Science.gov

Sample records for warming numerous environmental

  1. Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzatenta, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author…

  2. Environmental refugees in a globally warmed world

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, N.

    1993-12-01

    This paper examines the complex problem of environmental refugees as among the most serious of all the effects of global warming. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption from drought, soil erosion and desertification are factors now and in the future in creating a group of environmental refugees. Estimates are that at least 10 million such refugees exist today. A preliminary analysis is presented here as a first attempt to understand the full character and extent of the problem. Countries with large delta and coastal areas and large populations are at particular risk from sea-level rise of as little as .5 - 1 meter, compounded by storm surge and salt water intrusions. Bangladesh, Egypt, China, and India are discussed in detail along with Island states at risk. Other global warming effects such as shifts in monsoon systems and severe and persistent droughts make agriculture particularly vulnerable. Lack of soil moisture is during the growing season will probably be the primary problem. Additional and compounding environmental problems are discussed, and an overview of the economic, sociocultural and political consequences is given. 96 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Numerical Modeling and Optimization of Warm-water Heat Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Yaser; Chiarot, Paul

    2015-11-01

    For cooling in large data-centers and supercomputers, water is increasingly replacing air as the working fluid in heat sinks. Utilizing water provides unique capabilities; for example: higher heat capacity, Prandtl number, and convection heat transfer coefficient. The use of warm, rather than chilled, water has the potential to provide increased energy efficiency. The geometric and operating parameters of the heat sink govern its performance. Numerical modeling is used to examine the influence of geometry and operating conditions on key metrics such as thermal and flow resistance. This model also facilitates studies on cooling of electronic chip hot spots and failure scenarios. We report on the optimal parameters for a warm-water heat sink to achieve maximum cooling performance.

  4. Environmental colonialism Leadership and global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-16

    The vast majority of the world's scientific community believes there is global warming and that it is global problem requiring international cooperation. But policy makers in industrialized countries are at a crossroads:Listen to the skeptics, who demand more proof and who fear economic consequences of an anti-greenhouse campaign, or take the more difficult path of commitment to attacking the problem. Meanwhile, poverty and debt keep. The Third world locked out of any active partnership. This issue of ED highlight their results of recently tapping documents and seminar findings on the subject of global warming. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of the February 9, 1990; and (2) ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, February 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... National Park Service Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death... Management Plan, Death Valley National Park. SUMMARY: In accordance with Sec. 102(2)(C) of the National... environmental impact analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death...

  6. Idealized numerical experiments on the microphysical evolution of warm-type heavy rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hwan-Jin; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Hong, Song-You; Hashino, Tempei

    2017-02-01

    Recent satellite observations suggested that medium-depth heavy rain systems (i.e., warm-type heavy rainfall) were predominantly found in the Korean peninsula under moist-adiabatically near neutral conditions in contrast to the traditional view that deep convection induced by convective instability produced heavy rainfall (i.e., cold-type heavy rainfall). In order to examine whether a numerical model could explain the microphysical evolution of the warm-type as well as cold-type heavy rainfall, numerical experiments were implemented with idealized thermodynamic conditions. Under the prescribed humid and weakly unstable conditions, the warm-type experiments resulted in a lower storm height, earlier onset of precipitation, and heavier precipitation than was found for the cold-type experiments. The growth of ice particles and their melting process were important for developing cold-type heavy rainfall. In contrast, the collision and coalescence processes between liquid particles were shown to be the mechanism for increasing the radar reflectivity toward the surface in the storm core region for the warm-type heavy rainfall.

  7. A New Visibility Parameterization for Warm-Fog Applications in Numerical Weather Prediction Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultepe, I.; Müller, M. D.; Boybeyi, Z.

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this work is to suggest a new warm-fog visibility parameterization scheme for numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In situ observations collected during the Radiation and Aerosol Cloud Experiment, representing boundary layer low-level clouds, were used to develop a parameterization scheme between visibility and a combined parameter as a function of both droplet number concentration Nd and liquid water content (LWC). The current NWP models usually use relationships between extinction coefficient and LWC. A newly developed parameterization scheme for visibility, Vis = f(LWC, Nd), is applied to the NOAA Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model. In this model, the microphysics of fog was adapted from the 1D Parameterized Fog (PAFOG) model and then was used in the lower 1.5 km of the atmosphere. Simulations for testing the new parameterization scheme are performed in a 50-km innermost-nested simulation domain using a horizontal grid spacing of 1 km centered on Zurich Unique Airport in Switzerland. The simulations over a 10-h time period showed that visibility differences between old and new parameterization schemes can be more than 50%. It is concluded that accurate visibility estimates require skillful LWC as well as Nd estimates from forecasts. Therefore, the current models can significantly over-/underestimate Vis (with more than 50% uncertainty) depending on environmental conditions. Inclusion of Nd as a prognostic (or parameterized) variable in parameterizations would significantly improve the operational forecast models.

  8. The hydrometeor partitioning and microphysical processes over the Pacific Warm Pool in numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Chih; Wang, Pao K.

    2017-01-01

    Numerical modeling is conducted to study the hydrometeor partitioning and microphysical source and sink processes during a quasi-steady state of thunderstorms over the Pacific Warm Pool by utilizing the microphysical model WISCDYMM to simulate selected storm cases. The results show that liquid-phase hydrometeors dominate thunderstorm evolution over the Pacific Warm Pool. The ratio of ice-phase mass to liquid-phase mass is about 41%: 59%, indicating that ice-phase water is not as significant over the Pacific Warm Pool as the liquid water compared to the larger than 50% in the subtropics and 80% in the US High Plains in a previous study. Sensitivity tests support the dominance of liquid-phase hydrometeors over the Pacific Warm Pool. The major rain sources are the key hail sinks: melting of hail and shedding from hail; whereas the crucial rain sinks are evaporation and accretion by hail. The major snow sources are Bergeron-Findeisen process, transfer of cloud ice to snow and accretion of cloud water; whereas the foremost sink of snow is accretion by hail. The essential hail sources are accretions of rain, cloud water, and snow; whereas the critical hail sinks are melting of hail and shedding from hail. The contribution and ranking of sources and sinks of these precipitates are compared with the previous study. Hydrometeors have their own special microphysical processes in the development and depletion over the Pacific Warm Pool. Microphysical budgets depend on atmospheric dynamical and thermodynamical conditions which determine the partitioning of hydrometeors. This knowledge would benefit the microphysics parameterization in cloud models and cumulus parameterization in global circulation models.

  9. "Fatties Cause Global Warming": Fat Pedagogy and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Constance; Cameron, Erin; Socha, Teresa; McNinch, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Environmental education is one site of many that reinforces dominant obesity discourses and weight-based oppression through privileging fit, able bodies. Using personal narratives and insights from the nascent field of fat studies, we offer a critical analysis of obesity discourse in environmental writing in general and environmental education in…

  10. Environmental harm of hidden subsidies: global warming and acidification.

    PubMed

    van Beers, Cees; van den Bergh, Jeroen C J M

    2009-09-01

    We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO2 emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy.

  11. Environmentally Benign Technology for Efficient Warm-White Light Emission

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting. PMID:24930640

  12. Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn(2+) doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting.

  13. The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions and Vygotsky: Fostering Ecological Action and Environmental Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysack, Mishka

    2009-01-01

    The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions is part of a larger socio-environmental movement concerned with combating climate change. Highlighting the history and elements of the teach-in as a model of learning, the article examines the teach-in movement, using a local event at the University of Calgary as an illustration. Conceptual resources from…

  14. Structural and Environmental Characteristics of Extratropical Cyclones that Cause Tornado Outbreaks in the Warm Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochimoto, Eigo; Niino, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The differences in structural and environmental characteristics of extratropical cyclones (hereafter, ECs) that cause tornado outbreaks and those that do not were examined through composite analyses of the newly-released Japanese reanalysis data (JRA-55) and idealized numerical experiments. ECs that developed in the United States in April and May between 1995 and 2012 are categorized into two groups: ECs accompanied by 15 or more tornadoes (hereafter, outbreak cyclones (OCs)) and ECs accompanied by 5 or less tornadoes (non-outbreak cyclones (NOCs)). 55 OCs and 41 NOCs that are of similar strength as OCs are selected in this study. The composite analyses show significant differences in convective environmental parameters between OCs and NOCs. For OCs, convective available potential energy (CAPE) and storm relative environmental helicity (SREH) are larger and the areas in which these parameters have significant values are wider in the warm sector. The larger CAPE in OCs is due to larger amount of low-level water vapor, while the larger SREH in OCs due to stronger southerly wind at low levels. A piecewise potential vorticity (PV) diagnostics (Davis and Emanuel, 1991) indicates that low- to mid-level PV anomalies mainly contribute to the difference in the low-level winds between OCs and NOCs. On the other hand, the low-level winds associated with upper-level PV anomalies are not the major contributor to the difference. The results of the idealized numerical experiments for OCs and NOCs (hereafter, referred to as OC-CTL and NOC-CTL, respectively) using WRF ver. 3.4 show that the characteristics of the low-level wind fields and SREH distributions for the simulated ECs in OC-CTL and NOC-CTL are similar to those for OCs and NOCs, respectively. In OC-CTL, SREH and low-level winds in the east-southeast region of the EC center is larger than those in NOC-CTL, respectively. It is suggested that these differences are due to the structures of jetstream. The structure of

  15. A method to minimize the global warming and environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Tayade, P R; Sapkal, V S; Sapkal, R S; Deshmukh, S K; Rode, C V; Shinde, V M; Kanade, G S

    2012-04-01

    There has been continuous increase in the level of CO2 in atmosphere. Therefore, it is essential to develop an economical and convenient process to reduce the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. In this study, we have proposed an economical and efficient adsorption method to minimize the environmental CO2. A fluidized bed adsorption column was used, fabricated using cast iron sheet. The low prize pyrolyzed biochar prepared from farming biomass (crushed fine powder) was used as an adsorbent to adsorb CO2 from the mixture of air and CO2 (99.5% air and 0.5% CO2). The experimental observation was taken for the % removal of CO2 from the mixture of air and CO2, development of adsorption isotherm and to study the effect of pressure and inlet gas flow rate on the amount of CO2 adsorbed per kg of biochar. The exhausted (CO2 adsorbed) biochar from the fluidized column was tested as a fertilizer for the wheat crop and it has given near about 10% increase in the height of wheat crop within the first 10 days after sowing the wheat seeds. On the basis of this experimentation, we have proposed a hypothetical method, using above mentioned fluidized bed column and biochar as adsorbent to reduce the CO2 concentration in the highly polluted regions.

  16. A Resonant Wave in a Numerical Model of the 1979 Sudden Stratospheric Warming.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anne K.; Avery, Susan K.

    1987-11-01

    A simple numerical model of the stratosphere has been used to examine the possibility that a resonant growth of wave 2 was responsible for the 1979 major sudden warning. The model solves for linear steady state solutions to the quasi-geographic wave equation in the presence of realistic damping. The basic state is taken from observations (NMC and LIMS), and the frequency of the wave forcing is varied over a wide range. The model results show that in the days during the initial observed amplification of wave 2 (14-15 February), a clear resonant mode existed. The maximum response is for a wave moving eastward with a period of 12-16 days. Another peak at very low frequency (period greater than 100 days) occurs on 22 February. Other days during the period 12-24 February show weaker, but nevertheless significant peaks for particular frequencies. The frequency of the maximum is lower for later days and is nearly stationary at the height of the warming around 21 February. This frequency shift found in the model corresponds closely to the observed wave behavior.Although the details of the results vary with changes in the model resolution or lower boundary position, the resonant wave does not disappear. However, when the wave forcing is applied at the earth&s surface rather than in the tropopause region, no resonance occurs. To test the effect of the lower boundary, the troposphere-stratosphere model was run with an internal vorticity forcing similar to the structure of the observed wave 2 in the troposphere. In this case the frequency dependence of the amplitude within the stratosphere was similar to that of the model with a tropopause boundary, although the magnitude was considerably smaller. This suggests that for resonance to have occurred, a planetary scale disturbance that did not propagate from the surface must have been maintained in the upper troposphere. The two well-developed blocking ridges present in the troposphere during this period may have contributed

  17. Chronic environmental warming alters cardiovascular and haematological stress responses in European perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Ekström, Andreas; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Fredrik Sundström, L; Adill, Anders; Aho, Teija; Sandblom, Erik

    2016-12-01

    Environmental warming and acute stress increase cardiorespiratory activity in ectothermic animals like fish. While thermal acclimation can buffer the direct thermal effects on basal cardiorespiratory function during chronic warming, little is known about how acclimation affects stress-induced cardiorespiratory responses. We compared cardiovascular and haematological responses to chasing stress in cannulated wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) from a reference area at natural temperature (16 °C) with perch from the 'Biotest enclosure'; an experimental system chronically warmed (22 °C) by effluents from a nuclear power plant. Routine blood pressure was similar, but Biotest perch had slightly higher resting heart rate (59.9 ± 2.8 vs 51.3 ± 2.9 beats min(-1)), although the Q 10 for heart rate was 1.3, indicating pronounced thermal compensation. Chasing stress caused hypertension and a delayed tachycardia in both groups, but the maximum heart rate increase was 2.5-fold greater in Biotest fish (43.3 ± 4.3 vs 16.9 ± 2.7 beats min(-1)). Moreover, the pulse pressure response after stress was greater in reference fish, possibly due to the less pronounced tachycardia or a greater ventricular pressure generating capacity and thermally mediated differences in aortic compliance. Baseline haematological status was also similar, but after chasing stress, the haematocrit was higher in Biotest fish due to exacerbated red blood cell swelling. This study highlights that while eurythermal fishes can greatly compensate routine cardiorespiratory functions through acclimation processes, stress-induced responses may still differ markedly. This knowledge is essential when utilising cardiorespiratory variables to quantify and compare stress responses across environmental temperatures, and to forecast energetic costs and physiological constraints in ectothermic animals under global warming.

  18. SToRM: A numerical model for environmental surface flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    SToRM (System for Transport and River Modeling) is a numerical model developed to simulate free surface flows in complex environmental domains. It is based on the depth-averaged St. Venant equations, which are discretized using unstructured upwind finite volume methods, and contains both steady and unsteady solution techniques. This article provides a brief description of the numerical approach selected to discretize the governing equations in space and time, including important aspects of solving natural environmental flows, such as the wetting and drying algorithm. The presentation is illustrated with several application examples, covering both laboratory and natural river flow cases, which show the model’s ability to solve complex flow phenomena.

  19. Mesoscale numerical simulation study of warm fog dissipation by salt particles seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hui; Guo, Xueliang; Liu, Xiang'e.; Gao, Qian; Jia, Xingcan

    2016-05-01

    Based on the dynamic framework of WRF and Morrison 2-moment explicit cloud scheme, a salt-seeding scheme was developed and used to simulate the dissipation of a warm fog event during 6-7 November 2009 in the Beijing and Tianjin area. The seeding effect and its physical mechanism were studied. The results indicate that when seeding fog with salt particles sized 80 µm and at a quantity of 6 g m-2 at the fog top, the seeding effect near the ground surface layer is negative in the beginning period, and then a positive seeding effect begins to appear at 18 min, with the best effect appearing at 21 min after seeding operation. The positive effect can last about 35 min. The microphysical mechanism of the warm fog dissipation is because of the evaporation due to the water vapor condensation on the salt particles and coalescence with salt particles. The process of fog water coalescence with salt particles contributed mostly to this warm fog dissipation. Furthermore, two series of sensitivity experiments were performed to study the seeding effect under different seeding amounts and salt particles sizes. The results show that seeding fog with salt particles sized of 80 µm can have the best seeding effect, and the seeding effect is negative when the salt particle size is less than 10 µm. For salt particles sized 80 µm, the best seeding effect, with corresponding visibility of 380 m, can be achieved when the seeding amount is 30 g m-2.

  20. Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.

    PubMed

    Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions.

  1. Using Long-Term Experimental Warming To Distinguish Vegetation Responses To Warming From Other Environmental Drivers Related To Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, W. A.; Welker, J. M.; Mercado-Díaz, J. A.; Anderson, A.; Menken, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long term studies of vegetation change throughout the tundra biome show increases in the height, canopy extent and dominance of vascular vegetation versus bryophytes and lichens, with mixed responses of the dominant shrub and graminoid growth forms. Increases in vascular vegetation are recorded for sites with and without measurable climatic warming over recent decades, but with other potential drivers, i.e., increased summer precipitation. Experimental warming of tundra vegetation at Toolik Lake, Alaska shows a clear increase in shrub abundance relative to graminoids, with correlated higher NDVI values, increasing canopy heights, and thaw depths. Responses were similar between moist and dry tundra vegetation, with greater responses in moist vegetation. NDVI, with its ability to distinguish shrub from graminoid vegetation, may be a tool to distinguish fine scale differences in the response of tundra vegetation to climatic change, i.e., shifting balances of shrub and graminoid relative abundances that may be related to distinct climatic change drivers.

  2. Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-06-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

  3. Effects of environmental temperature change on mercury absorption in aquatic organisms with respect to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Pack, Eun Chul; Lee, Seung Ha; Kim, Chun Huem; Lim, Chae Hee; Sung, Dea Gwan; Kim, Mee Hye; Park, Ki Hwan; Lim, Kyung Min; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Suhng Wook

    2014-01-01

    Because of global warming, the quantity of naturally generated mercury (Hg) will increase, subsequently methylation of Hg existing in seawater may be enhanced, and the content of metal in marine products rise which consequently results in harm to human health. Studies of the effects of temperatures on Hg absorption have not been adequate. In this study, in order to observe the effects of temperature changes on Hg absorption, inorganic Hg or methylmercury (MeHg) was added to water tanks containing loaches. Loach survival rates decreased with rising temperatures, duration, and exposure concentrations in individuals exposed to inorganic Hg and MeHg. The MeHg-treated group died sooner than the inorganic Hg-exposed group. The total Hg and MeHg content significantly increased with temperature and time in both metal-exposed groups. The MeHg-treated group had higher metal absorption rates than inorganic Hg-treated loaches. The correlation coefficients for temperature elevation and absorption were significant in both groups. The results of this study may be used as basic data for assessing in vivo hazards from environmental changes such as climate warming.

  4. Environmental forcing shapes regional house mosquito synchrony in a warming temperate island.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Higa, Yukiko; Lee, Su Hyun; Jeong, Ji Yeon; Heo, Sang Taek; Kim, Miok; Minakawa, Noboru; Lee, Keun Hwa

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal changes in the abundance of exothermic organisms can be expected with climate change if warmer temperatures can induce changes in their phenology. Given the increased time for ectothermic organism development at lower temperatures, we asked whether population dynamics of the house mosquito, Culex pipiens s.l. (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), in Jeju-do (South Korea), an island with a gradient of warming temperatures from north to south, showed differences in sensitivity to changes in temperature along the warming gradient. In addition, we asked whether synchrony, that is, the degree of concerted fluctuations in mosquito abundance across locations, was affected by the temperature gradient. We found the association of mosquito abundance with temperature to be delayed by 2 wk in the north when compared with the south. The abundance across all our sampling locations had a flat synchrony profile that could reflect impacts of rainfall and average temperature on the average of all our samples. Finally, our results showed that population synchrony across space can emerge even when abundance is differentially impacted by an exogenous factor across an environmental gradient.

  5. A New Look at Stratospheric Sudden Warmings. Part II: Evaluation of Numerical Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Andrew J.; Polvani, Lorenza M.; Perlwitz, Judith; Sassi, Fabrizio; Manzini, Elisa; Shibata, Kiyotaka; Pawson, Steven; Nielsen, J. Eric; Rind, David

    2007-01-01

    The simulation of major midwinter stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) in six stratosphere-resolving general circulation models (GCMs) is examined. The GCMs are compared to a new climatology of SSWs, based on the dynamical characteristics of the events. First, the number, type, and temporal distribution of SSW events are evaluated. Most of the models show a lower frequency of SSW events than the climatology, which has a mean frequency of 6.0 SSWs per decade. Statistical tests show that three of the six models produce significantly fewer SSWs than the climatology, between 1.0 and 2.6 SSWs per decade. Second, four process-based diagnostics are calculated for all of the SSW events in each model. It is found that SSWs in the GCMs compare favorably with dynamical benchmarks for SSW established in the first part of the study. These results indicate that GCMs are capable of quite accurately simulating the dynamics required to produce SSWs, but with lower frequency than the climatology. Further dynamical diagnostics hint that, in at least one case, this is due to a lack of meridional heat flux in the lower stratosphere. Even though the SSWs simulated by most GCMs are dynamically realistic when compared to the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, the reasons for the relative paucity of SSWs in GCMs remains an important and open question.

  6. Mathematical and Numerical Techniques in Energy and Environmental Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Ewing, R. E.

    Mathematical models have been widely used to predict, understand, and optimize many complex physical processes, from semiconductor or pharmaceutical design to large-scale applications such as global weather models to astrophysics. In particular, simulation of environmental effects of air pollution is extensive. Here we address the need for using similar models to understand the fate and transport of groundwater contaminants and to design in situ remediation strategies. Three basic problem areas need to be addressed in the modeling and simulation of the flow of groundwater contamination. First, one obtains an effective model to describe the complex fluid/fluid and fluid/rock interactions that control the transport of contaminants in groundwater. This includes the problem of obtaining accurate reservoir descriptions at various length scales and modeling the effects of this heterogeneity in the reservoir simulators. Next, one develops accurate discretization techniques that retain the important physical properties of the continuous models. Finally, one develops efficient numerical solution algorithms that utilize the potential of the emerging computing architectures. We will discuss recent advances and describe the contribution of each of the papers in this book in these three areas. Keywords: reservoir simulation, mathematical models, partial differential equations, numerical algorithms

  7. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  8. Environmental magnetic evidence for a dynamic Taylor Glacier during the mid-Pliocene warm period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohneiser, Christian; Wilson, Gary; Florindo, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The current understanding of the Neogene history of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) is limited spatially and temporally by a paucity of sedimentary records. This has led to the assumption that the Antarctic Glacio-climatic system has been in stasis since middle Miocene times and such an interpretation is not in conflict with deep-sea stable isotope records. However, rare stratified glacigene deposits exposed in the Transantarctic mountains and recovered from beneath Antarctic fjords by drilling suggest a more dynamic history of the EAIS. We apply environmental magnetic methods to drill cores previously collected from McMurdo Sound in an effort to track processes, transport methods and conditions and environments of deposition through the late Neogene. Additionally, we assess the robustness of the earlier magnetostratigraphies from the DVDP-10 and -11 cores by undertaking the first comprehensive paleomagnetic study of discrete paleomagnetic samples with complete thermal and alternating field demagnetisation and polarity determinations from principal component analysis. Here we present results from an investigation of the magnetic properties of the DVDP-10 and DVDP-11 drill cores from New Harbour, southern Victoria Land. Magnetic properties were determined for 400 samples by measuring their magnetic susceptibility, thermomagnetism and natural and anhysteretic remanent magnetism (NRM/ARM) at the Otago Paleomagnetic Research Facility and hysteresis and isothermal remanent magnetism (IRM) at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Rome, Italy. The initial analyses indicate that only minimal diagenetic alteration has occurred and that a primary environmental magnetic signal is intact. We divide these records into three intervals based on magnetic characteristics. The upper interval (Interval I) comprises latest Pliocene to Pleistocene age Ross Sea Ice derived sediments which have high concentrations of fine grained magnetite reflecting the contribution

  9. Precession Control on Precipitation in the Western Pacific Warm Pool Inferred from Environmental Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) has highest water temperature in the global ocean, and its spatiotemporal variations have significant impacts on large-scale atmospheric circulation and global hydrology. An environmental magnetic study was conducted on sediment cores of late Pleistocene age taken from the West Caroline Basin (WCB) offshore northern New Guinea in order to constrain hydrological variability over the WPWP on orbital timescales. Magnetite dominates magnetic mineral assemblages of the sediments. This is evidenced by that IRM acquisition curves are mostly explained by a low-coercivity component, and that the Verwey transition was obvious in low-temperature measurements. Existence of the sharp central ridges on FORC diagrams and TEM images indicate the occurrence of biogenic magnetite. Compared with pelagic sediments from other regions, however, FORC diagrams show a larger contribution of an interacting PSD and MD component, and the ratios of ARM susceptibility to SIRM (kARM/SIRM) are lower, which suggests a larger proportion of the terrigenous component. This is probably due to a large terrigenous sediment input from nearby land, New Guinea, induced by high precipitation in the intertropical convergence zone. Magnetic susceptibility (k) and kARM/SIRM well correlate with northern-hemisphere summer insolation. Maxima in k and minima in kARM/SIRM correspond to insolation minima, which suggests a larger terrigenous input caused by higher precipitation at these times. Interestingly, in the western part of WCB, k variations are dominated by the eccentricity periodicity and mimic δ18O curves, but the precession periodicity prevails in kARM/SIRM. These cores were taken at depths close to the CCD, and thus the k variations cannot be explained by dilution with carbonates. Sedimentation influenced by global sea-level changes may control the k variations; this part of the basin is adjacent to a wider continental shelf compared with the eastern part of WCB.

  10. Antagonistic effects of biological invasion and environmental warming on detritus processing in freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kenna, Daniel; Fincham, William N W; Dunn, Alison M; Brown, Lee E; Hassall, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Global biodiversity is threatened by multiple anthropogenic stressors but little is known about the combined effects of environmental warming and invasive species on ecosystem functioning. We quantified thermal preferences and then compared leaf-litter processing rates at eight different temperatures (5.0-22.5 °C) by the invasive freshwater crustacean Dikerogammarus villosus and the Great Britain native Gammarus pulex at a range of body sizes. D. villosus preferred warmer temperatures but there was considerable overlap in the range of temperatures that the two species occupied during preference trials. When matched for size, G. pulex had a greater leaf shredding efficiency than D. villosus, suggesting that invasion and subsequent displacement of the native amphipod will result in reduced ecosystem functioning. However, D. villosus is an inherently larger species and interspecific variation in shredding was reduced when animals of a representative size range were compared. D. villosus shredding rates increased at a faster rate than G. pulex with increasing temperature suggesting that climate change may offset some of the reduction in function. D. villosus, but not G. pulex, showed evidence of an ability to select those temperatures at which its shredding rate was maximised, and the activation energy for shredding in D. villosus was more similar to predictions from metabolic theory. While per capita and mass-corrected shredding rates were lower in the invasive D. villosus than the native G. pulex, our study provides novel insights in to how the interactive effects of metabolic function, body size, behavioural thermoregulation, and density produce antagonistic effects between anthropogenic stressors.

  11. Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global Warming and Environmental Attitude Using Climate Change Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Bin Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir

    2015-01-01

    Climate change generally and global warming specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that…

  12. Chronic environmental stress enhances tolerance to seasonal gradual warming in marine mussels

    PubMed Central

    Múgica, Maria; Izagirre, Urtzi; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2017-01-01

    In global climate change scenarios, seawater warming acts in concert with multiple stress sources, which may enhance the susceptibility of marine biota to thermal stress. Here, the responsiveness to seasonal gradual warming was investigated in temperate mussels from a chronically stressed population in comparison with a healthy one. Stressed and healthy mussels were subjected to gradual temperature elevation for 8 days (1°C per day; fall: 16–24°C, winter: 12–20°C, summer: 20–28°C) and kept at elevated temperature for 3 weeks. Healthy mussels experienced thermal stress and entered the time-limited survival period in the fall, became acclimated in winter and exhibited sublethal damage in summer. In stressed mussels, thermal stress and subsequent health deterioration were elicited in the fall but no transition into the critical period of time-limited survival was observed. Stressed mussels did not become acclimated to 20°C in winter, when they experienced low-to-moderate thermal stress, and did not experience sublethal damage at 28°C in summer, showing instead signs of metabolic rate depression. Overall, although the thermal threshold was lowered in chronically stressed mussels, they exhibited enhanced tolerance to seasonal gradual warming, especially in summer. These results challenge current assumptions on the susceptibility of marine biota to the interactive effects of seawater warming and pollution. PMID:28333994

  13. Is environmental health a determinant or an afterthought in policies ranging from water quality to global warming?

    PubMed

    Listorti, J A

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this discussion is to draw attention to the regrettable fact that health repercussions are not being addressed in policy setting. This absence covers a spectrum from policies as technically focused as that governing water quality, where the health dimensions are well known, to policies as broad as those dealing with global warming, where the health dimensions are still being defined. This situation is likely to worsen unless the environmental health community accepts the responsibility to do more outreach. The presentation also gives examples of how inclusion of environmental health in policy deliberations can increase economically quantifiable benefits and can help justify investments that are otherwise considered too costly. Despite advances in environmental health, many, if not most, important decisions affecting human health are being made without the input of health specialists. At best, considerations of environmental health are afterthoughts in the policies of business, commerce, industry, and many government agencies that are involved--even if inadvertently--with creating most environmental health problems, and by implication, are potentially responsible for their solutions. Examples of situations where the health dimensions are well known, such as with water quality, are provided from some 200 past World Bank projects in water supply, waste disposal, transportation, housing, urban development, and telecommunications, designed mainly by engineers and economists. The absence of health input is not necessarily detrimental if agency policies or environmental reviews can compensate for the absence of direct health input by other means such as environmental assessments, which currently do not systematically include health.

  14. Total environmental warming impact (TEWI) calculations for alternative automative air-conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Montreal Protocol phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has required manufacturers to develop refrigeration and air-conditioning systems that use refrigerants that can not damage stratospheric ozone. Most refrigeration industries have adapted their designs to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; new automobile air- conditioning systems use HFC-134a. These industries are now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants on global warming. Automobile air-conditioning has three separate impacts on global warming; (1) the effects of refrigerant inadvertently released to the atmosphere from accidents, servicing, and leakage; (2) the efficiency of the cooling equipment (due to the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to power the system); and (3) the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to transport the system. The Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) is an index that should be used to compare the global warming effects of alternative air-conditioning systems because it includes these contributions from the refrigerant, cooling efficiency, and weight. This paper compares the TEWI of current air-conditioning systems using HFC-134a with that of transcritical vapor compression system using carbon dioxide and systems using flammable refrigerants with secondary heat transfer loops. Results are found to depend on both climate and projected efficiency of C0{sub 2}systems. Performance data on manufacturing prototype systems are needed to verify the potential reductions in TEWI. Extensive field testing is also required to determine the performance, reliability, and ``serviceability`` of each alternative to HFC-134a to establish whether the potential reduction of TEWI can be achieved in a viable consumer product.

  15. Individual to community-level faunal responses to environmental change from a marine fossil record of Early Miocene global warming.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Christina L

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (≈ 20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1-4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability.

  16. Individual to Community-Level Faunal Responses to Environmental Change from a Marine Fossil Record of Early Miocene Global Warming

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (∼20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1–4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability. PMID:22558424

  17. Modeling Multi-Reservoir Hydropower Systems in the Sierra Nevada with Environmental Requirements and Climate Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinheimer, David Emmanuel

    Hydropower systems and other river regulation often harm instream ecosystems, partly by altering the natural flow and temperature regimes that ecosystems have historically depended on. These effects are compounded at regional scales. As hydropower and ecosystems are increasingly valued globally due to growing values for clean energy and native species as well as and new threats from climate warming, it is important to understand how climate warming might affect these systems, to identify tradeoffs between different water uses for different climate conditions, and to identify promising water management solutions. This research uses traditional simulation and optimization to explore these issues in California's upper west slope Sierra Nevada mountains. The Sierra Nevada provides most of the water for California's vast water supply system, supporting high-elevation hydropower generation, ecosystems, recreation, and some local municipal and agricultural water supply along the way. However, regional climate warming is expected to reduce snowmelt and shift runoff to earlier in the year, affecting all water uses. This dissertation begins by reviewing important literature related to the broader motivations of this study, including river regulation, freshwater conservation, and climate change. It then describes three substantial studies. First, a weekly time step water resources management model spanning the Feather River watershed in the north to the Kern River watershed in the south is developed. The model, which uses the Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP), includes reservoirs, run-of-river hydropower, variable head hydropower, water supply demand, and instream flow requirements. The model is applied with a runoff dataset that considers regional air temperature increases of 0, 2, 4 and 6 °C to represent historical, near-term, mid-term and far-term (end-of-century) warming. Most major hydropower turbine flows are simulated well. Reservoir storage is also

  18. Long-term effects of warming and ocean acidification are modified by seasonal variation in species responses and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Godbold, Jasmin A; Solan, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Warming of sea surface temperatures and alteration of ocean chemistry associated with anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide will have profound consequences for a broad range of species, but the potential for seasonal variation to modify species and ecosystem responses to these stressors has received little attention. Here, using the longest experiment to date (542 days), we investigate how the interactive effects of warming and ocean acidification affect the growth, behaviour and associated levels of ecosystem functioning (nutrient release) for a functionally important non-calcifying intertidal polychaete (Alitta virens) under seasonally changing conditions. We find that the effects of warming, ocean acidification and their interactions are not detectable in the short term, but manifest over time through changes in growth, bioturbation and bioirrigation behaviour that, in turn, affect nutrient generation. These changes are intimately linked to species responses to seasonal variations in environmental conditions (temperature and photoperiod) that, depending upon timing, can either exacerbate or buffer the long-term directional effects of climatic forcing. Taken together, our observations caution against over emphasizing the conclusions from short-term experiments and highlight the necessity to consider the temporal expression of complex system dynamics established over appropriate timescales when forecasting the likely ecological consequences of climatic forcing.

  19. Post-Landing Orion Crew Survival in Warm Ocean Areas: A Case Study in Iterative Environmental Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rains, George E.; Bue, Grant C.; Pantermuehl, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The Orion crew module (CM) is being designed to perform survivable land and water landings. There are many issues associated with post-landing crew survival. In general, the most challenging of the realistic Orion landing scenarios from an environmental control standpoint is the off-nominal water landing. Available power and other consumables will be very limited after landing, and it may not be possible to provide full environmental control within the crew cabin for very long after splashdown. Given the bulk and thermal insulation characteristics of the crew-worn pressure suits, landing in a warm tropical ocean area would pose a risk to crew survival from elevated core body temperatures, if for some reason the crewmembers were not able to remove their suits and/or exit the vehicle. This paper summarizes the analyses performed and conclusions reached regarding post-landing crew survival following a water landing, from the standpoint of the crew s core body temperatures.

  20. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Montero, Luis G.

    2010-04-15

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Ferrofluid Flow for Subsurface Environmental Engineering Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Moridis, George J.

    1997-05-05

    Ferrofluids are suspensions of magnetic particles of diameter approximately 10 nm stabilized by surfactants in carrier liquids. The large magnetic susceptibility of ferrofluids allows the mobilization of ferrofluid through permeable rock and soil by the application of strong external magnetic fields. We have developed simulation capabilities for both miscible and immiscible conceptualizations of ferrofluid flow through porous media in response to magnetic forces arising from the magnetic field of a rectangular permanent magnet. The flow of ferrofluid is caused by the magnetization of the particles and their attraction toward a magnet, regardless of the orientation of the magnet. The steps involved in calculating the flow of ferrofluid are (1) calculation of the external magnetic field, (2) calculation of the gradient of the external magnetic field, (3) calculation of the magnetization of the ferrofluid, and (4) assembly of the magnetic body force term and addition of this term to the standard pressure gradient and gravity force terms. We compare numerical simulations to laboratory measurements of the magnetic field, fluid pressures, and the two-dimensional flow of ferrofluid to demonstrate the applicability of the methods coded in the numerical simulators. We present an example of the use of the simulator for a field-scale application of ferrofluids for barrier verification.

  2. Global warming and environmental production efficiency ranking of the Kyoto Protocol nations.

    PubMed

    Feroz, Ehsan H; Raab, Raymond L; Ulleberg, Gerald T; Alsharif, Kamal

    2009-02-01

    This paper analyzes the United Nations Organization's Kyoto Protocol nations to address two questions. First, what are the environmental production efficiency rankings of these nations? Second, is there a relationship between a nation's ratification status and its environmental production efficiency ranking? Our findings suggest that the nations that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol are more likely to be environmentally production efficient as compared to the nations that have not ratified the Protocol.

  3. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Daniel J; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B; Viant, Mark R

    2015-09-14

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with incubation without food over a 5-day period greatly exceed those caused directly by seawater temperature or pH perturbations. This highlights the need to contextualise the results of climate change experiments by comparison to other, naturally occurring stressors such as food deprivation, which is being exacerbated by global warming. Protein and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in the food-deprived animals, with a novel class of taurine-containing lipids and the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, changing significantly over the duration of our experiment. Copepods derive these PUFAs by ingesting diatoms and flagellated microplankton respectively. Climate-driven changes in the productivity, phenology and composition of microplankton communities, and hence the availability of these fatty acids, therefore have the potential to influence the ability of copepods to survive starvation and other environmental stressors.

  4. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B.; Viant, Mark R.

    2015-09-01

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with incubation without food over a 5-day period greatly exceed those caused directly by seawater temperature or pH perturbations. This highlights the need to contextualise the results of climate change experiments by comparison to other, naturally occurring stressors such as food deprivation, which is being exacerbated by global warming. Protein and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in the food-deprived animals, with a novel class of taurine-containing lipids and the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, changing significantly over the duration of our experiment. Copepods derive these PUFAs by ingesting diatoms and flagellated microplankton respectively. Climate-driven changes in the productivity, phenology and composition of microplankton communities, and hence the availability of these fatty acids, therefore have the potential to influence the ability of copepods to survive starvation and other environmental stressors.

  5. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B.; Viant, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with incubation without food over a 5-day period greatly exceed those caused directly by seawater temperature or pH perturbations. This highlights the need to contextualise the results of climate change experiments by comparison to other, naturally occurring stressors such as food deprivation, which is being exacerbated by global warming. Protein and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in the food-deprived animals, with a novel class of taurine-containing lipids and the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, changing significantly over the duration of our experiment. Copepods derive these PUFAs by ingesting diatoms and flagellated microplankton respectively. Climate-driven changes in the productivity, phenology and composition of microplankton communities, and hence the availability of these fatty acids, therefore have the potential to influence the ability of copepods to survive starvation and other environmental stressors. PMID:26364855

  6. 3D Numerical Simulation of the Geothermal Field of Permafrost at Salluit in Nunavik, Québec, in Response to Climate Warming. Research in Progress.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, R.; Allard, M.; Gagnon, O.

    2002-12-01

    survey aims at providing information on the geological and geotechnical characteristics of permafrost. Thermistor cables in deep boreholes, meteorological stations, dataloggers for the measurement of surface temperature, and thermal probes have been also installed in the valley. Air photographs will be used to produce a digital terrain model of the valley. This integrated multi-technique approach is essential for properly assessing the permafrost conditions in the valley. The study will provide the data needed for the development of a 3D model of permafrost conditions in the valley. A 3D numerical simulation of the geothermal field of permafrost in the valley will be then undertaken. This simulation is a major challenge giving the size of the thermal field and the variability in permafrost conditions. The impacts of climate warming on the thermal field of permafrost will be simulated and predicted by forcing the surface temperature to increase following different scenarios of climate warming. It is planned to combine the geotechnical properties and the simulation of the geothermal field of permafrost in order to define threshold values of permafrost strength and slope instability and set a pre-warning scheme of permafrost temperature in case of further warming in the coming years. The monitoring of permafrost temperature will be continued in the future. If the scheme is reached, actions can be then undertaken to mitigate the impacts of climate warming on the infrastructures and protect the population of Salluit.

  7. A numerical modeling study of the East Australian Current encircling and overwashing a warm-core eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, H. S.; Roughan, M.; Baird, M. E.; Wilkin, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<span class="hlt">Warm</span>-core eddies (WCEs) often form in the meanders of Western Boundary Currents (WBCs). WCEs are frequently overwashed with less dense waters sourced from the WBC. We use the Regional Ocean Modelling System to investigate the ocean state during the overwashing of one such WCE in October 2008 in the East Australian Current (EAC). Comparisons of model outputs with satellite sea surface temperature and vertical profiles show that the model provides a realistic simulation of the eddy during the period when the EAC encircled and then overwashed the eddy. During the encircling stage, an eddy with closed circulation persisted at depth. In the surface EAC water entered from the north, encircled the eddy and exited to the east. The overwashing stage was initiated by the expulsion of cyclonic vorticity. For the following 8 days after the expulsion, waters from the EAC washed over the top of the eddy, transferring heat and anticyclonic vorticity radially-inward. After approximately one rotation period of overwashing, the eddy separated. The overwashing creates a two-layer system that forms a subsurface maximum velocity at the interface of the two layers. Analysis of water mass properties, Eulerian tracer dynamics, and Lagrangian particle tracks show that the original eddy sinks 10-50 m during the overwashing period. Overwashing has been observed in many WBCs and occurs in most WCEs in the western Tasman Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED099226.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED099226.pdf"><span>Freddie Fish. A Primary <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Study of Basic <span class="hlt">Numerals</span>, Sets, Ordinals and Shapes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kraynak, Ola</p> <p></p> <p>This teacher's guide and study guide are an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> approach to mathematics education in the primary grades. The mathematical studies of the <span class="hlt">numerals</span> 0-10, ordinals, number sets, and basic shapes - diamond, circle, square, rectangle, and triangle - are developed through the story of Freddie Fish and his search for clean water. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.774a2167S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.774a2167S"><span><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> and experimental study of a <span class="hlt">warming</span> up effect of an underexpanded rarefied rf plasma jet outflowing into a flooded area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shemakhin, A. Yu; Zheltukhin, V. S.; Khubatkhuzin, A. A.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A mathematical model of the rf plasma flow at 13.3-133 Pa in transition regime at Knudsen number values 8 × 10-3 ≤ Kn ≤ 7 × 10-2 and the nozzle pressure ratio n = 10 for the carrier gas is described. The model based on both the statistical approach to the neutral component of the rf plasma and the approach to the continuum model for electron and ion components. The results of plasma flow calculations performed both for an undisturbed flow and for the stream with a sample at a prescribed electric field are described. The effect of a <span class="hlt">warming</span> up of a stream in a mixture zone confirmed by comparison of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> results with experimental ones is found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA363890','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA363890"><span>Military Implications of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>U.S. <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate...for military involvement to reduce global <span class="hlt">warming</span> . Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1150900','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1150900"><span>An Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential Refrigerants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5087907','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5087907"><span><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Humidity Regulates Effects of Experimental <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Vegetation Index and Biomass Production in an Alpine Meadow of the Northern Tibet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fu, Gang; Shen, Zhen Xi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Uncertainty about responses of vegetation index, aboveground biomass (AGB) and gross primary production (GPP) limits our ability to predict how climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> will influence plant growth in alpine regions. A field <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment was conducted in an alpine meadow at a low (4313 m), mid- (4513 m) and high elevation (4693 m) in the Northern Tibet since May 2010. Growing season vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil temperature (Ts) and air temperature (Ta) decreased with increasing elevation, while growing season precipitation, soil moisture (SM), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), AGB and GPP increased with increasing elevation. The growing season Ta, Ts and VPD in 2015 was greater than that in 2014, while the growing season precipitation, SM, NDVI, SAVI, AGB and GPP in 2015 was lower than that in 2014, respectively. Compared to the mean air temperature and precipitation during the growing season in 1963–2015, it was a warmer and wetter year in 2014 and a warmer and drier year in 2015. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased growing season Ts, Ta,VPD, but decreased growing season SM in 2014–2015 at all the three elevations. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> only reduced growing season NDVI, SAVI, AGB and GPP at the low elevation in 2015. Growing season NDVI, SAVI, AGB and GPP increased with increasing SM and precipitation, but decreased with increasing VPD, indicating vegetation index and biomass production increased with <span class="hlt">environmental</span> humidity. The VPD explained more variation of growing season NDVI, SAVI, AGB and GPP compared to Ts, Ta and SM at all the three elevations. Therefore, <span class="hlt">environmental</span> humidity regulated the effect of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on vegetation index and biomass production in alpine meadows on the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:27798690</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798690"><span><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Humidity Regulates Effects of Experimental <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Vegetation Index and Biomass Production in an Alpine Meadow of the Northern Tibet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fu, Gang; Shen, Zhen Xi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Uncertainty about responses of vegetation index, aboveground biomass (AGB) and gross primary production (GPP) limits our ability to predict how climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> will influence plant growth in alpine regions. A field <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment was conducted in an alpine meadow at a low (4313 m), mid- (4513 m) and high elevation (4693 m) in the Northern Tibet since May 2010. Growing season vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil temperature (Ts) and air temperature (Ta) decreased with increasing elevation, while growing season precipitation, soil moisture (SM), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), AGB and GPP increased with increasing elevation. The growing season Ta, Ts and VPD in 2015 was greater than that in 2014, while the growing season precipitation, SM, NDVI, SAVI, AGB and GPP in 2015 was lower than that in 2014, respectively. Compared to the mean air temperature and precipitation during the growing season in 1963-2015, it was a warmer and wetter year in 2014 and a warmer and drier year in 2015. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased growing season Ts, Ta,VPD, but decreased growing season SM in 2014-2015 at all the three elevations. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> only reduced growing season NDVI, SAVI, AGB and GPP at the low elevation in 2015. Growing season NDVI, SAVI, AGB and GPP increased with increasing SM and precipitation, but decreased with increasing VPD, indicating vegetation index and biomass production increased with <span class="hlt">environmental</span> humidity. The VPD explained more variation of growing season NDVI, SAVI, AGB and GPP compared to Ts, Ta and SM at all the three elevations. Therefore, <span class="hlt">environmental</span> humidity regulated the effect of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on vegetation index and biomass production in alpine meadows on the Tibetan Plateau.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=earth+AND+warming&pg=4&id=EJ391198','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=earth+AND+warming&pg=4&id=EJ391198"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hileman, Bette</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>States the foundations of the theory of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend. Recognizes many sources for the <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........10Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........10Y"><span><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Simulation of <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Flow over Urban Landscape for Applications to Renewable Energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ying, Xiaoyan</p> <p></p> <p>Development of renewable energy solutions has become a major interest among <span class="hlt">environmental</span> organizations and governments around the world due to an increase in energy consumption and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. One fast growing renewable energy solution is the application of wind energy in cities. To qualitative and quantitative predict wind turbine performance in urban areas, CFD simulation is performed on real-life urban geometry and wind velocity profiles are evaluated. Two geometries in Arizona is selected in this thesis to demonstrate the influence of building heights; one of the simulation models, ASU campus, is relatively low rise and without significant tall buildings; the other model, the downtown phoenix model, are high-rise and with greater building height difference. The content of this thesis focuses on using RANS computational fluid dynamics approach to simulate wind acceleration phenomenon in two complex geometries, ASU campus and Phoenix downtown model. Additionally, acceleration ratio and locations are predicted, the results are then used to calculate the best location for small wind turbine installments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7751G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7751G"><span>Effects of drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatments on CO2 fluxes in shrubland ecosystems across an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> gradient: a synthesis of the INCREASE project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guidolotti, Gabriele; Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; de Dato, Giovanbattista; Baarsel, Susie; Lellei-Kovács, Eszter; Kopittke, Gillian; Tietema, Albert; Emmet, Bridgett; De Angelis, Paolo; Kappel Schmidt, Inger</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Seasonal changes of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of terrestrial ecosystems are the result of different interactions between CO2 assimilation (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) with <span class="hlt">environmental</span> drivers. There is still debate about to which extent low soil moisture (drought) and increased temperature (<span class="hlt">warming</span>) can affect GPP or ER depending on both functional groups and ecosystem climate types. In dynamic systems, such as shrubland ecosystems, these effects can be difficult to predict. We used the INCREASE network infrastructure "space-for-time substitution" (natural gradient and experimental approach) to quantify the effects of drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on GPP, ER, SR and NEE across 6 European shrublands. The sites ranged from Denmark to Southern Italy along a precipitation and temperature gradient. In addition, INCREASE experimentally manipulates the climate in 20 m2 plots simulating the climate change: reflective curtains are drawn across plots at night preventing heat loss (<span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment) while other plots are periodically covered by curtains during rain events thereby reducing the water input from precipitation (drought treatment). The measurements of soil CO2 efflux (SR), net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and total ecosystem respiration (ER) were done according to common protocols using chamber method, while the gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GPP) was estimated by difference between NEE and ER. Preliminary results indicate large flux variability across the sites and the seasons. The drought treatment tends to limit the loss of CO2 through the respiratory processes, while the <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment seems to stimulate all the processes in most sites, even in the Mediterranean where the temperature has never been considered a limiting factor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964200','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964200"><span>Life Cycle Assessment of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Ethanol - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Heath, G. A.; Hsu, D. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Mann, M. K.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP), water use, and net energy value (NEV) associated with the EISA-mandated 16 bgy cellulosic biofuels target, which is assumed in this study to be met by cellulosic-based ethanol, and the EISA-mandated 15 bgy conventional corn ethanol target. Specifically, this study compares, on a per-kilometer-driven basis, the GWP, water use, and NEV for the year 2022 for several biomass feedstocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103965"><span>Body mapping of cutaneous wetness perception across the human torso during thermo-neutral and <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> exposures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filingeri, Davide; Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Sensing skin wetness is linked to inputs arising from cutaneous cold-sensitive afferents. As thermosensitivity to cold varies significantly across the torso, we investigated whether similar regional differences in wetness perception exist. We also investigated the regional differences in thermal pleasantness and whether these sensory patterns are influenced by ambient temperature. Sixteen males (20 ± 2 yr) underwent a quantitative sensory test under thermo-neutral [air temperature (Tair) = 22°C; relative humidity (RH) = 50%] and <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions (Tair = 33°C; RH = 50%). Twelve regions of the torso were stimulated with a dry thermal probe (25 cm(2)) with a temperature of 15°C below local skin temperature (Tsk). Variations in Tsk, thermal, wetness, and pleasantness sensations were recorded. As a result of the same cold-dry stimulus, the skin-cooling response varied significantly by location (P = 0.003). The lateral chest showed the greatest cooling (-5 ± 0.4°C), whereas the lower back showed the smallest (-1.9 ± 0.4°C). Thermal sensations varied significantly by location and independently from regional variations in skin cooling with colder sensations reported on the lateral abdomen and lower back. Similarly, the frequency of perceived skin wetness was significantly greater on the lateral and lower back as opposed to the medial chest. Overall wetness perception was slightly higher under <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions. Significantly more unpleasant sensations were recorded when the lateral abdomen and lateral and lower back were stimulated. We conclude that humans present regional differences in skin wetness perception across the torso, with a pattern similar to the regional differences in thermosensitivity to cold. These findings indicate the presence of a heterogeneous distribution of cold-sensitive thermo-afferent information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPSJ...85f4003T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPSJ...85f4003T"><span>Coupled-Double-Quantum-Dot <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Information Engines: A <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanabe, Katsuaki</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We conduct <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations for an autonomous information engine comprising a set of coupled double quantum dots using a simple model. The steady-state entropy production rate in each component, heat and electron transfer rates are calculated via the probability distribution of the four electronic states from the master transition-rate equations. We define an information-engine efficiency based on the entropy change of the reservoir, implicating power generators that employ the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> order as a new energy resource. We acquire device-design principles, toward the realization of corresponding practical energy converters, including that (1) higher energy levels of the detector-side reservoir than those of the detector dot provide significantly higher work production rates by faster states' circulation, (2) the efficiency is strongly dependent on the relative temperatures of the detector and system sides and becomes high in a particular Coulomb-interaction strength region between the quantum dots, and (3) the efficiency depends little on the system dot's energy level relative to its reservoir but largely on the antisymmetric relative amplitudes of the electronic tunneling rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18351109','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18351109"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potentials of Hydrofluoroethers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blowers, Paul; Moline, Dena Marie; Tetrault, Kyle Franklin; Wheeler, R'nld Ruth; Tuchawena, Shane Lee</p> <p>2008-02-15</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potentials are estimated for hydrofluoroethers, which are an emerging class of compounds for industrial use. Comparisons are made to the limited data previously available before observations about molecular design are discussed. We quantify how molecular structure can be manipulated to reduce <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts due to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We further highlight the need for additional research on this class of compounds so <span class="hlt">environmental</span> performance can be assessed for green design.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V41E..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V41E..03S"><span>3-D <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations of eruption clouds: Effects of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> wind on the turbulent mixing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Y. J.; Koyaguchi, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>During an explosive volcanic eruption, a mixture of volcanic gas and solid pyroclasts are ejected from a volcanic vent with a high temperature. As it rises, the mixture entrains ambient air owing to turbulent mixing. The entrained air expands by heating from the hot pyroclasts, and the eruption cloud (i.e., the ejected material plus the entrained air) rises as a buoyant plume. Because the plume height is principally determined by the balance between the thermal energy ejected at the vent and the work done in transporting the ejected material plus entrained air through the atmospheric stratification, it is controlled by the efficiency of turbulent mixing; as the amount of entrained air increases, the plume height decreases. In the 1-D models of eruption column (e.g., Woods, 1988), the plume height is calculated on the assumption that the mean inflow velocity across the edge of turbulent jet and/or plume is proportional to the mean vertical velocity (Morton et al., 1956). Experimental studies suggest that the proportionality constant (i.e., entrainment coefficient, k), which represents the efficiency of turbulent mixing, is about 0.10 for pure plumes when there is no wind. When an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> wind is present, however, the interaction between a buoyant plume and the wind may enhance the entrainment of air and can significantly decrease the plume height (Bursik, 2001). In order to investigate the effects of wind on the vortical structures and the efficiency of turbulent mixing in an eruption cloud, we have carried out 3-D <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations of eruption column which is ejected in a wind field. The simulation results indicate that a buoyant plume vertically rises as a "strong plume" (e.g., Bonadonna et al., 2003) when the wind velocity is low: the cloud reaches the neutral buoyancy level and overshoots until the upward momentum is exhausted. In this case, the plume height is consistent with prediction by the 1-D model with k~0.10. When the wind velocity is high, on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcUnC..68...50P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcUnC..68...50P"><span>Some <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Results of Multipoints Bomndary Value Problems Arise in <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pop, Daniel N.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, we investigate two problems arise in pollutant transport in rivers, and we give some <span class="hlt">numerical</span> results to approximate this solutions. We determined the approximate solutions using two <span class="hlt">numerical</span> methods: 1. B-splines combined with Runge-Kutta methods, 2. BVP4C solver of MATLAB and then we compare the run-times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=earth+AND+warming&pg=5&id=EJ484206','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=earth+AND+warming&pg=5&id=EJ484206"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (PR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMS...164...30A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMS...164...30A"><span><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> boundaries of marine cladoceran distributions in the NW Mediterranean: Implications for their expansion under global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atienza, Dacha; Sabatés, Ana; Isari, Stamatina; Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We studied the horizontal and vertical distributions of marine cladocerans across the Catalan Sea shelf (NW Mediterranean) in July and September 2003, and in June and July 2004. At the seasonal scale, Penilia avirostris appears first in June in the southern region, where temperatures are warmer, and its populations develop northward during the summer. Evadne-Pseudevadne did not show a clear pattern, likely because several species were pooled. In 2003 successive heat waves affecting southwestern Europe resulted in surface seawater temperatures about 2 °C higher than usual across the whole study region. These high temperatures were associated with much lower abundance of P. avirostris. Overall, the mesoscale distributions of cladocerans were associated with the presence of low salinity, productive and stratified waters of continental origin, and negatively linked to the intrusion of offshore waters. On the vertical scale P. avirostris was located within or above the thermocline, whereas Evadne-Pseudevadne was much shallower; no evidence of diel migration was detected in either group. Our study provides new insights regarding the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> limits for marine cladocerans in the NW Mediterranean; in the particular case of P. avirostris that knowledge can define the likely boundaries of its new distributions as it expands poleward under climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMED31A1364S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMED31A1364S"><span>Creating an informed citizenry through SMOGEE: Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Education: The Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Road Show</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schuster, D. A.; Thomas, C. W.; Filippelli, G. M.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Creating an informed citizenry through the promotion of the earth sciences as a long-term educational and employment option has become increasingly difficult: In recent years less than 7% of high school students and less than 12% of 8th graders in our nation have participated in an earth science course. These percentages are even lower among students of color, who often lack role models in the sciences. SMOGEE: Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Education: The Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Road Show; is a dynamic, three-phase, tiered mentoring program that selects and empowers 11th and 12th graders from science magnet programs to teach well-known and tested climate change curricula to 8th graders from local feeder schools. This program, which was recently funded by the National Science Foundation, focuses on a student population comprised of 75% non-white students and above 50% students on free or reduced lunch, and will be supported by an expert team consisting of university scientists and science educators, secondary science teachers, and museum educators. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> provides an outstanding "teachable moment" in that the processes leading to it are straightforward, but the net rate of impact and the human response are not so simple. This topic is also media- friendly (being politically sensitive, but also easy to translate in terms of rising temperatures and sea level, melting of ice sheets, possible increases in hurricane activity), and nearly all students have been exposed to information about climate change. However, students are probably not as aware of the geologic context of climate change, which provides nearly all of the scenarios for the potential impacts of future climate change. The 8th grade curriculum for this program is being developed primarily using Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and the Greenhouse Effect (Great Explorations in Math and Science, 1990). The expert team will supplement and further develop this 15 year old curriculum with recent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1339905','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1339905"><span><span class="hlt">NUMERICAL</span> MODELS AS ENABLING TOOLS FOR TIDAL-STREAM ENERGY EXTRACTION AND <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> IMPACT ASSESSMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping</p> <p>2016-06-24</p> <p>This paper presents a modeling study conducted to evaluate tidal-stream energy extraction and its associated potential <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts using a three-dimensional unstructured-grid coastal ocean model, which was coupled with a water-quality model and a tidal-turbine module.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1487..127L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1487..127L"><span>A <span class="hlt">numerical</span> approach to the non-convex dynamic problem of pipeline-soil interaction under <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liolios, K.; Georgiev, I.; Liolios, A.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">numerical</span> approach for a problem arising in Civil and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Engineering is presented. This problem concerns the dynamic soil-pipeline interaction, when unilateral contact conditions due to tensionless and elastoplastic softening/fracturing behaviour of the soil as well as due to gapping caused by earthquake excitations are taken into account. Moreover, soil-capacity degradation due to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects are taken into account. The mathematical formulation of this dynamic elastoplasticity problem leads to a system of partial differential equations with equality domain and inequality boundary conditions. The proposed <span class="hlt">numerical</span> approach is based on a double discretization, in space and time, and on mathematical programming methods. First, in space the finite element method (FEM) is used for the simulation of the pipeline and the unilateral contact interface, in combination with the boundary element method (BEM) for the soil simulation. Concepts of the non-convex analysis are used. Next, with the aid of Laplace transform, the equality problem conditions are transformed to convolutional ones involving as unknowns the unilateral quantities only. So the number of unknowns is significantly reduced. Then a marching-time approach is applied and a non-convex linear complementarity problem is solved in each time-step.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...52a2068L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...52a2068L"><span>The application of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation in pollutants migration into river basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Z. R.; Qin, Y. J.; Zhou, J. G.; Nan, H. Y.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>For the sustainable development of the social economy, it is very important that the water environment quality is analyzed, evaluated and predicted rationally, so that it could be planned, harnessed and managed effectively. To analyze and predict the water environment, the hydrodynamics behaviors and water pollution situations of the water body must be analyzed first based on hydrodynamics and water quality models. The objective of this work is to introduce how to establish river water dynamics and water quality model through the environment in the basin pollutant migration transformation rule, to simulate the rules and dynamics of river water pollution situation, to introduce the water quality model with geographic information system (GIS), and to apply the combination of environment <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation to basin pollutant migration problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20864951','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20864951"><span><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> and experimental investigations to lower <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of an open fireplace</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Menghini, Daniela; Marchione, Teresa; Marra, Francesco S.; Allouis, Christophe; Beretta, Federico; Martino, Giulio</p> <p>2007-04-15</p> <p>Experimental and computational activities were performed to determine the possible improvements of total <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of a wood-open fireplace. Two models of fireplaces will be discussed, both with the same power and with only a difference relative to the geometry of the internal elements of the heat exchanger. In the second model the two blades have been substituted with one pipe that represents a possible and cheaper solution in the way of optimization. The optimization process has been conducted up to the determination of a third configuration with a better thermal efficiency. While combustion emissions are difficult to reduce where only a minimum control of actual combustion conditions can be ensured in such domestic appliances, a significant improvement can be considered for the heat recover efficiency. This improvement can be achieved through a detailed analysis of the thermal conditions realized and can require modifications to the heat exchanger geometry profitable from the manufacturing point of view too. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B53B..02A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B53B..02A"><span>Mapping the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Boundaries for Methanogenesis in Serpentinizing Systems using a Cell-scale <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alperin, M. J.; Hoehler, T. M.; McCollom, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Serpentinizing systems occur where liquid water reacts with ultramafic minerals. The reaction releases heat and produces an alkaline fluid that is rich in H2. The abundant H2 suggests that the energetics of methane production by CO2 reduction is highly favorable (ΔG ~ -102 kJ/mol CH4 for [H2] ~ 10-2 M). Given the possibility of subsurface water and ultramafic minerals on Mars, methanogenesis in serpentinizing systems has been considered as a possible model for photosynthesis-independent, extraterrestrial life. However, the high pH (9 - 11) and possibly elevated temperature have a negative impact on the overall cellular energy balance by increasing the cell's maintenance energy and reducing the concentration of CO2 substrate. We developed a reaction-transport model on the scale of a methanogen cell to investigate how the overall bioenergetics of methane production is influenced by the interplay between pH, temperature, and H2 and CO2 concentration. The model differentiates the cell into three basic structural units (cell wall, cell membrane with gated ion channels, and cytoplasm) and employs both thermodynamic and kinetic controls to estimate an upper-limit energy yield as a function of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. The model provides a map of the range of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> extremes for which the energy balance for microbial methane production is positive. The model also provides a tool for exploring the energetics of different metabolic strategies that methanogens could use to cope with stresses associated with life in an alkaline, low-CO2 environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20690166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20690166"><span>A <span class="hlt">numerical</span> coefficient for evaluation of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of electromagnetic fields radiated by base stations for mobile communications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Russo, P; Cerri, G; Vespasiani, V</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The aim of this study is the development of an Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Impact Factor (EEIF). This is a global parameter that represents the level of electromagnetic impact on a specific area due to the presence of radiating systems, such as base station (BS) antennas for mobile communications. The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> value of the EEIF depends only on the electromagnetic field intensity, a well-defined physical quantity that can easily be measured or computed. The paper describes the significant parameters of the field distribution adopted to evaluate the EEIF, and the assumptions used to develop a proper scale of values. Finally, some examples of application of the EEIF method are analyzed for real situations in a typical urban area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP54A..08H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP54A..08H"><span>Dynamic Conceptual Model of Sediment Fluxes Underlying <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Modelling of Spatial and Temporal Variability and Adjustment to <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hooke, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>It is essential that a strong conceptual model underlies <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling of basin fluxes and is inclusive of all factors and routeways through the system. Even under stable <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions river fluxes in large basins vary spatially and temporally. Spatial variations arise due to location in the basin, relation to sources and connectivity, and due to morphology, boundary resistance and hydraulics of successive reaches. Temporal variations at a range of scales, from seasonal to decadal, occur within averaged 'stable' conditions, which produce changes in morphology and flux and subsequent feedback effects. Sediment flux in a reach can differ between similar peak magnitude events, depending on duration, season, connectivity and supply state, and existing morphology. Autogenic processes such as channel pattern and position changes, vegetation changes, and floodplain cyclicity also take place within the system. The major drivers of change at decadal-centennial timescales are assumed to be climate, land use cover and practices, and direct catchment and channel modification. Different parts of the system will have different trajectories of adjustment, depending on their location and spatial relation to connectivity within the system and on the reach morphological and resistance characteristics. These will govern the rate and extent of transmission of changes. The changes will also be influenced by the occurrence and sequence of flow events and their feedback effects, in relation to changing thresholds produced by the response to the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes. It is essential that the underlying dynamics and inherent variability are recognised in <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling and river management and that spatial sequencing of changes and their feedbacks are incorporated. The challenge is to produce quantifiable relations of the rate or propagation of changes through a basin given spatial variability of reach characteristics, under dynamic flow scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6613W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6613W"><span>OneRTM: an online real-time modelling platform for the next generation of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Lei; Kingdon, Andrew</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> modelling has been applied in many fields to better understand and predict the behaviours of different processes. In our increasingly dynamic world there is an imperative to identify potential stresses and threats in the environment and to respond quickly with sound decisions. However, the limitations in traditional modelling methodologies make it difficult to respond quickly to rapidly developing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> events, such as floods, droughts and pollution incidents. For example, it is both time consuming and costly to keep model data up-to-date and also to disseminate models results and modelled output datasets to end-users. Crucially it is difficult for people who has limited <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling skills to understand and interact with models and modelled results. In response to these challenges, a proof-of-concept online real-time modelling platform (OneRTM) has been developed as a mechanism for maintaining and disseminating <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models and datasets. This automatically keeps models current for the most recent input data, links models based on data flow; it makes models and modelled datasets (historic, real-time and forecasted) immediately available via the internet as easy-to-understand dynamic GIS layers and graphs; and it provides online modelling functions to allow non-modellers to manipulate model including running pre-defined scenarios with a few mouse clicks. OneRTM has been successfully applied and tested in the Chalk groundwater flow modelling in the Thames Basin, UK. The system hosts and links groundwater recharge and groundwater flow models in the case study area, and automatically publishes the latest groundwater level layers on the internet once the current weather datasets becomes available. It also provides online functions of generating groundwater hydrograph and running groundwater abstraction scenarios. Although OneRTM is currently tested using groundwater flow modelling as an example, it could be further developed into a platform</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..280..114R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..280..114R"><span>The meteorology of Gale Crater as determined from Rover <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Monitoring Station observations and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling. Part II: Interpretation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Pla-Garcia, Jorge; Kahre, Melinda; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Marín, Mercedes; Navarro, Sara; Torres, Josefina; Vasavada, Ashwin</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> modeling results from the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System are used to interpret the landed meteorological data from the Rover <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Monitoring Station onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. In order to characterize seasonal changes throughout the Martian year, simulations are conducted at Ls 0, 90, 180 and 270. Two additional simulations at Ls 225 and 315 are explored to better understand the unique meteorological setting centered on Ls 270. The synergistic combination of model and observations reveals a complex meteorological environment within the crater. Seasonal planetary circulations, the thermal tide, slope flows along the topographic dichotomy, mesoscale waves, slope flows along the crater slopes and Mt. Sharp, and turbulent motions all interact in nonlinear ways to produce the observed weather. Ls 270 is shown to be an anomalous season when air within and outside the crater is well mixed by strong, flushing northerly flow and large amplitude, breaking mountain waves. At other seasons, the air in the crater is more isolated from the surrounding environment. The potential impact of the partially isolated crater air mass on the dust, water, noncondensable and methane cycles is also considered. In contrast to previous studies, the large amplitude diurnal pressure signal is attributed primarily to necessary hydrostatic adjustments associated with topography of different elevations, with contributions of less than 25% to the diurnal amplitude from the crater circulation itself. The crater circulation is shown to induce a suppressed boundary layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311675&keyword=Scientific+AND+Work&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78751495&CFTOKEN=85972416','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311675&keyword=Scientific+AND+Work&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78751495&CFTOKEN=85972416"><span>Science Supporting <span class="hlt">Numeric</span> Nutrient Criteria for Lakes and Their Watersheds: A Synopsis of Research Completed for the US <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Nutrient pollution remains one of the most prevalent causes of water quality impairment in the United States. The U.S. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency’s (EPA) approach to addressing the challenge of managing nutrient pollution has included supporting development of <span class="hlt">numeric</span> nutri...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warmup&pg=7&id=EJ404495','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warmup&pg=7&id=EJ404495"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Up with Skill.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hoyle, R. J.; Smith, Robert F.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Too little time is often spent on <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up activities in the school or recreation class. <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-ups are often perfunctory and unimaginative. Several suggestions are made for <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up activities that incorporate both previously learned and new skills, while preparing the body for more vigorous activity. (IAH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...150...46A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...150...46A"><span>Sea surface temperatures and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions during the ;<span class="hlt">warm</span> Pliocene; interval ( 4.1-3.2 Ma) in the Eastern Mediterranean (Cyprus)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Athanasiou, M.; Bouloubassi, I.; Gogou, A.; Klein, V.; Dimiza, M. D.; Parinos, C.; Skampa, E.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Organic geochemical (alkenones) and micropaleontological (nannofossil) data from the Pissouri South section (PPS) in the island of Cyprus provided a detailed description of the paleoclimatic (sea surface temperature-SST) and paleoenvironmental conditions during the ;<span class="hlt">warm</span> Pliocene; (c. 4.1-3.25 Ma) in the Eastern Mediterranean. We found that the suite of sapropel events recorded in the studied interval took place under conditions of increased SST, enhanced water column stratification and development of a productive deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM), as witnessed by the dominance of Florisphaera profunda species. Such conditions are similar to those prevailing during Quaternary sapropel formation, triggered by freshwater discharges from the N. African margin due to insolation-driven intensification of the African monsoon. The absence of F. profunda in Pliocene sapropels from central Mediterranean records highlights the sensitive response of the eastern basin to freshwater perturbations. Comparisons between alkenone and calcareous nannofossil assemblage patterns infer Pseudoemiliania lacunosa as the main alkenone producer in sapropel layers; yet Reticulofenestra spp. contribution cannot be ruled out. The first Pliocene alkenone-SST record in the E. Mediterranean presented here documents the ;<span class="hlt">warm</span> Pliocene; period ( 4.1-3.25 Ma) characterized by mean SST of c. 26 °C. Distinct SST minima at 3.9 Ma, 3.58 Ma and between 3.34 and 3.31 Ma, correspond to the MIS Gi16, MIS MG12 and MIS M2 global cooling episodes, before the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Our findings imply that the peak of the MIS M2 cooling in the Eastern Mediterranean may be up to 40 kyrs older than the age attributed before to benthic stable oxygen isotopes records of this event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5498829','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5498829"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Oversight of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, December 10, 1985</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Scientists and public officials testified at a hearing held to explore the evidence and speculation that a <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend is changing the global environment that was the conclusion of a 29-nation conference of private and government scientists. The witnesses described the potential <span class="hlt">environmental</span> destruction caused by the greenhouse effect, but also noted that technological solutions in the form of controlling gases and reforestation are available. A consensus has emerged in recent years that gases formed under the greenhouse effect will have a greater effect on climate than any other factor. The witnesses included Ralph Circerone of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Syukuro Manage of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Carl Sagan of Cornell. Two additional statements submitted for the record follow the testimony of the six witnesses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21406244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21406244"><span>An experimental test of the role of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperature variability on ectotherm molecular, physiological and life-history traits: implications for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Folguera, Guillermo; Bastías, Daniel A; Caers, Jelle; Rojas, José M; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Bellés, Xavier; Bozinovic, Francisco</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Global climate change is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity; one of the most important effects is the increase in the mean earth surface temperature. However, another but poorly studied main characteristic of global change appears to be an increase in temperature variability. Most of the current analyses of global change have focused on mean values, paying less attention to the role of the fluctuations of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables. We experimentally tested the effects of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperature variability on characteristics associated to the fitness (body mass balance, growth rate, and survival), metabolic rate (VCO(2)) and molecular traits (heat shock protein expression, Hsp70), in an ectotherm, the terrestrial woodlouse Porcellio laevis. Our general hypotheses are that higher values of thermal amplitude may directly affect life-history traits, increasing metabolic cost and stress responses. At first, results supported our hypotheses showing a diversity of responses among characters to the experimental thermal treatments. We emphasize that knowledge about the cellular and physiological mechanisms by which animals cope with <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes is essential to understand the impact of mean climatic change and variability. Also, we consider that the studies that only incorporate only mean temperatures to predict the life-history, ecological and evolutionary impact of global temperature changes present important problems to predict the diversity of responses of the organism. This is because the analysis ignores the complexity and details of the molecular and physiological processes by which animals cope with <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variability, as well as the life-history and demographic consequences of such variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080030145&hterms=Ink&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DInk','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080030145&hterms=Ink&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DInk"><span>Explaining <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Coronal Loops</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Klimchuk, James A.; Karpen, Judy T.; Patsourakos, Spiros</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>One of the great mysteries of coronal physics that has come to light in the last few years is the discovery that warn (- 1 INK) coronal loops are much denser than expected for quasi-static equilibrium. Both the excess densities and relatively long lifetimes of the loops can be explained with bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively to very high temperatures. Since neighboring strands are at different stages of cooling, the composite loop bundle is multi-thermal, with the distribution of temperatures depending on the details of the "nanoflare storm." Emission hotter than 2 MK is predicted, but it is not clear that such emission is always observed. We consider two possible explanations for the existence of over-dense <span class="hlt">warm</span> loops without corresponding hot emission: (1) loops are bundles of nanoflare heated strands, but a significant fraction of the nanoflare energy takes the form of a nonthermal electron beam rather then direct plasma heating; (2) loops are bundles of strands that undergo thermal nonequilibrium that results when steady heating is sufficiently concentrated near the footpoints. We present <span class="hlt">numerical</span> hydro simulations of both of these possibilities and explore the observational consequences, including the production of hard X-ray emission and absorption by cool material in the corona.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6264411','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6264411"><span><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> challenge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..163Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..163Z"><span>Relative roles of differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span>, uniform SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> and land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in determining the Walker circulation changes under global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Lei; Li, Tim</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Most of CMIP5 models projected a weakened Walker circulation in tropical Pacific, but what causes such change is still an open question. By conducting idealized <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations separating the effects of the spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) <span class="hlt">warming</span>, extra land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> and differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span>, we demonstrate that the weakening of the Walker circulation is attributed to the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon and South America land effects. The effect of the uniform SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> is through so-called "richest-get-richer" mechanism. In response to a uniform surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the WNP monsoon is enhanced by competing moisture with other large-scale convective branches. The strengthened WNP monsoon further induces surface westerlies in the equatorial western-central Pacific, weakening the Walker circulation. The increase of the greenhouse gases leads to a larger land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> than ocean surface. As a result, a greater thermal contrast occurs between American Continent and equatorial Pacific. The so-induced zonal pressure gradient anomaly forces low-level westerly anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and weakens the Walker circulation. The differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> also plays a role in driving low-level westerly anomalies over tropical Pacific. But such an effect involves a positive air-sea feedback that amplifies the weakening of both east-west SST gradient and Pacific trade winds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48..987Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48..987Z"><span>Relative roles of differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span>, uniform SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> and land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in determining the Walker circulation changes under global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Lei; Li, Tim</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Most of CMIP5 models projected a weakened Walker circulation in tropical Pacific, but what causes such change is still an open question. By conducting idealized <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations separating the effects of the spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) <span class="hlt">warming</span>, extra land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> and differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span>, we demonstrate that the weakening of the Walker circulation is attributed to the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon and South America land effects. The effect of the uniform SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> is through so-called "richest-get-richer" mechanism. In response to a uniform surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the WNP monsoon is enhanced by competing moisture with other large-scale convective branches. The strengthened WNP monsoon further induces surface westerlies in the equatorial western-central Pacific, weakening the Walker circulation. The increase of the greenhouse gases leads to a larger land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> than ocean surface. As a result, a greater thermal contrast occurs between American Continent and equatorial Pacific. The so-induced zonal pressure gradient anomaly forces low-level westerly anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and weakens the Walker circulation. The differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> also plays a role in driving low-level westerly anomalies over tropical Pacific. But such an effect involves a positive air-sea feedback that amplifies the weakening of both east-west SST gradient and Pacific trade winds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005487','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005487"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span>/cold cloud processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bowdle, D. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Technical assistance continued in support of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory is discussed. A study of factors affecting <span class="hlt">warm</span> cloud formation showed that the time of formation during an arbitrary expansion is independent of carrier gas composition for ideal gases and independent of aerosol concentration for low concentrations of very small aerosols. Equipment and procedures for gravimetric evaluation of a precision saturator were laboratory tested. A <span class="hlt">numerical</span> feasibility study was conducted for the stable levitation of charged solution droplets by an electric field in a one-g static diffusion chamber. The concept, operating principles, applications, limits, and sensitivity of the levitation technique are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21591249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21591249"><span>Estimating the designated use attainment decision error rates of US <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency's proposed <span class="hlt">numeric</span> total phosphorus criteria for Florida, USA, colored lakes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McLaughlin, Douglas B</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The utility of <span class="hlt">numeric</span> nutrient criteria established for certain surface waters is likely to be affected by the uncertainty that exists in the presence of a causal link between nutrient stressor variables and designated use-related biological responses in those waters. This uncertainty can be difficult to characterize, interpret, and communicate to a broad audience of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stakeholders. The US <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a systematic planning process to support a variety of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> decisions, but this process is not generally applied to the development of national or state-level <span class="hlt">numeric</span> nutrient criteria. This article describes a method for implementing such an approach and uses it to evaluate the <span class="hlt">numeric</span> total P criteria recently proposed by USEPA for colored lakes in Florida, USA. An empirical, log-linear relationship between geometric mean concentrations of total P (a potential stressor variable) and chlorophyll a (a nutrient-related response variable) in these lakes-that is assumed to be causal in nature-forms the basis for the analysis. The use of the geometric mean total P concentration of a lake to correctly indicate designated use status, defined in terms of a 20 µg/L geometric mean chlorophyll a threshold, is evaluated. Rates of decision errors analogous to the Type I and Type II error rates familiar in hypothesis testing, and a 3rd error rate, E(ni) , referred to as the nutrient criterion-based impairment error rate, are estimated. The results show that USEPA's proposed "baseline" and "modified" nutrient criteria approach, in which data on both total P and chlorophyll a may be considered in establishing <span class="hlt">numeric</span> nutrient criteria for a given lake within a specified range, provides a means for balancing and minimizing designated use attainment decision errors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004EOSTr..85..270M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004EOSTr..85..270M"><span>The Discovery of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MacCracken, Michael C.</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>At the beginning of the twentieth century, the prospect of ``global <span class="hlt">warming</span>'' as a result of human activities was thought to be far off, and in any case, likely to be beneficial. As we begin the twenty-first century, science adviser to the British government, Sir David King, has said that he considers global <span class="hlt">warming</span> to be the world's most important problem, including terrorism. Yet, dealing with it has become the subject of a contentious international protocol, <span class="hlt">numerous</span> conferences of international diplomats, and major scientific assessments and research programs. Spencer Weart, who is director of the Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics, has taken on the challenge of explaining how this came to be. In the tradition of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which was established in 1988 to evaluate and assess the state of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> science, this book is roughly equivalent to the Technical Summary, in terms of its technical level, being quite readable, but with substantive content about the main lines of evidence. Underpinning this relatively concise presentation, there is a well-developed-and still developing-Web site that, like the detailed chapters of the full IPCC assessment reports, provides vastly more information and linkages to a much wider set of reference materials (see http://www.aip.org/history/climate).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warmup&pg=6&id=EJ601591','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warmup&pg=6&id=EJ601591"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-Up Activities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mingguang, Yang</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Discusses how <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up activities can help to make the English-as-a-foreign-language classroom a lively and interesting place. <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up activities are games carried out at the beginning of each class to motivate students to make good use of class time. (Author/VWL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+marine+AND+environment&id=EJ412301','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+marine+AND+environment&id=EJ412301"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Trends.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jones, Philip D.; Wigley, Tom M. L.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Results from the analysis of land and marine records from the past century are presented. It is indicated that the planet earth has <span class="hlt">warmed</span> about one-half of a degree celsius. The uncertainty of these measurements and future <span class="hlt">warming</span> trends are discussed. (CW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5034847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5034847"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Economic policy responses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24520732','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24520732"><span><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> study of regional <span class="hlt">environmental</span> carrying capacity for livestock and poultry farming based on planting-breeding balance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Lihong; Bai, Yu</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>In consideration of the need to maintain planting-breeding balance, this article examines the capacity of the soil in Putian City, Fujian Province to absorb livestock and poultry excreta, and computes the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> carrying capacity for livestock and poultry farming (ECCLPF) in each district of the city in terms of the fertility characteristics of the soil in the city, as well as its mix of crops cultivated and farming methods. On the basis of the computations, this work proceeds to classify the alarm grades of the city's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> carrying capacity for livestock and poultry framing, and assess the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of the livestock and poultry farming industry. The results of our study indicate that, the city's ECCLPF ranges from 8.27 to 23.23 heads per ha when computed on the basis of nitrogen, and from 5.79 to 24.53 heads per ha when computed on the basis of phosphorus. A comparison between our research findings and the existing farming scale in Putian reveals that, in certain parts of the city, ECCLPF is overburdened to varying degrees. Specifically, Chengxiang District is severely overburdened, Hanjiang District and Meizhou Island have a level of overburdening between virtual overburdening and significant overburdening, Licheng District is virtually overburdened, and Xiuyu, Xianyou, and Bei'an Districts have not exceeded their <span class="hlt">environmental</span> carrying capacity and therefore have varying levels of potential for growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26043384','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26043384"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> autoimmune hemolytic anemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naik, Rakhi</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is defined as the destruction of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) in the setting of anti-RBC autoantibodies that optimally react at 37°C. The pathophysiology of disease involves phagocytosis of autoantibody-coated RBCs in the spleen and complement-mediated hemolysis. Thus far, treatment is aimed at decreasing autoantibody production with immunosuppression or reducing phagocytosis of affected cells in the spleen. The role of complement inhibitors in <span class="hlt">warm</span> AIHA has not been explored. This article addresses the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of <span class="hlt">warm</span> AIHA and highlights the role of complement in disease pathology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A21B0007L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A21B0007L"><span>Can Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> be Stopped?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luria, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> have been reported in <span class="hlt">numerous</span> occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater <span class="hlt">environmental</span> hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dinosaur&pg=5&id=EJ658270','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dinosaur&pg=5&id=EJ658270"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cool Dinosaurs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mannlein, Sally</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000726','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000726"><span>Reconciling <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew T.; Tsigaridis, Konstantinos</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Climate models projected stronger <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the past 15 years than has been seen in observations. Conspiring factors of errors in volcanic and solar inputs, representations of aerosols, and El NiNo evolution, may explain most of the discrepancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoRL..36.8706E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoRL..36.8706E"><span>Is the climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> or cooling?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Easterling, David R.; Wehner, Michael F.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerous</span> websites, blogs and articles in the media have claimed that the climate is no longer <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and is now cooling. Here we show that periods of no trend or even cooling of the globally averaged surface air temperature are found in the last 34 years of the observed record, and in climate model simulations of the 20th and 21st century forced with increasing greenhouse gases. We show that the climate over the 21st century can and likely will produce periods of a decade or two where the globally averaged surface air temperature shows no trend or even slight cooling in the presence of longer-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P21G..01M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P21G..01M"><span>Polar <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Drivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McDunn, T. L.; Bougher, S. W.; Mischna, M. A.; Murphy, J. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a dynamically induced temperature enhancement over mid-to-high latitudes that results in a reversed (poleward) meridional temperature gradient. This phenomenon was recently characterized over the 40-90 km altitude region [1] based on nearly three martian years of Mars Climate Sounder observations [2, 3]. Here we investigate which forcing mechanisms affect the magnitude and distribution of the observed polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> by conducting simulations with the Mars Weather Research and Forecasting General Circulation Model [4, 5]. We present simulations confirming the influence topography [6] and dust loading [e.g., 7] have upon polar <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We then present simulations illustrating the modulating influence gravity wave momentum deposition exerts upon polar <span class="hlt">warming</span>, consistent with previous modeling studies [e.g., 8]. The results of this investigation suggest the magnitude and distribution of polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the martian middle atmosphere is modified by gravity wave activity and that the characteristics of the gravity waves that most significantly affect polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> vary with season. References: [1] McDunn, et al., 2012 (JGR), [2]Kleinböhl, et al., 2009 (JGR), [3] Kleinböhl, et al., 2011 (JQSRT), [4] Richardson, et al., 2007 (JGR), [5] Mischna, et al., 2011 (Planet. Space Sci.), [6] Richardson and Wilson, 2002 (Nature), [7] Haberle, et al., 1982 (Icarus), [8] Barnes, 1990 (JGR).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5...37T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5...37T"><span>Acting green elicits a literal <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> policies are often based on the assumption that people only act <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow could express itself quite literally: people who act <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-<span class="hlt">environmental</span> actions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6914531','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6914531"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Broeker, W.S.</p> <p>1992-04-01</p> <p>Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current <span class="hlt">warming</span> from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have <span class="hlt">warmed</span> the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the <span class="hlt">warming</span> expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19062328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19062328"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and sexual plant reproduction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hedhly, Afif; Hormaza, José I; Herrero, María</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The sexual reproductive phase in plants might be particularly vulnerable to the effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The direct effect of temperature changes on the reproductive process has been documented previously, and recent data from other physiological processes that are affected by rising temperatures seem to reinforce the susceptibility of the reproductive process to a changing climate. But the reproductive phase also provides the plant with an opportunity to adapt to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes. Understanding phenotypic plasticity and gametophyte selection for prevailing temperatures, along with possible epigenetic changes during this process, could provide new insights into plant evolution under a global-<span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760037250&hterms=QUIROZ&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DQUIROZ','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760037250&hterms=QUIROZ&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DQUIROZ"><span>A comparison of observed and simulated properties of sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Quiroz, R. S.; Miller, A. J.; Nagatani, R. M.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Review of observational data and dynamical <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations of stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. Classes of <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, major and minor (major if poleward movement of planetary-scale thermal systems entails reversal of polar circulation at 10 mb or below), trajectories of <span class="hlt">warm</span> cells, vertical and horizontal scale of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-air systems, the time-scale of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, initial zonal flow conditions prior to a <span class="hlt">warming</span>, circulation reversals, and details of the energy budget before and after a <span class="hlt">warming</span> are discussed. The 1963 and 1973 types of <span class="hlt">warmings</span> are contrasted: the strong baroclinic conversion of eddy potential to eddy kinetic energy was not repeated in the latter, but both events were preceded by very large fluxes from the troposphere. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> model simulations by various authors are compared and evaluated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ESSD....9...63B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ESSD....9...63B"><span>A sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> compendium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butler, Amy H.; Sjoberg, Jeremiah P.; Seidel, Dian J.; Rosenlof, Karen H.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Major, sudden midwinter stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> (SSWs) are large and rapid temperature increases in the winter polar stratosphere are associated with a complete reversal of the climatological westerly winds (i.e., the polar vortex). These extreme events can have substantial impacts on winter surface climate, including increased frequency of cold air outbreaks over North America and Eurasia and anomalous <span class="hlt">warming</span> over Greenland and eastern Canada. Here we present a SSW Compendium (SSWC), a new database that documents the evolution of the stratosphere, troposphere, and surface conditions 60 days prior to and after SSWs for the period 1958-2014. The SSWC comprises data from six different reanalysis products: MERRA2 (1980-2014), JRA-55 (1958-2014), ERA-interim (1979-2014), ERA-40 (1958-2002), NOAA20CRv2c (1958-2011), and NCEP-NCAR I (1958-2014). Global gridded daily anomaly fields, full fields, and derived products are provided for each SSW event. The compendium will allow users to examine the structure and evolution of individual SSWs, and the variability among events and among reanalysis products. The SSWC is archived and maintained by NOAA's National Centers for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Information (NCEI, <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.7289/V5NS0RWP" target="_blank">doi:10.7289/V5NS0RWP</a>).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/765569','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/765569"><span>A Transient <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Simulation of Perched Ground-Water Flow at the Test Reactor Area, Idaho National Engineering and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Laboratory, Idaho, 1952-94</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>B. R. Orr</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>Studies of flow through the unsaturated zone and perched ground-water zones above the Snake River Plain aquifer are part of the overall assessment of ground-water flow and determination of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Laboratory (INEEL). These studies include definition of the hydrologic controls on the formation of perched ground-water zones and description of the transport and fate of wastewater constituents as they moved through the unsaturated zone. The definition of hydrologic controls requires stratigraphic correlation of basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds within the saturated zone, analysis of hydraulic properties of unsaturated-zone rocks, <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling of the formation of perched ground-water zones, and batch and column experiments to determine rock-water geochemical processes. This report describes the development of a transient <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation that was used to evaluate a conceptual model of flow through perched ground-water zones beneath wastewater infiltration ponds at the Test Reactor Area (TRA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23..533M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23..533M"><span><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> modeling and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> isotope methods in integrated mine-water management: a case study from the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mengistu, Haile; Tessema, Abera; Abiye, Tamiru; Demlie, Molla; Lin, Haili</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Improved groundwater flow conceptualization was achieved using <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stable isotope (ESI) and hydrochemical information to complete a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> groundwater flow model with reasonable certainty. The study aimed to assess the source of excess water at a pumping shaft located near the town of Stilfontein, North West Province, South Africa. The results indicate that the water intercepted at Margaret Shaft comes largely from seepage of a nearby mine tailings dam (Dam 5) and from the upper dolomite aquifer. If pumping at the shaft continues at the current rate and Dam 5 is decommissioned, neighbouring shallow farm boreholes would dry up within approximately 10 years. Stable isotope data of shaft water indicate that up to 50 % of the pumped water from Margaret Shaft is recirculated, mainly from Dam 5. The results are supplemented by tritium data, demonstrating that recent recharge is taking place through open fractures as well as man-made underground workings, whereas hydrochemical data of fissure water samples from roughly 950 m below ground level exhibit mine-water signatures. Pumping at the shaft, which captures shallow groundwater as well as seepage from surface dams, is a highly recommended option for preventing flooding of downstream mines. The results of this research highlight the importance of additional methods (ESI and hydrochemical analyses) to improve flow conceptualization and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27250675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27250675"><span>Light accelerates plant responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Frenne, Pieter; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; De Schrijver, An; Coomes, David A; Hermy, Martin; Vangansbeke, Pieter; Verheyen, Kris</p> <p>2015-08-17</p> <p>Competition for light has profound effects on plant performance in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems. Nowhere is this more evident than in forests, where trees create <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity that shapes the dynamics of forest-floor communities(1-3). Observational evidence suggests that biotic responses to both anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen pollution may be attenuated by the shading effects of trees and shrubs(4-9). Here we show experimentally that tree shade is slowing down changes in below-canopy communities due to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We manipulated levels of photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and nitrogen, alone and in combination, in a temperate forest understorey over a 3-year period, and monitored the composition of the understorey community. Light addition, but not nitrogen enrichment, accelerated directional plant community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, increasing the dominance of warmth-preferring taxa over cold-tolerant plants (a process described as thermophilization(6,10-12)). Tall, competitive plants took greatest advantage of the combination of elevated temperature and light. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of the forest floor did not result in strong community thermophilization unless light was also increased. Our findings suggest that the maintenance of locally closed canopy conditions could reduce, at least temporarily, <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced changes in forest floor plant communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cool&pg=3&id=EJ1002704','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cool&pg=3&id=EJ1002704"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cool Cityscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jubelirer, Shelly</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED263758.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED263758.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span> Up to Communication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Garner, Lucia Caycedo; Rusch, Debbie</p> <p></p> <p>Daily <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up exercises are advocated as a means of bridging the gap between previously unrelated activities outside the classroom and immersion into the second language, relaxing the class, and establishing a mood for communication. Variety, careful preparation, assuring that the students understand the activity, feeling free to discontinue an…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NatCC...1..437.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NatCC...1..437."><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> 'confirmed'</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In October, the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project, funded in part by climate sceptics, concluded that the Earth is <span class="hlt">warming</span> based on the most comprehensive review of the data yet. Nature Climate Change talks to the project's director, physicist Richard Muller.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pump+AND+heat&id=EJ932287','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pump+AND+heat&id=EJ932287"><span>Buried in the <span class="hlt">Warm</span>, <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Ground</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ellis-Tipton, John</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Buntingsdale Infant School in Shropshire has installed an <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly heating system. The school's heating system is called a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP). Buntingsdale, a three-classroom infant school in a wooden demountable building, is one of the first schools in Britain to use this system. The system is fully automatic: it is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16428292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16428292"><span>Plant community responses to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> across the tundra biome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walker, Marilyn D; Wahren, C Henrik; Hollister, Robert D; Henry, Greg H R; Ahlquist, Lorraine E; Alatalo, Juha M; Bret-Harte, M Syndonia; Calef, Monika P; Callaghan, Terry V; Carroll, Amy B; Epstein, Howard E; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Klein, Julia A; Magnússon, Borgthór; Molau, Ulf; Oberbauer, Steven F; Rewa, Steven P; Robinson, Clare H; Shaver, Gaius R; Suding, Katharine N; Thompson, Catharine C; Tolvanen, Anne; Totland, Ørjan; Turner, P Lee; Tweedie, Craig E; Webber, Patrick J; Wookey, Philip A</p> <p>2006-01-31</p> <p>Recent observations of changes in some tundra ecosystems appear to be responses to a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. Several experimental studies have shown that tundra plants and ecosystems can respond strongly to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, including <span class="hlt">warming</span>; however, most studies were limited to a single location and were of short duration and based on a variety of experimental designs. In addition, comparisons among studies are difficult because a variety of techniques have been used to achieve experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> and different measurements have been used to assess responses. We used metaanalysis on plant community measurements from standardized <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments at 11 locations across the tundra biome involved in the International Tundra Experiment. The passive <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment increased plant-level air temperature by 1-3 degrees C, which is in the range of predicted and observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> for tundra regions. Responses were rapid and detected in whole plant communities after only two growing seasons. Overall, <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased height and cover of deciduous shrubs and graminoids, decreased cover of mosses and lichens, and decreased species diversity and evenness. These results predict that <span class="hlt">warming</span> will cause a decline in biodiversity across a wide variety of tundra, at least in the short term. They also provide rigorous experimental evidence that recently observed increases in shrub cover in many tundra regions are in response to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These changes have important implications for processes and interactions within tundra ecosystems and between tundra and the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1360515','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1360515"><span>Plant community responses to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> across the tundra biome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Walker, Marilyn D.; Wahren, C. Henrik; Hollister, Robert D.; Henry, Greg H. R.; Ahlquist, Lorraine E.; Alatalo, Juha M.; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Calef, Monika P.; Callaghan, Terry V.; Carroll, Amy B.; Epstein, Howard E.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S.; Klein, Julia A.; Magnússon, Borgþór; Molau, Ulf; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Rewa, Steven P.; Robinson, Clare H.; Shaver, Gaius R.; Suding, Katharine N.; Thompson, Catharine C.; Tolvanen, Anne; Totland, Ørjan; Turner, P. Lee; Tweedie, Craig E.; Webber, Patrick J.; Wookey, Philip A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Recent observations of changes in some tundra ecosystems appear to be responses to a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. Several experimental studies have shown that tundra plants and ecosystems can respond strongly to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, including <span class="hlt">warming</span>; however, most studies were limited to a single location and were of short duration and based on a variety of experimental designs. In addition, comparisons among studies are difficult because a variety of techniques have been used to achieve experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> and different measurements have been used to assess responses. We used metaanalysis on plant community measurements from standardized <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments at 11 locations across the tundra biome involved in the International Tundra Experiment. The passive <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment increased plant-level air temperature by 1-3°C, which is in the range of predicted and observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> for tundra regions. Responses were rapid and detected in whole plant communities after only two growing seasons. Overall, <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased height and cover of deciduous shrubs and graminoids, decreased cover of mosses and lichens, and decreased species diversity and evenness. These results predict that <span class="hlt">warming</span> will cause a decline in biodiversity across a wide variety of tundra, at least in the short term. They also provide rigorous experimental evidence that recently observed increases in shrub cover in many tundra regions are in response to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These changes have important implications for processes and interactions within tundra ecosystems and between tundra and the atmosphere. PMID:16428292</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091158','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091158"><span>Accounting protesting and <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> goods--an empirical case study assessing the value of protecting a Natura 2000 wetland area in Greece.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye</p> <p>2013-11-30</p> <p>Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids are rooted to some extent in <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow reasoning while 29% of the zero bids can be classified as expressions of protest rather than preferences. In previous studies, <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidders are only rarely identified while protesters are typically identified and excluded from further analysis. We test for selection bias associated with simple removal of both protesters and <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidders in our data. Our findings show that removal of <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidders does not significantly distort WTP whereas we find strong evidence of selection bias associated with removal of protesters. We show how to correct for such selection bias by using a sample selection model. In our empirical sample, using the typical approach of removing protesters from the analysis, the value of protecting the wetland is significantly underestimated by as much as 46% unless correcting for selection bias.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5465207','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5465207"><span>Greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> still coming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kerr, R.A.</p> <p>1986-05-02</p> <p>The growing store of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation is a far larger and more pervasive problem than acid rain. The predictions of the latest models that have been applied to the problem, called GCM-mixed-layer ocean models, predict a global temperature increase between 3.5 and 4.2 degrees Celsius. They predict that the <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be larger near the poles than near the equator. They also predict increases and decreases in precipitation depending on location, the largest changes being between 30/sup 0/N and 30/sup 0/S. If CO/sub 2/ and trace gas concentrations continue to rise as projected and model calculations are essentially correct, the increasing global scale <span class="hlt">warming</span> should become much more evident over the next few decades. 1 figure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27768357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27768357"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Little Inflaton.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Ramos, Rudnei O; Rosa, João G</p> <p>2016-10-07</p> <p>We show that inflation can naturally occur at a finite temperature T>H that is sustained by dissipative effects, when the inflaton field corresponds to a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson of a broken gauge symmetry. Similar to the Little Higgs scenarios for electroweak symmetry breaking, the flatness of the inflaton potential is protected against both quadratic divergences and the leading thermal corrections. We show that, nevertheless, nonlocal dissipative effects are naturally present and are able to sustain a nearly thermal bath of light particles despite the accelerated expansion of the Universe. As an example, we discuss the dynamics of chaotic <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation with a quartic potential and show that the associated observational predictions are in very good agreement with the latest Planck results. This model constitutes the first realization of <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation requiring only a small number of fields; in particular, the inflaton is directly coupled to just two light fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117o1301B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117o1301B"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Little Inflaton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Ramos, Rudnei O.; Rosa, João G.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We show that inflation can naturally occur at a finite temperature T >H that is sustained by dissipative effects, when the inflaton field corresponds to a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson of a broken gauge symmetry. Similar to the Little Higgs scenarios for electroweak symmetry breaking, the flatness of the inflaton potential is protected against both quadratic divergences and the leading thermal corrections. We show that, nevertheless, nonlocal dissipative effects are naturally present and are able to sustain a nearly thermal bath of light particles despite the accelerated expansion of the Universe. As an example, we discuss the dynamics of chaotic <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation with a quartic potential and show that the associated observational predictions are in very good agreement with the latest Planck results. This model constitutes the first realization of <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation requiring only a small number of fields; in particular, the inflaton is directly coupled to just two light fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3397B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3397B"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> And Meltwater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bratu, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global <span class="hlt">warming</span> information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4757764','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4757764"><span>Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">warm</span> period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> climate models. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate <span class="hlt">environmental</span> synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change. PMID:26879640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26879640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26879640"><span>Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">warm</span> period.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haywood, Alan M; Dowsett, Harry J; Dolan, Aisling M</p> <p>2016-02-16</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> climate models. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate <span class="hlt">environmental</span> synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995GeoRL..22..803T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995GeoRL..22..803T"><span>Carbonyl sulfide: No remedy for global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taubman, Steven J.; Kasting, James F.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>The enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer caused by the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (June 15, 1991), and the subsequent cooling of the earth's lower atmosphere [Dutton and Christy, 1992; Minnis et al., 1993] shows that stratospheric aerosols can have a strong effect on the earth's climate. This supports the notion that the intentional enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer through increased carbonyl sulfide (OCS) emissions might be an effective means for counteracting global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Through the use of a one-dimensional photochemical model, we investigate what effect such a program might have on global average stratospheric ozone. In addition, we consider the impact of enhanced OCS emissions on rainwater acidity and on the overall health of both plants and animals. We find that while the <span class="hlt">warming</span> produced by a single CO2 doubling (1 to 4°C) might be offset with ozone losses of less than 5%, any attempt to use carbonyl sulfide as a permanent solution to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> could result in depletion of global average ozone by 30% or more. We estimate that in order to achieve cooling of 4°C rainwater pH would fall to between 3.5 and 3.8. Finally, a 4°C cooling at the surface will require that ambient near ground OCS levels rise to above 10 ppmv which is probably greater than the safe exposure limit for humans. Thus, enhanced OCS emissions do not provide an <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> acceptable solution to the problem of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/377245','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/377245"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> climate surprises</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Overpeck, J.T.</p> <p>1996-03-29</p> <p>Over the last decade, paleoclimatic data from ice cores and sediments have shown that the climate system is capable of switching between significantly different modes, suggesting that climatic surprises may lie ahead. Most attention in the growing area of abrupt climatic change research continues to be focused on large changes observed during glacial periods. The weight of paleoclimatic evidence now suggests that conforting conclusions of benign <span class="hlt">warm</span> climate variability may be incorrect. The article goes on to discuss the evidence for this. 17 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2527915','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2527915"><span>Opposing plant community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> with and without herbivores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Post, Eric; Pedersen, Christian</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>If controls over primary productivity and plant community composition are mainly <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, as opposed to biological, then global change may result in large-scale alterations in ecosystem structure and function. This view appears to be favored among investigations of plant biomass and community responses to experimental and observed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In far northern and arctic ecosystems, such studies predict increasing dominance of woody shrubs with future <span class="hlt">warming</span> and emphasize the carbon (C)-sequestration potential and consequent atmospheric feedback potential of such responses. In contrast to previous studies, we incorporated natural herbivory by muskoxen and caribou into a 5-year experimental investigation of arctic plant community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In accordance with other studies, <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased total community biomass by promoting growth of deciduous shrubs (dwarf birch and gray willow). However, muskoxen and caribou reduced total community biomass response, and responses of birch and willow, to <span class="hlt">warming</span> by 19%, 46%, and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, under <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone, the plant community shifted after 5 years away from graminoid-dominated toward dwarf birch-dominated. In contrast, where herbivores grazed, plant community composition on <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots did not differ from that on ambient plots after 5 years. These results highlight the potentially important and overlooked influences of vertebrate herbivores on plant community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and emphasize that conservation and management of large herbivores may be an important component of mitigating ecosystem response to climate change. PMID:18719116</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6457890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6457890"><span>Parameters of human discomfort in <span class="hlt">warm</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berglund, L.G.; Cunningham, D.J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The relationship between thermoregulatory responses during exposure to <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hot environments and the associated subjective perceptions, e.g., comfort, thermal sensation, etc., have been studied by <span class="hlt">numerous</span> investigators over a considerable span of time, i.e., roughly 50 years. Skin temperature, mean body temperature, sweating, and percent of skin wettedness have been shown to have a role in comfort, thermal sensation, and perception of skin moisture. This paper reviews studies concerned with the physical and physiological parameters relative to these subjective responses and their level of magnitude, with primary emphasis on <span class="hlt">warm</span> discomfort and skin moisture. The review indicates that, while utilizing different methodologies for quantification of skin moisture under a wide range of ambient conditions and experimental protocols, the relationship between skin wettedness and discomfort or unpleasantness is consistent and experimentally supported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5365127','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5365127"><span>Policies on global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and ozone depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Green, B.</p> <p>1987-04-01</p> <p>The recent discovery of a dramatic seasonal drop in the amount of ozone over Antarctica has catalyzed concern for protection of stratospheric ozone, the layer of gas that shields the entire planet from excess ultraviolet radiation. Conservative scientific models predict about a 5% reduction in the amount of global ozone by the middle of the next century, with large local variations. The predicted global <span class="hlt">warming</span> from increased emissions of greenhouse gases will also have differing effects on local climate and weather conditions and consequently on agriculture. Although <span class="hlt">numerous</span> uncertainties are associated with both ozone depletion and a global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, there is a consensus that world leaders need to address the problems. The US Congress is now beginning to take note of the task. In this article, one representative outlines some perceptions of the problems and the policy options available to Congress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC22A..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC22A..06S"><span>Is Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Accelerating?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C <span class="hlt">warming</span> that has been observed during the twentieth century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H21G..06E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H21G..06E"><span>Distribution of Groundwater Ages at Public-Supply Wells: Comparison of Results from Lumped Parameter and <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Inverse Models with Multiple <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Tracers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eberts, S.; Bohlke, J. K.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Estimates of groundwater age distributions at public-supply wells can provide insight into the vulnerability of these wells to contamination. Such estimates can be used to explore past and future water-quality trends and contaminant peak concentrations when combined with information on contaminant input at the water table. Information on groundwater age distributions, however, is not routinely applied to water quality issues at public-supply wells. This may be due, in part, to the difficulty in obtaining such estimates from poorly characterized aquifers with limited <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracer data. To this end, we compared distributions of groundwater ages in discharge from public-supply wells estimated from age tracer data (SF6, CFCs, 3H, 3He) using two different inverse modeling approaches: relatively simple lumped parameter models and more complex distributed-parameter <span class="hlt">numerical</span> flow models with particle tracking. These comparisons were made in four contrasting hydrogeologic settings across the United States: unconsolidated alluvial fan sediments, layered confined unconsolidated sediments, unconsolidated valley-fill sediments, and carbonate rocks. In all instances, multiple age tracer measurements for the public-supply well of interest were available. We compared the following quantities, which were derived from simulated breakthrough curves that were generated using the various estimated age distributions for the selected wells and assuming the same hypothetical contaminant input: time lag to peak concentration, dilution at peak concentration, and contaminant arrival and flush times. Apparent tracer-based ages and mean and median simulated ages also were compared. For each setting, both types of models yielded similar age distributions and concentration trends, when based on similar conceptual models of local hydrogeology and calibrated to the same tracer measurements. Results indicate carefully chosen and calibrated simple lumped parameter age distribution models</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/355511','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/355511"><span>Winners and losers in a world with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Noncooperation, altruism, and social welfare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caplan, A.J.; Ellis, C.J.; Silva, E.C.D.</p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is an asymmetric transboundary externality which benefits some countries or regions and harms others. Few <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems have captured the public`s imagination as much and attracted as much scrutiny as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The general perception is that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a net social bad, and that across-the-board abatement of greenhouse gas emissions is therefore desirable. Despite many interesting academic contributions, not all of the basic economics of this phenomenon have been fully worked out. The authors use a simple two-country model to analyze the effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on resource allocations, the global-<span class="hlt">warming</span> stock, and national and global welfare.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5930382','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5930382"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> waters, bleached corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roberts, L.</p> <p>1990-10-12</p> <p>Two researchers, Tom Goreau of the Discovery Laboratory in Jamaica and Raymond Hayes of Howard University, claim that they have evidence that nearly clinches the temperature connection to the bleached corals in the Caribbean and that the coral bleaching is an indication of Greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The incidents of scattered bleaching of corals, which have been reported for decades, are increasing in both intensity and frequency. The researchers based their theory on increased temperature of the seas measured by satellites. However, some other scientists feel that the satellites measure the temperature of only the top few millimeters of the water and that since corals lie on reefs perhaps 60 to 100 feet below the ocean surface, the elevated temperatures are not significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6710038','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6710038"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> challenge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hengeveld, H. )</p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will necessitate significant adjustments in Canadian society and its economy. In 1979, the Canadian federal government created its Canadian Climate Program (CCP) in collaboration with other agencies, institutions, and individuals. It sought to coordinate national efforts to understand global and regional climate, and to promote better use of the emerging knowledge. Much of the CCP-coordinated research into sources and sinks of greenhouse gases interfaces with other national and international programs. Other researchers have become involved in the Northern Wetlands Study, a cooperative United States-Canada initiative to understand the role of huge northern bogs and muskegs in the carbon cycle. Because of the need to understand how the whole, linked climate system works, climate modeling emerged as a key focus of current research. 35 refs., 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28219258','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28219258"><span>Competent and <span class="hlt">Warm</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hansen, Karolina; Rakić, Tamara; Steffens, Melanie C</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Most research on ethnicity has focused on visual cues. However, accents are strong social cues that can match or contradict visual cues. We examined understudied reactions to people whose one cue suggests one ethnicity, whereas the other cue contradicts it. In an experiment conducted in Germany, job candidates spoke with an accent either congruent or incongruent with their (German or Turkish) appearance. Based on ethnolinguistic identity theory, we predicted that accents would be strong cues for categorization and evaluation. Based on expectancy violations theory we expected that incongruent targets would be evaluated more extremely than congruent targets. Both predictions were confirmed: accents strongly influenced perceptions and Turkish-looking German-accented targets were perceived as most competent of all targets (and additionally most <span class="hlt">warm</span>). The findings show that bringing together visual and auditory information yields a more complete picture of the processes underlying impression formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990018501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990018501"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Triton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Buie, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; McConnochie, T. H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282887','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282887"><span>Interacting <span class="hlt">warm</span> dark matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo E-mail: guillermo.palma@usach.cl E-mail: avelino@fisica.ugto.mx</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ{sub m}{sup α}ρ{sub e}{sup β} form, where ρ{sub m} and ρ{sub e} are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w{sub m} and w{sub e} of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a <span class="hlt">warm</span> dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a <span class="hlt">warm</span> dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372325','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372325"><span>Local <span class="hlt">warming</span>: daily temperature change influences belief in global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Although people are quite aware of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-<span class="hlt">warming</span> charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18461772','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18461772"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paul, Valerie J</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Earth and the oceans have <span class="hlt">warmed</span> significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated the oceans after past mass extinction events. They evolved under anoxic conditions and are well adapted to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stress including exposure to UV, high solar radiation and temperatures, scarce and abundant nutrients. These <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions favor the dominance of cyanobacteria in many aquatic habitats, from freshwater to marine ecosystems. A few studies have examined the ecological consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton over the past decades in freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments, with varying results. The responses of cyanobacteria to changing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> patterns associated with global climate change are important subjects for future research. Results of this research will have ecological and biogeochemical significance as well as management implications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1346192','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1346192"><span>Blodgett Forest <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Experiment 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Pries, Caitlin Hicks (ORCID:0000000308132211); Castanha, Cristina; Porras, Rachel; Torn, Margaret</p> <p>2017-03-24</p> <p>Carbon stocks and density fractions from soil pits used to characterize soils of the Blodgett <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment as well as gas well CO2, 13C, and 14C data from experimental plots. The experiment consisted of 3 control and heated plot pairs. The heated plots are <span class="hlt">warmed</span> +4°C above the control from 10 to 100 cm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22404764','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22404764"><span>Maternal <span class="hlt">warming</span> affects early life stages of an invasive thistle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, R; Gallagher, R S; Shea, K</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Maternal environment can influence plant offspring performance. Understanding maternal <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects will help to bridge a key gap in the knowledge of plant life cycles, and provide important insights for species' responses under climate change. Here we show that maternal <span class="hlt">warming</span> significantly affected the early life stages of an invasive thistle, Carduus nutans. Seeds produced by plants grown in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> conditions had higher germination percentages and shorter mean germination times than those produced by plants under ambient conditions; this difference was most evident at suboptimal germination temperatures. Subsequent seedling emergence was also faster with maternal <span class="hlt">warming</span>, with no cost to seedling emergence percentage and seedling growth. Our results suggest that maternal <span class="hlt">warming</span> may accelerate the life cycle of this species via enhanced early life-history stages. These maternal effects on offspring performance, together with the positive responses of the maternal generation, may exacerbate invasions of this species under climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94j3531P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94j3531P"><span>Consistency of <span class="hlt">warm</span> k -inflation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Zhi-Peng; Yu, Jia-Ning; Zhu, Jian-Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Min</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We extend k -inflation which is a type of kinetically driven inflationary model under the standard inflationary scenario to a possible <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflationary scenario. The dynamical equations of this <span class="hlt">warm</span> k -inflation model are obtained. We rewrite the slow-roll parameters which are different from the usual potential driven inflationary models and perform a linear stability analysis to give the proper slow-roll conditions in <span class="hlt">warm</span> k -inflation. Two cases, a power-law kinetic function and an exponential kinetic function, are studied, when the dissipative coefficient Γ =Γ0 and Γ =Γ (ϕ ), respectively. A proper number of e-folds is obtained in both concrete cases of <span class="hlt">warm</span> k -inflation. We find a constant dissipative coefficient (Γ =Γ0) is not a workable choice for these two cases while the two cases with Γ =Γ (ϕ ) are self-consistent <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflationary models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299648','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299648"><span>Non-linear Langmuir waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> quantum plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dubinov, Alexander E. Kitaev, Ilya N.</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>A non-linear differential equation describing the Langmuir waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> quantum electron-ion plasma has been derived. Its <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solutions of the equation show that ordinary electronic oscillations, similar to the classical oscillations, occur along with small-scale quantum Langmuir oscillations induced by the Bohm quantum force.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5045579','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5045579"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Perspectives from the Late Quaternary paleomammal record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Graham, R.W. )</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the end of the Pleistocene caused significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes that directly and indirectly effected biotic communities. The biotic response to this global <span class="hlt">warming</span> event can provide insights into the processes that might be anticipated for future climatic changes. The megafauna extinction may have been the most dramatic alteration of mammalian communities at the end of the Pleistocene. Late Quaternary <span class="hlt">warming</span> also altered regional diversity patterns for some small mammal guilds without extinction. Reductions in body size for both small and large mammal species were also consequences of these <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fluctuations. Geographic shifts in the distributions of individual mammal species resulted in changes in species composition of mammalian communities. The individualistic response of biota to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fluctuations define some boundary conditions for modeling communities. Understanding these boundary conditions is mandatory in planning for the preservation of biodiversity in the future. Finally, it is essential to determine how global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will alter seasonal patterns because it is apparent from the paleobiological record that not all Quaternary <span class="hlt">warming</span> events have been the same.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/641334','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/641334"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and changes in ocean circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036178"><span>Seaweed communities in retreat from ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wernberg, Thomas; Russell, Bayden D; Thomsen, Mads S; Gurgel, C Frederico D; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Connell, Sean D</p> <p>2011-11-08</p> <p>In recent decades, global climate change [1] has caused profound biological changes across the planet [2-6]. However, there is a great disparity in the strength of evidence among different ecosystems and between hemispheres: changes on land have been well documented through long-term studies, but similar direct evidence for impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> is virtually absent from the oceans [3, 7], where only a few studies on individual species of intertidal invertebrates, plankton, and commercially important fish in the North Atlantic and North Pacific exist. This disparity of evidence is precarious for biological conservation because of the critical role of the marine realm in regulating the Earth's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and ecological functions, and the associated socioeconomic well-being of humans [8]. We interrogated a database of >20,000 herbarium records of macroalgae collected in Australia since the 1940s and documented changes in communities and geographical distribution limits in both the Indian and Pacific Oceans, consistent with rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the past five decades [9, 10]. We show that continued <span class="hlt">warming</span> might drive potentially hundreds of species toward and beyond the edge of the Australian continent where sustained retreat is impossible. The potential for global extinctions is profound considering the many endemic seaweeds and seaweed-dependent marine organisms in temperate Australia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560025"><span>Thermal biases and vulnerability to <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the world's marine fauna.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Edgar, Graham J; Barrett, Neville S; Kininmonth, Stuart J; Bates, Amanda E</p> <p>2015-12-03</p> <p>A critical assumption underlying projections of biodiversity change associated with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is that ecological communities comprise balanced mixes of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-affinity and cool-affinity species which, on average, approximate local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures. Nevertheless, here we find that most shallow water marine species occupy broad thermal distributions that are aggregated in either temperate or tropical realms. These distributional trends result in ocean-scale spatial thermal biases, where communities are dominated by species with warmer or cooler affinity than local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures. We use community-level thermal deviations from local temperatures as a form of sensitivity to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and combine these with projected ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> data to predict <span class="hlt">warming</span>-related loss of species from present-day communities over the next century. Large changes in local species composition appear likely, and proximity to thermal limits, as inferred from present-day species' distributional ranges, outweighs spatial variation in <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in contributing to predicted rates of local species loss.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5135V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5135V"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> dense crystallography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valenza, Ryan A.; Seidler, Gerald T.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The intense femtosecond-scale pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are able to create and interrogate interesting states of matter characterized by long-lived nonequilibrium semicore or core electron occupancies or by the heating of dense phases via the relaxation cascade initiated by the photoelectric effect. We address here the latter case of "<span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter" (WDM) and investigate the observable consequences of x-ray heating of the electronic degrees of freedom in crystalline systems. We report temperature-dependent density functional theory calculations for the x-ray diffraction from crystalline LiF, graphite, diamond, and Be. We find testable, strong signatures of condensed-phase effects that emphasize the importance of wide-angle scattering to study nonequilibrium states. These results also suggest that the reorganization of the valence electron density at eV-scale temperatures presents a confounding factor to achieving atomic resolution in macromolecular serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies at XFELs, as performed under the "diffract before destroy" paradigm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/newsreleases/waste-more-warm-more','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/newsreleases/waste-more-warm-more"><span>Waste More, <span class="hlt">Warm</span> More</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>DALLAS - (Dec. 17, 2015) The U.S. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency (EPA) encourages everyone to think about a product's entire lifecycle when it comes to waste. We all know how important it is to reduce, reuse, and recycle. But did you also know thos</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSM.A52A..04H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSM.A52A..04H"><span>How the West Was <span class="hlt">Warmed</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Is the West getting warmer? To be sure, the summer of 2005 was one of record heat in the West, and recent period of western US drought during 1998-2004 was also accompanied by unusual warmth. But <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions accompanied the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s and the 1950s. The question remains open whether recent western <span class="hlt">warming</span> has been part of a externally forced climate trend, or whether other processes have been at play like urbanization or the inherent natural fluctuations of climate paterns? We perform analysis of the Fourth Assessment coupled ocean-atmosphere models for the period 1895-2005, together with atmospheric general circulation model experiments. These reveal that the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the West has very likely been a consequence of increasing greenhouse gases. In fact, no single member of 40 availabl GHG-forced simulations failed to <span class="hlt">warm</span> the West during the past century. We further show that a <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the tropical oceanic <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool regions, itself a greenhouse gas forced response, has been a major contributor to the <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the West since 1970.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25295730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25295730"><span>Recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of lake Kivu.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A; Crowe, Sean A; Hecky, Robert E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though <span class="hlt">warming</span> is strongest near the surface, <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in deeper waters. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4189960','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4189960"><span>Recent <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Lake Kivu</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Hecky, Robert E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though <span class="hlt">warming</span> is strongest near the surface, <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in deeper waters. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA474394','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA474394"><span>Relationships Between Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Tropical Cyclone Activity in the Western North Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>In this work, we investigate the relationships between global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and tropical cyclone activity in the Western North Pacific (WNP). Our...hypothesis is that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts on TC activity occur through changes in the large scale <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors (LSEFs) known to be important in...averages. Using a least squares fit, we identify global <span class="hlt">warming</span> signals in both the SST and vertical wind shear data across the WNP. These signals vary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25902494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25902494"><span>Amplified Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by phytoplankton under greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho</p> <p>2015-05-12</p> <p>Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical-ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> can amplify Arctic surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> considerably. The <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton <span class="hlt">warms</span> the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Carbon&id=EJ1047091','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Carbon&id=EJ1047091"><span>Carbon Dioxide and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: A Failed Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, Carla</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a current <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ935291','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ935291"><span>Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17348173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17348173"><span>Competitive advantage on a <span class="hlt">warming</span> planet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global <span class="hlt">warming</span>'s dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging <span class="hlt">environmental</span> harm), reputational (how a company's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0vbo_s8uVM','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0vbo_s8uVM"><span>Weird <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Spot on Exoplanet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This animation illustrates an unexpected <span class="hlt">warm</span> spot on the surface of a gaseous exoplanet. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered that the hottest part of the planet, shown here as bright, orange...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol21-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol21-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf"><span>40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf"><span>40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol22-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol22-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf"><span>40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047340','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047340"><span>Comparison of age distributions estimated from <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers by using binary-dilution and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models of fractured and folded karst: Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yager, Richard M.; Plummer, L. Niel; Kauffman, Leon J.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Nelms, David L.; Schlosser, Peter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Measured concentrations of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers in spring discharge from a karst aquifer in the Shenandoah Valley, USA, were used to refine a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> groundwater flow model. The karst aquifer is folded and faulted carbonate bedrock dominated by diffuse flow along fractures. The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model represented bedrock structure and discrete features (fault zones and springs). Concentrations of 3H, 3He, 4He, and CFC-113 in spring discharge were interpreted as binary dilutions of young (0–8 years) water and old (tracer-free) water. Simulated mixtures of groundwater are derived from young water flowing along shallow paths, with the addition of old water flowing along deeper paths through the model domain that discharge to springs along fault zones. The simulated median age of young water discharged from springs (5.7 years) is slightly older than the median age estimated from 3H/3He data (4.4 years). The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model predicted a fraction of old water in spring discharge (0.07) that was half that determined by the binary-dilution model using the 3H/3He apparent age and 3H and CFC-113 data (0.14). This difference suggests that faults and lineaments are more <span class="hlt">numerous</span> or extensive than those mapped and included in the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HydJ...21.1193Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HydJ...21.1193Y"><span>Comparison of age distributions estimated from <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers by using binary-dilution and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models of fractured and folded karst: Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yager, Richard M.; Plummer, L. Niel; Kauffman, Leon J.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Nelms, David L.; Schlosser, Peter</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Measured concentrations of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers in spring discharge from a karst aquifer in the Shenandoah Valley, USA, were used to refine a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> groundwater flow model. The karst aquifer is folded and faulted carbonate bedrock dominated by diffuse flow along fractures. The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model represented bedrock structure and discrete features (fault zones and springs). Concentrations of 3H, 3He, 4He, and CFC-113 in spring discharge were interpreted as binary dilutions of young (0-8 years) water and old (tracer-free) water. Simulated mixtures of groundwater are derived from young water flowing along shallow paths, with the addition of old water flowing along deeper paths through the model domain that discharge to springs along fault zones. The simulated median age of young water discharged from springs (5.7 years) is slightly older than the median age estimated from 3H/3He data (4.4 years). The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model predicted a fraction of old water in spring discharge (0.07) that was half that determined by the binary-dilution model using the 3H/3He apparent age and 3H and CFC-113 data (0.14). This difference suggests that faults and lineaments are more <span class="hlt">numerous</span> or extensive than those mapped and included in the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25236841','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25236841"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> phenomenon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DyAtO..77..100G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DyAtO..77..100G"><span>AIRS-observed <span class="hlt">warm</span> core structures of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Si; Chen, Baiqing; Li, Tim; Wu, Naigeng; Deng, Wenjian</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) temperature profiles during the period 2003-2013 are used to examine the <span class="hlt">warm</span> core structures and evolution characteristics associated with the formation and development of western North Pacific (WNP) tropical cyclones (TCs). The <span class="hlt">warm</span> core with a steady 1.5-K <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the layer of 500-300 hPa occurs 24 h prior to tropical storm formation. Apparent eye <span class="hlt">warming</span> extends upward to upper troposphere and downward to near surface after tropical storm formation. TC intensity shows a robust positive correlation with the <span class="hlt">warm</span> core strength and has a weaker but still significant positive correlation with the <span class="hlt">warm</span> core height (the weaker correlation is primarily attributed to the scattered <span class="hlt">warm</span> core heights of weak TCs). Future 24-h intensity change of TCs has little correlation with the <span class="hlt">warm</span> core height while it has a significant negative correlation with the <span class="hlt">warm</span> core strength. Weak to moderate <span class="hlt">warm</span> core at 500-200 hPa may be a necessary but not sufficient initial condition for TC rapid intensification. AIRS-observed <span class="hlt">warm</span> core structures, in combination with other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors, have the potential to improve the prediction of tropical storm formation and rapid intensification of WNP TCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+layer&id=EJ946279','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+layer&id=EJ946279"><span>Student Teachers' Conceptions about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Changes in Their Conceptions during Pre-Service Education: A Cross Sectional Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Cimer, Atilla; Ursavas, Nazihan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is one of the important <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems whose dangerous effects are increasing gradually. The study reported herein aimed to reveal student teachers' conceptions about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the effect of biology teacher education program on their awareness of this <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issue. An open-ended questionnaire was used to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23504800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23504800"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span> and drought reduce temperature sensitivity of nitrogen transformations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Novem Auyeung, Dolaporn S; Suseela, Vidya; Dukes, Jeffrey S</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Shifts in nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates due to global changes can influence nutrient availability, which can affect terrestrial productivity and climate change feedbacks. While many single-factor studies have examined the effects of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes on N mineralization and nitrification, few have examined these effects in a multifactor context or recorded how these effects vary seasonally. In an old-field ecosystem in Massachusetts, USA, we investigated the combined effects of four levels of <span class="hlt">warming</span> (up to 4 °C) and three levels of precipitation (drought, ambient, and wet) on net N mineralization, net nitrification, and potential nitrification. We also examined the treatment effects on the temperature sensitivity of net N mineralization and net nitrification and on the ratio of C mineralization to net N mineralization. During winter, freeze-thaw events, snow depth, and soil freezing depth explained little of the variation in net nitrification and N mineralization rates among treatments. During two years of treatments, <span class="hlt">warming</span> and altered precipitation rarely influenced the rates of N cycling, and there was no evidence of a seasonal pattern in the responses. In contrast, <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought dramatically decreased the apparent Q10 of net N mineralization and net nitrification, and the <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced decrease in apparent Q10 was more pronounced in ambient and wet treatments than the drought treatment. The ratio of C mineralization to net N mineralization varied over time and was sensitive to the interactive effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and altered precipitation. Although many studies have found that <span class="hlt">warming</span> tends to accelerate N cycling, our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> can have little to no effect on N cycling in some ecosystems. Thus, ecosystem models that assume that <span class="hlt">warming</span> will consistently increase N mineralization rates and inputs of plant-available N may overestimate the increase in terrestrial productivity and the magnitude of an important</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC32A..02F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC32A..02F"><span>The Great <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Brian Fagan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fagan, B. M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Great <span class="hlt">Warming</span> is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period. Five centuries of irregular <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great <span class="hlt">Warming</span> argues that the <span class="hlt">warm</span> centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..143Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..143Z"><span>How <span class="hlt">warm</span> days increase belief in global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global <span class="hlt">warming</span> attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31F1491R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31F1491R"><span>Distinguishing <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced drought from drought-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roderick, M. L.; Yin, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>It is usually observed that temperatures, especially maximum temperatures are higher during drought. A very widely held public perception is that the increase in temperature is a cause of drought. This represents the <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced drought scenario. However, the agricultural and hydrologic scientific communities have a very different interpretation with drought being the cause of increasing temperature. In essence, those communities assume the <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a surface feedback and their interpretation is for drought-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span>. This is a classic cause-effect problem that has resisted definitive explanation due to the lack of radiative observations at suitable spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation we first summarise the observations and then use theory to untangle the cause-effect relationships that underlie the competing interpretations. We then show how satellite data (CERES, NASA) can be used to disentangle the cause-effect relations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warmup&id=EJ925234','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warmup&id=EJ925234"><span>Active Movement <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-Up Routines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article presents <span class="hlt">warm</span>-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up routines can be used with all grade levels…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=calisthenics&pg=3&id=EJ163652','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=calisthenics&pg=3&id=EJ163652"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Up to a Good Sound</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tovey, David C.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Most choral directors in schools today have been exposed to a variety of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up procedures. Yet, many do not use the <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up time effectively as possible. Considers the factors appropriate to a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up exercise and three basic <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up categories. (Author/RK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780010687','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780010687"><span>Stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>: Synoptic, dynamic and general-circulation aspects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcinturff, R. M. (Editor)</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Synoptic descriptions consist largely of case studies, which involve a distinction between major and minor <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. Results of energetics studies show the importance of tropospheric-stratospheric interaction, and the significance of the pressure-work term near the tropopause. Theoretical studies have suggested the role of wave-zonal flow interaction as well as nonlinear interaction between eddies, chemical and photochemical reactions, boundary forcing, and other factors. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> models have been based on such considerations, and these are discussed under various categories. Some indication is given as to why some of the models have been more successful than others in simulating warnings. The question of ozone and its role in <span class="hlt">warmings</span> is briefly discussed. Finally, a broad view is taken of stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> in relation to man's activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRD..109.2105B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRD..109.2105B"><span>Evidence for a late Holocene <span class="hlt">warm</span> and humid climate period and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> characteristics in the arid zones of northwest China during 2.2 ˜ 1.8 kyr B.P.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bao, Yang; Braeuning, Achim; Yafeng, Shi; Fahu, Chen</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Natural archives like ice cores, tree rings, river and lake sediments, lake terraces, and paleosols and also historical documents witness aspects of climate change in northwestern China during the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties (206 B.C.-220 A.D.). Reconstructions of decadal averages of annual mean temperature and precipitation fluctuations were derived from variations of δ18O and net accumulation rates in the Guliya ice core. They revealed a period of higher temperatures and higher precipitation than today, which affected vast areas of northwestern China during the period of interest until the fifth century A.D. These conditions resulted in a marked increase in the discharge of big endorheic river systems, such as the Tarim, the Keriya and the Manas rivers. As a consequence, water levels in appendant terminal lakes rose, e.g., at Lop Nor, Manas Lake, and Baijian Hu. Lake surface areas expanded, and lake desalting occurred also at lakes in intermontane basins, such as Balikun Hu and Qinghai Lake. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> and moist conditions during the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties might have been responsible for the large-scale agricultural production and the local socioeconomic boom that is documented by the occurrence of the famous ruin groups of Loulan, Niya, and Keriya. The following desiccation phase led to a deterioration of water resources, and most oases tended to dry out and were finally abandoned. The appearance, development, flourishing, and final abandonment of each great ruin group are closely associated with regional climate change at that time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22568559','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22568559"><span>The effects of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up on intermittent sprint performance in a hot and humid environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yaicharoen, Pongson; Wallman, Karen; Morton, Alan; Bishop, David; Grove, Robert J</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It is unknown whether a passive <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up or an active <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up performed at an intensity based on lactate thresholds could improve prolonged intermittent-sprint performance either in thermoneutral or hot <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. To investigate this issue, 11 male athletes performed three trials that consisted of 80 min of intermittent-sprinting performed on a cycle ergometer, preceded by either an active or a passive <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up. Active <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up and intermittent-sprint performance were performed in both hot and thermoneutral <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, while passive <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up and intermittent-sprint performance were performed in hot conditions only. First sprint performance was also assessed. Results showed no significant interaction effects between any of the trials for total work (J · kg(-1)), work decrement, and power decrement (P = 0.10, P = 0.42, P = 0.10, respectively). While there were no significant differences between trials for work done for first sprint performance (P = 0.22), peak power was significantly higher after passive <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up compared with active <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up performed in either thermoneutral (P = 0.03) or in hot conditions (P = 0.02). Results suggest that the main benefits of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up for first sprint performance are derived from temperature-related effects. Active <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up did not impair prolonged intermittent-sprint performance in the heat compared with thermoneutral conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16216650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16216650"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and infectious disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth <span class="hlt">warms</span>, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=magnitude&pg=2&id=ED565890','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=magnitude&pg=2&id=ED565890"><span><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED034175.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED034175.pdf"><span>Hindi <span class="hlt">Numerals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bright, William</p> <p></p> <p>In most languages encountered by linguists, the <span class="hlt">numerals</span>, considered as a paradigmatic set, constitute a morpho-syntactic problem of only moderate complexity. The Indo-Aryan language family of North India, however, presents a curious contrast. The relatively regular <span class="hlt">numeral</span> system of Sanskrit, as it has developed historically into the modern…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A21C0217B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A21C0217B"><span>Indentifying the Molecular Origin of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bera, P. P.; Lee, T. J.; Francisco, J.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Indentifying the Molecular Origin of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Partha P. Bera, Joseph S. Francisco and Timothy J. Lee NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, Moffett Field, California 94035, and Department of Chemistry and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1393 Abstract The physical characteristics of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have been investigated to assess which properties are most important in determining the radiative efficiency of a GHG. Chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluoroethers, fluoroethers, nitrogen fluorides, and various other known atmospheric trace molecules have been included in this study. Compounds containing the halogens F or Cl have in common very polar X-F or X-Cl bonds, particularly the X-F bonds. It is shown that as more F atoms bond to the same central atom, the bond dipoles become larger as a result of the central carbon atom becoming more positive. This leads to a linear increase in the total or integrated X-F bond dipole derivatives for the molecule, which leads to a non-linear (quadratic) increase in infrared (IR) intensity. Moreover, virtually all of the X-F bond stretches occur in the atmospheric IR window as opposed to X-H stretches, which do not occur in the atmospheric window. It is concluded that molecules possessing several F atoms will always have a large radiative forcing parameter in the calculation of their global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential. Some of the implications for global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate change and a new design strategy for more <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly industrial materials from a molecular quantum chemistry perspective will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.6137F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.6137F"><span>Early ice retreat and ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> may induce copepod biogeographic boundary shifts in the Arctic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Zhixuan; Ji, Rubao; Campbell, Robert G.; Ashjian, Carin J.; Zhang, Jinlun</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Early ice retreat and ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> are changing various facets of the Arctic marine ecosystem, including the biogeographic distribution of marine organisms. Here an endemic copepod species, Calanus glacialis, was used as a model organism, to understand how and why Arctic marine <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes may induce biogeographic boundary shifts. A copepod individual-based model was coupled to an ice-ocean-ecosystem model to simulate temperature- and food-dependent copepod life history development. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> experiments were conducted for two contrasting years: a relatively cold and normal sea ice year (2001) and a well-known <span class="hlt">warm</span> year with early ice retreat (2007). Model results agreed with commonly known biogeographic distributions of C. glacialis, which is a shelf/slope species and cannot colonize the vast majority of the central Arctic basins. Individuals along the northern boundaries of this species' distribution were most susceptible to reproduction timing and early food availability (released sea ice algae). In the Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev Seas where severe ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> and loss of sea ice occurred in summer 2007, relatively early ice retreat, elevated ocean temperature (about 1-2°C higher than 2001), increased phytoplankton food, and prolonged growth season created favorable conditions for C. glacialis development and caused a remarkable poleward expansion of its distribution. From a pan-Arctic perspective, despite the great heterogeneity in the temperature and food regimes, common biogeographic zones were identified from model simulations, thus allowing a better characterization of habitats and prediction of potential future biogeographic boundary shifts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001EOSTr..82....1K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001EOSTr..82....1K"><span>Fifty-year record of north polar temperatures shows <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Jansen, Mark; Pulrang, Martin A.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The Arctic Ocean has long been at the center of the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> debate, since a significant reduction in sea ice could alter the Earth's radiation balance, as well as modify global atmospheric circulation. According to an August 19, 2000, report in The New York Times, passengers aboard a Russian icebreaker-turned-cruise ship observed a "mile-wide" patch of ice-free ocean at the pole. This observation immediately prompted speculation that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is already melting the polar icecap. Two types of open water commonly occur throughout the Arctic pack ice. The linear features, called leads, and curvilinear features, called polynyas, are not necessarily cause for concern. However, the overall extent of Arctic sea ice has decreased in recent decades and, hence, the issue of polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> is of broad <span class="hlt">environmental</span> interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455093','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455093"><span>Recent decrease in typhoon destructive potential and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, I-I; Chan, Johnny C.L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Typhoons (tropical cyclones) severely impact the half-billion population of the Asian Pacific. Intriguingly, during the recent decade, typhoon destructive potential (Power Dissipation Index, PDI) has decreased considerably (by ∼35%). This decrease, paradoxically, has occurred despite the increase in typhoon intensity and ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Using the method proposed by Emanuel (in 2007), we show that the stronger negative contributions from typhoon frequency and duration, decrease to cancel the positive contribution from the increasing intensity, controlling the PDI. Examining the typhoons' <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, we find that although the ocean condition became more favourable (<span class="hlt">warming</span>) in the recent decade, the atmospheric condition ‘worsened' at the same time. The ‘worsened' atmospheric condition appears to effectively overpower the ‘better' ocean conditions to suppress PDI. This stronger negative contribution from reduced typhoon frequency over the increased intensity is also present under the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario, based on analysis of the simulated typhoon data from high-resolution modelling. PMID:25990561</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21265150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21265150"><span>[Passive nighttime <span class="hlt">warming</span> (PNW) system, its design and <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Jin; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Bin; Tian, Yun-lu; Dong, Wen-jun; Zhang, Wei-jian</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Based on the technique of passive nighttime <span class="hlt">warming</span> (PNW), a convenient and energy-saving PNW facility was designed for a rice-wheat cropping system in Danyang, Jiangsu Province. The facility could guarantee 15.75 m2 effective sampling area, with a homogeneous amplitude of increased temperature, and making the nighttime canopy temperature during whole rice growth season increased averagely by 1.1 degrees C and the nighttime canopy temperature and 5 cm soil temperature during whole winter wheat growth period increased averagely by 1.3 degrees C and 0.8 degrees C, respectively. During the operation period of the facility, the variation trends of the canopy temperature and 5 cm soil temperature during the whole growth periods of rice and winter wheat in the <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots were similar to those of the control. Though the facility slightly decreased the soil moisture content during winter wheat growth period, wheat growth was less impacted. The application of this facility in our main production areas of rice and winter wheat showed that the facility could advance the initial blossoming stages of rice and winter wheat averagely by 3 d and 5 d, respectively. In despite of the discrepancy in the <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect among different regions and seasons, this energy-saving facility was reliable for the field research on crop responses to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, when the homogeneity of increased temperature, the effective area, and the effects on crop growth period were taken into comprehensive consideration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000EOSTr..81Q.266S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000EOSTr..81Q.266S"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the summit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p></p> <p>During the recent summit meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. President Bill Clinton, the two leaders reaffirmed their concerns about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the need to continue to take actions to try to reduce the threat.In a June 4 joint statement, they stressed the need to develop flexibility mechanisms, including international emissions trading, under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They also noted that initiatives to reduce the risk of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>, including specific mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, could potentially promote economic growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33A1273S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33A1273S"><span>Using Updated Climate Accounting to Slow Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Before 2035</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The current and projected worsening of climate impacts make clear the urgency of limiting the global mean temperature to 2°C over preindustrial levels. But while mitigation policy today may slow global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the end of the century, it will not keep global <span class="hlt">warming</span> within these limits. This failure arises in large part from the climate accounting system used to inform this policy, which does not factor in several scientific findings from the last two decades, including: The urgent need to slow global <span class="hlt">warming</span> before 2035. This can postpone the time the +1.5°C limit is passed, and is the only way to avoid the most serious long-term climate disruptions. That while it may mitigate <span class="hlt">warming</span> by the end of the century, reducing emissions of CO2 alone, according to UNEP/WMO[1], will do "little to mitigate <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the next 20-30 years," and "may temporarily enhance near-term <span class="hlt">warming</span> as sulfate [cooling] is reduced." That the only emissions reductions that can slow <span class="hlt">warming</span> before 2035 are focused on short-lived climate pollutants. A small increase in current mitigation funding could fund these projects, the most promising of which target emissions in regional climate "hot spots" like the Arctic and India.[2] To ensure policies can effectively slow global <span class="hlt">warming</span> before 2035, a new climate accounting system is needed. Such an updated system is being standardized in the USA,[3] and has been proposed for use in ISO standards. The key features of this updated system are: consideration of all climate pollutants and their multi-faceted climate effects; use of time horizons which prioritize mitigation of near-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>; a consistent and accurate accounting for "biogenic" CO2; protocols ensuring that new scientific findings are incorporated; and a distinct accounting for emissions affecting regional "hot spots". This accounting system also considers <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts outside of climate change, a feature necessary to identify "win-win" projects with climate benefits</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..3301009T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..3301009T"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential impact of bioenergy systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tonini, D.; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.; Astrup, T.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618450"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span> can enhance invasion success through asymmetries in energetic performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Penk, Marcin R; Jeschke, Jonathan M; Minchin, Dan; Donohue, Ian</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Both climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and biological invasions are prominent drivers of global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change and it is important to determine how they interact. However, beyond tolerance and reproductive thresholds, little is known about temperature dependence of invaders' performance, particularly in the light of competitive attributes of functionally similar native species. We used experimentally derived energy budgets and field temperature data to determine whether anticipated <span class="hlt">warming</span> will asymmetrically affect the energy budgets of the globally invasive Ponto-Caspian mysid crustacean Hemimysis anomala and a functionally similar native competitor (Mysis salemaai) whose range is currently being invaded. In contrast to M. salemaai, which maintains a constant feeding rate with temperature leading to diminishing energy assimilation, we found that H. anomala increases its feeding rate with temperature in parallel with growing metabolic demand. This enabled the invader to maintain high energy assimilation rates, conferring substantially higher scope for growth compared to the native analogue at spring-to-autumn temperatures. Anticipated <span class="hlt">warming</span> will likely exacerbate this energetic asymmetry and remove the winter overlap, which, given the seasonal limitation of mutually preferred prey, appears to underpin coexistence of the two species. These results indicate that temperature-dependent asymmetries in scope for growth between invaders and native analogues comprise an important mechanism determining invasion success under <span class="hlt">warming</span> climates. They also highlight the importance of considering relevant spectra of ecological contexts in predicting successful invaders and their impacts under <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245296"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span> up to solar energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Biondo, B.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Increasingly alarmed by threats to their financial security posed by an escalating number of weather-related catastrophes, major insurance companaies, particularly those in Europe and Asia, are starting to support a variety of measures that would slowe the production of grenhouse gases worlwide. As the insurance and banking industries turn their attention to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, investments in solar energy take on growing appeal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470982','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470982"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the regions in the Middle East</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its <span class="hlt">warming</span> has the potential of causing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar <span class="hlt">warming</span> in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such <span class="hlt">environmental</span> behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatCC...2..530K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatCC...2..530K"><span>Equatorial refuge amid tropical <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Cohen, Anne L.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Upwelling across the tropical Pacific Ocean is projected to weaken in accordance with a reduction of the atmospheric overturning circulation, enhancing the increase in sea surface temperature relative to other regions in response to greenhouse-gas forcing. In the central Pacific, home to one of the largest marine protected areas and fishery regions in the global tropics, sea surface temperatures are projected to increase by 2.8°C by the end of this century. Of critical concern is that marine protected areas may not provide refuge from the anticipated rate of large-scale <span class="hlt">warming</span>, which could exceed the evolutionary capacity of coral and their symbionts to adapt. Combining high-resolution satellite measurements, an ensemble of global climate models and an eddy-resolving regional ocean circulation model, we show that <span class="hlt">warming</span> and productivity decline around select Pacific islands will be mitigated by enhanced upwelling associated with a strengthening of the equatorial undercurrent. Enhanced topographic upwelling will act as a negative feedback, locally mitigating the surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>. At the Gilbert Islands, the rate of <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be reduced by 0.7+/-0.3°C or 25+/-9% per century, or an overall cooling effect comparable to the local anomaly for a typical El Niño, by the end of this century. As the equatorial undercurrent is dynamically constrained to the Equator, only a handful of coral reefs stand to benefit from this equatorial island effect. Nevertheless, those that do face a lower rate of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, conferring a significant advantage over neighbouring reef systems. If realized, these predictions help to identify potential refuges for coral reef communities from anticipated climate changes of the twenty-first century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..280..103P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..280..103P"><span>The meteorology of Gale crater as determined from rover <span class="hlt">environmental</span> monitoring station observations and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling. Part I: Comparison of model simulations with observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pla-Garcia, Jorge; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Kahre, Melinda; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Navarro, Sara; Torres, Josefina; Marín, Mercedes; Vasavada, Ashwin R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Air temperature, ground temperature, pressure, and wind speed and direction data obtained from the Rover <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Monitoring Station onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity are compared to data from the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. A full diurnal cycle at four different seasons (Ls 0, 90, 180 and 270) is investigated at the rover location within Gale crater, Mars. Model results are shown to be in good agreement with observations when considering the uncertainties in the observational data set. The good agreement provides justification for utilizing the model results to investigate the broader meteorological environment of the Gale crater region, which is described in the second, companion paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23368129','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23368129"><span>Dynamic ion structure factor of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vorberger, J; Donko, Z; Tkachenko, I M; Gericke, D O</p> <p>2012-11-30</p> <p>The dynamics of the ion structure in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter is determined by molecular dynamics simulations using an effective ion-ion potential. This potential is obtained from ab initio simulations and has a strong short-range repulsion added to a screened Coulomb potential. Models based on static or dynamic local field corrections are found to be insufficient to describe the data. An extended Mermin approach, a hydrodynamic model, and the method of moments with local constraints are capable of reproducing the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> results but have rather limited predictive powers as they all need some <span class="hlt">numerical</span> data as input. The method of moments is found to be the most promising.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5214101','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5214101"><span>New Insights into the Effects of Several <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Parameters on the Relative Fitness of a <span class="hlt">Numerically</span> Dominant Class of Evolved Niche Specialist</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kuśmierska, Anna</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Adaptive radiation in bacteria has been investigated using Wrinkly Spreaders (WS), a morphotype which colonises the air-liquid (A-L) interface of static microcosms by biofilm formation with a significant fitness advantage over competitors growing lower down in the O2-limited liquid column. Here, we investigate several <span class="hlt">environmental</span> parameters which impact the ecological opportunity that the Wrinkly Spreaders exploit in this model system. Manipulation of surface area/volume ratios suggests that the size of the WS niche was not as important as the ability to dominate the A-L interface and restrict competitor growth. The value of this niche to the Wrinkly Spreaders, as determined by competitive fitness assays, was found to increase as O2 flux to the A-L interface was reduced, confirming that competition for O2 was the main driver of WS fitness. The effect of O2 on fitness was also found to be dependent on the availability of nutrients, reflecting the need to take up both for optimal growth. Finally, the meniscus trap, a high-O2 region formed by the interaction of the A-L interface with the vial walls, was also important for fitness during the early stages of biofilm formation. These findings reveal the complexity of this seemingly simple model system and illustrate how changes in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> physicality alter ecological opportunity and the fitness of the adaptive morphotype. PMID:28101396</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20409574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20409574"><span>Impacts of day versus night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil microclimate: results from a semiarid temperate steppe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xia, Jianyang; Chen, Shiping; Wan, Shiqiang</p> <p>2010-06-15</p> <p>One feature of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> is that increases in daily minimum temperature are greater than those in daily maximum temperature. Changes in soil microclimate in response to the asymmetrically diurnal <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios can help to explain responses of ecosystem processes. In the present study, we examined the impacts of day, night, and continuous <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil microclimate in a temperate steppe in northern China. Our results showed that day, night, and continuous <span class="hlt">warming</span> (approximately 13Wm(-2) with constant power mode) significantly increased daily mean soil temperature at 10cm depth by 0.71, 0.78, and 1.71 degrees C, respectively. Night <span class="hlt">warming</span> caused greater increases in nighttime mean and daily minimum soil temperatures (0.74 and 0.99 degrees C) than day <span class="hlt">warming</span> did (0.60 and 0.66 degrees C). However, there were no differences in the increases in daytime mean and daily maximum soil temperature between day (0.81 and 1.13 degrees C) and night (0.81 and 1.10 degrees C) <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The differential effects of day and night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil temperature varied with <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors, including photosynthetic active radiation, vapor-pressure deficit, and wind speed. When compared with the effect of continuous <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil temperature, the summed effects of day and night <span class="hlt">warming</span> were lower during daytime, but greater at night, thus leading to equality at daily scale. Mean volumetric soil moisture at the depth of 0-40cm significantly decreased under continuous <span class="hlt">warming</span> in both 2006 (1.44 V/V%) and 2007 (0.76 V/V%). Day <span class="hlt">warming</span> significantly reduced volumetric soil moisture only in 2006, whereas night <span class="hlt">warming</span> had no effect on volumetric soil moisture in both 2006 and 2007. Given the different diurnal <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns and variability of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors among ecosystems, these results highlight the importance of incorporating the differential impacts of day and night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil microclimate into the predictions of terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016mecs.conf..375L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016mecs.conf..375L"><span>Research on Surfactant <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mix Asphalt Construction Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Guoliang; Sun, Jingxin; Guo, Xiufeng</p> <p></p> <p>Discharging temperature of hot asphalt mixture is about 150°C-185°C, volatilization of asphalt fume harms people's health and fuel cost is high. Jinan Urban Construction Group applies PTL/01 asphalt <span class="hlt">warm</span> mix agent to produce <span class="hlt">warm</span> mix asphalt to construction of urban roads' asphalt bituminous pavement. After comparing it with performance of traditional hot asphalt mixture, mixing temperature may be reduced by 30°C-60°C, emission of poisonous gas is reduced, energy conservation and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> protection are satisfied, construction quality reaches requirements of construction specifications and economic, social and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefits are significant. Thus, it can be used for reference for green construction of urban roads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming&id=EJ1104587','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming&id=EJ1104587"><span>Does Climate Literacy Matter? A Case Study of U.S. Students' Level of Concern about Anthropogenic Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bedford, Daniel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Educators seeking to address global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in their classrooms face <span class="hlt">numerous</span> challenges, including the question of whether student opinions about anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span> (AGW) can change in response to increased knowledge about the climate system. This article analyzes survey responses from 458 students at a primarily undergraduate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/warm/versions-waste-reduction-model-warm','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/warm/versions-waste-reduction-model-warm"><span>Versions of the Waste Reduction Model (<span class="hlt">WARM</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This page provides a brief chronology of changes made to EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (<span class="hlt">WARM</span>), organized by <span class="hlt">WARM</span> version number. The page includes brief summaries of changes and updates since the previous version.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..271M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..271M"><span>Arctic climate change: Greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> unleashed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mauritsen, Thorsten</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Human activity alters the atmospheric composition, which leads to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Model simulations suggest that reductions in emission of sulfur dioxide from Europe since the 1970s could have unveiled rapid Arctic greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/warm/waste-reduction-model-warm-resources-students','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/warm/waste-reduction-model-warm-resources-students"><span>Waste Reduction Model (<span class="hlt">WARM</span>) Resources for Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (<span class="hlt">WARM</span>) can be used by students. The page includes a brief summary of uses of <span class="hlt">WARM</span> for the audience and links to other resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..865M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..865M"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Clouds cooled the Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mauritsen, Thorsten</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The slow instrumental-record <span class="hlt">warming</span> is consistent with lower-end climate sensitivity. Simulations and observations now show that changing sea surface temperature patterns could have affected cloudiness and thereby dampened the <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227666','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227666"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span> trends: Adapting to nonlinear change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jonko, Alexandra K.</p> <p>2015-01-28</p> <p>As atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise, some regions are expected to <span class="hlt">warm</span> more than others. Research suggests that whether <span class="hlt">warming</span> will intensify or slow down over time also depends on location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/warm/documentation-waste-reduction-model-warm','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/warm/documentation-waste-reduction-model-warm"><span>Documentation for the Waste Reduction Model (<span class="hlt">WARM</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This page describes the <span class="hlt">WARM</span> documentation files and provides links to all documentation files associated with EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (<span class="hlt">WARM</span>). The page includes a brief summary of the chapters documenting the greenhouse gas emission and energy factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26649399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26649399"><span>Trophic mismatch requires seasonal heterogeneity of <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Straile, Dietmar; Kerimoglu, Onur; Peeters, Frank</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> has been shown to advance the phenology of species. Asynchronous changes in phenology between interacting species may disrupt feeding interactions (phenological mismatch), which could have tremendous consequences for ecosystem functioning. Long-term field observations have suggested asynchronous shifts in phenology with <span class="hlt">warming</span>, whereas experimental studies have not been conclusive. Using proxy-based modeling of three trophic levels (algae, herbivores, and fish), we .show that asynchronous changes in phenology only occur if <span class="hlt">warming</span> is seasonally heterogeneous, but not if <span class="hlt">warming</span> is constant throughout the year. If <span class="hlt">warming</span> is seasonally heterogeneous, the degree and even direction of asynchrony depends on the specific seasonality of the <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Conclusions about phenological mismatches in food web interactions may therefore produce controversial results if the analyses do not distinguish between seasonally constant and seasonal specific <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Furthermore, our results suggest that predicting asynchrony between interacting species requires reliable <span class="hlt">warming</span> predictions that resolve sub-seasonal time scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477461','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477461"><span>Multidecadal <span class="hlt">warming</span> of Antarctic waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidtko, Sunke; Heywood, Karen J; Thompson, Andrew F; Aoki, Shigeru</p> <p>2014-12-05</p> <p>Decadal trends in the properties of seawater adjacent to Antarctica are poorly known, and the mechanisms responsible for such changes are uncertain. Antarctic ice sheet mass loss is largely driven by ice shelf basal melt, which is influenced by ocean-ice interactions and has been correlated with Antarctic Continental Shelf Bottom Water (ASBW) temperature. We document the spatial distribution of long-term large-scale trends in temperature, salinity, and core depth over the Antarctic continental shelf and slope. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at the seabed in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas is linked to increased heat content and to a shoaling of the mid-depth temperature maximum over the continental slope, allowing warmer, saltier water greater access to the shelf in recent years. Regions of ASBW <span class="hlt">warming</span> are those exhibiting increased ice shelf melt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/966057','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/966057"><span>Hydrological consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miller, Norman L.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..144a2014E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..144a2014E"><span>MCCB <span class="hlt">warm</span> adjustment testing concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the <span class="hlt">warm</span> adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006017','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006017"><span>Lagrangian description of <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kim, H.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Efforts are described to extend the averaged Lagrangian method of describing small signal wave propagation and nonlinear wave interaction, developed by earlier workers for cold plasmas, to the more general conditions of <span class="hlt">warm</span> collisionless plasmas, and to demonstrate particularly the effectiveness of the method in analyzing wave-wave interactions. The theory is developed for both the microscopic description and the hydrodynamic approximation to plasma behavior. First, a microscopic Lagrangian is formulated rigorously, and expanded in terms of perturbations about equilibrium. Two methods are then described for deriving a hydrodynamic Lagrangian. In the first of these, the Lagrangian is obtained by velocity integration of the exact microscopic Lagrangian. In the second, the expanded hydrodynamic Lagrangian is obtained directly from the expanded microscopic Lagrangian. As applications of the microscopic Lagrangian, the small-signal dispersion relations and the coupled mode equations are derived for all possible waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> infinite, weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, and their interactions are examined.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426698"><span>Shifting grassland plant community structure drives positive interactive effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and diversity on aboveground net primary productivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cowles, Jane M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Alexandra J; Powers, Jennifer S; Tilman, David</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Ecosystems worldwide are increasingly impacted by multiple drivers of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, including climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and loss of biodiversity. We show, using a long-term factorial experiment, that plant diversity loss alters the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on productivity. Aboveground primary productivity was increased by both high plant diversity and <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and, in concert, <span class="hlt">warming</span> (≈1.5 °C average above and belowground <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the growing season) and diversity caused a greater than additive increase in aboveground productivity. The aboveground <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects increased over time, particularly at higher levels of diversity, perhaps because of <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced increases in legume and C4 bunch grass abundances, and facilitative feedbacks of these species on productivity. Moreover, higher plant diversity was associated with the amelioration of <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. This led to cooler temperatures, decreased vapor pressure deficit, and increased surface soil moisture in higher diversity communities. Root biomass (0-30 cm) was likewise consistently greater at higher plant diversity and was greater with <span class="hlt">warming</span> in monocultures and at intermediate diversity, but at high diversity <span class="hlt">warming</span> had no detectable effect. This may be because <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased the abundance of legumes, which have lower root : shoot ratios than the other types of plants. In addition, legumes increase soil nitrogen (N) supply, which could make N less limiting to other species and potentially decrease their investment in roots. The negative <span class="hlt">warming</span> × diversity interaction on root mass led to an overall negative interactive effect of these two global change factors on the sum of above and belowground biomass, and thus likely on total plant carbon stores. In total, plant diversity increased the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aboveground net productivity and moderated the effect on root mass. These divergent effects suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> and changes in plant diversity are likely to have both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740024666','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740024666"><span>Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The details of the stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> processes as to time, area, and intensity were established, and the <span class="hlt">warmings</span> with other terrestrial and solar phenomena occurring at satellite platform altitudes, or observable from satellite platforms, were correlated. Links were sought between the perturbed upper atmosphere (mesosphere and thermosphere) and the stratosphere that might explain stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853815.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853815.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Integration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sozio, Gerry</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Senior secondary students cover <span class="hlt">numerical</span> integration techniques in their mathematics courses. In particular, students would be familiar with the "midpoint rule," the elementary "trapezoidal rule" and "Simpson's rule." This article derives these techniques by methods which secondary students may not be familiar with and an approach that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090031926&hterms=Relativity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DRelativity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090031926&hterms=Relativity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DRelativity"><span><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Relativity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baker, John G.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in <span class="hlt">numerical</span> relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/258974','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/258974"><span>The threat of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-12-15</p> <p>If the scientific predictions of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> hold true, there`s trouble ahead for much of the world`s fresh water - and for people living in low-lying areas. The phenomenon, first described in the 1980`s, attributes projected rises in global temperatures to the emission of carbon dioxide and other {open_quotes}greenhouse gases,{close_quotes} so called because they trap the sun`s solar energy close to the Earth`s surface, much as a glass roof helps keep a greenhouse <span class="hlt">warm</span>. The overwhelming source of these emission is the burning of fossil fuels such as oil, gasoline, coal and natural gas, the principal power sources of modern industry and transportation. In 1988, the United Nations set up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to study the validity and potential effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The panel, composed of an international group of climate scientists, issued a report in June 1990 predicting a nearly two-degree rise in the globe`s average temperature by 2020. At that unprecedented rate of increase, the panel found, humankind would be living in a hotter environment that ever before.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23605603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23605603"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: knowledge and views of Iranian students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Salehpour, Sousan; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin; Attarchi, Mirsaeed</p> <p>2013-04-06</p> <p>Study of students' knowledge about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. To assess students' knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed "if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter" and "incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>". 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought "the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide" and "presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect". 68.4% believed "not using cars so much is a cure for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>". While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P<0.01) and grade 1 students (P<0.001) but there was no statistically significant difference between students of different regions (P>0.05). In general, students' knowledge about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students' mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615485M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615485M"><span>Artificial <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Arctic Meadow under Pollution Stress: Experimental design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moni, Christophe; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Fjelldal, Erling; Brenden, Marius; Kimball, Bruce; Rasse, Daniel</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, notably because future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Likewise, greenhouse gas (GHG) release from terrestrial ecosystems exposed to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> is expected to be the largest in the arctic. Artic agriculture, in the form of cultivated grasslands, is a unique and economically relevant feature of Northern Norway (e.g. Finnmark Province). In Eastern Finnmark, these agro-ecosystems are under the additional stressor of heavy metal and sulfur pollution generated by metal smelters of NW Russia. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and its interaction with heavy metal dynamics will influence meadow productivity, species composition and GHG emissions, as mediated by responses of soil microbial communities. Adaptation and mitigation measurements will be needed. Biochar application, which immobilizes heavy metal, is a promising adaptation method to promote positive growth response in arctic meadows exposed to a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. In the Meado<span class="hlt">Warm</span> project we conduct an ecosystem <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment combined to biochar adaptation treatments in the heavy-metal polluted meadows of Eastern Finnmark. In summary, the general objective of this study is twofold: 1) to determine the response of arctic agricultural ecosystems under <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stress to increased temperatures, both in terms of plant growth, soil organisms and GHG emissions, and 2) to determine if biochar application can serve as a positive adaptation (plant growth) and mitigation (GHG emission) strategy for these ecosystems under <span class="hlt">warming</span> conditions. Here, we present the experimental site and the designed open-field <span class="hlt">warming</span> facility. The selected site is an arctic meadow located at the Svanhovd Research station less than 10km west from the Russian mining city of Nikel. A splitplot design with 5 replicates for each treatment is used to test the effect of biochar amendment and a 3oC <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the Arctic meadow. Ten circular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15009836','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15009836"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Matter: An Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D</p> <p>2004-04-21</p> <p>This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044270','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044270"><span>Deep Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> during the last glacial cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Farmer, J.; Bauch, H.A.; Spielhagen, R.F.; Jakobsson, M.; Nilsson, J.; Briggs, W.M.; Stepanova, A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In the Arctic Ocean, the cold and relatively fresh water beneath the sea ice is separated from the underlying warmer and saltier Atlantic Layer by a halocline. Ongoing sea ice loss and <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arctic Ocean have demonstrated the instability of the halocline, with implications for further sea ice loss. The stability of the halocline through past climate variations is unclear. Here we estimate intermediate water temperatures over the past 50,000 years from the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values of ostracods from 31 Arctic sediment cores. From about 50 to 11 kyr ago, the central Arctic Basin from 1,000 to 2,500 m was occupied by a water mass we call Glacial Arctic Intermediate Water. This water mass was 1–2 °C warmer than modern Arctic Intermediate Water, with temperatures peaking during or just before millennial-scale Heinrich cold events and the Younger Dryas cold interval. We use <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling to show that the intermediate depth <span class="hlt">warming</span> could result from the expected decrease in the flux of fresh water to the Arctic Ocean during glacial conditions, which would cause the halocline to deepen and push the <span class="hlt">warm</span> Atlantic Layer into intermediate depths. Although not modelled, the reduced formation of cold, deep waters due to the exposure of the Arctic continental shelf could also contribute to the intermediate depth <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=241129','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=241129"><span>Performance and energy costs associated with scaling infrared heater arrays for <span class="hlt">warming</span> field plots from 1 to 100 m</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>There is a need to study the likely effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ecosystems with experimental treatments as representative as possible of future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. One approach that shows much promise is the use of hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters to <span class="hlt">warm</span> canopies of vegetation. This appr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505364"><span>Using historical and experimental data to reveal <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on ant assemblages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Resasco, Julian; Pelini, Shannon L; Stuble, Katharine L; Sanders, Nathan J; Dunn, Robert R; Diamond, Sarah E; Ellison, Aaron M; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Levey, Douglas J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Historical records of species are compared with current records to elucidate effects of recent climate change. However, confounding variables such as succession, land-use change, and species invasions make it difficult to demonstrate a causal link between changes in biota and changes in climate. Experiments that manipulate temperature can overcome this issue of attribution, but long-term impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> are difficult to test directly. Here we combine historical and experimental data to explore effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ant assemblages in southeastern US. Observational data span a 35-year period (1976-2011), during which mean annual temperatures had an increasing trend. Mean summer temperatures in 2010-2011 were ∼ 2.7 °C warmer than in 1976. Experimental data come from an ongoing study in the same region, for which temperatures have been increased ∼ 1.5-5.5 °C above ambient from 2010 to 2012. Ant species richness and evenness decreased with <span class="hlt">warming</span> under natural but not experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These discrepancies could have resulted from differences in timescales of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, abiotic or biotic factors, or initial species pools. Species turnover tended to increase with temperature in observational and experimental datasets. At the species level, the observational and experimental datasets had four species in common, two of which exhibited consistent patterns between datasets. With natural and experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>, collections of the <span class="hlt">numerically</span> dominant, thermophilic species, Crematogaster lineolata, increased roughly two-fold. Myrmecina americana, a relatively heat intolerant species, decreased with temperature in natural and experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In contrast, species in the Solenopsis molesta group did not show consistent responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and Temenothorax pergandei was rare across temperatures. Our results highlight the difficulty of interpreting community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> based on historical records or experiments alone. Because some species showed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5209705','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5209705"><span>Major cause of unprecedented Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> in January 2016: Critical role of an Atlantic windstorm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Baek-Min; Hong, Ja-Young; Jun, Sang-Yoon; Zhang, Xiangdong; Kwon, Hataek; Kim, Seong-Joong; Kim, Joo-Hong; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Kyung</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In January 2016, the Arctic experienced an extremely anomalous <span class="hlt">warming</span> event after an extraordinary increase in air temperature at the end of 2015. During this event, a strong intrusion of <span class="hlt">warm</span> and moist air and an increase in downward longwave radiation, as well as a loss of sea ice in the Barents and Kara seas, were observed. Observational analyses revealed that the abrupt <span class="hlt">warming</span> was triggered by the entry of a strong Atlantic windstorm into the Arctic in late December 2015, which brought enormous moist and <span class="hlt">warm</span> air masses to the Arctic. Although the storm terminated at the eastern coast of Greenland in late December, it was followed by a prolonged blocking period in early 2016 that sustained the extreme Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span>. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> experiments indicate that the <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect of sea ice loss and associated upward turbulent heat fluxes are relatively minor in this event. This result suggests the importance of the synoptically driven <span class="hlt">warm</span> and moist air intrusion into the Arctic as a primary contributing factor of this extreme Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> event. PMID:28051170</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...740051K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...740051K"><span>Major cause of unprecedented Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> in January 2016: Critical role of an Atlantic windstorm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Baek-Min; Hong, Ja-Young; Jun, Sang-Yoon; Zhang, Xiangdong; Kwon, Hataek; Kim, Seong-Joong; Kim, Joo-Hong; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Kyung</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In January 2016, the Arctic experienced an extremely anomalous <span class="hlt">warming</span> event after an extraordinary increase in air temperature at the end of 2015. During this event, a strong intrusion of <span class="hlt">warm</span> and moist air and an increase in downward longwave radiation, as well as a loss of sea ice in the Barents and Kara seas, were observed. Observational analyses revealed that the abrupt <span class="hlt">warming</span> was triggered by the entry of a strong Atlantic windstorm into the Arctic in late December 2015, which brought enormous moist and <span class="hlt">warm</span> air masses to the Arctic. Although the storm terminated at the eastern coast of Greenland in late December, it was followed by a prolonged blocking period in early 2016 that sustained the extreme Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span>. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> experiments indicate that the <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect of sea ice loss and associated upward turbulent heat fluxes are relatively minor in this event. This result suggests the importance of the synoptically driven <span class="hlt">warm</span> and moist air intrusion into the Arctic as a primary contributing factor of this extreme Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28051170','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28051170"><span>Major cause of unprecedented Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> in January 2016: Critical role of an Atlantic windstorm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Baek-Min; Hong, Ja-Young; Jun, Sang-Yoon; Zhang, Xiangdong; Kwon, Hataek; Kim, Seong-Joong; Kim, Joo-Hong; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Kyung</p> <p>2017-01-04</p> <p>In January 2016, the Arctic experienced an extremely anomalous <span class="hlt">warming</span> event after an extraordinary increase in air temperature at the end of 2015. During this event, a strong intrusion of <span class="hlt">warm</span> and moist air and an increase in downward longwave radiation, as well as a loss of sea ice in the Barents and Kara seas, were observed. Observational analyses revealed that the abrupt <span class="hlt">warming</span> was triggered by the entry of a strong Atlantic windstorm into the Arctic in late December 2015, which brought enormous moist and <span class="hlt">warm</span> air masses to the Arctic. Although the storm terminated at the eastern coast of Greenland in late December, it was followed by a prolonged blocking period in early 2016 that sustained the extreme Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span>. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> experiments indicate that the <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect of sea ice loss and associated upward turbulent heat fluxes are relatively minor in this event. This result suggests the importance of the synoptically driven <span class="hlt">warm</span> and moist air intrusion into the Arctic as a primary contributing factor of this extreme Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA253433','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA253433"><span><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Optimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>fisica matematica . ABSTRACT - We consider a new method for the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solution both of non- linear systems of equations and of cornplementauity... Matematica , Serie V11 Volume 9 , Roma (1989), 521-543 An Inexact Continuous Method for the Solution of Large Systems of Equations and Complementarity...34 - 00185 Roma - Italy APPENDIX 2 A Quadratically Convergent Method for Unear Programming’ Stefano Herzel Dipartimento di Matematica -G. Castelnuovo</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738U0031F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738U0031F"><span>New efficient optimizing techniques for Kalman filters and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> weather prediction models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Famelis, Ioannis; Galanis, George; Liakatas, Aristotelis</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The need for accurate local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> predictions and simulations beyond the classical meteorological forecasts are increasing the last years due to the great number of applications that are directly or not affected: renewable energy resource assessment, natural hazards early warning systems, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and questions on the climate change can be listed among them. Within this framework the utilization of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> weather and wave prediction systems in conjunction with advanced statistical techniques that support the elimination of the model bias and the reduction of the error variability may successfully address the above issues. In the present work, new optimization methods are studied and tested in selected areas of Greece where the use of renewable energy sources is of critical. The added value of the proposed work is due to the solid mathematical background adopted making use of Information Geometry and Statistical techniques, new versions of Kalman filters and state of the art <span class="hlt">numerical</span> analysis tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107529"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> triggers the loss of a key Arctic refugium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rühland, K M; Paterson, A M; Keller, W; Michelutti, N; Smol, J P</p> <p>2013-12-07</p> <p>We document the rapid transformation of one of the Earth's last remaining Arctic refugia, a change that is being driven by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In stark contrast to the amplified <span class="hlt">warming</span> observed throughout much of the Arctic, the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) of subarctic Canada has maintained cool temperatures, largely due to the counteracting effects of persistent sea ice. However, since the mid-1990s, climate of the HBL has passed a tipping point, the pace and magnitude of which is exceptional even by Arctic standards, exceeding the range of regional long-term variability. Using high-resolution, palaeolimnological records of algal remains in dated lake sediment cores, we report that, within this short period of intense <span class="hlt">warming</span>, striking biological changes have occurred in the region's freshwater ecosystems. The delayed and intense <span class="hlt">warming</span> in this remote region provides a natural observatory for testing ecosystem resilience under a rapidly changing climate, in the absence of direct anthropogenic influences. The <span class="hlt">environmental</span> repercussions of this climate change are of global significance, influencing the huge store of carbon in the region's extensive peatlands, the world's southern-most polar bear population that depends upon Hudson Bay sea ice and permafrost for survival, and native communities who rely on this landscape for sustenance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18266169','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18266169"><span>Toward a critical anthropology on the impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on health and human societies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baer, Hans A</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This op-ed essay urges medical anthropologists to join a growing number of public health scholars to examine the impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on health. Adopting a critical medical anthropology perspective, I argue that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is yet another manifestation of the contradictions of the capitalist world system. Ultimately, an serious effort to mitigate the impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> not only on health but also settlement patterns and subsistence will require the creation of a new global political economy based upon social parity, democratic processes, and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> sustainability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040016359&hterms=Seasons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DSeasons','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040016359&hterms=Seasons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DSeasons"><span>Diabatic Initialization of Mesoscale Models in the Southeastern United States: Can 0 to 12h <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Season QPF be Improved?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lapenta, William M.; Bradshaw, Tom; Burks, Jason; Darden, Chris; Dembek, Scott</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that <span class="hlt">numerical</span> <span class="hlt">warm</span> season quantitative precipitation forecasts lack significant skill for <span class="hlt">numerous</span> reasons. Some are related to the model--it may lack physical processes required to realistically simulate convection or the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> algorithms and dynamics employed may not be adequate. Others are related to initialization-mesoscale features play an important role in convective initialization and atmospheric observation systems are incapable of properly depicting the three-dimensional stability structure at the mesoscale. The purpose of this study is to determine if a mesoscale model initialized with a diabatic initialization scheme can improve short-term (0 to 12h) <span class="hlt">warm</span> season quantitative precipitation forecasts in the Southeastern United States. The Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) developed at the Forecast System Laboratory is used to diabatically initialize the Pennsylvania State University/National center for Atmospheric Research (PSUNCAR) Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5). The SPORT Center runs LAPS operationally on an hourly cycle to produce analyses on a 15 km covering the eastern 2/3 of the United States. The 20 km National Centers for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction (NCEP) Rapid Update Cycle analyses are used for the background fields. Standard observational data are acquired from MADIS with GOES/CRAFT Nexrad data acquired from in-house feeds. The MM5 is configured on a 140 x 140 12 km grid centered on Huntsville Alabama. Preliminary results indicate that MM5 runs initialized with LAPS produce improved 6 and 12h QPF threat scores compared with those initialized with the NCEP RUC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6506974','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6506974"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and biological diversity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peters, R.L.; Lovejoy, T.E.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This book is based on presentations given at the World Wildlife Fund's Conference on Consequences of the Greenhouse Effect for Biological Diverisity in 1988, and includes updated literature citations. The general topics covered in the book include the following: overview; summary of past responses of plants to climatic change; general ecological and physiological responses; ecosystems in 4 specific regions (arctic marine, Alaskan North Slope, NW US forests, and Mediterranean); global <span class="hlt">warming</span>'s implications for conservation. Ideas and data from many ecosystems and information about the relationships between biodiversity and climatic change are brought together with a balance of factual information and defensible scientific prognostication.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25307533','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25307533"><span>Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen addition in a semiarid steppe ecosystem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Yong-Chan; Gao, Cheng; Zheng, Yong; He, Xin-Hua; Yang, Wei; Chen, Liang; Wan, Shi-Qiang; Guo, Liang-Dong</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Understanding the response of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen (N) fertilization is critical to assess the impact of anthropogenic disturbance on ecosystem functioning under global climate change scenarios. In this study, AM fungal communities were examined in a full factorial design with <span class="hlt">warming</span> and N addition in a semiarid steppe in northern China. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> significantly increased AM fungal spore density, regardless of N addition, whilst N addition significantly decreased AM fungal extraradical hyphal density, regardless of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A total of 79 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were recovered by 454 pyrosequencing of SSU rDNA. <span class="hlt">Warming</span>, but not N addition, had a significant positive effect on AM fungal OTU richness, while <span class="hlt">warming</span> and N addition significantly increased AM fungal Shannon diversity index. N addition, but not <span class="hlt">warming</span>, significantly altered the AM fungal community composition. Furthermore, the changes in AM fungal community composition were associated with shifts in plant community composition indirectly caused by N addition. These findings highlight the different effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and N addition on AM fungal communities and contribute to understanding AM fungal community responses to global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change scenarios in semiarid steppe ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24904161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24904161"><span>From aerosol-limited to invigoration of <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koren, Ilan; Dagan, Guy; Altaratz, Orit</p> <p>2014-06-06</p> <p>Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a <span class="hlt">warm</span> base and cold top. Here, we provide evidence from observations and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling of a dramatic aerosol effect on <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds. We propose that convective-cloud invigoration by aerosols can be viewed as an extension of the concept of aerosol-limited clouds, where cloud development is limited by the availability of cloud-condensation nuclei. A transition from pristine to slightly polluted atmosphere yields estimated negative forcing of ~15 watts per square meter (cooling), suggesting that a substantial part of this anthropogenic forcing over the oceans occurred at the beginning of the industrial era, when the marine atmosphere experienced such transformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=155365&keyword=Carbon+AND+footprint&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90647180&CFTOKEN=18454482','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=155365&keyword=Carbon+AND+footprint&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90647180&CFTOKEN=18454482"><span>A CRADLE TO GATE LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF THE BIOPOLYMER POLYLACTIC ACID: LOOKING BEYOND GLOBAL <span class="hlt">WARMING</span> AND FOSSIL FUEL USE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Derived from corn, the biopolymer polylactic acid (PLA) has recently emerged in the marketplace and is advertised as a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based polymers. Research into the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> implications of biobased production has focused primarily on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/0073/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/0073/report.pdf"><span>Coal Extraction - <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America <span class="hlt">warm</span> in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without <span class="hlt">environmental</span> costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880027641&hterms=isobars&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Disobars','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880027641&hterms=isobars&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Disobars"><span>Simulated sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> - Synoptic evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blackshear, W. T.; Grose, W. L.; Turner, R. E.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An analysis is presented of a sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> event which occurred spontaneously during a general circulation model simulation of the global atmospheric circulation. Two separate <span class="hlt">warming</span> pulses exhibit the same dynamical evolution with a 'cycle' of about two weeks. Two distinct phases of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> cycle are apparent: (1) the generation of an intense localized <span class="hlt">warm</span> cell in conjunction with significant adiabatic heating associated with cross-isobar flow which has been induced by vertically propagating long wave disturbances; and (2) the northward transport of that <span class="hlt">warm</span> cell via advection by the essentially geostrophic windfield corresponding to an intense, offset polar cyclone, in conjunction with a strong Aleutian anticyclone. During the first <span class="hlt">warming</span> pulse in January, a moderate Aleutian anticyclone was in place prior to the <span class="hlt">warming</span> cycle and was intensified by interaction with an eastward traveling anticyclone induced by the differential advection of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> cell. The second <span class="hlt">warming</span> pulse occurred in early February with a strong Aleutian anticyclone already established. In contrast to the January event, the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in February culminated with reversal of the zonal westerlies to easterlies over a significant depth of the stratosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..563D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..563D"><span>Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued <span class="hlt">warming</span>, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008371','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008371"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> gas TVC design study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moorhead, S. B., Jr.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas thrust vector control system was studied to optimize the injection geometry for a specific engine configuration, and an injection valve was designed capable of meeting the base line requirements. To optimize injection geometry, studies were made to determine the performance effects of varying injection location, angle, port size, and port configuration. Having minimized the injection flow rate required, a <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas valve was designed to handle the required flow. A direct drive hydraulic servovalve capable of operating with highly contaminated hydraulic fluid was designed. The valve is sized to flow 15 gpm at 3000 psia and the direct drive feature is capable of applying a spool force of 200 pounds. The baseline requirements are the development of 6 deg of thrust vector control utilizing 2000 F (total temperature) gas for 180 seconds on a 1.37 million pound thrust engine burning LOX and RP-1 at a chamber pressure of 250 psia with a 155 inch long conical nozzle having a 68 inch diameter throat and a 153 inch diameter exit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25478068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25478068"><span>Population growth and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Short, R V</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>When I was born in 1930, the human population of the world was a mere 2 billion. Today, it has already reached 6.8 billion, and is projected to reach 9.1 billion by 2050. That is unsustainable. It is slowly beginning to dawn on us that Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> is the result of increasing human CO2 emissions, and the more people there are in the world, the worse it will become. Ultimately, it is the sky that will prove to be the limit to our numbers. The developed countries of the world are the most affluent, and also the most effluent, so we must lead by example and contain our own population growth and per capita emissions. We also have a big debt to repay to former colonial territories in Africa, Asia and South America, who desperately need our help to contain their excessive rates of population growth. Belgian and Dutch obstetricians and gynaecologists can play a critical role in this endeavour. After all, we already have a pill that will stop global <span class="hlt">warming</span> - the oral contraceptive pill.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043248','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043248"><span>Exceptional <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Western Pacific-Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool has contributed to more frequent droughts in eastern Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Funk, Christopher C.; Peterson, Thomas C.; Stott, Peter A.; Herring, Stephanie</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In 2011, East Africa faced a tragic food crisis that led to famine conditions in parts of Somalia and severe food shortages in parts of Ethiopia and Somalia. While many nonclimatic factors contributed to this crisis (high global food prices, political instability, and chronic poverty, among others) failed rains in both the boreal winter of 2010/11 and the boreal spring of 2011 played a critical role. The back-to-back failures of these rains, which were linked to the dominant La Niña climate and <span class="hlt">warm</span> SSTs in the central and southeastern Indian Ocean, were particularly problematic since they followed poor rainfall during the spring and summer of 2008 and 2009. In fact, in parts of East Africa, in recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of below-normal rainy seasons, which may be related to the <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans (for more details, see Funk et al. 2008; Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011; Lyon and DeWitt 2012). The basic argument of this work is that recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Indian–Pacific <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool (IPWP) enhances the export of geopotential height energy from the <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool, which tends to produce subsidence across eastern Africa and reduce onshore moisture transports. The general pattern of this disruption has been supported by canonical correlation analyzes and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments with the Community Atmosphere Model (Funk et al. 2008), diagnostic evaluations of reanalysis data (Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011), and SST-driven experiments with ECHAM4.5, ECHAM5, and the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3.6) (Lyon and DeWitt 2012).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159740','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159740"><span>Forecasting wildlife response to rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Alaskan Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Flint, Paul L.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Koch, Joshua C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Oakley, Karen L.; Pearce, John M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Arctic wildlife species face a dynamic and increasingly novel environment because of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the associated increase in human activity. Both marine and terrestrial environments are undergoing rapid <span class="hlt">environmental</span> shifts, including loss of sea ice, permafrost degradation, and altered biogeochemical fluxes. Forecasting wildlife responses to climate change can facilitate proactive decisions that balance stewardship with resource development. In this article, we discuss the primary and secondary responses to physical climate-related drivers in the Arctic, associated wildlife responses, and additional sources of complexity in forecasting wildlife population outcomes. Although the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on wildlife populations are becoming increasingly well documented in the scientific literature, clear mechanistic links are often difficult to establish. An integrated science approach and robust modeling tools are necessary to make predictions and determine resiliency to change. We provide a conceptual framework and introduce examples relevant for developing wildlife forecasts useful to management decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181865','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181865"><span>Health effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Problems in assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Longstreth, J.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is likely to result in a variety of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26047565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26047565"><span>Range-expanding pests and pathogens in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> world.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bebber, Daniel Patrick</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Crop pests and pathogens (CPPs) present a growing threat to food security and ecosystem management. The interactions between plants and their natural enemies are influenced by <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions and thus global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate change could affect CPP ranges and impact. Observations of changing CPP distributions over the twentieth century suggest that growing agricultural production and trade have been most important in disseminating CPPs, but there is some evidence for a latitudinal bias in range shifts that indicates a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> signal. Species distribution models using climatic variables as drivers suggest that ranges will shift latitudinally in the future. The rapid spread of the Colorado potato beetle across Eurasia illustrates the importance of evolutionary adaptation, host distribution, and migration patterns in affecting the predictions of climate-based species distribution models. Understanding species range shifts in the framework of ecological niche theory may help to direct future research needs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5358016','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5358016"><span>Daytime <span class="hlt">warming</span> has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warming</span> of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger <span class="hlt">warming</span> during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three <span class="hlt">warming</span> modes, i.e. daytime <span class="hlt">warming</span>, night-time <span class="hlt">warming</span> and diurnal <span class="hlt">warming</span>, were taken to perform the asymmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment significantly decreased soil nematodes density, and night-time <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment marginally affected the density. The response of bacterivorous nematode and fungivorous nematode to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> showed the same trend with the total density. Redundancy analysis revealed an opposite effect of soil moisture and soil temperature, and the most important of soil moisture and temperature in night-time among the measured environment factors, affecting soil nematode community. Our findings suggested that daily minimum temperature and <span class="hlt">warming</span> induced drying are most important factors affecting soil nematode community under the current global asymmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:28317914</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...744888Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...744888Y"><span>Daytime <span class="hlt">warming</span> has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warming</span> of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger <span class="hlt">warming</span> during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three <span class="hlt">warming</span> modes, i.e. daytime <span class="hlt">warming</span>, night-time <span class="hlt">warming</span> and diurnal <span class="hlt">warming</span>, were taken to perform the asymmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment significantly decreased soil nematodes density, and night-time <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment marginally affected the density. The response of bacterivorous nematode and fungivorous nematode to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> showed the same trend with the total density. Redundancy analysis revealed an opposite effect of soil moisture and soil temperature, and the most important of soil moisture and temperature in night-time among the measured environment factors, affecting soil nematode community. Our findings suggested that daily minimum temperature and <span class="hlt">warming</span> induced drying are most important factors affecting soil nematode community under the current global asymmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28273897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28273897"><span>Daytime <span class="hlt">warming</span> has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warming</span> of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger <span class="hlt">warming</span> during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three <span class="hlt">warming</span> modes, i.e. daytime <span class="hlt">warming</span>, night-time <span class="hlt">warming</span> and diurnal <span class="hlt">warming</span>, were taken to perform the asymmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment significantly decreased soil nematodes density, and night-time <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment marginally affected the density. The response of bacterivorous nematode and fungivorous nematode to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> showed the same trend with the total density. Redundancy analysis revealed an opposite effect of soil moisture and soil temperature, and the most important of soil moisture and temperature in night-time among the measured environment factors, affecting soil nematode community. Our findings suggested that daily minimum temperature and <span class="hlt">warming</span> induced drying are most important factors affecting soil nematode community under the current global asymmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A33K3356E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A33K3356E"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-Ring Structures in Intense Hurricanes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Espinosa, F. I.; Gonzalez, A. O.; Slocum, C. J.; Schubert, W. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Typical hurricanes have a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-core structure such that the warmest temperatures occur in the center of the hurricane. However, weather reconnaissance aircraft data has observed <span class="hlt">warm</span>-rings in intense hurricanes. A <span class="hlt">warm</span>-ring structure results when the warmest temperature anomalies occur on the outer edge of the eye. Schubert et al. (2007) suggests the Eliassen transverse circulation equation can model intense hurricanes with a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-core structure in the upper troposphere and also a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-ring structure in the lower. Although the thermal wind equation was used in the derivation of the transverse circulation equation, the thermal wind equation has not been used explicitly in an attempt to create such a temperature field. This study derives the thermal wind equation from the hydrostatic and the gradient wind equations to analyze the temperature, tangential velocity, and the absolute vorticity fields. Using observed hurricanes, a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-ring structure is simulated with the thermal wind equation as the basis. With a prescribed temperature profile, the calculated tangential velocity and absolute vorticity fields resemble those of a realistic hurricane. Thus, the thermal wind equation can be used to create a realistic, intense hurricane with a <span class="hlt">warm</span> ring structure. Schubert et al. (2007) discusses subsidence as a mechanism that leads to the <span class="hlt">warm</span>-ring but the tangential velocity and absolute vorticity fields suggest some influence of boundary layer processes that should be explored in future research for a further understanding of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-rings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006216','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006216"><span>Halocarbon ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cox, Richard A.; Wuebbles, D.; Atkinson, R.; Connell, Peter S.; Dorn, H. P.; Derudder, A.; Derwent, Richard G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Fisher, D.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Concern over the global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> consequences of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has created a need to determine the potential impacts of other halogenated organic compounds on stratospheric ozone and climate. The CFCs, which do not contain an H atom, are not oxidized or photolyzed in the troposphere. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere where they decompose and can lead to chlorine catalyzed ozone depletion. The hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs or HFCs), in particular those proposed as substitutes for CFCs, contain at least one hydrogen atom in the molecule, which confers on these compounds a much greater sensitivity toward oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, resulting in much shorter atmospheric lifetimes than CFCs, and consequently lower potential for depleting ozone. The available information is reviewed which relates to the lifetime of these compounds (HCFCs and HFCs) in the troposphere, and up-to-date assessments are reported of the potential relative effects of CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, and halons on stratospheric ozone and global climate (through 'greenhouse' global <span class="hlt">warming</span>).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1031762','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1031762"><span>End Calorimeter <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Tube Heater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab</p> <p>1991-08-06</p> <p>The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, <span class="hlt">warm</span> (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the <span class="hlt">warm</span> tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/984428','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/984428"><span>DPIS for <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Horioka, K.; Okamura, M.</p> <p>2010-05-23</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Matter (WDM) offers an challenging problem because WDM, which is beyond ideal plasma, is in a low temperature and high density state with partially degenerate electrons and coupled ions. WDM is a common state of matter in astrophysical objects such as cores of giant planets and white dwarfs. The WDM studies require large energy deposition into a small target volume in a shorter time than the hydrodynamical time and need uniformity across the full thickness of the target. Since moderate energy ion beams ({approx} 0.3 MeV/u) can be useful tool for WDM physics, we propose WDM generation using Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS). In the DPIS, laser ion source is connected to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator directly without the beam transport line. DPIS with a realistic final focus and a linear accelerator can produce WDM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27459785','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27459785"><span>Soil moisture mediates alpine life form and community productivity responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winkler, Daniel E; Chapin, Kenneth J; Kueppers, Lara M</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Climate change is expected to alter primary production and community composition in alpine ecosystems, but the direction and magnitude of change is debated. Warmer, wetter growing seasons may increase productivity; however, in the absence of additional precipitation, increased temperatures may decrease soil moisture, thereby diminishing any positive effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Since plant species show individual responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, responses may depend on community composition and vary across life form or functional groups. We <span class="hlt">warmed</span> an alpine plant community at Niwot Ridge, Colorado continuously for four years to test whether <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases or decreases productivity of life form groups and the whole community. We provided supplemental water to a subset of plots to alleviate the drying effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We measured annual above-ground productivity and soil temperature and moisture, from which we calculated soil degree days and adequate soil moisture days. Using an information-theoretic approach, we observed that positive productivity responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the community level occur only when <span class="hlt">warming</span> is combined with supplemental watering; otherwise we observed decreased productivity. Watering also increased community productivity in the absence of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Forbs accounted for the majority of the productivity at the site and drove the contingent community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, while cushions drove the generally positive response to watering and graminoids muted the community response. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> advanced snowmelt and increased soil degree days, while watering increased adequate soil moisture days. Heated and watered plots had more adequate soil moisture days than heated plots. Overall, measured changes in soil temperature and moisture in response to treatments were consistent with expected productivity responses. We found that available soil moisture largely determines the responses of this forb-dominated alpine community to simulated climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......485S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......485S"><span>Seasonal Climate Extremes : Mechanism, Predictability and Responses to Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shongwe, M. E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Climate extremes are rarely occurring natural phenomena in the climate system. They often pose one of the greatest <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats to human and natural systems. Statistical methods are commonly used to investigate characteristics of climate extremes. The fitted statistical properties are often interpolated or extrapolated to give an indication of the likelihood of a certain event within a given period or interval. Under changing climatic conditions, the statistical properties of climate extremes are also changing. It is an important scientific goal to predict how the properties of extreme events change. To achieve this goal, observational and model studies aimed at revealing important features are a necessary prerequisite. Notable progress has been made in understanding mechanisms that influence climate variability and extremes in many parts of the globe including Europe. However, some of the recently observed unprecedented extremes cannot be fully explained from the already identified forcing factors. A better understanding of why these extreme events occur and their sensitivity to certain reinforcing and/or competing factors is useful. Understanding their basic form as well as their temporal variability is also vital and can contribute to global scientific efforts directed at advancing climate prediction capabilities, particularly making skilful forecasts and realistic projections of extremes. In this thesis temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe and Africa, respectively, are investigated. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of the extremes, their predictability and their likely response to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The focus is on some selected seasons when extremes typically occur. An atmospheric energy budget analysis for the record-breaking European Autumn 2006 event has been carried out with the goal to identify the sources of energy for the extreme event. Net radiational heating is compared to surface turbulent fluxes of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640748"><span>Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the B4<span class="hlt">WarmED</span> (Boreal Forest <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves <span class="hlt">warming</span> of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment called Boreal Forest <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at an Ecotone in Danger (B4<span class="hlt">WarmED</span>) that addresses the potential for projected climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the <span class="hlt">warming</span> approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6014B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6014B"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span>: mechanism and latitude dependence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barkin, Yury</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Introduction. In the work it is shown, that in present <span class="hlt">warming</span> of climate of the Earth and in style of its display a fundamental role the mechanism of the forced swing and relative oscillations of eccentric core of the Earth and its mantle plays. Relative displacements of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle are dictated by the features of orbital motions of bodies of solar system and nonineriality of the Earth reference frame (or ot the mantle) at the motion of the Earth with respect to a baricenter of solar system and at rotation of the planet. As a result in relative translational displacements of the core and the mantle the frequencies characteristic for orbital motion of all bodies of solar system, and also their combination are shown. Methods of a space geodesy, gravimetry, geophysics, etc. unequivocally and clearly confirm phenomenon of drift of the center of mass of the Earth in define northern direction. This drift is characterized by the significant velocity in about 5 mm/yr. The unique opportunity of its explanation consists in the natural assumption of existence of the unidirectional relative displacement (drift) the center of mass of the core and the center of mass of the mantle of the Earth. And this displacement (at superfluous mass of the core in 16.7 % from the mass of full the Earth) is characterized still more significant velocity in 2.6 cm/yr and occurs on our geodynamic studies in a direction to Taimyr peninsula. The dynamic explanation to century drift for today does not exist. It is possible to note, however, that data of observations of last years, indirectly testifying that similar drifts of the centers of mass in present epoch occur on other bodies of Solar system have been obtain: the Sun, Mars, the Titan, Enceladus, the Neptune, etc. We connect with mentioned phenomena the observed secular variations of natural processes on this celestial bodies. I.e. it is possible to assume, that observable eccentric positions of the centers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warmup&pg=7&id=EJ445277','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warmup&pg=7&id=EJ445277"><span>Efficient <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-ups: Creating a <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up That Works.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lauffenburger, Sandra Kay</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Proper <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up is important for any activity, but designing an effective <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up can be time consuming. An alternative approach is to take a cue from Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) and consider movement design from the perspective of space and planes of motion. Efficient <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up exercises using LMA are described. (SM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18787131','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18787131"><span>Distinct TRP channels are required for <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cool avoidance in Drosophila melanogaster.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosenzweig, Mark; Kang, Kyeongjin; Garrity, Paul A</p> <p>2008-09-23</p> <p>The ability to sense and respond to subtle variations in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperature is critical for animal survival. Animals avoid temperatures that are too cold or too <span class="hlt">warm</span> and seek out temperatures favorable for their survival. At the molecular level, members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels contribute to thermosensory behaviors in animals from flies to humans. In Drosophila melanogaster larvae, avoidance of excessively <span class="hlt">warm</span> temperatures is known to require the TRP protein dTRPA1. Whether larval avoidance of excessively cool temperatures also requires TRP channel function, and whether <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cool avoidance use the same or distinct TRP channels has been unknown. Here we identify two TRP channels required for cool avoidance, TRPL and TRP. Although TRPL and TRP have previously characterized roles in phototransduction, their function in cool avoidance appears to be distinct, as neither photoreceptor neurons nor the phototransduction regulators NORPA and INAF are required for cool avoidance. TRPL and TRP are required for cool avoidance; however they are dispensable for <span class="hlt">warm</span> avoidance. Furthermore, cold-activated neurons in the larvae are required for cool but not <span class="hlt">warm</span> avoidance. Conversely, dTRPA1 is essential for <span class="hlt">warm</span> avoidance, but not cool avoidance. Taken together, these data demonstrate that <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cool avoidance in the Drosophila larva involves distinct TRP channels and circuits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873302','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873302"><span>Controlled Soil <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Powered by Alternative Energy for Remote Field Sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johnstone, Jill F.; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical <span class="hlt">warming</span> probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> manipulation achieved a stable target <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 1.3 to 2°C in 1 m2 plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ecosystem processes. PMID:24386125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24386125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24386125"><span>Controlled soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnstone, Jill F; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical <span class="hlt">warming</span> probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> manipulation achieved a stable target <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2) plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ecosystem processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=super+AND+computers&pg=3&id=EJ410863','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=super+AND+computers&pg=3&id=EJ410863"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: How Much and Why?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lanouette, William</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Summarizes the history of the study of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ice+AND+Age&pg=2&id=EJ502195','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ice+AND+Age&pg=2&id=EJ502195"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Andrews, Bill</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and unequal <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (LZ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=greenhouse+AND+effect+AND+helps&pg=2&id=EJ502198','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=greenhouse+AND+effect+AND+helps&pg=2&id=EJ502198"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Andrews, Bill</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A resource for teaching about the consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (LZ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ozone&id=EJ912888','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ozone&id=EJ912888"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Lessons from Ozone Depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hobson, Art</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ817943','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ817943"><span>Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910027451&hterms=water+issues+global&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwater%2Bissues%2Bglobal','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910027451&hterms=water+issues+global&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwater%2Bissues%2Bglobal"><span>Greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the tropical water budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Betts, Alan K.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The present work takes issue with some of the theses of Lindzen's (1990) work on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, arguing in particular that Lindzen's work is hampered by the use of oversimplified models. Lindzen then presents a detailed reply to these arguments, emphasizing the fundamental importance of the upper tropospheric water-vapor budget to the question of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ894851.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ894851.pdf"><span>Turkish Students' Ideas about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6...22K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6...22K"><span>Cryosphere: <span class="hlt">Warming</span> ocean erodes ice sheets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kusahara, Kazuya</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Antarctic ice sheets are a key player in sea-level rise in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. Now an ice-sheet modelling study clearly demonstrates that an Antarctic ice sheet/shelf system in the Atlantic Ocean will be regulated by the <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the surrounding Southern Ocean, not by marine-ice-sheet instability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Water&pg=2&id=EJ1094559','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Water&pg=2&id=EJ1094559"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Water in a Glass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Paulins, Paulis; Krauze, Armands; Ozolinsh, Maris; Muiznieks, Andris</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The article focuses on the process of water <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 0 °C in a glass. An experiment is performed that analyzes the temperature in the top and bottom layers of water during <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The experimental equipment is very simple and can be easily set up using devices available in schools. The temperature curves obtained from the experiment help us…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.2543R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.2543R"><span><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulation of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26726274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26726274"><span><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulation of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reagan, Matthew T; Moridis, George J; Keen, Noel D; Johnson, Jeffrey N</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33B1280X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33B1280X"><span>Can biomass responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> at plant to ecosystem levels be predicted by leaf-level responses?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xia, J.; Shao, J.; Zhou, X.; Yan, W.; Lu, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has the profound impacts on terrestrial C processes from leaf to ecosystem scales, potentially feeding back to climate dynamics. Although <span class="hlt">numerous</span> studies had investigated the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on C processes from leaf to plant and ecosystem levels, how leaf-level responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> scale up to biomass responses at plant, population, and community levels are largely unknown. In this study, we compiled a dataset from 468 papers at 300 experimental sites and synthesized the <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on leaf-level parameters, and plant, population and ecosystem biomass. Our results showed that responses of plant biomass to <span class="hlt">warming</span> mainly resulted from the changed leaf area rather than the altered photosynthetic capacity. The response of ecosystem biomass to <span class="hlt">warming</span> was weaker than those of leaf area and plant biomass. However, the scaling functions from responses of leaf area to plant biomass to <span class="hlt">warming</span> were different in diverse forest types, but functions were similar in non-forested biomes. In addition, it is challenging to scale the biomass responses from plant up to ecosystem. These results indicated that leaf area might be the appropriate index for plant biomass response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and the interspecific competition might hamper the scaling of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on plant and ecosystem levels, suggesting that the acclimation capacity of plant community should be incorporated into land surface models to improve the prediction of climate-C cycle feedback.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015nova.pres..351K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015nova.pres..351K"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Disks from Giant Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kohler, Susanna</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In the process of searching for exoplanetary systems, weve discovered tens of debris disks close around distant stars that are especially bright in infrared wavelengths. New research suggests that we might be looking at the late stages of terrestrial planet formation in these systems.Forming Terrestrial PlanetsAccording to the widely-accepted formation model for our solar-system, protoplanets the size of Mars formed within a protoplanetary disk around our Sun. Eventually, the depletion of the gas in the disk led the orbits of these protoplanets to become chaotically unstable. Finally, in the giant impact stage, many of the protoplanets collided with each other ultimately leading to the formation of the terrestrial planets and their moons as we know them today.If giant impact stages occur in exoplanetary systems, too leading to the formation of terrestrial exoplanets how would we detect this process? According to a study led by Hidenori Genda of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, we might be already be witnessing this stage in observations of <span class="hlt">warm</span> debris disks around other stars. To test this, Genda and collaborators model giant impact stages and determine what we would expect to see from a system undergoing this violent evolution.Modeling CollisionsSnapshots of a giant impact in one of the authors simulations. The collision causes roughly 0.05 Earth masses of protoplanetary material to be ejected from the system. Click for a closer look! [Genda et al. 2015]The collaborators run a series of simulations evolving protoplanetary bodies in a solar system. The simulations begin 10 Myr into the lifetime of the solar system, i.e., after the gas from the protoplanetary disk has had time to be cleared and the protoplanetary orbits begin to destabilize. The simulations end when the protoplanets are done smashing into each other and have again settled into stable orbits, typically after ~100 Myr.The authors find that, over an average giant impact stage, the total amount of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16697507','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16697507"><span>Further evidence of the effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on lichens, particularly those with Trentepohlia phycobionts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aptroot, A; van Herk, C M</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Increasing evidence suggests that lichens are responding to climate change in Western Europe. More epiphytic species appear to be increasing, rather than declining, as a result of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Many terricolous species, in contrast, are declining. Changes to epiphytic floras are markedly more rapid in formerly heavily polluted, generally built-up or open rural areas, as compared to forested regions. Both the distribution (southern) and ecology (warmth-loving) of the newly established or increasing species seem to be determined by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Epiphytic temperate to boreo-montane species appear to be relatively unaffected. Vacant niches caused by other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes are showing the most pronounced effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Species most rapidly increasing in forests, although taxonomically unrelated, all contain Trentepohlia as phycobiont in addition to having a southern distribution. This suggests that in this habitat, Trentepohlia algae, rather than the different lichen symbioses, are affected by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471027','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471027"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, insurance losses and financial industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Low, N.C.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. How global <span class="hlt">warming</span> can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27708149','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27708149"><span>Urban <span class="hlt">warming</span> reduces aboveground carbon storage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meineke, Emily; Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D</p> <p>2016-10-12</p> <p>A substantial amount of global carbon is stored in mature trees. However, no experiments to date test how <span class="hlt">warming</span> affects mature tree carbon storage. Using a unique, citywide, factorial experiment, we investigated how <span class="hlt">warming</span> and insect herbivory affected physiological function and carbon sequestration (carbon stored per year) of mature trees. Urban <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased herbivorous arthropod abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon sequestration. Instead, urban <span class="hlt">warming</span> was associated with an estimated 12% loss of carbon sequestration, in part because photosynthesis was reduced at hotter sites. Ecosystem service assessments that do not consider urban conditions may overestimate urban tree carbon storage. Because urban and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are becoming more intense, our results suggest that urban trees will sequester even less carbon in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113149M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113149M"><span>Phenology and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> research in Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morellato, L. P. C.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p> changes on dry season length and severity, shifting on time and synchrony; (ii) shifts on fruiting are more subtle and related to seed dispersal mechanisms (animal, wind or others); (iii) forest edges and gaps, and distance from urban centers may influence tree phenology, stressing the synergic effect of fragmentation (among others) to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on tropical phenology; (iv) ground and satellite generated phenology patterns may not agree, deserving further and detailed research; (v) in situ <span class="hlt">environmental</span> monitoring systems help to track changes on climate and correlate to ground phenology. Some important steps forward are: (i) to build a Brazilian Phenology Network, first based on a selection of national wide distributed species; (ii) to recover historical phenology data series from our herbarium collections and other sources; (iii) to integrate phenology to remote sensing; (iv) to stimulate more phenology long term monitoring programs and the integration across disciplines, advancing our knowledge of seasonal responses within tropics to long-term climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831755"><span>Hypoxia, global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and terrestrial late Permian extinctions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huey, Raymond B; Ward, Peter D</p> <p>2005-04-15</p> <p>A catastrophic extinction occurred at the end of the Permian Period. However, baseline extinction rates appear to have been elevated even before the final catastrophe, suggesting sustained <span class="hlt">environmental</span> degradation. For terrestrial vertebrates during the Late Permian, the combination of a drop in atmospheric oxygen plus climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> would have induced hypoxic stress and consequently compressed altitudinal ranges to near sea level. Our simulations suggest that the magnitude of altitudinal compression would have forced extinctions by reducing habitat diversity, fragmenting and isolating populations, and inducing a species-area effect. It also might have delayed ecosystem recovery after the mass extinction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28190093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28190093"><span>Four years of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> do not modify the interaction between subalpine shrub species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anadon-Rosell, Alba; Ninot, Josep M; Palacio, Sara; Grau, Oriol; Nogués, Salvador; Navarro, Enrique; Sancho, M Carmen; Carrillo, Empar</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> can lead to changes in alpine plant species interactions through modifications in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, which may ultimately cause drastic changes in plant communities. We explored the effects of 4 years of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> with open-top chambers (OTC) on Vaccinium myrtillus performance and its interaction with neighbouring shrubs at the Pyrenean treeline ecotone. We examined the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on height, above-ground (AG) and below-ground (BG) biomass and the C and N concentration and isotope composition of V. myrtillus growing in pure stands or in stands mixed with Vaccinium uliginosum or Rhododendron ferrugineum. We also analysed variations in soil N concentrations, rhizosphere C/N ratios and the functional diversity of the microbial community, and evaluated whether <span class="hlt">warming</span> altered the biomass, C and N concentration and isotope composition of V. uliginosum in mixed plots. Our results showed that <span class="hlt">warming</span> induced positive changes in the AG growth of V. myrtillus but not BG, while V. uliginosum did not respond to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Vaccinium myrtillus performance did not differ between stand types under increased temperatures, suggesting that <span class="hlt">warming</span> did not induce shifts in the interaction between V. myrtillus and its neighbouring species. These findings contrast with previous studies in which species interactions changed when temperature was modified. Our results show that species interactions can be less responsive to <span class="hlt">warming</span> in natural plant communities than in removal experiments, highlighting the need for studies involving the natural assembly of plant species and communities when exploring the effect of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes on plant-plant interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25538021','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25538021"><span>Experimental climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> alters aspen and birch phytochemistry and performance traits for an outbreak insect herbivore.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jamieson, Mary A; Schwartzberg, Ezra G; Raffa, Kenneth F; Reich, Peter B; Lindroth, Richard L</p> <p>2014-12-23</p> <p>Climate change and insect outbreaks are key factors contributing to regional and global patterns of increased tree mortality. While links between these <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stressors have been established, our understanding of the mechanisms by which elevated temperature may affect tree-insect interactions is limited. Using a forest <span class="hlt">warming</span> mesocosm, we investigated the influence of elevated temperature on phytochemistry, tree resistance traits, and insect performance. Specifically, we examined <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) and host trees aspen (Populus tremuloides) and birch (Betula papyrifera). Trees were grown under one of three temperature treatments (ambient, +1.7 °C, +3.4 °C) in a multiyear open-air <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment. In the third and fourth years of <span class="hlt">warming</span> (2011, 2012), we assessed foliar nutrients and defense chemistry. Elevated temperatures altered foliar nitrogen, carbohydrates, lignin, and condensed tannins, with differences in responses between species and years. In 2012, we performed bioassays using a common environment approach to evaluate plant-mediated indirect <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on larval performance. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> resulted in decreased food conversion efficiency and increased consumption, ultimately with minimal effect on larval development and biomass. These changes suggest that insects exhibited compensatory feeding due to reduced host quality. Within the context of observed phytochemical variation, primary metabolites were stronger predictors of insect performance than secondary metabolites. Between-year differences in phytochemical shifts corresponded with substantially different weather conditions during these two years. By sampling across years within an ecologically realistic and <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> open setting, our study demonstrates that plant and insect responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> can be temporally variable and context dependent. Results indicate that elevated temperatures can alter phytochemistry, tree resistance traits</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PNAS..11313959B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PNAS..11313959B"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> storage for arc magmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barboni, Mélanie; Boehnke, Patrick; Schmitt, Axel K.; Harrison, T. Mark; Shane, Phil; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Felsic magmatic systems represent the vast majority of volcanic activity that poses a threat to human life. The tempo and magnitude of these eruptions depends on the physical conditions under which magmas are retained within the crust. Recently the case has been made that volcanic reservoirs are rarely molten and only capable of eruption for durations as brief as 1,000 years following magma recharge. If the “cold storage” model is generally applicable, then geophysical detection of melt beneath volcanoes is likely a sign of imminent eruption. However, some arc volcanic centers have been active for tens of thousands of years and show evidence for the continual presence of melt. To address this seeming paradox, zircon geochronology and geochemistry from both the frozen lava and the cogenetic enclaves they host from the Soufrière Volcanic Center (SVC), a long-lived volcanic complex in the Lesser Antilles arc, were integrated to track the preeruptive thermal and chemical history of the magma reservoir. Our results show that the SVC reservoir was likely eruptible for periods of several tens of thousands of years or more with punctuated eruptions during these periods. These conclusions are consistent with results from other arc volcanic reservoirs and suggest that arc magmas are generally stored <span class="hlt">warm</span>. Thus, the presence of intracrustal melt alone is insufficient as an indicator of imminent eruption, but instead represents the normal state of magma storage underneath dormant volcanoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/86556','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/86556"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: The complete briefing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Houghton, J.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>John Houghton has drawn on the exhaustive efforts of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to produce a notably compact, impeccably complete and authoritative, meticulously balanced, and lucidly presented guide to the complex yet vital issue of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Its subtitle is not mere hyperbole: this truly is a complete briefing. Certainly, one could not ask for a more authoritative brief: Houghton has led an imposing series of national and international efforts relating to climate, including the most recent scientific assessments of the IPCC. Citing many concrete examples, Houghton begins by convincing that climate truly is important to humankind and that climate is far from constant. He then elucidates the mechanisms that maintain the benign climate of our planet, providing in the process, for example, the most accurate explanation of the natural greenhouse effect that has yet appeared in print. He then treats the individual greenhouse gases responsible for maintaining the earth`s warmth and presents projections of their probable future concentrations as influenced by human activities. Further chapters deal with conclusions drawn from climate models, estimates of the impacts on human activities, and possible policies and actions to mitigate or alleviate the changes and their consequences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27799558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27799558"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> storage for arc magmas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barboni, Mélanie; Boehnke, Patrick; Schmitt, Axel K; Harrison, T Mark; Shane, Phil; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas</p> <p>2016-12-06</p> <p>Felsic magmatic systems represent the vast majority of volcanic activity that poses a threat to human life. The tempo and magnitude of these eruptions depends on the physical conditions under which magmas are retained within the crust. Recently the case has been made that volcanic reservoirs are rarely molten and only capable of eruption for durations as brief as 1,000 years following magma recharge. If the "cold storage" model is generally applicable, then geophysical detection of melt beneath volcanoes is likely a sign of imminent eruption. However, some arc volcanic centers have been active for tens of thousands of years and show evidence for the continual presence of melt. To address this seeming paradox, zircon geochronology and geochemistry from both the frozen lava and the cogenetic enclaves they host from the Soufrière Volcanic Center (SVC), a long-lived volcanic complex in the Lesser Antilles arc, were integrated to track the preeruptive thermal and chemical history of the magma reservoir. Our results show that the SVC reservoir was likely eruptible for periods of several tens of thousands of years or more with punctuated eruptions during these periods. These conclusions are consistent with results from other arc volcanic reservoirs and suggest that arc magmas are generally stored <span class="hlt">warm</span>. Thus, the presence of intracrustal melt alone is insufficient as an indicator of imminent eruption, but instead represents the normal state of magma storage underneath dormant volcanoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22883918','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22883918"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and reproductive health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874975"><span>Responses of plant community composition and biomass production to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen deposition in a temperate meadow ecosystem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Tao; Guo, Rui; Gao, Song; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and biomass production are not well understood. A four-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and biomass production in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> had no significant effect on plant species richness, evenness, and diversity, while N addition highly reduced the species richness and diversity. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> tended to reduce the importance value of graminoid species but increased the value of forbs, while N addition had the opposite effect. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> tended to increase the belowground biomass, but had an opposite tendency to decrease the aboveground biomass. The influences of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aboveground production were dependent upon precipitation. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> had little effect on aboveground biomass in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed aboveground biomass in dry years. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> had indirect effects on plant production via its effect on the water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and below-ground production, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors determining plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> plus N addition on belowground biomass were also detected. Our observations revealed that <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes (<span class="hlt">warming</span> and N deposition) play significant roles in regulating plant community composition and biomass production in temperate meadow steppe ecosystem in northeast China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199978"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span> Alters Expressions of Microbial Functional Genes Important to Ecosystem Functioning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xue, Kai; Xie, Jianping; Zhou, Aifen; Liu, Feifei; Li, Dejun; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Luo, Yiqi; Zhou, Jizhong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Soil microbial communities play critical roles in ecosystem functioning and are likely altered by climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, so far, little is known about effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on microbial functional gene expressions. Here, we applied functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to analyze cDNA reversely transcribed from total RNA to assess expressed functional genes in active soil microbial communities after nine years of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> in a tallgrass prairie. Our results showed that <span class="hlt">warming</span> significantly altered the community wide gene expressions. Specifically, expressed genes for degrading more recalcitrant carbon were stimulated by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, likely linked to the plant community shift toward more C4 species under <span class="hlt">warming</span> and to decrease the long-term soil carbon stability. In addition, <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed expressed genes in labile C degradation and N cycling in different directions (increase and decrease), possibly reflecting the dynamics of labile C and available N pools during sampling. However, the average abundances of expressed genes in phosphorus and sulfur cycling were all increased by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, implying a stable trend of accelerated P and S processes which might be a mechanism to sustain higher plant growth. Furthermore, the expressed gene composition was closely related to both dynamic (e.g., soil moisture) and stable <span class="hlt">environmental</span> attributes (e.g., C4 leaf C or N content), indicating that RNA analyses could also capture certain stable trends in the long-term treatment. Overall, this study revealed the importance of elucidating functional gene expressions of soil microbial community in enhancing our understanding of ecosystem responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858606','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858606"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span> Alters Expressions of Microbial Functional Genes Important to Ecosystem Functioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xue, Kai; Xie, Jianping; Zhou, Aifen; Liu, Feifei; Li, Dejun; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Yiqi; Zhou, Jizhong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Soil microbial communities play critical roles in ecosystem functioning and are likely altered by climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, so far, little is known about effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on microbial functional gene expressions. Here, we applied functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to analyze cDNA reversely transcribed from total RNA to assess expressed functional genes in active soil microbial communities after nine years of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> in a tallgrass prairie. Our results showed that <span class="hlt">warming</span> significantly altered the community wide gene expressions. Specifically, expressed genes for degrading more recalcitrant carbon were stimulated by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, likely linked to the plant community shift toward more C4 species under <span class="hlt">warming</span> and to decrease the long-term soil carbon stability. In addition, <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed expressed genes in labile C degradation and N cycling in different directions (increase and decrease), possibly reflecting the dynamics of labile C and available N pools during sampling. However, the average abundances of expressed genes in phosphorus and sulfur cycling were all increased by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, implying a stable trend of accelerated P and S processes which might be a mechanism to sustain higher plant growth. Furthermore, the expressed gene composition was closely related to both dynamic (e.g., soil moisture) and stable <span class="hlt">environmental</span> attributes (e.g., C4 leaf C or N content), indicating that RNA analyses could also capture certain stable trends in the long-term treatment. Overall, this study revealed the importance of elucidating functional gene expressions of soil microbial community in enhancing our understanding of ecosystem responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:27199978</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471674"><span>Soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> and CO2 enrichment induce biomass shifts in alpine tree line vegetation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawes, Melissa A; Philipson, Christopher D; Fonti, Patrick; Bebi, Peter; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Hagedorn, Frank; Rixen, Christian</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Responses of alpine tree line ecosystems to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are poorly understood. We used an experiment at the Swiss tree line to investigate changes in vegetation biomass after 9 years of free air CO2 enrichment (+200 ppm; 2001-2009) and 6 years of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+4 °C; 2007-2012). The study contained two key tree line species, Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata, both approximately 40 years old, growing in heath vegetation dominated by dwarf shrubs. In 2012, we harvested and measured biomass of all trees (including root systems), above-ground understorey vegetation and fine roots. Overall, soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> had clearer effects on plant biomass than CO2 enrichment, and there were no interactive effects between treatments. Total plant biomass increased in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots containing Pinus but not in those with Larix. This response was driven by changes in tree mass (+50%), which contributed an average of 84% (5.7 kg m(-2) ) of total plant mass. Pinus coarse root mass was especially enhanced by <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+100%), yielding an increased root mass fraction. Elevated CO2 led to an increased relative growth rate of Larix stem basal area but no change in the final biomass of either tree species. Total understorey above-ground mass was not altered by soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> or elevated CO2 . However, Vaccinium myrtillus mass increased with both treatments, graminoid mass declined with <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and forb and nonvascular plant (moss and lichen) mass decreased with both treatments. Fine roots showed a substantial reduction under soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (-40% for all roots <2 mm in diameter at 0-20 cm soil depth) but no change with CO2 enrichment. Our findings suggest that enhanced overall productivity and shifts in biomass allocation will occur at the tree line, particularly with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, individual species and functional groups will respond differently to these <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes, with consequences for ecosystem structure and functioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20930843','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20930843"><span>Global metabolic impacts of recent climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dillon, Michael E; Wang, George; Huey, Raymond B</p> <p>2010-10-07</p> <p>Documented shifts in geographical ranges, seasonal phenology, community interactions, genetics and extinctions have been attributed to recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Many such biotic shifts have been detected at mid- to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere-a latitudinal pattern that is expected because <span class="hlt">warming</span> is fastest in these regions. In contrast, shifts in tropical regions are expected to be less marked because <span class="hlt">warming</span> is less pronounced there. However, biotic impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> are mediated through physiology, and metabolic rate, which is a fundamental measure of physiological activity and ecological impact, increases exponentially rather than linearly with temperature in ectotherms. Therefore, tropical ectotherms (with <span class="hlt">warm</span> baseline temperatures) should experience larger absolute shifts in metabolic rate than the magnitude of tropical temperature change itself would suggest, but the impact of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on metabolic rate has never been quantified on a global scale. Here we show that estimated changes in terrestrial metabolic rates in the tropics are large, are equivalent in magnitude to those in the north temperate-zone regions, and are in fact far greater than those in the Arctic, even though tropical temperature change has been relatively small. Because of temperature's nonlinear effects on metabolism, tropical organisms, which constitute much of Earth's biodiversity, should be profoundly affected by recent and projected climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5091351','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5091351"><span>Climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> destabilizes forest ant communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Diamond, Sarah E.; Nichols, Lauren M.; Pelini, Shannon L.; Penick, Clint A.; Barber, Grace W.; Cahan, Sara Helms; Dunn, Robert R.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>How will ecological communities change in response to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>? Direct effects of temperature and indirect cascading effects of species interactions are already altering the structure of local communities, but the dynamics of community change are still poorly understood. We explore the cumulative effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the dynamics and turnover of forest ant communities that were <span class="hlt">warmed</span> as part of a 5-year climate manipulation experiment at two sites in eastern North America. At the community level, <span class="hlt">warming</span> consistently increased occupancy of nests and decreased extinction and nest abandonment. This consistency was largely driven by strong responses of a subset of thermophilic species at each site. As colonies of thermophilic species persisted in nests for longer periods of time under warmer temperatures, turnover was diminished, and species interactions were likely altered. We found that dynamical (Lyapunov) community stability decreased with <span class="hlt">warming</span> both within and between sites. These results refute null expectations of simple temperature-driven increases in the activity and movement of thermophilic ectotherms. The reduction in stability under <span class="hlt">warming</span> contrasts with the findings of previous studies that suggest resilience of species interactions to experimental and natural <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In the face of warmer, no-analog climates, communities of the future may become increasingly fragile and unstable. PMID:27819044</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26513148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26513148"><span>Functional Trait Changes, Productivity Shifts and Vegetation Stability in Mountain Grasslands during a Short-Term <span class="hlt">Warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Debouk, Haifa; de Bello, Francesco; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i) how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and (ii) whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland) in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a <span class="hlt">warm</span> continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland). The impacts of simulated <span class="hlt">warming</span> on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM) for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after <span class="hlt">warming</span> were more dependent on trait composition (CWM) than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed less in composition after <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Results suggest that (i) the short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span> can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii) the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034862&hterms=Conservation+Laws&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DConservation%2BLaws','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034862&hterms=Conservation+Laws&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DConservation%2BLaws"><span>Equilibrium gas flow computations. II - An analysis of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> formulations of conservation laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vinokur, Marcel; Liu, Yen</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">numerical</span> techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, equilibrium gas laws. Generalizations of the Beam-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> scheme, Steger-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> and van Leer flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for three-dimensional, time-varying grids. The approximations inherent in previous generalizations are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16574865','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16574865"><span>Significant <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Antarctic winter troposphere.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Turner, J; Lachlan-Cope, T A; Colwell, S; Marshall, G J; Connolley, W M</p> <p>2006-03-31</p> <p>We report an undocumented major <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Antarctic winter troposphere that is larger than any previously identified regional tropospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> on Earth. This result has come to light through an analysis of recently digitized and rigorously quality controlled Antarctic radiosonde observations. The data show that regional midtropospheric temperatures have increased at a statistically significant rate of 0.5 degrees to 0.7 degrees Celsius per decade over the past 30 years. Analysis of the time series of radiosonde temperatures indicates that the data are temporally homogeneous. The available data do not allow us to unambiguously assign a cause to the tropospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> at this stage.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990116495&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990116495&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Estimation from MSU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, Robert; Yoo, Jung-Moon</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer observations in Ch 2 (53.74 GHz) from sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA satellites contain small systematic errors. Some of these errors are time-dependent and some are time-independent. Small errors in Ch 2 data of successive satellites arise from calibration differences. Also, successive NOAA satellites tend to have different Local Equatorial Crossing Times (LECT), which introduce differences in Ch 2 data due to the diurnal cycle. These two sources of systematic error are largely time independent. However, because of atmospheric drag, there can be a drift in the LECT of a given satellite, which introduces time-dependent systematic errors. One of these errors is due to the progressive chance in the diurnal cycle and the other is due to associated chances in instrument heating by the sun. In order to infer global temperature trend from the these MSU data, we have eliminated explicitly the time-independent systematic errors. Both of the time-dependent errors cannot be assessed from each satellite. For this reason, their cumulative effect on the global temperature trend is evaluated implicitly. Christy et al. (1998) (CSL). based on their method of analysis of the MSU Ch 2 data, infer a global temperature cooling trend (-0.046 K per decade) from 1979 to 1997, although their near nadir measurements yield near zero trend (0.003 K/decade). Utilising an independent method of analysis, we infer global temperature <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by 0.12 +/- 0.06 C per decade from the observations of the MSU Ch 2 during the period 1980 to 1997.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/489696','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/489696"><span>Energy and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A Total Equivalent <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact because it is not based solely on the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26713543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26713543"><span>Modeling Resources Allocation in Attacker-Defender Games with "<span class="hlt">Warm</span> Up" CSF.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guan, Peiqiu; Zhuang, Jun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Like many other engineering investments, the attacker's and defender's investments may have limited impact without initial capital to "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" the systems. This article studies such "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" effects on both the attack and defense equilibrium strategies in a sequential-move game model by developing a class of novel and more realistic contest success functions. We first solve a single-target attacker-defender game analytically and provide <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solutions to a multiple-target case. We compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the investment "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" effects, and find that the defender would suffer higher expected damage, and either underestimate the attacker effort or waste defense investment if the defender falsely believes that no investment "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" effects exist. We illustrate the model results with real data, and compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the correlation between the "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" threshold and the investment effectiveness. Interestingly, we find that the defender is suggested to give up defending all the targets when the attack or the defense "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" thresholds are sufficiently high. This article provides new insights and suggestions on policy implications for homeland security resource allocation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691323','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691323"><span><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulation of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reagan, Matthew T; Moridis, George J; Keen, Noel D; Johnson, Jeffrey N</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes. Key Points: Short-term leakage fractured reservoirs requires high-permeability pathways Production strategy affects the likelihood and magnitude of gas release Gas release is likely short-term, without additional driving forces PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28211518','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28211518"><span>Limited options for low-global-<span class="hlt">warming</span>-potential refrigerants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McLinden, Mark O; Brown, J Steven; Brignoli, Riccardo; Kazakov, Andrei F; Domanski, Piotr A</p> <p>2017-02-17</p> <p>Hydrofluorocarbons, currently used as refrigerants in air-conditioning systems, are potent greenhouse gases, and their contribution to climate change is projected to increase. Future use of the hydrofluorocarbons will be phased down and, thus replacement fluids must be found. Here we show that only a few pure fluids possess the combination of chemical, <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, thermodynamic, and safety properties necessary for a refrigerant and that these fluids are at least slightly flammable. We search for replacements by applying screening criteria to a comprehensive chemical database. For the fluids passing the thermodynamic and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> screens (critical temperature and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential), we simulate performance in small air-conditioning systems, including optimization of the heat exchangers. We show that the efficiency-versus-capacity trade-off that exists in an ideal analysis disappears when a more realistic system is considered. The maximum efficiency occurs at a relatively high volumetric refrigeration capacity, but there are few fluids in this range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116285','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116285"><span>Infectious diseases and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Tracking disease incidence rates globally</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Low, N.C.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>Given the increasing importance of impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5321723','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5321723"><span>Limited options for low-global-<span class="hlt">warming</span>-potential refrigerants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McLinden, Mark O.; Brown, J. Steven; Brignoli, Riccardo; Kazakov, Andrei F.; Domanski, Piotr A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Hydrofluorocarbons, currently used as refrigerants in air-conditioning systems, are potent greenhouse gases, and their contribution to climate change is projected to increase. Future use of the hydrofluorocarbons will be phased down and, thus replacement fluids must be found. Here we show that only a few pure fluids possess the combination of chemical, <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, thermodynamic, and safety properties necessary for a refrigerant and that these fluids are at least slightly flammable. We search for replacements by applying screening criteria to a comprehensive chemical database. For the fluids passing the thermodynamic and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> screens (critical temperature and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential), we simulate performance in small air-conditioning systems, including optimization of the heat exchangers. We show that the efficiency-versus-capacity trade-off that exists in an ideal analysis disappears when a more realistic system is considered. The maximum efficiency occurs at a relatively high volumetric refrigeration capacity, but there are few fluids in this range. PMID:28211518</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatCo...814476M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatCo...814476M"><span>Limited options for low-global-<span class="hlt">warming</span>-potential refrigerants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McLinden, Mark O.; Brown, J. Steven; Brignoli, Riccardo; Kazakov, Andrei F.; Domanski, Piotr A.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Hydrofluorocarbons, currently used as refrigerants in air-conditioning systems, are potent greenhouse gases, and their contribution to climate change is projected to increase. Future use of the hydrofluorocarbons will be phased down and, thus replacement fluids must be found. Here we show that only a few pure fluids possess the combination of chemical, <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, thermodynamic, and safety properties necessary for a refrigerant and that these fluids are at least slightly flammable. We search for replacements by applying screening criteria to a comprehensive chemical database. For the fluids passing the thermodynamic and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> screens (critical temperature and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential), we simulate performance in small air-conditioning systems, including optimization of the heat exchangers. We show that the efficiency-versus-capacity trade-off that exists in an ideal analysis disappears when a more realistic system is considered. The maximum efficiency occurs at a relatively high volumetric refrigeration capacity, but there are few fluids in this range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12344889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12344889"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, population growth, and natural resources for food production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pimentel, D</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Destruction of forests and the considerable burning of fossil fuels is directly causing the level of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases including methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere to rise. Population growth in the US and the world indirectly contributes to this global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. This has led the majority of scientists interested in weather and climate to predict that the planet's temperature will increase from 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. These forecasted climactic changes will most likely strongly affect crop production. Specifically these scientists expect the potential changes in temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, and pests to decrease food production in North America. The degree of changes hinges on each crop and its <span class="hlt">environmental</span> needs. If farmers begin using improved agricultural technology, the fall in crop yields can be somewhat counterbalanced. Even without global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, however, agriculture in North America must embrace sensible ecological resource management practices such as conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. These sustainable agricultural practices would serve agriculture, farmers, the environment, and society. Agriculturalists, farmers, and society are already interested in sustainable agriculture. Still scientists must conduct more research on the multiple effects of potential global climate change on many different crops under various <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions and on new technologies that farmers might use in agricultural production. We must cut down our consumption of fossil fuel, reduce deforestation, erase poverty, and protect our soil, water, and biological resources. The most important action we need to take, however, is to check population growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972910','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972910"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stith T.Gower</p> <p>2010-03-03</p> <p>A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest <span class="hlt">warming</span> of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how <span class="hlt">warming</span> will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that <span class="hlt">warming</span> will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416304','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416304"><span>Chamberless residential <span class="hlt">warm</span> air furnace design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Godfree, J.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>This brief paper is an introduction to the concept of designing residential <span class="hlt">warm</span> air furnaces without combustion chambers. This is possible since some small burners do not require the thermal support of a combustion chamber to complete the combustion process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..268S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..268S"><span>Carbon cycle: Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> then and now</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stassen, Peter</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> event 55.8 million years ago was caused by extensive carbon emissions. The rate of change of carbon and oxygen isotopes in marine shelf sediments suggests that carbon emission rates were much slower than anthropogenic emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23E..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23E..01S"><span>Scaling Potential Evapotranspiration with Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Warming</span> (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scheff, J.; Frierson, D. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is a supply-independent measure of the evaporative demand of a terrestrial climate, of basic importance in climatology, hydrology, and agriculture. Future increases in PET from greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> are often cited as key drivers of global trends toward drought and aridity. The present work computes recent and business-as-usual-future Penman-Monteith (i.e. physically-based) PET fields at 3-hourly resolution in 14 modern global climate models. The %-change in local annual-mean PET over the upcoming century is almost always positive, modally low double-digit in magnitude, usually increasing with latitude, yet quite divergent between models. These patterns are understood as follows. In every model, the global field of PET %-change is found to be dominated by the direct, positive effects of constant-relative-humidity <span class="hlt">warming</span> (via increasing vapor pressure deficit and increasing Clausius-Clapeyron slope.) This direct-<span class="hlt">warming</span> term very accurately scales as the PET-weighted (<span class="hlt">warm</span>-season daytime) local <span class="hlt">warming</span>, times 5-6% per degree (related to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation), times an analytic factor ranging from about 0.25 in <span class="hlt">warm</span> climates to 0.75 in cold climates, plus a small correction. With <span class="hlt">warming</span> of several degrees, this product is of low double-digit magnitude, and the strong temperature dependence gives the latitude dependence. Similarly, the inter-model spread in the amount of <span class="hlt">warming</span> gives most of the spread in this term. Additional spread in the total change comes from strong disagreement on radiation, relative-humidity, and windspeed changes, which make smaller yet substantial contributions to the full PET %-change fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17283974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17283974"><span>Should we be concerned about global <span class="hlt">warming</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diaz, James H</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Accurate scientific predictions of the true human health outcomes of global climate change are significantly confounded by several effect modifiers that cannot be adjusted for analytically. Nevertheless, with the documented increase in average global surface temperature of 0.6 C. since 1975, there is uniform consensus in the international scientific community that the earth is <span class="hlt">warming</span> from a variety of climatic effects, including cyclical re-<span class="hlt">warming</span> and the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions to support human activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMOS21C..02W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMOS21C..02W"><span>The Tropical Western Hemisphere <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Pool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, C.; Enfield, D. B.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The paper describes and examines variability of the tropical Western Hemisphere <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool (WHWP) of water warmer than 28.5oC. The WHWP is the second-largest tropical <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool on Earth. Unlike the Eastern Hemisphere <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool in the western Pacific, which straddles the equator, the WHWP is entirely north of the equator. At various stages of development the WHWP extends over parts of the eastern North Pacific, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, and the western tropical North Atlantic. It has a large seasonal cycle and its interannual fluctuations of area and intensity are significant. Surface heat fluxes <span class="hlt">warm</span> the WHWP through the boreal spring to an annual maximum of SST and WHWP area in the late summer/early fall, associated with eastern North Pacific and Atlantic hurricane activities and rainfall from northern South America to the southern tier of the United States. Observations suggest that a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback operating through longwave radiation and associated cloudiness seems to operate in the WHWP. During winter preceding large <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool, there is an alteration of the Walker and Hadley circulation cells that serves as a "tropospheric bridge" for transferring Pacific ENSO effects to the Atlantic sector and inducing initial <span class="hlt">warming</span> of <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool. Associated with the <span class="hlt">warm</span> SST anomalies is a decrease in sea level pressure anomalies and an anomalous increase in atmospheric convection and cloudiness. The increase in convective activity and cloudiness results in less net longwave radiation loss from the sea surface, which then reinforces SST anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12285369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12285369"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: a vicious circle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sinclair, J</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The problem of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> (GW) is larger than it was originally suspected. The release of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (ME), and nitrous oxide (NO2) by the activities of humans will do more than simply raise the global temperature. It will also trigger a variety of feedback loops that will accelerate the GW process. The extent of these feedback loops is currently impossible to incorporate into the computer models because they are not fully understood. But, from what we do know, it is clear that reductions in greenhouse gas (GG) emissions must be halted immediately. We are already committed to regional droughts, storms, water shortages, fishery disruptions and plant and animal extinctions. But the response of the oceans, forest, and ice masses has not yet been incorporated into our predictions. Almost all the feedbacks identified promise to increase GG concentrations. The carbon cycle is going to be affected in a variety of ways. Plants and soil store almost 3 times the CO2 as found in the atmosphere. Increased temperatures will increase plant respiration, thus increasing CO2 emissions. Forests will die, permafrost will melt and the result will be increased releases of CO2 and ME. The oceans and plankton can not absorb as much CO2 as the water temperature rises. At present levels GG concentrations will double by 2025. Thus scientists are calling for an immediate 60-80% reduction in CO2 and other GG emissions. It is up to the industrialized nations to solve this problem since they are the ones who created it. 75% of all human made CO2 comes from these countries. They also have the ability to help developing nations to do the same. 20 nations have already announced plans to stabilize or reduce their GG emissions, but it is attitudes and lifestyles that must be changed. This is the largest problem to ever face the human race and never before have we acted as we now must act in order to avoid a worldwide catastrophe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/289886','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/289886"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nuclear power</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wood, L., LLNL</p> <p>1998-07-10</p> <p>-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global <span class="hlt">warming</span> concerns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/350937','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/350937"><span>Analysis of <span class="hlt">warm</span> prestress data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Macdonald, B.D.; Embley, G.T.; Irizarry-Quinones, H.; Smith, P.D.; Wuthrich, J.W.; McAfee, W.J.; McCabe, D.E.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Loading a cracked structure at elevated temperature, or <span class="hlt">warm</span> prestressing (WPS), enhances its fracture resistance at a lower temperature. Five data sets, comprising 119 unclad pressure vessel steel specimens, were combined to derive correlations for WPS-enhanced fracture toughness (K{sub Ifrac}) in the absence of ductile tearing. New WPS test results for 27 surface flawed specimens, eight subclad flawed specimens, and five strain-aged specimens are discussed. K{sub Ifrac} exceeded non-WPS fracture toughness, K{sub Ic}, for all experiments. The WPS data showed that no specimens failed while K was decreasing, and that at least an additional seven percent additional reloading from the minimum value of applied K{sub I} took place prior to final fracture. The data included complete and partial unloading after WPS prior to final fracture. Crack tip 3-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element (3DEPFE) analysis was performed to support statistical analysis of the data. Regression models were compared with the Chell WPS model. Crack tip 3DEPFE analysis indicated that partially unloaded and completely unloaded data should be treated separately, and that the amount of unloading is unimportant for partially unloaded data. The regression models, which use K{sub I} at WPS (K{sub Iwps}) and K{sub Ic} as independent variables, better represented the WPS benefit than did the more complicated Chell model. An adequate accounting was made for constraint in the WPS experiments. The subclad flaw data support the use of the partial unload regression model, provided that some care is taken to represent the effect of intact cladding if present. The effect of strain aging at or below 260 C (500 F) on WPS benefit was of no consequence for the pressure vessel steels and WPS temperatures used to derive the regression models. The presence of ductile tearing precludes the use of the regression models. The regression model for partial unloading accurately predicted the behavior of full scale</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/45532','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/45532"><span>BioFacts: Fueling a stronger economy, Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and biofuels emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>The focus of <span class="hlt">numerous</span> federal and state regulations being proposed and approved today is the reduction of automobile emissions -- particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), which is the greenhouse gas considered responsible for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Studies conducted by the USDOE through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) indicate that the production and use of biofuels such as biodiesel, ethanol, and methanol could nearly eliminate the contribution of net CO{sub 2} from automobiles. This fact sheet provides and overview of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, followed by a summary of NREL`s study results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21770945','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21770945"><span>Growth and community responses of alpine dwarf shrubs to in situ CO₂ enrichment and soil <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawes, Melissa A; Hagedorn, Frank; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Handa, Ira Tanya; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Wipf, Sonja; Rixen, Christian</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>• Rising CO₂ concentrations and the associated global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are expected to have large impacts on high-elevation ecosystems, yet long-term multifactor experiments in these environments are rare. • We investigated how growth of dominant dwarf shrub species (Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Empetrum hermaphroditum) and community composition in the understorey of larch and pine trees responded to 9 yr of CO₂ enrichment and 3 yr of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the treeline in the Swiss Alps. • Vaccinium myrtillus was the only species that showed a clear positive effect of CO₂ on growth, with no decline over time in the annual shoot growth response. Soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> stimulated V. myrtillus growth even more than elevated CO₂ and was accompanied by increased plant-available soil nitrogen (N) and leaf N concentrations. Growth of Vaccinium gaultherioides and E. hermaphroditum was not influenced by <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Vascular plant species richness declined in elevated CO₂ plots with larch, while the number of moss and lichen species decreased under <span class="hlt">warming</span>. • Ongoing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change could lead to less diverse plant communities and increased dominance of the particularly responsive V. myrtillus in the studied alpine treeline. These changes are the consequence of independent CO₂ and soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects, a result that should facilitate predictive modelling approaches.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4896356','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4896356"><span>Small pelagics in a changing ocean: biological responses of sardine early stages to <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Faleiro, Filipa; Pimentel, Marta; Pegado, Maria Rita; Bispo, Regina; Lopes, Ana Rita; Diniz, Mário S.; Rosa, Rui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Small pelagic fishes are known to respond rapidly to changes in ocean climate. In this study, we evaluate the effects of future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+2°C) during the early ontogeny of the European sardine, Sardina pilchardus. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> reduced the survival of 30-day-old larvae by half. Length at hatching increased with temperature as expected, but no significant effect was observed on the length and growth at 30 days post-hatching. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> did not significantly affect the thermal tolerance of sardine larvae, even though the mean lethal temperature increased by 1°C. In the <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions, sardine larvae showed signs of thermal stress, indicated by a pronounced increase in larval metabolism (Q10 = 7.9) and a 45% increase in the heat shock response. Lipid peroxidation was not significantly affected by the higher temperature, even though the mean value doubled. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> did not affect the time larvae spent swimming, but decreased by 36% the frequency of prey attacks. Given the key role of these small pelagics in the trophic dynamics off the Western Iberian upwelling ecosystem, the negative effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the early stages may have important implications for fish recruitment and ecosystem structure. PMID:27293764</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA343918','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA343918"><span>JPRS Report, <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Issues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-07-12</p> <p>through burning gas, fuel oil , and coal. Naturally, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> heavily depends on the energy policies of the ECE region’s countries. Did the...dioxide emissions, we must reduce our consumption of oil , coal, and natural gas. Help The information that is available today, one year after the...oping, according to which the use of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fees on fossil fuels such as coal, oil , and natural gas is the only way to reduce carbon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10914399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10914399"><span>Is global <span class="hlt">warming</span> harmful to health?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Epstein, P R</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>Projections from computer models predict that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will expand the incidence and distribution of many serious medical disorders. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, aside from indirectly causing death by drowning or starvation, promotes by various means the emergence, resurgence, and spread of infectious diseases. This article addresses the health effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and disrupted climate patterns in detail. Among the greatest health concerns are diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and several kinds of encephalitis. Such disorders are projected to become increasingly prevalent because their insect carriers are very sensitive to meteorological conditions. In addition, floods and droughts resulting from global <span class="hlt">warming</span> can each help trigger outbreaks by creating breeding grounds for insects whose desiccated eggs remain viable and hatch in still water. Other effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on health include the growth of opportunist populations and the increase of the incidence of waterborne diseases because of lack of clean water. In view of this, several steps are cited in order to facilitate the successful management of the dangers of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Icar..281..248R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Icar..281..248R"><span>Could cirrus clouds have <span class="hlt">warmed</span> early Mars?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kasting, James F.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The presence of the ancient valley networks on Mars indicates that the climate at 3.8 Ga was <span class="hlt">warm</span> enough to allow substantial liquid water to flow on the martian surface for extended periods of time. However, the mechanism for producing this <span class="hlt">warming</span> continues to be debated. One hypothesis is that Mars could have been kept <span class="hlt">warm</span> by global cirrus cloud decks in a CO2sbnd H2O atmosphere containing at least 0.25 bar of CO2 (Urata and Toon, 2013). Initial <span class="hlt">warming</span> from some other process, e.g., impacts, would be required to make this model work. Those results were generated using the CAM 3-D global climate model. Here, we use a single-column radioactive-convective climate model to further investigate the cirrus cloud <span class="hlt">warming</span> hypothesis. Our calculations indicate that cirrus cloud decks could have produced global mean surface temperatures above freezing, but only if cirrus cloud cover approaches ∼75 - 100% and if other cloud properties (e.g., height, optical depth, particle size) are chosen favorably. However, at more realistic cirrus cloud fractions, or if cloud parameters are not optimal, cirrus clouds do not provide the necessary <span class="hlt">warming</span>, suggesting that other greenhouse mechanisms are needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18268873','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18268873"><span>The influence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on natural disasters and their public health outcomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diaz, James H</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>With a documented increase in average global surface temperatures of 0.6 degrees C since 1975, Earth now appears to be <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to a variety of climatic effects, most notably the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities. There remains, however, no universal agreement on how rapidly, regionally, or asymmetrically the planet will <span class="hlt">warm</span> or on the true impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on natural disasters and public health outcomes. Most reports to date of the public health impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on the increase in heat-stroke deaths following heat waves and on outbreaks of airborne and arthropod-borne diseases following tropical rains and flooding that resulted from fluctuations in ocean temperatures. The effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on rainfall and drought, tropical cyclone and tsunami activity, and tectonic and volcanic activity will have far-reaching public health effects not only on <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> associated disease outbreaks but also on global food supplies and population movements. As a result of these and other recognized associations between climate change and public health consequences, many of which have been confounded by deficiencies in public health infrastructure and scientific debates over whether climate changes are spawned by atmospheric cycles or anthropogenic influences, the active responses to progressive climate change must include combinations of economic, <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, legal, regulatory, and, most importantly, public health measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27859173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27859173"><span>Thermal variability alters the impact of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on consumer-resource systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fey, Samuel B; Vasseur, David A</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Thermal variation through space and time are prominent features of ecosystems that influence processes at multiple levels of biological organization. Yet, it remains unclear how populations embedded within biological communities will respond to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> in thermally variable environments, particularly as climate change alters existing patterns of thermal spatial and temporal variability. As <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures increase above historical ranges, organisms may increasingly rely on extreme habitats to effectively thermoregulate. Such locations desirable in their thermal attributes (e.g., thermal refugia) are often suboptimal for resource acquisition (e.g., underground tunnels). Thus, via the expected increase in both mean temperatures and diel thermal variation, climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> may heighten the trade-off for consumers between behaviors maximizing thermal performance and those maximizing resource acquisition. Here, we integrate behavioral, physiological, and trophic ecology to provide a general framework for understanding how temporal thermal variation, mediated by access to a thermal refugium, alters the response of consumer-resource systems to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We use this framework to predict how temporal variation and access to thermal refugia affect the persistence of consumers and resources during climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, how the quality of thermal refugia impact consumer-resource systems, and how consumer-resource systems with fast vs. slow ecological dynamics respond to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Our results show that the spatial thermal variability provided by refugia can elevate consumer biomass at warmer temperatures despite reducing the fraction of time consumers spend foraging, that temporal variability detrimentally impacts consumers at high <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures, and that consumer-resource systems with fast ecological dynamics are most vulnerable to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Thus, incorporating both estimates of thermal variability and species interactions may be necessary to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032682','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032682"><span>The importance of <span class="hlt">warm</span> season <span class="hlt">warming</span> to western U.S. streamflow changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Cayan, D.R.; Vano, J.A.; Lettenmaier, D.P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> season climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> season (April-September) <span class="hlt">warming</span> reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) <span class="hlt">warming</span>, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent <span class="hlt">warm</span> season. A uniform <span class="hlt">warm</span> season <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 3C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same <span class="hlt">warming</span> applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E6890E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E6890E"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span> shifts `worming': effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on invasive earthworms in northern North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects depended on the current average SWC: <span class="hlt">warming</span> had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless <span class="hlt">warming</span> is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363633','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363633"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span> shifts 'worming': effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on invasive earthworms in northern North America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B</p> <p>2014-11-03</p> <p>Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects depended on the current average SWC: <span class="hlt">warming</span> had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless <span class="hlt">warming</span> is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70186877','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70186877"><span><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Escherichia coli: Ecology and public health implications - A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jang, Jeonghwan; Hur, Hor-Gil; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Yan, Tao; Ishii, Satoshi</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Escherichia coli is classified as a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. The bacterium mainly inhabits the lower intestinal tract of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-blooded animals, including humans, and is often discharged into the environment through feces or wastewater effluent. The presence of E. coli in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> waters has long been considered as an indicator of recent fecal pollution. However, <span class="hlt">numerous</span> recent studies have reported that some specific strains of E. coli can survive for long periods of time, and potentially reproduce, in extra-intestinal environments. This indicates that E. coli can be integrated into indigenous microbial communities in the environment. This naturalization phenomenon calls into question the reliability of E. coli as a fecal indicator bacterium (FIB). Recently, many studies reported that E. coli populations in the environment are affected by ambient <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions affecting their long-term survival. Large-scale studies of population genetics provide the diversity and complexity of E. coli strains in various environments, affected by multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors. This review examines the current knowledge on the ecology of E. coli strains in various environments in regards to its role as a FIB and as a naturalized member of indigenous microbial communities. Special emphasis is given on the growth of pathogenic E. coli in the environment, and the population genetics of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> members of the genus Escherichia. The impact of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> E. coli on water quality and public health is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19701775','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19701775"><span>Herbivore impacts to the moss layer determine tundra ecosystem response to grazing and <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gornall, Jemma L; Woodin, Sarah J; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Van der Wal, Rene</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Herbivory and climate are key <span class="hlt">environmental</span> drivers, shaping ecosystems at high latitudes. Here, we focus on how these two drivers act in concert, influencing the high arctic tundra. We aim to investigate mechanisms through which herbivory by geese influences vegetation and soil processes in tundra ecosystems under ambient and <span class="hlt">warmed</span> conditions. To achieve this, two grazing treatments, clipping plus faecal additions and moss removal, were implemented in conjunction with passive <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Our key finding was that, in many cases, the tundra ecosystem response was determined by treatment impacts on the moss layer. Moss removal reduced the remaining moss layer depth by 30% and increased peak grass biomass by 27%. These impacts were probably due to observed higher soil temperatures and decomposition rates associated with moss removal. The positive impact of moss removal on grass biomass was even greater with <span class="hlt">warming</span>, further supporting this conclusion. In contrast, moss removal reduced dwarf shrub biomass possibly resulting from increased exposure to desiccating winds. An intact moss layer buffered the soil to increased air temperature and as a result there was no response of vascular plant productivity to <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the course of this study. In fact, moss removal impacts on soil temperature were nearly double those of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, suggesting that the moss layer is a key component in controlling soil conditions. The moss layer also absorbed nutrients from faeces, promoting moss growth. We conclude that both herbivory and <span class="hlt">warming</span> influence this high arctic ecosystem but that herbivory is the stronger driver of the two. Disturbance to the moss layer resulted in a shift towards a more grass-dominated system with less abundant mosses and shrubs, a trend that was further enhanced by <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Thus herbivore impacts to the moss layer are key to understanding arctic ecosystem response to grazing and <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26924811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26924811"><span>Field and laboratory studies reveal interacting effects of stream oxygenation and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aquatic ectotherms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verberk, Wilco C E P; Durance, Isabelle; Vaughan, Ian P; Ormerod, Steve J</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Aquatic ecological responses to climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> are complicated by interactions between thermal effects and other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stressors such as organic pollution and hypoxia. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated how oxygen limitation can set heat tolerance for some aquatic ectotherms, but only at unrealistic lethal temperatures and without field data to assess whether oxygen shortages might also underlie sublethal <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects. Here, we test whether oxygen availability affects both lethal and nonlethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on two widespread Eurasian mayflies, Ephemera danica, Müller 1764 and Serratella ignita (Poda 1761). Mayfly nymphs are often a dominant component of the invertebrate assemblage in streams, and play a vital role in aquatic and riparian food webs. In the laboratory, lethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> were assessed under three oxygen conditions. In the field, effects of oxygen availability on nonlethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> were assessed from mayfly occurrence in 42 293 UK stream samples where water temperature and biochemical oxygen demand were measured. Oxygen limitation affected both lethal and sublethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> in each species. Hypoxia lowered lethal limits by 5.5 °C (±2.13) and 8.2 °C (±0.62) for E. danica and S. ignita respectively. Field data confirmed the importance of oxygen limitation in warmer waters; poor oxygenation drastically reduced site occupancy, and reductions were especially pronounced under <span class="hlt">warm</span> water conditions. Consequently, poor oxygenation lowered optimal stream temperatures for both species. The broad concordance shown here between laboratory results and extensive field data suggests that oxygen limitation not only impairs survival at thermal extremes but also restricts species abundance in the field at temperatures well below upper lethal limits. Stream oxygenation could thus control the vulnerability of aquatic ectotherms to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Improving water oxygenation and reducing pollution can provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2010.02763.x/full','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2010.02763.x/full"><span>Predicted effects of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the distribution of 50 stream fishes in Wisconsin, U.S.A.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stewart, Jana S.; Lyons, John D.; Matt Mitro,</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Summer air and stream water temperatures are expected to rise in the state of Wisconsin, U.S.A., over the next 50 years. To assess potential climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on stream fishes, predictive models were developed for 50 common fish species using classification-tree analysis of 69 <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables in a geographic information system. Model accuracy was 56·0–93·5% in validation tests. Models were applied to all 86 898 km of stream in the state under four different climate scenarios: current conditions, limited climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> (summer air temperatures increase 1° C and water 0·8° C), moderate <span class="hlt">warming</span> (air 3° C and water 2·4° C) and major <span class="hlt">warming</span> (air 5° C and water 4° C). With climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, 23 fishes were predicted to decline in distribution (three to extirpation under the major <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario), 23 to increase and four to have no change. Overall, declining species lost substantially more stream length than increasing species gained. All three cold-water and 16 cool-water fishes and four of 31 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes were predicted to decline, four <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes to remain the same and 23 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes to increase in distribution. Species changes were predicted to be most dramatic in small streams in northern Wisconsin that currently have cold to cool summer water temperatures and are dominated by cold-water and cool-water fishes, and least in larger and warmer streams and rivers in southern Wisconsin that are currently dominated by <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes. Results of this study suggest that even small increases in summer air and water temperatures owing to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will have major effects on the distribution of stream fishes in Wisconsin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037586','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037586"><span>Predicted effects of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the distribution of 50 stream fishes in Wisconsin, U.S.A.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lyons, J.; Stewart, J.S.; Mitro, M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Summer air and stream water temperatures are expected to rise in the state of Wisconsin, U.S.A., over the next 50 years. To assess potential climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on stream fishes, predictive models were developed for 50 common fish species using classification-tree analysis of 69 <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables in a geographic information system. Model accuracy was 56.0-93.5% in validation tests. Models were applied to all 86 898 km of stream in the state under four different climate scenarios: current conditions, limited climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> (summer air temperatures increase 1?? C and water 0.8?? C), moderate <span class="hlt">warming</span> (air 3?? C and water 2.4?? C) and major <span class="hlt">warming</span> (air 5?? C and water 4?? C). With climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, 23 fishes were predicted to decline in distribution (three to extirpation under the major <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario), 23 to increase and four to have no change. Overall, declining species lost substantially more stream length than increasing species gained. All three cold-water and 16 cool-water fishes and four of 31 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes were predicted to decline, four <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes to remain the same and 23 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes to increase in distribution. Species changes were predicted to be most dramatic in small streams in northern Wisconsin that currently have cold to cool summer water temperatures and are dominated by cold-water and cool-water fishes, and least in larger and warmer streams and rivers in southern Wisconsin that are currently dominated by <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes. Results of this study suggest that even small increases in summer air and water temperatures owing to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will have major effects on the distribution of stream fishes in Wisconsin. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology ?? 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201694"><span>Effect of various <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices on bat velocity of intercollegiate softball players.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szymanski, David J; Bassett, Kylie E; Beiser, Erik J; Till, Megan E; Medlin, Greg L; Beam, Jason R; Derenne, Coop</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerous</span> <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices are available for use by softball players while they are in the on-deck circle. It is difficult to know which <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up device produces the greatest bat velocity (BV) in the batter's box for softball players because on-deck studies with these individuals are sparse. Because the majority of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up device research has been conducted with baseball players, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices on the BV of female intercollegiate softball players and compare the results with those of male baseball players. A secondary purpose was to evaluate 2 new commercially available resistance devices as <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up aids. Nineteen Division I intercollegiate softball players (age = 19.8 ± 1.2 years, height = 167.0 ± 4.7 cm, body mass = 69.2 ± 8.6 kg, lean body mass = 49.6 ± 3.6 kg, % body fat = 27.9 ± 5.9) participated in a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up with 1 of 8 resistance devices on separate days. Each of the 8 testing sessions had players perform a standardized dynamic <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up, 3 maximal dry swings mimicking their normal game swing with the assigned <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up device, 2 comfortable dry swings with a standard 83.8-cm, 652-g (33-in., 23-oz) softball bat followed by 3 maximal game swings (20-second rest between swings) while hitting a softball off a batting tee with the same standard softball bat. Results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in BV after using any of the 8 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices (510.3-2,721.5 g or 18-96 oz) similar to in previous baseball research. This indicates that the results for both male and female intercollegiate players are similar and that intercollegiate softball players can use any of the 8 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices in the on-deck circle and have similar BVs. However, similar to in other previous baseball research, it is not recommended that female intercollegiate softball players <span class="hlt">warm</span> up with the popular commercial donut ring in the on-deck circle because it produced the slowest BV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp...21Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp...21Y"><span>The role of atmospheric heat transport and regional feedbacks in the Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> at equilibrium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoshimori, Masakazu; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Laîné, Alexandre</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that the Arctic <span class="hlt">warms</span> much more than the rest of the world even under spatially quasi-uniform radiative forcing such as that due to an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. While the surface albedo feedback is often referred to as the explanation of the enhanced Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the importance of atmospheric heat transport from the lower latitudes has also been reported in previous studies. In the current study, an attempt is made to understand how the regional feedbacks in the Arctic are induced by the change in atmospheric heat transport and vice versa. Equilibrium sensitivity experiments that enable us to separate the contributions of the Northern Hemisphere mid-high latitude response to the CO2 increase and the remote influence of surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in other regions are carried out. The result shows that the effect of remote forcing is predominant in the Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The dry-static energy transport to the Arctic is reduced once the Arctic surface <span class="hlt">warms</span> in response to the local or remote forcing. The feedback analysis based on the energy budget reveals that the increased moisture transport from lower latitudes, on the other hand, <span class="hlt">warms</span> the Arctic in winter more effectively not only via latent heat release but also via greenhouse effect of water vapor and clouds. The change in total atmospheric heat transport determined as a result of counteracting dry-static and latent heat components, therefore, is not a reliable measure for the net effect of atmospheric dynamics on the Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The current <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments support a recent interpretation based on the regression analysis: the concurrent reduction in the atmospheric poleward heat transport and future Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> predicted in some models does not imply a minor role of the atmospheric dynamics. Despite the similar magnitude of poleward heat transport change, the Arctic <span class="hlt">warms</span> more than the Southern Ocean even in the equilibrium response without ocean dynamics. It is shown that a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25033924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25033924"><span>Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can mitigate the negative effects of night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on physiological traits of Medicago truncatula L.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Yajun; Wu, Songlin; Sun, Yuqing; Li, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Caiyan; Lin, Ge; Chen, Baodong</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Elevated night temperature, one of the main climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios, can have profound effects on plant growth and metabolism. However, little attention has been paid to the potential role of mycorrhizal associations in plant responses to night <span class="hlt">warming</span>, although it is well known that symbiotic fungi can protect host plants against various <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stresses. In the present study, physiological traits of Medicago truncatula L. in association with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis were investigated under simulated night <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A constant increase in night temperature of 1.53 °C significantly reduced plant shoot and root biomass, flower and seed number, leaf sugar concentration, and shoot Zn and root P concentrations. However, the AM association essentially mitigated these negative effects of night <span class="hlt">warming</span> by improving plant growth, especially through increased root biomass, root to shoot ratio, and shoot Zn and root P concentrations. A significant interaction was observed between R. irregularis inoculation and night <span class="hlt">warming</span> in influencing both root sucrose concentration and expression of sucrose synthase (SusS) genes, suggesting that AM symbiosis and increased night temperature jointly regulated plant sugar metabolism. Night <span class="hlt">warming</span> stimulated AM fungal colonization but did not influence arbuscule abundance, symbiosis-related plant or fungal gene expression, or growth of extraradical mycelium, indicating little effect of night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the development or functioning of AM symbiosis. These findings highlight the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis in assisting plant resilience to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16903114','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16903114"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malcolm, Jay R; Liu, Canran; Neilson, Ronald P; Hansen, Lara; Hannah, Lee</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-CO2 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of endemic plant and vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots. Because of <span class="hlt">numerous</span> uncertainties in this approach, we undertook a sensitivity analysis of multiple factors that included (1) two global vegetation models, (2) different numbers of biome classes in our biome classification schemes, (3) different assumptions about whether species distributions were biome specific or not, and (4) different migration capabilities. Extinctions were calculated using both species-area and endemic-area relationships. In addition, average required migration rates were calculated for each hotspot assuming a doubled-CO2 climate in 100 years. Projected percent extinctions ranged from <1 to 43% of the endemic biota (average 11.6%), with biome specificity having the greatest influence on the estimates, followed by the global vegetation model and then by migration and biome classification assumptions. Bootstrap comparisons indicated that effects on hotpots as a group were not significantly different from effects on random same-biome collections of grid cells with respect to biome change or migration rates; in some scenarios, however, botspots exhibited relatively high biome change and low migration rates. Especially vulnerable hotspots were the Cape Floristic Region, Caribbean, Indo-Burma, Mediterranean Basin, Southwest Australia, and Tropical Andes, where plant extinctions per hotspot sometimes exceeded 2000 species. Under the assumption that projected habitat changes were attained in 100 years, estimated global-<span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced rates of species extinctions in tropical hotspots in some cases exceeded those due to deforestation, supporting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span>21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span>21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span>21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span>21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span>21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP12A..08D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP12A..08D"><span>Antarctica during the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dolan, A. M.; Hill, D. J.; Haywood, A. M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The study of <span class="hlt">warm</span> intervals of the Pliocene Epoch (Pliocene 'interglacials') is important for understanding the long-term response of major ice sheets and sea level to current or near future concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2); as well as global mean temperatures that will be attained during this century. For the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (mPWP; ~3.3 to 3.0 Ma BP) we present a review of current and recent research that has sought to constrain the nature of the Antarctic Ice Sheets using sophisticated <span class="hlt">numerical</span> climate and ice-sheet models. It is generally accepted that during <span class="hlt">warm</span> intervals of the Pliocene, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) was largely ice free; however, the contribution of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) to peak sea level rise during the mPWP is less well understood. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> sources of geological information are available that are capable of placing constraints on the stability of the EAIS during the mPWP, but each has inherent uncertainties and signals can often be difficult to interpret. Therefore, <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling is required to test proxy-based assertions of sea-level change and pin-point the likely contributions from the major ice sheets. We present an ensemble of simulations using the Hadley Centre Atmosphere-Ocean Climate Model (HadCM3) coupled offline to the British Antarctic Survey Ice Sheet Model (BASISM) that explores the sensitivity of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to changes in orbital forcing and atmospheric CO2 levels during the mid-Pliocene. We show that significant ice sheet retreat is only simulated under <span class="hlt">warm</span> Southern Hemisphere orbital conditions where levels of CO2 are at 400 ppmv or above. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that this result is dependent on necessary a priori assumptions regarding the initial ice sheet configuration within the modelling framework. To diagnose which assumptions give climate simulations that are more consistent with geological proxy data, we evaluate our results against two</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24264767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24264767"><span>Pink marine sediments reveal rapid ice melt and Arctic meltwater discharge during Dansgaard-Oeschger <span class="hlt">warmings</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rasmussen, Tine L; Thomsen, Erik</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The climate of the last glaciation was interrupted by <span class="hlt">numerous</span> abrupt temperature fluctuations, referred to as Greenland interstadials and stadials. During <span class="hlt">warm</span> interstadials the meridional overturning circulation was active transferring heat to the north, whereas during cold stadials the Nordic Seas were ice-covered and the overturning circulation was disrupted. Meltwater discharge, from ice sheets surrounding the Nordic Seas, is implicated as a cause of this ocean instability, yet very little is known regarding this proposed discharge during <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. Here we show that, during <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, pink clay from Devonian Red Beds is transported in suspension by meltwater from the surrounding ice sheet and replaces the greenish silt that is normally deposited on the north-western slope of Svalbard during interstadials. The magnitude of the outpourings is comparable to the size of the outbursts during the deglaciation. Decreasing concentrations of ice-rafted debris during the interstadials signify that the ice sheet retreats as the meltwater production increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880024209&hterms=mechanism+action&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmechanism%2Baction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880024209&hterms=mechanism+action&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmechanism%2Baction"><span>Dynamical modeling of a planetary wave mechanism for a Martian polar <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barnes, Jeffrey R.; Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The mechanisms involved in the global dust storm and polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> seen in the Martian atmosphere by the Viking IRTM during the winter solstice of 1977 are investigated theoretically by means of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations. A two-component dynamical model (based on the combined action of a zonally symmetric 'Hadley' circulation at low and middle latitudes and a planetary-wave circulation at middle and high latitudes) is constructed by analogy to the model of Holton and Mass (1976) for terrestrial sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. The Viking data and simulation results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. It is demonstrated that a planetary-wave mechanism, based primarily on wavenumber 1 and including a high degree of topographical or thermal wave forcing, can reproduce the observed polar <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The roles of radiative damping, dissipation, and the transport of dust and water are explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014atp..prop...22K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014atp..prop...22K"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kallman, Timothy</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1615K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1615K"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Indian Ocean, Weak Asian Monsoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koll Roxy, Mathew; Ritika, Kapoor; Terray, Pascal; Murtugudde, Raghu; Ashok, Karumuri; Nath Goswami, Buphendra</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>There are large uncertainties looming over the status and fate of the South Asian monsoon in a changing climate. Observations and climate models have suggested that anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the past century has increased the moisture availability and the land-sea thermal contrast in the tropics, favoring an increase in monsoon rainfall. In contrast, we notice that South Asian subcontinent experienced a relatively subdued <span class="hlt">warming</span> during this period. At the same time, the tropical Indian Ocean experienced a nearly monotonic <span class="hlt">warming</span>, at a rate faster than the other tropical oceans. Using long-term observations and coupled model experiments, we suggest that the enhanced Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> along with the suppressed <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the subcontinent weaken the land-sea thermal contrast throughout the troposphere, dampen the monsoon Hadley circulation, and reduce the rainfall over South Asia. As a result, the summer monsoon rainfall during 1901-2012 shows a significant weakening trend over South Asia, extending from Pakistan through central India to Bangladesh.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4928969','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4928969"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> without global mean precipitation increase?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Salzmann, Marc</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K−1 decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century <span class="hlt">warming</span> indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG <span class="hlt">warming</span> has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global <span class="hlt">warming</span> recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386558"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> without global mean precipitation increase?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salzmann, Marc</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century <span class="hlt">warming</span> indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG <span class="hlt">warming</span> has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global <span class="hlt">warming</span> recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhPl...23g3119J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhPl...23g3119J"><span>Evolution of a Gaussian laser beam in <span class="hlt">warm</span> collisional magnetoplasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jafari, M. J.; Jafari Milani, M. R.; Niknam, A. R.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, the spatial evolution of an intense circularly polarized Gaussian laser beam propagated through a <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma is investigated, taking into account the ponderomotive force, Ohmic heating, external magnetic field, and collisional effects. Using the momentum transfer and energy equations, both modified electron temperature and electron density in plasma are obtained. By introducing the complex dielectric permittivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> magnetized plasma and using the complex eikonal function, coupled differential equations for beam width parameter are established and solved <span class="hlt">numerically</span>. The effects of polarization state of laser and magnetic field on the laser spot size evolution are studied. It is observed that in case of the right-handed polarization, an increase in the value of external magnetic field causes an increase in the strength of the self-focusing, especially in the higher values, and consequently, the self-focusing occurs in shorter distance of propagation. Moreover, the results demonstrate the existence of laser intensity and electron temperature ranges where self-focusing can occur, while the beam diverges outside of these regions; meanwhile, in these intervals, there exists a turning point for each of intensity and temperature in which the self-focusing process has its strongest strength. Finally, it is found that the self-focusing effect can be enhanced by increasing the plasma frequency (plasma density).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59.1007D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59.1007D"><span>Trophic level responses differ as climate <span class="hlt">warms</span> in Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donnelly, Alison; Yu, Rong; Liu, Lingling</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Effective ecosystem functioning relies on successful species interaction. However, this delicate balance may be disrupted if species do not respond to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change at a similar rate. Here we examine trends in the timing of spring phenophases of groups of species occupying three trophic levels as a potential indicator of ecosystem response to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Ireland. The data sets were of varying length (1976-2009) and from varying locations: (1) timing of leaf unfolding and May Shoot of a range of broadleaf and conifer tree species, (2) first appearance dates of a range of moth species, and (3) first arrival dates of a range of spring migrant birds. All three groups revealed a statistically significant ( P<0.01 and P<0.001) advance in spring phenology that was driven by rising spring temperature ( P<0.05; 0.45 °C /decade). However, the rate of advance was greater for moths (1.8 days/year), followed by birds (0.37 days/year) and trees (0.29 days/year). In addition, the length of time between (1) moth emergence and leaf unfolding and (2) moth emergence and bird arrival decreased significantly ( P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), indicating a decrease in the timing between food supply and demand. These differing trophic level response rates demonstrate the potential for a mismatch in the timing of interdependent phenophases as temperatures rise. Even though these data were not specifically collected to examine climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts, we conclude that such data may be used as an early warning indicator and as a means to monitor the potential for future ecosystem disruption to occur as climate <span class="hlt">warms</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4536047','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4536047"><span>Recent Invasion of the Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera Pararotalia into the Eastern Mediterranean Facilitated by the Ongoing <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Trend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Christiane; Morard, Raphael; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Weinmann, Anna E.; Titelboim, Danna; Abramovich, Sigal; Kucera, Michal</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The eastern Mediterranean is a hotspot of biological invasions. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> species of Indo-pacific origin have colonized the Mediterranean in recent times, including tropical symbiont-bearing foraminifera. Among these is the species Pararotalia calcariformata. Unlike other invasive foraminifera, this species was discovered only two decades ago and is restricted to the eastern Mediterranean coast. Combining ecological, genetic and physiological observations, we attempt to explain the recent invasion of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Using morphological and genetic data, we confirm the species attribution to P. calcariformata McCulloch 1977 and identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We document photosynthetic activity of its endosymbionts using Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry and test the effects of elevated temperatures on growth rates of asexual offspring. The culturing of asexual offspring for 120 days shows a 30-day period of rapid growth followed by a period of slower growth. A subsequent 48-day temperature sensitivity experiment indicates a similar developmental pathway and high growth rate at 28°C, whereas an almost complete inhibition of growth was observed at 20°C and 35°C. This indicates that the offspring of this species may have lower tolerance to cold temperatures than what would be expected for species native to the Mediterranean. We expand this hypothesis by applying a Species Distribution Model (SDM) based on modern occurrences in the Mediterranean using three <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables: irradiance, turbidity and yearly minimum temperature. The model reproduces the observed restricted distribution and indicates that the range of the species will drastically expand westwards under future global change scenarios. We conclude that P. calcariformata established a population in the Levant because of the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the region. In line with observations from other groups of organisms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270964"><span>Recent Invasion of the Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera Pararotalia into the Eastern Mediterranean Facilitated by the Ongoing <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Trend.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Christiane; Morard, Raphael; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Weinmann, Anna E; Titelboim, Danna; Abramovich, Sigal; Kucera, Michal</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The eastern Mediterranean is a hotspot of biological invasions. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> species of Indo-pacific origin have colonized the Mediterranean in recent times, including tropical symbiont-bearing foraminifera. Among these is the species Pararotalia calcariformata. Unlike other invasive foraminifera, this species was discovered only two decades ago and is restricted to the eastern Mediterranean coast. Combining ecological, genetic and physiological observations, we attempt to explain the recent invasion of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Using morphological and genetic data, we confirm the species attribution to P. calcariformata McCulloch 1977 and identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We document photosynthetic activity of its endosymbionts using Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry and test the effects of elevated temperatures on growth rates of asexual offspring. The culturing of asexual offspring for 120 days shows a 30-day period of rapid growth followed by a period of slower growth. A subsequent 48-day temperature sensitivity experiment indicates a similar developmental pathway and high growth rate at 28°C, whereas an almost complete inhibition of growth was observed at 20°C and 35°C. This indicates that the offspring of this species may have lower tolerance to cold temperatures than what would be expected for species native to the Mediterranean. We expand this hypothesis by applying a Species Distribution Model (SDM) based on modern occurrences in the Mediterranean using three <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables: irradiance, turbidity and yearly minimum temperature. The model reproduces the observed restricted distribution and indicates that the range of the species will drastically expand westwards under future global change scenarios. We conclude that P. calcariformata established a population in the Levant because of the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the region. In line with observations from other groups of organisms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987Icar...71..203P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987Icar...71..203P"><span>The case for a wet, <span class="hlt">warm</span> climate on early Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pollack, J. B.; Kasting, J. F.; Richardson, S. M.; Poliakoff, K.</p> <p>1987-08-01</p> <p>The conditions under which Mars could have had a <span class="hlt">warm</span> wet climate during its early evolution are explored by means of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations, incorporating more accurate data on the opacity of gaseous CO2 and H2O in the solar and thermal spectral regions (McClatchey et al., 1971) into the one-dimensional radiative-convective greenhouse model of Kasting and Ackerman (1986). The results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail, with consideration of atmospheric CO2 loss rates, sources of atmospheric CO2, CO2 partitioning between atmosphere and hydrosphere, the Mars volatile inventory, the CO2 geochemical cycle, climate evolution, and observational tests. It is concluded that greenhouse conditions (requiring atmospheric CO2 of 1-5 bar) could have existed for a period of about 1 Gyr if the total surficial inventory of CO2 was 2-10 bar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPTO8009S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPTO8009S"><span>Electron conductivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hot dense matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Starrett, Charles; Charest, Marc; Feinblum, David; Burrill, Daniel</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The electronic conductivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hot dense matter is investigated by combining the Ziman-Evans approach with the recently developed pseudo-atom molecular dynamics (PAMD) method. PAMD gives an accurate description of the electronic and ionic structure of the plasma. The Ziman-Evans approach to conductivity, which takes the electronic and ionic structures as inputs, has been widely used but with <span class="hlt">numerous</span> different assumptions on these inputs. Here we present a systematic study of these assumptions by comparing results to gold-standard QMD results that are thought to be accurate but are very expensive to produce. The study reveals that some assumptions yield very inaccurate results and should not be used, while others give consistently reasonable results. Finally, we show that the Thomas-Fermi version of PAMD can also be used to give accurate conductivities very rapidly, taking a few minutes per point on a single processor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880024200&hterms=poliakoff&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpoliakoff','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880024200&hterms=poliakoff&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpoliakoff"><span>The case for a wet, <span class="hlt">warm</span> climate on early Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pollack, J. B.; Kasting, J. F.; Richardson, S. M.; Poliakoff, K.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The conditions under which Mars could have had a <span class="hlt">warm</span> wet climate during its early evolution are explored by means of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations, incorporating more accurate data on the opacity of gaseous CO2 and H2O in the solar and thermal spectral regions (McClatchey et al., 1971) into the one-dimensional radiative-convective greenhouse model of Kasting and Ackerman (1986). The results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail, with consideration of atmospheric CO2 loss rates, sources of atmospheric CO2, CO2 partitioning between atmosphere and hydrosphere, the Mars volatile inventory, the CO2 geochemical cycle, climate evolution, and observational tests. It is concluded that greenhouse conditions (requiring atmospheric CO2 of 1-5 bar) could have existed for a period of about 1 Gyr if the total surficial inventory of CO2 was 2-10 bar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7626876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7626876"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> heart surgery eliminates diaphragmatic paralysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maccherini, M; Davoli, G; Sani, G; Rossi, P; Giani, S; Lisi, G; Mazzesi, G; Toscano, M</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>Since January 1992, we adopted a new method of myocardial protection: <span class="hlt">warm</span> blood cardioplegia with continuous ante-retrograde combined delivery during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, (CPB) instead of cold blood intermittent cardioplegia plus topical ice slush in hypothermic CPB. We have compared postoperative chest X-rays of 50 patients who underwent elective coronary artery bypass with normothermic CPB to postoperative chest X-rays, of 50 patients operated upon with hypothermia. In the cold group transitory diaphragmatic paralysis, as well as pleural effusions and thoracentesis related to the hypothermia, and topical cooling, were statistically increased over that of <span class="hlt">warm</span> group. The data suggest that topical cooling with slush ice is responsible for phrenic nerve injury and that <span class="hlt">warm</span> heart surgery has no associated incidence of diaphragmatic injury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25526650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25526650"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate on the critical thermal maxima of crabs, shrimp and fish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vinagre, Catarina; Leal, Inês; Mendonça, Vanessa; Flores, Augusto A V</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The threat of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has prompted <span class="hlt">numerous</span> recent studies on the thermal tolerance of marine species. A widely used method to determine the upper thermal limit has been the Critical Thermal Maximum (CTMax), a dynamic method, meaning that temperature is increased gradually until a critical point is reached. This method presents several advantages over static methods, however, there is one main issue that hinders interpretation and comparison of CTMax results: the rate at which the temperature is increased. This rate varies widely among published protocols. The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate on CTMax values, using different animal groups. The influence of the thermal niche occupied by each species (intertidal vs subtidal) and habitat (intertidal vs subtidal) was also investigated. CTMax were estimated at three different rates: 1°Cmin(-1), 1°C30min(-1) and 1°Ch(-1), in two species of crab, Eurypanopeus abbreviatus and Menippe nodifrons, shrimp Palaemon northropi and Hippolyte obliquimanus and fish Bathygobius soporator and Parablennius marmoreus. While there were significant differences in the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates for some species, for other species <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate produced no significant differences (H. obliquimanus and B. soporator). While in some species slower <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates lead to lower CTMax values (P. northropi and P. marmoreus) in other species the opposite occurred (E. abbreviatus and M. nodifrons). Biological group has a significant effect with crabs' CTMax increasing at slower <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates, which did not happen for shrimp and fish. Subtidal species presented lower CTMax, at all <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates tested. This study highlights the importance of estimating CTMax values at realistic rates that species encounter in their environment and thus have an ecological value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18172495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18172495"><span>Vertical structure of recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Graversen, Rune G; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Tjernström, Michael; Källén, Erland; Svensson, Gunilla</p> <p>2008-01-03</p> <p>Near-surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arctic has been almost twice as large as the global average over recent decades-a phenomenon that is known as the 'Arctic amplification'. The underlying causes of this temperature amplification remain uncertain. The reduction in snow and ice cover that has occurred over recent decades may have played a role. Climate model experiments indicate that when global temperature rises, Arctic snow and ice cover retreats, causing excessive polar <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Reduction of the snow and ice cover causes albedo changes, and increased refreezing of sea ice during the cold season and decreases in sea-ice thickness both increase heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. Changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, as well as cloud cover, have also been proposed to cause Arctic temperature amplification. Here we examine the vertical structure of temperature change in the Arctic during the late twentieth century using reanalysis data. We find evidence for temperature amplification well above the surface. Snow and ice feedbacks cannot be the main cause of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> aloft during the greater part of the year, because these feedbacks are expected to primarily affect temperatures in the lowermost part of the atmosphere, resulting in a pattern of <span class="hlt">warming</span> that we only observe in spring. A significant proportion of the observed temperature amplification must therefore be explained by mechanisms that induce <span class="hlt">warming</span> above the lowermost part of the atmosphere. We regress the Arctic temperature field on the atmospheric energy transport into the Arctic and find that, in the summer half-year, a significant proportion of the vertical structure of <span class="hlt">warming</span> can be explained by changes in this variable. We conclude that changes in atmospheric heat transport may be an important cause of the recent Arctic temperature amplification.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U41F..03H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U41F..03H"><span>Communicating the Dangers of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, J. E.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public in the ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> crises. Scientists in America are further challenged by a decline in public science education, a perceived gap between science and religion, increasing politicization of public affairs offices in the government, and accumulation of power by a unitary executive. First order communication tasks are illustrated by a need for improved exchange and understanding, among scientists as well as with the public, of fundamental climate facts: (1) additional global <span class="hlt">warming</span> exceeding 1C will yield large climate effects, (2) paleoclimate changes contain quantitatively specific information about climate sensitivity that is not widely appreciated, (3) carbon cycle facts, such as the substantial portion of carbon dioxide emissions that will remain in the air "forever", for practical purposes, (4) fossil fuel facts such as the dominant role of coal and unconventional fuels in all business-as-usual scenarios for future energy sources. The facts graphically illustrate the need for prompt actions to avoid disastrous climate change, yet they also reveal the feasibility of a course that minimizes global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and yields other benefits. Perhaps the greatest challenge is posed by an inappropriate casting of the topic as a dichotomy between those who deny that there is a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> problem and those who either are exceedingly pessimistic about the prospects for minimizing climate change or believe that solutions would be very expensive. Sensible evaluation of the situation, in my opinion, suggests a strategy for dealing with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that is not costly and has many subsidiary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25039213','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25039213"><span>Direct and indirect effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aphids, their predators, and ant mutualists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barton, Brandon T; Ives, Anthony R</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Species exist within communities of other interacting species, so an exogenous force that directly affects one species can indirectly affect all other members of the community. In the case of climate change, many species may be affected directly and subsequently initiate <span class="hlt">numerous</span> indirect effects that propagate throughout the community. Therefore, the net effect of climate change on any one species is a function of the direct and indirect effects. We investigated the direct and indirect effects of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on corn leaf aphids, a pest of corn and other grasses, by performing an experimental manipulation of temperature, predators, and two common aphid-tending ants. Although <span class="hlt">warming</span> had a positive direct effect on aphid population growth rate, <span class="hlt">warming</span> reduced aphid abundance when ants and predators were present. This occurred because winter ants, which aggressively defend aphids from predators under control temperatures, were less aggressive toward predators and less abundant when temperatures were increased. In contrast, <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased the abundance of cornfield ants, but they did not protect aphids from predators with the same vigor as winter ants. Thus, <span class="hlt">warming</span> broke down the ant-aphid mutualism and counterintuitively reduced the abundance of this agricultural pest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..504L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..504L"><span>Change of tropical cyclone heat potential in response to global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Ran; Chen, Changlin; Wang, Guihua</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Tropical cyclone heat potential (TCHP) in the ocean can affect tropical cyclone intensity and intensification. In this paper, TCHP change under global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is presented based on 35 models from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5). As the upper ocean <span class="hlt">warms</span> up, the TCHP of the global ocean is projected to increase by 140.6% in the 21st century under the RCP4.5 (+4.5 W m-2 Representative Concentration Pathway) scenario. The increase is particularly significant in the western Pacific, northwestern Indian and western tropical Atlantic oceans. The increase of TCHP results from the ocean temperature <span class="hlt">warming</span> above the depth of the 26°C isotherm (D26), the deepening of D26, and the horizontal area expansion of SST above 26°C. Their contributions are 69.4%, 22.5% and 8.1%, respectively. Further, a suite of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments with an Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) is conducted to investigate the relative importance of wind stress and buoyancy forcing to the TCHP change under global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Results show that sea surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> is the dominant forcing for the TCHP change, while wind stress and sea surface salinity change are secondary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22178305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22178305"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and hepatotoxin production by cyanobacteria: what can we learn from experiments?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El-Shehawy, Rehab; Gorokhova, Elena; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca; del Campo, Francisca F</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Global temperature is expected to rise throughout this century, and blooms of cyanobacteria in lakes and estuaries are predicted to increase with the current level of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The potential <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, economic and sanitation repercussions of these blooms have attracted considerable attention among the world's scientific communities, water management agencies and general public. Of particular concern is the worldwide occurrence of hepatotoxic cyanobacteria posing a serious threat to global public health. Here, we highlight plausible effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on physiological and molecular changes in these cyanobacteria and resulting effects on hepatotoxin production. We also emphasize the importance of understanding the natural biological function(s) of hepatotoxins, various mechanisms governing their synthesis, and climate-driven changes in food-web interactions, if we are to predict consequences of the current and projected levels of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> for production and accumulation of hepatotoxins in aquatic ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26820060','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26820060"><span>Mechanical robustness of the calcareous tubeworm Hydroides elegans: <span class="hlt">warming</span> mitigates the adverse effects of ocean acidification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Chaoyi; Meng, Yuan; He, Chong; Chan, Vera B S; Yao, Haimin; Thiyagarajan, V</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Development of antifouling strategies requires knowledge of how fouling organisms would respond to climate change associated <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stressors. Here, a calcareous tube built by the tubeworm, Hydroides elegans, was used as an example to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of ocean acidification (OA), <span class="hlt">warming</span> and reduced salinity on the mechanical properties of a tube. Tubeworms produce a mechanically weaker tube with less resistance to simulated predator attack under OA (pH 7.8). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> (29°C) increased tube volume, tube mineral density and the tube's resistance to a simulated predatory attack. A weakening effect by OA did not make the removal of tubeworms easier except for the earliest stage, in which <span class="hlt">warming</span> had the least effect. Reduced salinity (27 psu) did not affect tubes. This study showed that both mechanical analysis and computational modeling can be integrated with biofouling research to provide insights into how fouling communities might develop in future ocean conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6459161','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6459161"><span>Winter <span class="hlt">warming</span> from large volcanic eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robock, A.; Mao, J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows <span class="hlt">warming</span> over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040390&hterms=Volcanic+Eruptions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DVolcanic%2BEruptions','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040390&hterms=Volcanic+Eruptions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DVolcanic%2BEruptions"><span>Winter <span class="hlt">warming</span> from large volcanic eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows <span class="hlt">warming</span> over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6969846','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6969846"><span>National Update: Discussions on global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1989-04-01</p> <p>The American Forestry Association (AFA) has launched a national campaign called Global Releaf to educate the public about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the role of forestry in alleviating its effects. AFA executive vice-president R. Neil Sampson states that trees need to be intentionally grown and managed. More trees means less CO{sub 2} buildup, and the lack of trees is one of the causes of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The AFA campaign included public service announcements, educational posters for schools, and material for all forms of media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848352','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848352"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: a public health concern.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Afzal, Brenda M</p> <p>2007-05-31</p> <p>Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710502O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710502O"><span>The recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend in North Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orsi, Anais; Kawamura, Kenji; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Landais, Amaelle; Severinghaus, Jeff</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The arctic is the fastest <span class="hlt">warming</span> region on Earth, but it is also one where there is little historical data. Although summer <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes melt, the annual temperature trend is dominated by the winter and fall season, which are much less well documented. In addition, the instrumental record relies principally on coastal weather stations, and there are very few direct temperature observations in the interior dating back more than 30 years, especially in North Greenland, where the current <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend is the largest. Here, we present a temperature reconstruction from NEEM (51°W, 77°N), in North Greenland, for the last 100 years, which allows us to put the recent trend in the context of the longer term climate. We use a combination of two independent proxies to reconstruct the temperature history at NEEM: borehole temperature and inert gas isotope measurements in the firn. Borehole temperature takes advantage of the low temperature diffusivity of the snow and ice, which allows the temperature history to be preserved in the ice for several centuries. Temperature gradients in the firn (old snow above the ice) influence the gas isotopic composition: thermal fractionation causes heavy isotopes to concentrate on the cold end of the firn column. We measured the isotopes of inert gases (N2, Ar and Kr), which have a constant atmospheric composition through time, and use the thermal fractionation signal as an additional constraint on the temperature history at the site. We find that NEEM has been <span class="hlt">warming</span> by 0.86±0.22°C/decade over the past 30 years, from -28.55±0.29°C for the 1900-1970 average to -26.77±0.16°C for the 2000-2010 average. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate at NEEM is similar to that of Greenland Summit, and confirms the large <span class="hlt">warming</span> trends in North Greenland (polar amplification) and high altitude sites (tropospheric rather than surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>). Water isotopes show that the recent past has not met the level of the 1928 anomaly; but the average of the past 30 years has</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...596A..79S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...596A..79S"><span>Timing the <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber in NGC 4051</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silva, C. V.; Uttley, P.; Costantini, E.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We investigated, using spectral-timing analysis, the characterization of highly ionized outflows in Seyfert galaxies, the so-called <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorbers. Here, we present our results of the extensive 600 ks of XMM-Newton archival observations of the bright and highly variable Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 whose spectrum has revealed a complex multicomponent wind. Making use of both RGS and EPIC-pn data, we performed a detailed analysis through a time-dependent photoionization code in combination with spectral and Fourier spectral-timing techniques. The source light curves and the <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber parameters obtained from the data were used to simulate the response of the gas to variations in the ionizing flux of the central source. The resulting time variable spectra were employed to predict the effects of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber on the time lags and coherence of the energy dependent light curves. We have found that, in the absence of any other lag mechanisms, a <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber with the characteristics of the one observed in NGC 4051, is able to produce soft lags, up to 100 s, on timescales of hours. The time delay is associated with the response of the gas to changes in the ionizing source, either by photoionization or radiative recombination, which is dependent on its density. The range of radial distances that, under our assumptions, yield longer time delays are distances r 0.3-1.0 × 1016 cm, and hence gas densities n 0.4-3.0 × 107 cm-3. Since these ranges are comparable to the existing estimates of the location of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber in NGC 4051, we suggest that it is likely that the observed X-ray time lags may carry a signature of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber response time to changes in the ionizing continuum. Our results show that the <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber in NGC 4051 does not introduce lags on the short timescales associated with reverberation, but will likely modify the hard continuum lags seen on longer timescales, which in this source have been measured to be on the order of 50 s. Hence, these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870018783','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870018783"><span>Dynamic characteristics of observed sudden <span class="hlt">warmings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dartt, D. G.; Venne, D. E.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The planetary wave dynamics of stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warmings</span> in the Northern Hemisphere for a large number of observed events that occurred during winters from 1970 to 1975 and 1978 to 1981 are investigated. The analysis describes wave propagation and zonal flow interaction from the troposphere upwards to near 50 km, and in some years to near 80 km. Three primary topics are covered here: (1) the interaction of zonally propagating and quasi-stationary planetary waves during <span class="hlt">warming</span> events; (2) planetary wave influence on zonal flow near the stratopause; and (3) planetary wave propagation to near 80 km as seen from Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (SAMS) data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93Q.336S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93Q.336S"><span>Replacing coal with natural gas would reduce <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, Colin</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>A debate has raged in the past couple of years as to whether natural gas is better or worse overall than coal and oil from a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> perspective. The back-and-forth findings have been due to the timelines taken into consideration, the details of natural gas extraction, and the electricity-generating efficiency of various fuels. An analysis by Cathles, which focuses exclusively on potential <span class="hlt">warming</span> and ignores secondary considerations, such as economic, political, or other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> concerns, finds that natural gas is better for electricity generation than coal and oil under all realistic circumstances. To come to this conclusion, the author considered three different future fuel consumption scenarios: (1) a business-as-usual case, which sees energy generation capacity continue at its current pace with its current energy mix until the middle of the century, at which point the implementation of low-carbon energy sources dominates and fossil fuel-derived energy production declines; (2) a gas substitution scenario, where natural gas replaces all coal power production and any new oil-powered facilities, with the same midcentury shift; and (3) a low-carbon scenario, where all electricity generation is immediately and aggressively switched to non-fossil fuel sources such as solar, wind, and nuclear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6293766','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6293766"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Energy efficiency is key to reduce dangerous threat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1989-09-01</p> <p>A consensus is growing among scientists, policymakers and citizens that human activity is altering the Earth's climate. Humans are loading carbon dioxide, methane and other pollutants into the atmosphere through deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels. The result, scientists say: pollutants are accelerating the greenhouse effect which is raising the average global temperature. A few degree temperature increase is projected to make major changes in agriculture and many other things. A growing number of scientists believe if these pollutants are not reduced, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> could destroy the Earth's climatic balance on which our civilization rests, causing disruptions such as heat waves, droughts, coastal flooding and a rise in sea level. Clearly, all the facts about global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, its exact causes and repercussions on the earth's climate, are not yet in. However, one thing is certain: We are not helpless and we can act now to reduce greenhouse gases through energy efficiency and halting deforestation. While energy efficiency, itself, is not a panacea, it is both an economic opportunity and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> necessity for out nation, and for our earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/663344','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/663344"><span>The role of nuclear energy in mitigating greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krakowski, R.A.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>A behavioral, top-down, forced-equilibrium market model of long-term ({approximately} 2,100) global energy-economics interactions has been modified with a bottom-up nuclear energy model and used to construct consistent scenarios describing future impacts of civil nuclear materials flows in an expanding, multi-regional (13) world economy. The relative measures and tradeoffs between economic (GNP, tax impacts, productivity, etc.), <span class="hlt">environmental</span> (greenhouse gas accumulations, waste accumulation, proliferation risk), and energy (resources, energy mixes, supply-side versus demand-side attributes) interactions that emerge from these analyses are focused herein on advancing understanding of the role that nuclear energy (and other non-carbon energy sources) might play in mitigating greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Two ostensibly opposing scenario drivers are investigated: (a) demand-side improvements in (non-price-induced) autonomous energy efficiency improvements; and (b) supply-side carbon-tax inducements to shift energy mixes towards reduced- or non-carbon forms. In terms of stemming greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> for minimal cost of greenhouse-gas abatement, and with the limitations of the simplified taxing schedule used, a symbiotic combination of these two approaches may offer advantages not found if each is applied separately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70138213','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70138213"><span>Assessing the magnitude and timing of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> of a shallow aquifer: example from Virginia Beach, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Eggleston, John R.; McCoy, Kurt J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Groundwater temperature measurements in a shallow coastal aquifer in Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA, suggest groundwater <span class="hlt">warming</span> of +4.1 °C relative to deeper geothermal gradients. Observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> is related to timing and depth of influence of two potential thermal drivers—atmospheric temperature increases and urbanization. Results indicate that up to 30 % of groundwater <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table can be attributed to atmospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> while up to 70 % of <span class="hlt">warming</span> can be attributed to urbanization. Groundwater temperature readings to 30-m depth correlate positively with percentage of impervious cover and negatively with percentage of tree canopy cover; thus, these two land-use metrics explain up to 70 % of <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table. Analytical and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling results indicate that an average vertical groundwater temperature profile for the study area, constructed from repeat measurement at 11 locations over 15 months, is consistent with the timing of land-use change over the past century in Virginia Beach. The magnitude of human-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table (+4.1 °C) is twice the current seasonal temperature variation, indicating the potential for ecological impacts on wetlands and estuaries receiving groundwater discharge from shallow aquifers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23..105E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23..105E"><span>Assessing the magnitude and timing of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> of a shallow aquifer: example from Virginia Beach, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eggleston, Jack; McCoy, Kurt J.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Groundwater temperature measurements in a shallow coastal aquifer in Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA, suggest groundwater <span class="hlt">warming</span> of +4.1 °C relative to deeper geothermal gradients. Observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> is related to timing and depth of influence of two potential thermal drivers—atmospheric temperature increases and urbanization. Results indicate that up to 30 % of groundwater <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table can be attributed to atmospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> while up to 70 % of <span class="hlt">warming</span> can be attributed to urbanization. Groundwater temperature readings to 30-m depth correlate positively with percentage of impervious cover and negatively with percentage of tree canopy cover; thus, these two land-use metrics explain up to 70 % of <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table. Analytical and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling results indicate that an average vertical groundwater temperature profile for the study area, constructed from repeat measurement at 11 locations over 15 months, is consistent with the timing of land-use change over the past century in Virginia Beach. The magnitude of human-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table (+4.1 °C) is twice the current seasonal temperature variation, indicating the potential for ecological impacts on wetlands and estuaries receiving groundwater discharge from shallow aquifers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5142048','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5142048"><span>Interactions between rates of temperature change and acclimation affect latitudinal patterns of <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Allen, Jessica L.; Chown, Steven L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Clusella-Trullas, Susana</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Critical thermal limits form an increasing component of the estimation of impacts of global change on ectotherms. Whether any consistent patterns exist in the interactive effects of rates of temperature change (or experimental ramping rates) and acclimation on critical thermal limits and <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance (one way of assessing sensitivity to climate change) is, however, far from clear. Here, we examine the interacting effects of ramping rate and acclimation on the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and minima (CTmin) and <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance of six species of springtails from sub-tropical, temperate and polar regions. We also provide microhabitat temperatures from 26 sites spanning 5 years in order to benchmark <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> relevant rates of temperature change. Ramping rate has larger effects than acclimation on CTmax, but the converse is true for CTmin. Responses to rate and acclimation effects are more consistent among species for CTmax than for CTmin. In the latter case, interactions among ramping rate and acclimation are typical of polar species, less marked for temperate ones, and reduced in species from the sub-tropics. Ramping rate and acclimation have substantial effects on estimates of <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance, with the former being more marked. At the fastest ramping rates (>1.0°C/min), tropical species have estimated <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerances similar to their temperate counterparts, whereas at slow ramping rates (<0.4°C/min) the <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance is much reduced in tropical species. Rates of temperate change in microhabitats relevant to the springtails are typically <0.05°C/min, with rare maxima of 0.3–0.5°C/min depending on the site. These findings emphasize the need to consider the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> setting and experimental conditions when assessing species’ vulnerability to climate change using a <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance approach. PMID:27933165</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27933165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27933165"><span>Interactions between rates of temperature change and acclimation affect latitudinal patterns of <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allen, Jessica L; Chown, Steven L; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Clusella-Trullas, Susana</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Critical thermal limits form an increasing component of the estimation of impacts of global change on ectotherms. Whether any consistent patterns exist in the interactive effects of rates of temperature change (or experimental ramping rates) and acclimation on critical thermal limits and <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance (one way of assessing sensitivity to climate change) is, however, far from clear. Here, we examine the interacting effects of ramping rate and acclimation on the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and minima (CTmin) and <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance of six species of springtails from sub-tropical, temperate and polar regions. We also provide microhabitat temperatures from 26 sites spanning 5 years in order to benchmark <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> relevant rates of temperature change. Ramping rate has larger effects than acclimation on CTmax, but the converse is true for CTmin. Responses to rate and acclimation effects are more consistent among species for CTmax than for CTmin. In the latter case, interactions among ramping rate and acclimation are typical of polar species, less marked for temperate ones, and reduced in species from the sub-tropics. Ramping rate and acclimation have substantial effects on estimates of <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance, with the former being more marked. At the fastest ramping rates (>1.0°C/min), tropical species have estimated <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerances similar to their temperate counterparts, whereas at slow ramping rates (<0.4°C/min) the <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance is much reduced in tropical species. Rates of temperate change in microhabitats relevant to the springtails are typically <0.05°C/min, with rare maxima of 0.3-0.5°C/min depending on the site. These findings emphasize the need to consider the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> setting and experimental conditions when assessing species' vulnerability to climate change using a <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3605839','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3605839"><span>Foraging by forest ants under experimental climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span>: a test at two sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stuble, Katharine L; Pelini, Shannon L; Diamond, Sarah E; Fowler, David A; Dunn, Robert R; Sanders, Nathan J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> is altering the behavior of individuals and the composition of communities. However, recent studies have shown that the impact of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ectotherms varies geographically: species at warmer sites where <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures are closer to their upper critical thermal limits are more likely to be negatively impacted by <span class="hlt">warming</span> than are species inhabiting relatively cooler sites. We used a large-scale experimental temperature manipulation to <span class="hlt">warm</span> intact forest ant assemblages in the field and examine the impacts of chronic <span class="hlt">warming</span> on foraging at a southern (North Carolina) and northern (Massachusetts) site in eastern North America. We examined the influence of temperature on the abundance and recruitment of foragers as well as the number of different species observed foraging. Finally, we examined the relationship between the mean temperature at which a species was found foraging and the critical thermal maximum temperature of that species, relating functional traits to behavior. We found that forager abundance and richness were related to the experimental increase in temperature at the southern site, but not the northern site. Additionally, individual species responded differently to temperature: some species foraged more under warmer conditions, whereas others foraged less. Importantly, these species-specific responses were related to functional traits of species (at least at the Duke Forest site). Species with higher critical thermal maxima had greater forager densities at higher temperatures than did species with lower critical thermal maxima. Our results indicate that while climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> may alter patterns of foraging activity in predictable ways, these shifts vary among species and between sites. More southerly sites and species with lower critical thermal maxima are likely to be at greater risk to ongoing climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:23531642</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ERL....12b5001L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ERL....12b5001L"><span>Short-term herbivory has long-term consequences in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> and ambient high Arctic tundra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Little, Chelsea J.; Cutting, Helen; Alatalo, Juha; Cooper, Elisabeth</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Climate change is occurring across the world, with effects varying by ecosystem and region but already occurring quickly in high-latitude and high-altitude regions. Biotic interactions are important in determining ecosystem response to such changes, but few studies have been long-term in nature, especially in the High Arctic. Mesic tundra plots on Svalbard, Norway, were subjected to grazing at two different intensities by captive Barnacle geese from 2003–2005, in a factorial design with <span class="hlt">warming</span> by Open Top Chambers. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> manipulations were continued through 2014, when we measured vegetation structure and composition as well as growth and reproduction of three dominant species in the mesic meadow. Significantly more dead vascular plant material was found in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> compared to ambient plots, regardless of grazing history, but in contrast to many short-term experiments no difference in the amount of living material was found. This has strong implications for nutrient and carbon cycling and could feed back into community productivity. Dominant species showed increased flowering in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots, especially in those plots where grazing had been applied. However, this added sexual reproduction did not translate to substantial shifts in vegetative cover. Forbs and rushes increased slightly in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots regardless of grazing, while the dominant shrub, Salix polaris, generally declined with effects dependent on grazing, and the evergreen shrub Dryas octopetala declined with previous intensive grazing. There were no treatment effects on community diversity or evenness. Thus despite no changes in total live abundance, a typical short-term response to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, we found pronounced changes in dead biomass indicating that tundra ecosystem processes respond to medium- to long-term changes in conditions caused by 12 seasons of summer <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We suggest that while high arctic tundra plant communities are fairly resistant to current levels of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4935S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4935S"><span>Increased frequency of ENSO extremes under greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santoso, Agus; Cai, Wenju</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is Earth's largest source of year-to-year climate variability which exerts significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and socio-economic impacts worldwide. The rise of ENSO, signified by large changes in ocean and atmospheric circulations, occurs through a suite of Bjerknes coupled feedback processes in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Observations over recent decades have seen some peculiar behaviour of ENSO that has challenged our scientific understanding of this remarkable phenomenon. 1982 and 1997 saw the strongest El Nino events in modern records, uniquely characterised by eastward propagating sea surface temperature anomalies, a behaviour not seen during moderate events and La Nina. The impacts were severe, causing multi billion dollars in damages, thousands of human lives lost, and destruction of marine habitats. The 1997 El Nino was followed by an exceptionally strong 1998 La Nina event which was also catastrophic. Given their significant impacts, one of the most pressing issues our society needs to address is whether and how ENSO will respond to the increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The increasing breadth of climate models available under the efforts of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) has made addressing this issue possible. In contrast to previous finding of no robust ENSO response, recent research utilising the large CMIP database has found intermodel consensus of significant increases in the frequency of both El Nino and La Nina events that are 'extreme like', analogous to the 82, 97, and 98 events. The weakened westward flowing mean equatorial Pacific currents are expected to give rise to more frequent eastward propagating El Nino under greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The projected faster <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean than the surrounding regions would make it easier for atmospheric convection to shift eastward to generate rainfall response similar to that during an extreme El Nino. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22905210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22905210"><span>Seasonal exposure to drought and air <span class="hlt">warming</span> affects soil Collembola and mites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air <span class="hlt">warming</span> with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4 °C, and air <span class="hlt">warming</span> + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length ≤ 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air <span class="hlt">warming</span> had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3666745','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3666745"><span>Consumers mediate the effects of experimental ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on primary producers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alsterberg, Christian; Eklöf, Johan S.; Gamfeldt, Lars; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Sundbäck, Kristina</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that ocean acidification can have profound impacts on marine organisms. However, we know little about the direct and indirect effects of ocean acidification and also how these effects interact with other features of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change such as <span class="hlt">warming</span> and declining consumer pressure. In this study, we tested whether the presence of consumers (invertebrate mesograzers) influenced the interactive effects of ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on benthic microalgae in a seagrass community mesocosm experiment. Net effects of acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on benthic microalgal biomass and production, as assessed by analysis of variance, were relatively weak regardless of grazer presence. However, partitioning these net effects into direct and indirect effects using structural equation modeling revealed several strong relationships. In the absence of grazers, benthic microalgae were negatively and indirectly affected by sediment-associated microalgal grazers and macroalgal shading, but directly and positively affected by acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Combining indirect and direct effects yielded no or weak net effects. In the presence of grazers, almost all direct and indirect climate effects were nonsignificant. Our analyses highlight that (i) indirect effects of climate change may be at least as strong as direct effects, (ii) grazers are crucial in mediating these effects, and (iii) effects of ocean acidification may be apparent only through indirect effects and in combination with other variables (e.g., <span class="hlt">warming</span>). These findings highlight the importance of experimental designs and statistical analyses that allow us to separate and quantify the direct and indirect effects of multiple climate variables on natural communities. PMID:23630263</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26662380','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26662380"><span>Compensatory mechanisms mitigate the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought on wood formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balducci, Lorena; Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Rossi, Sergio</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Because of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, high-latitude ecosystems are expected to experience increases in temperature and drought events. Wood formation will have to adjust to these new climatic constraints to maintain tree mechanical stability and long-distance water transport. The aim of this study is to understand the dynamic processes involved in wood formation under <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought. Xylogenesis, gas exchange, water relations and wood anatomy of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] saplings were monitored during a greenhouse experiment where temperature was increased during daytime or night-time (+6 °C) combined with a drought period. The kinetics of tracheid development expressed as rate and duration of the xylogenesis sub-processes were quantified using generalized additive models. Drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span> had a strong influence on cell production, but little effect on wood anatomy. The increase in cell production rate under warmer temperatures, and especially during the night-time <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the end of the growing season, resulted in wider tree-rings. However, the strong compensation between rates and durations of cell differentiation processes mitigates <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought effects on tree-ring structure. Our results allowed quantification of how wood formation kinetics is regulated when water and heat stress increase, allowing trees to adapt to future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23630263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23630263"><span>Consumers mediate the effects of experimental ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on primary producers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alsterberg, Christian; Eklöf, Johan S; Gamfeldt, Lars; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Sundbäck, Kristina</p> <p>2013-05-21</p> <p>It is well known that ocean acidification can have profound impacts on marine organisms. However, we know little about the direct and indirect effects of ocean acidification and also how these effects interact with other features of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change such as <span class="hlt">warming</span> and declining consumer pressure. In this study, we tested whether the presence of consumers (invertebrate mesograzers) influenced the interactive effects of ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on benthic microalgae in a seagrass community mesocosm experiment. Net effects of acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on benthic microalgal biomass and production, as assessed by analysis of variance, were relatively weak regardless of grazer presence. However, partitioning these net effects into direct and indirect effects using structural equation modeling revealed several strong relationships. In the absence of grazers, benthic microalgae were negatively and indirectly affected by sediment-associated microalgal grazers and macroalgal shading, but directly and positively affected by acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Combining indirect and direct effects yielded no or weak net effects. In the presence of grazers, almost all direct and indirect climate effects were nonsignificant. Our analyses highlight that (i) indirect effects of climate change may be at least as strong as direct effects, (ii) grazers are crucial in mediating these effects, and (iii) effects of ocean acidification may be apparent only through indirect effects and in combination with other variables (e.g., <span class="hlt">warming</span>). These findings highlight the importance of experimental designs and statistical analyses that allow us to separate and quantify the direct and indirect effects of multiple climate variables on natural communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23836092','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23836092"><span>A field facility to simulate climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and increased nutrient supply in shallow aquatic ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hines, Jes; Hammrich, Arne; Steiner, Daniel; Gessner, Mark O</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and excess nitrogen deposition can exert strong impacts on aquatic populations, communities, and ecosystems. However, experimental data to establish clear cause-and-effect relationships in naturally complex field conditions are scarce in aquatic environments. Here, we describe the design and performance of a unique outdoor enclosure facility used to simulate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, increased nitrogen supply, and both factors combined in a littoral freshwater wetland dominated by common reed, Phragmites australis. The experimental system effectively simulated a 2.8 °C climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario over an extended period, capturing the natural temperature variations in the wetland at diel and seasonal scales with only small deviations. Excess nitrogen supply enhanced nitrate concentrations especially in winter when it was associated with increased concentration of ammonium and dissolved organic carbon. Nitrogen also reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations, particularly in the summer. Importantly, by stimulating biological activity, <span class="hlt">warming</span> enhanced the nitrogen uptake capacity of the wetland during the winter, emphasizing the need for multifactorial global change experiments that examine both <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen loading in concert. Establishing similar experiments across broad <span class="hlt">environmental</span> gradients holds great potential to provide robust assessments of the impacts of climate change on shallow aquatic ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419650','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419650"><span>Seasonal Exposure to Drought and Air <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Affects Soil Collembola and Mites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M.; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air <span class="hlt">warming</span> with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4°C, and air <span class="hlt">warming</span> + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air <span class="hlt">warming</span> had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type. PMID:22905210</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4866651','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4866651"><span>Earlier snowmelt and <span class="hlt">warming</span> lead to earlier but not necessarily more plant growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Livensperger, Carolyn; Steltzer, Heidi; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Wallenstein, Matthew; Weintraub, Michael N.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate change over the past ∼50 years has resulted in earlier occurrence of plant life-cycle events for many species. Across temperate, boreal and polar latitudes, earlier seasonal <span class="hlt">warming</span> is considered the key mechanism leading to earlier leaf expansion and growth. Yet, in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems, the timing of spring plant growth may also be cued by snowmelt, which may occur earlier in a warmer climate. Multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> cues protect plants from growing too early, but to understand how climate change will alter the timing and magnitude of plant growth, experiments need to independently manipulate temperature and snowmelt. Here, we demonstrate that altered seasonality through experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> and earlier snowmelt led to earlier plant growth, but the aboveground production response varied among plant functional groups. Earlier snowmelt without <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to early leaf emergence, but often slowed the rate of leaf expansion and had limited effects on aboveground production. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone had small and inconsistent effects on aboveground phenology, while the effect of the combined treatment resembled that of early snowmelt alone. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to greater aboveground production among the graminoids, limited changes among deciduous shrubs and decreased production in one of the dominant evergreen shrubs. As a result, we predict that early onset of the growing season may favour early growing plant species, even those that do not shift the timing of leaf expansion. PMID:27075181</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2684586','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2684586"><span>Effects of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Feranec, Robert S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Current global <span class="hlt">warming</span> affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions and relative seasonality. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in fossil teeth to document the magnitude of mammalian dietary shifts and ancient floral change during geologically documented glacial and interglacial periods during the Pliocene (∼1.9 million years ago) and Pleistocene (∼1.3 million years ago) in Florida. Stable isotope data demonstrate increased aridity, increased C4 grass consumption, inter-faunal dietary partitioning, increased isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders, niche partitioning of phylogenetically similar taxa, and differences in relative seasonality with <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Conclusion/Significance Our data show that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> resulted in dramatic vegetation and dietary changes even at lower latitudes (∼28°N). Our results also question the use of models that predict the long term decline and extinction of species based on the assumption that niches are conserved over time. These findings have immediate relevance to clarifying possible biotic responses to current global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in modern ecosystems. PMID:19492043</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19212093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19212093"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> or slightly hot? Differences in linguistic dimensions describing perceived thermal sensation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Stone, Eric A</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This communication discussed the linguistic usages of terms expressing perceived thermal sensation in English, Japanese, and Korean. In particular, ttatthada (<span class="hlt">warm</span>) in Korean and atatakai (<span class="hlt">warm</span>) in Japanese represents a thermally positive feeling. For Koreans and Japanese, to explicitly express thermal sensation as <span class="hlt">warm</span> is to implicitly connote a thermally comfortable or satisfied state. When 'comfortably <span class="hlt">warm</span>' and 'uncomfortably <span class="hlt">warm</span>' are translated into Korean or Japanese they sound like a redundant expression and possibly an oxymoron, respectively. Subjective thermal perception has been measured using particular languages and then translated into English for international communication. International Standards (ISO) in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> physiology or ergonomics have played an important role in setting criteria, unifying international research, and suggesting the direction of further research. However, the differences in linguistic dimensions across cultures may cause confusion when interpreting thermal perceptions measured by different languages. It is conceivable that similar difficulties exemplified in Korean and Japanese may exist in other languages. Therefore, international standards for the measurement of subjective thermal perceptions need to take into account the variations of interpretation given to these descriptors across cultures. For international standards to be internationally valid, systematic research on linguistic differences in thermal perceptive words is required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPJCE..10...18D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPJCE..10...18D"><span>Modified Asphalt Binder with Natural Zeolite for <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mix Asphalt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dubravský, Marián; Mandula, Ján</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In recent years, <span class="hlt">warm</span> mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more and more used in the asphalt industry. WMA provide a whole range of benefits, whether economic, <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and ecological. Lower energy consumption and less pollution is the most advantages of this asphalt mixture. The paper deals with the addition of natural zeolite into the sub base asphalt layers, which is the essential constituent in the construction of the road. Measurement is focused on basic physic - mechanical properties declared according to the catalog data sheets. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ability of addition the natural zeolite into the all asphalt layers of asphalt pavement. All asphalt mixtures were compared with reference asphalt mixture, which was prepared in reference temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386098','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386098"><span>Behavioral buffering of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in a cold-adapted lizard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ortega, Zaida; Mencía, Abraham; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Alpine lizards living in restricted areas might be particularly sensitive to climate change. We studied thermal biology of Iberolacerta cyreni in high mountains of central Spain. Our results suggest that I. cyreni is a cold-adapted thermal specialist and an effective thermoregulator. Among ectotherms, thermal specialists are more threatened by global <span class="hlt">warming</span> than generalists. Alpine lizards have no chance to disperse to new suitable habitats. In addition, physiological plasticity is unlikely to keep pace with the expected rates of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Thus, lizards might rely on their behavior in order to deal with ongoing climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Plasticity of thermoregulatory behavior has been proposed to buffer the rise of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures. Therefore, we studied the change in body and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures, as well as their relationships, for I. cyreni between the 1980s and 2012. Air temperatures have increased more than 3.5°C and substrate temperatures have increased by 6°C in the habitat of I. cyreni over the last 25 years. However, body temperatures of lizards have increased less than 2°C in the same period, and the linear relationship between body and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures remains similar. These results show that alpine lizards are buffering the potential impact of the increase in their <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures, most probably by means of their behavior. Body temperatures of I. cyreni are still cold enough to avoid any drop in fitness. Nonetheless, if <span class="hlt">warming</span> continues, behavioral buffering might eventually become useless, as it would imply spending too much time in shelter, losing feeding, and mating opportunities. Eventually, if body temperature exceeds the thermal optimum in the near future, fitness would decrease abruptly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5431011','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5431011"><span>Can we delay a greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Perry, A.M.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The author comments on the EPA report dated September 1983 Can We Delay A Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Warming</span>. He takes exception to the widely-held interpretation that the answer is not much. The contribution of other greenhouse gases such as methane and nitrous oxide to the EPA scenarios is pointed out, and the lack of understanding of their role is emphasised. (ACR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EaFut...4..472Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EaFut...4..472Y"><span>The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> hiatus: Slowdown or redistribution?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yan, Xiao-Hai; Boyer, Tim; Trenberth, Kevin; Karl, Thomas R.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Nieves, Veronica; Tung, Ka-Kit; Roemmich, Dean</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Global mean surface temperatures (GMST) exhibited a smaller rate of <span class="hlt">warming</span> during 1998-2013, compared to the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the latter half of the 20th Century. Although, not a "true" hiatus in the strict definition of the word, this has been termed the "global <span class="hlt">warming</span> hiatus" by IPCC (2013). There have been other periods that have also been defined as the "hiatus" depending on the analysis. There are a number of uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding the "hiatus." This report reviews these issues and also posits insights from a collective set of diverse information that helps us understand what we do and do not know. One salient insight is that the GMST phenomenon is a surface characteristic that does not represent a slowdown in <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the climate system but rather is an energy redistribution within the oceans. Improved understanding of the ocean distribution and redistribution of heat will help better monitor Earth's energy budget and its consequences. A review of recent scientific publications on the "hiatus" shows the difficulty and complexities in pinpointing the oceanic sink of the "missing heat" from the atmosphere and the upper layer of the oceans, which defines the "hiatus." Advances in "hiatus" research and outlooks (recommendations) are given in this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4990907','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4990907"><span>Desert Amplification in a <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Liming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest <span class="hlt">warming</span> consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor. PMID:27538725</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046350&hterms=water+density&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dwater%2Bdensity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046350&hterms=water+density&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dwater%2Bdensity"><span>Is Europa's Subsurface Water Ocean <span class="hlt">Warm</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Melosh, H. J.; Ekholm, A. G.; Showman, A. P.; Lorenz, R. D.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Europa's subsurface water ocean may be <span class="hlt">warm</span>: that is, at the temperature of water's maximum density. This provides a natural explanation of chaos melt-through events and leads to a correct estimate of the age of its surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2870G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2870G"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and extreme storm surges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grinsted, Aslak</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>I will show empirical evidence for how global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has changed extreme storm surge statistics for different regions in the world. Are there any detectable changes beyond what we expect from sea level rise. What does this suggest about the future of hurricane surges such as from hurricane Katrina and superstorm Sandy?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3832027','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3832027"><span>Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>De Frenne, Pieter; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; Coomes, David Anthony; Baeten, Lander; Verstraeten, Gorik; Vellend, Mark; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus; Brown, Carissa D.; Brunet, Jörg; Cornelis, Johnny; Decocq, Guillaume M.; Dierschke, Hartmut; Eriksson, Ove; Gilliam, Frank S.; Hédl, Radim; Heinken, Thilo; Hermy, Martin; Hommel, Patrick; Jenkins, Michael A.; Kelly, Daniel L.; Kirby, Keith J.; Mitchell, Fraser J. G.; Naaf, Tobias; Newman, Miles; Peterken, George; Petřík, Petr; Schultz, Jan; Sonnier, Grégory; Van Calster, Hans; Waller, Donald M.; Walther, Gian-Reto; White, Peter S.; Woods, Kerry D.; Wulf, Monika; Graae, Bente Jessen; Verheyen, Kris</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is acting across marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems to favor species adapted to warmer conditions and/or reduce the abundance of cold-adapted organisms (i.e., “thermophilization” of communities). Lack of community responses to increased temperature, however, has also been reported for several taxa and regions, suggesting that “climatic lags” may be frequent. Here we show that microclimatic effects brought about by forest canopy closure can buffer biotic responses to macroclimate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, thus explaining an apparent climatic lag. Using data from 1,409 vegetation plots in European and North American temperate forests, each surveyed at least twice over an interval of 12–67 y, we document significant thermophilization of ground-layer plant communities. These changes reflect concurrent declines in species adapted to cooler conditions and increases in species adapted to warmer conditions. However, thermophilization, particularly the increase of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-adapted species, is attenuated in forests whose canopies have become denser, probably reflecting cooler growing-season ground temperatures via increased shading. As standing stocks of trees have increased in many temperate forests in recent decades, local microclimatic effects may commonly be moderating the impacts of macroclimate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on forest understories. Conversely, increases in harvesting woody biomass—e.g., for bioenergy—may open forest canopies and accelerate thermophilization of temperate forest biodiversity. PMID:24167287</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24167287','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24167287"><span>Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Frenne, Pieter; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; Coomes, David Anthony; Baeten, Lander; Verstraeten, Gorik; Vellend, Mark; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus; Brown, Carissa D; Brunet, Jörg; Cornelis, Johnny; Decocq, Guillaume M; Dierschke, Hartmut; Eriksson, Ove; Gilliam, Frank S; Hédl, Radim; Heinken, Thilo; Hermy, Martin; Hommel, Patrick; Jenkins, Michael A; Kelly, Daniel L; Kirby, Keith J; Mitchell, Fraser J G; Naaf, Tobias; Newman, Miles; Peterken, George; Petrík, Petr; Schultz, Jan; Sonnier, Grégory; Van Calster, Hans; Waller, Donald M; Walther, Gian-Reto; White, Peter S; Woods, Kerry D; Wulf, Monika; Graae, Bente Jessen; Verheyen, Kris</p> <p>2013-11-12</p> <p>Recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is acting across marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems to favor species adapted to warmer conditions and/or reduce the abundance of cold-adapted organisms (i.e., "thermophilization" of communities). Lack of community responses to increased temperature, however, has also been reported for several taxa and regions, suggesting that "climatic lags" may be frequent. Here we show that microclimatic effects brought about by forest canopy closure can buffer biotic responses to macroclimate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, thus explaining an apparent climatic lag. Using data from 1,409 vegetation plots in European and North American temperate forests, each surveyed at least twice over an interval of 12-67 y, we document significant thermophilization of ground-layer plant communities. These changes reflect concurrent declines in species adapted to cooler conditions and increases in species adapted to warmer conditions. However, thermophilization, particularly the increase of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-adapted species, is attenuated in forests whose canopies have become denser, probably reflecting cooler growing-season ground temperatures via increased shading. As standing stocks of trees have increased in many temperate forests in recent decades, local microclimatic effects may commonly be moderating the impacts of macroclimate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on forest understories. Conversely, increases in harvesting woody biomass--e.g., for bioenergy--may open forest canopies and accelerate thermophilization of temperate forest biodiversity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21408045','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21408045"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> inflationary model in loop quantum cosmology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Herrera, Ramon</p> <p>2010-06-15</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflationary universe model in loop quantum cosmology is studied. In general we discuss the condition of inflation in this framework. By using a chaotic potential, V({phi}){proportional_to}{phi}{sup 2}, we develop a model where the dissipation coefficient {Gamma}={Gamma}{sub 0}=constant. We use recent astronomical observations for constraining the parameters appearing in our model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9a4010D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9a4010D"><span>National contributions to observed global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Damon Matthews, H.; Graham, Tanya L.; Keverian, Serge; Lamontagne, Cassandra; Seto, Donny; Smith, Trevor J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, including CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ <span class="hlt">warming</span> contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS43B..05N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS43B..05N"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> 'Pause' - Oceans Reshuffle Heat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nieves, V.; Willis, J. K.; Patzert, W. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Despite the fact that greenhouse gases are still increasing and all other indicators show <span class="hlt">warming</span>-related change (+0.0064 °C/year since 1880 or +0.0077 °C/year during 1993-2002), surface temperatures stopped climbing steadily during the past decade at a rate of +0.0010 °C/year from 2003 to 2012. We show that in recent years, the heat was being trapped in the subsurface waters of the western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans between 100 and 300 m. The movement of <span class="hlt">warm</span> Pacific water below the surface, also related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation climatic pattern, temporarily affected surface temperatures and accounted for the global cooling trend in surface temperature. With the Pacific Decadal Oscillation possibly changing to a <span class="hlt">warm</span> phase, it is likely that the oceans will drive a major surge in global surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> sometime in the next decade or two. Reference: Nieves, V., Willis, J. K., and Patzert, W. C. (2015). Recent hiatus caused by decadal shift in Indo-Pacific heating. Science, aaa4521.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15491963','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15491963"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> reactive autoantibodies: clinical and serologic correlations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wheeler, Christine A; Calhoun, Loni; Blackall, Douglas P</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> reactive autoantibodies are encountered relatively frequently in tertiary care hospitals. We studied 100 consecutive patients with <span class="hlt">warm</span> autoantibodies to correlate their clinical and serologic features. Study patients (56 male, 44 female) had various diagnoses and a mean age of 53.5 years (range, 3-90 years). Autoimmune hemolysis was documented in 29 patients; 20 patients (69%) in this subset had diseases classically associated with <span class="hlt">warm</span> autoimmune hemolytic anemia (hematologic and autoimmune disorders). All study patients demonstrated IgG on their RBCs (direct antiglobulin test [DAT] reactivity range, microscopic to 4+); 49 also demonstrated C3 (reactivity range, microscopic to 3+). The DAT for IgG was 2+ or more in 25 (86%) of 29 patients with hemolysis; the DAT for IgG was 1+ or less in 45 (63%) of 71 patients without hemolysis. In patients with hemolysis, 21 (72%) of 29 had a DAT reactive for C3. These findings may be useful in determining the clinical significance of <span class="hlt">warm</span> autoantibodies and the extent to which patients should be followed up for hemolysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001329&hterms=earth+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dearth%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001329&hterms=earth+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dearth%2Bwarming"><span>Temperature Data Shows <span class="hlt">Warming</span> in 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest <span class="hlt">warming</span> is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...631065Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...631065Z"><span>Desert Amplification in a <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Liming</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest <span class="hlt">warming</span> consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA615481','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA615481"><span>Should Patients With Haemorrhage Be Kept <span class="hlt">Warm</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>and upward shift of the Starling relationship by way of a compensatory sympathetic excitation ( Braunwald et al. 1967). The resultant increase in...to volume status should be mandated in re-<span class="hlt">warming</span> protocols. References Braunwald E, Ross J Jr & Sonnenblick EH (1967). N Engl J Med 277, 794–800</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8898476','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8898476"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and health: a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amofah, G K</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>The paper looks at the phenomenon of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and its potential health effects and outlines a number of plausible response by the health sector in developing countries to its threat. It suggests that the health sector should facilitate an international effort at addressing this challenge, mainly through advocacy, epidemiological surveillance and awareness creation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21057344','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21057344"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Hydroforming of Lightweight Metal Sheets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aginagalde, A.; Orus, A.; Esnaola, J. A.; Torca, I.; Galdos, L.; Garcia, C.</p> <p>2007-05-17</p> <p>Hydroforming is well known in steel applications for automotive industry, where complicated shapes can be get with high strength to weight ratios. Nevertheless, the poor formability of light alloys at room temperature has limited the application of hydroforming technology for aluminum and magnesium parts. Increasing the temperature of these materials allows substantially greater elongation without fracture. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> forming strategy is applied in conventional processes, such as rolling and forging, in order to get complex shapes, but still rare in hydroforming technology. This is the technical base of this research project: the development of the hydroforming process at <span class="hlt">warm</span> working temperatures. The main tasks of the initial phases of the research were the material characterization, and the heated fluid and tooling system design and set up for <span class="hlt">warm</span> hydroforming of lightweight alloys. Once these goals were accomplished the present paper shows the obtained results. The uniaxial tensile deformation of 5754H111, 6082-T6, 6082-O and AZ31B at the temperature range of 25 deg. C - 250 deg. C is presented as the output of the material characterization task. Both the system features and the results obtained for a bulge test geometry carried out with a <span class="hlt">warm</span> hydroforming system are also presented. The selected alloys show an improvement in formability at the studied temperature range under both uniaxial and biaxial state of stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3814601R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3814601R"><span>Abrupt <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Red Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raitsos, D. E.; Hoteit, I.; Prihartato, P. K.; Chronis, T.; Triantafyllou, G.; Abualnaja, Y.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very <span class="hlt">warm</span> environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense <span class="hlt">warming</span> initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27538725','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27538725"><span>Desert Amplification in a <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Climate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Liming</p> <p>2016-08-19</p> <p>Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950-2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest <span class="hlt">warming</span> consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=295147','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=295147"><span>Rangeland and <span class="hlt">warm</span>-season forage grasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Livestock ranchers depend on grassland grazing for a substantial part of their livestock management systems. Grassland forages make up to 85% of the feed supply for ruminant animal products, especially in <span class="hlt">warm</span> climates. Grass breeding in general creates some unique breeding challenges ranging from...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51M0251T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51M0251T"><span>Land-Ocean Difference of the <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Rain Formation Process in Satellite Observations, Ground-Based Observations, and Model Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takahashi, H.; Suzuki, K.; Stephens, G. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study examines the difference in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> rain formation process between over land and over ocean using a combination of CloudSat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. Previous studies (Nakajima et al. 2010; Suzuki et al. 2010) have devised a novel methodology for combining the CloudSat and MODIS satellite observations to investigate the microphysical processes. The statistics constructed with the methodology, referred to as the Contoured Frequency by Optical Depth Diagram (CFODD), provides a lifecycle view of <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds. Following the previous studies, we conduct detailed analyses of CFODD with a particular focus on comparisons between land and ocean. Our result shows that the coalescence process starts faster in the oceanic <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds than continental <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds. Also, oceanic clouds tend to produce more drizzle than continental clouds. Moreover, it is found that the difference between oceanic and continental cloud-to-precipitation process can be explained by different <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. For example, the cloud-to-precipitation processes in continental clouds are more similar to those in oceanic clouds over unstable environments than those over stable environments. Furthermore, ground-based measurement data obtained from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data and a cloud model simulation are analyzed to test how vertical velocity affects the <span class="hlt">warm</span> rain formation process. Our result suggests that although the intensities of convective updrafts in <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds have been paid less attention, intensities of convective updrafts play a critical role in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> rain formation process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.H22B0919L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.H22B0919L"><span>Long-Term <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-Season Stream Temperature Variations and Changes Over Siberian Lena River</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, B.; Yang, D.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Stream temperature is an important <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variable that has considerable significance in regional hydrology, climate, and ecology systems. Few investigations on long-term stream temperature variations in Arctic regions have been undertaken. This research examined and analyzed long-term (1950-1992) stream temperature data collected at dozens of stations in the Lena River basin during (open water) <span class="hlt">warm</span> seasons. Preliminary results show that: (1) the stream temperature across the whole basin shows a significant positive trend during early <span class="hlt">warm</span> season, which may indicate a response of early snowmelt due to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the winter and spring seasons; (2) over the Aldan tributary, stream temperatures collected at elevated locations are much lower than those at low valley stations; (3) in the Upper Lena river, stream temperatures have very strong negative trend in late July to early August, which imply certain climatic factors is affecting the stream temperature regime during this period; and, (4) in the Vilui subbasin, stream temperatures are strongly affected by reservoir regulations, for instance, extremely strong positive and negative trends appear at the station close to reservoir in early and middle <span class="hlt">warm</span> season, respectively. The research has defined stream temperature regime and identified its long-term changes/variations over Lena river basin. Our future work will examine the impacts of climate change on river thermal condition. We will also study the effects of local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> settings to stream temperatures and aquatic life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EaFut...1...19T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EaFut...1...19T"><span>An apparent hiatus in global <span class="hlt">warming</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> first became evident beyond the bounds of natural variability in the 1970s, but increases in global mean surface temperatures have stalled in the 2000s. Increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide, create an energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) even as the planet <span class="hlt">warms</span> to adjust to this imbalance, which is estimated to be 0.5-1 W m-2 over the 2000s. Annual global fluctuations in TOA energy of up to 0.2 W m-2 occur from natural variations in clouds, aerosols, and changes in the Sun. At times of major volcanic eruptions the effects can be much larger. Yet global mean surface temperatures fluctuate much more than these can account for. An energy imbalance is manifested not just as surface atmospheric or ground <span class="hlt">warming</span> but also as melting sea and land ice, and heating of the oceans. More than 90% of the heat goes into the oceans and, with melting land ice, causes sea level to rise. For the past decade, more than 30% of the heat has apparently penetrated below 700 m depth that is traceable to changes in surface winds mainly over the Pacific in association with a switch to a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in 1999. Surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> was much more in evidence during the 1976-1998 positive phase of the PDO, suggesting that natural decadal variability modulates the rate of change of global surface temperatures while sea-level rise is more relentless. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has not stopped; it is merely manifested in different ways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100033057&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100033057&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming"><span>Frequency of Deep Convective Clouds and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Aumann, Hartmut H.; Teixeira, Joao</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This slide presentation reviews the effect of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the formation of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC). It concludes that nature responds to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> with an increase in strong convective activity. The frequency of DCC increases with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the rate of 6%/decade. The increased frequency of DCC with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone increases precipitation by 1.7%/decade. It compares the state of the art climate models' response to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and concludes that the parametrization of climate models need to be tuned to more closely emulate the way nature responds to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25986653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25986653"><span>Ecophysiological responses of three Mediterranean invasive seaweeds (Acrothamnion preissii, Lophocladia lallemandii and Caulerpa cylindracea) to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samperio-Ramos, Guillermo; Olsen, Ylva S; Tomas, Fiona; Marbà, Núria</p> <p>2015-07-15</p> <p>The Mediterranean Sea is a hotspot for invasive species and projected Mediterranean <span class="hlt">warming</span> might affect their future spreading. We experimentally examined ecophysiological responses to the temperature range 23-31 °C in three invasive seaweeds commonly found in the Mediterranean: Acrothamnion preissii, Caulerpa cylindracea and Lophocladia lallemandii. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> range tested encompassed current and projected (for the end of 21st Century) maximum temperatures for the Mediterranean Sea. Optimal ecophysiological temperatures for A. preissii, C. cylindracea and L. lallemandii were 25 °C, 27 °C and 29 °C, respectively. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> below the optimal temperatures enhanced RGR of all studied invasive seaweeds. Although sensitive, seaweed photosynthetic yield was less temperature-dependent than growth. Our results demonstrate that temperature is a key <span class="hlt">environmental</span> parameter in regulating the ecophysiological performance of these invasive seaweeds and that Mediterranean <span class="hlt">warming</span> conditions may affect their invasion trajectory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940397"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperature on the gut microbial communities of tadpoles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kohl, Kevin D; Yahn, Jeremiah</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerous</span> studies have investigated the effects of diet, phylogeny and immune status on the gut microbial communities of animals. Most of these studies are conducted on endotherms, especially mammals, which maintain constant body temperature in the face of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperature variability. However, the majority of animals and vertebrates are ectotherms, which often experience fluctuations in body temperature as a result of their environment. While there have been several studies investigating the gut microbial diversity of ectotherms, we lack an understanding of how <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperature affects these communities. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to inventory the gut microbial communities of tadpoles exposed to cool (18°C) or <span class="hlt">warm</span> (28°C) temperature treatments. We found that temperature significantly impacted the community structure and membership of the tadpole gut. Specifically, tadpoles in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> treatment exhibited higher abundances of the phylum Planctomycetes and the genus Mycobacterium. These results may be due to the direct effects of temperature, or mediated through changes in host physiology. Given that <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures are expected to increase due to global climate change, understanding the effects of temperature on the diversity and function of gut microbial communities is critical.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070025103&hterms=antartica&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dantartica','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070025103&hterms=antartica&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dantartica"><span>Simulations of Dynamics and Transport during the September 2002 Antarctic Major <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Manney, Gloria L.; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Allen, Douglas R.; Lahoz, Willian A.; Scaife, Adam A.; Randall, Cora E.; Pawson, Steven; Naujokat, Barbara; Swinbank, Richard</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A mechanistic model simulation initialized on 14 September 2002, forced by 100-hPa geopotential heights from Met Office analyses, reproduced the dynamical features of the 2002 Antarctic major <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The vortex split on approx.25 September; recovery after the <span class="hlt">warming</span>, westward and equatorward tilting vortices, and strong baroclinic zones in temperature associated with a dipole pattern of upward and downward vertical velocities were all captured in the simulation. Model results and analyses show a pattern of strong upward wave propagation throughout the <span class="hlt">warming</span>, with zonal wind deceleration throughout the stratosphere at high latitudes before the vortex split, continuing in the middle and upper stratosphere and spreading to lower latitudes after the split. Three-dimensional Eliassen-Palm fluxes show the largest upward and poleward wave propagation in the 0(deg)-90(deg)E sector prior to the vortex split (coincident with the location of strongest cyclogenesis at the model's lower boundary), with an additional region of strong upward propagation developing near 180(deg)-270(deg)E. These characteristics are similar to those of Arctic wave-2 major <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, except that during this <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the vortex did not split below approx.600 K. The effects of poleward transport and mixing dominate modeled trace gas evolution through most of the mid- to high-latitude stratosphere, with a core region in the lower-stratospheric vortex where enhanced descent dominates and the vortex remains isolated. Strongly tilted vortices led to low-latitude air overlying vortex air, resulting in highly unusual trace gas profiles. Simulations driven with several meteorological datasets reproduced the major <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but in others, stronger latitudinal gradients at high latitudes at the model boundary resulted in simulations without a complete vortex split in the midstratosphere. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> tests indicate very high sensitivity to the boundary fields, especially the wave-2 amplitude. Major <span class="hlt">warmings</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860018268&hterms=Gelman&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGelman','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860018268&hterms=Gelman&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGelman"><span>Discrimination of a major stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> event in February-March 1984 from earlier minor <span class="hlt">warmings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, K. W.; Quiroz, R. S.; Gelman, M. E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>As part of its responsibility for stratospheric monitoring, the Climate Analysis Center derives time trends of various dynamic parameters from NMC stratospheric analyses. Selected figures from this stratospheric monitoring data base are published in Climate Diagnostics Bulletin in March and October, after each hemispheric winter. During the Northern Hemisphere winter of December 1983-February 1984 several <span class="hlt">warming</span> events may be seen in the plot of 60 deg. N zonal mean temperatures for 10 mb. Minor <span class="hlt">warmings</span> may be noted in early December, late December, mid January and early February. A major <span class="hlt">warming</span> with the 60 deg. N zonal mean temperatures reaching -40C is observed in late February, associated with a circulation reversal. In all of the minor <span class="hlt">warming</span> episodes, there is a polarward movement of the Aleutian anticyclone; however, at 10 mb the North Pole remains in the cyclonic circulation of the stratospheric vortex which is not displaced far from its usual position. In the case of the later February major <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the 10 mb circulation pattern over the North Pole is anticyclonic, and the cyclonic circulation has moved to the south and east with a considerable elongation. Cross sections of heat transport and momentum transport are not dramatically different for the minor and major <span class="hlt">warming</span> episodes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.145....1B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.145....1B"><span>Pteropods on the edge: Cumulative effects of ocean acidification, <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and deoxygenation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bednaršek, Nina; Harvey, Chris J.; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Feely, Richard A.; Možina, Jasna</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We review the state of knowledge of the individual and community responses of euthecosome (shelled) pteropods in the context of global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. In particular, we focus on their responses to ocean acidification, in combination with ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> and ocean deoxygenation, as inferred from a growing body of empirical literature, and their relatively nascent place in ecosystem-scale models. Our objectives are: (1) to summarize the threats that these stressors pose to pteropod populations; (2) to demonstrate that pteropods are strong candidate indicators for cumulative effects of OA, <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and deoxygenation in marine ecosystems; and (3) to provide insight on incorporating pteropods into population and ecosystem models, which will help inform ecosystem-based management of marine resources under future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> regimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23769238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23769238"><span>A historical perspective of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick H; Christensen, Per</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential (GWP(100)), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO(2)-eq.tonne(-1) to net saving of 670 kg CO(2)-eq.tonne(-1) of MSWM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1034D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1034D"><span>Observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend in sea surface temperature at tropical cyclone genesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Defforge, Cécile L.; Merlis, Timothy M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Tropical cyclone (TC) activity is influenced by <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors, and it is expected to respond to anthropogenic climate change. However, there is observational uncertainty in historical changes in TC activity, and attributing observed TC changes to anthropogenic forcing is challenging in the presence of internal climate variability. The sea surface temperature (SST) is a well-observed <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factor that affects TC intensity and rainfall. Here we show that the SST at the time of TC genesis has a significant <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend over the three decades of the satellite era. Though TCs are extreme events, the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend at TC genesis is comparable to the trend in SST during other tropical deep convection events and the trend in SST in the TC main development regions throughout the TC season. This newly documented, observed signature of climate change on TC activity is also present in high-resolution global atmospheric model simulations that explicitly simulate TCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416174','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416174"><span>Innovative strategies for <span class="hlt">environmental</span> sustainability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rouhani, S. |</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Since the early 1980s our preception of sustainability has fundamentally changed. History sustainability was primarily concerned with the scarcity of natural resources in the face of a growing world population. Awareness of ecological and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> degradations has come gradually. At first the solution to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, ozone layer depletion, and hazardous waste appeared to require a halt in global economic growth. However creative solutions which address <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues and produce economic growth have come to the fore. This paper focuses this with respect to the clean-up of contaminated sites - remediation and case studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GBioC..18.3003S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GBioC..18.3003S"><span>Response of ocean ecosystems to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarmiento, J. L.; Slater, R.; Barber, R.; Bopp, L.; Doney, S. C.; Hirst, A. C.; Kleypas, J.; Matear, R.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Monfray, P.; Soldatov, V.; Spall, S. A.; Stouffer, R.</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>We examine six different coupled climate model simulations to determine the ocean biological response to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> between the beginning of the industrial revolution and 2050. We use vertical velocity, maximum winter mixed layer depth, and sea ice cover to define six biomes. Climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> leads to a contraction of the highly productive marginal sea ice biome by 42% in the Northern Hemisphere and 17% in the Southern Hemisphere, and leads to an expansion of the low productivity permanently stratified subtropical gyre biome by 4.0% in the Northern Hemisphere and 9.4% in the Southern Hemisphere. In between these, the subpolar gyre biome expands by 16% in the Northern Hemisphere and 7% in the Southern Hemisphere, and the seasonally stratified subtropical gyre contracts by 11% in both hemispheres. The low-latitude (mostly coastal) upwelling biome area changes only modestly. Vertical stratification increases, which would be expected to decrease nutrient supply everywhere, but increase the growing season length in high latitudes. We use satellite ocean color and climatological observations to develop an empirical model for predicting chlorophyll from the physical properties of the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> simulations. Four features stand out in the response to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: (1) a drop in chlorophyll in the North Pacific due primarily to retreat of the marginal sea ice biome, (2) a tendency toward an increase in chlorophyll in the North Atlantic due to a complex combination of factors, (3) an increase in chlorophyll in the Southern Ocean due primarily to the retreat of and changes at the northern boundary of the marginal sea ice zone, and (4) a tendency toward a decrease in chlorophyll adjacent to the Antarctic continent due primarily to freshening within the marginal sea ice zone. We use three different primary production algorithms to estimate the response of primary production to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> based on our estimated chlorophyll concentrations. The three algorithms give</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+climate+AND+change&pg=6&id=EJ993844','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+climate+AND+change&pg=6&id=EJ993844"><span><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Education for Behaviour Change: Which Actions Should Be Targeted?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>One aim of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> education is to enable people to make informed decisions about their <span class="hlt">environmental</span> behaviour; this is particularly significant with <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems that are believed to be both major and imminent, such as climate change resulting from global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Previous research suggests no strong link between a person's…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5484079','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5484079"><span>(Discussions of global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krahl-Urban, B.</p> <p>1989-11-02</p> <p>The traveler visited the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Sciences Division to provide programmatic interpretations and technical overviews of research topics addressing international <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues. Many of today's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems can no longer be considered as regional-scale impacts. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, acidification, ozone depletion, drought, deforestation, and air pollution effects are global-level processes that can only be effectively approached by international scientific cooperation. The traveler's recommendations for the final planning and coordination of international <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues emphasized focusing on international cooperation with research institutions in West Germany and in other countries of the European Community. Several key global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues are addressed by the Juelich Nuclear Research Center (KFA Juelich), West Germany. Scientific cooperation with KFA Juelich should be promising in theoretical ecology, systems analysis, and toxicology. Scientific exchange between ORNL and KFA Juelich in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> sciences has been initiated by the traveler.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca3003.photos.201780p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca3003.photos.201780p/"><span>OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND <span class="hlt">WARM</span> SPRINGS CAMP ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND <span class="hlt">WARM</span> SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23892370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23892370"><span>Using physiology to predict the responses of ants to climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diamond, Sarah E; Penick, Clint A; Pelini, Shannon L; Ellison, Aaron M; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Sanders, Nathan J; Dunn, Robert R</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Physiological intolerance of high temperatures places limits on organismal responses to the temperature increases associated with global climatic change. Because ants are geographically widespread, ecologically diverse, and thermophilic, they are an ideal system for exploring the extent to which physiological tolerance can predict responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. Here, we expand on simple models that use thermal tolerance to predict the responses of ants to climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We investigated the degree to which changes in the abundance of ants under <span class="hlt">warming</span> reflect reductions in the thermal niche space for their foraging. In an eastern deciduous forest system in the United States with approximately 40 ant species, we found that for some species, the loss of thermal niche space for foraging was related to decreases in abundance with increasing experimental climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, many ant species exhibited no loss of thermal niche space. For one well-studied species, Temnothorax curvispinosus, we examined both survival of workers and growth of colonies (a correlate of reproductive output) as functions of temperature in the laboratory, and found that the range of thermal tolerances for colony growth was much narrower than for survival of workers. We evaluated these functions in the context of experimental climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> and found that the difference in the responses of these two attributes to temperature generates differences in the means and especially the variances of expected fitness under <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The expected mean growth of colonies was optimized at intermediate levels of <span class="hlt">warming</span> (2-4°C above ambient); yet, the expected variance monotonically increased with <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In contrast, the expected mean and variance of the survival of workers decreased when <span class="hlt">warming</span> exceeded 4°C above ambient. Together, these results for T. curvispinosus emphasize the importance of measuring reproduction (colony growth) in the context of climatic change: indeed, our examination</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3849057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3849057"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span>-up and stretching for improved physical performance and prevention of sports-related injuries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shellock, F G; Prentice, W E</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Competitive and recreational athletes typically perform <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up and stretching activities to prepare for more strenuous exercise. These preliminary activities are used to enhance physical performance and to prevent sports-related injuries. <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up techniques are primarily used to increase body temperature and are classified in 3 major categories: (a) passive <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up - increases temperature by some external means; (b) general <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up - increases temperature by nonspecific body movements; and (c) specific <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up - increases temperature using similar body parts that will be used in the subsequent, more strenuous activity. The best of these appears to be specific <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up because this method provides a rehearsal of the activity or event. The intensity and duration of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up must be individualised according to the athlete's physical capabilities and in consideration of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors which may alter the temperature response. The majority of the benefits of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up are related to temperature-dependent physiological processes. An elevation in body temperature produces an increase in the dissociation of oxygen from haemoglobin and myoglobin, a lowering of the activation energy rates of metabolic chemical reactions, an increase in muscle blood flow, a reduction in muscle viscosity, an increase in the sensitivity of nerve receptors, and an increase in the speed of nervous impulses. <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up also appears to reduce the incidence and likelihood of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries. Improving flexibility through stretching is another important preparatory activity that has been advocated to improve physical performance. Maintaining good flexibility also aids in the prevention of injuries to the musculoskeletal system. Flexibility is defined as the range of motion possible around a specific joint or a series of articulations and is usually classified as either static or dynamic. Static flexibility refers to the degree to which a joint can be passively moved to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.3569C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.3569C"><span>Isolating the anthropogenic component of Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Hengartner, Nicholas; Lesins, Glen; Klett, James D.; Humlum, Ole; Wyatt, Marcia; Dubey, Manvendra K.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Structural equation modeling is used in statistical applications as both confirmatory and exploratory modeling to test models and to suggest the most plausible explanation for a relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Although structural analysis cannot prove causation, it can suggest the most plausible set of factors that influence the observed variable. We apply structural model analysis to the annual mean Arctic surface air temperature from 1900 to 2012 to find the most effective set of predictors and to isolate the anthropogenic component of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by subtracting the effects of natural forcing and variability from the observed temperature. We find that anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols radiative forcing and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation internal mode dominate Arctic temperature variability. Our structural model analysis of observational data suggests that about half of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 0.64 K/decade may have anthropogenic causes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.8670L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.8670L"><span>Giant natural fluctuation models and anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lovejoy, S.; Rio Amador, L.; Hébert, R.; Lima, I.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Explanations for the industrial epoch <span class="hlt">warming</span> are polarized around the hypotheses of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> (AW) and giant natural fluctuations (GNFs). While climate sceptics have systematically attacked AW, up until now they have only invoked GNFs. This has now changed with the publication by D. Keenan of a sample of 1000 series from stochastic processes purporting to emulate the global annual temperature since 1880. While Keenan's objective was to criticize the International Panel on Climate Change's trend uncertainty analysis (their assumption that residuals are only weakly correlated), for the first time it is possible to compare a stochastic GNF model with real data. Using Haar fluctuations, probability distributions, and other techniques of time series analysis, we show that his model has unrealistically strong low-frequency variability so that even mild extrapolations imply ice ages every ≈1000 years. Helped by statistics, the GNF model can easily be scientifically rejected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1291212','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1291212"><span>Isolating the anthropogenic component of Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Hengartner, Nicholas; Lesins, Glen; Klett, James D.; Humlum, Ole; Wyatt, Marcia; Dubey, Manvendra K.</p> <p>2014-05-28</p> <p>Structural equation modeling is used in statistical applications as both confirmatory and exploratory modeling to test models and to suggest the most plausible explanation for a relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Although structural analysis cannot prove causation, it can suggest the most plausible set of factors that influence the observed variable. Here, we apply structural model analysis to the annual mean Arctic surface air temperature from 1900 to 2012 to find the most effective set of predictors and to isolate the anthropogenic component of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by subtracting the effects of natural forcing and variability from the observed temperature. We also find that anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols radiative forcing and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation internal mode dominate Arctic temperature variability. Finally, our structural model analysis of observational data suggests that about half of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 0.64 K/decade may have anthropogenic causes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6830052','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6830052"><span>Winter <span class="hlt">warming</span> from large volcanic eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robock, A.; Jianping Mao )</p> <p>1992-12-24</p> <p>An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows <span class="hlt">warming</span> over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95% level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.125..187Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.125..187Z"><span>Management of drought risk under global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qiang; Han, Lanying; Jia, Jianying; Song, Lingling; Wang, Jinsong</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Drought is a serious ecological problem around the world, and its impact on crops and water availability for humans can jeopardize human life. Although drought has always been common, the drought risk has become increasingly prominent because of the climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> that has occurred during the past century. However, it still does not comprehensively understand the mechanisms that determine the occurrence of the drought risk it poses to humans, particularly in the context of global climate change. In this paper, we summarize the progress of research on drought and the associated risk, introduce the principle of a drought "transition" from one stage to another, synthesize the characteristics of key factors and their interactions, discuss the potential effect of climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> on drought risk, and use this discussion to define the basic requirements for a drought risk management system. We also discuss the main measures that can be used to prevent or mitigate droughts in the context of a risk management strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93U.150B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93U.150B"><span>Early Eocene climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased petroleum production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balcerak, Ernie</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>From the late Paleocene, about 58 million years ago, to the early Eocene, about 51 million years ago, Earth's surface temperatures <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by about 5°-10°C. Also in the early Eocene, there was an increase of carbon-13-depleted carbon in the oceans that cannot be accounted for by changes in carbon cycling at the surface. To better understand the source of that carbon, Kroeger and Funnell modeled the thermal evolution of four sedimentary basins in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The authors show that the rising surface temperatures of the early Eocene eventually led to <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the sedimentary beds deep beneath the surface. Petroleum can be produced at only a certain range of temperatures; rising temperatures at greater depths would bring more potential source rocks into temperature conditions under which oil and gas can be produced and released.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1291212-isolating-anthropogenic-component-arctic-warming','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1291212-isolating-anthropogenic-component-arctic-warming"><span>Isolating the anthropogenic component of Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Hengartner, Nicholas; Lesins, Glen; ...</p> <p>2014-05-28</p> <p>Structural equation modeling is used in statistical applications as both confirmatory and exploratory modeling to test models and to suggest the most plausible explanation for a relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Although structural analysis cannot prove causation, it can suggest the most plausible set of factors that influence the observed variable. Here, we apply structural model analysis to the annual mean Arctic surface air temperature from 1900 to 2012 to find the most effective set of predictors and to isolate the anthropogenic component of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by subtracting the effects of natural forcing and variabilitymore » from the observed temperature. We also find that anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols radiative forcing and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation internal mode dominate Arctic temperature variability. Finally, our structural model analysis of observational data suggests that about half of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 0.64 K/decade may have anthropogenic causes.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016pas..conf...72R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016pas..conf...72R"><span>AGN <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorption with the ATHENA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Różańska, Agata; Gronkiewicz, Dominik; Hryniewicz, Krzysztof; Adhikari, Tek Prasad; Rataj, Mirosław; Skup, Konrad</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>X-ray astronomy requires satellites to make progress in searching the distribution of hot matter in the Universe. Approximately 15 years period of time is needed for full construction of the flight instrument from the mission concept up to the launch. A new generation X-ray telescope ATHENA (the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) was approved by European Space Agency as a large mission with a launch foreseen in 2028. In this paper we show how microcalorimeter on the board of ATHENA will help us to study <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorption observed in active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that future observations will allow us to identify hundreds of lines from highly ionized elements and to measure Galactic <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorption with very high precision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Ge%26Ae..24..592L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Ge%26Ae..24..592L"><span>The winter anomaly and sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lastovicka, J.</p> <p>1984-08-01</p> <p>Large-scale stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> are examined on the basis of 22-year measurements of radio-wave absorption at the Panska Ves observatory. It is shown that these <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, accompanied by the reversal of wind direction in the lower thermosphere, lead not to an increase but to a decrease in the radio-wave absorption in the lower ionosphere, i.e., to the disappearance of the winter anomaly. It is concluded that the absorption decrease is connected not only with cooling in the mesopause region but also with a total change in the dynamic conditions of the lower ionosphere. The behavior of the winter anomaly in the 1979-1980 and 1981-1982 periods is examined in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043463','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043463"><span>Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen K; Wang, Muyin</p> <p>2010-12-08</p> <p>Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23112174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23112174"><span>Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> modulates Pacific climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio</p> <p>2012-11-13</p> <p>It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east-west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> relative to the Pacific's could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001865','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001865"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Debris Disk Candidates from WISE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Padgett, Deborah; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Liu, Wilson; Leisawitz, David</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns. We report on a preliminary investigation of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars with 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This <span class="hlt">warm</span> excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages < 1 Gyr. Nearly a hundred new <span class="hlt">warm</span> debris disk candidates are detected among FGK stars and 150 A stars within 120 pc. We are in the process of obtaining spectra to determine spectral types and activity level of these stars and are using HST, Herschel and Keck to characterize the dust, multiplicity, and substellar companions of these systems. In this contribution, we will discuss source selection methods and individual examples from among the WISE debris disk candidates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3615474','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3615474"><span>Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates <span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cold People</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boyd, Ryan L.; Bresin, Konrad; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Warmth-coldness is a fundamental dimension of social behavior. Cold individuals are egocentric in their social relations, whereas <span class="hlt">warm</span> individuals are not. Previous theorizing suggests that cognitive egocentrism underlies social egocentrism. It was hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal coldness would predict greater cognitive egocentrism. Cognitive egocentrism was assessed in basic terms through tasks wherein priming a lateralized self-state biased subsequent visual perceptions in an assimilation-related manner. Such effects reflect a tendency to assume that the self's incidental state provides meaningful information concerning the external world. Cognitive egocentrism was evident at high, but not low, levels of interpersonal coldness. The findings reveal a basic difference between <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cold people, encouraging future research linking cognitive egocentrism to variability in relationship functioning. PMID:23564985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23564985','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23564985"><span>Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates <span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cold People.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boyd, Ryan L; Bresin, Konrad; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Warmth-coldness is a fundamental dimension of social behavior. Cold individuals are egocentric in their social relations, whereas <span class="hlt">warm</span> individuals are not. Previous theorizing suggests that cognitive egocentrism underlies social egocentrism. It was hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal coldness would predict greater cognitive egocentrism. Cognitive egocentrism was assessed in basic terms through tasks wherein priming a lateralized self-state biased subsequent visual perceptions in an assimilation-related manner. Such effects reflect a tendency to assume that the self's incidental state provides meaningful information concerning the external world. Cognitive egocentrism was evident at high, but not low, levels of interpersonal coldness. The findings reveal a basic difference between <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cold people, encouraging future research linking cognitive egocentrism to variability in relationship functioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APh....90...28A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APh....90...28A"><span>Viscous <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation: Hamilton-Jacobi formalism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akhtari, L.; Mohammadi, A.; Sayar, K.; Saaidi, Kh.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Using Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, the scenario of <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation with viscous pressure is considered. The formalism gives a way of computing the slow-rolling parameter without extra approximation, and it is well-known as a powerful method in cold inflation. The model is studied in detail for three different cases of the dissipation and bulk viscous pressure coefficients. In the first case where both coefficients are taken as constant, it is shown that the case could not portray <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflationary scenario compatible with observational data even it is possible to restrict the model parameters. For other cases, the results shows that the model could properly predicts the perturbation parameters in which they stay in perfect agreement with Planck data. As a further argument, r -ns and αs -ns are drown that show the acquired result could stand in acceptable area expressing a compatibility with observational data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20485432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20485432"><span>Robust <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the global upper ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lyman, John M; Good, Simon A; Gouretski, Viktor V; Ishii, Masayoshi; Johnson, Gregory C; Palmer, Matthew D; Smith, Doug M; Willis, Josh K</p> <p>2010-05-20</p> <p>A large ( approximately 10(23) J) multi-decadal globally averaged <span class="hlt">warming</span> signal in the upper 300 m of the world's oceans was reported roughly a decade ago and is attributed to <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The majority of the Earth's total energy uptake during recent decades has occurred in the upper ocean, but the underlying uncertainties in ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> are unclear, limiting our ability to assess closure of sea-level budgets, the global radiation imbalance and climate models. For example, several teams have recently produced different multi-year estimates of the annually averaged global integral of upper-ocean heat content anomalies (hereafter OHCA curves) or, equivalently, the thermosteric sea-level rise. Patterns of interannual variability, in particular, differ among methods. Here we examine several sources of uncertainty that contribute to differences among OHCA curves from 1993 to 2008, focusing on the difficulties of correcting biases in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data. XBT data constitute the majority of the in situ measurements of upper-ocean heat content from 1967 to 2002, and we find that the uncertainty due to choice of XBT bias correction dominates among-method variability in OHCA curves during our 1993-2008 study period. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty, a composite of several OHCA curves using different XBT bias corrections still yields a statistically significant linear <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend for 1993-2008 of 0.64 W m(-2) (calculated for the Earth's entire surface area), with a 90-per-cent confidence interval of 0.53-0.75 W m(-2).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991BAMS...72..499K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991BAMS...72..499K"><span>Response to Skeptics of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kellogg, William W.</p> <p>1991-04-01</p> <p>The majority of the scientific community involved in climate research is convinced of the reality of a current and future global <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to the greenhouse effect, a change that must be largely caused by human activities. However, a minority of scientists is still skeptical of the notion that mankind is significantly influencing the climate of the earth, and it therefore argues against taking certain measures to avert this alleged global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In recent years the media have given considerable coverage to the statements of these skeptics. Reasons for their statements range from a simple argument that we do not understand the earth's climate system well enough to predict the future, to more complex arguments involving negative feed-backs and changes of solar activity. They question whether the global temperature increase in this century of up to 0.6 K is primarily a result of worldwide burning of fossil fuels. The purpose of this article is to show that the statements of this skeptical school of thought need to be critically analyzed (and in some cases refuted) in the light of current understanding of the planetary system that determines our climate. There is also another school of thought that agrees about the reality of present and future global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and claims that this will be beneficial for most of mankind and that it should be encouraged. The policy implications of the latter view are in many respects similar to those of the group that are not convinced that a significant global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will occur. Both schools of thought argue against taking immediate steps to slow the climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95R.307W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95R.307W"><span>Likely cause found for global <span class="hlt">warming</span> "hiatus"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wendel, JoAnna</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>An Atlantic current may be the cause of the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> "hiatus" observed since the beginning of the 21st century, according to new research published last week in the journal Science (doi:10.1126/science.1254937). The conclusion is based on observations of deep-sea temperatures in the Atlantic Ocean, from floats that sample water down to 2000 meters deep and from looking at historical records from the mid- to late 20th century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156955','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156955"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-intermediate inflationary universe model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon E-mail: ramon.herrera@ucv.cl</p> <p>2009-04-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> inflationary universe models in the context of intermediate expansion, between power law and exponential, are studied. General conditions required for these models to be realizable are derived and discussed. This study is done in the weak and strong dissipative regimes. The inflaton potentials considered in this study are negative-power-law and powers of logarithms, respectively. The parameters of our models are constrained from the WMAP three and five year data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26807750','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26807750"><span>The Effect of Immigration on the Adaptation of Microbial Communities to <span class="hlt">Warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lawrence, Diane; Bell, Thomas; Barraclough, Timothy G</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Theory predicts that immigration can either enhance or impair the rate at which species and whole communities adapt to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, depending on the traits of genotypes and species in the source pool relative to local conditions. These responses, in turn, will determine how well whole communities function in changing environments. We tested the effects of immigration and experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on microbial communities during an 81-day field experiment. The effects of immigration depended on the <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment. In <span class="hlt">warmed</span> communities, immigration was detrimental to community growth, whereas in ambient communities it was beneficial. This result is explained by colonists coming from a local species pool preadapted to ambient conditions. Loss of metabolic diversity, however, was buffered by immigration in both environments. Communities showed increasing local adaptation to temperature conditions during the experiment, and this was independent of whether they received immigration. Genotypes that comprised the communities were not locally adapted, however, indicating that community local adaptation can be independent of adaptation of component genotypes. Our results are consistent with a greater role for species interactions rather than adaptation of constituent species in determining local adaptation of whole communities and confirm that immigration can either enhance or impair community responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change depending on the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300383','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300383"><span>A historical perspective of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per</p> <p>2013-09-15</p> <p>Highlights: • Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. • Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. • Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding <span class="hlt">environmental</span> performance of waste management system. • Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential (GWP) today. • Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential (GWP{sub 100}), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} to net saving of 670 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} of MSWM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24835486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24835486"><span>Ecophysiology of native and alien-invasive clams in an ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> context.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anacleto, Patrícia; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Lopes, Vanessa M; Repolho, Tiago; Diniz, Mário; Nunes, Maria Leonor; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Both climate change and biological invasions are among the most serious global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats. Yet mechanisms underlying these eventual interactions remain unclear. The aim of this study was to undertake a comprehensive examination of the physiological and biochemical responses of native (Ruditapes decussatus) and alien-invasive (Ruditapes philippinarum) clams to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We evaluated thermal tolerance limits (CTMax), routine metabolic rates (RMRs) and respective thermal sensitivity (Q10 values), critical oxygen partial pressure (Pcrit), heat shock response (HSP70/HSC70 levels), lipid peroxidation (MDA build-up) and antioxidant enzyme [glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] activities. Contrary to most studies that show that invasive species have a higher thermal tolerance than native congeners, here we revealed that the alien-invasive and native species had similar CTMax values. However, <span class="hlt">warming</span> had a stronger effect on metabolism and oxidative status of the native R. decussatus, as indicated by the higher RMRs and HSP70/HSC70 and MDA levels, as well as GST, CAT and SOD activities. Moreover, we argue that the alien-invasive clams, instead of up-regulating energetically expensive cellular responses, have evolved a less demanding strategy to cope with short-term <span class="hlt">environmental</span> (oxidative) stress-pervasive valve closure. Although efficient during stressful short-term periods to ensure isolation and guarantee longer survival, such adaptive behavioural strategy entails metabolic arrest (and the enhancement of anaerobic pathways), which to some extent will not be advantageous under the chronically <span class="hlt">warming</span> conditions predicted in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warmup&pg=7&id=EJ319254','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warmup&pg=7&id=EJ319254"><span>The Effect of Arousal on <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Up Decrement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anshel, Mark H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>This study examined whether particular strategies would enhance affective arousal and if these techniques would affect <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up decrement during performance of a sport skill. One strategy eliminated <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up decrement and two had no effect. Positive and negative arousal and the correlation of arousal level to <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up decrement are explored.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78108','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78108"><span>The dynamic response of high Arctic glaciers to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and their contribution to sea-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lam, J.K.W.; Dowdeswell, J.A.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Simulations with General Circulation Models have indicated that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be enhanced at high latitudes. Regions in the high Arctic are highly sensitive to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, with an amplified theoretical rise of 8--14 C predicted to take place in winter and a negligible rise of 2 C in summer. Wetter conditions in these regions are quite plausible with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to warmer sea surface temperatures, melting of sea ice and a greater moisture holding capacity of the atmosphere. Recent observations show a marked increase in precipitation in the high Arctic regions during the past decades, particularly in the winters. The notion of whether the increased melting of snow due to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> would be offset by increased snowfall is investigated in this study. To make reliable predictions of the response of high Arctic glaciers to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and hence their contribution to sea-level rise, a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model has been developed to investigate the interactions of the glaciers with climate change induced by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The model is a one-dimensional <span class="hlt">numerical</span> ice-flow model coupled with a surface balance model. Accumulation and ablation at the glacier surface are determined by the surface balance model using an energy balance approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810025313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810025313"><span><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Boundary Condition Procedures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Topics include <span class="hlt">numerical</span> procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solution are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010018604&hterms=Urbanization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DUrbanization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010018604&hterms=Urbanization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DUrbanization"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Evidence from Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard <span class="hlt">warm</span> black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, <span class="hlt">warmed</span> at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27867789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27867789"><span>The phenology of Arctic Ocean surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steele, Michael; Dickinson, Suzanne</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In this work, we explore the seasonal relationships (i.e., the phenology) between sea ice retreat, sea surface temperature (SST), and atmospheric heat fluxes in the Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean, using satellite and reanalysis data. We find that where ice retreats early in most years, maximum summertime SSTs are usually warmer, relative to areas with later retreat. For any particular year, we find that anomalously early ice retreat generally leads to anomalously <span class="hlt">warm</span> SSTs. However, this relationship is weak in the Chukchi Sea, where ocean advection plays a large role. It is also weak where retreat in a particular year happens earlier than usual, but still relatively late in the season, primarily because atmospheric heat fluxes are weak at that time. This result helps to explain the very different ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> responses found in two recent years with extreme ice retreat, 2007 and 2012. We also find that the timing of ice retreat impacts the date of maximum SST, owing to a change in the ocean surface buoyancy and momentum forcing that occurs in early August that we term the Late Summer Transition (LST). After the LST, enhanced mixing of the upper ocean leads to cooling of the ocean surface even while atmospheric heat fluxes are still weakly downward. Our results indicate that in the near-term, earlier ice retreat is likely to cause enhanced ocean surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in much of the Arctic Ocean, although not where ice retreat still occurs late in the season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5233970','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5233970"><span>Atmospheric footprint of the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> slowdown</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Bo; Zhou, Tianjun</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Growing body of literature has developed to detect the role of ocean heat uptake and transport in the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> slowdown between 1998–2013; however, the atmospheric footprint of the slowdown in dynamical and physical processes remains unclear. Here, we divided recent decades into the recent hiatus period and the preceding <span class="hlt">warming</span> period (1983–1998) to investigate the atmospheric footprint. We use a process-resolving analysis method to quantify the contributions of different processes to the total temperature changes. We show that the increasing rate of global mean tropospheric temperature was also reduced during the hiatus period. The decomposed trends due to physical processes, including surface albedo, water vapour, cloud, surface turbulent fluxes and atmospheric dynamics, reversed the patterns between the two periods. The changes in atmospheric heat transport are coupled with changes in the surface latent heat flux across the lower troposphere (below approximately 800 hPa) and with cloud-related processes in the upper troposphere (above approximately 600 hPa) and were underpinned by strengthening/weakening Hadley Circulation and Walker Circulation during the <span class="hlt">warming</span>/hiatus period. This dynamical coupling experienced a phase transition between the two periods, reminding us of the importance of understanding the atmospheric footprint, which constitutes an essential part of internal climate variability. PMID:28084457</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22695877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22695877"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and allergy in Asia Minor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The earth is <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and it is <span class="hlt">warming</span> quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28084457','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28084457"><span>Atmospheric footprint of the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> slowdown.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Bo; Zhou, Tianjun</p> <p>2017-01-13</p> <p>Growing body of literature has developed to detect the role of ocean heat uptake and transport in the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> slowdown between 1998-2013; however, the atmospheric footprint of the slowdown in dynamical and physical processes remains unclear. Here, we divided recent decades into the recent hiatus period and the preceding <span class="hlt">warming</span> period (1983-1998) to investigate the atmospheric footprint. We use a process-resolving analysis method to quantify the contributions of different processes to the total temperature changes. We show that the increasing rate of global mean tropospheric temperature was also reduced during the hiatus period. The decomposed trends due to physical processes, including surface albedo, water vapour, cloud, surface turbulent fluxes and atmospheric dynamics, reversed the patterns between the two periods. The changes in atmospheric heat transport are coupled with changes in the surface latent heat flux across the lower troposphere (below approximately 800 hPa) and with cloud-related processes in the upper troposphere (above approximately 600 hPa) and were underpinned by strengthening/weakening Hadley Circulation and Walker Circulation during the <span class="hlt">warming</span>/hiatus period. This dynamical coupling experienced a phase transition between the two periods, reminding us of the importance of understanding the atmospheric footprint, which constitutes an essential part of internal climate variability.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6079636','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6079636"><span>Forests: a tool to moderate global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sedjo, R.A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Earth's climate may be growing warmer in response to atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases, predominantly but not exclusively stemming from human-induced emissions of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) into the atmosphere. Once in the atmosphere, CO/sub 2/ traps heat that would otherwise radiate into space. Each year the Earth's atmosphere takes up approximately 2.9 billion tons of the 4.8 to 5.8 billion tons of carbon that are emitted from various sources. The rest is removed from the atmosphere by natural processes in carbon sinks - places like oceans or forests where carbon is removed from the atmosphere and stored. In addition, changes in land use that have eliminated terrestrial biomass, including tropical forests, have released into the atmosphere the carbon that was captive in the vegetation. Humankind can respond to the prospective global climate change by adapting to the <span class="hlt">warming</span>, attempting to limit the <span class="hlt">warming</span> by preventing or mitigating the buildup of atmospheric carbon, or by some combination of the above. Forests can play a critical role in any attempt to mitigate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> because they are able to capture and store large amounts of carbon from the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...740947L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...740947L"><span>Atmospheric footprint of the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> slowdown</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Bo; Zhou, Tianjun</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Growing body of literature has developed to detect the role of ocean heat uptake and transport in the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> slowdown between 1998–2013 however, the atmospheric footprint of the slowdown in dynamical and physical processes remains unclear. Here, we divided recent decades into the recent hiatus period and the preceding <span class="hlt">warming</span> period (1983–1998) to investigate the atmospheric footprint. We use a process-resolving analysis method to quantify the contributions of different processes to the total temperature changes. We show that the increasing rate of global mean tropospheric temperature was also reduced during the hiatus period. The decomposed trends due to physical processes, including surface albedo, water vapour, cloud, surface turbulent fluxes and atmospheric dynamics, reversed the patterns between the two periods. The changes in atmospheric heat transport are coupled with changes in the surface latent heat flux across the lower troposphere (below approximately 800 hPa) and with cloud-related processes in the upper troposphere (above approximately 600 hPa) and were underpinned by strengthening/weakening Hadley Circulation and Walker Circulation during the <span class="hlt">warming</span>/hiatus period. This dynamical coupling experienced a phase transition between the two periods, reminding us of the importance of understanding the atmospheric footprint, which constitutes an essential part of internal climate variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051508"><span>Scientists' views about attribution of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo</p> <p>2014-08-19</p> <p>Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26185070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26185070"><span>Effects of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Vibrio Ecology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000116342','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000116342"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Evidence from Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R.; Yoo, J.-M.; Dalu, G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown onboard sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study, we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help of the onboard <span class="hlt">warm</span>-blackbody temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically-weighted global-mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid troposphere, <span class="hlt">warmed</span> at the rate of 0.13 +/- 0.05 K/decade during 1980 to 1999. The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite-deduced result.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5101851','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5101851"><span>The phenology of Arctic Ocean surface <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dickinson, Suzanne</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract In this work, we explore the seasonal relationships (i.e., the phenology) between sea ice retreat, sea surface temperature (SST), and atmospheric heat fluxes in the Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean, using satellite and reanalysis data. We find that where ice retreats early in most years, maximum summertime SSTs are usually warmer, relative to areas with later retreat. For any particular year, we find that anomalously early ice retreat generally leads to anomalously <span class="hlt">warm</span> SSTs. However, this relationship is weak in the Chukchi Sea, where ocean advection plays a large role. It is also weak where retreat in a particular year happens earlier than usual, but still relatively late in the season, primarily because atmospheric heat fluxes are weak at that time. This result helps to explain the very different ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> responses found in two recent years with extreme ice retreat, 2007 and 2012. We also find that the timing of ice retreat impacts the date of maximum SST, owing to a change in the ocean surface buoyancy and momentum forcing that occurs in early August that we term the Late Summer Transition (LST). After the LST, enhanced mixing of the upper ocean leads to cooling of the ocean surface even while atmospheric heat fluxes are still weakly downward. Our results indicate that in the near‐term, earlier ice retreat is likely to cause enhanced ocean surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in much of the Arctic Ocean, although not where ice retreat still occurs late in the season. PMID:27867789</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489785','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489785"><span>Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>, more than acidification, reduces shell strength in a commercial shellfish species during food limitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mackenzie, Clara L; Ormondroyd, Graham A; Curling, Simon F; Ball, Richard J; Whiteley, Nia M; Malham, Shelagh K</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Ocean surface pH levels are predicted to fall by 0.3-0.4 pH units by the end of the century and are likely to coincide with an increase in sea surface temperature of 2-4 °C. The combined effect of ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the functional properties of bivalve shells is largely unknown and of growing concern as the shell provides protection from mechanical and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> challenges. We examined the effects of near-future pH (ambient pH -0.4 pH units) and <span class="hlt">warming</span> (ambient temperature +4 °C) on the shells of the commercially important bivalve, Mytilus edulis when fed for a limited period (4-6 h day(-1)). After six months exposure, <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but not acidification, significantly reduced shell strength determined as reductions in the maximum load endured by the shells. However, acidification resulted in a reduction in shell flex before failure. Reductions in shell strength with <span class="hlt">warming</span> could not be explained by alterations in morphology, or shell composition but were accompanied by reductions in shell surface area, and by a fall in whole-body condition index. It appears that <span class="hlt">warming</span> has an indirect effect on shell strength by re-allocating energy from shell formation to support temperature-related increases in maintenance costs, especially as food supply was limited and the mussels were probably relying on internal energy reserves. The maintenance of shell strength despite seawater acidification suggests that biomineralisation processes are unaffected by the associated changes in CaCO3 saturation levels. We conclude that under near-future climate change conditions, ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> will pose a greater risk to shell integrity in M. edulis than ocean acidification when food availability is limited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24100467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24100467"><span>Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, <span class="hlt">warming</span> shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRG..121..249W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRG..121..249W"><span>Increased wintertime CO2 loss as a result of sustained tundra <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webb, Elizabeth E.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Natali, Susan M.; Oken, Kiva L.; Bracho, Rosvel; Krapek, John P.; Risk, David; Nickerson, Nick R.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Permafrost soils currently store approximately 1672 Pg of carbon (C), but as high latitudes <span class="hlt">warm</span>, this temperature-protected C reservoir will become vulnerable to higher rates of decomposition. In recent decades, air temperatures in the high latitudes have <span class="hlt">warmed</span> more than any other region globally, particularly during the winter. Over the coming century, the arctic winter is also expected to experience the most <span class="hlt">warming</span> of any region or season, yet it is notably understudied. Here we present nonsummer season (NSS) CO2 flux data from the Carbon in Permafrost Experimental Heating Research project, an ecosystem <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment of moist acidic tussock tundra in interior Alaska. Our goals were to quantify the relationship between <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables and winter CO2 production, account for subnivean photosynthesis and late fall plant C uptake in our estimate of NSS CO2 exchange, constrain NSS CO2 loss estimates using multiple methods of measuring winter CO2 flux, and quantify the effect of winter soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on total NSS CO2 balance. We measured CO2 flux using four methods: two chamber techniques (the snow pit method and one where a chamber is left under the snow for the entire season), eddy covariance, and soda lime adsorption, and found that NSS CO2 loss varied up to fourfold, depending on the method used. CO2 production was dependent on soil temperature and day of season but atmospheric pressure and air temperature were also important in explaining CO2 diffusion out of the soil. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> stimulated both ecosystem respiration and productivity during the NSS and increased overall CO2 loss during this period by 14% (this effect varied by year, ranging from 7 to 24%). When combined with the summertime CO2 fluxes from the same site, our results suggest that this subarctic tundra ecosystem is shifting away from its historical function as a C sink to a C source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4443926','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4443926"><span>Effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on survival, phenology and morphology of an aquatic insect (Odonata)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McCauley, Shannon J.; Hammond, John I.; Frances, Dachin N.; Mabry, Karen E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>1. Organisms can respond to changing climatic conditions in multiple ways including changes in phenology, body size or morphology, and range shifts. Understanding how developmental temperatures affect insect life-history timing and morphology is crucial because body size and morphology affect multiple aspects of life history, including dispersal ability, while phenology can shape population performance and community interactions. 2. We experimentally assessed how developmental temperatures experienced by aquatic larvae affected survival, phenology, and adult morphology of dragonflies (Pachydiplax longipennis). Larvae were reared under 3 <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures: ambient, +2.5 °C, and +5 °C, corresponding to temperature projections for our study area 50 and 100 years in the future, respectively. Experimental temperature treatments tracked naturally-occurring variation. 3. We found clear effects of temperature in the rearing environment on survival and phenology: dragonflies reared at the highest temperatures had the lowest survival rates, and emerged from the larval stage approximately 3 weeks earlier than animals reared at ambient temperatures. There was no effect of rearing temperature on overall body size. Although neither the relative wing nor thorax size was affected by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, a non-significant trend towards an interaction between sex and <span class="hlt">warming</span> in relative thorax size suggests that males may be more sensitive to <span class="hlt">warming</span> than females, a pattern that should be investigated further. 4. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> strongly affected survival in the larval stage and the phenology of adult emergence. Understanding how <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the developmental environment affects later life-history stages is critical to interpreting the consequences of <span class="hlt">warming</span> for organismal performance. PMID:26028806</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26028806','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26028806"><span>Effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on survival, phenology and morphology of an aquatic insect (Odonata).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCauley, Shannon J; Hammond, John I; Frances, Dachin N; Mabry, Karen E</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>1. Organisms can respond to changing climatic conditions in multiple ways including changes in phenology, body size or morphology, and range shifts. Understanding how developmental temperatures affect insect life-history timing and morphology is crucial because body size and morphology affect multiple aspects of life history, including dispersal ability, while phenology can shape population performance and community interactions. 2. We experimentally assessed how developmental temperatures experienced by aquatic larvae affected survival, phenology, and adult morphology of dragonflies (Pachydiplax longipennis). Larvae were reared under 3 <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures: ambient, +2.5 °C, and +5 °C, corresponding to temperature projections for our study area 50 and 100 years in the future, respectively. Experimental temperature treatments tracked naturally-occurring variation. 3. We found clear effects of temperature in the rearing environment on survival and phenology: dragonflies reared at the highest temperatures had the lowest survival rates, and emerged from the larval stage approximately 3 weeks earlier than animals reared at ambient temperatures. There was no effect of rearing temperature on overall body size. Although neither the relative wing nor thorax size was affected by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, a non-significant trend towards an interaction between sex and <span class="hlt">warming</span> in relative thorax size suggests that males may be more sensitive to <span class="hlt">warming</span> than females, a pattern that should be investigated further. 4. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> strongly affected survival in the larval stage and the phenology of adult emergence. Understanding how <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the developmental environment affects later life-history stages is critical to interpreting the consequences of <span class="hlt">warming</span> for organismal performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3904920','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3904920"><span>Ocean <span class="hlt">Warming</span>, More than Acidification, Reduces Shell Strength in a Commercial Shellfish Species during Food Limitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mackenzie, Clara L.; Ormondroyd, Graham A.; Curling, Simon F.; Ball, Richard J.; Whiteley, Nia M.; Malham, Shelagh K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Ocean surface pH levels are predicted to fall by 0.3–0.4 pH units by the end of the century and are likely to coincide with an increase in sea surface temperature of 2–4°C. The combined effect of ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the functional properties of bivalve shells is largely unknown and of growing concern as the shell provides protection from mechanical and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> challenges. We examined the effects of near-future pH (ambient pH –0.4 pH units) and <span class="hlt">warming</span> (ambient temperature +4°C) on the shells of the commercially important bivalve, Mytilus edulis when fed for a limited period (4–6 h day−1). After six months exposure, <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but not acidification, significantly reduced shell strength determined as reductions in the maximum load endured by the shells. However, acidification resulted in a reduction in shell flex before failure. Reductions in shell strength with <span class="hlt">warming</span> could not be explained by alterations in morphology, or shell composition but were accompanied by reductions in shell surface area, and by a fall in whole-body condition index. It appears that <span class="hlt">warming</span> has an indirect effect on shell strength by re-allocating energy from shell formation to support temperature-related increases in maintenance costs, especially as food supply was limited and the mussels were probably relying on internal energy reserves. The maintenance of shell strength despite seawater acidification suggests that biomineralisation processes are unaffected by the associated changes in CaCO3 saturation levels. We conclude that under near-future climate change conditions, ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> will pose a greater risk to shell integrity in M. edulis than ocean acidification when food availability is limited. PMID:24489785</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24843178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24843178"><span>Effects of differential habitat <span class="hlt">warming</span> on complex communities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tunney, Tyler D; McCann, Kevin S; Lester, Nigel P; Shuter, Brian J</p> <p>2014-06-03</p> <p>Food webs unfold across a mosaic of micro and macro habitats, with each habitat coupled by mobile consumers that behave in response to local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. Despite this fundamental characteristic of nature, research on how climate change will affect whole ecosystems has overlooked (i) that climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will generally affect habitats differently and (ii) that mobile consumers may respond to this differential change in a manner that may fundamentally alter the energy pathways that sustain ecosystems. This reasoning suggests a powerful, but largely unexplored, avenue for studying the impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. Here, we use lake ecosystems to show that predictable behavioral adjustments to local temperature differentials govern a fundamental structural shift across 54 food webs. Data show that the trophic pathways from basal resources to a cold-adapted predator shift toward greater reliance on a cold-water refuge habitat, and food chain length increases, as air temperatures rise. Notably, cold-adapted predator behavior may substantially drive this decoupling effect across the climatic range in our study independent of warmer-adapted species responses (for example, changes in near-shore species abundance and predator absence). Such modifications reflect a flexible food web architecture that requires more attention from climate change research. The trophic pathway restructuring documented here is expected to alter biomass accumulation, through the regulation of energy fluxes to predators, and thus potentially threatens ecosystem sustainability in times of rapid <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182832','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182832"><span>Climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kennedy, V.S.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>Estuaries are physically controlled, resilient coastal ecosystems harboring <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> tolerant species in diluted seawater. Marine coastal systems are less stressed physically and contain some <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> less tolerant species. Both systems are biologically productive and economically significant. Because of their complex structure and function, it is difficult to predict accurately the effects of climate change, but some broad generalizations can be made. If climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> occurs, it will raise sea-level, heat shallow waters, and modify precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns. Rapid sea-level rise could cause the loss of salt marshes, mangrove swamps, and coral reefs, thus diminishing the ecological roles of these highly productive systems. Warmer waters could eliminate heat-sensitive species from part of their geographical range while allowing heat-tolerant species to expand their range, depending on their ability to disperse. Most thermally influenced losses of species will probably only be local, but changed distributions may lead to changed community function. It is more difficult to predict the effects of modified precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns, but changes could affect organisms dependent on such patterns for food production (e.g., in upwelling regions) or for retention in estuaries. Aquacultural and fishery-related enterprises would be affected negatively in some regions and positively in others. 73 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..495R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..495R"><span>Wind changes above <span class="hlt">warm</span> Agulhas Current eddies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rouault, M.; Verley, P.; Backeberg, B.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Sea surface temperature (SST) estimated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer E onboard the Aqua satellite and altimetry-derived sea level anomalies are used south of the Agulhas Current to identify <span class="hlt">warm</span>-core mesoscale eddies presenting a distinct SST perturbation greater than to 1 °C to the surrounding ocean. The analysis of twice daily instantaneous charts of equivalent stability-neutral wind speed estimates from the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard the QuikScat satellite collocated with SST for six identified eddies shows stronger wind speed above the <span class="hlt">warm</span> eddies than the surrounding water in all wind directions, if averaged over the lifespan of the eddies, as was found in previous studies. However, only half of the cases showed higher wind speeds above the eddies at the instantaneous scale; 20 % of cases had incomplete data due to partial global coverage by the scatterometer for one path. For cases where the wind is stronger above <span class="hlt">warm</span> eddies, there is no relationship between the increase in surface wind speed and the SST perturbation, but we do find a linear relationship between the decrease in wind speed from the centre to the border of the eddy downstream and the SST perturbation. SST perturbations range from 1 to 6 °C for a mean eddy SST of 15.9 °C and mean SST perturbation of 2.65 °C. The diameter of the eddies range from 100 to 250 km. Mean background wind speed is about 12 m s-1 (mostly southwesterly to northwesterly) and ranging mainly from 4 to 16 m s-1. The mean wind increase is about 15 %, which corresponds to 1.8 m s-1. A wind speed increase of 4 to 7 m s-1 above <span class="hlt">warm</span> eddies is not uncommon. Cases where the wind did not increase above the eddies or did not decrease downstream had higher wind speeds and occurred during a cold front associated with intense cyclonic low-pressure systems, suggesting certain synoptic conditions need to be met to allow for the development of wind speed anomalies over <span class="hlt">warm</span>-core ocean eddies. In many cases</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060002689','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060002689"><span>Arctic <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Signals from Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comiso, Josefino C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> signals are expected to be amplified in the Arctic primarily because of ice-albedo feedback associated with the high reflectivity of ice and snow that blankets much of the region. The Arctic had been a poorly explored territory basically because of its general inaccessibility on account of extremely harsh weather conditions and the dominant presence of thick perennial ice in the region. The advent of satellite remote sensing systems since the 1960s, however, enabled the acquisition of synoptic data that depict in good spatial detail the temporal changes of many Arctic surface parameters. Among the surface parameters that have been studied using space based systems are surface temperature, sea ice concentration, snow cover, surface albedo and phytoplankton concentration. Associated atmospheric parameters, such as cloud cover, temperature profile, ozone concentration, and aerosol have also been derived. Recent observational and phenomenological studies have indeed revealed progressively changing conditions in the Arctic during the last few decades (e g , Walsh et al. 1996; Serreze et al 2000; Comiso and Parkinson 2004). The changes included declines in the extent and area of surfaces covered by sea ice and snow, increases in melt area over the Greenland ice sheets, thawing of the permafrost, <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the troposphere, and retreat of the glaciers. These observations are consistent with the observed global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that has been associated with the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (Karl and Trenberth 2003) and confirmed by modeling studies (Holland and Bitz, 2003). The Arctic system, however, is still not well understood complicated by a largely fluctuating wind circulation and atmospheric conditions (Proshutinsky and Johnson 1997) and controlled by what is now known as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) which provides a measure of the strength of atmospheric activities in the region (Thompson and Wallace 1998). Meanwhile, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8809519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8809519"><span>Mechanisms of the <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up phenomenon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tomai, F; Crea, F; Danesi, A; Perino, M; Gaspardone, A; Ghini, A S; Cascarano, M T; Chiariello, L; Gioffrè, P A</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up phenomenon, described in patients with coronary artery disease, refers to the improved performance following a first exercise test. The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of the <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up phenomenon. Fifteen patients with coronary artery disease and positive exercise test were enrolled. Patients were off treatment throughout the study. They underwent two consecutive treadmill exercise tests according to the Bruce protocol, with a recovery period of 10 min to re-establish baseline conditions. A third exercise test was then performed 2 h later. Before the onset of ischaemia, the rate-pressure product for a similar degree of workload was similar during the first and second exercise test, while it was lower during the third test (P < 0.05). Time to 1.5 mm ST-segment depression during the second and third exercise test was greater than during the first test (454 +/- 133 and 410 +/- 161 vs 354 +/- 127 s, P < 0.01, respectively). Similarly, the time to anginal pain onset was increased during the second and third exercise tests, compared to the first test (356 +/- 208 and 310 +/- 203 vs 257 +/- 204 s, P < 0.01, respectively). In contrast, rate-pressure product at 1.5 mm ST-segment depression during the second test was higher than that during the first test (232 +/- 47 vs 210 +/- 39 beats.min-1.mmHg.10(2), P < 0.01), while in the third test it was similar to that during the first (209 +/- 43 beats.min-1.mmHg.10(2), P = ns). The <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up phenomenon observed a few minutes after exercise is characterized by an increase of both time to ischaemia and ischaemic threshold; this adaptation to ischaemia may be due to an improvement of myocardial perfusion or to preconditioning. Conversely, the <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up phenomenon observed a few hours after repeated exercise is characterized by an increase of time to ischaemia but not of ischaemic threshold and is caused by a slower increase of cardiac workload. Thus, the mechanisms of the <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up phenomenon may be different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P11E..06R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P11E..06R"><span>Can cirrus clouds <span class="hlt">warm</span> early Mars?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramirez, R. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The presence of the ancient valley networks on Mars indicates a climate 3.8 Ga that was <span class="hlt">warm</span> enough to allow substantial liquid water to flow on the martian surface for extended periods of time. However, the origin of these enigmatic features is hotly debated and discussion of their formation has been focused on how <span class="hlt">warm</span> such a climate may have been and for how long. Recent <span class="hlt">warm</span> and wet solutions using single-column radiative convective models involve supplementing CO2-H2O atmospheres with other greenhouse gases, such as H2 (i.e. Ramirez et al., 2014; Batalha et al., 2015). An interesting recent proposal, using the CAM 3-D General Circulation model, argues that global cirrus cloud decks in CO2-H2O atmospheres with at least 0.25 bar of CO2 , consisting of 10-micron (and larger) sized particles, could have generated the above-freezing temperatures required to explain the early martian surface geology (Urata and Toon, 2013). Here, we use our single-column radiative convective climate model to check these 3-D results and analyze the likelihood that such <span class="hlt">warm</span> atmospheres, with mean surface pressures of up to 3 bar, could have supported cirrus cloud decks at full and fractional cloud cover for sufficiently long durations to form the ancient valleys. Our results indicate that cirrus cloud decks could have provided the mean surface temperatures required, but only if cloud cover approaches 100%, in agreement with Urata and Toon (2013). However, even should cirrus cloud coverage approach 100%, we show that such atmospheres are likely to have been too short-lived to produce the volumes of water required to carve the ancient valleys. At more realistic early Mars cloud fractions (~50%, Forget et al., 2013), cirrus clouds do not provide the required <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Batalha, N., Domagal-Goldman, S. D., Ramirez, R.M., & Kasting, J. F., 2015. Icarus, 258, 337-349. Forget, F., Wordsworth, R., Millour, E., Madeleine, J. B., Kerber, L., Leconte, J., ... & Haberle, R. M., 2013. Icarus, 222</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2288576','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2288576"><span>Medical responsibility and global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCally, M; Cassel, C K</p> <p>1990-09-15</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change threatens the habitability of the planet and the health of its inhabitants. Toxic pollution of air and water, acid rain, destruction of stratospheric ozone, waste, species extinction and, potentially, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are produced by the growing numbers and activities of human beings. Progression of these <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes could lead to unprecedented human suffering. Physicians can treat persons experiencing the consequences of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change but cannot individually prevent the cause of their suffering. Physicians have information and expertise about <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change that can contribute to its slowing or prevention. Work to prevent global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change is consistent with the social responsibility of physicians and other health professionals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1380D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1380D"><span>The recent global-<span class="hlt">warming</span> hiatus: What is the role of the Pacific variability?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Douville, Hervé; Voldoire, Aurore</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The observed global mean surface air temperature (GMST) has not risen over the last 15 years, spurring outbreaks of skepticism regarding the nature of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and challenging the upper-range transient response of the current-generation global climate models. Recent <span class="hlt">numerical</span> studies have however tempered the relevance of the observed pause in global <span class="hlt">warming</span> by highlighting the key role of the tropical Pacific internal variability. Here we first show that many climate models overestimate the influence of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on GMST, thereby shedding doubt on their ability to capture the tropical Pacific contribution to the hiatus. Moreover, we highlight that model results are quite sensitive to the experimental design. We argue that overriding the surface wind stress is more suitable than nudging the sea surface temperature for controlling the tropical Pacific ocean heat uptake and, thereby, the multi-decadal variability of GMST. Using the former technique, our model captures several aspects of the recent climate evolution, including the weaker slowdown of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> over land and the transition towards a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Yet, the recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is still overestimated, not only over the recent 1998-2012 hiatus period but also over former decades, thereby suggesting that the model might be too sensitive to the prescribed radiative forcings.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42..880D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42..880D"><span>The recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span> hiatus: What is the role of Pacific variability?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Douville, H.; Voldoire, A.; Geoffroy, O.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The observed global mean surface air temperature (GMST) has not risen over the last 15 years, spurring outbreaks of skepticism regarding the nature of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and challenging the upper range transient response of the current-generation global climate models. Recent <span class="hlt">numerical</span> studies have, however, tempered the relevance of the observed pause in global <span class="hlt">warming</span> by highlighting the key role of tropical Pacific internal variability. Here we first show that many climate models overestimate the influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation on GMST, thereby shedding doubt on their ability to capture the tropical Pacific contribution to the hiatus. Moreover, we highlight that model results can be quite sensitive to the experimental design. We argue that overriding the surface wind stress is more suitable than nudging the sea surface temperature for controlling the tropical Pacific ocean heat uptake and, thereby, the multidecadal variability of GMST. Using the former technique, our model captures several aspects of the recent climate evolution, including the weaker slowdown of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> over land and the transition toward a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Yet the observed global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is still overestimated not only over the recent 1998-2012 hiatus period but also over former decades, thereby suggesting that the model might be too sensitive to the prescribed radiative forcings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4893335','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4893335"><span>Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> decreases arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in prairie plants along a Mediterranean climate gradient</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johnson, Bart R.; Bohannan, Brendan; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Mueller, Rebecca; Bridgham, Scott D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) provide <span class="hlt">numerous</span> services to their plant symbionts. Understanding climate change effects on AMF, and the resulting plant responses, is crucial for predicting ecosystem responses at regional and global scales. We investigated how the effects of climate change on AMF-plant symbioses are mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics. Methods: We used a combination of a greenhouse experiment and a manipulative climate change experiment embedded within a Mediterranean climate gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA to examine this question. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to determine the direct and indirect effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on AMF colonization. Results: <span class="hlt">Warming</span> directly decreased AMF colonization across plant species and across the climate gradient of the study region. Other positive and negative indirect effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics, canceled each other out. Discussion: A <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced decrease in AMF colonization would likely have substantial consequences for plant communities and ecosystem function. Moreover, predicted increases in more intense droughts and heavier rains for this region could shift the balance among indirect causal pathways, and either exacerbate or mitigate the negative, direct effect of increased temperature on AMF colonization. PMID:27280074</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24178508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24178508"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up and performance in competitive swimming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marinho, Daniel A</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up before physical activity is commonly accepted to be fundamental, and any priming practices are usually thought to optimize performance. However, specifically in swimming, studies on the effects of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up are scarce, which may be due to the swimming pool environment, which has a high temperature and humidity, and to the complexity of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up procedures. The purpose of this study is to review and summarize the different studies on how <span class="hlt">warming</span> up affects swimming performance, and to develop recommendations for improving the efficiency of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up before competition. Most of the main proposed effects of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up, such as elevated core and muscular temperatures, increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to muscle cells and higher efficiency of muscle contractions, support the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up enhances performance. However, while many researchers have reported improvements in performance after <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up, others have found no benefits to <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up. This lack of consensus emphasizes the need to evaluate the real effects of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up and optimize its design. Little is known about the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up in competitive swimming, and the variety of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up methods and swimming events studied makes it difficult to compare the published conclusions about the role of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up in swimming. Recent findings have shown that <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up has a positive effect on the swimmer's performance, especially for distances greater than 200 m. We recommend that swimmers <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up for a relatively moderate distance (between 1,000 and 1,500 m) with a proper intensity (a brief approach to race pace velocity) and recovery time sufficient to prevent the early onset of fatigue and to allow the restoration of energy reserves (8-20 min).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=322926','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=322926"><span>Impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and elevated CO2 on a semi-arid grassland are non-additive, shift with precipitation, and reverse over time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The impacts of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change are temporally dynamic and better revealed in long-term studies. Rising air temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [CO2] are the most pervasive of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes on land, yet multi-year, factorial studies of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and elevated CO2 (eCO...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988vcfd....1R....B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988vcfd....1R....B"><span><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> accuracy assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boerstoel, J. W.</p> <p>1988-12-01</p> <p>A framework is provided for <span class="hlt">numerical</span> accuracy assessment. The purpose of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> flow simulations is formulated. This formulation concerns the classes of aeronautical configurations (boundaries), the desired flow physics (flow equations and their properties), the classes of flow conditions on flow boundaries (boundary conditions), and the initial flow conditions. Next, accuracy and economical performance requirements are defined; the final <span class="hlt">numerical</span> flow simulation results of interest should have a guaranteed accuracy, and be produced for an acceptable FLOP-price. Within this context, the validation of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> processes with respect to the well known topics of consistency, stability, and convergence when the mesh is refined must be done by <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experimentation because theory gives only partial answers. This requires careful design of text cases for <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experimentation. Finally, the results of a few recent evaluation exercises of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments with a large number of codes on a few test cases are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890066296&hterms=Conservation+Laws&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DConservation%2BLaws','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890066296&hterms=Conservation+Laws&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DConservation%2BLaws"><span>Nonequilibrium flow computations. I - An analysis of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> formulations of conservation laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">numerical</span> techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> scheme, Steger-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880021000','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880021000"><span>Nonequilibrium flow computations. 1: An analysis of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> formulations of conservation laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">numerical</span> techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> scheme, Steger-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AdAtS..29..635W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AdAtS..29..635W"><span>Impact of precursor levels and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on peak ozone concentration in the Pearl River Delta Region of China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Xiaolin; Liu, Qian; Lam, Ka Se; Wang, Tijian</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The relationship between the emission of ozone precursors and the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) in the Pearl River Delta Region (PRD) was studied using <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation. The aim of this study was to examine the volatile organic compound (VOC)- or nitrogen oxide (NO x =NO+NO2)-limited conditions at present and when surface temperature is increasing due to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, thus to make recommendations for future ozone abatement policies for the PRD region. The model used for this application is the U.S. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency's (EPA's) third-generation air-quality modeling system; it consists of the mesoscale meteorological model MM5 and the chemical transport model named Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ). A series of sensitivity tests were conducted to assess the influence of VOC and NO x variations on ozone production. Tropical cyclone was shown to be one of the important synoptic weather patterns leading to ozone pollution. The simulations were based on a tropicalcyclone-related episode that occurred during 14-16 September 2004. The results show that, in the future, the control strategy for emissions should be tightened. To reduce the current level of ozone to meet the Hong Kong <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Department (EPD) air-quality objective (hourly average of 120 ppb), emphasis should be put on restricting the increase of NO x emissions. Furthermore, for a wide range of possible changes in precursor emissions, temperature increase will increase the ozone peak in the PRD region; the areas affected by photochemical smog are growing wider, but the locations of the ozone plume are rather invariant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790006506','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790006506"><span>Hygroscopic chemicals and the formation of advection <span class="hlt">warm</span> fog: A <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The formation of advection fog is closely associated with the characteristics of the aerosol particles, including the chemical composition, mass of the nuclei, particle size, and concentration. Both macrophysical and microphysical processes are considered. In the macrophysical model, the evolution of wind components, water vapor content, liquid water content and potential temperature under the influences of vertical turbulent diffusion, turbulent momentum, and turbulent energy transfers are taken into account. In the microphysical model, the supersaturation effect is incorporated with the surface tension and hygroscopic material solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23505093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23505093"><span>Ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios increase microbioerosion of coral skeletons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reyes-Nivia, Catalina; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Kline, David; Guldberg, Ove-Hoegh; Dove, Sophie</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Biological mediation of carbonate dissolution represents a fundamental component of the destructive forces acting on coral reef ecosystems. Whereas ocean acidification can increase dissolution of carbonate substrates, the combined impact of ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the microbioerosion of coral skeletons remains unknown. Here, we exposed skeletons of the reef-building corals, Porites cylindrica and Isopora cuneata, to present-day (Control: 400 μatm - 24 °C) and future pCO2 -temperature scenarios projected for the end of the century (Medium: +230 μatm - +2 °C; High: +610 μatm - +4 °C). Skeletons were also subjected to permanent darkness with initial sodium hypochlorite incubation, and natural light without sodium hypochlorite incubation to isolate the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effect of acidic seawater (i.e., Ωaragonite <1) from the biological effect of photosynthetic microborers. Our results indicated that skeletal dissolution is predominantly driven by photosynthetic microborers, as samples held in the dark did not decalcify. In contrast, dissolution of skeletons exposed to light increased under elevated pCO2 -temperature scenarios, with P. cylindrica experiencing higher dissolution rates per month (89%) than I. cuneata (46%) in the high treatment relative to control. The effects of future pCO2 -temperature scenarios on the structure of endolithic communities were only identified in P. cylindrica and were mostly associated with a higher abundance of the green algae Ostreobium spp. Enhanced skeletal dissolution was also associated with increased endolithic biomass and respiration under elevated pCO2 -temperature scenarios. Our results suggest that future projections of ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> will lead to increased rates of microbioerosion. However, the magnitude of bioerosion responses may depend on the structural properties of coral skeletons, with a range of implications for reef carbonate losses under warmer and more acidic oceans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B21G0562J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B21G0562J"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span> Contracts Flowering Phenology in an Alpine Ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jabis, M. D.; Winkler, D. E.; Kueppers, L. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In alpine ecosystems where temperature increases associated with anthropogenic climate change are likely to be amplified, the flowering phenology of plants may be particularly sensitive to changes in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> signals. For example, earlier snowmelt and higher temperature have been found to be important factors driving plant emergence and onset of flowering. However, few studies have examined the interactive role of soil moisture in response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Using infrared heating to actively <span class="hlt">warm</span> plots crossed with manual watering over the growing season in a moist alpine meadow at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, our preliminary results indicate that community-level phenology (length of flowering time across all species) was contracted with heating but was unaffected by watering. At the species level, additional water extended the length of the flowering season by one week for almost half (43%) of species. Heating, which raised plant and surface soil temperatures (+1.5 C) advanced snowmelt by ~7.6 days days and reduced soil moisture by ~2%, advanced flowering phenology for 86% of species. The response of flowering phenology to combined heating and watering was predominantly a heating effect. However, watering did appear to mitigate advances in end of flowering for 22% of species. The length of flowering season, for some species, appears to be tied, in part, to moisture availability as alleviating ambient soil moisture stress delayed phenology in unheated plots. Therefore, we conclude that both temperature and moisture appear to be important factors driving flowering phenology in this alpine ecosystem. The relationship between flowering phenology and species- or community-level productivity is not well established, but heating advanced community peak productivity by 5.4 days, and also reduced peak productivity unless additional water was provided, indicating some consistency between drivers of productivity and drivers of flowering phenology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS11F..01P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS11F..01P"><span>Long-term effects of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> on vibrios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pruzzo, C.; Pezzati, E.; Brettar, I.; Reid, P. C.; Colwell, R.; Höfle, M. G.; vezzulli, L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Vibrios are a major source of human disease, play an important role in the ecology and health of marine animals and are regarded as an abundant fraction of culturable bacteria of the ocean. There has been a considerable global effort to reduce the risk of Vibrio infections and yet in most countries both human and non-human illnesses associated with these bacteria are increasing. The cause of this increase is not known, but since vibrios are strongly thermodependant there is good reason to believe that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> may have contributed. To investigate this possibility we examined historical samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) archive using advanced molecular analysis and pyrosequencing. For the first time we were able to recover <span class="hlt">environmental</span> DNA from CPR samples that had been stored for up to ~50 years in a formalin-fixed format, which is suitable for molecular analyses of the associated prokaryotic community. To overcome the problem of DNA degradation due to the sample age and storage in formalin we develop an unbiased index of abundance for Vibrio quantification in CPR samples termed a 'relative Vibrio Abundance Index' (VAI). VAI is defined as the ratio of Vibrio spp. cells to total bacterial cells assessed by Real-Time PCR using genus-specific and universal primers, respectively, producing small amplicons of similar size (~100bp). We assessed VAI index on 55 samples (each representing 10 nautical miles tow equal to 3 m3 of filtered sewater) collected in August by the CPR survey in the North Sea from off the Rhine and Humber estuaries between 1961 to 2005 showing that the genus Vibrio has increased in prevalence in the last 44 years and that this increase is correlated significantly, during the same period, with <span class="hlt">warming</span> sea surface temperature. In addition, by applying deep sequencing analysis of a subset of these samples we provide evidence that bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio, including the human pathogen V. cholerae, not only increased</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ThApC.101...67E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ThApC.101...67E"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> mitigation by sulphur loading in the stratosphere: dependence of required emissions on allowable residual <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eliseev, Alexey V.; Chernokulsky, Alexandr V.; Karpenko, Andrey A.; Mokhov, Igor I.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>An approach to mitigate global <span class="hlt">warming</span> via sulphur loading in the stratosphere (geoengineering) is studied, employing a large ensemble of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments with the climate model of intermediate complexity IAP RAS CM. The model is forced by the historical+SRES A1B anthropogenic greenhouse gases+tropospheric sulphates scenario for 1860-2100 with additional sulphur emissions in the stratosphere in the twenty-first century. Different ensemble members are constructed by varying values of the parameters governing mass, horizontal distribution and radiative forcing of the stratospheric sulphates. It is obtained that, given a global loading of the sulphates in the stratosphere, among those studied in this paper latitudinal distributions of geoengineering aerosols, the most efficient one at the global basis is that peaked between 50° N and 70° N and with a somewhat smaller burden in the tropics. Uniform latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates is a little less efficient. Sulphur emissions in the stratosphere required to stop the global temperature at the level corresponding to the mean value for 2000-2010 amount to more than 10 TgS/year in the year 2100. These emissions may be reduced if some <span class="hlt">warming</span> is allowed to occur in the twenty-first century. For instance, if the global temperature trend S g in every decade of this century is limited not to exceed 0.10 K/decade (0.15 K/decade), geoengineering emissions of 4-14 TgS/year (2-7 TgS/year) would be sufficient. Even if the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is stopped, temperature changes in different regions still occur with a magnitude up to 1 K. Their horizontal pattern depends on implied latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates. In addition, for the stabilised global mean surface air temperature, global precipitation decreases by about 10%. If geoengineering emissions are stopped after several decades of implementation, their climatic effect is removed within a few decades. In this period, surface air</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP...23.4032Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP...23.4032Z"><span>Failure Analysis of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Stamping of Magnesium Alloy Sheet Based on an Anisotropic Damage Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, P. J.; Chen, Z. H.; Dong, C. F.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Based on the frame work of continuum damage mechanics, a research work of anisotropic damage evolution in <span class="hlt">warm</span> stamping process of magnesium alloy sheets has been carried out by means of a combined experimental-<span class="hlt">numerical</span> method. The aim was to predict formability of <span class="hlt">warm</span> stamping of AZ31 Mg alloy sheets by taking the thermal and damage effects into account. In the presented work, a temperature-dependent anisotropic yield function suitable for cold rolling sheet metals together with an anisotropic damage model was implemented into the a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. The evolution of internal damage in the form of void growth and coalescence in AZ31 Mg alloy sheet was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a coupled thermo-mechanical simulation of the stamping process was performed using the implemented code at different temperatures. The parameters employed in the simulation were determined by the standard tensile tests and algebraic manipulation. The overall anisotropic damage process from crack initiation to final propagation in local area of blank was simulated. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> results show that the prediction of the site of crack initiation and the orientation of crack propagation are consistent with the data observed in <span class="hlt">warm</span> stamping experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25737326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25737326"><span>Soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E E; Matyssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>This study quantified the effect of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra L. at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3 and 1.0 °C at 5, 10 and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect was detected on Qs. However, soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapour, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ(13)C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil <span class="hlt">warming</span>, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future <span class="hlt">warming</span> environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17370024','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17370024"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> 2007. An update to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: the balance of evidence and its policy implications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keller, Charles F</p> <p>2007-03-09</p> <p>In the four years since my original review (Keller[25]; hereafter referred to as CFK03), research has clarified and strengthened our understanding of how humans are <span class="hlt">warming</span> the planet. So many of the details highlighted in the IPCC's Third Assessment Report[21] and in CFK03 have been resolved that I expect many to be a bit overwhelmed, and I hope that, by treating just the most significant aspects of the research, this update may provide a road map through the expected maze of new information. In particular, while most of CFK03 remains current, there are important items that have changed: Most notable is the resolution of the conundrum that mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> did not seem to match surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Both satellite and radiosonde (balloon-borne sensors) data reduction showed little <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the middle troposphere (4-8 km altitude). In the CFK03 I discussed potential solutions to this problem, but at that time there was no clear resolution. This problem has now been solved, and the middle troposphere is seen to be <span class="hlt">warming</span> apace with the surface. There have also been advances in determinations of temperatures over the past 1,000 years showing a cooler Little Ice Age (LIA) but essentially the same <span class="hlt">warming</span> during medieval times (not as large as recent <span class="hlt">warming</span>). The recent uproar over the so-called "hockey stick" temperature determination is much overblown since at least seven other groups have made relatively independent determinations of northern hemisphere temperatures over the same time period and derived essentially the same results. They differ on how cold the LIA was but essentially agree with the Mann's hockey stick result that the Medieval <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period was not as <span class="hlt">warm</span> as the last 25 years. The question of the sun's influence on climate continues to generate controversy. It appears there is a growing consensus that, while the sun was a major factor in earlier temperature variations, it is incapable of having caused observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the past quarter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.6538S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.6538S"><span>Deep time evidence for climate sensitivity increase with <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shaffer, Gary; Huber, Matthew; Rondanelli, Roberto; Pepke Pedersen, Jens Olaf</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Future global <span class="hlt">warming</span> from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will depend on climate feedbacks, the effect of which is expressed by climate sensitivity, the <span class="hlt">warming</span> for a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content. It is not clear how feedbacks, sensitivity, and temperature will evolve in our <span class="hlt">warming</span> world, but past <span class="hlt">warming</span> events may provide insight. Here we employ paleoreconstructions and new climate-carbon model simulations in a novel framework to explore a wide scenario range for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) carbon release and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> event 55.8 Ma ago, a possible future <span class="hlt">warming</span> analogue. We obtain constrained estimates of CO2 and climate sensitivity before and during the PETM and of the PETM carbon input amount and nature. Sensitivity increased from 3.3-5.6 to 3.7-6.5 K (Kelvin) into the PETM. When taken together with Last Glacial Maximum and modern estimates, this result indicates climate sensitivity increase with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27391174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27391174"><span>Climate adaptation is not enough: <span class="hlt">warming</span> does not facilitate success of southern tundra plant populations in the high Arctic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bjorkman, Anne D; Vellend, Mark; Frei, Esther R; Henry, Gregory H R</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Rapidly rising temperatures are expected to cause latitudinal and elevational range shifts as species track their optimal climate north and upward. However, a lack of adaptation to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions other than climate - for example photoperiod, biotic interactions, or edaphic conditions - might limit the success of immigrants in a new location despite hospitable climatic conditions. Here, we present one of the first direct experimental tests of the hypothesis that warmer temperatures at northern latitudes will confer a fitness advantage to southern immigrants relative to native populations. As rates of <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arctic are more than double the global average, understanding the impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Arctic ecosystems is especially urgent. We established experimentally <span class="hlt">warmed</span> and nonwarmed common garden plots at Alexandra Fiord, Ellesmere Island in the Canadian High Arctic with seeds of two forb species (Oxyria digyna and Papaver radicatum) originating from three to five populations at different latitudes across the Arctic. We found that plants from the local populations generally had higher survival and obtained a greater maximum size than foreign individuals, regardless of <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment. Phenological traits varied with latitude of the source population, such that southern populations demonstrated substantially delayed leaf-out and senescence relative to northern populations. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions other than temperature may influence the ability of foreign populations and species to establish at more northerly latitudes as the climate <span class="hlt">warms</span>, potentially leading to lags in northward range shifts for some species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........95J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........95J"><span>The integrated hydrologic and societal impacts of a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate in interior Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, Charles E., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>In this dissertation, interdisciplinary research methods were used to examine how changes in hydrology associated with climate affect Alaskans. Partnerships were established with residents of Fairbanks and Tanana to develop scientific investigations relevant to rural Alaskans. In chapter 2, local knowledge was incorporated into scientific models to identify a social-ecological threshold used to model potential driftwood harvest from the Yukon River. Anecdotal evidence and subsistence calendar records were combined with scientific data to model the harvest rates of driftwood. Modeling results estimate that between 1980 and 2010 hydrologic factors alone were responsible for a 29% decrease in the annual wood harvest, which approximately balanced a 23% reduction in wood demand due to a decline in number of households. The community's installation of wood-fired boilers in 2007 created a threshold increase (76%) in wood demand that is not met by driftwood harvest. Modeling of climatic scenarios illustrates that increased hydrologic variability decreases driftwood harvest and increases the financial or temporal costs for subsistence users. In chapter 3, increased groundwater flow related to permafrost degradation was hypothesized to be affect river ice thickness in sloughs of the Tanana River. A physically-based, <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model was developed to examine the importance of permafrost degradation in explaining unfrozen river conditions in the winter. Results indicated that ice melt is amplified by increasing groundwater upwelling rates, groundwater temperatures, and snowfall. Modeling results also suggest that permafrost degradation could be a valid explanation of the phenomenon, but does not address the potential drivers (e.g. <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate, forest fire, etc.) of the permafrost <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In chapter 4, remote sensing techniques were hypothesized to be useful for mapping dangerous ice conditions on the Tanana River in interior Alaska. Unsupervised classification of high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17635226','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17635226"><span>How do climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and species richness affect CO2 fluxes in experimental grasslands?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Boeck, Hans J; Lemmens, Catherine M H M; Vicca, Sara; Van den Berge, Joke; Van Dongen, Stefan; Janssens, Ivan A; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Nijs, Ivan</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the results of 2 yr of CO(2) flux measurements on grassland communities of varying species richness, exposed to either the current or a warmer climate. We grew experimental plant communities containing one, three or nine grassland species in 12 sunlit, climate-controlled chambers. Half of these chambers were exposed to ambient air temperatures, while the other half were <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by 3 degrees C. Equal amounts of water were added to heated and unheated communities, implying drier soils if <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased evapotranspiration. Three main CO(2) fluxes (gross photosynthesis, above-ground and below-ground respiration) were measured multiple times per year and reconstructed hourly or half-hourly by relating them to their most important <span class="hlt">environmental</span> driver. While CO(2) outputs through respiration were largely unchanged under <span class="hlt">warming</span>, CO(2) inputs through photosynthesis were lowered, especially in summer, when heat and drought stress were higher. Above-ground CO(2) fluxes were significantly increased in multispecies communities, as more complementary resource use stimulated productivity. Finally, effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> appeared to be smallest in monocultures. This study shows that in a future warmer climate the CO(2) sink capacity of temperate grasslands could decline, and that such adverse effects are not likely to be mitigated by efforts to maintain or increase species richness.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182888','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182888"><span>What do global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts really mean to U.S. industry?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bendel, W.B.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>This paper will explore real-world impacts that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> could have on US industry. The question of dealing with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is, to some extent, an exercise in probability or relative risk management. The difficult part is separating fact from fiction. There is another issue that arises in this intense debate regarding impacts on business and policy. This is the question of whether the impacts are real or only perceived. As the authors have been seen in several <span class="hlt">environmental</span> situations, the difference between a real or perceived impact can be academic, since a perceived risk often produces real impacts. This paper presents a discussion on what companies can and should do to minimize the perceived risk of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on their bottom lines. That is, the basic question is, how can businesses today manage this risk so that objective business decisions can be made? Problems that could be directly or indirectly embedded in the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> controversy are examined. These include financial, engineering, and international aspects of global climate change. This discussion will include possible impacts on the utility, agricultural, insurance, and financial industries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25914428','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25914428"><span>Biocrusts modulate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rainfall exclusion effects on soil respiration in a semi-arid grassland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Escolar, Cristina; Maestre, Fernando T; Rey, Ana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Soil surface communities composed of cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, liverworts, fungi, bacteria and lichens (biocrusts) largely affect soil respiration in dryland ecosystems. Climate change is expected to have large effects on biocrusts and associated ecosystem processes. However, few studies so far have experimentally assessed how expected changes in temperature and rainfall will affect soil respiration in biocrust-dominated ecosystems. We evaluated the impacts of biocrust development, increased air temperature and decreased precipitation on soil respiration dynamics during dry (2009) and wet (2010) years, and investigated the relative importance of soil temperature and moisture as <span class="hlt">environmental</span> drivers of soil respiration, in a semiarid grassland from central Spain. Soil respiration rates were significantly lower in the dry than during the wet year, regardless of biocrust cover. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> increased soil respiration rates, but this response was only significant in biocrust-dominated areas (> 50% biocrust cover). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> also increased the temperature sensitivity (Q10 values) of soil respiration in biocrust-dominated areas, particularly during the wet year. The combination of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rainfall exclusion had similar effects in low biocrust cover areas. Our results highlight the importance of biocrusts as a modulator of soil respiration responses to both <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rainfall exclusion, and indicate that they must be explicitly considered when evaluating soil respiration responses to climate change in drylands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772030"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span> differentially influences the effects of drought on stoichiometry and metabolomics in shoots and roots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Plants in natural environments are increasingly being subjected to a combination of abiotic stresses, such as drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span>, in many regions. The effects of each stress and the combination of stresses on the functioning of shoots and roots have been studied extensively, but little is known about the simultaneous metabolome responses of the different organs of the plant to different stresses acting at once. We studied the shift in metabolism and elemental composition of shoots and roots of two perennial grasses, Holcus lanatus and Alopecurus pratensis, in response to simultaneous drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These species responded differently to individual and simultaneous stresses. These responses were even opposite in roots and shoots. In plants exposed to simultaneous drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span>, terpenes, catechin and indole acetic acid accumulated in shoots, whereas amino acids, quinic acid, nitrogenous bases, the osmoprotectants choline and glycine betaine, and elements involved in growth (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) accumulated in roots. Under drought, <span class="hlt">warming</span> further increased the allocation of primary metabolic activity to roots and changed the composition of secondary metabolites in shoots. These results highlight the plasticity of plant metabolomes and stoichiometry, and the different complementary responses of shoots and roots to complex <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25443313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25443313"><span>Relocation, high-latitude <span class="hlt">warming</span> and host genetic identity shape the foliar fungal microbiome of poplars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bálint, Miklós; Bartha, László; O'Hara, Robert B; Olson, Matthew S; Otte, Jürgen; Pfenninger, Markus; Robertson, Amanda L; Tiffin, Peter; Schmitt, Imke</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Micro-organisms associated with plants and animals affect host fitness, shape community structure and influence ecosystem properties. Climate change is expected to influence microbial communities, but their reactions are not well understood. Host-associated micro-organisms are influenced by the climate reactions of their hosts, which may undergo range shifts due to climatic niche tracking, or may be actively relocated to mitigate the effects of climate change. We used a common-garden experiment and rDNA metabarcoding to examine the effect of host relocation and high-latitude <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the complex fungal endophytic microbiome associated with leaves of an ecologically dominant boreal forest tree (Populus balsamifera L.). We also considered the potential effects of poplar genetic identity in defining the reactions of the microbiome to the treatments. The relocation of hosts to the north increased the diversity of the microbiome and influenced its structure, with results indicating enemy release from plausible pathogens. High-latitude <span class="hlt">warming</span> decreased microbiome diversity in comparison with natural northern conditions. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> also caused structural changes, which made the fungal communities distinct in comparison with both low-latitude and high-latitude natural communities, and increased the abundance of plausible pathogens. The reactions of the microbiome to relocation and <span class="hlt">warming</span> were strongly dependent on host genetic identity. This suggests that climate change effects on host-microbiome systems may be mediated by the interaction of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors and the population genetic processes of the hosts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4405768','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4405768"><span>Biocrusts modulate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rainfall exclusion effects on soil respiration in a semi-arid grassland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Escolar, Cristina; Maestre, Fernando T.; Rey, Ana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Soil surface communities composed of cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, liverworts, fungi, bacteria and lichens (biocrusts) largely affect soil respiration in dryland ecosystems. Climate change is expected to have large effects on biocrusts and associated ecosystem processes. However, few studies so far have experimentally assessed how expected changes in temperature and rainfall will affect soil respiration in biocrust-dominated ecosystems. We evaluated the impacts of biocrust development, increased air temperature and decreased precipitation on soil respiration dynamics during dry (2009) and wet (2010) years, and investigated the relative importance of soil temperature and moisture as <span class="hlt">environmental</span> drivers of soil respiration, in a semiarid grassland from central Spain. Soil respiration rates were significantly lower in the dry than during the wet year, regardless of biocrust cover. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> increased soil respiration rates, but this response was only significant in biocrust-dominated areas (> 50% biocrust cover). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> also increased the temperature sensitivity (Q10 values) of soil respiration in biocrust-dominated areas, particularly during the wet year. The combination of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rainfall exclusion had similar effects in low biocrust cover areas. Our results highlight the importance of biocrusts as a modulator of soil respiration responses to both <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rainfall exclusion, and indicate that they must be explicitly considered when evaluating soil respiration responses to climate change in drylands. PMID:25914428</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176525','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176525"><span>Non-linear responses of glaciated prairie wetlands to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Johnson, W. Carter; Werner, Brett; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The response of ecosystems to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> is likely to include threshold events when small changes in key <span class="hlt">environmental</span> drivers produce large changes in an ecosystem. Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) are especially sensitive to climate variability, yet the possibility that functional changes may occur more rapidly with <span class="hlt">warming</span> than expected has not been examined or modeled. The productivity and biodiversity of these wetlands are strongly controlled by the speed and completeness of a vegetation cover cycle driven by the wet and dry extremes of climate. Two thresholds involving duration and depth of standing water must be exceeded every few decades or so to complete the cycle and to produce highly functional wetlands. Model experiments at 19 weather stations employing incremental <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios determined that wetland function across most of the PPR would be diminished beyond a climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> of about 1.5–2.0 °C, a critical temperature threshold range identified in other climate change studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24086741','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24086741"><span>The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and grazing differs between soil and roots on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Wei; Zheng, Yong; Gao, Cheng; He, Xinhua; Ding, Qiong; Kim, Yongchan; Rui, Yichao; Wang, Shiping; Guo, Liang-Dong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most plant species in terrestrial ecosystems, and are affected by <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variations. To reveal the impact of disturbance on an AM fungal community under future global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, we examined the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in both soil and mixed roots in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and grazing had no significant effect on AM root colonization, spore density and extraradical hyphal density. A total of 65 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were identified from soil and roots using molecular techniques. AM fungal OTU richness was higher in soil (54 OTUs) than in roots (34 OTUs), and some AM fungi that differed between soil and roots, showed significantly biased occurrence to <span class="hlt">warming</span> or grazing. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and grazing did not significantly affect AM fungal OTU richness in soil, but <span class="hlt">warming</span> with grazing significantly increased AM fungal OTU richness in roots compared to the grazing-only treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the AM fungal community composition was significantly different between soil and roots, and was significantly affected by grazing in roots, whereas in soil it was significantly affected by <span class="hlt">warming</span> and plant species richness. The results suggest that the AM fungal community responds differently to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and grazing in soil compared with roots. This study provides insights into the role of AM fungi under global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change scenarios in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3784447','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3784447"><span>The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Response to <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Grazing Differs between Soil and Roots on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Wei; Zheng, Yong; Gao, Cheng; He, Xinhua; Ding, Qiong; Kim, Yongchan; Rui, Yichao; Wang, Shiping; Guo, Liang-Dong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most plant species in terrestrial ecosystems, and are affected by <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variations. To reveal the impact of disturbance on an AM fungal community under future global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, we examined the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in both soil and mixed roots in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and grazing had no significant effect on AM root colonization, spore density and extraradical hyphal density. A total of 65 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were identified from soil and roots using molecular techniques. AM fungal OTU richness was higher in soil (54 OTUs) than in roots (34 OTUs), and some AM fungi that differed between soil and roots, showed significantly biased occurrence to <span class="hlt">warming</span> or grazing. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and grazing did not significantly affect AM fungal OTU richness in soil, but <span class="hlt">warming</span> with grazing significantly increased AM fungal OTU richness in roots compared to the grazing-only treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the AM fungal community composition was significantly different between soil and roots, and was significantly affected by grazing in roots, whereas in soil it was significantly affected by <span class="hlt">warming</span> and plant species richness. The results suggest that the AM fungal community responds differently to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and grazing in soil compared with roots. This study provides insights into the role of AM fungi under global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change scenarios in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:24086741</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3264504','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3264504"><span>Simulation of future global <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field <span class="hlt">warming</span> facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To simulate expected future global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to <span class="hlt">warm</span> open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7°C 67% of the time. PMID:22145582</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22145582','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22145582"><span>Simulation of future global <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field <span class="hlt">warming</span> facility.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rehmani, Muhammad Ishaq Asif; Zhang, Jingqi; Li, Ganghua; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Wang, Shaohua; Kimball, Bruce A; Yan, Chuan; Liu, Zhenghui; Ding, Yanfeng</p> <p>2011-12-06</p> <p>To simulate expected future global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to <span class="hlt">warm</span> open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7°C 67% of the time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2016/1166/ofr20161166.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2016/1166/ofr20161166.pdf"><span>Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Metz, Patricia A.</p> <p>2016-09-27</p> <p> characterized by a slight-green color, with varying water clarity, low dissolved oxygen (indicative of deep groundwater), and a hydrogen sulfide odor. Water-quality samples detected ammonium-nitrogen and nitrates, but at low concentrations. The drinking water standard for nitrate adopted by the U.S. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency is 10 milligrams per liter, measured as nitrogen. Water samples collected at spring vents by divers on April 29, 2015, had concentrations of 0.9 milligram per liter nitrate-nitrogen at vent A and 0.04–0.05 milligram per liter at vents B, C, and D. Typically, the water clarity is highest in the morning (about 30 feet Secchi depth) and often decreases throughout the day.Analysis of existing data provided some insight into the hydrologic processes affecting <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mineral Springs; however, data have been sparsely and discontinuously collected since the 1940s. Continuous monitoring of hydrologic characteristics such as discharge, water temperature, specific conductance, and water-quality indicators, such as nitrate and turbidity (water clarity), would be valuable for monitoring and development of models of spring discharge and water quality. In addition, water samples could be analyzed for isotopic tracers, such as strontium, and the results used to identify and quantify the sources of groundwater that discharge at <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mineral Springs. Groundwater flow/transport models could be used to evaluate the sensitivity of the quality and quantity of water flowing from <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mineral Springs to changes in climate, aquifer levels, and water use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMOS14A..06T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMOS14A..06T"><span>Deep Sea Benthic Foraminifera: Love Cold, Fear <span class="hlt">Warm</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, E.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The fossil record provides understanding of possible linkages between long-term <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes and evolution of assemblages and morphological species of deep-sea benthic foraminifera, of which the phylogeny is still little known. Deep-sea benthic foraminifera have long morphological species lives and do not commonly suffer massive extinctions: they live in the largest habitat on earth, species have large geographic ranges or are cosmopolitan, and they use motile propagules to rapidly re-populate regions where populations have been destroyed. Extinction occurs only when rapid and severe <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change affects such a large part of the deep ocean that no refugia exist, even for common species. Deep-sea benthic foraminifera reacted to global cooling (in the earliest Oligocene, middle Miocene and middle Pleistocene) not by extinction, but by a gradual turnover of species. The most extensive turnover occurred in the late Eocene through earliest Oligocene, when some presently important ecological niches were first filled. In contrast, deep-sea benthic foraminifera suffered severe extinction (30-50% of species, including common, cosmopolitan, long-lived species) during the rapid global <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a time of high CO2 levels and potential ocean acidification. The extinction was followed by slow recovery of faunas, but diversity never returned to pre-extinction levels. The PETM and later, less severe short-term periods of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> (hyperthermals ETM1 and ETM2) were characterized by low diversity faunas dominated by small, thin-walled individuals. No significant net extinction occurred during the later hyperthermals. Such faunas might reflect dissolution, low oxygen conditions, or blooming of opportunistic species after <span class="hlt">environmental</span> disturbance. Most commonly cited causes of the PETM extinction are: 1. low oxygen concentrations, 2. acidification of the oceans, 3. increase or decrease in oceanic productivity and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ChJOL..27..147C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ChJOL..27..147C"><span>The Holocene <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid phases in the North China Plain as recorded by multi-proxy records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cui, Jianxin; Zhou, Shangzhe; Chang, Hong</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>The grain size and palinology of sediment and the frequency of 14C dada provide an integrated reconstruction of the Holocene <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid phases of the North China Plain. Two clear intense and long-lasting <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid phases were identified by comprehensive research in this region. The first phase was dated back to the early Holocene (9 000-7 000 a BP), and the second was centered at 5 000-3 000 a BP. The <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid episode between 9 000 and 7 000 a BP was also recognized at other sites showing global climatic trends rather than local events. Compared with the concern to the <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid phase of the early Holocene, the second one was not paid enough attention in the last few decades. The compilation of the Holocene paleoclimate data suggests that perhaps the second <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid phase was pervasive in monsoon region of China. In perspective of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> archaeology, much attention should be devoted to it, because the flourish and adaptation of the Neolithic cultures and the building up of the first state seem to corresponding to the general <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid climatic conditions of this period. In addition, a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid interval at 7 200-6 500 a BP was recognized by the grain size data from three sites. However, this <span class="hlt">warm</span>-humid event was not shown in pollen assemblage and temporal distribution of 14C data. Perhaps, the resolution for climatic reconstruction from pollen and temporal distribution of 14C data cited here is relatively low and small-amplitude and short-period climatic events cannot be well reflected by the data. Due to the difference in locality and elevation of sampling site, as well as in resolution of proxy records, it is difficult to make precise correlation. Further work is needed in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626864','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626864"><span>Multishock Compression Properties of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Argon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Yunjun, Gu; Li, Zhiguo; Shen, Zhijun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> dense argon was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The diagnostics of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense argon were performed by a multichannel optical pyrometer and a velocity interferometer system. The equations of state in the pressure-density range of 20–150 GPa and 1.9–5.3 g/cm3 from the first- to fourth-shock compression were presented. The single-shock temperatures in the range of 17.2–23.4 kK were obtained from the spectral radiance. Experimental results indicates that multiple shock-compression ratio (ηi = ρi/ρ0) is greatly enhanced from 3.3 to 8.8, where ρ0 is the initial density of argon and ρi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the compressed density from first to fourth shock, respectively. For the relative compression ratio (ηi’ = ρi/ρi-1), an interesting finding is that a turning point occurs at the second shocked states under the conditions of different experiments, and ηi’ increases with pressure in lower density regime and reversely decreases with pressure in higher density regime. The evolution of the compression ratio is controlled by the excitation of internal degrees of freedom, which increase the compression, and by the interaction effects between particles that reduce it. A temperature-density plot shows that current multishock compression states of argon have distributed into <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense regime. PMID:26515505</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U41F..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U41F..01S"><span>Punishments and Prizes for Explaining Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Somerville, R. C.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Some few gifted scientists, the late Carl Sagan being an iconic example, are superbly skilled at communicating science clearly and compellingly to non-scientists. Most scientists, however, have serious shortcomings as communicators. The common failings include being verbose, addicted to jargon, caveat- obsessed and focused on details. In addition, it is far easier for a scientist to scoff at the scientific illiteracy of modern society than to work at understanding the viewpoints and concerns of journalists, policymakers and the public. Obstacles await even those scientists with the desire and the talent to communicate science well. Peer pressure and career disincentives can act as powerful deterrents, discouraging especially younger scientists from spending time on non-traditional activities. Scientists often lack mentors and role models to help them develop skills in science communication. Journalists also face real difficulties in getting science stories approved by editors and other gatekeepers. Climate change science brings its own problems in communication. The science itself is unusually wide- ranging and complex. The contentious policies and politics of dealing with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are difficult to disentangle from the science. Misinformation and disinformation about climate change are widespread. Intimidation and censorship of scientists by some employers is a serious problem. Polls show that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> ranks low on the public's list of important issues. Despite all the obstacles, communicating climate change science well is critically important today. It is an art that can be learned and that brings its own rewards and satisfactions. Academic institutions and research funding agencies increasingly value outreach by scientists, and they provide resources to facilitate it. Society needs scientists who can clearly and authoritatively explain the science of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and its implications, while remaining objective and policy-neutral. This need will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790010890&hterms=warm+up&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwarm%2Bup','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790010890&hterms=warm+up&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwarm%2Bup"><span>Automatic filament <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up controller</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mccluskey, J.; Daeges, J.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>As part of the unattended operations objective of the Deep Space Network deep space stations, this filament controller serves as a step between manual operation of the station and complete computer control. Formerly, the operator was required to devote five to fifteen minutes of his time just to properly <span class="hlt">warm</span> up the filaments on the klystrons of the high power transmitters. The filament controller reduces the operator's duty to a one-step command and is future-compatible with various forms of computer control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5931662','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5931662"><span>Does coral bleaching mean global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miller, J.A.</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>This article discusses the implications of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the marine ecosystems. In recent hearings of the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, plans were made to introduce legislation for control of greenhouse-gas emissions, conservation of biological diversity, forest conservation, world population planning, sustainable economic development , increased fuel efficiency, and increased research into Earth-system processes. Research is required to ascertain the meaning of coral bleaching, which is the mass expulsion of symbiotic algae, called zooxanthellae, which gives the coral its color. Many scientists think that the death of the algae is an early indicator for massive destruction of the marine ecosystem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18760479','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18760479"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and carbon dioxide through sciences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Florides, Georgios A; Christodoulides, Paul</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Increased atmospheric CO(2)-concentration is widely being considered as the main driving factor that causes the phenomenon of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. This paper attempts to shed more light on the role of atmospheric CO(2) in relation to temperature-increase and, more generally, in relation to Earth's life through the geological aeons, based on a review-assessment of existing related studies. It is pointed out that there has been a debate on the accuracy of temperature reconstructions as well as on the exact impact that CO(2) has on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Moreover, using three independent sets of data (collected from ice-cores and chemistry) we perform a specific regression analysis which concludes that forecasts about the correlation between CO(2)-concentration and temperature rely heavily on the choice of data used, and one cannot be positive that indeed such a correlation exists (for chemistry data) or even, if existing (for ice-cores data), whether it leads to a "severe" or a "gentle" global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A very recent development on the greenhouse phenomenon is a validated adiabatic model, based on laws of physics, forecasting a maximum temperature-increase of 0.01-0.03 degrees C for a value doubling the present concentration of atmospheric CO(2). Through a further review of related studies and facts from disciplines like biology and geology, where CO(2)-change is viewed from a different perspective, it is suggested that CO(2)-change is not necessarily always a negative factor for the environment. In fact it is shown that CO(2)-increase has stimulated the growth of plants, while the CO(2)-change history has altered the physiology of plants. Moreover, data from palaeoclimatology show that the CO(2)-content in the atmosphere is at a minimum in this geological aeon. Finally it is stressed that the understanding of the functioning of Earth's complex climate system (especially for water, solar radiation and so forth) is still poor and, hence, scientific knowledge is not at a level to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712705V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712705V"><span>Scientists' Views about Attribution of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>What do scientists think? That is an important question when engaging in science communication, in which an attempt is made to communicate the scientific understanding to a lay audience. To address this question we undertook a large and detailed survey among scientists studying various aspects of climate change , dubbed "perhaps the most thorough survey of climate scientists ever" by well-known climate scientist and science communicator Gavin Schmidt. Among more than 1800 respondents we found widespread agreement that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is predominantly caused by human greenhouse gases. This consensus strengthens with increased expertise, as defined by the number of self-reported articles in the peer-reviewed literature. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), agreed that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are the dominant cause of recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, i.e. having contributed more than half of the observed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. With this survey we specified what the consensus position entails with much greater specificity than previous studies. The relevance of this consensus for science communication will be discussed. Another important result from our survey is that the main attribution statement in IPCC's fourth assessment report (AR4) may lead to an underestimate of the greenhouse gas contribution to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, because it implicitly includes the lesser known masking effect of cooling aerosols. This shows the importance of the exact wording in high-profile reports such as those from IPCC in how the statement is perceived, even by fellow scientists. The phrasing was improved in the most recent assessment report (AR5). Respondents who characterized the human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. This shows that contrarian opinions are amplified in the media in relation to their prevalence in the scientific community. This</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.P52A0371J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.P52A0371J"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span> Early Mars With CH4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Justh, H. L.; Kasting, J. F.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The nature of the ancient climate of Mars remains one of the fundamental unresolved problems in martian research. While the present environment is hostile to life, images from the Mariner, Viking and Mars Global Surveyor missions, have shown geologic features on the martian surface that seem to indicate an earlier period of hydrologic activity. The fact that ancient valley networks and degraded craters have been seen on the martian surface indicates that the early martian climate may have been more Earth-like, with a warmer surface temperature. The presence of liquid water would require a greenhouse effect much larger than needed at present, as the solar constant, S0, was 25% lower 3.8 billion years ago when the channels are thought to have formed (1,2). Previous calculations have shown that gaseous CO2 and H2O alone could not have <span class="hlt">warmed</span> the martian surface to the temperature needed to account for the presence of liquid water (3). It has been hypothesized that a CO2-H2O atmosphere could keep early Mars <span class="hlt">warm</span> if it was filled with CO2 ice clouds in the upper martian troposphere (4). Obtaining mean martian surface temperatures above 273 K would require nearly 100% cloud cover, a condition that is unrealistic for condensation clouds on early Mars. Any reduction in cloud cover makes it difficult to achieve <span class="hlt">warm</span> martian surface temperatures except at high pressures and CO2 clouds could cool the martian surface if they were low and optically thick (5). CO2 and CH4 have been suggested as important greenhouse gases on the early Earth. Our research focuses on the effects of increased concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases on the surface temperature of early Mars, with emphasis on the reduced greenhouse gas, CH4. To investigate the possible <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect of CH4, we modified a one-dimensional, radiative-convective climate model used in previous studies of the early martian climate (5). New cloud-free temperature profiles for various surface pressures and CH4 mixing</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> <script type="text/javascript"><!-- // var lastDiv = ""; function showDiv(divName) { // hide last div if (lastDiv) { document.getElementById(lastDiv).className = "hiddenDiv"; } //if value of the box is not nothing and an object with that name exists, then change the class if (divName && document.getElementById(divName)) { document.getElementById(divName).className = "visibleDiv"; lastDiv = divName; } } //--> </script> <script> /** * Function that tracks a click on an outbound link in Google Analytics. * This function takes a valid URL string as an argument, and uses that URL string * as the event label. */ var trackOutboundLink = function(url,collectionCode) { try { h = window.open(url); setTimeout(function() { ga('send', 'event', 'topic-page-click-through', collectionCode, url); }, 1000); } catch(err){} }; </script> <!-- Google Analytics --> <script> (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); ga('create', 'UA-1122789-34', 'auto'); ga('send', 'pageview'); </script> <!-- End Google Analytics --> <script> showDiv('page_1') </script> </body> </html>