arbitrary units or velocity), and relative blood volume dynamics from discrete regions of interest on a pixel-by-pixel basis (100x100 {mu}m{sup 2}). Results: A series of calibrations linked the DSA flow measurements to standard physiological measurement using thermodilution and Fick's method for cardiac output (CO), which in eight anesthetized Fischer-344 rats was found to be 37.0{+-}5.1 ml/min. Phantom experiments were conducted to calibrate the radiographic density to vessel thickness, allowing a link of DSA cardiac output measurements to cardiopulmonary blood flow measurements in discrete regions of interest. The scaling factor linking relative DSA cardiac output measurements to the Fick's absolute measurements was found to be 18.90xCO{sub DSA}=CO{sub Fick}. Conclusions: This calibrated DSA approach allows repeated simultaneous visualization of vasculature and measurement of blood flow dynamics on a regional level in the living rat.« less

  10. Decadal-scale progression of Dansgaard-Oeschger warming events - Are warmings at the end of Heinrich-Stadials different from others?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhardt, T.; Capron, E.; Rasmussen, S.; Schuepbach, S.; Bigler, M.; Fischer, H.

    2017-12-01

    During the last glacial period proxy records throughout the Northern Hemisphere document a succession of rapid millennial-scale warming events, called Dansgaard Oeschger (DO) events. Marine proxy records from the Atlantic also reveal, that some of the warming events where preceded by large ice rafting events, referred to as Heinrich events. Different mechanisms have been proposed, that can produce DO-like warming in model experiments, however the progression and plausible trigger of the events and their possible interplay with the Heinrich events is still unknown. Because of their fast nature, the progression is challenging to reconstruct from paleoclimate data due to the temporal resolution achievable in many archives and cross-dating uncertainties between records. We use new high-resolution multi-proxy records of sea-salt and terrestrial aerosol concentrations over the period 10-60 ka from two Greenland deep ice cores in conjunction with local precipitation and temperature proxy records from one of the cores to investigate the progression of environmental changes at the onset of the individual warming events. The timing differences are then used to explore whether the DO warming events that terminate Heinrich-Stadials progressed differently in comparison to those after Non-Heinrich-Stadials. Our analysis indicates no difference in the progression of the warming terminating Heinrich-Stadials and Non-Heinrich-Stadials. Combining the evidence from all warming events in the period, our analysis shows a consistent lead of the changes in both local precipitation and terrestrial dust aerosol concentrations over the change in sea-salt aerosol concentrations and local temperature by approximately one decade. This implies that both the moisture transport to Greenland and the intensity of the Asian winter monsoon changed before the sea-ice cover in the North Atlantic was reduced, rendering a collapse of the sea-ice cover as a trigger for the DO events unlikely.

  11. Continental warming preceding the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum.

    PubMed

    Secord, Ross; Gingerich, Philip D; Lohmann, Kyger C; Macleod, Kenneth G

    2010-10-21

    Marine and continental records show an abrupt negative shift in carbon isotope values at ∼55.8 Myr ago. This carbon isotope excursion (CIE) is consistent with the release of a massive amount of isotopically light carbon into the atmosphere and was associated with a dramatic rise in global temperatures termed the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). Greenhouse gases released during the CIE, probably including methane, have often been considered the main cause of PETM warming. However, some evidence from the marine record suggests that warming directly preceded the CIE, raising the possibility that the CIE and PETM may have been linked to earlier warming with different origins. Yet pre-CIE warming is still uncertain. Disentangling the sequence of events before and during the CIE and PETM is important for understanding the causes of, and Earth system responses to, abrupt climate change. Here we show that continental warming of about 5 °C preceded the CIE in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. Our evidence, based on oxygen isotopes in mammal teeth (which reflect temperature-sensitive fractionation processes) and other proxies, reveals a marked temperature increase directly below the CIE, and again in the CIE. Pre-CIE warming is also supported by a negative amplification of δ(13)C values in soil carbonates below the CIE. Our results suggest that at least two sources of warming-the earlier of which is unlikely to have been methane-contributed to the PETM.

  12. Comparison of two passive warming devices for prevention of perioperative hypothermia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Potter, J; Murrell, J; MacFarlane, P

    2015-09-01

    To compare effects of two passive warming methods combined with a resistive heating mat on perioperative hypothermia in dogs. Fifty-two dogs were enrolled and randomly allocated to receive a reflective blanket (Blizzard Blanket) or a fabric blanket (VetBed). In addition, in the operating room all dogs were placed onto a table with a resistive heating mat covered with a fabric blanket. Rectal temperature measurements were taken at defined points. Statistical analysis was performed comparing all Blizzard Blanket-treated to all VetBed-treated dogs, and VetBed versus Blizzard Blanket dogs within spay and castrate groups, spay versus castrate groups and within groups less than 10 kg or more than 10 kg bodyweight. Data from 39 dogs were used for analysis. All dogs showed a reduction in perioperative rectal temperature. There were no detected statistical differences between treatments or between the different groups. This study supports previous data on prevalence of hypothermia during surgery. The combination of active and passive warming methods used in this study prevented the development of severe hypothermia, but there were no differences between treatment groups. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. Warming of Water in a Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulins, Paulis; Krauze, Armands; Ozolinsh, Maris; Muiznieks, Andris

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the process of water warming from 0 °C in a glass. An experiment is performed that analyzes the temperature in the top and bottom layers of water during warming. The experimental equipment is very simple and can be easily set up using devices available in schools. The temperature curves obtained from the experiment help us…

  14. A randomised single blinded study of the administration of pre-warmed fluid vs active fluid warming on the incidence of peri-operative hypothermia in short surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Andrzejowski, J C; Turnbull, D; Nandakumar, A; Gowthaman, S; Eapen, G

    2010-09-01

    We compared the effect of delivering fluid warmed using two methods in 76 adult patients having short duration surgery. All patients received a litre of crystalloid delivered either at room temperature, warmed using an in-line warming device or pre-warmed in a warming cabinet for at least 8 h. The tympanic temperature of those receiving fluid at room temperature was 0.4 °C lower on arrival in recovery when compared with those receiving fluid from a warming cabinet (p = 0.008). Core temperature was below the hypothermic threshold of 36.0 °C in seven (14%) patients receiving either type of warm fluid, compared to eight (32%) patients receiving fluid at room temperature (p = 0.03). The administration of 1 l warmed fluid to patients having short duration general anaesthesia results in higher postoperative temperatures. Pre-warmed fluid, administered within 30 min of its removal from a warming cabinet, is as efficient at preventing peri-operative hypothermia as that delivered through an in-line warming system. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Effects of postural changes and removal of vestibular inputs on blood flow to and from the hindlimb of conscious felines

    PubMed Central

    Yavorcik, K. J.; Reighard, D. A.; Misra, S. P.; Cotter, L. A.; Cass, S. P.; Wilson, T. D.

    2009-01-01

    Considerable data show that the vestibular system contributes to blood pressure regulation. Prior studies reported that lesions that eliminate inputs from the inner ears attenuate the vasoconstriction that ordinarily occurs in the hindlimbs of conscious cats during head-up rotations. These data led to the hypothesis that labyrinthine-deficient animals would experience considerable lower body blood pooling during head-up postural alterations. The present study tested this hypothesis by comparing blood flow though the femoral artery and vein of conscious cats during 20–60° head-up tilts from the prone position before and after removal of vestibular inputs. In vestibular-intact animals, venous return from the hindlimb dropped considerably at the onset of head-up tilts and, at 5 s after the initiation of 60° rotations, was 66% lower than when the animals were prone. However, after the animals were maintained in the head-up position for another 15 s, venous return was just 33% lower than before the tilt commenced. At the same time point, arterial inflow to the limb had decreased 32% from baseline, such that the decrease in blood flow out of the limb due to the force of gravity was precisely matched by a reduction in blood reaching the limb. After vestibular lesions, the decline in femoral artery blood flow that ordinarily occurs during head-up tilts was attenuated, such that more blood flowed into the leg. Contrary to expectations, in most animals, venous return was facilitated, such that no more blood accumulated in the hindlimb than when labyrinthine signals were present. These data show that peripheral blood pooling is unlikely to account for the fluctuations in blood pressure that can occur during postural changes of animals lacking inputs from the inner ear. Instead, alterations in total peripheral resistance following vestibular dysfunction could affect the regulation of blood pressure. PMID:19793952

  16. Relationships between extraction and metabolism of glucose, blood flow, and tissue blood volume in regions of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Cremer, J E; Cunningham, V J; Seville, M P

    1983-09-01

    Studies were made on the relationships between the rate of glucose metabolism, the transport of glucose between plasma and brain, cerebral blood flow, and blood content. Conscious control rats were compared with rats with intense tremors induced with cismethrin. The influence of plasma glucose concentration was studied by fasting some animals overnight prior to the induction of tremors. Mean plasma glucose was 8.83 mM in controls, 12.57 mM in fed rats with tremors, and 4.94 mM in rats fasted overnight prior to induction of tremors. Of 12 brain regions studied, nine showed an increased rate of glucose utilization in both fed and fasted trembling rats. Cerebellum had the highest percentage increase (200%). Rates of unidirectional glucose influx in fed trembling rats were significantly greater than those in controls in eight regions. In fasted animals, rates were the same as in controls, except in cerebellum, where it was 1.6 times higher. These high rates of glucose influx at low plasma glucose concentrations were indicative of a change in kinetic parameters of glucose transport. Unidirectional glucose influx rates were transformed to estimates of maximal transport rates (Tmax), based on the Michaelis-Menten equation. Average plasma glucose concentrations in regional capillaries (c) were calculated and shown to be maintained at values close to arterial plasma glucose concentrations (Ca), in all brain regions of each group. In trembling rats, Tmax for each brain region was higher than that in controls. In fasted rats with tremors, Tmax was higher in several brain regions than in fed rats. Tmax in cerebellum was 3.37, 4.71, and 7.89 mumol g-1 min-1 in control, fed trembling, and fasted trembling rats, respectively. Blood flow increased significantly in all regions in rats with tremors and was higher in fasted than in fed animals. There was only a weak correlation between blood flow and Tmax. Blood content of several regions increased in rats with tremors, and there was

  17. Mouse cloning using a drop of peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Satoshi; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Hirose, Michiko; Oikawa, Mami; Yo, Masahiro; Ohara, Osamu; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Atsuo

    2013-08-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a unique technology that produces cloned animals from single cells. It is desirable from a practical viewpoint that donor cells can be collected noninvasively and used readily for nuclear transfer. The present study was undertaken to determine whether peripheral blood cells freshly collected from living mice could be used for SCNT. We collected a drop of peripheral blood (15-45 μl) from the tail of a donor. A nucleated cell (leukocyte) suspension was prepared by lysing the red blood cells. Following SCNT using randomly selected leukocyte nuclei, cloned offspring were born at a 2.8% birth rate. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that granulocytes/monocytes and lymphocytes could be roughly distinguished by their sizes, the former being significantly larger. We then cloned putative granulocytes/monocytes and lymphocytes separately and obtained 2.1% and 1.7% birth rates, respectively (P > 0.05). Because the use of lymphocyte nuclei inevitably results in the birth of offspring with DNA rearrangements, we applied granulocyte/monocyte cloning to two genetically modified strains and two recombinant inbred strains. Normal-looking offspring were obtained from all four strains tested. The present study clearly indicated that genetic copies of mice could be produced using a drop of peripheral blood from living donors. This strategy will be applied to the rescue of infertile founder animals or a "last-of-line" animal possessing invaluable genetic resources.

  18. Repetitive mammalian dwarfing during ancient greenhouse warming events

    PubMed Central

    D’Ambrosia, Abigail R.; Clyde, William C.; Fricke, Henry C.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Abels, Hemmo A.

    2017-01-01

    Abrupt perturbations of the global carbon cycle during the early Eocene are associated with rapid global warming events, which are analogous in many ways to present greenhouse warming. Mammal dwarfing has been observed, along with other changes in community structure, during the largest of these ancient global warming events, known as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum [PETM; ~56 million years ago (Ma)]. We show that mammalian dwarfing accompanied the subsequent, smaller-magnitude warming event known as Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 [ETM2 (~53 Ma)]. Statistically significant decrease in body size during ETM2 is observed in two of four taxonomic groups analyzed in this study and is most clearly observed in early equids (horses). During ETM2, the best-sampled lineage of equids decreased in size by ~14%, as opposed to ~30% during the PETM. Thus, dwarfing appears to be a common evolutionary response of some mammals during past global warming events, and the extent of dwarfing seems related to the magnitude of the event. PMID:28345031

  19. Amino Acids That Centrally Influence Blood Pressure and Regional Blood Flow in Conscious Rats

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Yumi

    2012-01-01

    Functional roles of amino acids have increasingly become the focus of research. This paper summarizes amino acids that influence cardiovascular system via the brain of conscious rats. This paper firstly describes why amino acids are selected and outlines how the brain regulates blood pressure and regional blood flow. This section includes a concise history of amino acid neurotransmitters in cardiovascular research and summarizes brain areas where chemical stimulations produce blood pressure changes mainly in anesthetized animals. This is followed by comments about findings regarding several newly examined amino acids with intracisternal stimulation in conscious rats that produce changes in blood pressure. The same pressor or depressor response to central amino acid stimulations can be produced by distinct mechanisms at central and peripheral levels, which will be briefly explained. Thereafter, cardiovascular actions of some of amino acids at the mechanism level will be discussed based upon findings of pharmacological and regional blood flow measurements. Several examined amino acids in addition to the established neurotransmitter amino acids appear to differentially activate brain structures to produce changes in blood pressure and regional blood flows. They may have physiological roles in the healthy brain, but pathological roles in the brain with cerebral vascular diseases such as stroke where the blood-brain barrier is broken. PMID:22690328

  20. A comprehensive porcine blood transcriptome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blood sample analyses are extensively used in high throughput assays in biomedicine, as well as animal genetics and physiology research. However, the draft quality of the current pig genome (Sscrofa 10.2) is insufficient for accurate interpretation of many of these assays because of incomplete gene ...

  1. Recent climate extremes associated with the West Pacific Warming Mode

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Chris; Hoell, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Here we analyze empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of observations and a 30 member ensemble of Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) simulations, and suggest that precipitation declines in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) and the northern Middle East/Southwestern Asia (NME/SWE: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Syria, Saudi Arabia north of 25°N, Israel, Jordan, and Lebanon) may be interpreted as an interaction between La Niña-like decadal variability and the West Pacific Warming Mode (WPWM). While they exhibit different SST patterns, warming of the Pacific cold tongue (ENSO) and warming of the western Pacific (WPWM) produce similar warm pool diabatic forcing, Walker circulation anomalies, and terrestrial teleconnections. CESM1 SST EOFs indicate that both La Niña-like WPWM warming and El Niño-like east Pacific warming will be produced by climate change. The temporal frequency of these changes, however, are distinct. WPWM varies decadally, while ENSO is dominated by interannual variability. Future WPWM and ENSO warming may manifest as a tendency toward warm West Pacific SST, punctuated by extreme warm East Pacific events. WPWM EOFs from Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) precipitation also identify dramatic WPWM-related declines in the Greater Horn of Africa and NME/SWE.

  2. Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2009-04-01

    Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

  3. Retinal Oxygen: from animals to humans

    PubMed Central

    Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Zhang, Hao F.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses retinal oxygenation and retinal metabolism by focusing on measurements made with two of the principal methods used to study O2 in the retina: measurements of PO2 with oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes in vivo in animals with a retinal circulation similar to that of humans, and oximetry, which can be used non-invasively in both animals and humans to measure O2 concentration in retinal vessels. Microelectrodes uniquely have high spatial resolution, allowing the mapping of PO2 in detail, and when combined with mathematical models of diffusion and consumption, they provide information about retinal metabolism. Mathematical models, grounded in experiments, can also be used to simulate situations that are not amenable to experimental study. New methods of oximetry, particularly photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and visible light optical coherence tomography, provide depth-resolved methods that can separate signals from blood vessels and surrounding tissues, and can be combined with blood flow measures to determine metabolic rate. We discuss the effects on retinal oxygenation of illumination, hypoxia and hyperoxia, and describe retinal oxygenation in diabetes, retinal detachment, arterial occlusion, and macular degeneration. We explain how the metabolic measurements obtained from microelectrodes and imaging are different, and how they need to be brought together in the future. Finally, we argue for revisiting the clinical use of hyperoxia in ophthalmology, particularly in retinal arterial occlusions and retinal detachment, based on animal research and diffusion theory. PMID:28109737

  4. Reconciling controversies about the ‘global warming hiatus’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhaug, Isel