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Sample records for warming numerous environmental

  1. Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzatenta, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author…

  2. Numerical Modeling and Optimization of Warm-water Heat Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Yaser; Chiarot, Paul

    2015-11-01

    For cooling in large data-centers and supercomputers, water is increasingly replacing air as the working fluid in heat sinks. Utilizing water provides unique capabilities; for example: higher heat capacity, Prandtl number, and convection heat transfer coefficient. The use of warm, rather than chilled, water has the potential to provide increased energy efficiency. The geometric and operating parameters of the heat sink govern its performance. Numerical modeling is used to examine the influence of geometry and operating conditions on key metrics such as thermal and flow resistance. This model also facilitates studies on cooling of electronic chip hot spots and failure scenarios. We report on the optimal parameters for a warm-water heat sink to achieve maximum cooling performance.

  3. Environmental colonialism Leadership and global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-16

    The vast majority of the world's scientific community believes there is global warming and that it is global problem requiring international cooperation. But policy makers in industrialized countries are at a crossroads:Listen to the skeptics, who demand more proof and who fear economic consequences of an anti-greenhouse campaign, or take the more difficult path of commitment to attacking the problem. Meanwhile, poverty and debt keep. The Third world locked out of any active partnership. This issue of ED highlight their results of recently tapping documents and seminar findings on the subject of global warming. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of the February 9, 1990; and (2) ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, February 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

  5. Adaptation to environmental warming by experimental populations of protozoans

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, P.

    1995-09-01

    Sexual populations and replicates of two clones of Tetrahymena thermophila were subjected to a continuously increasing temperature, to simulated the effects of global warming. The model of Lynch and Lande (1993) predicts that the ability of a population to adapt to a directional change in the environment will be determined by the rate of environmental change and the amount of genetic variation within the population. The amount of variation depends in turn upon the genetic structure of the population: sexual populations continuously generate new variation through segregation and recombination; variation with clones is limited by the rate of accumulation of new mutations. The model predicts that there will be a lag time between the environmental change and adaptation by the population. Adaptation will be measured by changes in the temperature optima for population growth. I predict that sexual populations will have higher temperature optima, when subjected to constantly increasing temperatures, than either clones or control populations grown under a constant temperature.

  6. Numerical investigation for formability of aluminum 6016 alloy under non-isothermal warm forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, P.; Dai, M. H.; Ying, L.; Shi, D. Y.; Zhao, K. M.; Lu, J. D.

    2013-05-01

    The warm forming technology of aluminum alloy has attracted attention from worldwide automotive engineering sector in recent years, with which the complex geometry parts can be realized at elevated temperature. A non-isothermal warm forming process for the heat treatable aluminum can quickly carry out its application on traditional production line by adding a furnace to heat up the aluminum alloy sheet. The 6000 aluminum alloy was investigated by numerical simulation and experiment using the Nakajima test model in this paper. A modified Fields-Backofen model was introduced into numerical simulation process to describe the thermo-mechanical flow behavior of a 6000 series aluminum alloy. The experimental data was obtained by conducting thermal-mechanical uniaxial tensile experiment in temperatures range of 25˜400°C to guarantee the numerical simulation more accurate. The numerical simulation was implemented with LS_DYNA software in terms of coupled dynamic explicit method for investigating the effect of initial forming temperature and the Binder Holder Force (BHF), which are critical process parameters in non-isothermal warm forming. The results showed that the optimal initial forming temperature range was 300°C˜350°C. By means of conducting numerical simulation in deep drawing box model, the forming window of BHF and temperature around the optimal initial forming temperature (275°, 300° and 325°) are investigated, which can provide guidance to actual experiment.

  7. Public responses to global warming in Newcastle, Australia: Environmental values and environmental decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Bulkeley, H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper seeks to address tile social and cultural dimensions of the global warming issue through an analysis of `public` responses in Newcastle, Australia, based on recent research undertaken for a PhD thesis. Given the history of Australian involvement in the F.C.C.C process this case-study will provides an interesting context in which to analyse discourses of environmental values. It is argued that these discourses shape and are shaped by public responses to global environmental issues in ways which have important implications for the definition of issues as `problems` with acceptable solutions, for the implementation of such solutions and for their political consequences.

  8. Warming Up to STS. Activities to Encourage Environmental Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Dorothy B.

    1990-01-01

    Developed is an interdisciplinary unit that deals with global warming and the greenhouse effect. Included are 10 lessons that can be used to supplement existing plans or used as a basis for developing a new unit. Included are modeling, laboratory, graphing, role-playing, and discussion activities. (KR)

  9. "Fatties Cause Global Warming": Fat Pedagogy and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Constance; Cameron, Erin; Socha, Teresa; McNinch, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Environmental education is one site of many that reinforces dominant obesity discourses and weight-based oppression through privileging fit, able bodies. Using personal narratives and insights from the nascent field of fat studies, we offer a critical analysis of obesity discourse in environmental writing in general and environmental education in…

  10. Environmental harm of hidden subsidies: global warming and acidification.

    PubMed

    van Beers, Cees; van den Bergh, Jeroen C J M

    2009-09-01

    We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO2 emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy.

  11. Environmentally Benign Technology for Efficient Warm-White Light Emission

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting. PMID:24930640

  12. Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn(2+) doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting. PMID:24930640

  13. Environmentally Benign Technology for Efficient Warm-White Light Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting.

  14. Structural and Environmental Characteristics of Extratropical Cyclones that Cause Tornado Outbreaks in the Warm Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochimoto, Eigo; Niino, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The differences in structural and environmental characteristics of extratropical cyclones (hereafter, ECs) that cause tornado outbreaks and those that do not were examined through composite analyses of the newly-released Japanese reanalysis data (JRA-55) and idealized numerical experiments. ECs that developed in the United States in April and May between 1995 and 2012 are categorized into two groups: ECs accompanied by 15 or more tornadoes (hereafter, outbreak cyclones (OCs)) and ECs accompanied by 5 or less tornadoes (non-outbreak cyclones (NOCs)). 55 OCs and 41 NOCs that are of similar strength as OCs are selected in this study. The composite analyses show significant differences in convective environmental parameters between OCs and NOCs. For OCs, convective available potential energy (CAPE) and storm relative environmental helicity (SREH) are larger and the areas in which these parameters have significant values are wider in the warm sector. The larger CAPE in OCs is due to larger amount of low-level water vapor, while the larger SREH in OCs due to stronger southerly wind at low levels. A piecewise potential vorticity (PV) diagnostics (Davis and Emanuel, 1991) indicates that low- to mid-level PV anomalies mainly contribute to the difference in the low-level winds between OCs and NOCs. On the other hand, the low-level winds associated with upper-level PV anomalies are not the major contributor to the difference. The results of the idealized numerical experiments for OCs and NOCs (hereafter, referred to as OC-CTL and NOC-CTL, respectively) using WRF ver. 3.4 show that the characteristics of the low-level wind fields and SREH distributions for the simulated ECs in OC-CTL and NOC-CTL are similar to those for OCs and NOCs, respectively. In OC-CTL, SREH and low-level winds in the east-southeast region of the EC center is larger than those in NOC-CTL, respectively. It is suggested that these differences are due to the structures of jetstream. The structure of

  15. The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions and Vygotsky: Fostering Ecological Action and Environmental Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysack, Mishka

    2009-01-01

    The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions is part of a larger socio-environmental movement concerned with combating climate change. Highlighting the history and elements of the teach-in as a model of learning, the article examines the teach-in movement, using a local event at the University of Calgary as an illustration. Conceptual resources from…

  16. A method to minimize the global warming and environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Tayade, P R; Sapkal, V S; Sapkal, R S; Deshmukh, S K; Rode, C V; Shinde, V M; Kanade, G S

    2012-04-01

    There has been continuous increase in the level of CO2 in atmosphere. Therefore, it is essential to develop an economical and convenient process to reduce the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. In this study, we have proposed an economical and efficient adsorption method to minimize the environmental CO2. A fluidized bed adsorption column was used, fabricated using cast iron sheet. The low prize pyrolyzed biochar prepared from farming biomass (crushed fine powder) was used as an adsorbent to adsorb CO2 from the mixture of air and CO2 (99.5% air and 0.5% CO2). The experimental observation was taken for the % removal of CO2 from the mixture of air and CO2, development of adsorption isotherm and to study the effect of pressure and inlet gas flow rate on the amount of CO2 adsorbed per kg of biochar. The exhausted (CO2 adsorbed) biochar from the fluidized column was tested as a fertilizer for the wheat crop and it has given near about 10% increase in the height of wheat crop within the first 10 days after sowing the wheat seeds. On the basis of this experimentation, we have proposed a hypothetical method, using above mentioned fluidized bed column and biochar as adsorbent to reduce the CO2 concentration in the highly polluted regions.

  17. Petrophysical corner - a numerical solution for CNL environmental corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Tsay, F.S.; Dindoruk, B. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper suggests numerical methods for converting a complicated Compensated Neutron Log correction nomograph into systems of simple polynomials for computer programming. Basic programs are presented that can provide a base for writing a complete computer-based CNL environmental corrections program, providing that an additional main program is written to include the inputs and outputs for the necessary environmental conditions and computer results as well as proper structural linkage of the subroutines.

  18. SToRM: A numerical model for environmental surface flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    SToRM (System for Transport and River Modeling) is a numerical model developed to simulate free surface flows in complex environmental domains. It is based on the depth-averaged St. Venant equations, which are discretized using unstructured upwind finite volume methods, and contains both steady and unsteady solution techniques. This article provides a brief description of the numerical approach selected to discretize the governing equations in space and time, including important aspects of solving natural environmental flows, such as the wetting and drying algorithm. The presentation is illustrated with several application examples, covering both laboratory and natural river flow cases, which show the model’s ability to solve complex flow phenomena.

  19. Mesoscale numerical simulation study of warm fog dissipation by salt particles seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hui; Guo, Xueliang; Liu, Xiang'e.; Gao, Qian; Jia, Xingcan

    2016-05-01

    Based on the dynamic framework of WRF and Morrison 2-moment explicit cloud scheme, a salt-seeding scheme was developed and used to simulate the dissipation of a warm fog event during 6-7 November 2009 in the Beijing and Tianjin area. The seeding effect and its physical mechanism were studied. The results indicate that when seeding fog with salt particles sized 80 µm and at a quantity of 6 g m-2 at the fog top, the seeding effect near the ground surface layer is negative in the beginning period, and then a positive seeding effect begins to appear at 18 min, with the best effect appearing at 21 min after seeding operation. The positive effect can last about 35 min. The microphysical mechanism of the warm fog dissipation is because of the evaporation due to the water vapor condensation on the salt particles and coalescence with salt particles. The process of fog water coalescence with salt particles contributed mostly to this warm fog dissipation. Furthermore, two series of sensitivity experiments were performed to study the seeding effect under different seeding amounts and salt particles sizes. The results show that seeding fog with salt particles sized of 80 µm can have the best seeding effect, and the seeding effect is negative when the salt particle size is less than 10 µm. For salt particles sized 80 µm, the best seeding effect, with corresponding visibility of 380 m, can be achieved when the seeding amount is 30 g m-2.

  20. A numerical study on the coupled moisture-heat process of permafrost near thermokarst lake on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Chen, W.; Pei, W.

    2012-12-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is regarded as the third polar region on the earth, where the permafrost has the widest area, biggest thickness and lowest temperature among the mid-low latitudinal zones in the northern hemisphere. Due to environmental disturbances, such as human activity and climate warming, thawing of massive ground ice has been resulting in thermokarst lakes, which are extensively distributed on the QTP. Besides the climate warming, the thermokarst lake, as a major heat source, speeds up the thawing of its surrounding permafrost. This leads to enlargment of the thermokarst lakes, which causes further degradation of the permafrost. Moreover, permafrost degradation on the QTP makes the global environment and climate even worse. Up to now, almost all the researches concerning the permafrost change near thermokarst on the QTP are focused on in-situ monitoring analyses. However, permafrost degradation near thermokarst lake is a long-term process. The short-term monitoring results in existing literatures can not precisely predict the rules of permafrost degradation in future decades. In this study, based on a coupled moisture-temperature model, a set of two-dimensional (2-D) finite element (FE) formulae of frozen soil is first presented to study both the moisture and the thermal states of permafrost on the QTP under global warming. Then, FE computer codes is written accordingly. Finally, the moisture and thermal states near a typical non-penetrative thermokarst lake on the QTP are calculated numerically when the global warming is assumed as 2.6 degrees centigrade in the next 50 years. The obtained temperature results match closely with the monitoring data at all sampling dates, which valides our presented formulation and developed program. From the predicted moisture and thermal states, it is found that the 0 degrees centigrade isotherm under the lake will move downward, in an approximate degradation speed of 0.6 m/y. The other isotherms also exhibit

  1. Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.

    PubMed

    Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions.

  2. Using Long-Term Experimental Warming To Distinguish Vegetation Responses To Warming From Other Environmental Drivers Related To Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, W. A.; Welker, J. M.; Mercado-Díaz, J. A.; Anderson, A.; Menken, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long term studies of vegetation change throughout the tundra biome show increases in the height, canopy extent and dominance of vascular vegetation versus bryophytes and lichens, with mixed responses of the dominant shrub and graminoid growth forms. Increases in vascular vegetation are recorded for sites with and without measurable climatic warming over recent decades, but with other potential drivers, i.e., increased summer precipitation. Experimental warming of tundra vegetation at Toolik Lake, Alaska shows a clear increase in shrub abundance relative to graminoids, with correlated higher NDVI values, increasing canopy heights, and thaw depths. Responses were similar between moist and dry tundra vegetation, with greater responses in moist vegetation. NDVI, with its ability to distinguish shrub from graminoid vegetation, may be a tool to distinguish fine scale differences in the response of tundra vegetation to climatic change, i.e., shifting balances of shrub and graminoid relative abundances that may be related to distinct climatic change drivers.

  3. Numerical evidence against reversed thermohaline circulation in the warm Paleocene/Eocene ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bice, Karen L.; Marotzke, Jochem

    2001-06-01

    The question of whether deep water formation might have occurred in subtropical latitudes in the early Cenozoic is examined through use of a global ocean model forced by mixed boundary conditions. Zonal mean surface temperatures and wind stresses are derived from an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulation of the warm Paleocene/Eocene boundary interval (˜55 Ma) and are held constant for a series of sensitivity tests. The control case for moisture flux (evaporation minus precipitation, E-P), also derived from the AGCM, is perturbed so that the subtropical evaporation increases and high-latitude precipitation increases. A dramatic response is seen in the temperature and salinity structure of the model ocean, but the perturbation does not result in deep convection in subtropical latitudes. In all cases, bottom water is formed in the southern high latitudes, and the global meridional overturning is characterized by a strongly asymmetric circulation. No multiple equilibria have been found for any particular E-P configuration. In the most extreme case (5 times the control E-P) the model oscillates between meridional overturning circulation "on" and "off". Shorter-lived thermohaline slowing and reinvigoration are observed as a transient response under less extreme E-P perturbations. Despite the high evaporation implied in the perturbation experiments, mean mixed layer salinities in the subtropics do not rise much above the control case because of efficient removal of salt (and heat) through deepened subduction beneath the subtropical gyres. The sensitivity of the results to the parameterization of continental runoff and the specified diapycnal mixing coefficient (Kν) are also examined. Distributing runoff purely zonally, rather than globally, has approximately the same effect as a 50% increase in the strength of the hydrologic cycle. Decreasing Kν to 0.3 cm2 s-1 from the standard value of 1.0 cm2 s-1 increases the sensitivity to an increased hydrologic

  4. Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-06-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

  5. Numerical Modeling of Hydrokinetic Turbines and their Environmental Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaherchi, Teymour; Aliseda, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    Energy extraction from ocean tides via hydrokinetic turbines has recently attracted scientists and engineers attention as a highly predictable source of renewable energy. However, since the most promising locations in terms of resources and proximity to the end users are in fragile estuarine ecosystems, numerous issues concerning the environmental impact of this technology need to be addressed a priori before large scale deployment. In this work we use numerical simulations to study the possible environmental effects of hydrokinetic turbines through their influence on physical flow variables such as pressure and velocity. The velocity deficit created in the turbulent wake of a turbine affects the settling of suspended sediment in the water column and can lead to deposition into artificial patterns that will alter the benthic ecosystem. On the other side of the spectrum, pressure fluctuation through turbine blades and in blade tip vortices can damage internal organs of marine species as they swim through the device, particularly for small juveniles that behave like Lagrangian trackers. We present sedimentation statistics to understand the sensitivity of this phenomena to turbine operating conditions and sediment properties. We also show pressure history for slightly buoyant Lagrangian particles moving through the turbine and correlations with damage thresholds obtained from laboratory experiments.

  6. A New Look at Stratospheric Sudden Warmings. Part II: Evaluation of Numerical Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Andrew J.; Polvani, Lorenza M.; Perlwitz, Judith; Sassi, Fabrizio; Manzini, Elisa; Shibata, Kiyotaka; Pawson, Steven; Nielsen, J. Eric; Rind, David

    2007-01-01

    The simulation of major midwinter stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) in six stratosphere-resolving general circulation models (GCMs) is examined. The GCMs are compared to a new climatology of SSWs, based on the dynamical characteristics of the events. First, the number, type, and temporal distribution of SSW events are evaluated. Most of the models show a lower frequency of SSW events than the climatology, which has a mean frequency of 6.0 SSWs per decade. Statistical tests show that three of the six models produce significantly fewer SSWs than the climatology, between 1.0 and 2.6 SSWs per decade. Second, four process-based diagnostics are calculated for all of the SSW events in each model. It is found that SSWs in the GCMs compare favorably with dynamical benchmarks for SSW established in the first part of the study. These results indicate that GCMs are capable of quite accurately simulating the dynamics required to produce SSWs, but with lower frequency than the climatology. Further dynamical diagnostics hint that, in at least one case, this is due to a lack of meridional heat flux in the lower stratosphere. Even though the SSWs simulated by most GCMs are dynamically realistic when compared to the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, the reasons for the relative paucity of SSWs in GCMs remains an important and open question.

  7. Environmental forcing shapes regional house mosquito synchrony in a warming temperate island.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Higa, Yukiko; Lee, Su Hyun; Jeong, Ji Yeon; Heo, Sang Taek; Kim, Miok; Minakawa, Noboru; Lee, Keun Hwa

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal changes in the abundance of exothermic organisms can be expected with climate change if warmer temperatures can induce changes in their phenology. Given the increased time for ectothermic organism development at lower temperatures, we asked whether population dynamics of the house mosquito, Culex pipiens s.l. (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), in Jeju-do (South Korea), an island with a gradient of warming temperatures from north to south, showed differences in sensitivity to changes in temperature along the warming gradient. In addition, we asked whether synchrony, that is, the degree of concerted fluctuations in mosquito abundance across locations, was affected by the temperature gradient. We found the association of mosquito abundance with temperature to be delayed by 2 wk in the north when compared with the south. The abundance across all our sampling locations had a flat synchrony profile that could reflect impacts of rainfall and average temperature on the average of all our samples. Finally, our results showed that population synchrony across space can emerge even when abundance is differentially impacted by an exogenous factor across an environmental gradient.

  8. Effects of environmental temperature change on mercury absorption in aquatic organisms with respect to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Pack, Eun Chul; Lee, Seung Ha; Kim, Chun Huem; Lim, Chae Hee; Sung, Dea Gwan; Kim, Mee Hye; Park, Ki Hwan; Lim, Kyung Min; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Suhng Wook

    2014-01-01

    Because of global warming, the quantity of naturally generated mercury (Hg) will increase, subsequently methylation of Hg existing in seawater may be enhanced, and the content of metal in marine products rise which consequently results in harm to human health. Studies of the effects of temperatures on Hg absorption have not been adequate. In this study, in order to observe the effects of temperature changes on Hg absorption, inorganic Hg or methylmercury (MeHg) was added to water tanks containing loaches. Loach survival rates decreased with rising temperatures, duration, and exposure concentrations in individuals exposed to inorganic Hg and MeHg. The MeHg-treated group died sooner than the inorganic Hg-exposed group. The total Hg and MeHg content significantly increased with temperature and time in both metal-exposed groups. The MeHg-treated group had higher metal absorption rates than inorganic Hg-treated loaches. The correlation coefficients for temperature elevation and absorption were significant in both groups. The results of this study may be used as basic data for assessing in vivo hazards from environmental changes such as climate warming. PMID:25343296

  9. Effects of environmental temperature change on mercury absorption in aquatic organisms with respect to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Pack, Eun Chul; Lee, Seung Ha; Kim, Chun Huem; Lim, Chae Hee; Sung, Dea Gwan; Kim, Mee Hye; Park, Ki Hwan; Lim, Kyung Min; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Suhng Wook

    2014-01-01

    Because of global warming, the quantity of naturally generated mercury (Hg) will increase, subsequently methylation of Hg existing in seawater may be enhanced, and the content of metal in marine products rise which consequently results in harm to human health. Studies of the effects of temperatures on Hg absorption have not been adequate. In this study, in order to observe the effects of temperature changes on Hg absorption, inorganic Hg or methylmercury (MeHg) was added to water tanks containing loaches. Loach survival rates decreased with rising temperatures, duration, and exposure concentrations in individuals exposed to inorganic Hg and MeHg. The MeHg-treated group died sooner than the inorganic Hg-exposed group. The total Hg and MeHg content significantly increased with temperature and time in both metal-exposed groups. The MeHg-treated group had higher metal absorption rates than inorganic Hg-treated loaches. The correlation coefficients for temperature elevation and absorption were significant in both groups. The results of this study may be used as basic data for assessing in vivo hazards from environmental changes such as climate warming.

  10. Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global Warming and Environmental Attitude Using Climate Change Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir Bin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change generally and global warming specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that child-centred, 5E learning cycle-based climate change activities would have over more traditional teacher-centred activities on Malaysian Year 5 primary students (11 years). A quasi-experimental design involving a treatment (n = 55) and a group representing typical teaching method (n = 60) was used to measure the effectiveness of these activities on (a) increasing children's knowledge about global warming; (b) changing their attitudes to be more favourable towards the environment and (c) identify the relationship between knowledge and attitude that exist in this study. Statistically significant differences in favour of the treatment group were detected for both knowledge and environmental attitudes. Non-significant relationship was identified between knowledge and attitude in this study. Interviews with randomly selected students from treatment and comparison groups further underscore these findings. Implications are discussed.

  11. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  12. Numerical Modeling of Hydrokinetic Turbines and their Environmental Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaherchi, T.; Seydel, J.; Aliseda, A.

    2010-12-01

    The search for predictable renewable energy has led research into marine hydrokinetic energy. Electricity can be generated from tidally-induced currents through turbines located in regions of high current speed and relatively low secondary flow intensity. Although significant technological challenges exist, the main obstacle in the development and commercial deployment of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines is the uncertainty in the environmental effect of devices. The velocity deficit in the turbulent wake of the turbine might enhance the sedimentation process of suspended particles in the water column and lead to deposition into artificial patterns that alter the benthic ecosystem. Pressure fluctuations across turbine blades and in blade tip vortices can damage internal organs of marine species as they swim through the device. These are just a few examples of the important potential environmental effects of MHK turbines that need to be addressed and investigated a priori before pilot and large scale deployment. We have developed a hierarchy of numerical models to simulate the turbulent wake behind a well characterized two bladed turbine. The results from these models (Sliding Mesh, Rotating Reference Frame, Virtual Blade Model and Actuator Disk Model) have been validated and are been used to investigate the efficiency and physical changes introduced in the environment by single or multiple MHK turbines. We will present results from sedimenting particles and model juvenile fish, with relative densities of 1.2 and 0.95, respectively. The settling velocity and terminal location on the bottom of the tidal channel is computed and compared to the simulated flow in a channel without turbines. We have observed an enhanced sedimentation, and we will quantify the degree of enhancement and the parameter range within which it is significant. For the slightly buoyant particles representing fish, the pressure history is studied statistically with particular attention to the

  13. Environmental magnetic evidence for a dynamic Taylor Glacier during the mid-Pliocene warm period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohneiser, Christian; Wilson, Gary; Florindo, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The current understanding of the Neogene history of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) is limited spatially and temporally by a paucity of sedimentary records. This has led to the assumption that the Antarctic Glacio-climatic system has been in stasis since middle Miocene times and such an interpretation is not in conflict with deep-sea stable isotope records. However, rare stratified glacigene deposits exposed in the Transantarctic mountains and recovered from beneath Antarctic fjords by drilling suggest a more dynamic history of the EAIS. We apply environmental magnetic methods to drill cores previously collected from McMurdo Sound in an effort to track processes, transport methods and conditions and environments of deposition through the late Neogene. Additionally, we assess the robustness of the earlier magnetostratigraphies from the DVDP-10 and -11 cores by undertaking the first comprehensive paleomagnetic study of discrete paleomagnetic samples with complete thermal and alternating field demagnetisation and polarity determinations from principal component analysis. Here we present results from an investigation of the magnetic properties of the DVDP-10 and DVDP-11 drill cores from New Harbour, southern Victoria Land. Magnetic properties were determined for 400 samples by measuring their magnetic susceptibility, thermomagnetism and natural and anhysteretic remanent magnetism (NRM/ARM) at the Otago Paleomagnetic Research Facility and hysteresis and isothermal remanent magnetism (IRM) at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Rome, Italy. The initial analyses indicate that only minimal diagenetic alteration has occurred and that a primary environmental magnetic signal is intact. We divide these records into three intervals based on magnetic characteristics. The upper interval (Interval I) comprises latest Pliocene to Pleistocene age Ross Sea Ice derived sediments which have high concentrations of fine grained magnetite reflecting the contribution

  14. The toxicology of climate change: environmental contaminants in a warming world.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Pamela D; McElwee, Matthew K; Miller, Hilary D; Clark, Bryan W; Van Tiem, Lindsey A; Walcott, Kia C; Erwin, Kyle N; Levin, Edward D

    2009-08-01

    Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem. This review examines one of the consequences of climate change that has only recently attracted attention: namely, the effects of climate change on the environmental distribution and toxicity of chemical pollutants. A review was undertaken of the scientific literature (original research articles, reviews, government and intergovernmental reports) focusing on the interactions of toxicants with the environmental parameters, temperature, precipitation, and salinity, as altered by climate change. Three broad classes of chemical toxicants of global significance were the focus: air pollutants, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including some organochlorine pesticides, and other classes of pesticides. Generally, increases in temperature will enhance the toxicity of contaminants and increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone regionally, but will also likely increase rates of chemical degradation. While further research is needed, climate change coupled with air pollutant exposures may have potentially serious adverse consequences for human health in urban and polluted regions. Climate change producing alterations in: food webs, lipid dynamics, ice and snow melt, and organic carbon cycling could result in increased POP levels in water, soil, and biota. There is also compelling evidence that increasing temperatures could be deleterious to pollutant-exposed wildlife. For example, elevated water temperatures may alter the biotransformation of contaminants to more bioactive metabolites and impair homeostasis. The complex interactions between climate change and pollutants may be particularly problematic for species living at the edge of their physiological tolerance range where acclimation capacity may be limited. In addition to temperature increases, regional precipitation patterns are projected to be altered with climate change. Regions subject to decreases in precipitation

  15. Numerical Simulation on Measurement of Optical and Thermal Properties for Warm Dense Matter Generated by Isochoric Heating with Pulsed Power Discharge Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIKUCHI, Takashi; HAYASHI, Ryota; TAKAHASHI, Takuya; TAMURA, Fumihiro; TAKAHASHI, Kazumasa; SASAKI, Toru; ASO, Tsukasa; HARADA, Nob.

    2016-03-01

    Property data in warm dense matter (WDM) are important to optimize implosion dynamics in a fuel pellet of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). A table-top pulsed power discharge device with isochoric heating using a sapphire hollow capillary was proposed, and was used to generate the extreme state of matter with a well-defined condition. We investigated numerically to generate the WDM by using the pulsed power discharge device. The numerical model was developed by time-dependent one-dimensional thermal diffusion with radiative transfer of multi-group approximation, and the numerical simulation was carried out according with the experimental condition. The achieved temperature of the numerical simulation result was confirmed by the previous experimental result. Also, the radiation energy density was shown at each group of the wavelength of emission.

  16. Total environmental warming impact (TEWI) calculations for alternative automative air-conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Montreal Protocol phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has required manufacturers to develop refrigeration and air-conditioning systems that use refrigerants that can not damage stratospheric ozone. Most refrigeration industries have adapted their designs to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; new automobile air- conditioning systems use HFC-134a. These industries are now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants on global warming. Automobile air-conditioning has three separate impacts on global warming; (1) the effects of refrigerant inadvertently released to the atmosphere from accidents, servicing, and leakage; (2) the efficiency of the cooling equipment (due to the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to power the system); and (3) the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to transport the system. The Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) is an index that should be used to compare the global warming effects of alternative air-conditioning systems because it includes these contributions from the refrigerant, cooling efficiency, and weight. This paper compares the TEWI of current air-conditioning systems using HFC-134a with that of transcritical vapor compression system using carbon dioxide and systems using flammable refrigerants with secondary heat transfer loops. Results are found to depend on both climate and projected efficiency of C0{sub 2}systems. Performance data on manufacturing prototype systems are needed to verify the potential reductions in TEWI. Extensive field testing is also required to determine the performance, reliability, and ``serviceability`` of each alternative to HFC-134a to establish whether the potential reduction of TEWI can be achieved in a viable consumer product.

  17. Is environmental health a determinant or an afterthought in policies ranging from water quality to global warming?

    PubMed

    Listorti, J A

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this discussion is to draw attention to the regrettable fact that health repercussions are not being addressed in policy setting. This absence covers a spectrum from policies as technically focused as that governing water quality, where the health dimensions are well known, to policies as broad as those dealing with global warming, where the health dimensions are still being defined. This situation is likely to worsen unless the environmental health community accepts the responsibility to do more outreach. The presentation also gives examples of how inclusion of environmental health in policy deliberations can increase economically quantifiable benefits and can help justify investments that are otherwise considered too costly. Despite advances in environmental health, many, if not most, important decisions affecting human health are being made without the input of health specialists. At best, considerations of environmental health are afterthoughts in the policies of business, commerce, industry, and many government agencies that are involved--even if inadvertently--with creating most environmental health problems, and by implication, are potentially responsible for their solutions. Examples of situations where the health dimensions are well known, such as with water quality, are provided from some 200 past World Bank projects in water supply, waste disposal, transportation, housing, urban development, and telecommunications, designed mainly by engineers and economists. The absence of health input is not necessarily detrimental if agency policies or environmental reviews can compensate for the absence of direct health input by other means such as environmental assessments, which currently do not systematically include health.

  18. Individual to Community-Level Faunal Responses to Environmental Change from a Marine Fossil Record of Early Miocene Global Warming

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (∼20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1–4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability. PMID:22558424

  19. Numerical Simulation of Ferrofluid Flow for Subsurface Environmental Engineering Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Moridis, George J.

    1997-05-05

    Ferrofluids are suspensions of magnetic particles of diameter approximately 10 nm stabilized by surfactants in carrier liquids. The large magnetic susceptibility of ferrofluids allows the mobilization of ferrofluid through permeable rock and soil by the application of strong external magnetic fields. We have developed simulation capabilities for both miscible and immiscible conceptualizations of ferrofluid flow through porous media in response to magnetic forces arising from the magnetic field of a rectangular permanent magnet. The flow of ferrofluid is caused by the magnetization of the particles and their attraction toward a magnet, regardless of the orientation of the magnet. The steps involved in calculating the flow of ferrofluid are (1) calculation of the external magnetic field, (2) calculation of the gradient of the external magnetic field, (3) calculation of the magnetization of the ferrofluid, and (4) assembly of the magnetic body force term and addition of this term to the standard pressure gradient and gravity force terms. We compare numerical simulations to laboratory measurements of the magnetic field, fluid pressures, and the two-dimensional flow of ferrofluid to demonstrate the applicability of the methods coded in the numerical simulators. We present an example of the use of the simulator for a field-scale application of ferrofluids for barrier verification.

  20. Modeling Multi-Reservoir Hydropower Systems in the Sierra Nevada with Environmental Requirements and Climate Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinheimer, David Emmanuel

    Hydropower systems and other river regulation often harm instream ecosystems, partly by altering the natural flow and temperature regimes that ecosystems have historically depended on. These effects are compounded at regional scales. As hydropower and ecosystems are increasingly valued globally due to growing values for clean energy and native species as well as and new threats from climate warming, it is important to understand how climate warming might affect these systems, to identify tradeoffs between different water uses for different climate conditions, and to identify promising water management solutions. This research uses traditional simulation and optimization to explore these issues in California's upper west slope Sierra Nevada mountains. The Sierra Nevada provides most of the water for California's vast water supply system, supporting high-elevation hydropower generation, ecosystems, recreation, and some local municipal and agricultural water supply along the way. However, regional climate warming is expected to reduce snowmelt and shift runoff to earlier in the year, affecting all water uses. This dissertation begins by reviewing important literature related to the broader motivations of this study, including river regulation, freshwater conservation, and climate change. It then describes three substantial studies. First, a weekly time step water resources management model spanning the Feather River watershed in the north to the Kern River watershed in the south is developed. The model, which uses the Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP), includes reservoirs, run-of-river hydropower, variable head hydropower, water supply demand, and instream flow requirements. The model is applied with a runoff dataset that considers regional air temperature increases of 0, 2, 4 and 6 °C to represent historical, near-term, mid-term and far-term (end-of-century) warming. Most major hydropower turbine flows are simulated well. Reservoir storage is also

  1. Long-term effects of warming and ocean acidification are modified by seasonal variation in species responses and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Godbold, Jasmin A; Solan, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Warming of sea surface temperatures and alteration of ocean chemistry associated with anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide will have profound consequences for a broad range of species, but the potential for seasonal variation to modify species and ecosystem responses to these stressors has received little attention. Here, using the longest experiment to date (542 days), we investigate how the interactive effects of warming and ocean acidification affect the growth, behaviour and associated levels of ecosystem functioning (nutrient release) for a functionally important non-calcifying intertidal polychaete (Alitta virens) under seasonally changing conditions. We find that the effects of warming, ocean acidification and their interactions are not detectable in the short term, but manifest over time through changes in growth, bioturbation and bioirrigation behaviour that, in turn, affect nutrient generation. These changes are intimately linked to species responses to seasonal variations in environmental conditions (temperature and photoperiod) that, depending upon timing, can either exacerbate or buffer the long-term directional effects of climatic forcing. Taken together, our observations caution against over emphasizing the conclusions from short-term experiments and highlight the necessity to consider the temporal expression of complex system dynamics established over appropriate timescales when forecasting the likely ecological consequences of climatic forcing.

  2. Long-term effects of warming and ocean acidification are modified by seasonal variation in species responses and environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Godbold, Jasmin A.; Solan, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Warming of sea surface temperatures and alteration of ocean chemistry associated with anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide will have profound consequences for a broad range of species, but the potential for seasonal variation to modify species and ecosystem responses to these stressors has received little attention. Here, using the longest experiment to date (542 days), we investigate how the interactive effects of warming and ocean acidification affect the growth, behaviour and associated levels of ecosystem functioning (nutrient release) for a functionally important non-calcifying intertidal polychaete (Alitta virens) under seasonally changing conditions. We find that the effects of warming, ocean acidification and their interactions are not detectable in the short term, but manifest over time through changes in growth, bioturbation and bioirrigation behaviour that, in turn, affect nutrient generation. These changes are intimately linked to species responses to seasonal variations in environmental conditions (temperature and photoperiod) that, depending upon timing, can either exacerbate or buffer the long-term directional effects of climatic forcing. Taken together, our observations caution against over emphasizing the conclusions from short-term experiments and highlight the necessity to consider the temporal expression of complex system dynamics established over appropriate timescales when forecasting the likely ecological consequences of climatic forcing. PMID:23980249

  3. Post-Landing Orion Crew Survival in Warm Ocean Areas: A Case Study in Iterative Environmental Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rains, George E.; Bue, Grant C.; Pantermuehl, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The Orion crew module (CM) is being designed to perform survivable land and water landings. There are many issues associated with post-landing crew survival. In general, the most challenging of the realistic Orion landing scenarios from an environmental control standpoint is the off-nominal water landing. Available power and other consumables will be very limited after landing, and it may not be possible to provide full environmental control within the crew cabin for very long after splashdown. Given the bulk and thermal insulation characteristics of the crew-worn pressure suits, landing in a warm tropical ocean area would pose a risk to crew survival from elevated core body temperatures, if for some reason the crewmembers were not able to remove their suits and/or exit the vehicle. This paper summarizes the analyses performed and conclusions reached regarding post-landing crew survival following a water landing, from the standpoint of the crew s core body temperatures.

  4. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Montero, Luis G.

    2010-04-15

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  5. Global warming and environmental production efficiency ranking of the Kyoto Protocol nations.

    PubMed

    Feroz, Ehsan H; Raab, Raymond L; Ulleberg, Gerald T; Alsharif, Kamal

    2009-02-01

    This paper analyzes the United Nations Organization's Kyoto Protocol nations to address two questions. First, what are the environmental production efficiency rankings of these nations? Second, is there a relationship between a nation's ratification status and its environmental production efficiency ranking? Our findings suggest that the nations that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol are more likely to be environmentally production efficient as compared to the nations that have not ratified the Protocol.

  6. Hydrogeologic influence on changes in snowmelt runoff with climate warming: Numerical experiments on a mid-elevation catchment in the Sierra Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepsen, S. M.; Harmon, T. C.; Meadows, M. W.; Hunsaker, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    The role of hydrogeology in mediating long-term changes in mountain streamflow, resulting from reduced snowfall in a potentially warmer climate, is currently not well understood. We explore this by simulating changes in stream discharge and evapotranspiration from a mid-elevation, 1-km2 catchment in the southern Sierra Nevada of California (USA) in response to reduced snowfall under warmer conditions, for a plausible range in subsurface hydrologic properties. Simulations are performed using a numerical watershed model, the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM), constrained by observations from a meteorological station, stream gauge, and eddy covariance tower. We predict that the fraction of precipitation occurring as snowfall would decrease from approximately 47% at current conditions to 25%, 12%, and 5% for air temperature changes of +2, +4, and +6 °C. For each of these warming scenarios, changes in mean annual discharge and evapotranspiration simulated by the different plausible soil models show large ranges relative to averages, with coefficients of variation ranging from -3 to 3 depending on warming scenario. With warming and reduced snowfall, substrates with greater storage capacity show less soil moisture limitation on evapotranspiration during the late spring and summer, resulting in greater reductions in annual stream discharge. These findings indicate that the hydrologic response of mountain catchments to atmospheric warming and reduced snowfall may substantially vary across elevations with differing soil and regolith properties, a relationship not typically accounted for in approaches relying on space-for-time substitution. An additional implication of our results is that model simulations of annual stream discharge in response to snowfall-to-rainfall transitions may be relatively uncertain for study areas where subsurface properties are not well constrained.

  7. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Daniel J; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B; Viant, Mark R

    2015-09-14

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with incubation without food over a 5-day period greatly exceed those caused directly by seawater temperature or pH perturbations. This highlights the need to contextualise the results of climate change experiments by comparison to other, naturally occurring stressors such as food deprivation, which is being exacerbated by global warming. Protein and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in the food-deprived animals, with a novel class of taurine-containing lipids and the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, changing significantly over the duration of our experiment. Copepods derive these PUFAs by ingesting diatoms and flagellated microplankton respectively. Climate-driven changes in the productivity, phenology and composition of microplankton communities, and hence the availability of these fatty acids, therefore have the potential to influence the ability of copepods to survive starvation and other environmental stressors.

  8. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B.; Viant, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with incubation without food over a 5-day period greatly exceed those caused directly by seawater temperature or pH perturbations. This highlights the need to contextualise the results of climate change experiments by comparison to other, naturally occurring stressors such as food deprivation, which is being exacerbated by global warming. Protein and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in the food-deprived animals, with a novel class of taurine-containing lipids and the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, changing significantly over the duration of our experiment. Copepods derive these PUFAs by ingesting diatoms and flagellated microplankton respectively. Climate-driven changes in the productivity, phenology and composition of microplankton communities, and hence the availability of these fatty acids, therefore have the potential to influence the ability of copepods to survive starvation and other environmental stressors. PMID:26364855

  9. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B.; Viant, Mark R.

    2015-09-01

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with incubation without food over a 5-day period greatly exceed those caused directly by seawater temperature or pH perturbations. This highlights the need to contextualise the results of climate change experiments by comparison to other, naturally occurring stressors such as food deprivation, which is being exacerbated by global warming. Protein and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in the food-deprived animals, with a novel class of taurine-containing lipids and the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, changing significantly over the duration of our experiment. Copepods derive these PUFAs by ingesting diatoms and flagellated microplankton respectively. Climate-driven changes in the productivity, phenology and composition of microplankton communities, and hence the availability of these fatty acids, therefore have the potential to influence the ability of copepods to survive starvation and other environmental stressors.

  10. State environmental law and carbon emissions: Do public utility commissions use environmental statutes to fight global warming?

    SciTech Connect

    Sautter, John A.

    2010-10-15

    In many states environmental statutes provide the authority for public utility commissioners to make decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from electricity generation. This article looks at six such laws and how the presence of these laws affected CO{sub 2} emissions during a nine-year period from 1997 to 2005. (author)

  11. A numerical modeling study of the East Australian Current encircling and overwashing a warm-core eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, H. S.; Roughan, M.; Baird, M. E.; Wilkin, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<span class="hlt">Warm</span>-core eddies (WCEs) often form in the meanders of Western Boundary Currents (WBCs). WCEs are frequently overwashed with less dense waters sourced from the WBC. We use the Regional Ocean Modelling System to investigate the ocean state during the overwashing of one such WCE in October 2008 in the East Australian Current (EAC). Comparisons of model outputs with satellite sea surface temperature and vertical profiles show that the model provides a realistic simulation of the eddy during the period when the EAC encircled and then overwashed the eddy. During the encircling stage, an eddy with closed circulation persisted at depth. In the surface EAC water entered from the north, encircled the eddy and exited to the east. The overwashing stage was initiated by the expulsion of cyclonic vorticity. For the following 8 days after the expulsion, waters from the EAC washed over the top of the eddy, transferring heat and anticyclonic vorticity radially-inward. After approximately one rotation period of overwashing, the eddy separated. The overwashing creates a two-layer system that forms a subsurface maximum velocity at the interface of the two layers. Analysis of water mass properties, Eulerian tracer dynamics, and Lagrangian particle tracks show that the original eddy sinks 10-50 m during the overwashing period. Overwashing has been observed in many WBCs and occurs in most WCEs in the western Tasman Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21574802','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21574802"><span id="translatedtitle">THE NATURE OF THE <span class="hlt">WARM</span>/HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM. I. <span class="hlt">NUMERICAL</span> METHODS, CONVERGENCE, AND O VI ABSORPTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, Britton D.; Hallman, Eric J.; Shull, J. Michael; O'Shea, Brian W. E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu</p> <p>2011-04-10</p> <p>We perform a series of cosmological simulations using Enzo, an Eulerian adaptive-mesh refinement, N-body + hydrodynamical code, applied to study the <span class="hlt">warm</span>/hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). The WHIM may be an important component of the baryons missing observationally at low redshift. We investigate the dependence of the global star formation rate and mass fraction in various baryonic phases on spatial resolution and methods of incorporating stellar feedback. Although both resolution and feedback significantly affect the total mass in the WHIM, all of our simulations find that the WHIM fraction peaks at z {approx} 0.5, declining to 35%-40% at z = 0. We construct samples of synthetic O VI absorption lines from our highest-resolution simulations, using several models of oxygen ionization balance. Models that include both collisional ionization and photoionization provide excellent fits to the observed number density of absorbers per unit redshift over the full range of column densities (10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} {approx}< N{sub OVI} {approx}< 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}). Models that include only collisional ionization provide better fits for high column density absorbers (N{sub OVI} {approx}> 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}). The distribution of O VI in density and temperature exhibits two populations: one at T {approx} 10{sup 5.5} K (collisionally ionized, 55% of total O VI) and one at T {approx} 10{sup 4.5} K (photoionized, 37%) with the remainder located in dense gas near galaxies. While not a perfect tracer of hot gas, O VI provides an important tool for a WHIM baryon census.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED099226.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED099226.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Freddie Fish. A Primary <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Study of Basic <span class="hlt">Numerals</span>, Sets, Ordinals and Shapes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kraynak, Ola</p> <p></p> <p>This teacher's guide and study guide are an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> approach to mathematics education in the primary grades. The mathematical studies of the <span class="hlt">numerals</span> 0-10, ordinals, number sets, and basic shapes - diamond, circle, square, rectangle, and triangle - are developed through the story of Freddie Fish and his search for clean water. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27280433','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27280433"><span id="translatedtitle">Cardiac oxygen limitation during an acute thermal challenge in the European perch: effects of chronic <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> and experimental hyperoxia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ekström, Andreas; Brijs, Jeroen; Clark, Timothy D; Gräns, Albin; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sandblom, Erik</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Oxygen supply to the heart has been hypothesized to limit cardiac performance and whole animal acute thermal tolerance (CTmax) in fish. We tested these hypotheses by continuously measuring venous oxygen tension (Pvo2) and cardiovascular variables in vivo during acute <span class="hlt">warming</span> in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) from a reference area during summer (18°C) and a chronically heated area (Biotest enclosure) that receives <span class="hlt">warm</span> effluent water from a nuclear power plant and is normally 5-10°C above ambient (24°C at the time of experiments). While CTmax was 2.2°C higher in Biotest compared with reference perch, the peaks in cardiac output and heart rate prior to CTmax occurred at statistically similar Pvo2 values (2.3-4.0 kPa), suggesting that cardiac failure occurred at a common critical Pvo2 threshold. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> hyperoxia (200% air saturation) increased Pvo2 across temperatures in reference fish, but heart rate still declined at a similar temperature. CTmax of reference fish increased slightly (by 0.9°C) in hyperoxia, but remained significantly lower than in Biotest fish despite an improved cardiac output due to an elevated stroke volume. Thus, while cardiac oxygen supply appears critical to elevate stroke volume at high temperatures, oxygen limitation may not explain the bradycardia and arrhythmia that occur prior to CTmax Acute thermal tolerance and its thermal plasticity can, therefore, only be partially attributed to cardiac failure from myocardial oxygen limitations, and likely involves limiting factors on multiple organizational levels. PMID:27280433</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245289','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245289"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> up to the idea: Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is here</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lynch, C.F.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>This article summarizes recent information about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as well as the history of greenhouse gas emissions which have lead to more and more evidence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The primary source detailed is the second major study report on global <span class="hlt">warming</span> by the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Along with comments about the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> such as coastline submersion, the economic, social and political aspects of alleviating greenhouse emissions and the threat of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21524140','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21524140"><span id="translatedtitle">Tocopherol concentration in almond oil: genetic variation and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects under <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kodad, Ossama; Estopañán, Gloria; Juan, Teresa; Mamouni, Ali; Socias i Company, Rafel</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>The concentration of the different tocopherol homologues in almond kernel oil was determined in 17 almond cultivars grown in two different experimental orchards, in Spain and Morocco. The three main homologues showed a large variability, ranging from 210.9 to 553.4 mg/kg of oil for α-tocopherol, from 4.64 to 14.92 mg/kg for γ-tocopherol, and from 0.2 to 1.02 mg/kg for δ-tocopherol. The year effect was significant, independent of the experimental site, for all homologues and total tocopherol, the values of α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and total tocopherol being higher in 2009 than in 2008, whereas the value of δ-tocopherol was higher in 2008. The location effect was also significant, the values of γ- and δ-tocopherol being higher in Spain than in Morocco, whereas for α-tocopherol the location effect was dependent on the genotype. These effects could not be explained by the temperature differences between sites, but probably other undetermined <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors might explain the effect of the location, such as rainfall and irrigation supplementation during fruit growing and ripening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1150900','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1150900"><span id="translatedtitle">An Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential Refrigerants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26640680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26640680"><span id="translatedtitle">Macroscale intraspecific variation and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity: analysis of cold and <span class="hlt">warm</span> zone abundance, mortality, and regeneration distributions of four eastern US tree species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prasad, Anantha M</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>I test for macroscale intraspecific variation of abundance, mortality, and regeneration of four eastern US tree species (Tsuga canadensis,Betula lenta,Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus prinus) by splitting them into three climatic zones based on plant hardiness zones (PHZs). The primary goals of the analysis are to assess the differences in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity and demographic responses among climatic zones, map regional species groups based on decision tree rules, and evaluate univariate and multivariate patterns of species demography with respect to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables. I use the Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) data to derive abundance, mortality, and regeneration indices and split the range into three climatic zones based on USDA PHZs: (1) cold adapted, leading region; (2) middle, well-adapted region; and (3) <span class="hlt">warm</span> adapted, trailing region. I employ decision tree ensemble methods to assess the importance of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> predictors on the abundance of the species between the cold and <span class="hlt">warm</span> zones and map zonal variations in species groups. Multivariate regression trees are used to simultaneously explore abundance, mortality, and regeneration in tandem to assess species vulnerability. Analyses point to the relative importance of climate in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> adapted, trailing zone (especially moisture) compared to the cold adapted, leading zone. Higher mortality and lower regeneration patterns in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> trailing zone point to its vulnerability to growing season temperature and precipitation changes that could figure more prominently in the future. This study highlights the need to account for intraspecific variation of demography in order to understand <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity and differential adaptation. It provides a methodology for assessing the vulnerability of tree species by delineating climatic zones based on easily available PHZ data, and FIA derived abundance, mortality, and regeneration indices as a proxy for overall growth and fitness. Based on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChJME..28.1163G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChJME..28.1163G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> analysis of deteriorated sub-sea pipelines under <span class="hlt">environmental</span> loads</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gücüyen, Engin</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The significant point is the bidirectional interaction technique in FSI analysis while investigating subsea corrosion effect. By this way, pipe environment is accurately modelled and fluid effects are also considered. The effect of external corrosion defects on structural behaviour of a pipeline is studied by creating a nonlinear <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model based on the finite element method according to ABAQUS analysis program. Corrosion losses of sections are obtained from experimental results and applied to the model. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> model is formed by a span of sub-sea pipeline that is subjected to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> loads. Seismic and wind-generated irregular wave loads are considered as <span class="hlt">environmental</span> loads. Irregular wave is represented with equivalent eight regular waves via FFT. The pipe is modelled according to two different types which are non-corroded(intact) and corroded (deteriorated) to demonstrate corrosion effects on it. The visible type of corrosion in marine environment is named `pitting' corrosion, in which the material loss is locally interpenetrated over the surface. By considering this situation, the corroded and non-corroded pipes are modelled as 3D solid elements. The main point is revealing how the subsea corrosion affects the structural behaviour of pipelines on the basis of implementation of experimental results to a model structure due to changes of stresses and displacement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........10Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........10Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Simulation of <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Flow over Urban Landscape for Applications to Renewable Energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ying, Xiaoyan</p> <p></p> <p>Development of renewable energy solutions has become a major interest among <span class="hlt">environmental</span> organizations and governments around the world due to an increase in energy consumption and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. One fast growing renewable energy solution is the application of wind energy in cities. To qualitative and quantitative predict wind turbine performance in urban areas, CFD simulation is performed on real-life urban geometry and wind velocity profiles are evaluated. Two geometries in Arizona is selected in this thesis to demonstrate the influence of building heights; one of the simulation models, ASU campus, is relatively low rise and without significant tall buildings; the other model, the downtown phoenix model, are high-rise and with greater building height difference. The content of this thesis focuses on using RANS computational fluid dynamics approach to simulate wind acceleration phenomenon in two complex geometries, ASU campus and Phoenix downtown model. Additionally, acceleration ratio and locations are predicted, the results are then used to calculate the best location for small wind turbine installments.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+effects&pg=6&id=EJ391198','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+effects&pg=6&id=EJ391198"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hileman, Bette</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>States the foundations of the theory of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend. Recognizes many sources for the <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ1046268','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ1046268"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Attitude Using Climate Change Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Bin Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate change generally and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/143495','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/143495"><span id="translatedtitle">National US public policy on global <span class="hlt">warming</span> derived from optimization of energy use and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reck, R.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>This paper will discuss possible United States policy responses to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The components of a voluntary program for emissions control will be presented as well as regulatory options, including a carbon tax and tradeable permits. The advantages and disadvantages of both options will be discussed as well as the need for a consistent overall policy response to climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964200','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964200"><span id="translatedtitle">Life Cycle Assessment of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Ethanol - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Heath, G. A.; Hsu, D. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Mann, M. K.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP), water use, and net energy value (NEV) associated with the EISA-mandated 16 bgy cellulosic biofuels target, which is assumed in this study to be met by cellulosic-based ethanol, and the EISA-mandated 15 bgy conventional corn ethanol target. Specifically, this study compares, on a per-kilometer-driven basis, the GWP, water use, and NEV for the year 2022 for several biomass feedstocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED111667.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED111667.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerous</span> <span class="hlt">Numerals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Henle, James M.</p> <p></p> <p>This pamphlet consists of 17 brief chapters, each containing a discussion of a <span class="hlt">numeration</span> system and a set of problems on the use of that system. The <span class="hlt">numeration</span> systems used include Egyptian fractions, ordinary continued fractions and variants of that method, and systems using positive and negative bases. The book is informal and addressed to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPSJ...85f4003T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPSJ...85f4003T"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupled-Double-Quantum-Dot <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Information Engines: A <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanabe, Katsuaki</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We conduct <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations for an autonomous information engine comprising a set of coupled double quantum dots using a simple model. The steady-state entropy production rate in each component, heat and electron transfer rates are calculated via the probability distribution of the four electronic states from the master transition-rate equations. We define an information-engine efficiency based on the entropy change of the reservoir, implicating power generators that employ the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> order as a new energy resource. We acquire device-design principles, toward the realization of corresponding practical energy converters, including that (1) higher energy levels of the detector-side reservoir than those of the detector dot provide significantly higher work production rates by faster states' circulation, (2) the efficiency is strongly dependent on the relative temperatures of the detector and system sides and becomes high in a particular Coulomb-interaction strength region between the quantum dots, and (3) the efficiency depends little on the system dot's energy level relative to its reservoir but largely on the antisymmetric relative amplitudes of the electronic tunneling rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103965"><span id="translatedtitle">Body mapping of cutaneous wetness perception across the human torso during thermo-neutral and <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> exposures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filingeri, Davide; Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Sensing skin wetness is linked to inputs arising from cutaneous cold-sensitive afferents. As thermosensitivity to cold varies significantly across the torso, we investigated whether similar regional differences in wetness perception exist. We also investigated the regional differences in thermal pleasantness and whether these sensory patterns are influenced by ambient temperature. Sixteen males (20 ± 2 yr) underwent a quantitative sensory test under thermo-neutral [air temperature (Tair) = 22°C; relative humidity (RH) = 50%] and <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions (Tair = 33°C; RH = 50%). Twelve regions of the torso were stimulated with a dry thermal probe (25 cm(2)) with a temperature of 15°C below local skin temperature (Tsk). Variations in Tsk, thermal, wetness, and pleasantness sensations were recorded. As a result of the same cold-dry stimulus, the skin-cooling response varied significantly by location (P = 0.003). The lateral chest showed the greatest cooling (-5 ± 0.4°C), whereas the lower back showed the smallest (-1.9 ± 0.4°C). Thermal sensations varied significantly by location and independently from regional variations in skin cooling with colder sensations reported on the lateral abdomen and lower back. Similarly, the frequency of perceived skin wetness was significantly greater on the lateral and lower back as opposed to the medial chest. Overall wetness perception was slightly higher under <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions. Significantly more unpleasant sensations were recorded when the lateral abdomen and lateral and lower back were stimulated. We conclude that humans present regional differences in skin wetness perception across the torso, with a pattern similar to the regional differences in thermosensitivity to cold. These findings indicate the presence of a heterogeneous distribution of cold-sensitive thermo-afferent information. PMID:25103965</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103965"><span id="translatedtitle">Body mapping of cutaneous wetness perception across the human torso during thermo-neutral and <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> exposures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filingeri, Davide; Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Sensing skin wetness is linked to inputs arising from cutaneous cold-sensitive afferents. As thermosensitivity to cold varies significantly across the torso, we investigated whether similar regional differences in wetness perception exist. We also investigated the regional differences in thermal pleasantness and whether these sensory patterns are influenced by ambient temperature. Sixteen males (20 ± 2 yr) underwent a quantitative sensory test under thermo-neutral [air temperature (Tair) = 22°C; relative humidity (RH) = 50%] and <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions (Tair = 33°C; RH = 50%). Twelve regions of the torso were stimulated with a dry thermal probe (25 cm(2)) with a temperature of 15°C below local skin temperature (Tsk). Variations in Tsk, thermal, wetness, and pleasantness sensations were recorded. As a result of the same cold-dry stimulus, the skin-cooling response varied significantly by location (P = 0.003). The lateral chest showed the greatest cooling (-5 ± 0.4°C), whereas the lower back showed the smallest (-1.9 ± 0.4°C). Thermal sensations varied significantly by location and independently from regional variations in skin cooling with colder sensations reported on the lateral abdomen and lower back. Similarly, the frequency of perceived skin wetness was significantly greater on the lateral and lower back as opposed to the medial chest. Overall wetness perception was slightly higher under <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions. Significantly more unpleasant sensations were recorded when the lateral abdomen and lateral and lower back were stimulated. We conclude that humans present regional differences in skin wetness perception across the torso, with a pattern similar to the regional differences in thermosensitivity to cold. These findings indicate the presence of a heterogeneous distribution of cold-sensitive thermo-afferent information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PrOce..86...39K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PrOce..86...39K"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variability and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario on Pacific bluefin tuna ( Thunnus orientalis) spawning grounds and recruitment habitat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kimura, Shingo; Kato, Yoshiki; Kitagawa, Takashi; Yamaoka, Naoki</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Pacific bluefin tuna ( Thunnus orientalis) have spawning grounds in waters stretching from south of Okinawa to east of Taiwan. This species is typical of fishes that spawn seasonally in small, limited areas. Any marked change in the marine environment of the spawning grounds is likely to have a direct impact on larval survival and growth. We conducted rearing experiments on larvae to investigate these impacts and found that a reduction in temperature resulted in poor growth during the juvenile stage, even if larval survival rates did not change. In the wild, this reduced growth rate is likely to reduce survival rates because smaller juveniles have poorer swimming ability and their ability to avoid predators is also reduced. This is especially important since the Kuroshio current, which connects the spawning grounds to the nursery grounds, transports larvae rapidly because of its faster surface current (the western boundary current), thus larvae arriving too quickly in coastal waters can be exposed to very cold temperatures. An ocean model (MIROC) simulation under a climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario ( IPCC, 2007) predicted that the temperature in the spawning ground would be 3 °C higher in 2100 than in present time, while the transport to nursery grounds would also be faster. In this case, the combination of several mechanisms would control the recruitment of juvenile bluefin. On the spawning grounds, high temperatures exceeding the optimal range would increase larvae mortality and any surviving larvae would reach the nursery grounds more quickly, but warmer coastal waters would have less negative impact on their growth. We forced a model of larval drift with MIROC output fields to study the complex response of bluefin tuna recruitment. As a result, the predicted survival rates of larvae arriving in Japanese coastal waters in 2100 would decline to 36% of present recruitment levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040084464','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040084464"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of Simulated <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Rain Formation to Collision and Coalescence Efficiencies, Breakup, and Turbulence: Comparison of Two Bin-Resolved <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fridlind, Ann; Seifert, Axel; Ackerman, Andrew; Jensen, Eric</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> models that resolve cloud particles into discrete mass size distributions on an Eulerian grid provide a uniquely powerful means of studying the closely coupled interaction of aerosols, cloud microphysics, and transport that determine cloud properties and evolution. However, such models require many experimentally derived paramaterizations in order to properly represent the complex interactions of droplets within turbulent flow. Many of these parameterizations remain poorly quantified, and the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> methods of solving the equations for temporal evolution of the mass size distribution can also vary considerably in terms of efficiency and accuracy. In this work, we compare results from two size-resolved microphysics models that employ various widely-used parameterizations and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solution methods for several aspects of stochastic collection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=atmosphere+AND+composition&id=EJ484206','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=atmosphere+AND+composition&id=EJ484206"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (PR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003etgw.book.....U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003etgw.book.....U"><span id="translatedtitle">Economic Theory and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uzawa, Hirofumi</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Hirofumi Uzawa's theoretical framework addresses three major problems concerning global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> hazards. First, it considers all phenomena involved with global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues that exhibit externalities of one kind or another. Secondly, it covers global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues involving international and intergenerational equity and justice. Lastly, it deals with global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues concerning the management of the atmosphere, the oceans, water, soil, and other natural resources having to be decided by a consensus of affected countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRB..118.2777G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRB..118.2777G"><span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation to investigate regional hydrothermal basins—Norris Geyser Basin area, Yellowstone National Park, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gardner, W. Payton; Susong, David D.; Solomon, D. Kip; Heasler, Henry P.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Heat and fluid flow fields are simulated for several conceptual permeability fields and compared to processes inferred from <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers in springs around Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. Large hydrothermal basins require specific permeability distributions in the upper crust. High permeability connections must exist between the land surface and high-temperature environments at depths of up to 5 km. The highest modeled temperatures are produced with a vertical conduit permeability of 10-15m2. Permeability at depths of 3-5 km must be within one order of magnitude of the near-surface permeability and must be ≥10-16m2. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> tracers from springs are used to develop a plausible <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model of the local to regional groundwater flow field for the Norris Geyser Basin area. The model simulations provide insight into the dynamics of heat and fluid flow in a large regional hydrothermal system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMED31A1364S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMED31A1364S"><span id="translatedtitle">Creating an informed citizenry through SMOGEE: Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Education: The Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Road Show</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schuster, D. A.; Thomas, C. W.; Filippelli, G. M.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Creating an informed citizenry through the promotion of the earth sciences as a long-term educational and employment option has become increasingly difficult: In recent years less than 7% of high school students and less than 12% of 8th graders in our nation have participated in an earth science course. These percentages are even lower among students of color, who often lack role models in the sciences. SMOGEE: Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Education: The Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Road Show; is a dynamic, three-phase, tiered mentoring program that selects and empowers 11th and 12th graders from science magnet programs to teach well-known and tested climate change curricula to 8th graders from local feeder schools. This program, which was recently funded by the National Science Foundation, focuses on a student population comprised of 75% non-white students and above 50% students on free or reduced lunch, and will be supported by an expert team consisting of university scientists and science educators, secondary science teachers, and museum educators. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> provides an outstanding "teachable moment" in that the processes leading to it are straightforward, but the net rate of impact and the human response are not so simple. This topic is also media- friendly (being politically sensitive, but also easy to translate in terms of rising temperatures and sea level, melting of ice sheets, possible increases in hurricane activity), and nearly all students have been exposed to information about climate change. However, students are probably not as aware of the geologic context of climate change, which provides nearly all of the scenarios for the potential impacts of future climate change. The 8th grade curriculum for this program is being developed primarily using Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and the Greenhouse Effect (Great Explorations in Math and Science, 1990). The expert team will supplement and further develop this 15 year old curriculum with recent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1487..127L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1487..127L"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">numerical</span> approach to the non-convex dynamic problem of pipeline-soil interaction under <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liolios, K.; Georgiev, I.; Liolios, A.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">numerical</span> approach for a problem arising in Civil and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Engineering is presented. This problem concerns the dynamic soil-pipeline interaction, when unilateral contact conditions due to tensionless and elastoplastic softening/fracturing behaviour of the soil as well as due to gapping caused by earthquake excitations are taken into account. Moreover, soil-capacity degradation due to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects are taken into account. The mathematical formulation of this dynamic elastoplasticity problem leads to a system of partial differential equations with equality domain and inequality boundary conditions. The proposed <span class="hlt">numerical</span> approach is based on a double discretization, in space and time, and on mathematical programming methods. First, in space the finite element method (FEM) is used for the simulation of the pipeline and the unilateral contact interface, in combination with the boundary element method (BEM) for the soil simulation. Concepts of the non-convex analysis are used. Next, with the aid of Laplace transform, the equality problem conditions are transformed to convolutional ones involving as unknowns the unilateral quantities only. So the number of unknowns is significantly reduced. Then a marching-time approach is applied and a non-convex linear complementarity problem is solved in each time-step.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5455141','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5455141"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; What needs to be done</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1991-04-01</p> <p>This paper names global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as a high-level risk. However, global <span class="hlt">warming</span>'s risk status is a point of debate in some circles, reflecting one of the complexities of using risk-based criteria to establish priorities for action. The position that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a long-term <span class="hlt">environmental</span> trend that must be halted. In this paper, argument son both sides of the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> issue are presented to illustrate the difficulties associated with establishing the existence and magnitude of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and health risks, an issue that must be faced if the SAB recommendations for EPA policy change are implemented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B43A0267C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B43A0267C"><span id="translatedtitle">Delayed flowering and global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter <span class="hlt">warming</span> may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but their responses to winter and spring <span class="hlt">warming</span> are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse <span class="hlt">environmental</span> cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8488072','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8488072"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: trends and effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tickell, C</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>As animals we have been a remarkably successful species; but also as animals we are vulnerable to <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, in particular climate change. Such change is accelerating as a result of human activity, and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> may already be taking place. Although we can foresee the trends, we cannot yet be specific about the results. Change usually proceeds by steps rather than gradients. But <span class="hlt">warming</span> would probably include new risks to human health and contribute to an increase in human displacement. Of course climate change is only one among other complex problems facing human society, but it is closely related to them all, including population increase, <span class="hlt">environmental</span> degradation and loss of biodiversity. We cannot prevent global <span class="hlt">warming</span> but we can anticipate and mitigate some of its worst effects. Peoples and governments still need persuading of the need for action and of the magnitude of the issue at stake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6613W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6613W"><span id="translatedtitle">OneRTM: an online real-time modelling platform for the next generation of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> <span class="hlt">environmental</span> modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Lei; Kingdon, Andrew</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> modelling has been applied in many fields to better understand and predict the behaviours of different processes. In our increasingly dynamic world there is an imperative to identify potential stresses and threats in the environment and to respond quickly with sound decisions. However, the limitations in traditional modelling methodologies make it difficult to respond quickly to rapidly developing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> events, such as floods, droughts and pollution incidents. For example, it is both time consuming and costly to keep model data up-to-date and also to disseminate models results and modelled output datasets to end-users. Crucially it is difficult for people who has limited <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling skills to understand and interact with models and modelled results. In response to these challenges, a proof-of-concept online real-time modelling platform (OneRTM) has been developed as a mechanism for maintaining and disseminating <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models and datasets. This automatically keeps models current for the most recent input data, links models based on data flow; it makes models and modelled datasets (historic, real-time and forecasted) immediately available via the internet as easy-to-understand dynamic GIS layers and graphs; and it provides online modelling functions to allow non-modellers to manipulate model including running pre-defined scenarios with a few mouse clicks. OneRTM has been successfully applied and tested in the Chalk groundwater flow modelling in the Thames Basin, UK. The system hosts and links groundwater recharge and groundwater flow models in the case study area, and automatically publishes the latest groundwater level layers on the internet once the current weather datasets becomes available. It also provides online functions of generating groundwater hydrograph and running groundwater abstraction scenarios. Although OneRTM is currently tested using groundwater flow modelling as an example, it could be further developed into a platform</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17681640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17681640"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid endovascular <span class="hlt">warming</span> for profound hypothermia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laniewicz, Megan; Lyn-Kew, Kenneth; Silbergleit, Robert</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Profound hypothermia is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Optimal outcomes have been reported with invasive extracorporeal <span class="hlt">warming</span> techniques not readily available in most hospitals. Endovascular <span class="hlt">warming</span> devices may provide a less invasive alternative. A 68-year-old woman developed profound hypothermia after <span class="hlt">environmental</span> exposure. On arrival, she was comatose, severely bradycardic, without palpable pulses, and with a core body temperature of 23.0 degrees C (72 degrees F). Attempts to <span class="hlt">warm</span> her with traditional methods during 2 hours were ineffective. An endovascular temperature control system was placed and effectively <span class="hlt">warmed</span> the patient at about 3 degrees C (4.5 degrees F) per hour, with return of hemodynamic stability. When hypothermia is profound, surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> works poorly and invasive strategies, including cardiopulmonary bypass, are recommended. Rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> from profound hypothermia can be accomplished with endovascular systems, and these may be an effective alternative to more invasive extracorporeal methods. PMID:17681640</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10179469','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10179469"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the response of the California Current system to global greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Final report to the National Institute for Global <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Change (August 1993)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pares-Sierra, A.; Somerville, R.C.J.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>This is the final report for the project ``Modeling the Response of the California Current System to Global Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Warming</span>,`` supported 1990 and 1991 by NIGEC. The scientists involved are Dr. Richard C.J. Somerville and Alejandro Paries-Sierra of Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD. A copy of papers submitted to the Journal of Physical Oceanography, and Geofisica Internacional that were supported in part or whole by WEST-GEC, as well as a summary of a talk delivered at the XX General Assembly of the IUGG, Vienna (1991) are appended to this report. The objective of the research was to improve the understanding of the response of the California Current system to the large-scale anomalous forcing thought to be associated with greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The authors viewed this as a necessary initial step in the study of the California climate response to global change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311675&keyword=computing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68433898&CFTOKEN=59974888','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311675&keyword=computing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68433898&CFTOKEN=59974888"><span id="translatedtitle">Science Supporting <span class="hlt">Numeric</span> Nutrient Criteria for Lakes and Their Watersheds: A Synopsis of Research Completed for the US <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Nutrient pollution remains one of the most prevalent causes of water quality impairment in the United States. The U.S. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency’s (EPA) approach to addressing the challenge of managing nutrient pollution has included supporting development of <span class="hlt">numeric</span> nutri...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AAS...200.3309H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AAS...200.3309H"><span id="translatedtitle">Diffuse, <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Ionized Gas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haffner, L. M.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>Over the past decade, new high-sensitivity observations have significantly advanced our knowledge of the diffuse, ionized gas in spiral galaxies. This component of the interstellar medium, often referred to as <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Ionized Medium (WIM) or Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG), plays an important role in the complex stellar-interstellar matter and energy cycle. In examining the distribution and physical properties of this gas, we learn not only about the conditions of the medium but also about processes providing heating and ionization in the halos of spiral galaxies. For the Milky Way, three new Hα surveys are available providing large sky coverage, arc-minute spatial resolution, and the ability to kinematically resolve this prominent optical emission line. These new, global views show that the <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Ionized Medium of the Galaxy is ubiquitous as previously suspected, is rich with filamentary structure down to current resolution limits, and can be traced into the halo at large distances from the Galactic plane. Observations of additional optical emission lines are beginning to probe the physical conditions of the WIM. Early results suggest variations in the temperature and ionization state of the gas which are not adequately explained by Lyman continuum stellar photoionization alone. In parallel with this intensive work in the Milky Way have been <span class="hlt">numerous</span> studies about the diffuse, ionized gas in other spiral galaxies. Here, deep, face-on spiral investigations provide some of the best maps of the global DIG distribution in a galaxy and begin to allow a probe of the local link between star formation and the powering of ionized gas. In addition, ionized gas has been traced out to impressive distances (z > 3 kpc) in edge-on spirals, revealing out large-scale changes in the physical conditions and kinematics of galactic halos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=physical+AND+warm&pg=5&id=EJ404495','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=physical+AND+warm&pg=5&id=EJ404495"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Up with Skill.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hoyle, R. J.; Smith, Robert F.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Too little time is often spent on <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up activities in the school or recreation class. <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-ups are often perfunctory and unimaginative. Several suggestions are made for <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up activities that incorporate both previously learned and new skills, while preparing the body for more vigorous activity. (IAH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5498829','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5498829"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Oversight of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, December 10, 1985</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Scientists and public officials testified at a hearing held to explore the evidence and speculation that a <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend is changing the global environment that was the conclusion of a 29-nation conference of private and government scientists. The witnesses described the potential <span class="hlt">environmental</span> destruction caused by the greenhouse effect, but also noted that technological solutions in the form of controlling gases and reforestation are available. A consensus has emerged in recent years that gases formed under the greenhouse effect will have a greater effect on climate than any other factor. The witnesses included Ralph Circerone of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Syukuro Manage of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Carl Sagan of Cornell. Two additional statements submitted for the record follow the testimony of the six witnesses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21406244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21406244"><span id="translatedtitle">An experimental test of the role of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperature variability on ectotherm molecular, physiological and life-history traits: implications for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Folguera, Guillermo; Bastías, Daniel A; Caers, Jelle; Rojas, José M; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Bellés, Xavier; Bozinovic, Francisco</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Global climate change is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity; one of the most important effects is the increase in the mean earth surface temperature. However, another but poorly studied main characteristic of global change appears to be an increase in temperature variability. Most of the current analyses of global change have focused on mean values, paying less attention to the role of the fluctuations of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables. We experimentally tested the effects of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperature variability on characteristics associated to the fitness (body mass balance, growth rate, and survival), metabolic rate (VCO(2)) and molecular traits (heat shock protein expression, Hsp70), in an ectotherm, the terrestrial woodlouse Porcellio laevis. Our general hypotheses are that higher values of thermal amplitude may directly affect life-history traits, increasing metabolic cost and stress responses. At first, results supported our hypotheses showing a diversity of responses among characters to the experimental thermal treatments. We emphasize that knowledge about the cellular and physiological mechanisms by which animals cope with <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes is essential to understand the impact of mean climatic change and variability. Also, we consider that the studies that only incorporate only mean temperatures to predict the life-history, ecological and evolutionary impact of global temperature changes present important problems to predict the diversity of responses of the organism. This is because the analysis ignores the complexity and details of the molecular and physiological processes by which animals cope with <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variability, as well as the life-history and demographic consequences of such variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21591249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21591249"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the designated use attainment decision error rates of US <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency's proposed <span class="hlt">numeric</span> total phosphorus criteria for Florida, USA, colored lakes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McLaughlin, Douglas B</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The utility of <span class="hlt">numeric</span> nutrient criteria established for certain surface waters is likely to be affected by the uncertainty that exists in the presence of a causal link between nutrient stressor variables and designated use-related biological responses in those waters. This uncertainty can be difficult to characterize, interpret, and communicate to a broad audience of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stakeholders. The US <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a systematic planning process to support a variety of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> decisions, but this process is not generally applied to the development of national or state-level <span class="hlt">numeric</span> nutrient criteria. This article describes a method for implementing such an approach and uses it to evaluate the <span class="hlt">numeric</span> total P criteria recently proposed by USEPA for colored lakes in Florida, USA. An empirical, log-linear relationship between geometric mean concentrations of total P (a potential stressor variable) and chlorophyll a (a nutrient-related response variable) in these lakes-that is assumed to be causal in nature-forms the basis for the analysis. The use of the geometric mean total P concentration of a lake to correctly indicate designated use status, defined in terms of a 20 µg/L geometric mean chlorophyll a threshold, is evaluated. Rates of decision errors analogous to the Type I and Type II error rates familiar in hypothesis testing, and a 3rd error rate, E(ni) , referred to as the nutrient criterion-based impairment error rate, are estimated. The results show that USEPA's proposed "baseline" and "modified" nutrient criteria approach, in which data on both total P and chlorophyll a may be considered in establishing <span class="hlt">numeric</span> nutrient criteria for a given lake within a specified range, provides a means for balancing and minimizing designated use attainment decision errors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..163Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..163Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Relative roles of differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span>, uniform SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> and land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in determining the Walker circulation changes under global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Lei; Li, Tim</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Most of CMIP5 models projected a weakened Walker circulation in tropical Pacific, but what causes such change is still an open question. By conducting idealized <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations separating the effects of the spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) <span class="hlt">warming</span>, extra land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> and differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span>, we demonstrate that the weakening of the Walker circulation is attributed to the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon and South America land effects. The effect of the uniform SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> is through so-called "richest-get-richer" mechanism. In response to a uniform surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the WNP monsoon is enhanced by competing moisture with other large-scale convective branches. The strengthened WNP monsoon further induces surface westerlies in the equatorial western-central Pacific, weakening the Walker circulation. The increase of the greenhouse gases leads to a larger land surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> than ocean surface. As a result, a greater thermal contrast occurs between American Continent and equatorial Pacific. The so-induced zonal pressure gradient anomaly forces low-level westerly anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and weakens the Walker circulation. The differential SST <span class="hlt">warming</span> also plays a role in driving low-level westerly anomalies over tropical Pacific. But such an effect involves a positive air-sea feedback that amplifies the weakening of both east-west SST gradient and Pacific trade winds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005487','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005487"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span>/cold cloud processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bowdle, D. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Technical assistance continued in support of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory is discussed. A study of factors affecting <span class="hlt">warm</span> cloud formation showed that the time of formation during an arbitrary expansion is independent of carrier gas composition for ideal gases and independent of aerosol concentration for low concentrations of very small aerosols. Equipment and procedures for gravimetric evaluation of a precision saturator were laboratory tested. A <span class="hlt">numerical</span> feasibility study was conducted for the stable levitation of charged solution droplets by an electric field in a one-g static diffusion chamber. The concept, operating principles, applications, limits, and sensitivity of the levitation technique are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26043384','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26043384"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> autoimmune hemolytic anemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naik, Rakhi</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is defined as the destruction of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) in the setting of anti-RBC autoantibodies that optimally react at 37°C. The pathophysiology of disease involves phagocytosis of autoantibody-coated RBCs in the spleen and complement-mediated hemolysis. Thus far, treatment is aimed at decreasing autoantibody production with immunosuppression or reducing phagocytosis of affected cells in the spleen. The role of complement inhibitors in <span class="hlt">warm</span> AIHA has not been explored. This article addresses the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of <span class="hlt">warm</span> AIHA and highlights the role of complement in disease pathology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A21B0007L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A21B0007L"><span id="translatedtitle">Can Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> be Stopped?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luria, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> have been reported in <span class="hlt">numerous</span> occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater <span class="hlt">environmental</span> hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dinosaurs&pg=5&id=EJ658270','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dinosaurs&pg=5&id=EJ658270"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cool Dinosaurs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mannlein, Sally</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7259678','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7259678"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft global <span class="hlt">warming</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The 1990 Resource Program Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Study examines potential Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) resource alternatives related to the risk of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The study evaluates strategies for reducing net carbon emissions, and identifies the net carbon contribution of certain resource strategies designed to reduce those emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the greenhouse gas'' most associated with electricity production. The main purpose of the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> study is to identify possible courses of action that BPA might take to reduce its contributions to the risk of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and to estimate the efficacy and costs of each approach. The principal measure of effectiveness is the reduction in total atmospheric carbon emissions compared to a base case. 13 refs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000726','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000726"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconciling <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew T.; Tsigaridis, Konstantinos</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Climate models projected stronger <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the past 15 years than has been seen in observations. Conspiring factors of errors in volcanic and solar inputs, representations of aerosols, and El NiNo evolution, may explain most of the discrepancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030005428','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030005428"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Hands and Feet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Comfort Products, Inc. was responsible for the cold weather glove and thermal boots, adapted from a spacesuit design that kept astronauts <span class="hlt">warm</span> or cool in the temperature extremes of the Apollo Moon Mission. Gloves and boots are thermally heated. Batteries are worn inside wrist of glove or sealed in sole of skiboot and are rechargeable hundreds of times. They operate flexible resistance circuit which is turned on periodically when wearer wants to be <span class="hlt">warm</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P21G..01M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P21G..01M"><span id="translatedtitle">Polar <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Drivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McDunn, T. L.; Bougher, S. W.; Mischna, M. A.; Murphy, J. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a dynamically induced temperature enhancement over mid-to-high latitudes that results in a reversed (poleward) meridional temperature gradient. This phenomenon was recently characterized over the 40-90 km altitude region [1] based on nearly three martian years of Mars Climate Sounder observations [2, 3]. Here we investigate which forcing mechanisms affect the magnitude and distribution of the observed polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> by conducting simulations with the Mars Weather Research and Forecasting General Circulation Model [4, 5]. We present simulations confirming the influence topography [6] and dust loading [e.g., 7] have upon polar <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We then present simulations illustrating the modulating influence gravity wave momentum deposition exerts upon polar <span class="hlt">warming</span>, consistent with previous modeling studies [e.g., 8]. The results of this investigation suggest the magnitude and distribution of polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the martian middle atmosphere is modified by gravity wave activity and that the characteristics of the gravity waves that most significantly affect polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> vary with season. References: [1] McDunn, et al., 2012 (JGR), [2]Kleinböhl, et al., 2009 (JGR), [3] Kleinböhl, et al., 2011 (JQSRT), [4] Richardson, et al., 2007 (JGR), [5] Mischna, et al., 2011 (Planet. Space Sci.), [6] Richardson and Wilson, 2002 (Nature), [7] Haberle, et al., 1982 (Icarus), [8] Barnes, 1990 (JGR).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/153561','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/153561"><span id="translatedtitle">Long range global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>This paper explores one of the causes of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global <span class="hlt">warming</span> also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5...37T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5...37T"><span id="translatedtitle">Acting green elicits a literal <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> policies are often based on the assumption that people only act <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow could express itself quite literally: people who act <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-<span class="hlt">environmental</span> actions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19062328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19062328"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and sexual plant reproduction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hedhly, Afif; Hormaza, José I; Herrero, María</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The sexual reproductive phase in plants might be particularly vulnerable to the effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The direct effect of temperature changes on the reproductive process has been documented previously, and recent data from other physiological processes that are affected by rising temperatures seem to reinforce the susceptibility of the reproductive process to a changing climate. But the reproductive phase also provides the plant with an opportunity to adapt to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes. Understanding phenotypic plasticity and gametophyte selection for prevailing temperatures, along with possible epigenetic changes during this process, could provide new insights into plant evolution under a global-<span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760037250&hterms=quiroz&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dquiroz','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760037250&hterms=quiroz&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dquiroz"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of observed and simulated properties of sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Quiroz, R. S.; Miller, A. J.; Nagatani, R. M.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Review of observational data and dynamical <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations of stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. Classes of <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, major and minor (major if poleward movement of planetary-scale thermal systems entails reversal of polar circulation at 10 mb or below), trajectories of <span class="hlt">warm</span> cells, vertical and horizontal scale of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-air systems, the time-scale of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, initial zonal flow conditions prior to a <span class="hlt">warming</span>, circulation reversals, and details of the energy budget before and after a <span class="hlt">warming</span> are discussed. The 1963 and 1973 types of <span class="hlt">warmings</span> are contrasted: the strong baroclinic conversion of eddy potential to eddy kinetic energy was not repeated in the latter, but both events were preceded by very large fluxes from the troposphere. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> model simulations by various authors are compared and evaluated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988EOSTr..69..820W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988EOSTr..69..820W"><span id="translatedtitle">Model predicts global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wainger, Lisa A.</p> <p></p> <p>Global greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be clearly identifiable by the 1990s, according to eight scientists who have been studying climate changes using computer models. Researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, say that by the 2010s, most of the globe will be experiencing “substantial” <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The level of <span class="hlt">warming</span> will depend on amounts of trace gases, or greenhouse gases, in the atmosphere.Predictions for the next 70 years are based on computer simulations of Earth's climate. In three runs of the model, James Hansen and his colleagues looked at the effects of changing amounts of atmospheric gases with time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23..533M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23..533M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> modeling and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> isotope methods in integrated mine-water management: a case study from the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mengistu, Haile; Tessema, Abera; Abiye, Tamiru; Demlie, Molla; Lin, Haili</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Improved groundwater flow conceptualization was achieved using <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stable isotope (ESI) and hydrochemical information to complete a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> groundwater flow model with reasonable certainty. The study aimed to assess the source of excess water at a pumping shaft located near the town of Stilfontein, North West Province, South Africa. The results indicate that the water intercepted at Margaret Shaft comes largely from seepage of a nearby mine tailings dam (Dam 5) and from the upper dolomite aquifer. If pumping at the shaft continues at the current rate and Dam 5 is decommissioned, neighbouring shallow farm boreholes would dry up within approximately 10 years. Stable isotope data of shaft water indicate that up to 50 % of the pumped water from Margaret Shaft is recirculated, mainly from Dam 5. The results are supplemented by tritium data, demonstrating that recent recharge is taking place through open fractures as well as man-made underground workings, whereas hydrochemical data of fissure water samples from roughly 950 m below ground level exhibit mine-water signatures. Pumping at the shaft, which captures shallow groundwater as well as seepage from surface dams, is a highly recommended option for preventing flooding of downstream mines. The results of this research highlight the importance of additional methods (ESI and hydrochemical analyses) to improve flow conceptualization and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/765569','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/765569"><span id="translatedtitle">A Transient <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Simulation of Perched Ground-Water Flow at the Test Reactor Area, Idaho National Engineering and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Laboratory, Idaho, 1952-94</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>B. R. Orr</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>Studies of flow through the unsaturated zone and perched ground-water zones above the Snake River Plain aquifer are part of the overall assessment of ground-water flow and determination of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Laboratory (INEEL). These studies include definition of the hydrologic controls on the formation of perched ground-water zones and description of the transport and fate of wastewater constituents as they moved through the unsaturated zone. The definition of hydrologic controls requires stratigraphic correlation of basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds within the saturated zone, analysis of hydraulic properties of unsaturated-zone rocks, <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling of the formation of perched ground-water zones, and batch and column experiments to determine rock-water geochemical processes. This report describes the development of a transient <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation that was used to evaluate a conceptual model of flow through perched ground-water zones beneath wastewater infiltration ponds at the Test Reactor Area (TRA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27250675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27250675"><span id="translatedtitle">Light accelerates plant responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Frenne, Pieter; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; De Schrijver, An; Coomes, David A; Hermy, Martin; Vangansbeke, Pieter; Verheyen, Kris</p> <p>2015-08-17</p> <p>Competition for light has profound effects on plant performance in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems. Nowhere is this more evident than in forests, where trees create <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heterogeneity that shapes the dynamics of forest-floor communities(1-3). Observational evidence suggests that biotic responses to both anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen pollution may be attenuated by the shading effects of trees and shrubs(4-9). Here we show experimentally that tree shade is slowing down changes in below-canopy communities due to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We manipulated levels of photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and nitrogen, alone and in combination, in a temperate forest understorey over a 3-year period, and monitored the composition of the understorey community. Light addition, but not nitrogen enrichment, accelerated directional plant community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, increasing the dominance of warmth-preferring taxa over cold-tolerant plants (a process described as thermophilization(6,10-12)). Tall, competitive plants took greatest advantage of the combination of elevated temperature and light. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of the forest floor did not result in strong community thermophilization unless light was also increased. Our findings suggest that the maintenance of locally closed canopy conditions could reduce, at least temporarily, <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced changes in forest floor plant communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mural&pg=3&id=EJ1002704','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mural&pg=3&id=EJ1002704"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cool Cityscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jubelirer, Shelly</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5077538','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5077538"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward international law on global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shultz, E.B. Jr.; Johns, C.; Pauken, M.T. )</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Legal precedent in the history of international <span class="hlt">environmental</span> law is considered. Then, the legal principles, rights and obligations related to transboundary <span class="hlt">environmental</span> interference are drawn from the precedent. From this legal and historical background, and a brief overview of the principal technical aspects of the emerging global <span class="hlt">warming</span> problem, the authors suggest a number of possible international protocols. These include outlines of multilateral treaties on energy efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption of renewable and solar energy, and stimulation of several types of forestation, with creation of practical regimes and remedies. Each protocol has its own <span class="hlt">environmental</span> social and economic merits and urgency, apart from the prevention of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In each suggested protocol, the political obstacles are analyzed. Suggestions are presented for reduction of levels of disagreement standing in the way of obtaining viable treaties likely to be upheld in practice by the signatories. An agenda for study and action is presented, on the assumption that prudence dictates that international <span class="hlt">environmental</span> law must be expanded as soon as feasible to regulate global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ClDy...43.2569K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ClDy...43.2569K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">-induced continental <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>In this the second of a two-part study, we examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the increasing contrast of the land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) in summertime over the Far East, as observed in recent decades and revealed in future climate projections obtained from a series of transient <span class="hlt">warming</span> and sensitivity experiments conducted under the umbrella of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. On a global perspective, a strengthening of land-sea SAT contrast in the transient <span class="hlt">warming</span> simulations of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models is attributed to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). However, in boreal summer, the strengthened contrast over the Far East is reproduced only by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. In response to SST increase alone, the tropospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the interior of the mid- to high-latitude continents including Eurasia are weaker than those over the surrounding oceans, leading to a weakening of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East. Thus, the increasing contrast and associated change in atmospheric circulation over East Asia is explained by CO2-induced continental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The degree of strengthening of the land-sea SAT contrast varies in different transient <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios, but is reproduced through a combination of the CO2-induced positive and SST-induced negative contributions to the land-sea contrast. These results imply that changes of climate patterns over the land-ocean boundary regions are sensitive to future scenarios of CO2 concentration pathways including extreme cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16428292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16428292"><span id="translatedtitle">Plant community responses to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> across the tundra biome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walker, Marilyn D; Wahren, C Henrik; Hollister, Robert D; Henry, Greg H R; Ahlquist, Lorraine E; Alatalo, Juha M; Bret-Harte, M Syndonia; Calef, Monika P; Callaghan, Terry V; Carroll, Amy B; Epstein, Howard E; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Klein, Julia A; Magnússon, Borgthór; Molau, Ulf; Oberbauer, Steven F; Rewa, Steven P; Robinson, Clare H; Shaver, Gaius R; Suding, Katharine N; Thompson, Catharine C; Tolvanen, Anne; Totland, Ørjan; Turner, P Lee; Tweedie, Craig E; Webber, Patrick J; Wookey, Philip A</p> <p>2006-01-31</p> <p>Recent observations of changes in some tundra ecosystems appear to be responses to a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. Several experimental studies have shown that tundra plants and ecosystems can respond strongly to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, including <span class="hlt">warming</span>; however, most studies were limited to a single location and were of short duration and based on a variety of experimental designs. In addition, comparisons among studies are difficult because a variety of techniques have been used to achieve experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> and different measurements have been used to assess responses. We used metaanalysis on plant community measurements from standardized <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments at 11 locations across the tundra biome involved in the International Tundra Experiment. The passive <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment increased plant-level air temperature by 1-3 degrees C, which is in the range of predicted and observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> for tundra regions. Responses were rapid and detected in whole plant communities after only two growing seasons. Overall, <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased height and cover of deciduous shrubs and graminoids, decreased cover of mosses and lichens, and decreased species diversity and evenness. These results predict that <span class="hlt">warming</span> will cause a decline in biodiversity across a wide variety of tundra, at least in the short term. They also provide rigorous experimental evidence that recently observed increases in shrub cover in many tundra regions are in response to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These changes have important implications for processes and interactions within tundra ecosystems and between tundra and the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heating+AND+system&id=EJ932287','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heating+AND+system&id=EJ932287"><span id="translatedtitle">Buried in the <span class="hlt">Warm</span>, <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Ground</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ellis-Tipton, John</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Buntingsdale Infant School in Shropshire has installed an <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> friendly heating system. The school's heating system is called a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP). Buntingsdale, a three-classroom infant school in a wooden demountable building, is one of the first schools in Britain to use this system. The system is fully automatic: it is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..APRL13003H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..APRL13003H"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hobson, Art</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Every citizen's education should include socially relevant science courses because, as the American Association for the Advancement of Science puts it, "Without a scientifically literate population, the outlook for a better world is not promising." I have developed a conceptual liberal-arts physics course that covers the major principles of classical physics, emphasizes modern/contemporary physics, and includes societal topics such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, ozone depletion, transportation, exponential growth, scientific methodology, risk assessment, nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and the energy future. The societal topics, occupying only about 15% of the class time, appear to be the main cause of the surprising popularity of this course among non-scientists. I will outline some ideas for incorporating global <span class="hlt">warming</span> into such a course or into any other introductory physics course. For further details, see my textbook Physics: Concepts and Connections (Prentice Hall, 3rd edition 2003).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117o1301B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117o1301B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Little Inflaton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Ramos, Rudnei O.; Rosa, João G.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We show that inflation can naturally occur at a finite temperature T >H that is sustained by dissipative effects, when the inflaton field corresponds to a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson of a broken gauge symmetry. Similar to the Little Higgs scenarios for electroweak symmetry breaking, the flatness of the inflaton potential is protected against both quadratic divergences and the leading thermal corrections. We show that, nevertheless, nonlocal dissipative effects are naturally present and are able to sustain a nearly thermal bath of light particles despite the accelerated expansion of the Universe. As an example, we discuss the dynamics of chaotic <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation with a quartic potential and show that the associated observational predictions are in very good agreement with the latest Planck results. This model constitutes the first realization of <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation requiring only a small number of fields; in particular, the inflaton is directly coupled to just two light fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091158','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091158"><span id="translatedtitle">Accounting protesting and <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> goods--an empirical case study assessing the value of protecting a Natura 2000 wetland area in Greece.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye</p> <p>2013-11-30</p> <p>Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids are rooted to some extent in <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow reasoning while 29% of the zero bids can be classified as expressions of protest rather than preferences. In previous studies, <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidders are only rarely identified while protesters are typically identified and excluded from further analysis. We test for selection bias associated with simple removal of both protesters and <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidders in our data. Our findings show that removal of <span class="hlt">warm</span> glow bidders does not significantly distort WTP whereas we find strong evidence of selection bias associated with removal of protesters. We show how to correct for such selection bias by using a sample selection model. In our empirical sample, using the typical approach of removing protesters from the analysis, the value of protecting the wetland is significantly underestimated by as much as 46% unless correcting for selection bias.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.3397B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.3397B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> And Meltwater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bratu, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global <span class="hlt">warming</span> information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100009654','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100009654"><span id="translatedtitle">Liquid Cooling/<span class="hlt">Warming</span> Garment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Dancisak, Michael J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) currently in use was developed over 40 years ago. With the commencement of a greater number of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) procedures with the construction of the International Space Station, problems of astronaut comfort, as well as the reduction of the consumption of energy, became more salient. A shortened liquid cooling/<span class="hlt">warming</span> garment (SLCWG) has been developed based on physiological principles comparing the efficacy of heat transfer of different body zones; the capability of blood to deliver heat; individual muscle and fat body composition as a basis for individual thermal profiles to customize the zonal sections of the garment; and the development of shunts to minimize or redirect the cooling/<span class="hlt">warming</span> loop for different <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, physical activity levels, and emergency situations. The SLCWG has been designed and completed, based on extensive testing in rest, exercise, and antiorthostatic conditions. It is more energy efficient than the LCVG currently used by NASA. The total length of tubing in the SLCWG is approximately 35 percent less and the weight decreased by 20 percent compared to the LCVG. The novel features of the innovation are: 1. The efficiency of the SLCWG to maintain thermal status under extreme changes in body surface temperatures while using significantly less tubing than the LCVG. 2. The construction of the garment based on physiological principles of heat transfer. 3. The identification of the body areas that are most efficient in heat transfer. 4. The inclusion of a hood as part of the garment. 5. The lesser consumption of energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=events+AND+sustainable&pg=7&id=EJ536794','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=events+AND+sustainable&pg=7&id=EJ536794"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on the International Agenda. Teaching Strategy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Keenan-Byrne, Patricia; Malkasian, Mark</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Presents a lesson plan that teaches students the links between industrialization and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and analyzes the conflicting values and priorities involved in the debate between economic development and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> concerns. Students role play delegates from countries attending an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conference. Handouts provide background…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26879640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26879640"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">warm</span> period.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haywood, Alan M; Dowsett, Harry J; Dolan, Aisling M</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> climate models. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate <span class="hlt">environmental</span> synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change. PMID:26879640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4757764','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4757764"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">warm</span> period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> climate models. <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate <span class="hlt">environmental</span> synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change. PMID:26879640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78104','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78104"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> -- Science and anti-science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Preining, O. |</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> debate has sparked many facts activities in almost all sectors of human endeavors. There are the hard facts, the measurements of the greenhouse gases, the statistics of human activities responsible for emissions, the demographic figures. There are the soft facts, the interpretations of the hard facts requiring additional assumptions. There are the media, the press, television, for whom <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems make good stories, these can be used to rise emotions, to make heroes and antiheroes. There are politicians, the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> debate can be used even in electron campaigns. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a topic within and beyond science. The judgment (and hence use) of scientific facts is overwhelmingly influenced by the ``Weltbild`` (underlying beliefs how the world operates), and consequently opposing positions of well-known scientists arise. There are the attempts to invent futures of man on Earth: policies, regulations, laws on nation, international, and global levels shall facilitate a change in the basic behavior of all men. The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> issue has many facets and cannot be successfully discussed without including, e.g., the North-South dialogue, world population, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6457890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6457890"><span id="translatedtitle">Parameters of human discomfort in <span class="hlt">warm</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berglund, L.G.; Cunningham, D.J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The relationship between thermoregulatory responses during exposure to <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hot environments and the associated subjective perceptions, e.g., comfort, thermal sensation, etc., have been studied by <span class="hlt">numerous</span> investigators over a considerable span of time, i.e., roughly 50 years. Skin temperature, mean body temperature, sweating, and percent of skin wettedness have been shown to have a role in comfort, thermal sensation, and perception of skin moisture. This paper reviews studies concerned with the physical and physiological parameters relative to these subjective responses and their level of magnitude, with primary emphasis on <span class="hlt">warm</span> discomfort and skin moisture. The review indicates that, while utilizing different methodologies for quantification of skin moisture under a wide range of ambient conditions and experimental protocols, the relationship between skin wettedness and discomfort or unpleasantness is consistent and experimentally supported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21205170','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21205170"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> hilltop inflation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sanchez, Juan Carlos Bueno; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun</p> <p>2008-06-15</p> <p>We study the low-temperature limit of <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation in a hilltop model. This limit remains valid up to the end of inflation, allowing an analytic description of the entire inflationary stage. In the weak dissipative regime, if the kinetic density of the inflaton dominates after inflation, low-scale inflation is attained with Hubble scale as low as 1 GeV. In the strong dissipative regime, the model satisfies the observational requirements for the spectral index with a mild tuning of the model parameters, while also overcoming the {eta}-problem of inflation. However, there is some danger of gravitino overproduction unless the particle content of the theory is large.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997hst..prop.8083C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997hst..prop.8083C"><span id="translatedtitle">FLATs: <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Up - continuation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Calzetti, Daniela</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997hst..prop.7961C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997hst..prop.7961C"><span id="translatedtitle">FLATs: <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Up</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Calzetti, Daniela</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18719116','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18719116"><span id="translatedtitle">Opposing plant community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> with and without herbivores.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Post, Eric; Pedersen, Christian</p> <p>2008-08-26</p> <p>If controls over primary productivity and plant community composition are mainly <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, as opposed to biological, then global change may result in large-scale alterations in ecosystem structure and function. This view appears to be favored among investigations of plant biomass and community responses to experimental and observed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In far northern and arctic ecosystems, such studies predict increasing dominance of woody shrubs with future <span class="hlt">warming</span> and emphasize the carbon (C)-sequestration potential and consequent atmospheric feedback potential of such responses. In contrast to previous studies, we incorporated natural herbivory by muskoxen and caribou into a 5-year experimental investigation of arctic plant community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In accordance with other studies, <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased total community biomass by promoting growth of deciduous shrubs (dwarf birch and gray willow). However, muskoxen and caribou reduced total community biomass response, and responses of birch and willow, to <span class="hlt">warming</span> by 19%, 46%, and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, under <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone, the plant community shifted after 5 years away from graminoid-dominated toward dwarf birch-dominated. In contrast, where herbivores grazed, plant community composition on <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots did not differ from that on ambient plots after 5 years. These results highlight the potentially important and overlooked influences of vertebrate herbivores on plant community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and emphasize that conservation and management of large herbivores may be an important component of mitigating ecosystem response to climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2527915','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2527915"><span id="translatedtitle">Opposing plant community responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> with and without herbivores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Post, Eric; Pedersen, Christian</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>If controls over primary productivity and plant community composition are mainly <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, as opposed to biological, then global change may result in large-scale alterations in ecosystem structure and function. This view appears to be favored among investigations of plant biomass and community responses to experimental and observed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In far northern and arctic ecosystems, such studies predict increasing dominance of woody shrubs with future <span class="hlt">warming</span> and emphasize the carbon (C)-sequestration potential and consequent atmospheric feedback potential of such responses. In contrast to previous studies, we incorporated natural herbivory by muskoxen and caribou into a 5-year experimental investigation of arctic plant community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In accordance with other studies, <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased total community biomass by promoting growth of deciduous shrubs (dwarf birch and gray willow). However, muskoxen and caribou reduced total community biomass response, and responses of birch and willow, to <span class="hlt">warming</span> by 19%, 46%, and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, under <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone, the plant community shifted after 5 years away from graminoid-dominated toward dwarf birch-dominated. In contrast, where herbivores grazed, plant community composition on <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots did not differ from that on ambient plots after 5 years. These results highlight the potentially important and overlooked influences of vertebrate herbivores on plant community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and emphasize that conservation and management of large herbivores may be an important component of mitigating ecosystem response to climate change. PMID:18719116</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC22A..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC22A..06S"><span id="translatedtitle">Is Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Accelerating?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C <span class="hlt">warming</span> that has been observed during the twentieth century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJMPA..24.2207B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJMPA..24.2207B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Inflation Model Building</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun</p> <p></p> <p>We review the main aspects of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation scenario, focusing on the inflationary dynamics and the predictions related to the primordial spectrum of perturbations, to be compared with the recent cosmological observations. We study in detail three different classes of inflationary models, chaotic, hybrid models and hilltop models, and discuss their embedding into supersymmetric models and the consequences for model building of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflationary dynamics based on first principles calculations. Due to the extra friction term introduced in the inflaton background evolution generated by the dissipative dynamics, inflation can take place generically for smaller values of the field, and larger values of couplings and masses. When the dissipative dynamics dominates over the expansion, in the so-called strong dissipative regime, inflation proceeds with sub-Planckian inflaton values. Models can be naturally embedded into a supergravity framework, with SUGRA corrections suppressed by the Planck mass now under control, for a larger class of Kähler potentials. In particular, this provides a simpler solution to the "eta" problem in supersymmetric hybrid inflation, without restricting the Kähler potentials compatible with inflation. For chaotic models dissipation leads to a smaller prediction for the tensor-to-scalar ratio and a less tilted spectrum when compared to the cold inflation scenario. We find in particular that a small component of dissipation renders the quartic model now consistent with the current CMB data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023673','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023673"><span id="translatedtitle">Some economics of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schelling, T.C. )</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>The greenhouse effect itself is simple enough to understand and is not in any real dispute. What is in dispute is its magnitude over the coming century, its translation into changes in climates around the globe, and the impacts of those climate changes on human welfare and the natural environment. These are beyond the professional understanding of any single person. The sciences involved are too <span class="hlt">numerous</span> and diverse. Demography, economics, biology, and the technology sciences are needed to project emissions; atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, biology, and meteorology are needed to translate emissions into climates; biology, agronomy, health sciences, economics, sociology, and glaciology are needed to identify and assess impacts on human societies and natural ecosystems. And those are not all. There are expert judgments on large pieces of the subject, but no single person clothed in this panoply of disciplines has shown up or is likely to. This article makes an attempt to forecast the economic and social consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and attempting to prevent it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........24N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........24N"><span id="translatedtitle">Extreme <span class="hlt">warm</span> season thunderstorm systems and the urban environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ntelekos, Alexandros Anastasios</p> <p></p> <p>The consequences of a flood are amplified when it occurs in urban environments by virtue of the large concentration of people and wealth affected. This dissertation is devoted to advancing the understanding of the ways that <span class="hlt">warm</span> season thunderstorm systems interact with the urban environment to produce flooding. The area of study is the northeastern United States with particular focus over the urban environments of Baltimore, Washington, DC, and New York City. The complex topography of the northeastern United States, with the Appalachian Mountains to the west, and the land-ocean boundary to the east of the heavily urbanized northeastern corridor, presents the analyses with great challenges. At the same time, it increases their relevance since most of the world's urban cores are built close to complex terrain. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> season thunderstorm systems that produce short-duration, high-intensity rain-fall events are shown to be the major flash flooding agents over the urban corridor of the northeastern US. Established theories of inadvertent weather modification by urban environments are put to the test with the use of advanced models and multiple observational techniques. The results reveal unexplored links of inadvertent weather modification arising from synergies between the urban canopy layer and the land-ocean boundary. Aerosols are also shown to play an important role in rain-fall enhancement, under certain <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions that are examined through combined observational analyses and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model experiments. The last part of this dissertation is devoted to synthesizing the links between flooding and the urban environment to perform a critical review of the US flood policy framework. Projections of end-of-the 21st Century annual flood costs are made, and recommendations are provided for a modernization of the policy framework to more efficiently mitigate the effects of floods in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/355511','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/355511"><span id="translatedtitle">Winners and losers in a world with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Noncooperation, altruism, and social welfare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caplan, A.J.; Ellis, C.J.; Silva, E.C.D.</p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is an asymmetric transboundary externality which benefits some countries or regions and harms others. Few <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems have captured the public`s imagination as much and attracted as much scrutiny as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The general perception is that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a net social bad, and that across-the-board abatement of greenhouse gas emissions is therefore desirable. Despite many interesting academic contributions, not all of the basic economics of this phenomenon have been fully worked out. The authors use a simple two-country model to analyze the effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on resource allocations, the global-<span class="hlt">warming</span> stock, and national and global welfare.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10175853','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10175853"><span id="translatedtitle">RHIC <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Welch, K.M.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Pressure profiles, in time, are calculated as a consequence of anticipated outgassing of various beam components (e.g., rf cavities, etc.) and <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore beam pipes. Gold beam lifetimes and transverse beam emittance growth are given for calculated average pressures. Examples of undesirable <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore conditions are presented such as contaminated experimental beam pipes and <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore magnets (i.e., DX). These examples may prove instructive. The methods used in making these calculations are presented in Section 2. They are applicable to all linear systems. The calculations given apply to the RHIC accelerator and more specifically to <span class="hlt">warm</span>-bore regions of the machine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613877B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613877B"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">warm</span> winters on microbial growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p> temperature relationships of the bacterial community from winter-<span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots and plots with ambient soil temperatures were compared. No change in optimum temperature for growth could be detected, indicating that the microbial community has not been <span class="hlt">warm</span>-adapted. This fits with what was seen also in the laboratory experiment where no changes in temperature response occurred when exposing bacteria to temperatures below 10 °C within two months. The increase in activity measured during winter should thereby be due to changes in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors, which will be further investigated. One big difference between heated and control plots was that heated plots were snow free during the entire winter, while control plots were covered by a 10 cm snow cover. The plant community composition and flowering time also differed in the <span class="hlt">warmed</span> and ambient plot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5930382','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5930382"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> waters, bleached corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roberts, L.</p> <p>1990-10-12</p> <p>Two researchers, Tom Goreau of the Discovery Laboratory in Jamaica and Raymond Hayes of Howard University, claim that they have evidence that nearly clinches the temperature connection to the bleached corals in the Caribbean and that the coral bleaching is an indication of Greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The incidents of scattered bleaching of corals, which have been reported for decades, are increasing in both intensity and frequency. The researchers based their theory on increased temperature of the seas measured by satellites. However, some other scientists feel that the satellites measure the temperature of only the top few millimeters of the water and that since corals lie on reefs perhaps 60 to 100 feet below the ocean surface, the elevated temperatures are not significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6710038','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6710038"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> challenge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hengeveld, H. )</p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will necessitate significant adjustments in Canadian society and its economy. In 1979, the Canadian federal government created its Canadian Climate Program (CCP) in collaboration with other agencies, institutions, and individuals. It sought to coordinate national efforts to understand global and regional climate, and to promote better use of the emerging knowledge. Much of the CCP-coordinated research into sources and sinks of greenhouse gases interfaces with other national and international programs. Other researchers have become involved in the Northern Wetlands Study, a cooperative United States-Canada initiative to understand the role of huge northern bogs and muskegs in the carbon cycle. Because of the need to understand how the whole, linked climate system works, climate modeling emerged as a key focus of current research. 35 refs., 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990018501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990018501"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Triton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Buie, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; McConnochie, T. H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282887','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282887"><span id="translatedtitle">Interacting <span class="hlt">warm</span> dark matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo E-mail: guillermo.palma@usach.cl E-mail: avelino@fisica.ugto.mx</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ{sub m}{sup α}ρ{sub e}{sup β} form, where ρ{sub m} and ρ{sub e} are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w{sub m} and w{sub e} of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a <span class="hlt">warm</span> dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a <span class="hlt">warm</span> dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372325','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372325"><span id="translatedtitle">Local <span class="hlt">warming</span>: daily temperature change influences belief in global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Although people are quite aware of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-<span class="hlt">warming</span> charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299648','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22299648"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-linear Langmuir waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> quantum plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dubinov, Alexander E. Kitaev, Ilya N.</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>A non-linear differential equation describing the Langmuir waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> quantum electron-ion plasma has been derived. Its <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solutions of the equation show that ordinary electronic oscillations, similar to the classical oscillations, occur along with small-scale quantum Langmuir oscillations induced by the Bohm quantum force.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18461772','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18461772"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paul, Valerie J</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Earth and the oceans have <span class="hlt">warmed</span> significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated the oceans after past mass extinction events. They evolved under anoxic conditions and are well adapted to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stress including exposure to UV, high solar radiation and temperatures, scarce and abundant nutrients. These <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions favor the dominance of cyanobacteria in many aquatic habitats, from freshwater to marine ecosystems. A few studies have examined the ecological consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton over the past decades in freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments, with varying results. The responses of cyanobacteria to changing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> patterns associated with global climate change are important subjects for future research. Results of this research will have ecological and biogeochemical significance as well as management implications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/641334','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/641334"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and changes in ocean circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2723928','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2723928"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Resource Availability Shift Food Web Structure and Metabolism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>O'Connor, Mary I.; Piehler, Michael F.; Leech, Dina M.; Anton, Andrea; Bruno, John F.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Climate change disrupts ecological systems in many ways. Many documented responses depend on species' life histories, contributing to the view that climate change effects are important but difficult to characterize generally. However, systematic variation in metabolic effects of temperature across trophic levels suggests that <span class="hlt">warming</span> may lead to predictable shifts in food web structure and productivity. We experimentally tested the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on food web structure and productivity under two resource supply scenarios. Consistent with predictions based on universal metabolic responses to temperature, we found that <span class="hlt">warming</span> strengthened consumer control of primary production when resources were augmented. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> shifted food web structure and reduced total biomass despite increases in primary productivity in a marine food web. In contrast, at lower resource levels, food web production was constrained at all temperatures. These results demonstrate that small temperature changes could dramatically shift food web dynamics and provide a general, species-independent mechanism for ecological response to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperature change. PMID:19707271</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/616313','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/616313"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Science or politics? Part 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dorweiler, V.P.</p> <p>1998-05-01</p> <p>Supplementing the conclusion that ``there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a set of dire consequences to the globe and human population. One consequence is the spread of tropical diseases. It has not been concluded whether the spread of disease is due to global conditions or to opening of tropical forests to commerce, allowing spread by travelers. Whether these forecasts abet the claimed relation of human activity to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, they are not a new phenomenon. In the space of several decades, dire consequences have been forecast in three sectors: natural resource consumption, energy resources and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fate. These three areas are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7794B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7794B"><span id="translatedtitle">Defining Sudden Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Warmings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butler, Amy; Seidel, Dian; Hardiman, Steven; Butchart, Neal; Birner, Thomas; Match, Aaron</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The general form of the definition for Sudden Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Warmings</span> (SSWs) is largely agreed to be a reversal of the temperature gradient and of the zonal circulation polewards of 60° latitude at the 10 hPa level, as developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in the 1960s and 1970s. However, the details of the definition and its calculation are ambiguous, resulting in inconsistent classifications of SSW events. These discrepancies are problematic for understanding the observed frequency and statistical relationships with SSWs, and for maintaining a robust metric with which to assess wintertime stratospheric variability in observations and climate models. To provide a basis for community-wide discussion, we examine how the SSW definition has changed over time and how sensitive the detection of SSWs is to the definition used. We argue that the general form of the SSW definition should be clarified to ensure that it serves current research and forecasting purposes, and propose possible ways to update the definition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5135V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5135V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> dense crystallography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valenza, Ryan A.; Seidler, Gerald T.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The intense femtosecond-scale pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are able to create and interrogate interesting states of matter characterized by long-lived nonequilibrium semicore or core electron occupancies or by the heating of dense phases via the relaxation cascade initiated by the photoelectric effect. We address here the latter case of "<span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter" (WDM) and investigate the observable consequences of x-ray heating of the electronic degrees of freedom in crystalline systems. We report temperature-dependent density functional theory calculations for the x-ray diffraction from crystalline LiF, graphite, diamond, and Be. We find testable, strong signatures of condensed-phase effects that emphasize the importance of wide-angle scattering to study nonequilibrium states. These results also suggest that the reorganization of the valence electron density at eV-scale temperatures presents a confounding factor to achieving atomic resolution in macromolecular serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies at XFELs, as performed under the "diffract before destroy" paradigm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282760','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282760"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> up for Planck</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bartrum, Sam; Berera, Arjun; Rosa, João G. E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The recent Planck results and future releases on the horizon present a key opportunity to address a fundamental question in inflationary cosmology of whether primordial density perturbations have a quantum or thermal origin, i.e. whether particle production may have significant effects during inflation. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> inflation provides a natural arena to address this issue, with interactions between the scalar inflaton and other degrees of freedom leading to dissipative entropy production and associated thermal fluctuations. In this context, we present relations between CMB observables that can be directly tested against observational data. In particular, we show that the presence of a thermal bath warmer than the Hubble scale during inflation decreases the tensor-to-scalar ratio with respect to the conventional prediction in supercooled inflation, yielding r < 8|n{sub t}|, where n{sub t} is the tensor spectral index. Focusing on supersymmetric models at low temperatures, we determine consistency relations between the observables characterizing the spectrum of adiabatic scalar and tensor modes, both for generic potentials and particular canonical examples, and which we compare with the WMAP and Planck results. Finally, we include the possibility of producing the observed baryon asymmetry during inflation through dissipative effects, thereby generating baryon isocurvature modes that can be easily accommodated by the Planck data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036178"><span id="translatedtitle">Seaweed communities in retreat from ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wernberg, Thomas; Russell, Bayden D; Thomsen, Mads S; Gurgel, C Frederico D; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Connell, Sean D</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>In recent decades, global climate change [1] has caused profound biological changes across the planet [2-6]. However, there is a great disparity in the strength of evidence among different ecosystems and between hemispheres: changes on land have been well documented through long-term studies, but similar direct evidence for impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> is virtually absent from the oceans [3, 7], where only a few studies on individual species of intertidal invertebrates, plankton, and commercially important fish in the North Atlantic and North Pacific exist. This disparity of evidence is precarious for biological conservation because of the critical role of the marine realm in regulating the Earth's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and ecological functions, and the associated socioeconomic well-being of humans [8]. We interrogated a database of >20,000 herbarium records of macroalgae collected in Australia since the 1940s and documented changes in communities and geographical distribution limits in both the Indian and Pacific Oceans, consistent with rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the past five decades [9, 10]. We show that continued <span class="hlt">warming</span> might drive potentially hundreds of species toward and beyond the edge of the Australian continent where sustained retreat is impossible. The potential for global extinctions is profound considering the many endemic seaweeds and seaweed-dependent marine organisms in temperate Australia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5045579','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5045579"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Perspectives from the Late Quaternary paleomammal record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Graham, R.W. )</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the end of the Pleistocene caused significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes that directly and indirectly effected biotic communities. The biotic response to this global <span class="hlt">warming</span> event can provide insights into the processes that might be anticipated for future climatic changes. The megafauna extinction may have been the most dramatic alteration of mammalian communities at the end of the Pleistocene. Late Quaternary <span class="hlt">warming</span> also altered regional diversity patterns for some small mammal guilds without extinction. Reductions in body size for both small and large mammal species were also consequences of these <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fluctuations. Geographic shifts in the distributions of individual mammal species resulted in changes in species composition of mammalian communities. The individualistic response of biota to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> fluctuations define some boundary conditions for modeling communities. Understanding these boundary conditions is mandatory in planning for the preservation of biodiversity in the future. Finally, it is essential to determine how global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will alter seasonal patterns because it is apparent from the paleobiological record that not all Quaternary <span class="hlt">warming</span> events have been the same.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990052723&hterms=warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990052723&hterms=warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the December 1998 Stratospheric Major <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Manney, G. L.; Lahoz, W. A.; Swinbank, R.; ONeill, A.; Connew, P. M.; Zurek, R. W.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Prior to 1991, major <span class="hlt">warmings</span> (defined by increasing zonal mean temperatures and zonal mean easterly winds from 60degN to the pole at 10 hPa) typically occurred approximately once every two Arctic winters; a major <span class="hlt">warming</span> in mid-Dec. 1998 was the first since Feb. 1991. The Dec. 1998 <span class="hlt">warming</span> was also the second earliest on record. The earliest, and the only other major <span class="hlt">warming</span> on record before the end of Dec. was in early Dec 1987; prior to that, the earliest was in late Dec./early Jan. 1984-85. The 1984-85 and 1987 <span class="hlt">warmings</span> resulted in the warmest and weakest lower stratospheric polar vortices in the 20 years before 1998-99. Fig. 1 compares temperatures and vortex strength in 1998-99 with those in the previous 20 years, using the US National Center for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction (NCEP) record; 1987-88 and 1984-85 are also highlighted. The Dec. 1998 <span class="hlt">warming</span> had a more pronounced effect on mid-stratospheric temperatures than the Dec. 1987 <span class="hlt">warming</span> (Fig. 1a), although smaller than that of <span class="hlt">warmings</span> later in winter (e.g., 1984-85). 10-hPa temperatures fell well below average again in late Jan. 1999 and remained unusually low until an early final <span class="hlt">warming</span> began in late Feb. 840 K PV gradients (Fig. 1c) set a record minimum in Jan. 1999, but were near average in Feb before the final <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The effect of the Dec. 1998 <span class="hlt">warming</span> on lower stratospheric temperatures was comparable to that of other major <span class="hlt">warmings</span>; there was a brief period of record-high minimum 46-hPa temperatures in early Jan 1999 (Fig. 1b), and temperatures then fell to near average for a short period in mid-Feb. Lower stratospheric PV gradients were the weakest on record during the 1998-99 winter (Fig. 1d). The evolution of the vortex and minimum temperatures during 1998-99 was remarkably similar to that during 1987-88, the only previous year when a major <span class="hlt">warming</span> was observed before the end of Dec.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=319859','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=319859"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen fertilizer management impact on dry matter yield of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-season grasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Perennial <span class="hlt">warm</span>-season grasses are being studied extensively as lignocellulosic herbaceous bioenergy feedstocks as they exhibit <span class="hlt">numerous</span> ecosystem benefits. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer management and harvesting management are considered as critical management practices which effects on both the dry matte...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25295730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25295730"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of lake Kivu.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A; Crowe, Sean A; Hecky, Robert E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though <span class="hlt">warming</span> is strongest near the surface, <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in deeper waters. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4189960','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4189960"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Lake Kivu</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Hecky, Robert E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though <span class="hlt">warming</span> is strongest near the surface, <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in deeper waters. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PrOce.119...48Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PrOce.119...48Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Responses of Manila clam growth and its food sources to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in a subarctic lagoon in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoon, Seokjin; Abe, Hiroya; Kishi, Michio J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Akkeshi Lake is a subarctic shallow brackish lagoon located in Hokkaido, Japan. The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is cultured in sandy sediments at the shallow, intertidal flat near the mouth of the lake. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors such as water temperature and food availability on the growth of the Manila clam and to estimate the responses of Manila clam growth and food availability to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Akkeshi Lake, we developed a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model by coupling a three-dimensional ecosystem model with a bioenergetics model for the growth of the Manila clam. We ran the model under two different conditions: the present condition and the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition. For the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition, water temperature was increased by 2 °C at the open boundary for the entire computational period. The growth of the Manila clam was limited by water temperature and food availability. The Manila clam grew up to 1.33 g dry weight ind.-1 at the lake mouth (station A) for 5 years, whereas it grew up to 1.00 g dry weight ind.-1 at the lake center (station B). The difference in the biomass of the Manila clam between two stations was due to the difference in food availability. Under the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition, the water temperature limitation for the Manila clam was relaxed with a water temperature increase. The Manila clam grew up to 1.55 g dry weight ind.-1 at station A and 1.10 g dry weight ind.-1 at station B. While the growth of the Manila clam was improved in the lake under the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> condition, its food sources, especially phytoplankton, decreased because of ingestion increases of grazers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047340','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047340"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of age distributions estimated from <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers by using binary-dilution and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models of fractured and folded karst: Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yager, Richard M.; Plummer, L. Niel; Kauffman, Leon J.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Nelms, David L.; Schlosser, Peter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Measured concentrations of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> tracers in spring discharge from a karst aquifer in the Shenandoah Valley, USA, were used to refine a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> groundwater flow model. The karst aquifer is folded and faulted carbonate bedrock dominated by diffuse flow along fractures. The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model represented bedrock structure and discrete features (fault zones and springs). Concentrations of 3H, 3He, 4He, and CFC-113 in spring discharge were interpreted as binary dilutions of young (0–8 years) water and old (tracer-free) water. Simulated mixtures of groundwater are derived from young water flowing along shallow paths, with the addition of old water flowing along deeper paths through the model domain that discharge to springs along fault zones. The simulated median age of young water discharged from springs (5.7 years) is slightly older than the median age estimated from 3H/3He data (4.4 years). The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model predicted a fraction of old water in spring discharge (0.07) that was half that determined by the binary-dilution model using the 3H/3He apparent age and 3H and CFC-113 data (0.14). This difference suggests that faults and lineaments are more <span class="hlt">numerous</span> or extensive than those mapped and included in the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4434777','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4434777"><span id="translatedtitle">Amplified Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by phytoplankton under greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical–ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments using a fully coupled ocean−atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> can amplify Arctic surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> considerably. The <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton <span class="hlt">warms</span> the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes. PMID:25902494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25902494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25902494"><span id="translatedtitle">Amplified Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by phytoplankton under greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho</p> <p>2015-05-12</p> <p>Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical-ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> can amplify Arctic surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> considerably. The <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton <span class="hlt">warms</span> the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=instructional+AND+precision&pg=2&id=ED565890','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=instructional+AND+precision&pg=2&id=ED565890"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25236841','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25236841"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> phenomenon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&id=EJ1047091','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&id=EJ1047091"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon Dioxide and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: A Failed Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, Carla</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a current <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ935291','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ935291"><span id="translatedtitle">Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0vbo_s8uVM','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0vbo_s8uVM"><span id="translatedtitle">Weird <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Spot on Exoplanet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This animation illustrates an unexpected <span class="hlt">warm</span> spot on the surface of a gaseous exoplanet. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered that the hottest part of the planet, shown here as bright, orange...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5099120','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5099120"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecologic simulation of <span class="hlt">warm</span> water aquaculture ponds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Piedrahitu, R.H.; Brune, D.E.; Orlob, G.T.; Tchobanoglous, G.</p> <p>1983-06-01</p> <p>A generalized ecologic model of a fertilized <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water aquaculture pond is under development. The model is intended to represent the pond ecosystem and its response to external stimuli. The major physical, chemical and biological processes and parameters are included in the model. A total of 19 state variables are included in the model (dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, ammonia, phytoplankton, etc.). The model is formulated as a system of mass balance equations. The equations include stimulatory and inhibitory effects of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> parameters on processes taking place in the pond. The equations may be solved for the entire growth period and diurnal as well as seasonal fluctuations may be identified. The ultimate objective of the model is to predict the fish biomass that can be produced in a pond under a given set of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17348173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17348173"><span id="translatedtitle">Competitive advantage on a <span class="hlt">warming</span> planet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global <span class="hlt">warming</span>'s dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging <span class="hlt">environmental</span> harm), reputational (how a company's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors. PMID:17348173</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17348173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17348173"><span id="translatedtitle">Competitive advantage on a <span class="hlt">warming</span> planet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global <span class="hlt">warming</span>'s dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an <span class="hlt">environmental</span> think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging <span class="hlt">environmental</span> harm), reputational (how a company's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol21-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol21-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol22-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol22-part98-subpartA-appA.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment <span class="hlt">ENVIRONMENTAL</span> PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&id=EJ946279','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&id=EJ946279"><span id="translatedtitle">Student Teachers' Conceptions about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Changes in Their Conceptions during Pre-Service Education: A Cross Sectional Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Cimer, Atilla; Ursavas, Nazihan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is one of the important <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems whose dangerous effects are increasing gradually. The study reported herein aimed to reveal student teachers' conceptions about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the effect of biology teacher education program on their awareness of this <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issue. An open-ended questionnaire was used to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23504800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23504800"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> and drought reduce temperature sensitivity of nitrogen transformations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Novem Auyeung, Dolaporn S; Suseela, Vidya; Dukes, Jeffrey S</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Shifts in nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates due to global changes can influence nutrient availability, which can affect terrestrial productivity and climate change feedbacks. While many single-factor studies have examined the effects of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes on N mineralization and nitrification, few have examined these effects in a multifactor context or recorded how these effects vary seasonally. In an old-field ecosystem in Massachusetts, USA, we investigated the combined effects of four levels of <span class="hlt">warming</span> (up to 4 °C) and three levels of precipitation (drought, ambient, and wet) on net N mineralization, net nitrification, and potential nitrification. We also examined the treatment effects on the temperature sensitivity of net N mineralization and net nitrification and on the ratio of C mineralization to net N mineralization. During winter, freeze-thaw events, snow depth, and soil freezing depth explained little of the variation in net nitrification and N mineralization rates among treatments. During two years of treatments, <span class="hlt">warming</span> and altered precipitation rarely influenced the rates of N cycling, and there was no evidence of a seasonal pattern in the responses. In contrast, <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought dramatically decreased the apparent Q10 of net N mineralization and net nitrification, and the <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced decrease in apparent Q10 was more pronounced in ambient and wet treatments than the drought treatment. The ratio of C mineralization to net N mineralization varied over time and was sensitive to the interactive effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and altered precipitation. Although many studies have found that <span class="hlt">warming</span> tends to accelerate N cycling, our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> can have little to no effect on N cycling in some ecosystems. Thus, ecosystem models that assume that <span class="hlt">warming</span> will consistently increase N mineralization rates and inputs of plant-available N may overestimate the increase in terrestrial productivity and the magnitude of an important</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23504800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23504800"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> and drought reduce temperature sensitivity of nitrogen transformations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Novem Auyeung, Dolaporn S; Suseela, Vidya; Dukes, Jeffrey S</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Shifts in nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates due to global changes can influence nutrient availability, which can affect terrestrial productivity and climate change feedbacks. While many single-factor studies have examined the effects of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes on N mineralization and nitrification, few have examined these effects in a multifactor context or recorded how these effects vary seasonally. In an old-field ecosystem in Massachusetts, USA, we investigated the combined effects of four levels of <span class="hlt">warming</span> (up to 4 °C) and three levels of precipitation (drought, ambient, and wet) on net N mineralization, net nitrification, and potential nitrification. We also examined the treatment effects on the temperature sensitivity of net N mineralization and net nitrification and on the ratio of C mineralization to net N mineralization. During winter, freeze-thaw events, snow depth, and soil freezing depth explained little of the variation in net nitrification and N mineralization rates among treatments. During two years of treatments, <span class="hlt">warming</span> and altered precipitation rarely influenced the rates of N cycling, and there was no evidence of a seasonal pattern in the responses. In contrast, <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought dramatically decreased the apparent Q10 of net N mineralization and net nitrification, and the <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced decrease in apparent Q10 was more pronounced in ambient and wet treatments than the drought treatment. The ratio of C mineralization to net N mineralization varied over time and was sensitive to the interactive effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and altered precipitation. Although many studies have found that <span class="hlt">warming</span> tends to accelerate N cycling, our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> can have little to no effect on N cycling in some ecosystems. Thus, ecosystem models that assume that <span class="hlt">warming</span> will consistently increase N mineralization rates and inputs of plant-available N may overestimate the increase in terrestrial productivity and the magnitude of an important</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC32A..02F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC32A..02F"><span id="translatedtitle">The Great <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Brian Fagan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fagan, B. M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Great <span class="hlt">Warming</span> is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period. Five centuries of irregular <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great <span class="hlt">Warming</span> argues that the <span class="hlt">warm</span> centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780010687','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780010687"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>: Synoptic, dynamic and general-circulation aspects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcinturff, R. M. (Editor)</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Synoptic descriptions consist largely of case studies, which involve a distinction between major and minor <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. Results of energetics studies show the importance of tropospheric-stratospheric interaction, and the significance of the pressure-work term near the tropopause. Theoretical studies have suggested the role of wave-zonal flow interaction as well as nonlinear interaction between eddies, chemical and photochemical reactions, boundary forcing, and other factors. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> models have been based on such considerations, and these are discussed under various categories. Some indication is given as to why some of the models have been more successful than others in simulating warnings. The question of ozone and its role in <span class="hlt">warmings</span> is briefly discussed. Finally, a broad view is taken of stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> in relation to man's activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..143Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..143Z"><span id="translatedtitle">How <span class="hlt">warm</span> days increase belief in global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global <span class="hlt">warming</span> attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31F1491R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31F1491R"><span id="translatedtitle">Distinguishing <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced drought from drought-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roderick, M. L.; Yin, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>It is usually observed that temperatures, especially maximum temperatures are higher during drought. A very widely held public perception is that the increase in temperature is a cause of drought. This represents the <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced drought scenario. However, the agricultural and hydrologic scientific communities have a very different interpretation with drought being the cause of increasing temperature. In essence, those communities assume the <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a surface feedback and their interpretation is for drought-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span>. This is a classic cause-effect problem that has resisted definitive explanation due to the lack of radiative observations at suitable spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation we first summarise the observations and then use theory to untangle the cause-effect relationships that underlie the competing interpretations. We then show how satellite data (CERES, NASA) can be used to disentangle the cause-effect relations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740010901','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740010901"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, A. D.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Links between the upper atmosphere and the stratosphere were studied to explain stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, and to correlate the <span class="hlt">warmings</span> with other terrestrial and solar phenomena. Physical mechanisms for <span class="hlt">warming</span>, or which may act as a trigger are discussed along with solar and geophysical indices. Two stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> cases are analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=up&id=EJ925234','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=up&id=EJ925234"><span id="translatedtitle">Active Movement <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-Up Routines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article presents <span class="hlt">warm</span>-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up routines can be used with all grade levels…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16216650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16216650"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and infectious disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth <span class="hlt">warms</span>, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/530884','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/530884"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> early Earth and Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kasting, J.F.</p> <p>1997-05-23</p> <p>Sagan and Chyba, in their article on page 1217 of this issue, have revived an old debate about how liquid water was maintained on early Earth and Mars despite a solar luminosity 25 to 30% lower than that at present. A theory that has been popular for some time is that greatly elevated concentrations of atmospheric COD produced by the action of the carbonate-silicate cycle, provided enough of a greenhouse effect to <span class="hlt">warm</span> early Earth. However, Rye et al. have placed geochemical constraints on early atmospheric CO{sub 2} abundances that fall well below the levels needed to <span class="hlt">warm</span> the surface. These constraints are based on the absence of siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) in ancient soil profiles-a negative and, hence, rather weak form of evidence- and apply to the time period 2.2 to 2.8 billion years ago, when Earth was already middle aged. Nonetheless, the soil data provide some indication that atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels may have been lower than previously thought. An even more serious problem arises if one tries to keep early Mars <span class="hlt">warm</span> with CO{sub 2}. Model calculations predict that CO{sub 2} clouds would form on Mars in the upper troposphere, reducing the lapse rate and severely limiting the amount of surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A suggestion that CO{sub 2} clouds may have <span class="hlt">warmed</span> the planet radiatively has yet to be borne out by detailed calculations. 26 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........24R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........24R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> nebulae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rijkhorst, Erik-Jan</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The late stages of evolution of stars like our Sun are dominated by several episodes of violent mass loss. Space based observations of the resulting objects, known as Planetary Nebulae, show a bewildering array of highly symmetric shapes. The interplay between gasdynamics and radiative processes determines the morphological outcome of these objects, and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models for astrophysical gasdynamics have to incorporate these effects. This thesis presents new <span class="hlt">numerical</span> techniques for carrying out high-resolution three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations. Such calculations require parallelization of computer codes, and the use of state-of-the-art supercomputer technology. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> models in the context of the shaping of Planetary Nebulae are presented, providing insight into their origin and fate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRD..109.2105B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRD..109.2105B"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for a late Holocene <span class="hlt">warm</span> and humid climate period and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> characteristics in the arid zones of northwest China during 2.2 ˜ 1.8 kyr B.P.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bao, Yang; Braeuning, Achim; Yafeng, Shi; Fahu, Chen</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Natural archives like ice cores, tree rings, river and lake sediments, lake terraces, and paleosols and also historical documents witness aspects of climate change in northwestern China during the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties (206 B.C.-220 A.D.). Reconstructions of decadal averages of annual mean temperature and precipitation fluctuations were derived from variations of δ18O and net accumulation rates in the Guliya ice core. They revealed a period of higher temperatures and higher precipitation than today, which affected vast areas of northwestern China during the period of interest until the fifth century A.D. These conditions resulted in a marked increase in the discharge of big endorheic river systems, such as the Tarim, the Keriya and the Manas rivers. As a consequence, water levels in appendant terminal lakes rose, e.g., at Lop Nor, Manas Lake, and Baijian Hu. Lake surface areas expanded, and lake desalting occurred also at lakes in intermontane basins, such as Balikun Hu and Qinghai Lake. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> and moist conditions during the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties might have been responsible for the large-scale agricultural production and the local socioeconomic boom that is documented by the occurrence of the famous ruin groups of Loulan, Niya, and Keriya. The following desiccation phase led to a deterioration of water resources, and most oases tended to dry out and were finally abandoned. The appearance, development, flourishing, and final abandonment of each great ruin group are closely associated with regional climate change at that time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21052870','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21052870"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmic Rays and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.</p> <p>2008-01-24</p> <p>Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle <span class="hlt">warming</span> variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.6137F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.6137F"><span id="translatedtitle">Early ice retreat and ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> may induce copepod biogeographic boundary shifts in the Arctic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Zhixuan; Ji, Rubao; Campbell, Robert G.; Ashjian, Carin J.; Zhang, Jinlun</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Early ice retreat and ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> are changing various facets of the Arctic marine ecosystem, including the biogeographic distribution of marine organisms. Here an endemic copepod species, Calanus glacialis, was used as a model organism, to understand how and why Arctic marine <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes may induce biogeographic boundary shifts. A copepod individual-based model was coupled to an ice-ocean-ecosystem model to simulate temperature- and food-dependent copepod life history development. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> experiments were conducted for two contrasting years: a relatively cold and normal sea ice year (2001) and a well-known <span class="hlt">warm</span> year with early ice retreat (2007). Model results agreed with commonly known biogeographic distributions of C. glacialis, which is a shelf/slope species and cannot colonize the vast majority of the central Arctic basins. Individuals along the northern boundaries of this species' distribution were most susceptible to reproduction timing and early food availability (released sea ice algae). In the Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev Seas where severe ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> and loss of sea ice occurred in summer 2007, relatively early ice retreat, elevated ocean temperature (about 1-2°C higher than 2001), increased phytoplankton food, and prolonged growth season created favorable conditions for C. glacialis development and caused a remarkable poleward expansion of its distribution. From a pan-Arctic perspective, despite the great heterogeneity in the temperature and food regimes, common biogeographic zones were identified from model simulations, thus allowing a better characterization of habitats and prediction of potential future biogeographic boundary shifts.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10141155','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10141155"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Physics and Facts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levi, B.G.; Hafemeister, D.; Scribner, R.</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth`s radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5392426','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5392426"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Physics and Facts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levi, B.G. ); Hafemeister, D. , Washington, DC ); Scribner, R. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000EOSTr..81Q.266S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000EOSTr..81Q.266S"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the summit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p></p> <p>During the recent summit meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. President Bill Clinton, the two leaders reaffirmed their concerns about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the need to continue to take actions to try to reduce the threat.In a June 4 joint statement, they stressed the need to develop flexibility mechanisms, including international emissions trading, under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They also noted that initiatives to reduce the risk of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>, including specific mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, could potentially promote economic growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455093','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4455093"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent decrease in typhoon destructive potential and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, I-I; Chan, Johnny C.L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Typhoons (tropical cyclones) severely impact the half-billion population of the Asian Pacific. Intriguingly, during the recent decade, typhoon destructive potential (Power Dissipation Index, PDI) has decreased considerably (by ∼35%). This decrease, paradoxically, has occurred despite the increase in typhoon intensity and ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Using the method proposed by Emanuel (in 2007), we show that the stronger negative contributions from typhoon frequency and duration, decrease to cancel the positive contribution from the increasing intensity, controlling the PDI. Examining the typhoons' <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, we find that although the ocean condition became more favourable (<span class="hlt">warming</span>) in the recent decade, the atmospheric condition ‘worsened' at the same time. The ‘worsened' atmospheric condition appears to effectively overpower the ‘better' ocean conditions to suppress PDI. This stronger negative contribution from reduced typhoon frequency over the increased intensity is also present under the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario, based on analysis of the simulated typhoon data from high-resolution modelling. PMID:25990561</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33A1273S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33A1273S"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Updated Climate Accounting to Slow Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Before 2035</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The current and projected worsening of climate impacts make clear the urgency of limiting the global mean temperature to 2°C over preindustrial levels. But while mitigation policy today may slow global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the end of the century, it will not keep global <span class="hlt">warming</span> within these limits. This failure arises in large part from the climate accounting system used to inform this policy, which does not factor in several scientific findings from the last two decades, including: The urgent need to slow global <span class="hlt">warming</span> before 2035. This can postpone the time the +1.5°C limit is passed, and is the only way to avoid the most serious long-term climate disruptions. That while it may mitigate <span class="hlt">warming</span> by the end of the century, reducing emissions of CO2 alone, according to UNEP/WMO[1], will do "little to mitigate <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the next 20-30 years," and "may temporarily enhance near-term <span class="hlt">warming</span> as sulfate [cooling] is reduced." That the only emissions reductions that can slow <span class="hlt">warming</span> before 2035 are focused on short-lived climate pollutants. A small increase in current mitigation funding could fund these projects, the most promising of which target emissions in regional climate "hot spots" like the Arctic and India.[2] To ensure policies can effectively slow global <span class="hlt">warming</span> before 2035, a new climate accounting system is needed. Such an updated system is being standardized in the USA,[3] and has been proposed for use in ISO standards. The key features of this updated system are: consideration of all climate pollutants and their multi-faceted climate effects; use of time horizons which prioritize mitigation of near-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>; a consistent and accurate accounting for "biogenic" CO2; protocols ensuring that new scientific findings are incorporated; and a distinct accounting for emissions affecting regional "hot spots". This accounting system also considers <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts outside of climate change, a feature necessary to identify "win-win" projects with climate benefits</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090031926&hterms=relativity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drelativity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090031926&hterms=relativity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drelativity"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Relativity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baker, John G.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in <span class="hlt">numerical</span> relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853815.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853815.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Integration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sozio, Gerry</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Senior secondary students cover <span class="hlt">numerical</span> integration techniques in their mathematics courses. In particular, students would be familiar with the "midpoint rule," the elementary "trapezoidal rule" and "Simpson's rule." This article derives these techniques by methods which secondary students may not be familiar with and an approach that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/479485','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/479485"><span id="translatedtitle">More data needed to support or disprove global <span class="hlt">warming</span> theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-05-26</p> <p>Reports of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are prevalent in the popular press. With the exception of Scandinavia, no major energy tax laws have been passed to date. But <span class="hlt">environmental</span> pressures may change this, and the change could have a profound effect on refiners. These are the views of Gerald T. Westbrook, of TSBV Consultants, Houston. Westbrook summarized recent global-<span class="hlt">warming</span> research, and his position on the subject, at the National Petroleum Refiners Association annual meeting, held March 16--18, in San Antonio. The greenhouse effect is real, says Westbrook. It is important, however, to distinguish between the two major mechanisms of the greenhouse effect: natural <span class="hlt">warming</span> and anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> (changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases caused by man). Without greenhouse gases the earth`s equilibrium temperature would be {minus}18 C. The effect of the gases is to raise the equilibrium temperature to 15 C. In the early 1980s, computer models estimated global <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the past 100 years to be as much as 2.3 C. By 1986, those estimates had been reduced to 1.0 C, and in 1988, a range of 0.63 {+-} 0.2 C was reported. In 1995, a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) cited a range of 0.3--0.6 C. Westbrook asserts that the earth`s motion anomalies--orbit eccentricity, axial tilt, and wobbles--lead to dramatic changes in insolation, and are the dominant force over the last 160,000 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618450"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> can enhance invasion success through asymmetries in energetic performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Penk, Marcin R; Jeschke, Jonathan M; Minchin, Dan; Donohue, Ian</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Both climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and biological invasions are prominent drivers of global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change and it is important to determine how they interact. However, beyond tolerance and reproductive thresholds, little is known about temperature dependence of invaders' performance, particularly in the light of competitive attributes of functionally similar native species. We used experimentally derived energy budgets and field temperature data to determine whether anticipated <span class="hlt">warming</span> will asymmetrically affect the energy budgets of the globally invasive Ponto-Caspian mysid crustacean Hemimysis anomala and a functionally similar native competitor (Mysis salemaai) whose range is currently being invaded. In contrast to M. salemaai, which maintains a constant feeding rate with temperature leading to diminishing energy assimilation, we found that H. anomala increases its feeding rate with temperature in parallel with growing metabolic demand. This enabled the invader to maintain high energy assimilation rates, conferring substantially higher scope for growth compared to the native analogue at spring-to-autumn temperatures. Anticipated <span class="hlt">warming</span> will likely exacerbate this energetic asymmetry and remove the winter overlap, which, given the seasonal limitation of mutually preferred prey, appears to underpin coexistence of the two species. These results indicate that temperature-dependent asymmetries in scope for growth between invaders and native analogues comprise an important mechanism determining invasion success under <span class="hlt">warming</span> climates. They also highlight the importance of considering relevant spectra of ecological contexts in predicting successful invaders and their impacts under <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios. PMID:26618450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5936225','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5936225"><span id="translatedtitle">Myth or reality; Some data dispute global <span class="hlt">warming</span> theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, R.W.</p> <p>1991-04-01</p> <p>Science in March 1990 published a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) analysis of data collected from 1979 through 1988 by the TIROS-N series of weather satellites. The data include the most precise global temperature measurements ever taken. The study found no evidence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> from the greenhouse effect during that period. If anything, the short-term trend was toward cooling, since the average of the first five years, 1979 to 1983, was warmer than the most recent five. The NASA findings can be added to a burgeoning body of scientific data seriously questioning the contention that Earth is threatened by global <span class="hlt">warming</span> resulting from a greenhouse effect primarily instigated by man. Ironically, James Hansen, director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, has been the nation's most outspoken advocate of the thesis that, because concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other greenhouse gases, such as methane, have risen by 30 percent in the last 100 years and are expected to rise another 40 percent by 2050, the planet eventually will <span class="hlt">warm</span> by about 4 degrees Celsius. According to this hypothesis, the <span class="hlt">warming</span> will cause major coastal flooding, inland droughts and sundry other catastrophes. But Reid Bryson, founder of the Institute for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Studies at the University of Wisconsin, contends Hansen's thesis cannot be accepted, and Michael Schlesinger, professor of meteorology at the University of Illinois, asserts the chance that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has already been detected is pretty close to zero.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245296"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> up to solar energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Biondo, B.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Increasingly alarmed by threats to their financial security posed by an escalating number of weather-related catastrophes, major insurance companaies, particularly those in Europe and Asia, are starting to support a variety of measures that would slowe the production of grenhouse gases worlwide. As the insurance and banking industries turn their attention to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, investments in solar energy take on growing appeal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatCC...2..530K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatCC...2..530K"><span id="translatedtitle">Equatorial refuge amid tropical <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Cohen, Anne L.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Upwelling across the tropical Pacific Ocean is projected to weaken in accordance with a reduction of the atmospheric overturning circulation, enhancing the increase in sea surface temperature relative to other regions in response to greenhouse-gas forcing. In the central Pacific, home to one of the largest marine protected areas and fishery regions in the global tropics, sea surface temperatures are projected to increase by 2.8°C by the end of this century. Of critical concern is that marine protected areas may not provide refuge from the anticipated rate of large-scale <span class="hlt">warming</span>, which could exceed the evolutionary capacity of coral and their symbionts to adapt. Combining high-resolution satellite measurements, an ensemble of global climate models and an eddy-resolving regional ocean circulation model, we show that <span class="hlt">warming</span> and productivity decline around select Pacific islands will be mitigated by enhanced upwelling associated with a strengthening of the equatorial undercurrent. Enhanced topographic upwelling will act as a negative feedback, locally mitigating the surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>. At the Gilbert Islands, the rate of <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be reduced by 0.7+/-0.3°C or 25+/-9% per century, or an overall cooling effect comparable to the local anomaly for a typical El Niño, by the end of this century. As the equatorial undercurrent is dynamically constrained to the Equator, only a handful of coral reefs stand to benefit from this equatorial island effect. Nevertheless, those that do face a lower rate of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, conferring a significant advantage over neighbouring reef systems. If realized, these predictions help to identify potential refuges for coral reef communities from anticipated climate changes of the twenty-first century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.1402C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.1402C"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolating Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Warmings</span> -- Mesosphere to Troposphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coughlin, K.</p> <p></p> <p>Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Warming</span> events exhibit the most drastic changes seen in the stratosphere and yet the categorization of these events continues to be adhoc Understandably the definitions of major <span class="hlt">warming</span> minor <span class="hlt">warmings</span> and or Canadian <span class="hlt">warmings</span> often depend on the scientific problem at hand And yet we show here that these events are statistically separated from the rest of the days in the winter stratosphere We show how <span class="hlt">warmings</span> can be isolated and defined in a objective manner Furthermore we are then able to show the effect of these <span class="hlt">warmings</span> from the mesosphere down to the troposphere</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Climate&pg=5&id=EJ1104587','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Climate&pg=5&id=EJ1104587"><span id="translatedtitle">Does Climate Literacy Matter? A Case Study of U.S. Students' Level of Concern about Anthropogenic Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bedford, Daniel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Educators seeking to address global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in their classrooms face <span class="hlt">numerous</span> challenges, including the question of whether student opinions about anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span> (AGW) can change in response to increased knowledge about the climate system. This article analyzes survey responses from 458 students at a primarily undergraduate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=91680','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=91680"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Phylogenetic Assignment of <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Sequences of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA and <span class="hlt">Numerically</span> Abundant Culturable Bacteria from an Anoxic Rice Paddy Soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hengstmann, Ulf; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Janssen, Peter H.; Liesack, Werner</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We used both cultivation and direct recovery of bacterial 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences to investigate the structure of the bacterial community in anoxic rice paddy soil. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of 19 saccharolytic and cellulolytic strains are described in the accompanying paper (K.-J. Chin, D. Hahn, U. Hengstmann, W. Liesack, and P. H. Janssen, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:5042–5049, 1999). Here we describe the phylogenetic positions of these strains in relation to 57 <span class="hlt">environmental</span> 16S rDNA clone sequences. Close matches between the two data sets were obtained for isolates from the culturable populations determined by the most-probable-number counting method to be large (3 × 107 to 2.5 × 108 cells per g [dry weight] of soil). This included matches with 16S rDNA similarity values greater than 98% within distinct lineages of the division Verrucomicrobia (strain PB90-1) and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group (strains XB45 and PB90-2), as well as matches with similarity values greater than 95% within distinct lines of descent of clostridial cluster XIVa (strain XB90) and the family Bacillaceae (strain SB45). In addition, close matches with similarity values greater than 95% were obtained for cloned 16S rDNA sequences and bacteria (strains DR1/8 and RPec1) isolated from the same type of rice paddy soil during previous investigations. The correspondence between culture methods and direct recovery of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> 16S rDNA suggests that the isolates obtained are representative geno- and phenotypes of predominant bacterial groups which account for 5 to 52% of the total cells in the anoxic rice paddy soil. Furthermore, our findings clearly indicate that a dual approach results in a more objective view of the structural and functional composition of a soil bacterial community than either cultivation or direct recovery of 16S rDNA sequences alone. PMID:10543822</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20409574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20409574"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of day versus night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil microclimate: results from a semiarid temperate steppe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xia, Jianyang; Chen, Shiping; Wan, Shiqiang</p> <p>2010-06-15</p> <p>One feature of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> is that increases in daily minimum temperature are greater than those in daily maximum temperature. Changes in soil microclimate in response to the asymmetrically diurnal <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios can help to explain responses of ecosystem processes. In the present study, we examined the impacts of day, night, and continuous <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil microclimate in a temperate steppe in northern China. Our results showed that day, night, and continuous <span class="hlt">warming</span> (approximately 13Wm(-2) with constant power mode) significantly increased daily mean soil temperature at 10cm depth by 0.71, 0.78, and 1.71 degrees C, respectively. Night <span class="hlt">warming</span> caused greater increases in nighttime mean and daily minimum soil temperatures (0.74 and 0.99 degrees C) than day <span class="hlt">warming</span> did (0.60 and 0.66 degrees C). However, there were no differences in the increases in daytime mean and daily maximum soil temperature between day (0.81 and 1.13 degrees C) and night (0.81 and 1.10 degrees C) <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The differential effects of day and night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil temperature varied with <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors, including photosynthetic active radiation, vapor-pressure deficit, and wind speed. When compared with the effect of continuous <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil temperature, the summed effects of day and night <span class="hlt">warming</span> were lower during daytime, but greater at night, thus leading to equality at daily scale. Mean volumetric soil moisture at the depth of 0-40cm significantly decreased under continuous <span class="hlt">warming</span> in both 2006 (1.44 V/V%) and 2007 (0.76 V/V%). Day <span class="hlt">warming</span> significantly reduced volumetric soil moisture only in 2006, whereas night <span class="hlt">warming</span> had no effect on volumetric soil moisture in both 2006 and 2007. Given the different diurnal <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns and variability of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors among ecosystems, these results highlight the importance of incorporating the differential impacts of day and night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on soil microclimate into the predictions of terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227666','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227666"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> trends: Adapting to nonlinear change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jonko, Alexandra K.</p> <p>2015-01-28</p> <p>As atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise, some regions are expected to <span class="hlt">warm</span> more than others. Research suggests that whether <span class="hlt">warming</span> will intensify or slow down over time also depends on location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26649399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26649399"><span id="translatedtitle">Trophic mismatch requires seasonal heterogeneity of <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Straile, Dietmar; Kerimoglu, Onur; Peeters, Frank</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> has been shown to advance the phenology of species. Asynchronous changes in phenology between interacting species may disrupt feeding interactions (phenological mismatch), which could have tremendous consequences for ecosystem functioning. Long-term field observations have suggested asynchronous shifts in phenology with <span class="hlt">warming</span>, whereas experimental studies have not been conclusive. Using proxy-based modeling of three trophic levels (algae, herbivores, and fish), we .show that asynchronous changes in phenology only occur if <span class="hlt">warming</span> is seasonally heterogeneous, but not if <span class="hlt">warming</span> is constant throughout the year. If <span class="hlt">warming</span> is seasonally heterogeneous, the degree and even direction of asynchrony depends on the specific seasonality of the <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Conclusions about phenological mismatches in food web interactions may therefore produce controversial results if the analyses do not distinguish between seasonally constant and seasonal specific <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Furthermore, our results suggest that predicting asynchrony between interacting species requires reliable <span class="hlt">warming</span> predictions that resolve sub-seasonal time scales. PMID:26649399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..271M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..271M"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic climate change: Greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> unleashed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mauritsen, Thorsten</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Human activity alters the atmospheric composition, which leads to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Model simulations suggest that reductions in emission of sulfur dioxide from Europe since the 1970s could have unveiled rapid Arctic greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016mecs.conf..375L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016mecs.conf..375L"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on Surfactant <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mix Asphalt Construction Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Guoliang; Sun, Jingxin; Guo, Xiufeng</p> <p></p> <p>Discharging temperature of hot asphalt mixture is about 150°C-185°C, volatilization of asphalt fume harms people's health and fuel cost is high. Jinan Urban Construction Group applies PTL/01 asphalt <span class="hlt">warm</span> mix agent to produce <span class="hlt">warm</span> mix asphalt to construction of urban roads' asphalt bituminous pavement. After comparing it with performance of traditional hot asphalt mixture, mixing temperature may be reduced by 30°C-60°C, emission of poisonous gas is reduced, energy conservation and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> protection are satisfied, construction quality reaches requirements of construction specifications and economic, social and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefits are significant. Thus, it can be used for reference for green construction of urban roads.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477461','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477461"><span id="translatedtitle">Multidecadal <span class="hlt">warming</span> of Antarctic waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidtko, Sunke; Heywood, Karen J; Thompson, Andrew F; Aoki, Shigeru</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Decadal trends in the properties of seawater adjacent to Antarctica are poorly known, and the mechanisms responsible for such changes are uncertain. Antarctic ice sheet mass loss is largely driven by ice shelf basal melt, which is influenced by ocean-ice interactions and has been correlated with Antarctic Continental Shelf Bottom Water (ASBW) temperature. We document the spatial distribution of long-term large-scale trends in temperature, salinity, and core depth over the Antarctic continental shelf and slope. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at the seabed in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas is linked to increased heat content and to a shoaling of the mid-depth temperature maximum over the continental slope, allowing warmer, saltier water greater access to the shelf in recent years. Regions of ASBW <span class="hlt">warming</span> are those exhibiting increased ice shelf melt. PMID:25477461</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/966057','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/966057"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrological consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miller, Norman L.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11414101B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11414101B"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar trends and global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benestad, R. E.; Schmidt, G. A.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>We use a suite of global climate model simulations for the 20th century to assess the contribution of solar forcing to the past trends in the global mean temperature. In particular, we examine how robust different published methodologies are at detecting and attributing solar-related climate change in the presence of intrinsic climate variability and multiple forcings. We demonstrate that naive application of linear analytical methods such as regression gives nonrobust results. We also demonstrate that the methodologies used by Scafetta and West (2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2007, 2008) are not robust to these same factors and that their error bars are significantly larger than reported. Our analysis shows that the most likely contribution from solar forcing a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is 7 ± 1% for the 20th century and is negligible for <span class="hlt">warming</span> since 1980.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..144a2014E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..144a2014E"><span id="translatedtitle">MCCB <span class="hlt">warm</span> adjustment testing concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the <span class="hlt">warm</span> adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006017','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006017"><span id="translatedtitle">Lagrangian description of <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kim, H.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Efforts are described to extend the averaged Lagrangian method of describing small signal wave propagation and nonlinear wave interaction, developed by earlier workers for cold plasmas, to the more general conditions of <span class="hlt">warm</span> collisionless plasmas, and to demonstrate particularly the effectiveness of the method in analyzing wave-wave interactions. The theory is developed for both the microscopic description and the hydrodynamic approximation to plasma behavior. First, a microscopic Lagrangian is formulated rigorously, and expanded in terms of perturbations about equilibrium. Two methods are then described for deriving a hydrodynamic Lagrangian. In the first of these, the Lagrangian is obtained by velocity integration of the exact microscopic Lagrangian. In the second, the expanded hydrodynamic Lagrangian is obtained directly from the expanded microscopic Lagrangian. As applications of the microscopic Lagrangian, the small-signal dispersion relations and the coupled mode equations are derived for all possible waves in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> infinite, weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, and their interactions are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6584887','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6584887"><span id="translatedtitle">The heated debate. [Global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Balling, R.C. Jr.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Heated Debate challenges head on the popular vision' of anthropogenically-caused global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as characterized by catastrophic sea level rise, drought-desiccated farmlands, and more frequent and intense hurricanes spinning up and out from warmer tropical seas. The message of this book is that apocalyptic devastation of natural ecosystems and human socio-economic systems will not necessarily follow from a mild <span class="hlt">warming</span> of earth's climate. According to Balling, the specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public at large, and, in his view, it is just as clearly incorrect based on a careful examination of the historical evidence. The Heated Debate present the other side' of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; a kinder, gentler greenhouse debate, the stated purpose of the book is to provide the reader with some background to the greenhouse issue, present an analysis of the certainties and uncertainties for future climate change, and examine the most probably changes in climate that may occur as the greenhouse gases increase in concentration. Ultimately the author hopes the book will more completely inform decisionmakers so that they do not commit money and resources to what may turn out to be a non-problem. Indeed, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> may have many more benefits than costs, and, in any event, the (climate) penalty for postponing action a few years is potentially small, while our knowledge base will increase tremendously allowing society to make wiser and more informed decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740024666','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740024666"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The details of the stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> processes as to time, area, and intensity were established, and the <span class="hlt">warmings</span> with other terrestrial and solar phenomena occurring at satellite platform altitudes, or observable from satellite platforms, were correlated. Links were sought between the perturbed upper atmosphere (mesosphere and thermosphere) and the stratosphere that might explain stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738U0031F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738U0031F"><span id="translatedtitle">New efficient optimizing techniques for Kalman filters and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> weather prediction models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Famelis, Ioannis; Galanis, George; Liakatas, Aristotelis</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The need for accurate local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> predictions and simulations beyond the classical meteorological forecasts are increasing the last years due to the great number of applications that are directly or not affected: renewable energy resource assessment, natural hazards early warning systems, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and questions on the climate change can be listed among them. Within this framework the utilization of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> weather and wave prediction systems in conjunction with advanced statistical techniques that support the elimination of the model bias and the reduction of the error variability may successfully address the above issues. In the present work, new optimization methods are studied and tested in selected areas of Greece where the use of renewable energy sources is of critical. The added value of the proposed work is due to the solid mathematical background adopted making use of Information Geometry and Statistical techniques, new versions of Kalman filters and state of the art <span class="hlt">numerical</span> analysis tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426698"><span id="translatedtitle">Shifting grassland plant community structure drives positive interactive effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and diversity on aboveground net primary productivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cowles, Jane M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Alexandra J; Powers, Jennifer S; Tilman, David</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Ecosystems worldwide are increasingly impacted by multiple drivers of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, including climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and loss of biodiversity. We show, using a long-term factorial experiment, that plant diversity loss alters the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on productivity. Aboveground primary productivity was increased by both high plant diversity and <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and, in concert, <span class="hlt">warming</span> (≈1.5 °C average above and belowground <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the growing season) and diversity caused a greater than additive increase in aboveground productivity. The aboveground <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects increased over time, particularly at higher levels of diversity, perhaps because of <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced increases in legume and C4 bunch grass abundances, and facilitative feedbacks of these species on productivity. Moreover, higher plant diversity was associated with the amelioration of <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. This led to cooler temperatures, decreased vapor pressure deficit, and increased surface soil moisture in higher diversity communities. Root biomass (0-30 cm) was likewise consistently greater at higher plant diversity and was greater with <span class="hlt">warming</span> in monocultures and at intermediate diversity, but at high diversity <span class="hlt">warming</span> had no detectable effect. This may be because <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased the abundance of legumes, which have lower root : shoot ratios than the other types of plants. In addition, legumes increase soil nitrogen (N) supply, which could make N less limiting to other species and potentially decrease their investment in roots. The negative <span class="hlt">warming</span> × diversity interaction on root mass led to an overall negative interactive effect of these two global change factors on the sum of above and belowground biomass, and thus likely on total plant carbon stores. In total, plant diversity increased the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aboveground net productivity and moderated the effect on root mass. These divergent effects suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> and changes in plant diversity are likely to have both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426698"><span id="translatedtitle">Shifting grassland plant community structure drives positive interactive effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and diversity on aboveground net primary productivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cowles, Jane M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Alexandra J; Powers, Jennifer S; Tilman, David</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Ecosystems worldwide are increasingly impacted by multiple drivers of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, including climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and loss of biodiversity. We show, using a long-term factorial experiment, that plant diversity loss alters the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on productivity. Aboveground primary productivity was increased by both high plant diversity and <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and, in concert, <span class="hlt">warming</span> (≈1.5 °C average above and belowground <span class="hlt">warming</span> over the growing season) and diversity caused a greater than additive increase in aboveground productivity. The aboveground <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects increased over time, particularly at higher levels of diversity, perhaps because of <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced increases in legume and C4 bunch grass abundances, and facilitative feedbacks of these species on productivity. Moreover, higher plant diversity was associated with the amelioration of <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. This led to cooler temperatures, decreased vapor pressure deficit, and increased surface soil moisture in higher diversity communities. Root biomass (0-30 cm) was likewise consistently greater at higher plant diversity and was greater with <span class="hlt">warming</span> in monocultures and at intermediate diversity, but at high diversity <span class="hlt">warming</span> had no detectable effect. This may be because <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased the abundance of legumes, which have lower root : shoot ratios than the other types of plants. In addition, legumes increase soil nitrogen (N) supply, which could make N less limiting to other species and potentially decrease their investment in roots. The negative <span class="hlt">warming</span> × diversity interaction on root mass led to an overall negative interactive effect of these two global change factors on the sum of above and belowground biomass, and thus likely on total plant carbon stores. In total, plant diversity increased the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aboveground net productivity and moderated the effect on root mass. These divergent effects suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> and changes in plant diversity are likely to have both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23605603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23605603"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: knowledge and views of Iranian students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Salehpour, Sousan; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin; Attarchi, Mirsaeed</p> <p>2013-04-06</p> <p>Study of students' knowledge about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. To assess students' knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed "if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter" and "incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>". 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought "the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide" and "presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect". 68.4% believed "not using cars so much is a cure for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>". While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P<0.01) and grade 1 students (P<0.001) but there was no statistically significant difference between students of different regions (P>0.05). In general, students' knowledge about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students' mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23605603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23605603"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: knowledge and views of Iranian students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Salehpour, Sousan; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin; Attarchi, Mirsaeed</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Study of students' knowledge about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. To assess students' knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed "if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter" and "incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>". 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought "the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide" and "presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect". 68.4% believed "not using cars so much is a cure for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>". While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P<0.01) and grade 1 students (P<0.001) but there was no statistically significant difference between students of different regions (P>0.05). In general, students' knowledge about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students' mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter. PMID:23605603</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdAtS..31.1316S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdAtS..31.1316S"><span id="translatedtitle">The hiatus and accelerated <span class="hlt">warming</span> decades in CMIP5 simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Yi; Yu, Yongqiang; Lin, Pengfei</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Observed hiatus or accelerated <span class="hlt">warming</span> phenomena are compared with <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) archives, and the associated physical mechanisms are explored based on the CMIP5 models. Decadal trends in total ocean heat content (OHC) are strongly constrained by net top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation. During hiatus decades, most CMIP5 models exhibit a significant decrease in the SST and upper OHC and a significant increase of heat penetrating into the subsurface or deep ocean, opposite to the accelerated <span class="hlt">warming</span> decades. The shallow meridional overturning of the Pacific subtropical cell experiences a significant strengthening (slowdown) for the hiatus (accelerated <span class="hlt">warming</span>) decades associated with the strengthened (weakened) trade winds over the tropical Pacific. Both surface heating and ocean dynamics contribute to the decadal changes in SST over the Indian Ocean, and the Indonesian Throughflow has a close relationship with the changes of subsurface temperature in the Indian Ocean. The Atlantic Meridional Overturing Circulation (Antarctic Bottom Water) tends to weaken (strengthen) during hiatus decades, opposite to the accelerated <span class="hlt">warming</span> decades. In short, the results highlight the important roles of air-sea interactions and ocean circulations for modulation of surface and subsurface temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044270','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044270"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> during the last glacial cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Farmer, J.; Bauch, H.A.; Spielhagen, R.F.; Jakobsson, M.; Nilsson, J.; Briggs, W.M.; Stepanova, A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In the Arctic Ocean, the cold and relatively fresh water beneath the sea ice is separated from the underlying warmer and saltier Atlantic Layer by a halocline. Ongoing sea ice loss and <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arctic Ocean have demonstrated the instability of the halocline, with implications for further sea ice loss. The stability of the halocline through past climate variations is unclear. Here we estimate intermediate water temperatures over the past 50,000 years from the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values of ostracods from 31 Arctic sediment cores. From about 50 to 11 kyr ago, the central Arctic Basin from 1,000 to 2,500 m was occupied by a water mass we call Glacial Arctic Intermediate Water. This water mass was 1–2 °C warmer than modern Arctic Intermediate Water, with temperatures peaking during or just before millennial-scale Heinrich cold events and the Younger Dryas cold interval. We use <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling to show that the intermediate depth <span class="hlt">warming</span> could result from the expected decrease in the flux of fresh water to the Arctic Ocean during glacial conditions, which would cause the halocline to deepen and push the <span class="hlt">warm</span> Atlantic Layer into intermediate depths. Although not modelled, the reduced formation of cold, deep waters due to the exposure of the Arctic continental shelf could also contribute to the intermediate depth <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15009836','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15009836"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Matter: An Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D</p> <p>2004-04-21</p> <p>This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615485M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615485M"><span id="translatedtitle">Artificial <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Arctic Meadow under Pollution Stress: Experimental design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moni, Christophe; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Fjelldal, Erling; Brenden, Marius; Kimball, Bruce; Rasse, Daniel</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, notably because future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Likewise, greenhouse gas (GHG) release from terrestrial ecosystems exposed to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> is expected to be the largest in the arctic. Artic agriculture, in the form of cultivated grasslands, is a unique and economically relevant feature of Northern Norway (e.g. Finnmark Province). In Eastern Finnmark, these agro-ecosystems are under the additional stressor of heavy metal and sulfur pollution generated by metal smelters of NW Russia. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and its interaction with heavy metal dynamics will influence meadow productivity, species composition and GHG emissions, as mediated by responses of soil microbial communities. Adaptation and mitigation measurements will be needed. Biochar application, which immobilizes heavy metal, is a promising adaptation method to promote positive growth response in arctic meadows exposed to a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. In the Meado<span class="hlt">Warm</span> project we conduct an ecosystem <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment combined to biochar adaptation treatments in the heavy-metal polluted meadows of Eastern Finnmark. In summary, the general objective of this study is twofold: 1) to determine the response of arctic agricultural ecosystems under <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stress to increased temperatures, both in terms of plant growth, soil organisms and GHG emissions, and 2) to determine if biochar application can serve as a positive adaptation (plant growth) and mitigation (GHG emission) strategy for these ecosystems under <span class="hlt">warming</span> conditions. Here, we present the experimental site and the designed open-field <span class="hlt">warming</span> facility. The selected site is an arctic meadow located at the Svanhovd Research station less than 10km west from the Russian mining city of Nikel. A splitplot design with 5 replicates for each treatment is used to test the effect of biochar amendment and a 3oC <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the Arctic meadow. Ten circular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3394771','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3394771"><span id="translatedtitle">Methods of Patient <span class="hlt">Warming</span> during Abdominal Surgery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shao, Li; Zheng, Hong; Jia, Feng-Ju; Wang, Hui-Qin; Liu, Li; Sun, Qi; An, Meng-Ying; Zhang, Xiu-Hua; Wen, Hao</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Keeping abdominal surgery patients <span class="hlt">warm</span> is common and <span class="hlt">warming</span> methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power <span class="hlt">warming</span> methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients. Methods Patients (n = 160) scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five <span class="hlt">warming</span> methods were applied: heated blood transfusion/fluid infusion vs. unheated; wrapping patients vs. not wrapping; applying moist dressings, heated or not; surgical field rinse heated or not; and applying heating blankets or not. Patients’ nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures were recorded to evaluate <span class="hlt">warming</span> efficacy. Significant differences were found in mean temperatures of <span class="hlt">warmed</span> patients compared to those not <span class="hlt">warmed</span>. Results When we compared temperatures of abdominal surgery patient groups receiving three specific <span class="hlt">warming</span> methods with temperatures of control groups not receiving these methods, significant differences were revealed in temperatures maintained during the surgeries between the <span class="hlt">warmed</span> groups and controls. Discussion The value of maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia is accepted. Three effective economical and practically applicable <span class="hlt">warming</span> methods are combined body wrapping and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and <span class="hlt">warmed</span> surgical rinse fluid, with or without heating blanket. These methods are practically applicable when low-cost method is indeed needed. PMID:22808045</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040016359&hterms=darden&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddarden','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040016359&hterms=darden&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddarden"><span id="translatedtitle">Diabatic Initialization of Mesoscale Models in the Southeastern United States: Can 0 to 12h <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Season QPF be Improved?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lapenta, William M.; Bradshaw, Tom; Burks, Jason; Darden, Chris; Dembek, Scott</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that <span class="hlt">numerical</span> <span class="hlt">warm</span> season quantitative precipitation forecasts lack significant skill for <span class="hlt">numerous</span> reasons. Some are related to the model--it may lack physical processes required to realistically simulate convection or the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> algorithms and dynamics employed may not be adequate. Others are related to initialization-mesoscale features play an important role in convective initialization and atmospheric observation systems are incapable of properly depicting the three-dimensional stability structure at the mesoscale. The purpose of this study is to determine if a mesoscale model initialized with a diabatic initialization scheme can improve short-term (0 to 12h) <span class="hlt">warm</span> season quantitative precipitation forecasts in the Southeastern United States. The Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) developed at the Forecast System Laboratory is used to diabatically initialize the Pennsylvania State University/National center for Atmospheric Research (PSUNCAR) Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5). The SPORT Center runs LAPS operationally on an hourly cycle to produce analyses on a 15 km covering the eastern 2/3 of the United States. The 20 km National Centers for <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction (NCEP) Rapid Update Cycle analyses are used for the background fields. Standard observational data are acquired from MADIS with GOES/CRAFT Nexrad data acquired from in-house feeds. The MM5 is configured on a 140 x 140 12 km grid centered on Huntsville Alabama. Preliminary results indicate that MM5 runs initialized with LAPS produce improved 6 and 12h QPF threat scores compared with those initialized with the NCEP RUC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107529"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> triggers the loss of a key Arctic refugium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rühland, K M; Paterson, A M; Keller, W; Michelutti, N; Smol, J P</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We document the rapid transformation of one of the Earth's last remaining Arctic refugia, a change that is being driven by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In stark contrast to the amplified <span class="hlt">warming</span> observed throughout much of the Arctic, the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) of subarctic Canada has maintained cool temperatures, largely due to the counteracting effects of persistent sea ice. However, since the mid-1990s, climate of the HBL has passed a tipping point, the pace and magnitude of which is exceptional even by Arctic standards, exceeding the range of regional long-term variability. Using high-resolution, palaeolimnological records of algal remains in dated lake sediment cores, we report that, within this short period of intense <span class="hlt">warming</span>, striking biological changes have occurred in the region's freshwater ecosystems. The delayed and intense <span class="hlt">warming</span> in this remote region provides a natural observatory for testing ecosystem resilience under a rapidly changing climate, in the absence of direct anthropogenic influences. The <span class="hlt">environmental</span> repercussions of this climate change are of global significance, influencing the huge store of carbon in the region's extensive peatlands, the world's southern-most polar bear population that depends upon Hudson Bay sea ice and permafrost for survival, and native communities who rely on this landscape for sustenance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3813327','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3813327"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> triggers the loss of a key Arctic refugium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rühland, K. M.; Paterson, A. M.; Keller, W.; Michelutti, N.; Smol, J. P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We document the rapid transformation of one of the Earth's last remaining Arctic refugia, a change that is being driven by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In stark contrast to the amplified <span class="hlt">warming</span> observed throughout much of the Arctic, the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) of subarctic Canada has maintained cool temperatures, largely due to the counteracting effects of persistent sea ice. However, since the mid-1990s, climate of the HBL has passed a tipping point, the pace and magnitude of which is exceptional even by Arctic standards, exceeding the range of regional long-term variability. Using high-resolution, palaeolimnological records of algal remains in dated lake sediment cores, we report that, within this short period of intense <span class="hlt">warming</span>, striking biological changes have occurred in the region's freshwater ecosystems. The delayed and intense <span class="hlt">warming</span> in this remote region provides a natural observatory for testing ecosystem resilience under a rapidly changing climate, in the absence of direct anthropogenic influences. The <span class="hlt">environmental</span> repercussions of this climate change are of global significance, influencing the huge store of carbon in the region's extensive peatlands, the world's southern-most polar bear population that depends upon Hudson Bay sea ice and permafrost for survival, and native communities who rely on this landscape for sustenance. PMID:24107529</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15677527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15677527"><span id="translatedtitle">Cutaneous <span class="hlt">warming</span> promotes sleep onset.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raymann, Roy J E M; Swaab, Dick F; Van Someren, Eus J W</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin <span class="hlt">warming</span> and heat loss. We have proposed that these intrinsically occurring changes in core and skin temperatures could modulate neuronal activity in sleep-regulating brain areas (Van Someren EJW, Chronobiol Int 17: 313-54, 2000). We here provide results compatible with this hypothesis. We obtained 144 sleep-onset latencies while directly manipulating core and skin temperatures within the comfortable range in eight healthy subjects under controlled conditions. The induction of a proximal skin temperature difference of only 0.78 +/- 0.03 degrees C (mean +/- SE) around a mean of 35.13 +/- 0.11 degrees C changed sleep-onset latency by 26%, i.e., by 3.09 minutes [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91 to 4.28] around a mean of 11.85 min (CI, 9.74 to 14.41), with faster sleep onsets when the proximal skin was <span class="hlt">warmed</span>. The reduction in sleep-onset latency occurred despite a small but significant decrease in subjective comfort during proximal skin <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The induction of changes in core temperature (delta = 0.20 +/- 0.02 degrees C) and distal skin temperature (delta = 0.74 +/- 0.05 degrees C) were ineffective. Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between skin temperature and sleep-onset latency. Also, sleep disruption by ambient temperatures that activate thermoregulatory defense mechanisms has been shown. The present study is the first to experimentally demonstrate a causal contribution to sleep-onset latency of skin temperature manipulations within the normal nocturnal fluctuation range. Circadian and sleep-appetitive behavior-induced variations in skin temperature might act as an input signal to sleep-regulating systems. PMID:15677527</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24904161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24904161"><span id="translatedtitle">From aerosol-limited to invigoration of <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koren, Ilan; Dagan, Guy; Altaratz, Orit</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a <span class="hlt">warm</span> base and cold top. Here, we provide evidence from observations and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling of a dramatic aerosol effect on <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds. We propose that convective-cloud invigoration by aerosols can be viewed as an extension of the concept of aerosol-limited clouds, where cloud development is limited by the availability of cloud-condensation nuclei. A transition from pristine to slightly polluted atmosphere yields estimated negative forcing of ~15 watts per square meter (cooling), suggesting that a substantial part of this anthropogenic forcing over the oceans occurred at the beginning of the industrial era, when the marine atmosphere experienced such transformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24904161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24904161"><span id="translatedtitle">From aerosol-limited to invigoration of <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koren, Ilan; Dagan, Guy; Altaratz, Orit</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a <span class="hlt">warm</span> base and cold top. Here, we provide evidence from observations and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling of a dramatic aerosol effect on <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds. We propose that convective-cloud invigoration by aerosols can be viewed as an extension of the concept of aerosol-limited clouds, where cloud development is limited by the availability of cloud-condensation nuclei. A transition from pristine to slightly polluted atmosphere yields estimated negative forcing of ~15 watts per square meter (cooling), suggesting that a substantial part of this anthropogenic forcing over the oceans occurred at the beginning of the industrial era, when the marine atmosphere experienced such transformation. PMID:24904161</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Ap%26SS.361..289N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Ap%26SS.361..289N"><span id="translatedtitle">High dissipative nonminimal <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nozari, Kourosh; Shoukrani, Masoomeh</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We study a model of <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation in which both inflaton field and its derivatives are coupled nonminimally to curvature. We survey the spectrum of the primordial perturbations in high dissipative regime. By expanding the action up to the third order, the amplitude of the non-Gaussianity is studied both in the equilateral and orthogonal configurations. Finally, by adopting four sort of potentials, we compare our model with the Planck 2015 released observational data and obtain some constraints on the model's parameters space in the high dissipation regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3662520','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3662520"><span id="translatedtitle">Independent effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen addition on plant phenology in the Inner Mongolian steppe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xia, Jianyang; Wan, Shiqiang</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims Phenology is one of most sensitive traits of plants in response to regional climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Better understanding of the interactive effects between <span class="hlt">warming</span> and other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change factors, such as increasing atmosphere nitrogen (N) deposition, is critical for projection of future plant phenology. Methods A 4-year field experiment manipulating temperature and N has been conducted in a temperate steppe in northern China. Phenology, including flowering and fruiting date as well as reproductive duration, of eight plant species was monitored and calculated from 2006 to 2009. Key Results Across all the species and years, <span class="hlt">warming</span> significantly advanced flowering and fruiting time by 0·64 and 0·72 d per season, respectively, which were mainly driven by the earliest species (Potentilla acaulis). Although N addition showed no impact on phenological times across the eight species, it significantly delayed flowering time of Heteropappus altaicus and fruiting time of Agropyron cristatum. The responses of flowering and fruiting times to <span class="hlt">warming</span> or N addition are coupled, leading to no response of reproductive duration to <span class="hlt">warming</span> or N addition for most species. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> shortened reproductive duration of Potentilla bifurca but extended that of Allium bidentatum, whereas N addition shortened that of A. bidentatum. No interactive effect between <span class="hlt">warming</span> and N addition was found on any phenological event. Such additive effects could be ascribed to the species-specific responses of plant phenology to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and N addition. Conclusions The results suggest that the <span class="hlt">warming</span> response of plant phenology is larger in earlier than later flowering species in temperate grassland systems. The effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and N addition on plant phenology are independent of each other. These findings can help to better understand and predict the response of plant phenology to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> concurrent with other global change driving factors. PMID:23585496</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18266169','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18266169"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward a critical anthropology on the impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on health and human societies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baer, Hans A</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This op-ed essay urges medical anthropologists to join a growing number of public health scholars to examine the impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on health. Adopting a critical medical anthropology perspective, I argue that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is yet another manifestation of the contradictions of the capitalist world system. Ultimately, an serious effort to mitigate the impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> not only on health but also settlement patterns and subsistence will require the creation of a new global political economy based upon social parity, democratic processes, and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> sustainability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25307533','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25307533"><span id="translatedtitle">Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen addition in a semiarid steppe ecosystem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Yong-Chan; Gao, Cheng; Zheng, Yong; He, Xin-Hua; Yang, Wei; Chen, Liang; Wan, Shi-Qiang; Guo, Liang-Dong</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Understanding the response of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen (N) fertilization is critical to assess the impact of anthropogenic disturbance on ecosystem functioning under global climate change scenarios. In this study, AM fungal communities were examined in a full factorial design with <span class="hlt">warming</span> and N addition in a semiarid steppe in northern China. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> significantly increased AM fungal spore density, regardless of N addition, whilst N addition significantly decreased AM fungal extraradical hyphal density, regardless of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A total of 79 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were recovered by 454 pyrosequencing of SSU rDNA. <span class="hlt">Warming</span>, but not N addition, had a significant positive effect on AM fungal OTU richness, while <span class="hlt">warming</span> and N addition significantly increased AM fungal Shannon diversity index. N addition, but not <span class="hlt">warming</span>, significantly altered the AM fungal community composition. Furthermore, the changes in AM fungal community composition were associated with shifts in plant community composition indirectly caused by N addition. These findings highlight the different effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and N addition on AM fungal communities and contribute to understanding AM fungal community responses to global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change scenarios in semiarid steppe ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20819816','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20819816"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting phenology under global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ibáñez, Inés; Primack, Richard B; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J; Ellwood, Elizabeth; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Sang Don; Kobori, Hiromi; Silander, John A</p> <p>2010-10-12</p> <p>As a consequence of <span class="hlt">warming</span> temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are responding similarly, and there is significant spatial variation in responses even within species. This spatial and interspecific variation complicates efforts to predict phenological responses to ongoing climate change, but must be incorporated in order to build reliable forecasts. Here, we use a long-term dataset (1953-2005) of plant phenological events in spring (flowering and leaf out) and autumn (leaf colouring and leaf fall) throughout Japan and South Korea to build forecasts that account for these sources of variability. Specifically, we used hierarchical models to incorporate the spatial variability in phenological responses to temperature to then forecast species' overall and site-specific responses to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We found that for most species, spring phenology is advancing and autumn phenology is getting later, with the timing of events changing more quickly in autumn compared with the spring. Temporal trends and phenological responses to temperature in East Asia contrasted with results from comparable studies in Europe, where spring events are changing more rapidly than are autumn events. Our results emphasize the need to study multiple species at many sites to understand and forecast regional changes in phenology. PMID:20819816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25478068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25478068"><span id="translatedtitle">Population growth and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Short, R V</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>When I was born in 1930, the human population of the world was a mere 2 billion. Today, it has already reached 6.8 billion, and is projected to reach 9.1 billion by 2050. That is unsustainable. It is slowly beginning to dawn on us that Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> is the result of increasing human CO2 emissions, and the more people there are in the world, the worse it will become. Ultimately, it is the sky that will prove to be the limit to our numbers. The developed countries of the world are the most affluent, and also the most effluent, so we must lead by example and contain our own population growth and per capita emissions. We also have a big debt to repay to former colonial territories in Africa, Asia and South America, who desperately need our help to contain their excessive rates of population growth. Belgian and Dutch obstetricians and gynaecologists can play a critical role in this endeavour. After all, we already have a pill that will stop global <span class="hlt">warming</span> - the oral contraceptive pill. PMID:25478068</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25478068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25478068"><span id="translatedtitle">Population growth and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Short, R V</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>When I was born in 1930, the human population of the world was a mere 2 billion. Today, it has already reached 6.8 billion, and is projected to reach 9.1 billion by 2050. That is unsustainable. It is slowly beginning to dawn on us that Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> is the result of increasing human CO2 emissions, and the more people there are in the world, the worse it will become. Ultimately, it is the sky that will prove to be the limit to our numbers. The developed countries of the world are the most affluent, and also the most effluent, so we must lead by example and contain our own population growth and per capita emissions. We also have a big debt to repay to former colonial territories in Africa, Asia and South America, who desperately need our help to contain their excessive rates of population growth. Belgian and Dutch obstetricians and gynaecologists can play a critical role in this endeavour. After all, we already have a pill that will stop global <span class="hlt">warming</span> - the oral contraceptive pill.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21531994','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21531994"><span id="translatedtitle">Mach reflection in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Foster, J. M.; Rosen, P. A.; Wilde, B. H.; Hartigan, P.; Perry, T. S.</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>The phenomenon of irregular shock-wave reflection is of importance in high-temperature gas dynamics, astrophysics, inertial-confinement fusion, and related fields of high-energy-density science. However, most experimental studies of irregular reflection have used supersonic wind tunnels or shock tubes, and few or no data are available for Mach reflection phenomena in the plasma regime. Similarly, analytic studies have often been confined to calorically perfect gases. We report the first direct observation, and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling, of Mach stem formation for a <span class="hlt">warm</span>, dense plasma. Two ablatively driven aluminum disks launch oppositely directed, near-spherical shock waves into a cylindrical plastic block. The interaction of these shocks results in the formation of a Mach-ring shock that is diagnosed by x-ray backlighting. The data are modeled using radiation hydrocodes developed by AWE and LANL. The experiments were carried out at the University of Rochester's Omega laser [J. M. Soures, R. L. McCrory, C. P. Verdon et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2108 (1996)] and were inspired by modeling [A. M. Khokhlov, P. A. Hoeflich, E. S. Oran et al., Astrophys J. 524, L107 (1999)] of core-collapse supernovae that suggest that in asymmetric supernova explosion significant mass may be ejected in a Mach-ring formation launched by bipolar jets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=155365&keyword=human+AND+footprint&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80706201&CFTOKEN=97082016','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=155365&keyword=human+AND+footprint&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80706201&CFTOKEN=97082016"><span id="translatedtitle">A CRADLE TO GATE LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF THE BIOPOLYMER POLYLACTIC ACID: LOOKING BEYOND GLOBAL <span class="hlt">WARMING</span> AND FOSSIL FUEL USE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Derived from corn, the biopolymer polylactic acid (PLA) has recently emerged in the marketplace and is advertised as a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based polymers. Research into the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> implications of biobased production has focused primarily on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..563D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..563D"><span id="translatedtitle">Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued <span class="hlt">warming</span>, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that <span class="hlt">environmental</span> heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043248','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043248"><span id="translatedtitle">Exceptional <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Western Pacific-Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool has contributed to more frequent droughts in eastern Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Funk, Christopher C.; Peterson, Thomas C.; Stott, Peter A.; Herring, Stephanie</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In 2011, East Africa faced a tragic food crisis that led to famine conditions in parts of Somalia and severe food shortages in parts of Ethiopia and Somalia. While many nonclimatic factors contributed to this crisis (high global food prices, political instability, and chronic poverty, among others) failed rains in both the boreal winter of 2010/11 and the boreal spring of 2011 played a critical role. The back-to-back failures of these rains, which were linked to the dominant La Niña climate and <span class="hlt">warm</span> SSTs in the central and southeastern Indian Ocean, were particularly problematic since they followed poor rainfall during the spring and summer of 2008 and 2009. In fact, in parts of East Africa, in recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of below-normal rainy seasons, which may be related to the <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans (for more details, see Funk et al. 2008; Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011; Lyon and DeWitt 2012). The basic argument of this work is that recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Indian–Pacific <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool (IPWP) enhances the export of geopotential height energy from the <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool, which tends to produce subsidence across eastern Africa and reduce onshore moisture transports. The general pattern of this disruption has been supported by canonical correlation analyzes and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments with the Community Atmosphere Model (Funk et al. 2008), diagnostic evaluations of reanalysis data (Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011), and SST-driven experiments with ECHAM4.5, ECHAM5, and the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3.6) (Lyon and DeWitt 2012).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.2749D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.2749D"><span id="translatedtitle">Competition between core and periphery-based processes in <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds - from invigoration to suppression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dagan, G.; Koren, I.; Altaratz, O.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>How do changes in the amount and properties of aerosol affect <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds? Recent studies suggest that they have opposing effects. Some suggest that an increase in aerosol loading leads to enhanced evaporation and therefore smaller clouds, whereas other studies suggest clouds' invigoration. In this study, using an axisymmetric bin-microphysics cloud model, we propose a theoretical scheme that analyzes the evolution of key processes in <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds, under different aerosol loading and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, to explain this contradiction. Such an analysis of the key processes reveals a robust reversal in the trend of the clouds' response to an increase in aerosol loading. When aerosol conditions are shifted from superpristine to slightly polluted, the clouds formed are deeper and have larger water mass. Such a trend continues up to an optimal concentration (Nop) that allows the cloud to achieve a maximal water mass. Hence, for any concentration below Nop the cloud formed contains less mass and therefore can be considered as aerosol-limited, whereas for concentrations greater thanNop cloud periphery processes, such as enhanced entrainment and evaporation, take over leading to cloud suppression. We show that Nop is a function of the thermodynamic conditions (temperature and humidity profiles). Thus, profiles that favor deeper clouds would dictate larger values of Nop, whereas for profiles of shallow convective clouds, Nop corresponds to the pristine range of the aerosol loading. Such a view of a trend reversal, marked by the optimal concentration, Nop, helps one to bridge the gap between the contradictory results of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models and observations. Satellite studies are biased in favor of larger clouds that are characterized by larger Nop values and therefore invigoration is observed. On the other hand, modeling studies of cloud fields are biased in favor of small, mostly trade-like convective clouds, which are characterized by low Nop values (in the pristine range</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1423555D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1423555D"><span id="translatedtitle">Competition between core and periphery-based processes in <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds - from invigoration to suppression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dagan, G.; Koren, I.; Altaratz, O.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>How do changes in the amount and properties of aerosol affect <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds? Recent studies suggest that they have opposing effects. Some suggest that an increase in aerosol loading leads to enhanced evaporation and therefore smaller clouds, whereas other studies suggest clouds' invigoration. In this study, using a bin-microphysics cloud model, we propose a theoretical scheme that analyzes the evolution of key processes in <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds, under different aerosol loading and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, to explain this contradiction. Such a framework reveals a robust reversal in the trend of the clouds' response to an increase in aerosol loading. When aerosol conditions are shifted from super-pristine to slightly pollute, the clouds formed are deeper and have a larger water mass. Such a trend continues up to an optimal concentration (Nop) that allows the cloud to achieve a maximal water mass. Hence, for any concentration below Nop the cloud formed contains less mass and therefore can be considered as aerosol limited, whereas for concentrations greater than Nop cloud periphery processes, such as enhanced entrainment, take over leading to cloud suppression. We show that Nop is a function of the thermodynamic conditions (temperature and humidity profiles). Thus, profiles that favor deeper clouds would dictate larger values of Nop, whereas for profiles of shallow convective clouds, Nop corresponds to the pristine range of the aerosol loading. Such a view of a trend reversal, marked by the optimal concentration, Nop, helps one to bridge the gap between the contradictory results of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models and observations. Satellite studies are biased in favor of larger clouds that are characterized by larger Nop values and therefore invigoration is observed. On the other hand, modeling studies are biased in favor of small, mostly trade-like convective clouds, which are characterized by low Nop values (in the pristine range), and therefore cloud suppression is mostly reported as a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26047565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26047565"><span id="translatedtitle">Range-expanding pests and pathogens in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> world.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bebber, Daniel Patrick</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Crop pests and pathogens (CPPs) present a growing threat to food security and ecosystem management. The interactions between plants and their natural enemies are influenced by <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions and thus global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate change could affect CPP ranges and impact. Observations of changing CPP distributions over the twentieth century suggest that growing agricultural production and trade have been most important in disseminating CPPs, but there is some evidence for a latitudinal bias in range shifts that indicates a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> signal. Species distribution models using climatic variables as drivers suggest that ranges will shift latitudinally in the future. The rapid spread of the Colorado potato beetle across Eurasia illustrates the importance of evolutionary adaptation, host distribution, and migration patterns in affecting the predictions of climate-based species distribution models. Understanding species range shifts in the framework of ecological niche theory may help to direct future research needs. PMID:26047565</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159740','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159740"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting wildlife response to rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Alaskan Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Flint, Paul L.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Koch, Joshua C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Oakley, Karen L.; Pearce, John M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Arctic wildlife species face a dynamic and increasingly novel environment because of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the associated increase in human activity. Both marine and terrestrial environments are undergoing rapid <span class="hlt">environmental</span> shifts, including loss of sea ice, permafrost degradation, and altered biogeochemical fluxes. Forecasting wildlife responses to climate change can facilitate proactive decisions that balance stewardship with resource development. In this article, we discuss the primary and secondary responses to physical climate-related drivers in the Arctic, associated wildlife responses, and additional sources of complexity in forecasting wildlife population outcomes. Although the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on wildlife populations are becoming increasingly well documented in the scientific literature, clear mechanistic links are often difficult to establish. An integrated science approach and robust modeling tools are necessary to make predictions and determine resiliency to change. We provide a conceptual framework and introduce examples relevant for developing wildlife forecasts useful to management decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26047565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26047565"><span id="translatedtitle">Range-expanding pests and pathogens in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> world.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bebber, Daniel Patrick</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Crop pests and pathogens (CPPs) present a growing threat to food security and ecosystem management. The interactions between plants and their natural enemies are influenced by <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions and thus global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate change could affect CPP ranges and impact. Observations of changing CPP distributions over the twentieth century suggest that growing agricultural production and trade have been most important in disseminating CPPs, but there is some evidence for a latitudinal bias in range shifts that indicates a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> signal. Species distribution models using climatic variables as drivers suggest that ranges will shift latitudinally in the future. The rapid spread of the Colorado potato beetle across Eurasia illustrates the importance of evolutionary adaptation, host distribution, and migration patterns in affecting the predictions of climate-based species distribution models. Understanding species range shifts in the framework of ecological niche theory may help to direct future research needs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181865','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181865"><span id="translatedtitle">Health effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Problems in assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Longstreth, J.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is likely to result in a variety of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2084Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2084Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warming</span> and lunar tide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Yosuke; Kosch, Michael</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warming</span> is a large-scale disturbance in the middle atmosphere. Recent studies have shown that the effect of stratospheric sudden warnings extends well into the upper atmosphere. A stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warming</span> is often accompanied by an amplification of lunar tides in the ionosphere/theremosphere. However, there are occasionally winters when a stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warming</span> occurs without an enhancement of the lunar tide in the upper atmosphere, and other winters when large lunar tides are observed without a strong stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We examine the winters when the correlation breaks down and discuss possible causes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/0073/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/0073/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal Extraction - <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America <span class="hlt">warm</span> in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without <span class="hlt">environmental</span> costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006216','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006216"><span id="translatedtitle">Halocarbon ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cox, Richard A.; Wuebbles, D.; Atkinson, R.; Connell, Peter S.; Dorn, H. P.; Derudder, A.; Derwent, Richard G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Fisher, D.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Concern over the global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> consequences of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has created a need to determine the potential impacts of other halogenated organic compounds on stratospheric ozone and climate. The CFCs, which do not contain an H atom, are not oxidized or photolyzed in the troposphere. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere where they decompose and can lead to chlorine catalyzed ozone depletion. The hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs or HFCs), in particular those proposed as substitutes for CFCs, contain at least one hydrogen atom in the molecule, which confers on these compounds a much greater sensitivity toward oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, resulting in much shorter atmospheric lifetimes than CFCs, and consequently lower potential for depleting ozone. The available information is reviewed which relates to the lifetime of these compounds (HCFCs and HFCs) in the troposphere, and up-to-date assessments are reported of the potential relative effects of CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, and halons on stratospheric ozone and global climate (through 'greenhouse' global <span class="hlt">warming</span>).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013spcn.book..147Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013spcn.book..147Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Modern Physics and <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Friendship</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Chen Ning</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>During the academic year 1941-42 I was a senior in the Physics Department at the National Southwest Associated University in Kunming. The Department was quite small, with about 10 faculty members, 10 instructors, a few graduate students and not more than 20 students in each undergraduate class. When the academic year started in the fall of 1941, a new face appeared, auditing many of the senior and graduate courses and participating in all discussions. That was Huang Kun. He had already received his bachelor's degree in physics from Yenching University in Beiping, and had come to Kunming to join the Southwest Associated University as an instructor. Soon we got to know each other well, and that was the beginning of half of a century of <span class="hlt">warm</span> friendship...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6059904','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6059904"><span id="translatedtitle">How to stop global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goldenberg, J. . Dept. de Fisica)</p> <p>1990-11-01</p> <p>This paper reports on how to stop global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. At the Toronto Conference on Climate Change in 1988, the world's industrialized nations agreed on a goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions 20 percent by the year 2005. This would not stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases but would at least slow their accumulation. Although difficult to achieve, the Toronto goal is certainly reachable. Newer, more efficient technologies can lower energy consumption without effecting economic output. CFC- substitutes can provide refrigeration. In fact, an international carbon tax of just $1 per barrel of oil, or $6 per ton of coal, would generate more than enough revenue to pay for the necessary fuel-saving measures. This tax could result from an international agreement similar to the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which obliges its signatories to cut down on production of CFCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16371953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16371953"><span id="translatedtitle">Meteorology: hurricanes and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Landsea, Christopher W</p> <p>2005-12-22</p> <p>Anthropogenic climate change has the potential for slightly increasing the intensity of tropical cyclones through <span class="hlt">warming</span> of sea surface temperatures. Emanuel has shown a striking and surprising association between sea surface temperatures and destructiveness by tropical cyclones in the Atlantic and western North Pacific basins. However, I question his analysis on the following grounds: it does not properly represent the observations described; the use of his Atlantic bias-removal scheme may not be warranted; and further investigation of a substantially longer time series for tropical cyclones affecting the continental United States does not show a tendency for increasing destructiveness. These factors indicate that instead of "unprecedented" tropical cyclone activity having occurred in recent years, hurricane intensity was equal or even greater during the last active period in the mid-twentieth century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1031762','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1031762"><span id="translatedtitle">End Calorimeter <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Tube Heater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab</p> <p>1991-08-06</p> <p>The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, <span class="hlt">warm</span> (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the <span class="hlt">warm</span> tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27459785','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27459785"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil moisture mediates alpine life form and community productivity responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winkler, Daniel E; Chapin, Kenneth J; Kueppers, Lara M</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Climate change is expected to alter primary production and community composition in alpine ecosystems, but the direction and magnitude of change is debated. Warmer, wetter growing seasons may increase productivity; however, in the absence of additional precipitation, increased temperatures may decrease soil moisture, thereby diminishing any positive effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Since plant species show individual responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, responses may depend on community composition and vary across life form or functional groups. We <span class="hlt">warmed</span> an alpine plant community at Niwot Ridge, Colorado continuously for four years to test whether <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases or decreases productivity of life form groups and the whole community. We provided supplemental water to a subset of plots to alleviate the drying effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We measured annual above-ground productivity and soil temperature and moisture, from which we calculated soil degree days and adequate soil moisture days. Using an information-theoretic approach, we observed that positive productivity responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the community level occur only when <span class="hlt">warming</span> is combined with supplemental watering; otherwise we observed decreased productivity. Watering also increased community productivity in the absence of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Forbs accounted for the majority of the productivity at the site and drove the contingent community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, while cushions drove the generally positive response to watering and graminoids muted the community response. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> advanced snowmelt and increased soil degree days, while watering increased adequate soil moisture days. Heated and watered plots had more adequate soil moisture days than heated plots. Overall, measured changes in soil temperature and moisture in response to treatments were consistent with expected productivity responses. We found that available soil moisture largely determines the responses of this forb-dominated alpine community to simulated climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27459785','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27459785"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil moisture mediates alpine life form and community productivity responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winkler, Daniel E; Chapin, Kenneth J; Kueppers, Lara M</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Climate change is expected to alter primary production and community composition in alpine ecosystems, but the direction and magnitude of change is debated. Warmer, wetter growing seasons may increase productivity; however, in the absence of additional precipitation, increased temperatures may decrease soil moisture, thereby diminishing any positive effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Since plant species show individual responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, responses may depend on community composition and vary across life form or functional groups. We <span class="hlt">warmed</span> an alpine plant community at Niwot Ridge, Colorado continuously for four years to test whether <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases or decreases productivity of life form groups and the whole community. We provided supplemental water to a subset of plots to alleviate the drying effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We measured annual above-ground productivity and soil temperature and moisture, from which we calculated soil degree days and adequate soil moisture days. Using an information-theoretic approach, we observed that positive productivity responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the community level occur only when <span class="hlt">warming</span> is combined with supplemental watering; otherwise we observed decreased productivity. Watering also increased community productivity in the absence of <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Forbs accounted for the majority of the productivity at the site and drove the contingent community response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, while cushions drove the generally positive response to watering and graminoids muted the community response. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> advanced snowmelt and increased soil degree days, while watering increased adequate soil moisture days. Heated and watered plots had more adequate soil moisture days than heated plots. Overall, measured changes in soil temperature and moisture in response to treatments were consistent with expected productivity responses. We found that available soil moisture largely determines the responses of this forb-dominated alpine community to simulated climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640748"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the B4<span class="hlt">WarmED</span> (Boreal Forest <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves <span class="hlt">warming</span> of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment called Boreal Forest <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at an Ecotone in Danger (B4<span class="hlt">WarmED</span>) that addresses the potential for projected climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the <span class="hlt">warming</span> approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall). PMID:25640748</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640748"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the B4<span class="hlt">WarmED</span> (Boreal Forest <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves <span class="hlt">warming</span> of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment called Boreal Forest <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at an Ecotone in Danger (B4<span class="hlt">WarmED</span>) that addresses the potential for projected climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed <span class="hlt">warming</span>. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the <span class="hlt">warming</span> approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.2543R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.2543R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulation of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6014B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6014B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span>: mechanism and latitude dependence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barkin, Yury</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Introduction. In the work it is shown, that in present <span class="hlt">warming</span> of climate of the Earth and in style of its display a fundamental role the mechanism of the forced swing and relative oscillations of eccentric core of the Earth and its mantle plays. Relative displacements of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle are dictated by the features of orbital motions of bodies of solar system and nonineriality of the Earth reference frame (or ot the mantle) at the motion of the Earth with respect to a baricenter of solar system and at rotation of the planet. As a result in relative translational displacements of the core and the mantle the frequencies characteristic for orbital motion of all bodies of solar system, and also their combination are shown. Methods of a space geodesy, gravimetry, geophysics, etc. unequivocally and clearly confirm phenomenon of drift of the center of mass of the Earth in define northern direction. This drift is characterized by the significant velocity in about 5 mm/yr. The unique opportunity of its explanation consists in the natural assumption of existence of the unidirectional relative displacement (drift) the center of mass of the core and the center of mass of the mantle of the Earth. And this displacement (at superfluous mass of the core in 16.7 % from the mass of full the Earth) is characterized still more significant velocity in 2.6 cm/yr and occurs on our geodynamic studies in a direction to Taimyr peninsula. The dynamic explanation to century drift for today does not exist. It is possible to note, however, that data of observations of last years, indirectly testifying that similar drifts of the centers of mass in present epoch occur on other bodies of Solar system have been obtain: the Sun, Mars, the Titan, Enceladus, the Neptune, etc. We connect with mentioned phenomena the observed secular variations of natural processes on this celestial bodies. I.e. it is possible to assume, that observable eccentric positions of the centers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7503C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7503C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Madden-Julian Oscillation in a <span class="hlt">Warming</span> World</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Chuing-Wen June; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Keenlyside, Noel; Tsuang, Ben-Jei</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Climate models remain challenged by accurate simulation of the Madden- Julian oscillation (MJO). This has limited the study of the impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on this phenomenon. He we apply the newly developed ECHAM5-SIT coupled model that is able simulate the MJO with realistic strength, structure, period, and propagation speed. The model consists of a high-resolution one-column ocean model (SIT) coupled to the ECHAM5 atmospheric model. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> experiments were conducted to explore the changes in the MJO by the end of 21st Century under the RCP8.5 scenario. In the <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate, the MJO remains wavenumber-one structure with larger amplitude and stronger circumglobal propagation, and faster eastward propagation. The convection develops higher in the upper troposphere and the overturning circulation expands zonally but contracts meridionally. The shallow and deep convective heating are both enhanced and a stronger low-level convergence enhances westward tilting with height. Enhancement of MJO amplitude and extent can be explained by enhanced intraseasonal low-level convergence and increased mean moisture under global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The moister mean state contributes to the enhancement of deep convection, which excites stronger Kelvin waves. This reinforces low-level convergence through the enhanced Frictional Convergence Mechanism and leads to the more efficient and timely preconditioning of the deep convection, and therefore to a faster development and enhancement of the deep convection in MJO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=physical+AND+warm&pg=5&id=EJ445277','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=physical+AND+warm&pg=5&id=EJ445277"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-ups: Creating a <span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up That Works.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lauffenburger, Sandra Kay</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Proper <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up is important for any activity, but designing an effective <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up can be time consuming. An alternative approach is to take a cue from Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) and consider movement design from the perspective of space and planes of motion. Efficient <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up exercises using LMA are described. (SM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24244044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24244044"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> factors shaping ungulate abundances in Poland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borowik, Tomasz; Cornulier, Thomas; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Population densities of large herbivores are determined by the diverse effects of density-dependent and independent <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors. In this study, we used the official 1998-2003 inventory data on ungulate numbers from 462 forest districts and 23 national parks across Poland to determine the roles of various <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors in shaping country-wide spatial patterns of ungulate abundances. Spatially explicit generalized additive mixed models showed that different sets of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables explained 39 to 50 % of the variation in red deer Cervus elaphus, wild boar Sus scrofa, and roe deer Capreolus capreolus abundances. For all of the studied species, low forest cover and the mean January temperature were the most important factors limiting their numbers. Woodland cover above 40-50 % held the highest densities for these species. Wild boar and roe deer were more <span class="hlt">numerous</span> in deciduous or mixed woodlands within a matrix of arable land. Furthermore, we found significant positive effects of marshes and water bodies on wild boar abundances. A juxtaposition of obtained results with ongoing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes (global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, increase in forest cover) may indicate future growth in ungulate distributions and numbers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560025"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal biases and vulnerability to <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the world's marine fauna.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Edgar, Graham J; Barrett, Neville S; Kininmonth, Stuart J; Bates, Amanda E</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A critical assumption underlying projections of biodiversity change associated with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is that ecological communities comprise balanced mixes of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-affinity and cool-affinity species which, on average, approximate local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures. Nevertheless, here we find that most shallow water marine species occupy broad thermal distributions that are aggregated in either temperate or tropical realms. These distributional trends result in ocean-scale spatial thermal biases, where communities are dominated by species with warmer or cooler affinity than local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures. We use community-level thermal deviations from local temperatures as a form of sensitivity to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and combine these with projected ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> data to predict <span class="hlt">warming</span>-related loss of species from present-day communities over the next century. Large changes in local species composition appear likely, and proximity to thermal limits, as inferred from present-day species' distributional ranges, outweighs spatial variation in <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in contributing to predicted rates of local species loss. PMID:26560025</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218331','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218331"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear electron oscillations in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sarkar, Anwesa; Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil</p> <p>2013-12-15</p> <p>A class of nonstationary solutions for the nonlinear electron oscillations of a <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma are presented using a Lagrangian fluid description. The solution illustrates the nonlinear steepening of an initial Gaussian electron density disturbance and also shows collapse behavior in time. The obtained solution may indicate a class of nonlinear transient structures in an unmagnetized <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=glass&pg=2&id=EJ1094559','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=glass&pg=2&id=EJ1094559"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Water in a Glass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Paulins, Paulis; Krauze, Armands; Ozolinsh, Maris; Muiznieks, Andris</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The article focuses on the process of water <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 0 °C in a glass. An experiment is performed that analyzes the temperature in the top and bottom layers of water during <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The experimental equipment is very simple and can be easily set up using devices available in schools. The temperature curves obtained from the experiment help us…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychological%2c+AND+exercise%2c+AND+athlete&pg=3&id=EJ255711','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychological%2c+AND+exercise%2c+AND+athlete&pg=3&id=EJ255711"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up: A Psychophysiological Phenomenon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lopez, Richard; Dausman, Cindy</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The effectiveness of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up as an aid to athletic performance is related to an interaction of both psychological and physiological factors. Benefits of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up include an increase in blood and muscle temperatures and an increased muscular endurance. (JN)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ817943','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&pg=2&id=EJ817943"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&id=EJ912888','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming&id=EJ912888"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Lessons from Ozone Depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hobson, Art</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=evidence+AND+global+AND+warming&pg=3&id=EJ502195','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=evidence+AND+global+AND+warming&pg=3&id=EJ502195"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Andrews, Bill</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and unequal <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (LZ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ894851.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ894851.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Turkish Students' Ideas about Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..81..207B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..81..207B"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> of Large Marine Ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belkin, Igor M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The need to understand local effects of global climate change is most urgent in the Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) since marine ecosystem-based management requires information on the LME scale. Reported here is a study of sea surface temperature (SST) change in the World Ocean LMEs in 1957-2006 that revealed strong regional variations in the rate of SST change. The rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> in 1982-2006 was confined to the Subarctic Gyre, European Seas, and East Asian Seas. These LMEs <span class="hlt">warmed</span> at rates 2-4 times the global mean rate. The most rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> was observed in the land-locked or semi-enclosed European and East Asian Seas (Baltic Sea, North Sea, Black Sea, Japan Sea/East Sea, and East China Sea) and also over the Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf. The Indian Ocean LMEs’ <span class="hlt">warming</span> was slow, while two major upwelling areas - California and Humboldt Currents - experienced a slight cooling. The Subarctic Gyre <span class="hlt">warming</span> was likely caused by natural variability related to the North Atlantic Oscillation. The extremely rapid surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the enclosed and semi-enclosed European and East Asian Seas surrounded by major industrial/population agglomerations may have resulted from the observed terrestrial <span class="hlt">warming</span> directly affecting the adjacent coastal seas. Regions of freshwater influence in the European and East Asian Seas seem to play a special role in modulating and exacerbating global <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on the regional scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+effects&pg=6&id=EJ410863','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+effects&pg=6&id=EJ410863"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: How Much and Why?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lanouette, William</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Summarizes the history of the study of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change+AND+agriculture&pg=3&id=EJ502198','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change+AND+agriculture&pg=3&id=EJ502198"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Andrews, Bill</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A resource for teaching about the consequences of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (LZ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/jun2012/feature2','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/jun2012/feature2"><span id="translatedtitle">Catching a Cold When It's <span class="hlt">Warm</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Catching a Cold When It’s <span class="hlt">Warm</span> What’s the Deal with Summertime Sniffles? Most ... be more unfair than catching a cold when it’s <span class="hlt">warm</span>? How can cold symptoms arise when it’s ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24386125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24386125"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlled soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnstone, Jill F; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical <span class="hlt">warming</span> probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> manipulation achieved a stable target <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2) plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ecosystem processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24386125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24386125"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlled soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnstone, Jill F; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical <span class="hlt">warming</span> probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> manipulation achieved a stable target <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2) plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ecosystem processes. PMID:24386125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873302','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873302"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlled Soil <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Powered by Alternative Energy for Remote Field Sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johnstone, Jill F.; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical <span class="hlt">warming</span> probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> manipulation achieved a stable target <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 1.3 to 2°C in 1 m2 plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ecosystem processes. PMID:24386125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034862&hterms=gas+laws&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528gas%2Blaws%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034862&hterms=gas+laws&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528gas%2Blaws%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Equilibrium gas flow computations. II - An analysis of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> formulations of conservation laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vinokur, Marcel; Liu, Yen</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">numerical</span> techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, equilibrium gas laws. Generalizations of the Beam-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> scheme, Steger-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> and van Leer flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for three-dimensional, time-varying grids. The approximations inherent in previous generalizations are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9.1705M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9.1705M"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparing ice discharge through West Antarctic Gateways: Weddell vs. Amundsen Sea <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, M. A.; Levermann, A.; Winkelmann, R.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Future changes in Antarctic ice discharge will be largely controlled by the fate of the floating ice shelves, which exert a back-stress onto Antarctica's marine outlet glaciers. Ice loss in response to <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Amundsen Sea has been observed and investigated as a potential trigger for the marine ice-sheet instability. Recent observations and simulations suggest that the Amundsen Sea Sector might already be unstable which would have strong implications for global sea-level rise. At the same time, regional ocean projections show much stronger <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water intrusion into ice-shelf cavities in the Weddell Sea compared to the observed Amundsen <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Here we present results of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> ice sheet modelling with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) which show that idealized, step-function type ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Weddell Sea leads to more immediate ice discharge with a higher sensitivity to small <span class="hlt">warming</span> levels than the same <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Amundsen Sea. This is consistent with the specific combination of bedrock and ice topography in the Weddell Sea Sector which results in an ice sheet close to floatation. In response to even slight ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>, ice loss increases rapidly, peaks and declines within one century. While the cumulative ice loss in the Amundsen Sea Sector is of similar magnitude after five centuries of continued <span class="hlt">warming</span>, ice loss increases at a slower pace and only for significantly higher <span class="hlt">warming</span> levels. Although there is more marine ice stored above sea level in close vicinity of the grounding line compared to the Weddell Sea Sector, the ice sheet is farther from floatation and the grounding line initially retreats more slowly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21C0551L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21C0551L"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation regime drives soil microbial responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> in temperate steppes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, W.; Xia, J.; Liu, L.; Wan, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">numerous</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments have been done to examine the impacts of elevated temperature on soil microbial actives, most of them were based on responses from a single site. To investigate how precipitation regime regulate <span class="hlt">warming</span>'s effects on carbon cycle, field manipulative <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments were conducted at 3 types of steppes (desert, typical and meadow steppe) along a precipitation gradient in northern China. Soil temperature, moisture, dissolved organic C (DOC), inorganic nitrogen (N) concentration, microbial biomass C (MBC), N (MBN) and respiration (MR) were measured once a year from 2006 to 2009. The results showed that soil moisture was significantly decreased in the typical steppe whereas not affected in the desert and meadow steppe, respectively. Across the 4 years, <span class="hlt">warming</span> decreased MBC and MR in the desert and typical steppe while did not affect them in the meadow steppe. The magnitude of reductions in <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced MBC and MR declined with increasing precipitation gradient at a regional scale. Across the precipitation gradient, all changes in soil MBC, MBN and MR were positively correlated with both annual precipitation and changes in belowground net primary productivity (BNPP), suggesting that soil microbial responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> may be regulated by annual precipitation and substrate availability. However, the lab-incubation revealed that soil moisture is more important in regulating soil microbial activities than substrate across the 3 steppes. In addition, soil microbial responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span> showed year-to-year variations during the first 4 years coincided with the fluctuations in annual precipitation across the 3 steppes. Our results suggested that precipitation regime controls the spatial and interannual responses of soil microbes to <span class="hlt">warming</span>, mainly by regulating soil moisture and substrate availability. With the increase in precipitation, the positive responses of soil microbes to <span class="hlt">warming</span> started to outweigh the negative impacts</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015nova.pres..351K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015nova.pres..351K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Disks from Giant Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kohler, Susanna</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In the process of searching for exoplanetary systems, weve discovered tens of debris disks close around distant stars that are especially bright in infrared wavelengths. New research suggests that we might be looking at the late stages of terrestrial planet formation in these systems.Forming Terrestrial PlanetsAccording to the widely-accepted formation model for our solar-system, protoplanets the size of Mars formed within a protoplanetary disk around our Sun. Eventually, the depletion of the gas in the disk led the orbits of these protoplanets to become chaotically unstable. Finally, in the giant impact stage, many of the protoplanets collided with each other ultimately leading to the formation of the terrestrial planets and their moons as we know them today.If giant impact stages occur in exoplanetary systems, too leading to the formation of terrestrial exoplanets how would we detect this process? According to a study led by Hidenori Genda of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, we might be already be witnessing this stage in observations of <span class="hlt">warm</span> debris disks around other stars. To test this, Genda and collaborators model giant impact stages and determine what we would expect to see from a system undergoing this violent evolution.Modeling CollisionsSnapshots of a giant impact in one of the authors simulations. The collision causes roughly 0.05 Earth masses of protoplanetary material to be ejected from the system. Click for a closer look! [Genda et al. 2015]The collaborators run a series of simulations evolving protoplanetary bodies in a solar system. The simulations begin 10 Myr into the lifetime of the solar system, i.e., after the gas from the protoplanetary disk has had time to be cleared and the protoplanetary orbits begin to destabilize. The simulations end when the protoplanets are done smashing into each other and have again settled into stable orbits, typically after ~100 Myr.The authors find that, over an average giant impact stage, the total amount of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhTea..48..525H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhTea..48..525H"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Lessons from Ozone Depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hobson, Art</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of Arkansas have developed a conceptual understanding of energy and of electromagnetism, including the electromagnetic spectrum, I devote a lecture (and a textbook section) to ozone depletion and another lecture (and section) to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Humankind came together in 1986 and quickly solved, to the extent that humans can solve it, ozone depletion. We could do the same with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but we haven't and as yet there's no sign that we will. The parallel between the ozone and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> cases, and the difference in outcomes, are striking and instructive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813294S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813294S"><span id="translatedtitle">Eurasian Arctic abyssal waters are <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schauer, Ursula; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Somavilla Cabrillo, Raquel; Behrendt, Axel; Rabe, Benjamin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the past decades, not only the upper water layers, but also the deepest layers of the Arctic Ocean have been <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Observations show that the rate of <span class="hlt">warming</span> varies markedly in the different basins with the fastest <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the deep Greenland Sea (ca. 0.11°C per decade) and the Eurasian Basin featuring an average rate of ca. 0.01°C per decade. While the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Greenland Sea is attributed to ongoing export of relatively warmer deep waters from the Arctic Ocean in combination with the halt of deep convection, the reason of Eurasian Basin deep <span class="hlt">warming</span> is less clear. We discuss possible causes such as changes in the abyssal ventilation through slope convection, advection from other basins and/or geothermal heating through various sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471027','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471027"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, insurance losses and financial industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Low, N.C.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. How global <span class="hlt">warming</span> can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Cryo...50..320Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Cryo...50..320Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Pulse tube stirling machine with <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas-driven displacer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Shaowei; Nogawa, Masafumi</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>A pulse tube type stirling machine with <span class="hlt">warm</span> gas-driven displacer which has a displacer rod is discussed with <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation when it is used as a cryogenic refrigerator, room temperature refrigerator and engine. It has both the advantages of gas-driven-stirling machine with high efficiency and simplicity and the advantages of pulse tube machine with no moving parts at low temperatures. A nodal analysis method that includes the linear motor and the displacer in the machine is introduced. <span class="hlt">Numerical</span> results show that it has high potential to be used as the cryogenic refrigerator, room temperature refrigerator and engine. In this type of machine, there is an optimum phase angle between displacer and piston, and an optimum swept volume ratio of displacer over compressor for efficiency. The phase angle and swept volume ratio can be adjusted by the natural frequency of the displacer and the diameter of the displacer rod when it is used as a refrigerator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16697507','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16697507"><span id="translatedtitle">Further evidence of the effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on lichens, particularly those with Trentepohlia phycobionts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aptroot, A; van Herk, C M</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Increasing evidence suggests that lichens are responding to climate change in Western Europe. More epiphytic species appear to be increasing, rather than declining, as a result of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Many terricolous species, in contrast, are declining. Changes to epiphytic floras are markedly more rapid in formerly heavily polluted, generally built-up or open rural areas, as compared to forested regions. Both the distribution (southern) and ecology (warmth-loving) of the newly established or increasing species seem to be determined by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Epiphytic temperate to boreo-montane species appear to be relatively unaffected. Vacant niches caused by other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes are showing the most pronounced effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Species most rapidly increasing in forests, although taxonomically unrelated, all contain Trentepohlia as phycobiont in addition to having a southern distribution. This suggests that in this habitat, Trentepohlia algae, rather than the different lichen symbioses, are affected by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113149M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113149M"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenology and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> research in Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morellato, L. P. C.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p> changes on dry season length and severity, shifting on time and synchrony; (ii) shifts on fruiting are more subtle and related to seed dispersal mechanisms (animal, wind or others); (iii) forest edges and gaps, and distance from urban centers may influence tree phenology, stressing the synergic effect of fragmentation (among others) to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on tropical phenology; (iv) ground and satellite generated phenology patterns may not agree, deserving further and detailed research; (v) in situ <span class="hlt">environmental</span> monitoring systems help to track changes on climate and correlate to ground phenology. Some important steps forward are: (i) to build a Brazilian Phenology Network, first based on a selection of national wide distributed species; (ii) to recover historical phenology data series from our herbarium collections and other sources; (iii) to integrate phenology to remote sensing; (iv) to stimulate more phenology long term monitoring programs and the integration across disciplines, advancing our knowledge of seasonal responses within tropics to long-term climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6119943','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6119943"><span id="translatedtitle">Risk analysis and priority setting for <span class="hlt">environmental</span> policy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Travis, C.C.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>There is a growing realization that the demand for funding to correct our nation's <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems will soon outstrip available resources. In the hazardous waste area alone, the estimated cost of remediating Superfund sites ranges from $32 billion to $80 billion. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> other areas of competing for these same financial resources. These include ozone depletion, global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the protection of endangered species and wetlands, toxic air pollution, carcinogenic pesticides, and urban smog. In response to this imbalance in the supply and demand for national funds, several political constituencies are calling for the use of risk assessment as a tool in the prioritization of research and budget needs. Comparative risk analysis offers a logical framework in which to organize information about complex <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems. Risk analysis allows policy analysts to make resource allocation decisions on the basis of scientific judgement rather than political expediency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10110505','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10110505"><span id="translatedtitle">Risk analysis and priority setting for <span class="hlt">environmental</span> policy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Travis, C.C.</p> <p>1991-12-31</p> <p>There is a growing realization that the demand for funding to correct our nation`s <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems will soon outstrip available resources. In the hazardous waste area alone, the estimated cost of remediating Superfund sites ranges from $32 billion to $80 billion. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> other areas of competing for these same financial resources. These include ozone depletion, global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the protection of endangered species and wetlands, toxic air pollution, carcinogenic pesticides, and urban smog. In response to this imbalance in the supply and demand for national funds, several political constituencies are calling for the use of risk assessment as a tool in the prioritization of research and budget needs. Comparative risk analysis offers a logical framework in which to organize information about complex <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems. Risk analysis allows policy analysts to make resource allocation decisions on the basis of scientific judgement rather than political expediency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831755"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypoxia, global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and terrestrial late Permian extinctions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huey, Raymond B; Ward, Peter D</p> <p>2005-04-15</p> <p>A catastrophic extinction occurred at the end of the Permian Period. However, baseline extinction rates appear to have been elevated even before the final catastrophe, suggesting sustained <span class="hlt">environmental</span> degradation. For terrestrial vertebrates during the Late Permian, the combination of a drop in atmospheric oxygen plus climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> would have induced hypoxic stress and consequently compressed altitudinal ranges to near sea level. Our simulations suggest that the magnitude of altitudinal compression would have forced extinctions by reducing habitat diversity, fragmenting and isolating populations, and inducing a species-area effect. It also might have delayed ecosystem recovery after the mass extinction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831755"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypoxia, global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and terrestrial late Permian extinctions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huey, Raymond B; Ward, Peter D</p> <p>2005-04-15</p> <p>A catastrophic extinction occurred at the end of the Permian Period. However, baseline extinction rates appear to have been elevated even before the final catastrophe, suggesting sustained <span class="hlt">environmental</span> degradation. For terrestrial vertebrates during the Late Permian, the combination of a drop in atmospheric oxygen plus climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> would have induced hypoxic stress and consequently compressed altitudinal ranges to near sea level. Our simulations suggest that the magnitude of altitudinal compression would have forced extinctions by reducing habitat diversity, fragmenting and isolating populations, and inducing a species-area effect. It also might have delayed ecosystem recovery after the mass extinction. PMID:15831755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/86556','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/86556"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: The complete briefing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Houghton, J.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>John Houghton has drawn on the exhaustive efforts of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to produce a notably compact, impeccably complete and authoritative, meticulously balanced, and lucidly presented guide to the complex yet vital issue of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Its subtitle is not mere hyperbole: this truly is a complete briefing. Certainly, one could not ask for a more authoritative brief: Houghton has led an imposing series of national and international efforts relating to climate, including the most recent scientific assessments of the IPCC. Citing many concrete examples, Houghton begins by convincing that climate truly is important to humankind and that climate is far from constant. He then elucidates the mechanisms that maintain the benign climate of our planet, providing in the process, for example, the most accurate explanation of the natural greenhouse effect that has yet appeared in print. He then treats the individual greenhouse gases responsible for maintaining the earth`s warmth and presents projections of their probable future concentrations as influenced by human activities. Further chapters deal with conclusions drawn from climate models, estimates of the impacts on human activities, and possible policies and actions to mitigate or alleviate the changes and their consequences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22883918','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22883918"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and reproductive health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003GPC....38..305N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003GPC....38..305N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal pollution causes global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nordell, Bo</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>Over longer time-scales there is no net heat inflow to Earth since incoming solar energy is re-emitted at exactly the same rate. To maintain Earth's thermal equilibrium, however, there must be a net outflow equal to the geothermal heat flow. Performed calculations show that the net heat outflow in 1880 was equal to the geothermal heat flow, which is the only natural net heat source on Earth. Since then, heat dissipation from the global use of nonrenewable energy sources has resulted in additional net heating. In, e.g. Sweden, which is a sparsely populated country, this net heating is about three times greater than the geothermal heat flow. Such thermal pollution contributes to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> until the global temperature has reached a level where this heat is also emitted to space. Heat dissipation from the global use of fossil fuels and nuclear power is the main source of thermal pollution. Here, it was found that one third of current thermal pollution is emitted to space and that a further global temperature increase of 1.8 °C is required until Earth is again in thermal equilibrium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRF..119..836L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRF..119..836L"><span id="translatedtitle">The coupled moisture-heat process of permafrost around a thermokarst pond in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau under global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Shuangyang; Zhan, Hongbin; Lai, Yuanming; Sun, Zhizhong; Pei, Wansheng</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Due to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> disturbances such as local human activity and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, melting of massive ground ice has resulted in thermokarst ponds, which are extensively distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Besides the global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the thermokarst pond, as a major heat source, speeds up the moisture change and degradation of its surrounding permafrost. To analyze the long-term coupled moisture-heat process near a representative nonpenetrative thermokarst pond in a permafrost region, abundant temperature data over multiple years at different depths and horizontal distances from the center of the thermokarst pond have been collected at a field experimental station in QTP. A <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model is built to analyze this thermokarst pond. The temperature and moisture processes of surrounding permafrost are simulated by this model and compared with measured temperature data. Our results show that if the rate of air temperature rise is 0.048°C/yr, which refers to a 2.4°C temperature rise over 50 years, the thawing fronts underneath the thermokarst pond move downward at a linear rate of 0.18 m/yr and the permafrost beneath the pond center would disappear after the year of 2281. Beyond that time, the impact range of the pond on the natural ground increases to about 50 m in horizontal direction. So a dish-shape thawing zone occurs around the thermokarst pond. Simultaneously, the moisture state is greatly changed in 2281 and becomes completely different from that in 2013. All of these would inevitably deteriorate the ecological and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> system in QTP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014PhDT........55K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014PhDT........55K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">On modeled and observed <span class="hlt">warm</span> rainfall occurrence and its relationships with cloud macrophysical properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>King, Joshua Matthew</p> <p></p> <p>Rainfall from low-level, liquid-phase ("<span class="hlt">warm</span>") clouds over the global oceans is ubiquitous and contributes non-negligibly to the total amount of precipitation that falls to the globe. In this study, modeled and observed <span class="hlt">warm</span> rainfall occurrence and its bulk statistical relationships with cloud macrophysical properties are analyzed independently and directly compared with one another. Rain is found to fall from ˜25% of the <span class="hlt">warm</span>, maritime clouds observed from space by CloudSat and from ˜27% of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds simulated within a large-scale, fine-resolution radiative convective equilibrium experiment performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Within both the model and the observations, the fractional occurrence of <span class="hlt">warm</span> rainfall is found to increase with both column-integrated liquid water mass and cloud geometric depth, two cloud-scale properties that are shown to be directly related to one another. However, <span class="hlt">warm</span> rain within RAMS is more likely with lower amounts of column water mass than observations indicate, suggesting that the parameterized cloud-to-rain conversion processes within RAMS produce rainfall too efficiently. To gain insight into the relationships between <span class="hlt">warm</span> rainfall production and the concentration of liquid water within a cloud layer, <span class="hlt">warm</span> rainfall occurrence is subsequently investigated as a joint, simultaneous function of both cloud depth and column-integrated water mass. While rainfall production within RAMS is largely governed by the availability of liquid water within the cloud volume, rain from observed <span class="hlt">warm</span> clouds with relatively little column water mass is actually more likely to fall from deeper clouds with lower cloud-mean water contents. The latter, CloudSat-derived trend is shown to be robust across different seasons and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions; it varies little when the <span class="hlt">warm</span> cloud distribution is stratified into ascending (day) and descending (night) CloudSat overpass groups. Using temperature differences between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874975"><span id="translatedtitle">Responses of plant community composition and biomass production to <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen deposition in a temperate meadow ecosystem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Tao; Guo, Rui; Gao, Song; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and biomass production are not well understood. A four-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and biomass production in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> had no significant effect on plant species richness, evenness, and diversity, while N addition highly reduced the species richness and diversity. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> tended to reduce the importance value of graminoid species but increased the value of forbs, while N addition had the opposite effect. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> tended to increase the belowground biomass, but had an opposite tendency to decrease the aboveground biomass. The influences of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aboveground production were dependent upon precipitation. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> had little effect on aboveground biomass in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed aboveground biomass in dry years. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> had indirect effects on plant production via its effect on the water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and below-ground production, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors determining plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> plus N addition on belowground biomass were also detected. Our observations revealed that <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes (<span class="hlt">warming</span> and N deposition) play significant roles in regulating plant community composition and biomass production in temperate meadow steppe ecosystem in northeast China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4395313','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4395313"><span id="translatedtitle">Responses of Plant Community Composition and Biomass Production to <span class="hlt">Warming</span> and Nitrogen Deposition in a Temperate Meadow Ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gao, Song; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and biomass production are not well understood. A four-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and biomass production in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> had no significant effect on plant species richness, evenness, and diversity, while N addition highly reduced the species richness and diversity. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> tended to reduce the importance value of graminoid species but increased the value of forbs, while N addition had the opposite effect. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> tended to increase the belowground biomass, but had an opposite tendency to decrease the aboveground biomass. The influences of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aboveground production were dependent upon precipitation. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> had little effect on aboveground biomass in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed aboveground biomass in dry years. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> had indirect effects on plant production via its effect on the water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and below-ground production, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors determining plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> plus N addition on belowground biomass were also detected. Our observations revealed that <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes (<span class="hlt">warming</span> and N deposition) play significant roles in regulating plant community composition and biomass production in temperate meadow steppe ecosystem in northeast China. PMID:25874975</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471674"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> and CO2 enrichment induce biomass shifts in alpine tree line vegetation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawes, Melissa A; Philipson, Christopher D; Fonti, Patrick; Bebi, Peter; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Hagedorn, Frank; Rixen, Christian</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Responses of alpine tree line ecosystems to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are poorly understood. We used an experiment at the Swiss tree line to investigate changes in vegetation biomass after 9 years of free air CO2 enrichment (+200 ppm; 2001-2009) and 6 years of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+4 °C; 2007-2012). The study contained two key tree line species, Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata, both approximately 40 years old, growing in heath vegetation dominated by dwarf shrubs. In 2012, we harvested and measured biomass of all trees (including root systems), above-ground understorey vegetation and fine roots. Overall, soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> had clearer effects on plant biomass than CO2 enrichment, and there were no interactive effects between treatments. Total plant biomass increased in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots containing Pinus but not in those with Larix. This response was driven by changes in tree mass (+50%), which contributed an average of 84% (5.7 kg m(-2) ) of total plant mass. Pinus coarse root mass was especially enhanced by <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+100%), yielding an increased root mass fraction. Elevated CO2 led to an increased relative growth rate of Larix stem basal area but no change in the final biomass of either tree species. Total understorey above-ground mass was not altered by soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> or elevated CO2 . However, Vaccinium myrtillus mass increased with both treatments, graminoid mass declined with <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and forb and nonvascular plant (moss and lichen) mass decreased with both treatments. Fine roots showed a substantial reduction under soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (-40% for all roots <2 mm in diameter at 0-20 cm soil depth) but no change with CO2 enrichment. Our findings suggest that enhanced overall productivity and shifts in biomass allocation will occur at the tree line, particularly with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, individual species and functional groups will respond differently to these <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes, with consequences for ecosystem structure and functioning. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858606','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858606"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> Alters Expressions of Microbial Functional Genes Important to Ecosystem Functioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xue, Kai; Xie, Jianping; Zhou, Aifen; Liu, Feifei; Li, Dejun; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Yiqi; Zhou, Jizhong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Soil microbial communities play critical roles in ecosystem functioning and are likely altered by climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, so far, little is known about effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on microbial functional gene expressions. Here, we applied functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to analyze cDNA reversely transcribed from total RNA to assess expressed functional genes in active soil microbial communities after nine years of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> in a tallgrass prairie. Our results showed that <span class="hlt">warming</span> significantly altered the community wide gene expressions. Specifically, expressed genes for degrading more recalcitrant carbon were stimulated by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, likely linked to the plant community shift toward more C4 species under <span class="hlt">warming</span> and to decrease the long-term soil carbon stability. In addition, <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed expressed genes in labile C degradation and N cycling in different directions (increase and decrease), possibly reflecting the dynamics of labile C and available N pools during sampling. However, the average abundances of expressed genes in phosphorus and sulfur cycling were all increased by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, implying a stable trend of accelerated P and S processes which might be a mechanism to sustain higher plant growth. Furthermore, the expressed gene composition was closely related to both dynamic (e.g., soil moisture) and stable <span class="hlt">environmental</span> attributes (e.g., C4 leaf C or N content), indicating that RNA analyses could also capture certain stable trends in the long-term treatment. Overall, this study revealed the importance of elucidating functional gene expressions of soil microbial community in enhancing our understanding of ecosystem responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:27199978</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199978"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> Alters Expressions of Microbial Functional Genes Important to Ecosystem Functioning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xue, Kai; Xie, Jianping; Zhou, Aifen; Liu, Feifei; Li, Dejun; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Luo, Yiqi; Zhou, Jizhong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Soil microbial communities play critical roles in ecosystem functioning and are likely altered by climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, so far, little is known about effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on microbial functional gene expressions. Here, we applied functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to analyze cDNA reversely transcribed from total RNA to assess expressed functional genes in active soil microbial communities after nine years of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> in a tallgrass prairie. Our results showed that <span class="hlt">warming</span> significantly altered the community wide gene expressions. Specifically, expressed genes for degrading more recalcitrant carbon were stimulated by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, likely linked to the plant community shift toward more C4 species under <span class="hlt">warming</span> and to decrease the long-term soil carbon stability. In addition, <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed expressed genes in labile C degradation and N cycling in different directions (increase and decrease), possibly reflecting the dynamics of labile C and available N pools during sampling. However, the average abundances of expressed genes in phosphorus and sulfur cycling were all increased by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, implying a stable trend of accelerated P and S processes which might be a mechanism to sustain higher plant growth. Furthermore, the expressed gene composition was closely related to both dynamic (e.g., soil moisture) and stable <span class="hlt">environmental</span> attributes (e.g., C4 leaf C or N content), indicating that RNA analyses could also capture certain stable trends in the long-term treatment. Overall, this study revealed the importance of elucidating functional gene expressions of soil microbial community in enhancing our understanding of ecosystem responses to <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471674"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> and CO2 enrichment induce biomass shifts in alpine tree line vegetation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawes, Melissa A; Philipson, Christopher D; Fonti, Patrick; Bebi, Peter; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Hagedorn, Frank; Rixen, Christian</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Responses of alpine tree line ecosystems to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are poorly understood. We used an experiment at the Swiss tree line to investigate changes in vegetation biomass after 9 years of free air CO2 enrichment (+200 ppm; 2001-2009) and 6 years of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+4 °C; 2007-2012). The study contained two key tree line species, Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata, both approximately 40 years old, growing in heath vegetation dominated by dwarf shrubs. In 2012, we harvested and measured biomass of all trees (including root systems), above-ground understorey vegetation and fine roots. Overall, soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> had clearer effects on plant biomass than CO2 enrichment, and there were no interactive effects between treatments. Total plant biomass increased in <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots containing Pinus but not in those with Larix. This response was driven by changes in tree mass (+50%), which contributed an average of 84% (5.7 kg m(-2) ) of total plant mass. Pinus coarse root mass was especially enhanced by <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+100%), yielding an increased root mass fraction. Elevated CO2 led to an increased relative growth rate of Larix stem basal area but no change in the final biomass of either tree species. Total understorey above-ground mass was not altered by soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> or elevated CO2 . However, Vaccinium myrtillus mass increased with both treatments, graminoid mass declined with <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and forb and nonvascular plant (moss and lichen) mass decreased with both treatments. Fine roots showed a substantial reduction under soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (-40% for all roots <2 mm in diameter at 0-20 cm soil depth) but no change with CO2 enrichment. Our findings suggest that enhanced overall productivity and shifts in biomass allocation will occur at the tree line, particularly with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, individual species and functional groups will respond differently to these <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes, with consequences for ecosystem structure and functioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25177201','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25177201"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature Control of Hypertensive Rats during Moderate Exercise in <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campos, Helton O; Leite, Laura H R; Drummond, Lucas R; Cunha, Daise N Q; Coimbra, Cândido C; Natali, Antônio J; Prímola-Gomes, Thales N</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The control of body temperature in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) subjected to exercise in <span class="hlt">warm</span> environment was investigated. Male SHR and Wistar rats were submitted to moderate exercise in temperate (25°C) and <span class="hlt">warm</span> (32°C) environments while body and tail skin temperatures, as well as oxygen consumption, were registered. Total time of exercise, workload performed, mechanical efficiency and heat storage were determined. SHR had increased heat production and body temperature at the end of exercise, reduced mechanical efficiency and increased heat storage (p < 0.05). Furthermore, these rats also showed a more intense and faster increase in body temperature during moderate exercise in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> environment (p < 0.05). The lower mechanical efficiency seen in SHR was closely correlated with their higher body temperature at the point of fatigue in <span class="hlt">warm</span> environment (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that SHR exhibit significant differences in body temperature control during moderate exercise in <span class="hlt">warm</span> environment characterized by increased heat production and heat storage during moderate exercise in <span class="hlt">warm</span> environment. The combination of these responses result in aggravated hyperthermia linked with lower mechanical efficiency. Key PointsThe practice of physical exercise in <span class="hlt">warm</span> environment has gained importance in recent decades mainly because of the progressive increases in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperature;To the best of our knowledge, these is the first study to analyze body temperature control of SHR during moderate exercise in <span class="hlt">warm</span> environment;SHR showed increased heat production and heat storage that resulted in higher body temperature at the end of exercise;SHR showed reduced mechanical efficiency;These results demonstrate that when exercising in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> environment the hypertensive rat exhibit differences in temperature control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20930843','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20930843"><span id="translatedtitle">Global metabolic impacts of recent climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dillon, Michael E; Wang, George; Huey, Raymond B</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Documented shifts in geographical ranges, seasonal phenology, community interactions, genetics and extinctions have been attributed to recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Many such biotic shifts have been detected at mid- to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere-a latitudinal pattern that is expected because <span class="hlt">warming</span> is fastest in these regions. In contrast, shifts in tropical regions are expected to be less marked because <span class="hlt">warming</span> is less pronounced there. However, biotic impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> are mediated through physiology, and metabolic rate, which is a fundamental measure of physiological activity and ecological impact, increases exponentially rather than linearly with temperature in ectotherms. Therefore, tropical ectotherms (with <span class="hlt">warm</span> baseline temperatures) should experience larger absolute shifts in metabolic rate than the magnitude of tropical temperature change itself would suggest, but the impact of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on metabolic rate has never been quantified on a global scale. Here we show that estimated changes in terrestrial metabolic rates in the tropics are large, are equivalent in magnitude to those in the north temperate-zone regions, and are in fact far greater than those in the Arctic, even though tropical temperature change has been relatively small. Because of temperature's nonlinear effects on metabolism, tropical organisms, which constitute much of Earth's biodiversity, should be profoundly affected by recent and projected climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5091351','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5091351"><span id="translatedtitle">Climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> destabilizes forest ant communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Diamond, Sarah E.; Nichols, Lauren M.; Pelini, Shannon L.; Penick, Clint A.; Barber, Grace W.; Cahan, Sara Helms; Dunn, Robert R.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>How will ecological communities change in response to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>? Direct effects of temperature and indirect cascading effects of species interactions are already altering the structure of local communities, but the dynamics of community change are still poorly understood. We explore the cumulative effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the dynamics and turnover of forest ant communities that were <span class="hlt">warmed</span> as part of a 5-year climate manipulation experiment at two sites in eastern North America. At the community level, <span class="hlt">warming</span> consistently increased occupancy of nests and decreased extinction and nest abandonment. This consistency was largely driven by strong responses of a subset of thermophilic species at each site. As colonies of thermophilic species persisted in nests for longer periods of time under warmer temperatures, turnover was diminished, and species interactions were likely altered. We found that dynamical (Lyapunov) community stability decreased with <span class="hlt">warming</span> both within and between sites. These results refute null expectations of simple temperature-driven increases in the activity and movement of thermophilic ectotherms. The reduction in stability under <span class="hlt">warming</span> contrasts with the findings of previous studies that suggest resilience of species interactions to experimental and natural <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In the face of warmer, no-analog climates, communities of the future may become increasingly fragile and unstable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691323','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691323"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> simulation of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reagan, Matthew T; Moridis, George J; Keen, Noel D; Johnson, Jeffrey N</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes. Key Points: Short-term leakage fractured reservoirs requires high-permeability pathways Production strategy affects the likelihood and magnitude of gas release Gas release is likely short-term, without additional driving forces PMID</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26513148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26513148"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional Trait Changes, Productivity Shifts and Vegetation Stability in Mountain Grasslands during a Short-Term <span class="hlt">Warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Debouk, Haifa; de Bello, Francesco; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i) how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and (ii) whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland) in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a <span class="hlt">warm</span> continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland). The impacts of simulated <span class="hlt">warming</span> on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM) for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after <span class="hlt">warming</span> were more dependent on trait composition (CWM) than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed less in composition after <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Results suggest that (i) the short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span> can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii) the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626038','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626038"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional Trait Changes, Productivity Shifts and Vegetation Stability in Mountain Grasslands during a Short-Term <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Debouk, Haifa; de Bello, Francesco; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i) how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and (ii) whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland) in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a <span class="hlt">warm</span> continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland). The impacts of simulated <span class="hlt">warming</span> on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM) for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after <span class="hlt">warming</span> were more dependent on trait composition (CWM) than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed less in composition after <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Results suggest that (i) the short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span> can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii) the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26513148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26513148"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional Trait Changes, Productivity Shifts and Vegetation Stability in Mountain Grasslands during a Short-Term <span class="hlt">Warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Debouk, Haifa; de Bello, Francesco; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i) how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and (ii) whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland) in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a <span class="hlt">warm</span> continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland). The impacts of simulated <span class="hlt">warming</span> on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM) for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after <span class="hlt">warming</span> were more dependent on trait composition (CWM) than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before <span class="hlt">warming</span> changed less in composition after <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Results suggest that (i) the short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span> can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii) the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short-term <span class="hlt">warming</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990116495&hterms=global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990116495&hterms=global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Estimation from MSU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, Robert; Yoo, Jung-Moon</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer observations in Ch 2 (53.74 GHz) from sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA satellites contain small systematic errors. Some of these errors are time-dependent and some are time-independent. Small errors in Ch 2 data of successive satellites arise from calibration differences. Also, successive NOAA satellites tend to have different Local Equatorial Crossing Times (LECT), which introduce differences in Ch 2 data due to the diurnal cycle. These two sources of systematic error are largely time independent. However, because of atmospheric drag, there can be a drift in the LECT of a given satellite, which introduces time-dependent systematic errors. One of these errors is due to the progressive chance in the diurnal cycle and the other is due to associated chances in instrument heating by the sun. In order to infer global temperature trend from the these MSU data, we have eliminated explicitly the time-independent systematic errors. Both of the time-dependent errors cannot be assessed from each satellite. For this reason, their cumulative effect on the global temperature trend is evaluated implicitly. Christy et al. (1998) (CSL). based on their method of analysis of the MSU Ch 2 data, infer a global temperature cooling trend (-0.046 K per decade) from 1979 to 1997, although their near nadir measurements yield near zero trend (0.003 K/decade). Utilising an independent method of analysis, we infer global temperature <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by 0.12 +/- 0.06 C per decade from the observations of the MSU Ch 2 during the period 1980 to 1997.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23364823','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23364823"><span id="translatedtitle">[Air conditioning units and <span class="hlt">warm</span> air blankets in the operating room].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kerwat, Klaus; Piechowiak, Karolin; Wulf, Hinnerk</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Nowadays almost all operating rooms are equipped with air conditioning (AC units). Their main purpose is climatization, like ventilation, moisturizing, cooling and also the <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the room in large buildings. In operating rooms they have an additional function in the prevention of infections, especially the avoidance of postoperative wound infections. This is achieved by special filtration systems and by the creation of specific air currents. Since hypothermia is known to be an unambiguous factor for the development of postoperative wound infections, patients are often actively <span class="hlt">warmed</span> intraoperatively using <span class="hlt">warm</span> air blankets (forced-air <span class="hlt">warming</span> units). In such cases it is frequently discussed whether such <span class="hlt">warm</span> air blankets affect the performance of AC units by changing the air currents or whether, in contrast, have exactly the opposite effect. However, it has been demonstrated in <span class="hlt">numerous</span> studies that <span class="hlt">warm</span> air blankets do not have any relevant effect on the functioning of AC units. Also there are no indications that their use increases the rate of postoperative wound infections. By preventing the patient from experiencing hypothermia, the rate of postoperative wound infections can even be decreased thereby.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26713543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26713543"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Resources Allocation in Attacker-Defender Games with "<span class="hlt">Warm</span> Up" CSF.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guan, Peiqiu; Zhuang, Jun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Like many other engineering investments, the attacker's and defender's investments may have limited impact without initial capital to "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" the systems. This article studies such "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" effects on both the attack and defense equilibrium strategies in a sequential-move game model by developing a class of novel and more realistic contest success functions. We first solve a single-target attacker-defender game analytically and provide <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solutions to a multiple-target case. We compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the investment "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" effects, and find that the defender would suffer higher expected damage, and either underestimate the attacker effort or waste defense investment if the defender falsely believes that no investment "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" effects exist. We illustrate the model results with real data, and compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the correlation between the "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" threshold and the investment effectiveness. Interestingly, we find that the defender is suggested to give up defending all the targets when the attack or the defense "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" thresholds are sufficiently high. This article provides new insights and suggestions on policy implications for homeland security resource allocation. PMID:26713543</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26713543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26713543"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Resources Allocation in Attacker-Defender Games with "<span class="hlt">Warm</span> Up" CSF.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guan, Peiqiu; Zhuang, Jun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Like many other engineering investments, the attacker's and defender's investments may have limited impact without initial capital to "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" the systems. This article studies such "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" effects on both the attack and defense equilibrium strategies in a sequential-move game model by developing a class of novel and more realistic contest success functions. We first solve a single-target attacker-defender game analytically and provide <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solutions to a multiple-target case. We compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the investment "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" effects, and find that the defender would suffer higher expected damage, and either underestimate the attacker effort or waste defense investment if the defender falsely believes that no investment "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" effects exist. We illustrate the model results with real data, and compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the correlation between the "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" threshold and the investment effectiveness. Interestingly, we find that the defender is suggested to give up defending all the targets when the attack or the defense "<span class="hlt">warm</span> up" thresholds are sufficiently high. This article provides new insights and suggestions on policy implications for homeland security resource allocation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/489696','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/489696"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A Total Equivalent <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impact because it is not based solely on the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial <span class="hlt">environmental</span> benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/45532','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/45532"><span id="translatedtitle">BioFacts: Fueling a stronger economy, Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and biofuels emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>The focus of <span class="hlt">numerous</span> federal and state regulations being proposed and approved today is the reduction of automobile emissions -- particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), which is the greenhouse gas considered responsible for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Studies conducted by the USDOE through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) indicate that the production and use of biofuels such as biodiesel, ethanol, and methanol could nearly eliminate the contribution of net CO{sub 2} from automobiles. This fact sheet provides and overview of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, followed by a summary of NREL`s study results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=257561','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=257561"><span id="translatedtitle">Applying Poultry Litter in the Fall to Fertilize Corn May not be Advisable Under <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Row crop farmers prefer to apply poultry litter in the fall or winter but whether this practice is safe <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> and effective for production in regions with <span class="hlt">warm</span> fall and winter months is not well researched and documented. Research in Mississippi tested the effectiveness of fall- versus spr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22275495','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22275495"><span id="translatedtitle">The gravitino problem in supersymmetric <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sánchez, Juan C. Bueno; Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Kohri, Kazunori E-mail: mbg@ugr.es E-mail: konst.dimopoulos@lancaster.ac.uk</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation paradigm considers the continuous production of radiation during inflation due to dissipative effects. In its strong dissipation limit, <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation gives way to a radiation dominated Universe. High scale inflation then yields a high reheating temperature, which then poses a severe gravitino overproduction problem for the supersymmetric realisations of <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation. In this paper we show that, in a certain class of supersymmetric models, the dissipative dynamics of the inflaton is such that the field can avoid its complete decay after inflation. In some cases, the residual energy density stored in the inflaton field oscillations may come to dominate over the radiation bath at a later epoch. If the inflaton field finally decays much later than the onset of this matter dominated phase, the entropy produced from its decay may be sufficient to counteract the excess of gravitinos produced during the last stages of <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Natur.350..219S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Natur.350..219S"><span id="translatedtitle">Revised projection of future greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schlesinger, Michael E.; Jiang, Xingjian</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>Recent projections of greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> to 2100 are broadened here to include a recently suggested lower temperature sensitivity Delta T(2x) = 0.5 C. All projections are also revised by prescribing a lower value for a key parameter of the simple ocean model Pi which indicates the <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the polar ocean relative to the <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the nonpolar ocean. It is found that, for any value of Delta T(2x), the atmospheric temperature increases more rapidly with time as a consequence of the reduction in Pi. It is also found that a delay of 10 yrs in initiating a 20-year transition from the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 'business as usual' scenario to any other IPCC scenario has only a small effect on the projected <span class="hlt">warming</span> in 2100, regardless of the value of Delta T(2x). This indicates that the penalty for a 10-yr delay is small.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416304','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416304"><span id="translatedtitle">Chamberless residential <span class="hlt">warm</span> air furnace design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Godfree, J.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>This brief paper is an introduction to the concept of designing residential <span class="hlt">warm</span> air furnaces without combustion chambers. This is possible since some small burners do not require the thermal support of a combustion chamber to complete the combustion process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..268S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..268S"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon cycle: Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> then and now</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stassen, Peter</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> event 55.8 million years ago was caused by extensive carbon emissions. The rate of change of carbon and oxygen isotopes in marine shelf sediments suggests that carbon emission rates were much slower than anthropogenic emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAP...07..054V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAP...07..054V"><span id="translatedtitle">Observational constraints on monomial <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Visinelli, Luca</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> inflation is, as of today, one of the best motivated mechanisms for explaining an early inflationary period. In this paper, we derive and analyze the current bounds on <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation with a monomial potential U propto phip, using the constraints from the PLANCK mission. In particular, we discuss the parameter space of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and the potential coupling λ of the monomial <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation in terms of the number of e-folds. We obtain that the theoretical tensor-to-scalar ratio r ~ 10‑8 is much smaller than the current observational constrain r lesssim 0.12, despite a relatively large value of the field excursion Δ phi ~ 0.1MPl. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> inflation thus eludes the Lyth bound set on the tensor-to-scalar ratio by the field excursion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..OSS.C1002A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..OSS.C1002A"><span id="translatedtitle">Global temperatures and the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> ``debate''</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aubrecht, Gordon</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global <span class="hlt">warming</span>?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116285','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116285"><span id="translatedtitle">Infectious diseases and global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Tracking disease incidence rates globally</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Low, N.C.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>Given the increasing importance of impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972910','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972910"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stith T.Gower</p> <p>2010-03-03</p> <p>A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest <span class="hlt">warming</span> of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how <span class="hlt">warming</span> will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that <span class="hlt">warming</span> will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17283974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17283974"><span id="translatedtitle">Should we be concerned about global <span class="hlt">warming</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diaz, James H</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Accurate scientific predictions of the true human health outcomes of global climate change are significantly confounded by several effect modifiers that cannot be adjusted for analytically. Nevertheless, with the documented increase in average global surface temperature of 0.6 C. since 1975, there is uniform consensus in the international scientific community that the earth is <span class="hlt">warming</span> from a variety of climatic effects, including cyclical re-<span class="hlt">warming</span> and the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions to support human activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3785815','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3785815"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> climates of the past—a lesson for the future?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lunt, D. J.; Elderfield, H.; Pancost, R.; Ridgwell, A.; Foster, G. L.; Haywood, A.; Kiehl, J.; Sagoo, N.; Shields, C.; Stone, E. J.; Valdes, P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This Discussion Meeting Issue of the Philosophical Transactions A had its genesis in a Discussion Meeting of the Royal Society which took place on 10–11 October 2011. The Discussion Meeting, entitled ‘<span class="hlt">Warm</span> climates of the past: a lesson for the future?’, brought together 16 eminent international speakers from the field of palaeoclimate, and was attended by over 280 scientists and members of the public. Many of the speakers have contributed to the papers compiled in this Discussion Meeting Issue. The papers summarize the talks at the meeting, and present further or related work. This Discussion Meeting Issue asks to what extent information gleaned from the study of past climates can aid our understanding of future climate change. Climate change is currently an issue at the forefront of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> science, and also has important sociological and political implications. Most future predictions are carried out by complex <span class="hlt">numerical</span> models; however, these models cannot be rigorously tested for scenarios outside of the modern, without making use of past climate data. Furthermore, past climate data can inform our understanding of how the Earth system operates, and can provide important contextual information related to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. All past time periods can be useful in this context; here, we focus on past climates that were warmer than the modern climate, as these are likely to be the most similar to the future. This introductory paper is not meant as a comprehensive overview of all work in this field. Instead, it gives an introduction to the important issues therein, using the papers in this Discussion Meeting Issue, and other works from all the Discussion Meeting speakers, as exemplars of the various ways in which past climates can inform projections of future climate. Furthermore, we present new work that uses a palaeo constraint to quantitatively inform projections of future equilibrium ice sheet change. PMID:24043873</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12285369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12285369"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: a vicious circle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sinclair, J</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The problem of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> (GW) is larger than it was originally suspected. The release of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (ME), and nitrous oxide (NO2) by the activities of humans will do more than simply raise the global temperature. It will also trigger a variety of feedback loops that will accelerate the GW process. The extent of these feedback loops is currently impossible to incorporate into the computer models because they are not fully understood. But, from what we do know, it is clear that reductions in greenhouse gas (GG) emissions must be halted immediately. We are already committed to regional droughts, storms, water shortages, fishery disruptions and plant and animal extinctions. But the response of the oceans, forest, and ice masses has not yet been incorporated into our predictions. Almost all the feedbacks identified promise to increase GG concentrations. The carbon cycle is going to be affected in a variety of ways. Plants and soil store almost 3 times the CO2 as found in the atmosphere. Increased temperatures will increase plant respiration, thus increasing CO2 emissions. Forests will die, permafrost will melt and the result will be increased releases of CO2 and ME. The oceans and plankton can not absorb as much CO2 as the water temperature rises. At present levels GG concentrations will double by 2025. Thus scientists are calling for an immediate 60-80% reduction in CO2 and other GG emissions. It is up to the industrialized nations to solve this problem since they are the ones who created it. 75% of all human made CO2 comes from these countries. They also have the ability to help developing nations to do the same. 20 nations have already announced plans to stabilize or reduce their GG emissions, but it is attitudes and lifestyles that must be changed. This is the largest problem to ever face the human race and never before have we acted as we now must act in order to avoid a worldwide catastrophe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/289886','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/289886"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nuclear power</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wood, L., LLNL</p> <p>1998-07-10</p> <p>-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global <span class="hlt">warming</span> concerns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10914399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10914399"><span id="translatedtitle">Is global <span class="hlt">warming</span> harmful to health?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Epstein, P R</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>Projections from computer models predict that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will expand the incidence and distribution of many serious medical disorders. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, aside from indirectly causing death by drowning or starvation, promotes by various means the emergence, resurgence, and spread of infectious diseases. This article addresses the health effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and disrupted climate patterns in detail. Among the greatest health concerns are diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and several kinds of encephalitis. Such disorders are projected to become increasingly prevalent because their insect carriers are very sensitive to meteorological conditions. In addition, floods and droughts resulting from global <span class="hlt">warming</span> can each help trigger outbreaks by creating breeding grounds for insects whose desiccated eggs remain viable and hatch in still water. Other effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on health include the growth of opportunist populations and the increase of the incidence of waterborne diseases because of lack of clean water. In view of this, several steps are cited in order to facilitate the successful management of the dangers of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27293764','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27293764"><span id="translatedtitle">Small pelagics in a changing ocean: biological responses of sardine early stages to <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Faleiro, Filipa; Pimentel, Marta; Pegado, Maria Rita; Bispo, Regina; Lopes, Ana Rita; Diniz, Mário S; Rosa, Rui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Small pelagic fishes are known to respond rapidly to changes in ocean climate. In this study, we evaluate the effects of future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+2°C) during the early ontogeny of the European sardine, Sardina pilchardus. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> reduced the survival of 30-day-old larvae by half. Length at hatching increased with temperature as expected, but no significant effect was observed on the length and growth at 30 days post-hatching. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> did not significantly affect the thermal tolerance of sardine larvae, even though the mean lethal temperature increased by 1°C. In the <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions, sardine larvae showed signs of thermal stress, indicated by a pronounced increase in larval metabolism (Q 10 = 7.9) and a 45% increase in the heat shock response. Lipid peroxidation was not significantly affected by the higher temperature, even though the mean value doubled. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> did not affect the time larvae spent swimming, but decreased by 36% the frequency of prey attacks. Given the key role of these small pelagics in the trophic dynamics off the Western Iberian upwelling ecosystem, the negative effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the early stages may have important implications for fish recruitment and ecosystem structure. PMID:27293764</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4896356','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4896356"><span id="translatedtitle">Small pelagics in a changing ocean: biological responses of sardine early stages to <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Faleiro, Filipa; Pimentel, Marta; Pegado, Maria Rita; Bispo, Regina; Lopes, Ana Rita; Diniz, Mário S.; Rosa, Rui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Small pelagic fishes are known to respond rapidly to changes in ocean climate. In this study, we evaluate the effects of future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+2°C) during the early ontogeny of the European sardine, Sardina pilchardus. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> reduced the survival of 30-day-old larvae by half. Length at hatching increased with temperature as expected, but no significant effect was observed on the length and growth at 30 days post-hatching. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> did not significantly affect the thermal tolerance of sardine larvae, even though the mean lethal temperature increased by 1°C. In the <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions, sardine larvae showed signs of thermal stress, indicated by a pronounced increase in larval metabolism (Q10 = 7.9) and a 45% increase in the heat shock response. Lipid peroxidation was not significantly affected by the higher temperature, even though the mean value doubled. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> did not affect the time larvae spent swimming, but decreased by 36% the frequency of prey attacks. Given the key role of these small pelagics in the trophic dynamics off the Western Iberian upwelling ecosystem, the negative effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the early stages may have important implications for fish recruitment and ecosystem structure. PMID:27293764</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21770945','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21770945"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth and community responses of alpine dwarf shrubs to in situ CO₂ enrichment and soil <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawes, Melissa A; Hagedorn, Frank; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Handa, Ira Tanya; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Wipf, Sonja; Rixen, Christian</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>• Rising CO₂ concentrations and the associated global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are expected to have large impacts on high-elevation ecosystems, yet long-term multifactor experiments in these environments are rare. • We investigated how growth of dominant dwarf shrub species (Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Empetrum hermaphroditum) and community composition in the understorey of larch and pine trees responded to 9 yr of CO₂ enrichment and 3 yr of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the treeline in the Swiss Alps. • Vaccinium myrtillus was the only species that showed a clear positive effect of CO₂ on growth, with no decline over time in the annual shoot growth response. Soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> stimulated V. myrtillus growth even more than elevated CO₂ and was accompanied by increased plant-available soil nitrogen (N) and leaf N concentrations. Growth of Vaccinium gaultherioides and E. hermaphroditum was not influenced by <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Vascular plant species richness declined in elevated CO₂ plots with larch, while the number of moss and lichen species decreased under <span class="hlt">warming</span>. • Ongoing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change could lead to less diverse plant communities and increased dominance of the particularly responsive V. myrtillus in the studied alpine treeline. These changes are the consequence of independent CO₂ and soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects, a result that should facilitate predictive modelling approaches. PMID:21770945</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP52A..03T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP52A..03T"><span id="translatedtitle">Ice Core Evidence for Amplification of the Recent <span class="hlt">Warming</span> at High Elevations in the Tropics and the Likely Regional Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Davis, M. E.; Urmann, D.; Buffen, A.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>IPCC (2007) models predict an enhancement of <span class="hlt">warming</span> at higher altitudes throughout the tropics where temperatures may <span class="hlt">warm</span> twice as much as the globally-averaged increase of 3°C predicted for sea level by 2100 AD. Ice core data collected over the last thirty years from low-latitude, high-elevation glaciers, along with continuous monitoring of selected sites, document this amplification and suggest an imminent demise of many of these ice fields. A new, annually resolved climatic and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> record from the Quelccaya ice cap (5670 m asl) in Peru extends back to 315 AD. A new record from the higher, colder and drier Coropuna ice field (6450 m asl), 350 km southwest of Quelccaya and only 70 km from the Pacific Ocean, provides a much longer, albeit lower resolution, ~16,000 year history. El Niño-Southern Oscillation variations are recorded at both sites and document millennial scale variability. A series of ice cores drilled across High Asia provides climatic and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> histories that also document the amplification of air temperature at high elevations. Regional impacts of this <span class="hlt">warming</span> may already be underway. Observations in 2006 on Naimona'nyi (6100 m asl, also known as Gurla Mandata), located near the headwaters of the Ganges and Indus Rivers, indicate that under current climate conditions this ice field is not gaining mass. Ice cores from the Dasuopu glacier (7200 m asl) in the central Himalaya provide a high-resolution record of fluctuations in the intensity of the South Asian Monsoon. Reductions in monsoon intensity are recorded by insoluble dust and chloride concentrations. The deeper, older sections of the Dasuopu record reveal <span class="hlt">numerous</span> arid periods, but none were longer and more intense than the 1790 to 1796 A.D. drought. This event is also prominent in the soluble aerosol records from the Quelccaya and Coropuna cores on the eastern side of the Pacific Basin, suggesting decadal-scale teleconnections between these regions. The similarities and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032682','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032682"><span id="translatedtitle">The importance of <span class="hlt">warm</span> season <span class="hlt">warming</span> to western U.S. streamflow changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Cayan, D.R.; Vano, J.A.; Lettenmaier, D.P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> season climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> season (April-September) <span class="hlt">warming</span> reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) <span class="hlt">warming</span>, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent <span class="hlt">warm</span> season. A uniform <span class="hlt">warm</span> season <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 3C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same <span class="hlt">warming</span> applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363633','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363633"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> shifts 'worming': effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on invasive earthworms in northern North America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects depended on the current average SWC: <span class="hlt">warming</span> had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless <span class="hlt">warming</span> is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363633','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363633"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> shifts 'worming': effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on invasive earthworms in northern North America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B</p> <p>2014-11-03</p> <p>Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects depended on the current average SWC: <span class="hlt">warming</span> had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless <span class="hlt">warming</span> is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E6890E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E6890E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> shifts `worming': effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on invasive earthworms in northern North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future <span class="hlt">warming</span> is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects depended on the current average SWC: <span class="hlt">warming</span> had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless <span class="hlt">warming</span> is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18268873','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18268873"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on natural disasters and their public health outcomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diaz, James H</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>With a documented increase in average global surface temperatures of 0.6 degrees C since 1975, Earth now appears to be <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to a variety of climatic effects, most notably the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities. There remains, however, no universal agreement on how rapidly, regionally, or asymmetrically the planet will <span class="hlt">warm</span> or on the true impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on natural disasters and public health outcomes. Most reports to date of the public health impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on the increase in heat-stroke deaths following heat waves and on outbreaks of airborne and arthropod-borne diseases following tropical rains and flooding that resulted from fluctuations in ocean temperatures. The effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on rainfall and drought, tropical cyclone and tsunami activity, and tectonic and volcanic activity will have far-reaching public health effects not only on <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> associated disease outbreaks but also on global food supplies and population movements. As a result of these and other recognized associations between climate change and public health consequences, many of which have been confounded by deficiencies in public health infrastructure and scientific debates over whether climate changes are spawned by atmospheric cycles or anthropogenic influences, the active responses to progressive climate change must include combinations of economic, <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, legal, regulatory, and, most importantly, public health measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201694"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of various <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices on bat velocity of intercollegiate softball players.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szymanski, David J; Bassett, Kylie E; Beiser, Erik J; Till, Megan E; Medlin, Greg L; Beam, Jason R; Derenne, Coop</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerous</span> <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices are available for use by softball players while they are in the on-deck circle. It is difficult to know which <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up device produces the greatest bat velocity (BV) in the batter's box for softball players because on-deck studies with these individuals are sparse. Because the majority of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up device research has been conducted with baseball players, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices on the BV of female intercollegiate softball players and compare the results with those of male baseball players. A secondary purpose was to evaluate 2 new commercially available resistance devices as <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up aids. Nineteen Division I intercollegiate softball players (age = 19.8 ± 1.2 years, height = 167.0 ± 4.7 cm, body mass = 69.2 ± 8.6 kg, lean body mass = 49.6 ± 3.6 kg, % body fat = 27.9 ± 5.9) participated in a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up with 1 of 8 resistance devices on separate days. Each of the 8 testing sessions had players perform a standardized dynamic <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up, 3 maximal dry swings mimicking their normal game swing with the assigned <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up device, 2 comfortable dry swings with a standard 83.8-cm, 652-g (33-in., 23-oz) softball bat followed by 3 maximal game swings (20-second rest between swings) while hitting a softball off a batting tee with the same standard softball bat. Results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in BV after using any of the 8 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices (510.3-2,721.5 g or 18-96 oz) similar to in previous baseball research. This indicates that the results for both male and female intercollegiate players are similar and that intercollegiate softball players can use any of the 8 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices in the on-deck circle and have similar BVs. However, similar to in other previous baseball research, it is not recommended that female intercollegiate softball players <span class="hlt">warm</span> up with the popular commercial donut ring in the on-deck circle because it produced the slowest BV. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201694"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of various <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices on bat velocity of intercollegiate softball players.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szymanski, David J; Bassett, Kylie E; Beiser, Erik J; Till, Megan E; Medlin, Greg L; Beam, Jason R; Derenne, Coop</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Numerous</span> <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices are available for use by softball players while they are in the on-deck circle. It is difficult to know which <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up device produces the greatest bat velocity (BV) in the batter's box for softball players because on-deck studies with these individuals are sparse. Because the majority of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up device research has been conducted with baseball players, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices on the BV of female intercollegiate softball players and compare the results with those of male baseball players. A secondary purpose was to evaluate 2 new commercially available resistance devices as <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up aids. Nineteen Division I intercollegiate softball players (age = 19.8 ± 1.2 years, height = 167.0 ± 4.7 cm, body mass = 69.2 ± 8.6 kg, lean body mass = 49.6 ± 3.6 kg, % body fat = 27.9 ± 5.9) participated in a <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up with 1 of 8 resistance devices on separate days. Each of the 8 testing sessions had players perform a standardized dynamic <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up, 3 maximal dry swings mimicking their normal game swing with the assigned <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up device, 2 comfortable dry swings with a standard 83.8-cm, 652-g (33-in., 23-oz) softball bat followed by 3 maximal game swings (20-second rest between swings) while hitting a softball off a batting tee with the same standard softball bat. Results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in BV after using any of the 8 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices (510.3-2,721.5 g or 18-96 oz) similar to in previous baseball research. This indicates that the results for both male and female intercollegiate players are similar and that intercollegiate softball players can use any of the 8 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up devices in the on-deck circle and have similar BVs. However, similar to in other previous baseball research, it is not recommended that female intercollegiate softball players <span class="hlt">warm</span> up with the popular commercial donut ring in the on-deck circle because it produced the slowest BV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26924811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26924811"><span id="translatedtitle">Field and laboratory studies reveal interacting effects of stream oxygenation and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aquatic ectotherms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verberk, Wilco C E P; Durance, Isabelle; Vaughan, Ian P; Ormerod, Steve J</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Aquatic ecological responses to climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> are complicated by interactions between thermal effects and other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stressors such as organic pollution and hypoxia. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated how oxygen limitation can set heat tolerance for some aquatic ectotherms, but only at unrealistic lethal temperatures and without field data to assess whether oxygen shortages might also underlie sublethal <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects. Here, we test whether oxygen availability affects both lethal and nonlethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on two widespread Eurasian mayflies, Ephemera danica, Müller 1764 and Serratella ignita (Poda 1761). Mayfly nymphs are often a dominant component of the invertebrate assemblage in streams, and play a vital role in aquatic and riparian food webs. In the laboratory, lethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> were assessed under three oxygen conditions. In the field, effects of oxygen availability on nonlethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> were assessed from mayfly occurrence in 42 293 UK stream samples where water temperature and biochemical oxygen demand were measured. Oxygen limitation affected both lethal and sublethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> in each species. Hypoxia lowered lethal limits by 5.5 °C (±2.13) and 8.2 °C (±0.62) for E. danica and S. ignita respectively. Field data confirmed the importance of oxygen limitation in warmer waters; poor oxygenation drastically reduced site occupancy, and reductions were especially pronounced under <span class="hlt">warm</span> water conditions. Consequently, poor oxygenation lowered optimal stream temperatures for both species. The broad concordance shown here between laboratory results and extensive field data suggests that oxygen limitation not only impairs survival at thermal extremes but also restricts species abundance in the field at temperatures well below upper lethal limits. Stream oxygenation could thus control the vulnerability of aquatic ectotherms to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Improving water oxygenation and reducing pollution can provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26924811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26924811"><span id="translatedtitle">Field and laboratory studies reveal interacting effects of stream oxygenation and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aquatic ectotherms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verberk, Wilco C E P; Durance, Isabelle; Vaughan, Ian P; Ormerod, Steve J</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Aquatic ecological responses to climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> are complicated by interactions between thermal effects and other <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stressors such as organic pollution and hypoxia. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated how oxygen limitation can set heat tolerance for some aquatic ectotherms, but only at unrealistic lethal temperatures and without field data to assess whether oxygen shortages might also underlie sublethal <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects. Here, we test whether oxygen availability affects both lethal and nonlethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on two widespread Eurasian mayflies, Ephemera danica, Müller 1764 and Serratella ignita (Poda 1761). Mayfly nymphs are often a dominant component of the invertebrate assemblage in streams, and play a vital role in aquatic and riparian food webs. In the laboratory, lethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> were assessed under three oxygen conditions. In the field, effects of oxygen availability on nonlethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> were assessed from mayfly occurrence in 42 293 UK stream samples where water temperature and biochemical oxygen demand were measured. Oxygen limitation affected both lethal and sublethal impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> in each species. Hypoxia lowered lethal limits by 5.5 °C (±2.13) and 8.2 °C (±0.62) for E. danica and S. ignita respectively. Field data confirmed the importance of oxygen limitation in warmer waters; poor oxygenation drastically reduced site occupancy, and reductions were especially pronounced under <span class="hlt">warm</span> water conditions. Consequently, poor oxygenation lowered optimal stream temperatures for both species. The broad concordance shown here between laboratory results and extensive field data suggests that oxygen limitation not only impairs survival at thermal extremes but also restricts species abundance in the field at temperatures well below upper lethal limits. Stream oxygenation could thus control the vulnerability of aquatic ectotherms to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Improving water oxygenation and reducing pollution can provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037586','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037586"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicted effects of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the distribution of 50 stream fishes in Wisconsin, U.S.A.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lyons, J.; Stewart, J.S.; Mitro, M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Summer air and stream water temperatures are expected to rise in the state of Wisconsin, U.S.A., over the next 50 years. To assess potential climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on stream fishes, predictive models were developed for 50 common fish species using classification-tree analysis of 69 <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables in a geographic information system. Model accuracy was 56.0-93.5% in validation tests. Models were applied to all 86 898 km of stream in the state under four different climate scenarios: current conditions, limited climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> (summer air temperatures increase 1?? C and water 0.8?? C), moderate <span class="hlt">warming</span> (air 3?? C and water 2.4?? C) and major <span class="hlt">warming</span> (air 5?? C and water 4?? C). With climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, 23 fishes were predicted to decline in distribution (three to extirpation under the major <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario), 23 to increase and four to have no change. Overall, declining species lost substantially more stream length than increasing species gained. All three cold-water and 16 cool-water fishes and four of 31 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes were predicted to decline, four <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes to remain the same and 23 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes to increase in distribution. Species changes were predicted to be most dramatic in small streams in northern Wisconsin that currently have cold to cool summer water temperatures and are dominated by cold-water and cool-water fishes, and least in larger and warmer streams and rivers in southern Wisconsin that are currently dominated by <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes. Results of this study suggest that even small increases in summer air and water temperatures owing to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will have major effects on the distribution of stream fishes in Wisconsin. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology ?? 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2010.02763.x/full','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2010.02763.x/full"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicted effects of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the distribution of 50 stream fishes in Wisconsin, U.S.A.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stewart, Jana S.; Lyons, John D.; Matt Mitro,</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Summer air and stream water temperatures are expected to rise in the state of Wisconsin, U.S.A., over the next 50 years. To assess potential climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> effects on stream fishes, predictive models were developed for 50 common fish species using classification-tree analysis of 69 <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables in a geographic information system. Model accuracy was 56·0–93·5% in validation tests. Models were applied to all 86 898 km of stream in the state under four different climate scenarios: current conditions, limited climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> (summer air temperatures increase 1° C and water 0·8° C), moderate <span class="hlt">warming</span> (air 3° C and water 2·4° C) and major <span class="hlt">warming</span> (air 5° C and water 4° C). With climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, 23 fishes were predicted to decline in distribution (three to extirpation under the major <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario), 23 to increase and four to have no change. Overall, declining species lost substantially more stream length than increasing species gained. All three cold-water and 16 cool-water fishes and four of 31 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes were predicted to decline, four <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes to remain the same and 23 <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes to increase in distribution. Species changes were predicted to be most dramatic in small streams in northern Wisconsin that currently have cold to cool summer water temperatures and are dominated by cold-water and cool-water fishes, and least in larger and warmer streams and rivers in southern Wisconsin that are currently dominated by <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water fishes. Results of this study suggest that even small increases in summer air and water temperatures owing to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will have major effects on the distribution of stream fishes in Wisconsin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25033924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25033924"><span id="translatedtitle">Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can mitigate the negative effects of night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on physiological traits of Medicago truncatula L.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Yajun; Wu, Songlin; Sun, Yuqing; Li, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Caiyan; Lin, Ge; Chen, Baodong</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Elevated night temperature, one of the main climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios, can have profound effects on plant growth and metabolism. However, little attention has been paid to the potential role of mycorrhizal associations in plant responses to night <span class="hlt">warming</span>, although it is well known that symbiotic fungi can protect host plants against various <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stresses. In the present study, physiological traits of Medicago truncatula L. in association with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis were investigated under simulated night <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A constant increase in night temperature of 1.53 °C significantly reduced plant shoot and root biomass, flower and seed number, leaf sugar concentration, and shoot Zn and root P concentrations. However, the AM association essentially mitigated these negative effects of night <span class="hlt">warming</span> by improving plant growth, especially through increased root biomass, root to shoot ratio, and shoot Zn and root P concentrations. A significant interaction was observed between R. irregularis inoculation and night <span class="hlt">warming</span> in influencing both root sucrose concentration and expression of sucrose synthase (SusS) genes, suggesting that AM symbiosis and increased night temperature jointly regulated plant sugar metabolism. Night <span class="hlt">warming</span> stimulated AM fungal colonization but did not influence arbuscule abundance, symbiosis-related plant or fungal gene expression, or growth of extraradical mycelium, indicating little effect of night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the development or functioning of AM symbiosis. These findings highlight the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis in assisting plant resilience to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:25033924</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25033924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25033924"><span id="translatedtitle">Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can mitigate the negative effects of night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on physiological traits of Medicago truncatula L.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Yajun; Wu, Songlin; Sun, Yuqing; Li, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Caiyan; Lin, Ge; Chen, Baodong</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Elevated night temperature, one of the main climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios, can have profound effects on plant growth and metabolism. However, little attention has been paid to the potential role of mycorrhizal associations in plant responses to night <span class="hlt">warming</span>, although it is well known that symbiotic fungi can protect host plants against various <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stresses. In the present study, physiological traits of Medicago truncatula L. in association with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis were investigated under simulated night <span class="hlt">warming</span>. A constant increase in night temperature of 1.53 °C significantly reduced plant shoot and root biomass, flower and seed number, leaf sugar concentration, and shoot Zn and root P concentrations. However, the AM association essentially mitigated these negative effects of night <span class="hlt">warming</span> by improving plant growth, especially through increased root biomass, root to shoot ratio, and shoot Zn and root P concentrations. A significant interaction was observed between R. irregularis inoculation and night <span class="hlt">warming</span> in influencing both root sucrose concentration and expression of sucrose synthase (SusS) genes, suggesting that AM symbiosis and increased night temperature jointly regulated plant sugar metabolism. Night <span class="hlt">warming</span> stimulated AM fungal colonization but did not influence arbuscule abundance, symbiosis-related plant or fungal gene expression, or growth of extraradical mycelium, indicating little effect of night <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the development or functioning of AM symbiosis. These findings highlight the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis in assisting plant resilience to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1383..634B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1383..634B"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Strain Rate and Temperature Gradient on <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Formability of Aluminum Alloy Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bagheriasl, R.; Ghavam, K.; Worswick, M. J.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The effect of temperature gradient and forming speed on <span class="hlt">warm</span> formability of aluminum alloy sheet has been studied using a coupled thermal mechanical finite element model of cup deep drawing. A user-defined material model was developed using the Bergstrom temperature and strain-rate dependant hardening model and Barlat YLD2000 anisotropic yield surface, which was implemented within LS-DYNA. The stress-strain curves for AA3003 at elevated temperatures and different strain rates were used to fit the Bergstrom hardening parameters. The anisotropy parameters were considered to be non-temperature dependant. The <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model was validated against experiments from previous work and was found to accurately predict punch force for <span class="hlt">warm</span> deep drawing. Increases in forming speed are shown to have a negative effect on formability. It is concluded that non-isothermal <span class="hlt">warm</span> forming can be used to improve the formability of aluminum alloy sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP12A..08D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP12A..08D"><span id="translatedtitle">Antarctica during the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dolan, A. M.; Hill, D. J.; Haywood, A. M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The study of <span class="hlt">warm</span> intervals of the Pliocene Epoch (Pliocene 'interglacials') is important for understanding the long-term response of major ice sheets and sea level to current or near future concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2); as well as global mean temperatures that will be attained during this century. For the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (mPWP; ~3.3 to 3.0 Ma BP) we present a review of current and recent research that has sought to constrain the nature of the Antarctic Ice Sheets using sophisticated <span class="hlt">numerical</span> climate and ice-sheet models. It is generally accepted that during <span class="hlt">warm</span> intervals of the Pliocene, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) was largely ice free; however, the contribution of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) to peak sea level rise during the mPWP is less well understood. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> sources of geological information are available that are capable of placing constraints on the stability of the EAIS during the mPWP, but each has inherent uncertainties and signals can often be difficult to interpret. Therefore, <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modelling is required to test proxy-based assertions of sea-level change and pin-point the likely contributions from the major ice sheets. We present an ensemble of simulations using the Hadley Centre Atmosphere-Ocean Climate Model (HadCM3) coupled offline to the British Antarctic Survey Ice Sheet Model (BASISM) that explores the sensitivity of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to changes in orbital forcing and atmospheric CO2 levels during the mid-Pliocene. We show that significant ice sheet retreat is only simulated under <span class="hlt">warm</span> Southern Hemisphere orbital conditions where levels of CO2 are at 400 ppmv or above. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that this result is dependent on necessary a priori assumptions regarding the initial ice sheet configuration within the modelling framework. To diagnose which assumptions give climate simulations that are more consistent with geological proxy data, we evaluate our results against two</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec864-9205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. 864.9205 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9205 Blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device. (a) Nonelectromagnetic blood or plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device—(1) Identification. A nonelectromagnetic blood and plasma <span class="hlt">warming</span> device is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6635898','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6635898"><span id="translatedtitle">Renewed <span class="hlt">environmental</span> activism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Modesitt, L.E. Jr.</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Windpower, biomass, and geothermal are likely to benefit most from the new administrations <span class="hlt">environmental</span> policy. This is due to requirements of the existing Clean Air Act; the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> problems involved with fossil fuels (and the probability of a carbon tax, however disguised); and the growing waste disposal problems with nuclear energy. The second area of opportunity for independent power producers may be natural gas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992GPC.....6..209S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992GPC.....6..209S"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in southeastern Zaire (Central Africa) inferred from disturbed geothermal gradients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sebagenzi, M. N.; Vasseur, G.; Louis, P.</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>Several temperature-depth profiles measured in Kasai and in Shaba provinces of Zaire using mining exploration boreholes exhibit a significant negative temperature gradient near the surface. This anomalous curvature which extends to 100-200 m depth could reflect the effect of variations in surface conditions. Applying the theory of heat conduction in a semi-infinite homogeneous medium, these profiles indicate a surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> by 3-4°C. This <span class="hlt">warming</span> is related to the effect of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes associated with the mining exploitation and the urbanization during the last 40-90 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014atp..prop...22K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014atp..prop...22K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kallman, Timothy</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of <span class="hlt">warm</span> absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22279608','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22279608"><span id="translatedtitle">General dissipation coefficient in low-temperature <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Rosa, João G.; Ramos, Rudnei O. E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk E-mail: joao.rosa@ed.ac.uk</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In generic particle physics models, the inflaton field is coupled to other bosonic and fermionic fields that acquire large masses during inflation and may decay into light degrees of freedom. This leads to dissipative effects that modify the inflationary dynamics and may generate a nearly-thermal radiation bath, such that inflation occurs in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> rather than supercooled environment. In this work, we perform a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> computation and obtain expressions for the associated dissipation coefficient in supersymmetric models, focusing on the regime where the radiation temperature is below the heavy mass threshold. The dissipation coefficient receives contributions from the decay of both on-shell and off-shell degrees of freedom, which are dominant for small and large couplings, respectively, taking into account the light field multiplicities. In particular, we find that the contribution from on-shell decays, although Boltzmann-suppressed, can be much larger than that of virtual modes, which is bounded by the validity of a perturbative analysis. This result opens up new possibilities for realizations of <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflation in supersymmetric field theories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1976/0026/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1976/0026/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Water resources of the <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Springs Indian Reservation, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Robison, J.H.; Laenen, Antonius</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Water-resources data for the 1,000-square-mile <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Springs Indian Reservation in north-central Oregon were obtained and evaluated. The area is bounded on the west by the crest of the Cascade Range and on the south and east by the Metolius and Deschutes Rivers. The mountainous western part is underlain by young volcanic rocks, and the plateaus and valleys of the eastern part are underlain by basalt, tuff, sand, and gravel of Tertiary and Quaternary ages. There are <span class="hlt">numerous</span> springs, some developed for stock use, and about 50 domestic and community wells; yields are small, ranging from less than 1 to as much as 25 gallons per minute. Chemical quality of most ground water is suitable for stock or human consumption and for irrigation. Average flows of the <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Springs River, Metolius River, and Deschutes River are 440, 1,400, and 4,040 cubic feet per second (cfs), respectively. Shitike Creek, which has an average flow of 108 cfs had a peak of 4,000 cfs in January 1974. Most streams have fewer than 100 milligrams per liter (mg/liter) of dissolved solids. Chemical and biological quality of the mountain lakes is also good; of 10 lakes studied, all had fewer than 50 mg/liter of dissolved solids and none had measurable fecal coliform bacteria. (Woodard-USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhPl...23g3119J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhPl...23g3119J"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of a Gaussian laser beam in <span class="hlt">warm</span> collisional magnetoplasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jafari, M. J.; Jafari Milani, M. R.; Niknam, A. R.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, the spatial evolution of an intense circularly polarized Gaussian laser beam propagated through a <span class="hlt">warm</span> plasma is investigated, taking into account the ponderomotive force, Ohmic heating, external magnetic field, and collisional effects. Using the momentum transfer and energy equations, both modified electron temperature and electron density in plasma are obtained. By introducing the complex dielectric permittivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> magnetized plasma and using the complex eikonal function, coupled differential equations for beam width parameter are established and solved <span class="hlt">numerically</span>. The effects of polarization state of laser and magnetic field on the laser spot size evolution are studied. It is observed that in case of the right-handed polarization, an increase in the value of external magnetic field causes an increase in the strength of the self-focusing, especially in the higher values, and consequently, the self-focusing occurs in shorter distance of propagation. Moreover, the results demonstrate the existence of laser intensity and electron temperature ranges where self-focusing can occur, while the beam diverges outside of these regions; meanwhile, in these intervals, there exists a turning point for each of intensity and temperature in which the self-focusing process has its strongest strength. Finally, it is found that the self-focusing effect can be enhanced by increasing the plasma frequency (plasma density).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386558"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> without global mean precipitation increase?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salzmann, Marc</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century <span class="hlt">warming</span> indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG <span class="hlt">warming</span> has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global <span class="hlt">warming</span> recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1615K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1615K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Indian Ocean, Weak Asian Monsoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koll Roxy, Mathew; Ritika, Kapoor; Terray, Pascal; Murtugudde, Raghu; Ashok, Karumuri; Nath Goswami, Buphendra</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>There are large uncertainties looming over the status and fate of the South Asian monsoon in a changing climate. Observations and climate models have suggested that anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the past century has increased the moisture availability and the land-sea thermal contrast in the tropics, favoring an increase in monsoon rainfall. In contrast, we notice that South Asian subcontinent experienced a relatively subdued <span class="hlt">warming</span> during this period. At the same time, the tropical Indian Ocean experienced a nearly monotonic <span class="hlt">warming</span>, at a rate faster than the other tropical oceans. Using long-term observations and coupled model experiments, we suggest that the enhanced Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> along with the suppressed <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the subcontinent weaken the land-sea thermal contrast throughout the troposphere, dampen the monsoon Hadley circulation, and reduce the rainfall over South Asia. As a result, the summer monsoon rainfall during 1901-2012 shows a significant weakening trend over South Asia, extending from Pakistan through central India to Bangladesh.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4928969','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4928969"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> without global mean precipitation increase?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Salzmann, Marc</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K−1 decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century <span class="hlt">warming</span> indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG <span class="hlt">warming</span> has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global <span class="hlt">warming</span> recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386558"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> without global mean precipitation increase?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salzmann, Marc</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century <span class="hlt">warming</span> indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG <span class="hlt">warming</span> has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global <span class="hlt">warming</span> recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMED33C..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMED33C..01S"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Settled Science? Unsettled Media Debate??</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schneider, S. H.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change recently assessed the approximate 0.75°C <span class="hlt">warming</span> since 1850 as an "unequivocal" trend. This is very rare and strong language for scientists who often lead with their caveats, not with their concerns. Later, the same report says it is "very likely" (i.e.- greater that 90% chance) that most of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the past several decades can be attributed to human activities, primarily greenhouse gas emissions. So far, the science sounds "settled". Furthermore, the IPCC, as well as many other national assessments, assigns very high confidence to projections of further <span class="hlt">warming</span>, intensified tropical cyclones, more extremes of drought and flood, and melting mountain glaciers and arctic sea ice in the twenty-first century. Still sounds settled. However, the likely range of <span class="hlt">warming</span> projected by IPCC to 2100 varies by a whopping factor of 6: 1.1-6.4°C above 1990 levels-- hardly "settled science". Projections of precipitation are equivocal even as to the direction of change. Therefore, IPCC Working Group 2 recommends a "risk management" approach to dealing with the combination of well establish and remaining speculative components of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that nonetheless pose potentially serious risks to human and natural systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPTO8009S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPTO8009S"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron conductivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hot dense matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Starrett, Charles; Charest, Marc; Feinblum, David; Burrill, Daniel</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The electronic conductivity of <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hot dense matter is investigated by combining the Ziman-Evans approach with the recently developed pseudo-atom molecular dynamics (PAMD) method. PAMD gives an accurate description of the electronic and ionic structure of the plasma. The Ziman-Evans approach to conductivity, which takes the electronic and ionic structures as inputs, has been widely used but with <span class="hlt">numerous</span> different assumptions on these inputs. Here we present a systematic study of these assumptions by comparing results to gold-standard QMD results that are thought to be accurate but are very expensive to produce. The study reveals that some assumptions yield very inaccurate results and should not be used, while others give consistently reasonable results. Finally, we show that the Thomas-Fermi version of PAMD can also be used to give accurate conductivities very rapidly, taking a few minutes per point on a single processor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880024200&hterms=mars+greenhouse&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmars%2Bgreenhouse','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880024200&hterms=mars+greenhouse&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmars%2Bgreenhouse"><span id="translatedtitle">The case for a wet, <span class="hlt">warm</span> climate on early Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pollack, J. B.; Kasting, J. F.; Richardson, S. M.; Poliakoff, K.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The conditions under which Mars could have had a <span class="hlt">warm</span> wet climate during its early evolution are explored by means of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> simulations, incorporating more accurate data on the opacity of gaseous CO2 and H2O in the solar and thermal spectral regions (McClatchey et al., 1971) into the one-dimensional radiative-convective greenhouse model of Kasting and Ackerman (1986). The results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail, with consideration of atmospheric CO2 loss rates, sources of atmospheric CO2, CO2 partitioning between atmosphere and hydrosphere, the Mars volatile inventory, the CO2 geochemical cycle, climate evolution, and observational tests. It is concluded that greenhouse conditions (requiring atmospheric CO2 of 1-5 bar) could have existed for a period of about 1 Gyr if the total surficial inventory of CO2 was 2-10 bar.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25526650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25526650"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate on the critical thermal maxima of crabs, shrimp and fish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vinagre, Catarina; Leal, Inês; Mendonça, Vanessa; Flores, Augusto A V</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The threat of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has prompted <span class="hlt">numerous</span> recent studies on the thermal tolerance of marine species. A widely used method to determine the upper thermal limit has been the Critical Thermal Maximum (CTMax), a dynamic method, meaning that temperature is increased gradually until a critical point is reached. This method presents several advantages over static methods, however, there is one main issue that hinders interpretation and comparison of CTMax results: the rate at which the temperature is increased. This rate varies widely among published protocols. The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate on CTMax values, using different animal groups. The influence of the thermal niche occupied by each species (intertidal vs subtidal) and habitat (intertidal vs subtidal) was also investigated. CTMax were estimated at three different rates: 1°Cmin(-1), 1°C30min(-1) and 1°Ch(-1), in two species of crab, Eurypanopeus abbreviatus and Menippe nodifrons, shrimp Palaemon northropi and Hippolyte obliquimanus and fish Bathygobius soporator and Parablennius marmoreus. While there were significant differences in the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates for some species, for other species <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate produced no significant differences (H. obliquimanus and B. soporator). While in some species slower <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates lead to lower CTMax values (P. northropi and P. marmoreus) in other species the opposite occurred (E. abbreviatus and M. nodifrons). Biological group has a significant effect with crabs' CTMax increasing at slower <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates, which did not happen for shrimp and fish. Subtidal species presented lower CTMax, at all <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates tested. This study highlights the importance of estimating CTMax values at realistic rates that species encounter in their environment and thus have an ecological value. PMID:25526650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270964"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Invasion of the Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera Pararotalia into the Eastern Mediterranean Facilitated by the Ongoing <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Trend.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Christiane; Morard, Raphael; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Weinmann, Anna E; Titelboim, Danna; Abramovich, Sigal; Kucera, Michal</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The eastern Mediterranean is a hotspot of biological invasions. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> species of Indo-pacific origin have colonized the Mediterranean in recent times, including tropical symbiont-bearing foraminifera. Among these is the species Pararotalia calcariformata. Unlike other invasive foraminifera, this species was discovered only two decades ago and is restricted to the eastern Mediterranean coast. Combining ecological, genetic and physiological observations, we attempt to explain the recent invasion of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Using morphological and genetic data, we confirm the species attribution to P. calcariformata McCulloch 1977 and identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We document photosynthetic activity of its endosymbionts using Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry and test the effects of elevated temperatures on growth rates of asexual offspring. The culturing of asexual offspring for 120 days shows a 30-day period of rapid growth followed by a period of slower growth. A subsequent 48-day temperature sensitivity experiment indicates a similar developmental pathway and high growth rate at 28°C, whereas an almost complete inhibition of growth was observed at 20°C and 35°C. This indicates that the offspring of this species may have lower tolerance to cold temperatures than what would be expected for species native to the Mediterranean. We expand this hypothesis by applying a Species Distribution Model (SDM) based on modern occurrences in the Mediterranean using three <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables: irradiance, turbidity and yearly minimum temperature. The model reproduces the observed restricted distribution and indicates that the range of the species will drastically expand westwards under future global change scenarios. We conclude that P. calcariformata established a population in the Levant because of the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the region. In line with observations from other groups of organisms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270964"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Invasion of the Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera Pararotalia into the Eastern Mediterranean Facilitated by the Ongoing <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Trend.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Christiane; Morard, Raphael; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Weinmann, Anna E; Titelboim, Danna; Abramovich, Sigal; Kucera, Michal</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The eastern Mediterranean is a hotspot of biological invasions. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> species of Indo-pacific origin have colonized the Mediterranean in recent times, including tropical symbiont-bearing foraminifera. Among these is the species Pararotalia calcariformata. Unlike other invasive foraminifera, this species was discovered only two decades ago and is restricted to the eastern Mediterranean coast. Combining ecological, genetic and physiological observations, we attempt to explain the recent invasion of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Using morphological and genetic data, we confirm the species attribution to P. calcariformata McCulloch 1977 and identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We document photosynthetic activity of its endosymbionts using Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry and test the effects of elevated temperatures on growth rates of asexual offspring. The culturing of asexual offspring for 120 days shows a 30-day period of rapid growth followed by a period of slower growth. A subsequent 48-day temperature sensitivity experiment indicates a similar developmental pathway and high growth rate at 28°C, whereas an almost complete inhibition of growth was observed at 20°C and 35°C. This indicates that the offspring of this species may have lower tolerance to cold temperatures than what would be expected for species native to the Mediterranean. We expand this hypothesis by applying a Species Distribution Model (SDM) based on modern occurrences in the Mediterranean using three <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables: irradiance, turbidity and yearly minimum temperature. The model reproduces the observed restricted distribution and indicates that the range of the species will drastically expand westwards under future global change scenarios. We conclude that P. calcariformata established a population in the Levant because of the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the region. In line with observations from other groups of organisms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4536047','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4536047"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Invasion of the Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera Pararotalia into the Eastern Mediterranean Facilitated by the Ongoing <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Trend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Christiane; Morard, Raphael; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Weinmann, Anna E.; Titelboim, Danna; Abramovich, Sigal; Kucera, Michal</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The eastern Mediterranean is a hotspot of biological invasions. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> species of Indo-pacific origin have colonized the Mediterranean in recent times, including tropical symbiont-bearing foraminifera. Among these is the species Pararotalia calcariformata. Unlike other invasive foraminifera, this species was discovered only two decades ago and is restricted to the eastern Mediterranean coast. Combining ecological, genetic and physiological observations, we attempt to explain the recent invasion of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Using morphological and genetic data, we confirm the species attribution to P. calcariformata McCulloch 1977 and identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We document photosynthetic activity of its endosymbionts using Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry and test the effects of elevated temperatures on growth rates of asexual offspring. The culturing of asexual offspring for 120 days shows a 30-day period of rapid growth followed by a period of slower growth. A subsequent 48-day temperature sensitivity experiment indicates a similar developmental pathway and high growth rate at 28°C, whereas an almost complete inhibition of growth was observed at 20°C and 35°C. This indicates that the offspring of this species may have lower tolerance to cold temperatures than what would be expected for species native to the Mediterranean. We expand this hypothesis by applying a Species Distribution Model (SDM) based on modern occurrences in the Mediterranean using three <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables: irradiance, turbidity and yearly minimum temperature. The model reproduces the observed restricted distribution and indicates that the range of the species will drastically expand westwards under future global change scenarios. We conclude that P. calcariformata established a population in the Levant because of the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the region. In line with observations from other groups of organisms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25039213','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25039213"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct and indirect effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on aphids, their predators, and ant mutualists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barton, Brandon T; Ives, Anthony R</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Species exist within communities of other interacting species, so an exogenous force that directly affects one species can indirectly affect all other members of the community. In the case of climate change, many species may be affected directly and subsequently initiate <span class="hlt">numerous</span> indirect effects that propagate throughout the community. Therefore, the net effect of climate change on any one species is a function of the direct and indirect effects. We investigated the direct and indirect effects of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on corn leaf aphids, a pest of corn and other grasses, by performing an experimental manipulation of temperature, predators, and two common aphid-tending ants. Although <span class="hlt">warming</span> had a positive direct effect on aphid population growth rate, <span class="hlt">warming</span> reduced aphid abundance when ants and predators were present. This occurred because winter ants, which aggressively defend aphids from predators under control temperatures, were less aggressive toward predators and less abundant when temperatures were increased. In contrast, <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased the abundance of cornfield ants, but they did not protect aphids from predators with the same vigor as winter ants. Thus, <span class="hlt">warming</span> broke down the ant-aphid mutualism and counterintuitively reduced the abundance of this agricultural pest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..504L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..504L"><span id="translatedtitle">Change of tropical cyclone heat potential in response to global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Ran; Chen, Changlin; Wang, Guihua</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Tropical cyclone heat potential (TCHP) in the ocean can affect tropical cyclone intensity and intensification. In this paper, TCHP change under global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is presented based on 35 models from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5). As the upper ocean <span class="hlt">warms</span> up, the TCHP of the global ocean is projected to increase by 140.6% in the 21st century under the RCP4.5 (+4.5 W m-2 Representative Concentration Pathway) scenario. The increase is particularly significant in the western Pacific, northwestern Indian and western tropical Atlantic oceans. The increase of TCHP results from the ocean temperature <span class="hlt">warming</span> above the depth of the 26°C isotherm (D26), the deepening of D26, and the horizontal area expansion of SST above 26°C. Their contributions are 69.4%, 22.5% and 8.1%, respectively. Further, a suite of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments with an Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) is conducted to investigate the relative importance of wind stress and buoyancy forcing to the TCHP change under global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Results show that sea surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> is the dominant forcing for the TCHP change, while wind stress and sea surface salinity change are secondary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/616310','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/616310"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Science or politics. Part 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dorweiler, V.P.</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>``The balance of evidence suggests that there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a statement employed as the foundation basis to intervene on behalf of the globe and the future. That statement, as scientific evidence of human-produced greenhouse gases (primarily CO{sub 2}) having a <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect on global climate is a political statement only. Further, the Kyoto conference to consider intervention in human activities regarding global <span class="hlt">warming</span> was a political conference. Political and treaty issues were the focus; scientific issues were not much discussed. What change is needed then to scientifically determine global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and to ascertain whether human activity is involved? A better understanding of the natural climate variations related to solar variation can improve understanding of an anthropogenic greenhouse effect on the climate. The purpose of this article is to pose the scientific question. Part 2 will present an answer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59.1007D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59.1007D"><span id="translatedtitle">Trophic level responses differ as climate <span class="hlt">warms</span> in Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donnelly, Alison; Yu, Rong; Liu, Lingling</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Effective ecosystem functioning relies on successful species interaction. However, this delicate balance may be disrupted if species do not respond to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change at a similar rate. Here we examine trends in the timing of spring phenophases of groups of species occupying three trophic levels as a potential indicator of ecosystem response to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Ireland. The data sets were of varying length (1976-2009) and from varying locations: (1) timing of leaf unfolding and May Shoot of a range of broadleaf and conifer tree species, (2) first appearance dates of a range of moth species, and (3) first arrival dates of a range of spring migrant birds. All three groups revealed a statistically significant ( P<0.01 and P<0.001) advance in spring phenology that was driven by rising spring temperature ( P<0.05; 0.45 °C /decade). However, the rate of advance was greater for moths (1.8 days/year), followed by birds (0.37 days/year) and trees (0.29 days/year). In addition, the length of time between (1) moth emergence and leaf unfolding and (2) moth emergence and bird arrival decreased significantly ( P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), indicating a decrease in the timing between food supply and demand. These differing trophic level response rates demonstrate the potential for a mismatch in the timing of interdependent phenophases as temperatures rise. Even though these data were not specifically collected to examine climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts, we conclude that such data may be used as an early warning indicator and as a means to monitor the potential for future ecosystem disruption to occur as climate <span class="hlt">warms</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18172495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18172495"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical structure of recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Graversen, Rune G; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Tjernström, Michael; Källén, Erland; Svensson, Gunilla</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Near-surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the Arctic has been almost twice as large as the global average over recent decades-a phenomenon that is known as the 'Arctic amplification'. The underlying causes of this temperature amplification remain uncertain. The reduction in snow and ice cover that has occurred over recent decades may have played a role. Climate model experiments indicate that when global temperature rises, Arctic snow and ice cover retreats, causing excessive polar <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Reduction of the snow and ice cover causes albedo changes, and increased refreezing of sea ice during the cold season and decreases in sea-ice thickness both increase heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. Changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, as well as cloud cover, have also been proposed to cause Arctic temperature amplification. Here we examine the vertical structure of temperature change in the Arctic during the late twentieth century using reanalysis data. We find evidence for temperature amplification well above the surface. Snow and ice feedbacks cannot be the main cause of the <span class="hlt">warming</span> aloft during the greater part of the year, because these feedbacks are expected to primarily affect temperatures in the lowermost part of the atmosphere, resulting in a pattern of <span class="hlt">warming</span> that we only observe in spring. A significant proportion of the observed temperature amplification must therefore be explained by mechanisms that induce <span class="hlt">warming</span> above the lowermost part of the atmosphere. We regress the Arctic temperature field on the atmospheric energy transport into the Arctic and find that, in the summer half-year, a significant proportion of the vertical structure of <span class="hlt">warming</span> can be explained by changes in this variable. We conclude that changes in atmospheric heat transport may be an important cause of the recent Arctic temperature amplification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U41F..03H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U41F..03H"><span id="translatedtitle">Communicating the Dangers of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, J. E.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public in the ozone depletion and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> crises. Scientists in America are further challenged by a decline in public science education, a perceived gap between science and religion, increasing politicization of public affairs offices in the government, and accumulation of power by a unitary executive. First order communication tasks are illustrated by a need for improved exchange and understanding, among scientists as well as with the public, of fundamental climate facts: (1) additional global <span class="hlt">warming</span> exceeding 1C will yield large climate effects, (2) paleoclimate changes contain quantitatively specific information about climate sensitivity that is not widely appreciated, (3) carbon cycle facts, such as the substantial portion of carbon dioxide emissions that will remain in the air "forever", for practical purposes, (4) fossil fuel facts such as the dominant role of coal and unconventional fuels in all business-as-usual scenarios for future energy sources. The facts graphically illustrate the need for prompt actions to avoid disastrous climate change, yet they also reveal the feasibility of a course that minimizes global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and yields other benefits. Perhaps the greatest challenge is posed by an inappropriate casting of the topic as a dichotomy between those who deny that there is a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> problem and those who either are exceedingly pessimistic about the prospects for minimizing climate change or believe that solutions would be very expensive. Sensible evaluation of the situation, in my opinion, suggests a strategy for dealing with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that is not costly and has many subsidiary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70138213','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70138213"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the magnitude and timing of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> of a shallow aquifer: example from Virginia Beach, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Eggleston, John R.; McCoy, Kurt J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Groundwater temperature measurements in a shallow coastal aquifer in Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA, suggest groundwater <span class="hlt">warming</span> of +4.1 °C relative to deeper geothermal gradients. Observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> is related to timing and depth of influence of two potential thermal drivers—atmospheric temperature increases and urbanization. Results indicate that up to 30 % of groundwater <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table can be attributed to atmospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> while up to 70 % of <span class="hlt">warming</span> can be attributed to urbanization. Groundwater temperature readings to 30-m depth correlate positively with percentage of impervious cover and negatively with percentage of tree canopy cover; thus, these two land-use metrics explain up to 70 % of <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table. Analytical and <span class="hlt">numerical</span> modeling results indicate that an average vertical groundwater temperature profile for the study area, constructed from repeat measurement at 11 locations over 15 months, is consistent with the timing of land-use change over the past century in Virginia Beach. The magnitude of human-induced <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the water table (+4.1 °C) is twice the current seasonal temperature variation, indicating the potential for ecological impacts on wetlands and estuaries receiving groundwater discharge from shallow aquifers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5961269','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5961269"><span id="translatedtitle">Even <span class="hlt">warm</span> climates get the shivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kerr, R.A.</p> <p>1993-07-16</p> <p>Researchers in the Greenland Ice-Core Project (GRIP) have found evidence of sharp climate shifts during the last two intergalcials. The Greenland ice sheet evidence shows that Greenland, over and over for decades to thousands of years, cooled drastically from temperatures equal to or higher than today's, often to virtual ice age conditions. The researchers believe that disruptions in the flow of <span class="hlt">warm</span> water from the southern Atlantic to the North Atlantic, and the return flow of cold water to the south, may be linked to these climatic fluctuations. The present climate appears relatively stable, but that may change if temperatures <span class="hlt">warm</span> due to increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848352','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848352"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: a public health concern.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Afzal, Brenda M</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:21848352</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710502O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710502O"><span id="translatedtitle">The recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend in North Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orsi, Anais; Kawamura, Kenji; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Landais, Amaelle; Severinghaus, Jeff</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The arctic is the fastest <span class="hlt">warming</span> region on Earth, but it is also one where there is little historical data. Although summer <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes melt, the annual temperature trend is dominated by the winter and fall season, which are much less well documented. In addition, the instrumental record relies principally on coastal weather stations, and there are very few direct temperature observations in the interior dating back more than 30 years, especially in North Greenland, where the current <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend is the largest. Here, we present a temperature reconstruction from NEEM (51°W, 77°N), in North Greenland, for the last 100 years, which allows us to put the recent trend in the context of the longer term climate. We use a combination of two independent proxies to reconstruct the temperature history at NEEM: borehole temperature and inert gas isotope measurements in the firn. Borehole temperature takes advantage of the low temperature diffusivity of the snow and ice, which allows the temperature history to be preserved in the ice for several centuries. Temperature gradients in the firn (old snow above the ice) influence the gas isotopic composition: thermal fractionation causes heavy isotopes to concentrate on the cold end of the firn column. We measured the isotopes of inert gases (N2, Ar and Kr), which have a constant atmospheric composition through time, and use the thermal fractionation signal as an additional constraint on the temperature history at the site. We find that NEEM has been <span class="hlt">warming</span> by 0.86±0.22°C/decade over the past 30 years, from -28.55±0.29°C for the 1900-1970 average to -26.77±0.16°C for the 2000-2010 average. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate at NEEM is similar to that of Greenland Summit, and confirms the large <span class="hlt">warming</span> trends in North Greenland (polar amplification) and high altitude sites (tropospheric rather than surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>). Water isotopes show that the recent past has not met the level of the 1928 anomaly; but the average of the past 30 years has</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740010898','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740010898"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of data from spacecraft (stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Investigations involved a search through existing literature and data to obtain case histories for the six or more stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> that occurred in April - May 1969, June - July 1969, August 1969, December 1969 - January 1970, December 1970 - January 1971, and January 1973 - February 1973. For each of these <span class="hlt">warmings</span> the following steps have been taken in preparation for analysis: (1) defining the nature of the problem; (2) literature search of stratwarmings and solar-terrestrial phenomens; and (3) file of data sources, especially stratospheric temperatures (radiances) and geophysical indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyEd..51b5013P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyEd..51b5013P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> of water in a glass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paulins, Paulis; Krauze, Armands; Ozolinsh, Maris; Muiznieks, Andris</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The article focuses on the process of water <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 0 °C in a glass. An experiment is performed that analyses the temperature in the top and bottom layers of water during <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The experimental equipment is very simple and can be easily set up using devices available in schools. The temperature curves obtained from the experiment help us to understand the process of convection in the glass and to determine the temperature at which the density of water is maximum. In addition, computational fluid dynamics—CFD modeling is carried out to facilitate better comprehension of the phenomenon observed in the experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848352','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848352"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: a public health concern.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Afzal, Brenda M</p> <p>2007-05-31</p> <p>Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17538571','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17538571"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecology: global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and amphibian losses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alford, Ross A; Bradfield, Kay S; Richards, Stephen J</p> <p>2007-05-31</p> <p>Is global <span class="hlt">warming</span> contributing to amphibian declines and extinctions by promoting outbreaks of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis? Analysing patterns from the American tropics, Pounds et al. envisage a process in which a single <span class="hlt">warm</span> year triggers die-offs in a particular area (for instance, 1987 in the case of Monteverde, Costa Rica). However, we show here that populations of two frog species in the Australian tropics experienced increasing developmental instability, which is evidence of stress, at least two years before they showed chytrid-related declines. Because the working model of Pounds et al. is incomplete, their test of the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis could be inconclusive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6459161','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6459161"><span id="translatedtitle">Winter <span class="hlt">warming</span> from large volcanic eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robock, A.; Mao, J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows <span class="hlt">warming</span> over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870018783','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870018783"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic characteristics of observed sudden <span class="hlt">warmings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dartt, D. G.; Venne, D. E.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The planetary wave dynamics of stratospheric sudden <span class="hlt">warmings</span> in the Northern Hemisphere for a large number of observed events that occurred during winters from 1970 to 1975 and 1978 to 1981 are investigated. The analysis describes wave propagation and zonal flow interaction from the troposphere upwards to near 50 km, and in some years to near 80 km. Three primary topics are covered here: (1) the interaction of zonally propagating and quasi-stationary planetary waves during <span class="hlt">warming</span> events; (2) planetary wave influence on zonal flow near the stratopause; and (3) planetary wave propagation to near 80 km as seen from Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (SAMS) data.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26820060','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26820060"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical robustness of the calcareous tubeworm Hydroides elegans: <span class="hlt">warming</span> mitigates the adverse effects of ocean acidification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Chaoyi; Meng, Yuan; He, Chong; Chan, Vera B S; Yao, Haimin; Thiyagarajan, V</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Development of antifouling strategies requires knowledge of how fouling organisms would respond to climate change associated <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stressors. Here, a calcareous tube built by the tubeworm, Hydroides elegans, was used as an example to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of ocean acidification (OA), <span class="hlt">warming</span> and reduced salinity on the mechanical properties of a tube. Tubeworms produce a mechanically weaker tube with less resistance to simulated predator attack under OA (pH 7.8). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> (29°C) increased tube volume, tube mineral density and the tube's resistance to a simulated predatory attack. A weakening effect by OA did not make the removal of tubeworms easier except for the earliest stage, in which <span class="hlt">warming</span> had the least effect. Reduced salinity (27 psu) did not affect tubes. This study showed that both mechanical analysis and computational modeling can be integrated with biofouling research to provide insights into how fouling communities might develop in future ocean conditions. PMID:26820060</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19780788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19780788"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> transforms multiple predator effects in a grassland food web.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barton, Brandon T; Schmitz, Oswald J</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>This experimental study tests new theory for multiple predator effects on communities by using <span class="hlt">warming</span> to alter predator habitat use and hence direct and indirect interactions in a grassland food web containing two dominant spider predator species, a dominant grasshopper herbivore and grass and herb plants. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> further offers insight into how climate change might alter direct and indirect effects. Under ambient <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions, spiders used habitat in spatially complementary locations. Consistent with predictions, the multiple predator effect on grasshoppers and on plants was the average of the individual predator effects. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> strengthened the single predator effects. It also caused the spider species to overlap lower in the vegetation canopy. Consistent with predictions, the system was transformed into an intraguild predation system with the consequent extinction of one spider species. The results portend climate caused loss of predator diversity with important consequences for food web structure and function. PMID:19780788</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21264244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21264244"><span id="translatedtitle">Turning on the heat: ecological response to simulated <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smale, Dan A; Wernberg, Thomas; Peck, Lloyd S; Barnes, David K A</p> <p>2011-01-14</p> <p>Significant <span class="hlt">warming</span> has been observed in every ocean, yet our ability to predict the consequences of oceanic <span class="hlt">warming</span> on marine biodiversity remains poor. Experiments have been severely limited because, until now, it has not been possible to manipulate seawater temperature in a consistent manner across a range of marine habitats. We constructed a "hot-plate" system to directly examine ecological responses to elevated seawater temperature in a subtidal marine system. The substratum available for colonisation and overlying seawater boundary layer were <span class="hlt">warmed</span> for 36 days, which resulted in greater biomass of marine organisms and a doubling of space coverage by a dominant colonial ascidian. The "hot-plate" system will facilitate complex manipulations of temperature and multiple stressors in the field to provide valuable information on the response of individuals, populations and communities to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change in any aquatic habitat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22178305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22178305"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and hepatotoxin production by cyanobacteria: what can we learn from experiments?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El-Shehawy, Rehab; Gorokhova, Elena; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca; del Campo, Francisca F</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Global temperature is expected to rise throughout this century, and blooms of cyanobacteria in lakes and estuaries are predicted to increase with the current level of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The potential <span class="hlt">environmental</span>, economic and sanitation repercussions of these blooms have attracted considerable attention among the world's scientific communities, water management agencies and general public. Of particular concern is the worldwide occurrence of hepatotoxic cyanobacteria posing a serious threat to global public health. Here, we highlight plausible effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on physiological and molecular changes in these cyanobacteria and resulting effects on hepatotoxin production. We also emphasize the importance of understanding the natural biological function(s) of hepatotoxins, various mechanisms governing their synthesis, and climate-driven changes in food-web interactions, if we are to predict consequences of the current and projected levels of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> for production and accumulation of hepatotoxins in aquatic ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26820060','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26820060"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical robustness of the calcareous tubeworm Hydroides elegans: <span class="hlt">warming</span> mitigates the adverse effects of ocean acidification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Chaoyi; Meng, Yuan; He, Chong; Chan, Vera B S; Yao, Haimin; Thiyagarajan, V</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Development of antifouling strategies requires knowledge of how fouling organisms would respond to climate change associated <span class="hlt">environmental</span> stressors. Here, a calcareous tube built by the tubeworm, Hydroides elegans, was used as an example to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of ocean acidification (OA), <span class="hlt">warming</span> and reduced salinity on the mechanical properties of a tube. Tubeworms produce a mechanically weaker tube with less resistance to simulated predator attack under OA (pH 7.8). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> (29°C) increased tube volume, tube mineral density and the tube's resistance to a simulated predatory attack. A weakening effect by OA did not make the removal of tubeworms easier except for the earliest stage, in which <span class="hlt">warming</span> had the least effect. Reduced salinity (27 psu) did not affect tubes. This study showed that both mechanical analysis and computational modeling can be integrated with biofouling research to provide insights into how fouling communities might develop in future ocean conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/35733','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/35733"><span id="translatedtitle">Rational readings on <span class="hlt">environmental</span> concerns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lehr, J.H.</p> <p>1992-12-31</p> <p>This book offers a wide range of insights on the state of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> science today, including many alternative interpretations. Chapters include the following subjects: agricultural chemicals, asbestos, biotechnology; DDT; dioxin; electromagnetic radiation; ground water contamination; nuclear energy; ionizing radiation; global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; wetlands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED125852.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED125852.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing <span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Study Areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wert, Jonathan M.</p> <p></p> <p>This publication is designed to help the teacher in developing <span class="hlt">environmental</span> study areas. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> examples of study areas, including airports, lakes, shopping centers, and zoos, are listed. A current definition of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> study areas is given and guidelines for their development and identification are included. The appendix, which comprises…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27616062','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27616062"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-Sensitive Neurons that Control Body Temperature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Chan Lek; Cooke, Elizabeth K; Leib, David E; Lin, Yen-Chu; Daly, Gwendolyn E; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Knight, Zachary A</p> <p>2016-09-22</p> <p>Thermoregulation is one of the most vital functions of the brain, but how temperature information is converted into homeostatic responses remains unknown. Here, we use an unbiased approach for activity-dependent RNA sequencing to identify <span class="hlt">warm</span>-sensitive neurons (WSNs) within the preoptic hypothalamus that orchestrate the homeostatic response to heat. We show that these WSNs are molecularly defined by co-expression of the neuropeptides BDNF and PACAP. Optical recordings in awake, behaving mice reveal that these neurons are selectively activated by <span class="hlt">environmental</span> warmth. Optogenetic excitation of WSNs triggers rapid hypothermia, mediated by reciprocal changes in heat production and loss, as well as dramatic cold-seeking behavior. Projection-specific manipulations demonstrate that these distinct effectors are controlled by anatomically segregated pathways. These findings reveal a molecularly defined cell type that coordinates the diverse behavioral and autonomic responses to heat. Identification of these <span class="hlt">warm</span>-sensitive cells provides genetic access to the core neural circuit regulating the body temperature of mammals. PAPERCLIP. PMID:27616062</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6576418','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6576418"><span id="translatedtitle">States' roles in reducing global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: Achieving international goals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Feldman, D.L.; Wilt, C.A. . Energy, Environment, and Resources Center)</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>National governments hold major responsibility for reducing global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, some of the most important efforts to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases must occur at sub-national levels. In federal systems composed of states, as well as unitary systems that impose national policies upon regions, smaller administrative units are involved in energy conservation and end-use efficiency programs, CFC reduction activities, and transportation planning. States and regions also provide greenhouse gas emissions and other basic <span class="hlt">environmental</span> data needed to comply with international agreements. The authors argue that, for some issues states are better able than national governments to develop innovative, flexible greenhouse gas policies that are administratively feasible and publicly acceptable. International agreements and policy declarations and institution-building efforts acknowledge the importance of institution-building efforts acknowledge the importance of bottom-up approaches that rely on regionally-based, sustainable development activities to reduce global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. They describe how national energy and pollution-prevention policies in the US invest states with specific responsibilities for reducing greenhouse gases or participating in adaptation strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/663344','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/663344"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of nuclear energy in mitigating greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krakowski, R.A.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>A behavioral, top-down, forced-equilibrium market model of long-term ({approximately} 2,100) global energy-economics interactions has been modified with a bottom-up nuclear energy model and used to construct consistent scenarios describing future impacts of civil nuclear materials flows in an expanding, multi-regional (13) world economy. The relative measures and tradeoffs between economic (GNP, tax impacts, productivity, etc.), <span class="hlt">environmental</span> (greenhouse gas accumulations, waste accumulation, proliferation risk), and energy (resources, energy mixes, supply-side versus demand-side attributes) interactions that emerge from these analyses are focused herein on advancing understanding of the role that nuclear energy (and other non-carbon energy sources) might play in mitigating greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Two ostensibly opposing scenario drivers are investigated: (a) demand-side improvements in (non-price-induced) autonomous energy efficiency improvements; and (b) supply-side carbon-tax inducements to shift energy mixes towards reduced- or non-carbon forms. In terms of stemming greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> for minimal cost of greenhouse-gas abatement, and with the limitations of the simplified taxing schedule used, a symbiotic combination of these two approaches may offer advantages not found if each is applied separately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3605839','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3605839"><span id="translatedtitle">Foraging by forest ants under experimental climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span>: a test at two sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stuble, Katharine L; Pelini, Shannon L; Diamond, Sarah E; Fowler, David A; Dunn, Robert R; Sanders, Nathan J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> is altering the behavior of individuals and the composition of communities. However, recent studies have shown that the impact of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on ectotherms varies geographically: species at warmer sites where <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures are closer to their upper critical thermal limits are more likely to be negatively impacted by <span class="hlt">warming</span> than are species inhabiting relatively cooler sites. We used a large-scale experimental temperature manipulation to <span class="hlt">warm</span> intact forest ant assemblages in the field and examine the impacts of chronic <span class="hlt">warming</span> on foraging at a southern (North Carolina) and northern (Massachusetts) site in eastern North America. We examined the influence of temperature on the abundance and recruitment of foragers as well as the number of different species observed foraging. Finally, we examined the relationship between the mean temperature at which a species was found foraging and the critical thermal maximum temperature of that species, relating functional traits to behavior. We found that forager abundance and richness were related to the experimental increase in temperature at the southern site, but not the northern site. Additionally, individual species responded differently to temperature: some species foraged more under warmer conditions, whereas others foraged less. Importantly, these species-specific responses were related to functional traits of species (at least at the Duke Forest site). Species with higher critical thermal maxima had greater forager densities at higher temperatures than did species with lower critical thermal maxima. Our results indicate that while climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> may alter patterns of foraging activity in predictable ways, these shifts vary among species and between sites. More southerly sites and species with lower critical thermal maxima are likely to be at greater risk to ongoing climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span>. PMID:23531642</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810025313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810025313"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> Boundary Condition Procedures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Topics include <span class="hlt">numerical</span> procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> solution are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2684586','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2684586"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Feranec, Robert S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Current global <span class="hlt">warming</span> affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span> on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions and relative seasonality. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in fossil teeth to document the magnitude of mammalian dietary shifts and ancient floral change during geologically documented glacial and interglacial periods during the Pliocene (∼1.9 million years ago) and Pleistocene (∼1.3 million years ago) in Florida. Stable isotope data demonstrate increased aridity, increased C4 grass consumption, inter-faunal dietary partitioning, increased isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders, niche partitioning of phylogenetically similar taxa, and differences in relative seasonality with <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Conclusion/Significance Our data show that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> resulted in dramatic vegetation and dietary changes even at lower latitudes (∼28°N). Our results also question the use of models that predict the long term decline and extinction of species based on the assumption that niches are conserved over time. These findings have immediate relevance to clarifying possible biotic responses to current global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in modern ecosystems. PMID:19492043</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B42A..06F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B42A..06F"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of soil respiration to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> and precipitation manipulation in a northern Great Plains grassland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flanagan, L. B.; Sharp, E. J.; Letts, M. G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The interacting effects of altered temperature and precipitation are expected to have significant consequences for ecosystem net carbon storage. Here we report the results of an experiment that evaluated the effects of elevated temperature and altered precipitation, alone and in combination, on plant biomass production and soil respiration rates in a northern Great Plains grassland, near Lethbridge, Alberta Canada. Open-top chambers and rain shelters were used to establish an experiment with two temperature treatments (<span class="hlt">warmed</span> and control), each combined with three precipitation treatments (minus 50%, ambient (no manipulation), and plus 50%). Our objectives were to determine the sensitivity of plant biomass production and soil respiration to temperature and moisture manipulations, and to test for direct and indirect effects of the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes on soil respiration rates. The experimental manipulations resulted primarily in a significant increase in air temperature in the <span class="hlt">warmed</span> treatment. There were no significant treatment effects on soil moisture content. Aboveground biomass was not significantly affected by the experimental manipulations, but the <span class="hlt">warmed</span> plots of the ambient precipitation treatment showed an increase in root biomass relative to the control plots. The <span class="hlt">warmed</span> treatment increased the cumulative loss of carbon in soil respiration by approximately 400 g C m-2 compared to the control during July-September. This higher soil respiration rate was not directly caused by differences among treatments in soil temperature or soil moisture, but was likely an indirect result of increased carbon substrate availability in the <span class="hlt">warmed</span> relative to the control treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26662380','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26662380"><span id="translatedtitle">Compensatory mechanisms mitigate the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought on wood formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balducci, Lorena; Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Rossi, Sergio</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Because of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, high-latitude ecosystems are expected to experience increases in temperature and drought events. Wood formation will have to adjust to these new climatic constraints to maintain tree mechanical stability and long-distance water transport. The aim of this study is to understand the dynamic processes involved in wood formation under <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought. Xylogenesis, gas exchange, water relations and wood anatomy of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] saplings were monitored during a greenhouse experiment where temperature was increased during daytime or night-time (+6 °C) combined with a drought period. The kinetics of tracheid development expressed as rate and duration of the xylogenesis sub-processes were quantified using generalized additive models. Drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span> had a strong influence on cell production, but little effect on wood anatomy. The increase in cell production rate under warmer temperatures, and especially during the night-time <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the end of the growing season, resulted in wider tree-rings. However, the strong compensation between rates and durations of cell differentiation processes mitigates <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought effects on tree-ring structure. Our results allowed quantification of how wood formation kinetics is regulated when water and heat stress increase, allowing trees to adapt to future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. PMID:26662380</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23836092','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23836092"><span id="translatedtitle">A field facility to simulate climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and increased nutrient supply in shallow aquatic ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hines, Jes; Hammrich, Arne; Steiner, Daniel; Gessner, Mark O</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and excess nitrogen deposition can exert strong impacts on aquatic populations, communities, and ecosystems. However, experimental data to establish clear cause-and-effect relationships in naturally complex field conditions are scarce in aquatic environments. Here, we describe the design and performance of a unique outdoor enclosure facility used to simulate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, increased nitrogen supply, and both factors combined in a littoral freshwater wetland dominated by common reed, Phragmites australis. The experimental system effectively simulated a 2.8 °C climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenario over an extended period, capturing the natural temperature variations in the wetland at diel and seasonal scales with only small deviations. Excess nitrogen supply enhanced nitrate concentrations especially in winter when it was associated with increased concentration of ammonium and dissolved organic carbon. Nitrogen also reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations, particularly in the summer. Importantly, by stimulating biological activity, <span class="hlt">warming</span> enhanced the nitrogen uptake capacity of the wetland during the winter, emphasizing the need for multifactorial global change experiments that examine both <span class="hlt">warming</span> and nitrogen loading in concert. Establishing similar experiments across broad <span class="hlt">environmental</span> gradients holds great potential to provide robust assessments of the impacts of climate change on shallow aquatic ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26662380','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26662380"><span id="translatedtitle">Compensatory mechanisms mitigate the effect of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought on wood formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balducci, Lorena; Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Rossi, Sergio</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Because of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, high-latitude ecosystems are expected to experience increases in temperature and drought events. Wood formation will have to adjust to these new climatic constraints to maintain tree mechanical stability and long-distance water transport. The aim of this study is to understand the dynamic processes involved in wood formation under <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought. Xylogenesis, gas exchange, water relations and wood anatomy of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] saplings were monitored during a greenhouse experiment where temperature was increased during daytime or night-time (+6 °C) combined with a drought period. The kinetics of tracheid development expressed as rate and duration of the xylogenesis sub-processes were quantified using generalized additive models. Drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span> had a strong influence on cell production, but little effect on wood anatomy. The increase in cell production rate under warmer temperatures, and especially during the night-time <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the end of the growing season, resulted in wider tree-rings. However, the strong compensation between rates and durations of cell differentiation processes mitigates <span class="hlt">warming</span> and drought effects on tree-ring structure. Our results allowed quantification of how wood formation kinetics is regulated when water and heat stress increase, allowing trees to adapt to future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075181','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075181"><span id="translatedtitle">Earlier snowmelt and <span class="hlt">warming</span> lead to earlier but not necessarily more plant growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Livensperger, Carolyn; Steltzer, Heidi; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony; Sullivan, Patrick F; Wallenstein, Matthew; Weintraub, Michael N</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate change over the past ∼50 years has resulted in earlier occurrence of plant life-cycle events for many species. Across temperate, boreal and polar latitudes, earlier seasonal <span class="hlt">warming</span> is considered the key mechanism leading to earlier leaf expansion and growth. Yet, in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems, the timing of spring plant growth may also be cued by snowmelt, which may occur earlier in a warmer climate. Multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> cues protect plants from growing too early, but to understand how climate change will alter the timing and magnitude of plant growth, experiments need to independently manipulate temperature and snowmelt. Here, we demonstrate that altered seasonality through experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> and earlier snowmelt led to earlier plant growth, but the aboveground production response varied among plant functional groups. Earlier snowmelt without <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to early leaf emergence, but often slowed the rate of leaf expansion and had limited effects on aboveground production. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone had small and inconsistent effects on aboveground phenology, while the effect of the combined treatment resembled that of early snowmelt alone. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to greater aboveground production among the graminoids, limited changes among deciduous shrubs and decreased production in one of the dominant evergreen shrubs. As a result, we predict that early onset of the growing season may favour early growing plant species, even those that do not shift the timing of leaf expansion. PMID:27075181</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23630263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23630263"><span id="translatedtitle">Consumers mediate the effects of experimental ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on primary producers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alsterberg, Christian; Eklöf, Johan S; Gamfeldt, Lars; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Sundbäck, Kristina</p> <p>2013-05-21</p> <p>It is well known that ocean acidification can have profound impacts on marine organisms. However, we know little about the direct and indirect effects of ocean acidification and also how these effects interact with other features of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change such as <span class="hlt">warming</span> and declining consumer pressure. In this study, we tested whether the presence of consumers (invertebrate mesograzers) influenced the interactive effects of ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on benthic microalgae in a seagrass community mesocosm experiment. Net effects of acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on benthic microalgal biomass and production, as assessed by analysis of variance, were relatively weak regardless of grazer presence. However, partitioning these net effects into direct and indirect effects using structural equation modeling revealed several strong relationships. In the absence of grazers, benthic microalgae were negatively and indirectly affected by sediment-associated microalgal grazers and macroalgal shading, but directly and positively affected by acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Combining indirect and direct effects yielded no or weak net effects. In the presence of grazers, almost all direct and indirect climate effects were nonsignificant. Our analyses highlight that (i) indirect effects of climate change may be at least as strong as direct effects, (ii) grazers are crucial in mediating these effects, and (iii) effects of ocean acidification may be apparent only through indirect effects and in combination with other variables (e.g., <span class="hlt">warming</span>). These findings highlight the importance of experimental designs and statistical analyses that allow us to separate and quantify the direct and indirect effects of multiple climate variables on natural communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4866651','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4866651"><span id="translatedtitle">Earlier snowmelt and <span class="hlt">warming</span> lead to earlier but not necessarily more plant growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Livensperger, Carolyn; Steltzer, Heidi; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Wallenstein, Matthew; Weintraub, Michael N.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate change over the past ∼50 years has resulted in earlier occurrence of plant life-cycle events for many species. Across temperate, boreal and polar latitudes, earlier seasonal <span class="hlt">warming</span> is considered the key mechanism leading to earlier leaf expansion and growth. Yet, in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems, the timing of spring plant growth may also be cued by snowmelt, which may occur earlier in a warmer climate. Multiple <span class="hlt">environmental</span> cues protect plants from growing too early, but to understand how climate change will alter the timing and magnitude of plant growth, experiments need to independently manipulate temperature and snowmelt. Here, we demonstrate that altered seasonality through experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> and earlier snowmelt led to earlier plant growth, but the aboveground production response varied among plant functional groups. Earlier snowmelt without <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to early leaf emergence, but often slowed the rate of leaf expansion and had limited effects on aboveground production. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone had small and inconsistent effects on aboveground phenology, while the effect of the combined treatment resembled that of early snowmelt alone. Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to greater aboveground production among the graminoids, limited changes among deciduous shrubs and decreased production in one of the dominant evergreen shrubs. As a result, we predict that early onset of the growing season may favour early growing plant species, even those that do not shift the timing of leaf expansion. PMID:27075181</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22905210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22905210"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal exposure to drought and air <span class="hlt">warming</span> affects soil Collembola and mites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air <span class="hlt">warming</span> with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4 °C, and air <span class="hlt">warming</span> + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length ≤ 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air <span class="hlt">warming</span> had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046350&hterms=lorenz&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dlorenz','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046350&hterms=lorenz&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dlorenz"><span id="translatedtitle">Is Europa's Subsurface Water Ocean <span class="hlt">Warm</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Melosh, H. J.; Ekholm, A. G.; Showman, A. P.; Lorenz, R. D.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Europa's subsurface water ocean may be <span class="hlt">warm</span>: that is, at the temperature of water's maximum density. This provides a natural explanation of chaos melt-through events and leads to a correct estimate of the age of its surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2870G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2870G"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and extreme storm surges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grinsted, Aslak</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>I will show empirical evidence for how global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has changed extreme storm surge statistics for different regions in the world. Are there any detectable changes beyond what we expect from sea level rise. What does this suggest about the future of hurricane surges such as from hurricane Katrina and superstorm Sandy?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21408045','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21408045"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span> inflationary model in loop quantum cosmology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Herrera, Ramon</p> <p>2010-06-15</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">warm</span> inflationary universe model in loop quantum cosmology is studied. In general we discuss the condition of inflation in this framework. By using a chaotic potential, V({phi}){proportional_to}{phi}{sup 2}, we develop a model where the dissipation coefficient {Gamma}={Gamma}{sub 0}=constant. We use recent astronomical observations for constraining the parameters appearing in our model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..823F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..823F"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate response: Strong <span class="hlt">warming</span> at high emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frölicher, Thomas L.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The ratio of global temperature change to cumulative emissions is relatively constant up to two trillion tonnes of carbon emissions. Now a new modelling study suggests that the concept of a constant ratio is even applicable to higher cumulative carbon emissions, with important implications for future <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17666388','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17666388"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the public sphere.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corfee-Morlot, Jan; Maslin, Mark; Burgess, Jacquelin</p> <p>2007-11-15</p> <p>Although the science of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has been in place for several decades if not more, only in the last decade and a half has the issue moved clearly into the public sphere as a public policy issue and a political priority. To understand how and why this has occurred, it is essential to consider the history of the scientific theory of the greenhouse effect, the evidence that supports it and the mechanisms through which science interacts with lay publics and other elite actors, such as politicians, policymakers and business decision makers. This article reviews why and how climate change has moved from the bottom to the top of the international political agenda. It traces the scientific discovery of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, political and institutional developments to manage it as well as other socially mediated pathways for understanding and promoting global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as an issue in the public sphere. The article also places this historical overview of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as a public issue into a conceptual framework for understanding relationships between society and nature with emphasis on the co-construction of knowledge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27538725','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27538725"><span id="translatedtitle">Desert Amplification in a <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Climate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Liming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950-2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest <span class="hlt">warming</span> consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor. PMID:27538725</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001329&hterms=warming+global&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dwarming%2Bglobal','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001329&hterms=warming+global&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dwarming%2Bglobal"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature Data Shows <span class="hlt">Warming</span> in 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest <span class="hlt">warming</span> is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27538725','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27538725"><span id="translatedtitle">Desert Amplification in a <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Climate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Liming</p> <p>2016-08-19</p> <p>Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950-2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest <span class="hlt">warming</span> consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9a4010D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9a4010D"><span id="translatedtitle">National contributions to observed global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Damon Matthews, H.; Graham, Tanya L.; Keverian, Serge; Lamontagne, Cassandra; Seto, Donny; Smith, Trevor J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, including CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ <span class="hlt">warming</span> contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS43B..05N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS43B..05N"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> 'Pause' - Oceans Reshuffle Heat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nieves, V.; Willis, J. K.; Patzert, W. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Despite the fact that greenhouse gases are still increasing and all other indicators show <span class="hlt">warming</span>-related change (+0.0064 °C/year since 1880 or +0.0077 °C/year during 1993-2002), surface temperatures stopped climbing steadily during the past decade at a rate of +0.0010 °C/year from 2003 to 2012. We show that in recent years, the heat was being trapped in the subsurface waters of the western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans between 100 and 300 m. The movement of <span class="hlt">warm</span> Pacific water below the surface, also related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation climatic pattern, temporarily affected surface temperatures and accounted for the global cooling trend in surface temperature. With the Pacific Decadal Oscillation possibly changing to a <span class="hlt">warm</span> phase, it is likely that the oceans will drive a major surge in global surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> sometime in the next decade or two. Reference: Nieves, V., Willis, J. K., and Patzert, W. C. (2015). Recent hiatus caused by decadal shift in Indo-Pacific heating. Science, aaa4521.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4990907','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4990907"><span id="translatedtitle">Desert Amplification in a <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Liming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest <span class="hlt">warming</span> consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor. PMID:27538725</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...631065Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...631065Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Desert Amplification in a <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Liming</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest <span class="hlt">warming</span> consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8898476','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8898476"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and health: a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amofah, G K</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>The paper looks at the phenomenon of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and its potential health effects and outlines a number of plausible response by the health sector in developing countries to its threat. It suggests that the health sector should facilitate an international effort at addressing this challenge, mainly through advocacy, epidemiological surveillance and awareness creation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SPJCE..10...18D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SPJCE..10...18D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modified Asphalt Binder with Natural Zeolite for <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mix Asphalt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dubravský, Marián; Mandula, Ján</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In recent years, <span class="hlt">warm</span> mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more and more used in the asphalt industry. WMA provide a whole range of benefits, whether economic, <span class="hlt">environmental</span> and ecological. Lower energy consumption and less pollution is the most advantages of this asphalt mixture. The paper deals with the addition of natural zeolite into the sub base asphalt layers, which is the essential constituent in the construction of the road. Measurement is focused on basic physic - mechanical properties declared according to the catalog data sheets. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ability of addition the natural zeolite into the all asphalt layers of asphalt pavement. All asphalt mixtures were compared with reference asphalt mixture, which was prepared in reference temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.A13B0237X&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.A13B0237X&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation Characteristics in <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Convective Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xue, H.; Ma, Y.; Feingold, G.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The relationship between radar reflectivity factor Z at 9.6 GHz (3 cm) and rain rate R for <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds is studied. The objectives are to obtain a reasonable Z-R relationship for use in weather radar observation of <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective precipitation, and to analyze factors that affect the Z-R relationship. Rain rate R is calculated from the drop size distributions in a large eddy simulation (LES); the drop size distributions from LES are also used as inputs into Quickbeam, a software package for simulating atmospheric radiative characteristics, to get radar reflectivity factor Z. It is found that a uniform Z-R relationship is not valid for the cumulus cloud population that develops for several hours. The Z-R relationship depends on the stage of cloud development and the height relative to cloud base. As expected, a range of R values can all lead to the same Z. This is due to the complicated drop size distributions and may cause large uncertainty in precipitation measurement in <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds using radar data. This study also investigates the Z-R relationship at 94 GHz (3 mm) to evaluate the possibility of measuring precipitation in <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds using current millimeter wave cloud radars. Results show that a well-defined Z-R relationship at 94 GHz generally exists when the local rain rate is smaller than 1 mm hour-1. This indicates that a millimeter wave cloud radar can be used to measure light precipitation in <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds. When precipitation is stronger, the attenuation of the signal due to precipitation particles is significant and the estimation of R from the reflectivity factor Z has bigger uncertainty. The domain-averaged rain rate R can be parameterized as a function of domain-averaged liquid water path and cloud drop concentration for the LES clouds. The result for <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective clouds in this study is consistent with previous findings for stratiform clouds. This may help to better parameterize the <span class="hlt">warm</span> convective</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386098','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386098"><span id="translatedtitle">Behavioral buffering of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in a cold-adapted lizard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ortega, Zaida; Mencía, Abraham; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Alpine lizards living in restricted areas might be particularly sensitive to climate change. We studied thermal biology of Iberolacerta cyreni in high mountains of central Spain. Our results suggest that I. cyreni is a cold-adapted thermal specialist and an effective thermoregulator. Among ectotherms, thermal specialists are more threatened by global <span class="hlt">warming</span> than generalists. Alpine lizards have no chance to disperse to new suitable habitats. In addition, physiological plasticity is unlikely to keep pace with the expected rates of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Thus, lizards might rely on their behavior in order to deal with ongoing climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Plasticity of thermoregulatory behavior has been proposed to buffer the rise of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures. Therefore, we studied the change in body and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures, as well as their relationships, for I. cyreni between the 1980s and 2012. Air temperatures have increased more than 3.5°C and substrate temperatures have increased by 6°C in the habitat of I. cyreni over the last 25 years. However, body temperatures of lizards have increased less than 2°C in the same period, and the linear relationship between body and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures remains similar. These results show that alpine lizards are buffering the potential impact of the increase in their <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures, most probably by means of their behavior. Body temperatures of I. cyreni are still cold enough to avoid any drop in fitness. Nonetheless, if <span class="hlt">warming</span> continues, behavioral buffering might eventually become useless, as it would imply spending too much time in shelter, losing feeding, and mating opportunities. Eventually, if body temperature exceeds the thermal optimum in the near future, fitness would decrease abruptly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386098','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386098"><span id="translatedtitle">Behavioral buffering of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in a cold-adapted lizard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ortega, Zaida; Mencía, Abraham; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Alpine lizards living in restricted areas might be particularly sensitive to climate change. We studied thermal biology of Iberolacerta cyreni in high mountains of central Spain. Our results suggest that I. cyreni is a cold-adapted thermal specialist and an effective thermoregulator. Among ectotherms, thermal specialists are more threatened by global <span class="hlt">warming</span> than generalists. Alpine lizards have no chance to disperse to new suitable habitats. In addition, physiological plasticity is unlikely to keep pace with the expected rates of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Thus, lizards might rely on their behavior in order to deal with ongoing climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Plasticity of thermoregulatory behavior has been proposed to buffer the rise of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures. Therefore, we studied the change in body and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures, as well as their relationships, for I. cyreni between the 1980s and 2012. Air temperatures have increased more than 3.5°C and substrate temperatures have increased by 6°C in the habitat of I. cyreni over the last 25 years. However, body temperatures of lizards have increased less than 2°C in the same period, and the linear relationship between body and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures remains similar. These results show that alpine lizards are buffering the potential impact of the increase in their <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures, most probably by means of their behavior. Body temperatures of I. cyreni are still cold enough to avoid any drop in fitness. Nonetheless, if <span class="hlt">warming</span> continues, behavioral buffering might eventually become useless, as it would imply spending too much time in shelter, losing feeding, and mating opportunities. Eventually, if body temperature exceeds the thermal optimum in the near future, fitness would decrease abruptly. PMID:27386098</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EaFut...1...19T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EaFut...1...19T"><span id="translatedtitle">An apparent hiatus in global <span class="hlt">warming</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> first became evident beyond the bounds of natural variability in the 1970s, but increases in global mean surface temperatures have stalled in the 2000s. Increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide, create an energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) even as the planet <span class="hlt">warms</span> to adjust to this imbalance, which is estimated to be 0.5-1 W m-2 over the 2000s. Annual global fluctuations in TOA energy of up to 0.2 W m-2 occur from natural variations in clouds, aerosols, and changes in the Sun. At times of major volcanic eruptions the effects can be much larger. Yet global mean surface temperatures fluctuate much more than these can account for. An energy imbalance is manifested not just as surface atmospheric or ground <span class="hlt">warming</span> but also as melting sea and land ice, and heating of the oceans. More than 90% of the heat goes into the oceans and, with melting land ice, causes sea level to rise. For the past decade, more than 30% of the heat has apparently penetrated below 700 m depth that is traceable to changes in surface winds mainly over the Pacific in association with a switch to a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in 1999. Surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> was much more in evidence during the 1976-1998 positive phase of the PDO, suggesting that natural decadal variability modulates the rate of change of global surface temperatures while sea-level rise is more relentless. Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> has not stopped; it is merely manifested in different ways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12344889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12344889"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, population growth, and natural resources for food production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pimentel, D</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Destruction of forests and the considerable burning of fossil fuels is directly causing the level of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases including methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere to rise. Population growth in the US and the world indirectly contributes to this global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. This has led the majority of scientists interested in weather and climate to predict that the planet's temperature will increase from 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. These forecasted climactic changes will most likely strongly affect crop production. Specifically these scientists expect the potential changes in temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, and pests to decrease food production in North America. The degree of changes hinges on each crop and its <span class="hlt">environmental</span> needs. If farmers begin using improved agricultural technology, the fall in crop yields can be somewhat counterbalanced. Even without global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, however, agriculture in North America must embrace sensible ecological resource management practices such as conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. These sustainable agricultural practices would serve agriculture, farmers, the environment, and society. Agriculturalists, farmers, and society are already interested in sustainable agriculture. Still scientists must conduct more research on the multiple effects of potential global climate change on many different crops under various <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions and on new technologies that farmers might use in agricultural production. We must cut down our consumption of fossil fuel, reduce deforestation, erase poverty, and protect our soil, water, and biological resources. The most important action we need to take, however, is to check population growth. PMID:12344889</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100033057&hterms=global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100033057&hterms=global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency of Deep Convective Clouds and Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Aumann, Hartmut H.; Teixeira, Joao</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This slide presentation reviews the effect of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the formation of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC). It concludes that nature responds to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> with an increase in strong convective activity. The frequency of DCC increases with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the rate of 6%/decade. The increased frequency of DCC with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone increases precipitation by 1.7%/decade. It compares the state of the art climate models' response to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and concludes that the parametrization of climate models need to be tuned to more closely emulate the way nature responds to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070025103&hterms=antartica&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dantartica','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070025103&hterms=antartica&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dantartica"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of Dynamics and Transport during the September 2002 Antarctic Major <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Manney, Gloria L.; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Allen, Douglas R.; Lahoz, Willian A.; Scaife, Adam A.; Randall, Cora E.; Pawson, Steven; Naujokat, Barbara; Swinbank, Richard</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A mechanistic model simulation initialized on 14 September 2002, forced by 100-hPa geopotential heights from Met Office analyses, reproduced the dynamical features of the 2002 Antarctic major <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The vortex split on approx.25 September; recovery after the <span class="hlt">warming</span>, westward and equatorward tilting vortices, and strong baroclinic zones in temperature associated with a dipole pattern of upward and downward vertical velocities were all captured in the simulation. Model results and analyses show a pattern of strong upward wave propagation throughout the <span class="hlt">warming</span>, with zonal wind deceleration throughout the stratosphere at high latitudes before the vortex split, continuing in the middle and upper stratosphere and spreading to lower latitudes after the split. Three-dimensional Eliassen-Palm fluxes show the largest upward and poleward wave propagation in the 0(deg)-90(deg)E sector prior to the vortex split (coincident with the location of strongest cyclogenesis at the model's lower boundary), with an additional region of strong upward propagation developing near 180(deg)-270(deg)E. These characteristics are similar to those of Arctic wave-2 major <span class="hlt">warmings</span>, except that during this <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the vortex did not split below approx.600 K. The effects of poleward transport and mixing dominate modeled trace gas evolution through most of the mid- to high-latitude stratosphere, with a core region in the lower-stratospheric vortex where enhanced descent dominates and the vortex remains isolated. Strongly tilted vortices led to low-latitude air overlying vortex air, resulting in highly unusual trace gas profiles. Simulations driven with several meteorological datasets reproduced the major <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but in others, stronger latitudinal gradients at high latitudes at the model boundary resulted in simulations without a complete vortex split in the midstratosphere. <span class="hlt">Numerous</span> tests indicate very high sensitivity to the boundary fields, especially the wave-2 amplitude. Major <span class="hlt">warmings</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17901296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17901296"><span id="translatedtitle">Southern Hemisphere and deep-sea <span class="hlt">warming</span> led deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise and tropical <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stott, Lowell; Timmermann, Axel; Thunell, Robert</p> <p>2007-10-19</p> <p>Establishing what caused Earth's largest climatic changes in the past requires a precise knowledge of both the forcing and the regional responses. We determined the chronology of high- and low-latitude climate change at the last glacial termination by radiocarbon dating benthic and planktonic foraminiferal stable isotope and magnesium/calcium records from a marine core collected in the western tropical Pacific. Deep-sea temperatures <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by approximately 2 degrees C between 19 and 17 thousand years before the present (ky B.P.), leading the rise in atmospheric CO2 and tropical-surface-ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> by approximately 1000 years. The cause of this deglacial deep-water <span class="hlt">warming</span> does not lie within the tropics, nor can its early onset between 19 and 17 ky B.P. be attributed to CO2 forcing. Increasing austral-spring insolation combined with sea-ice albedo feedbacks appear to be the key factors responsible for this <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860018268&hterms=Discrimination&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DDiscrimination','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860018268&hterms=Discrimination&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DDiscrimination"><span id="translatedtitle">Discrimination of a major stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> event in February-March 1984 from earlier minor <span class="hlt">warmings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, K. W.; Quiroz, R. S.; Gelman, M. E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>As part of its responsibility for stratospheric monitoring, the Climate Analysis Center derives time trends of various dynamic parameters from NMC stratospheric analyses. Selected figures from this stratospheric monitoring data base are published in Climate Diagnostics Bulletin in March and October, after each hemispheric winter. During the Northern Hemisphere winter of December 1983-February 1984 several <span class="hlt">warming</span> events may be seen in the plot of 60 deg. N zonal mean temperatures for 10 mb. Minor <span class="hlt">warmings</span> may be noted in early December, late December, mid January and early February. A major <span class="hlt">warming</span> with the 60 deg. N zonal mean temperatures reaching -40C is observed in late February, associated with a circulation reversal. In all of the minor <span class="hlt">warming</span> episodes, there is a polarward movement of the Aleutian anticyclone; however, at 10 mb the North Pole remains in the cyclonic circulation of the stratospheric vortex which is not displaced far from its usual position. In the case of the later February major <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the 10 mb circulation pattern over the North Pole is anticyclonic, and the cyclonic circulation has moved to the south and east with a considerable elongation. Cross sections of heat transport and momentum transport are not dramatically different for the minor and major <span class="hlt">warming</span> episodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca3003.photos.201780p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca3003.photos.201780p/"><span id="translatedtitle">OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND <span class="hlt">WARM</span> SPRINGS CAMP ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND <span class="hlt">WARM</span> SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890066296&hterms=Conservation+Laws&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528Conservation%2BLaws%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890066296&hterms=Conservation+Laws&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528Conservation%2BLaws%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonequilibrium flow computations. I - An analysis of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> formulations of conservation laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">numerical</span> techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> scheme, Steger-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880021000','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880021000"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonequilibrium flow computations. 1: An analysis of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> formulations of conservation laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">numerical</span> techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> scheme, Steger-<span class="hlt">Warming</span> and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23769238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23769238"><span id="translatedtitle">A historical perspective of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick H; Christensen, Per</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential (GWP(100)), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO(2)-eq.tonne(-1) to net saving of 670 kg CO(2)-eq.tonne(-1) of MSWM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/577366','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/577366"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of televised news coverage of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> for organizational decisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nitz, M.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>Television is an important source of information for political issues in the eyes of many people. This also holds true for <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues. Television news is also deemed more credible than print news because {open_quotes}seeing is believing{close_quotes}. This research is also buttressed by evidence that one of the primary conversation topics among individuals is television content. So how well does television cover global <span class="hlt">warming</span>? Unfortunately, previous research indicates that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> issues. This paper examines the potential impact of this coverage on organizational decisions. Organizations include businesses, government agencies, <span class="hlt">environmental</span> action groups, media organizations, and other parties interested with the environment. The paper proposes framing theory and involvement theory as springboards for organizational decision-making.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.145....1B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.145....1B"><span id="translatedtitle">Pteropods on the edge: Cumulative effects of ocean acidification, <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and deoxygenation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bednaršek, Nina; Harvey, Chris J.; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Feely, Richard A.; Možina, Jasna</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We review the state of knowledge of the individual and community responses of euthecosome (shelled) pteropods in the context of global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. In particular, we focus on their responses to ocean acidification, in combination with ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> and ocean deoxygenation, as inferred from a growing body of empirical literature, and their relatively nascent place in ecosystem-scale models. Our objectives are: (1) to summarize the threats that these stressors pose to pteropod populations; (2) to demonstrate that pteropods are strong candidate indicators for cumulative effects of OA, <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and deoxygenation in marine ecosystems; and (3) to provide insight on incorporating pteropods into population and ecosystem models, which will help inform ecosystem-based management of marine resources under future <span class="hlt">environmental</span> regimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21524505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21524505"><span id="translatedtitle">Invited review: Are adaptations present to support dairy cattle productivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> climates?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berman, A</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> heat stress, present during <span class="hlt">warm</span> seasons and <span class="hlt">warm</span> episodes, severely impairs dairy cattle performance, particularly in warmer climates. It is widely viewed that <span class="hlt">warm</span> climate breeds (Zebu and Sanga cattle) are adapted to the climate in which they evolved. Such adaptations might be exploited for increasing cattle productivity in <span class="hlt">warm</span> climates and decrease the effect of <span class="hlt">warm</span> periods in cooler climates. The literature was reviewed for presence of such adaptations. Evidence is clear for resistance to ticks and tick-transmitted diseases in Zebu and Sanga breeds as well as for a possible development of resistance to ticks in additional breeds. Development of resistance to ticks demands time; hence, it needs to be balanced with potential use of insecticides or vaccination. The presumption of higher sweating rates in Zebu-derived breeds, based upon morphological differences in sweat glands between breeds, has not been substantiated. Relatively few studies have examined hair coat characteristics and their responses to seasonal heat, particularly in temperate climate breeds. Recently, a gene for slick hair coat has been observed that improved heat tolerance when introduced into temperate climate breeds. No solid evidence exists that hair coat in these lines is lighter than in well-fed <span class="hlt">warm</span> climate-adapted Holsteins. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> climate breeds and their F1 crosses share as dominant characteristics lower maintenance requirements and milk yields, and limited response to improved feeding and management. These characteristics are not adaptations to a feed-limited environment but are constitutive and useful in serving survival when feed is scarce and seasonal and high temperatures prevail. The negative relationship between milk yield and fertility present in temperate climates breeds also prevails in Zebu cattle. Fertility impairment by <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions might be counteracted in advanced farming systems by extra corporeal early embryo culture. In general, adaptations found in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23892370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23892370"><span id="translatedtitle">Using physiology to predict the responses of ants to climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diamond, Sarah E; Penick, Clint A; Pelini, Shannon L; Ellison, Aaron M; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Sanders, Nathan J; Dunn, Robert R</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Physiological intolerance of high temperatures places limits on organismal responses to the temperature increases associated with global climatic change. Because ants are geographically widespread, ecologically diverse, and thermophilic, they are an ideal system for exploring the extent to which physiological tolerance can predict responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. Here, we expand on simple models that use thermal tolerance to predict the responses of ants to climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We investigated the degree to which changes in the abundance of ants under <span class="hlt">warming</span> reflect reductions in the thermal niche space for their foraging. In an eastern deciduous forest system in the United States with approximately 40 ant species, we found that for some species, the loss of thermal niche space for foraging was related to decreases in abundance with increasing experimental climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span>. However, many ant species exhibited no loss of thermal niche space. For one well-studied species, Temnothorax curvispinosus, we examined both survival of workers and growth of colonies (a correlate of reproductive output) as functions of temperature in the laboratory, and found that the range of thermal tolerances for colony growth was much narrower than for survival of workers. We evaluated these functions in the context of experimental climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> and found that the difference in the responses of these two attributes to temperature generates differences in the means and especially the variances of expected fitness under <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The expected mean growth of colonies was optimized at intermediate levels of <span class="hlt">warming</span> (2-4°C above ambient); yet, the expected variance monotonically increased with <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In contrast, the expected mean and variance of the survival of workers decreased when <span class="hlt">warming</span> exceeded 4°C above ambient. Together, these results for T. curvispinosus emphasize the importance of measuring reproduction (colony growth) in the context of climatic change: indeed, our examination</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78108','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/78108"><span id="translatedtitle">The dynamic response of high Arctic glaciers to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and their contribution to sea-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lam, J.K.W.; Dowdeswell, J.A.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Simulations with General Circulation Models have indicated that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will be enhanced at high latitudes. Regions in the high Arctic are highly sensitive to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, with an amplified theoretical rise of 8--14 C predicted to take place in winter and a negligible rise of 2 C in summer. Wetter conditions in these regions are quite plausible with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> due to warmer sea surface temperatures, melting of sea ice and a greater moisture holding capacity of the atmosphere. Recent observations show a marked increase in precipitation in the high Arctic regions during the past decades, particularly in the winters. The notion of whether the increased melting of snow due to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> would be offset by increased snowfall is investigated in this study. To make reliable predictions of the response of high Arctic glaciers to global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and hence their contribution to sea-level rise, a <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model has been developed to investigate the interactions of the glaciers with climate change induced by global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The model is a one-dimensional <span class="hlt">numerical</span> ice-flow model coupled with a surface balance model. Accumulation and ablation at the glacier surface are determined by the surface balance model using an energy balance approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23564985','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23564985"><span id="translatedtitle">Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates <span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cold People.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boyd, Ryan L; Bresin, Konrad; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Warmth-coldness is a fundamental dimension of social behavior. Cold individuals are egocentric in their social relations, whereas <span class="hlt">warm</span> individuals are not. Previous theorizing suggests that cognitive egocentrism underlies social egocentrism. It was hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal coldness would predict greater cognitive egocentrism. Cognitive egocentrism was assessed in basic terms through tasks wherein priming a lateralized self-state biased subsequent visual perceptions in an assimilation-related manner. Such effects reflect a tendency to assume that the self's incidental state provides meaningful information concerning the external world. Cognitive egocentrism was evident at high, but not low, levels of interpersonal coldness. The findings reveal a basic difference between <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cold people, encouraging future research linking cognitive egocentrism to variability in relationship functioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H34D..04D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H34D..04D"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>, Drought and a Greening Planet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donohue, R. J.; Roderick, M. L.; McVicar, T.; Farquhar, G. D.; Yang, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A commonly held perception is that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> will result in a drier planet with a greater occurrence of droughts. Across water-limited environments, droughts result in declines in vegetation productivity and cover. However, observations indicate that productivity and cover have, on average, been increasing across the globe's water-limited regions. This raises the question of what the relationship is between drought and vegetation, and how might vegetation-water dynamics change as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> progresses. Of particular interest is the role that CO2 fertilisation has in changing landscape-scale vegetation water use. We will present both observation- and model-based analyses of the possible CO2-driven changes in vegetation cover, productivity and water use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.125..187Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.125..187Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Management of drought risk under global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qiang; Han, Lanying; Jia, Jianying; Song, Lingling; Wang, Jinsong</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Drought is a serious ecological problem around the world, and its impact on crops and water availability for humans can jeopardize human life. Although drought has always been common, the drought risk has become increasingly prominent because of the climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> that has occurred during the past century. However, it still does not comprehensively understand the mechanisms that determine the occurrence of the drought risk it poses to humans, particularly in the context of global climate change. In this paper, we summarize the progress of research on drought and the associated risk, introduce the principle of a drought "transition" from one stage to another, synthesize the characteristics of key factors and their interactions, discuss the potential effect of climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> on drought risk, and use this discussion to define the basic requirements for a drought risk management system. We also discuss the main measures that can be used to prevent or mitigate droughts in the context of a risk management strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3503235','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3503235"><span id="translatedtitle">Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> modulates Pacific climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries. PMID:23112174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.8670L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.8670L"><span id="translatedtitle">Giant natural fluctuation models and anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lovejoy, S.; Rio Amador, L.; Hébert, R.; Lima, I.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Explanations for the industrial epoch <span class="hlt">warming</span> are polarized around the hypotheses of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span> (AW) and giant natural fluctuations (GNFs). While climate sceptics have systematically attacked AW, up until now they have only invoked GNFs. This has now changed with the publication by D. Keenan of a sample of 1000 series from stochastic processes purporting to emulate the global annual temperature since 1880. While Keenan's objective was to criticize the International Panel on Climate Change's trend uncertainty analysis (their assumption that residuals are only weakly correlated), for the first time it is possible to compare a stochastic GNF model with real data. Using Haar fluctuations, probability distributions, and other techniques of time series analysis, we show that his model has unrealistically strong low-frequency variability so that even mild extrapolations imply ice ages every ≈1000 years. Helped by statistics, the GNF model can easily be scientifically rejected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23564985','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23564985"><span id="translatedtitle">Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates <span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cold People.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boyd, Ryan L; Bresin, Konrad; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Warmth-coldness is a fundamental dimension of social behavior. Cold individuals are egocentric in their social relations, whereas <span class="hlt">warm</span> individuals are not. Previous theorizing suggests that cognitive egocentrism underlies social egocentrism. It was hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal coldness would predict greater cognitive egocentrism. Cognitive egocentrism was assessed in basic terms through tasks wherein priming a lateralized self-state biased subsequent visual perceptions in an assimilation-related manner. Such effects reflect a tendency to assume that the self's incidental state provides meaningful information concerning the external world. Cognitive egocentrism was evident at high, but not low, levels of interpersonal coldness. The findings reveal a basic difference between <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cold people, encouraging future research linking cognitive egocentrism to variability in relationship functioning. PMID:23564985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23112174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23112174"><span id="translatedtitle">Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> modulates Pacific climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio</p> <p>2012-11-13</p> <p>It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east-west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> relative to the Pacific's could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043463','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043463"><span id="translatedtitle">Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen K; Wang, Muyin</p> <p>2010-12-08</p> <p>Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1289779','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1289779"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolating the anthropogenic component of Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Hengartner, Nicholas; Lesins, Glen; Klett, James D.; Humlum, Ole; Wyatt, Marcia; Dubey, Manvendra K.</p> <p>2014-05-28</p> <p>Structural equation modeling is used in statistical applications as both confirmatory and exploratory modeling to test models and to suggest the most plausible explanation for a relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Although structural analysis cannot prove causation, it can suggest the most plausible set of factors that influence the observed variable. We apply structural model analysis to the annual mean Arctic surface air temperature from 1900 to 2012 to find the most effective set of predictors and to isolate the anthropogenic component of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by subtracting the effects of natural forcing and variability from the observed temperature. We find that anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols radiative forcing and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation internal mode dominate Arctic temperature variability. Furthermore, our structural model analysis of observational data suggests that about half of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 0.64 K/decade may have anthropogenic causes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1289779-isolating-anthropogenic-component-arctic-warming','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1289779-isolating-anthropogenic-component-arctic-warming"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolating the anthropogenic component of Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Hengartner, Nicholas; Lesins, Glen; Klett, James D.; Humlum, Ole; Wyatt, Marcia; Dubey, Manvendra K.</p> <p>2014-05-28</p> <p>Structural equation modeling is used in statistical applications as both confirmatory and exploratory modeling to test models and to suggest the most plausible explanation for a relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Although structural analysis cannot prove causation, it can suggest the most plausible set of factors that influence the observed variable. We apply structural model analysis to the annual mean Arctic surface air temperature from 1900 to 2012 to find the most effective set of predictors and to isolate the anthropogenic component of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> by subtracting the effects of natural forcing and variability frommore » the observed temperature. We find that anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols radiative forcing and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation internal mode dominate Arctic temperature variability. Furthermore, our structural model analysis of observational data suggests that about half of the recent Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 0.64 K/decade may have anthropogenic causes.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11539185','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11539185"><span id="translatedtitle">Early Mars: how <span class="hlt">warm</span> and how wet?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Squyres, S W; Kasting, J F</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>Early in its history, Mars underwent fluvial erosion that has been interpreted as evidence for a warmer, wetter climate. However, no atmosphere composed of only CO2 and H2O appears capable of producing mean planetary temperatures even close to 0 degrees C. Rather than by precipitation, aquifer recharge and ground water seepage may have been enabled by hydrothermal convection driven by geothermal heat and heat associated with impacts. Some climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span> was probably necessary to allow water to flow for long distances across the surface. Modest <span class="hlt">warming</span> could be provided by even a low-pressure CO2 atmosphere if it was supplemented with small amounts of CH4, NH3, or SO2. Episodic excursions to high obliquities may also have raised temperatures over some portions of the planet's surface. PMID:11539185</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920019787&hterms=mars+greenhouse&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmars%2Bgreenhouse','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920019787&hterms=mars+greenhouse&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmars%2Bgreenhouse"><span id="translatedtitle">Was early Mars <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by ammonia?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kasting, J. F.; Brown, L. L.; Acord, J. M.; Pollack, J. B.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Runoff channels and valley networks present on ancient, heavily cratered Martian terrain suggests that the climate of Mars was originally <span class="hlt">warm</span> and wet. One explanation for the formation of these channels is that the surface was <span class="hlt">warmed</span> by the greenhouse effect of a dense, CO2 atmosphere. However, recent work shows that this theory is not consistent for the early period of the solar system. One way to increase the surface temperature predicted is to assume that other greenhouse gases were present in Mars' atmosphere in addition to CO2 and H2O. This possible gas is ammonia, NH3. If ammonia was present in sufficient quantities, it could have raised the surface temperature to 273 K. An adequate source would have been volcanic outgassing if the NH3 produced was shielded from photolysis by an ultraviolet light absorber.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15650907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15650907"><span id="translatedtitle">[Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and spread of infectious diseases].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ebert, B; Fleischer, B</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>At the end of the twentieth century, tropical infectious diseases increased despite earlier successes of eradication campaigns. As a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 1.4-5.8 degrees C is anticipated to occur by 2100, mainly the vector-borne tropical diseases that are particularly sensitive to climate are expected to spread. Although biological reasons seemingly support this hypothesis, ecological and socioeconomic factors have in the past proven to be stronger driving forces for the spread of infectious disease than climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20485432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20485432"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust <span class="hlt">warming</span> of the global upper ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lyman, John M; Good, Simon A; Gouretski, Viktor V; Ishii, Masayoshi; Johnson, Gregory C; Palmer, Matthew D; Smith, Doug M; Willis, Josh K</p> <p>2010-05-20</p> <p>A large ( approximately 10(23) J) multi-decadal globally averaged <span class="hlt">warming</span> signal in the upper 300 m of the world's oceans was reported roughly a decade ago and is attributed to <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The majority of the Earth's total energy uptake during recent decades has occurred in the upper ocean, but the underlying uncertainties in ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> are unclear, limiting our ability to assess closure of sea-level budgets, the global radiation imbalance and climate models. For example, several teams have recently produced different multi-year estimates of the annually averaged global integral of upper-ocean heat content anomalies (hereafter OHCA curves) or, equivalently, the thermosteric sea-level rise. Patterns of interannual variability, in particular, differ among methods. Here we examine several sources of uncertainty that contribute to differences among OHCA curves from 1993 to 2008, focusing on the difficulties of correcting biases in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data. XBT data constitute the majority of the in situ measurements of upper-ocean heat content from 1967 to 2002, and we find that the uncertainty due to choice of XBT bias correction dominates among-method variability in OHCA curves during our 1993-2008 study period. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty, a composite of several OHCA curves using different XBT bias corrections still yields a statistically significant linear <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend for 1993-2008 of 0.64 W m(-2) (calculated for the Earth's entire surface area), with a 90-per-cent confidence interval of 0.53-0.75 W m(-2).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JHyd..174...83L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JHyd..174...83L"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the hydrologic cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loaiciga, Hugo A.; Valdes, Juan B.; Vogel, Richard; Garvey, Jeff; Schwarz, Harry</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Starting with a review of the basic processes that govern greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>, we have demonstrated that the hydrologic cycle plays a key role in the heat balance of the Earth's surface—atmosphere system. Through the water and other climatic feedbacks, the hydrologic cycle is shown to be a key factor in the climate's evolution as greenhouse gases continue to build up in the atmosphere. This paper examines the current predictive capability of general circulation models linked with macroscale and landscape-scale hydrologic models that simulate regional and local hydrologic regimes under global <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios. Issues concerning hydrologic model calibration and validation in the context of climate change are addressed herein. It is shown that the natural uncertainty in hydrologic regimes in the present climate introduces a signal-to-noise interpretation problem for discerning greenhouse-induced variations in regional hydrologic regimes. Simulations of river basins by means of macroscale hydrologic models nested within general circulation models have been implemented in a few selected cases. From the perspective of water resources management, such simulations, carried out in detail under greenhouse-<span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios in midlatitudinal basins of the United States, predict shorter winter seasons, larger winter floods, drier and more frequent summer weather, and overall enhanced and protracted hydrologic variability. All these predictions point to potentially worsening conditions for flood control, water storage, and water supply in areas of semiarid midlatitudinal climate currently dependent of spring snowmelt. Little information of this type is currently available for other areas of the world. Practice of sound water resources engineering principles ought to be adequate to cope with additional hydrologic uncertainty that might arise from global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED189489.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED189489.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">An Implicit Psychology of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> and Cold Interpersonal Relations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walker, Charles J.; Sarteschi, Randy</p> <p></p> <p>Currently it is recognized that psychology of people may involve both an implicit theory of interpersonal <span class="hlt">warmness</span> and the personality trait of <span class="hlt">warmness</span>. Just as the trait of dominance depends on the relative strengths of interactants, so may perceivers expect the trait of <span class="hlt">warmness</span> to derive its meaning from an interpersonal context. Elements of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810568W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810568W"><span id="translatedtitle">Urbanization enhances surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Eastern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Dagang</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This study aims at observing urban effects on surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in eastern China, where many cities have undergone a rapid development of urbanization in the last few decades. Daily mean, maximum and minimum surface air temperature records from 1971-2010 in 277 meteorological stations are used to investigate the effects of urbanization on temperature change. Due to the expansion of cities, the temperature records in some of the stations which were not close to cities in the past are gradually influenced by urbanization. In order to detect the effects of urbanization on surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> effectively, the stations are classified into 'urban' and 'rural' types dynamically based on the land use data in four periods, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 in this study. By comparing the temperature trend differences between all of the urban and rural stations in eastern China, the results show that annual averaged daily minimum temperature are suffered the strongest effects from urbanization with an increased rate of 0.870°C decade-1 in urban stations, and the contribution of urban effects to its total surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> is estimated to be 52.8% during 1971-2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26185070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26185070"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Vibrio Ecology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause. PMID:26185070</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051508"><span id="translatedtitle">Scientists' views about attribution of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo</p> <p>2014-08-19</p> <p>Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010018604&hterms=global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010018604&hterms=global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Evidence from Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard <span class="hlt">warm</span> black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, <span class="hlt">warmed</span> at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26185070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26185070"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> on Vibrio Ecology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000116342','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000116342"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>: Evidence from Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R.; Yoo, J.-M.; Dalu, G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown onboard sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study, we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help of the onboard <span class="hlt">warm</span>-blackbody temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically-weighted global-mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid troposphere, <span class="hlt">warmed</span> at the rate of 0.13 +/- 0.05 K/decade during 1980 to 1999. The global <span class="hlt">warming</span> deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite-deduced result.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22695877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22695877"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and allergy in Asia Minor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The earth is <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and it is <span class="hlt">warming</span> quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NatGe...1..750G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NatGe...1..750G"><span id="translatedtitle">Attribution of polar <span class="hlt">warming</span> to human influence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gillett, Nathan P.; Stone, Dáithí A.; Stott, Peter A.; Nozawa, Toru; Karpechko, Alexey Yu.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Wehner, Michael F.; Jones, Philip D.</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The polar regions have long been expected to <span class="hlt">warm</span> strongly as a result of anthropogenic climate change, because of the positive feedbacks associated with melting ice and snow. Several studies have noted a rise in Arctic temperatures over recent decades, but have not formally attributed the changes to human influence, owing to sparse observations and large natural variability. Both <span class="hlt">warming</span> and cooling trends have been observed in Antarctica, which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report concludes is the only continent where anthropogenic temperature changes have not been detected so far, possibly as a result of insufficient observational coverage. Here we use an up-to-date gridded data set of land surface temperatures and simulations from four coupled climate models to assess the causes of the observed polar temperature changes. We find that the observed changes in Arctic and Antarctic temperatures are not consistent with internal climate variability or natural climate drivers alone, and are directly attributable to human influence. Our results demonstrate that human activities have already caused significant <span class="hlt">warming</span> in both polar regions, with likely impacts on polar biology, indigenous communities, ice-sheet mass balance and global sea level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...516041Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...516041Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Multishock Compression Properties of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Argon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Yunjun, Gu; Li, Zhiguo; Shen, Zhijun</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> dense argon was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The diagnostics of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense argon were performed by a multichannel optical pyrometer and a velocity interferometer system. The equations of state in the pressure-density range of 20-150 GPa and 1.9-5.3 g/cm3 from the first- to fourth-shock compression were presented. The single-shock temperatures in the range of 17.2-23.4 kK were obtained from the spectral radiance. Experimental results indicates that multiple shock-compression ratio (ηi = ρi/ρ0) is greatly enhanced from 3.3 to 8.8, where ρ0 is the initial density of argon and ρi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the compressed density from first to fourth shock, respectively. For the relative compression ratio (ηi’ = ρi/ρi-1), an interesting finding is that a turning point occurs at the second shocked states under the conditions of different experiments, and ηi’ increases with pressure in lower density regime and reversely decreases with pressure in higher density regime. The evolution of the compression ratio is controlled by the excitation of internal degrees of freedom, which increase the compression, and by the interaction effects between particles that reduce it. A temperature-density plot shows that current multishock compression states of argon have distributed into <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26515505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26515505"><span id="translatedtitle">Multishock Compression Properties of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Dense Argon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Yunjun, Gu; Li, Zhiguo; Shen, Zhijun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> dense argon was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The diagnostics of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense argon were performed by a multichannel optical pyrometer and a velocity interferometer system. The equations of state in the pressure-density range of 20-150 GPa and 1.9-5.3 g/cm(3) from the first- to fourth-shock compression were presented. The single-shock temperatures in the range of 17.2-23.4 kK were obtained from the spectral radiance. Experimental results indicates that multiple shock-compression ratio (ηi = ρi/ρ0) is greatly enhanced from 3.3 to 8.8, where ρ0 is the initial density of argon and ρi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the compressed density from first to fourth shock, respectively. For the relative compression ratio (ηi' = ρi/ρi-1), an interesting finding is that a turning point occurs at the second shocked states under the conditions of different experiments, and ηi' increases with pressure in lower density regime and reversely decreases with pressure in higher density regime. The evolution of the compression ratio is controlled by the excitation of internal degrees of freedom, which increase the compression, and by the interaction effects between particles that reduce it. A temperature-density plot shows that current multishock compression states of argon have distributed into <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense regime. PMID:26515505</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022556"><span id="translatedtitle">Alterations in mitochondrial electron transport system activity in response to <span class="hlt">warm</span> acclimation, hypoxia-reoxygenation and copper in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sappal, Ravinder; MacDougald, Michelle; Fast, Mark; Stevens, Don; Kibenge, Fred; Siah, Ahmed; Kamunde, Collins</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Fish expend significant amounts of energy to handle the <span class="hlt">numerous</span> potentially stressful biotic and abiotic factors that they commonly encounter in aquatic environments. This universal requirement for energy singularizes mitochondria, the primary cellular energy transformers, as fundamental drivers of responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. Our study probed the interacting effects of thermal stress, hypoxia-reoxygenation (HRO) and copper (Cu) exposure in rainbow trout to test the prediction that they act jointly to impair mitochondrial function. Rainbow trout were acclimated to 11 (controls) or 20°C for 2 months. Liver mitochondria were then isolated and their responses in vitro to Cu (0-20μM) without and with HRO were assessed. Sequential inhibition and activation of mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) enzyme complexes permitted the measurement of respiratory activities supported by complex I-IV (CI-IV) in one run. The results showed that <span class="hlt">warm</span> acclimation reduced fish and liver weights but increased mitochondrial protein indicating impairment of energy metabolism, increased synthesis of defense proteins and/or reduced liver water content. Whereas acute rise (11→20°C) in temperature increased mitochondrial oxidation rates supported by CI-IV, <span class="hlt">warm</span> acclimation reduced the maximal (state 3) and increased the basal (state 4) respiration leading to global uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). HRO profoundly inhibited both maximal and basal respiration rates supported by CI-IV, reduced RCR for all except CII and lowered CI:CII respiration ratio, an indication of decreased OXPHOS efficiency. The effects of Cu were less pronounced but more variable and included inhibition of CII-IV maximal respiration rates and stimulation of both CI and CIII basal respiration rates. Surprisingly, only CII and CIII indices exhibited significant 3-way interactions whereas 2-way interactions of acclimation either with Cu or HRO were portrayed mostly by CIV, and those of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300383','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300383"><span id="translatedtitle">A historical perspective of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per</p> <p>2013-09-15</p> <p>Highlights: • Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. • Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. • Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding <span class="hlt">environmental</span> performance of waste management system. • Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential (GWP) today. • Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising <span class="hlt">environmental</span> impacts such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span> associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential (GWP{sub 100}), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} to net saving of 670 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} of MSWM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26807750','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26807750"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Immigration on the Adaptation of Microbial Communities to <span class="hlt">Warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lawrence, Diane; Bell, Thomas; Barraclough, Timothy G</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Theory predicts that immigration can either enhance or impair the rate at which species and whole communities adapt to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change, depending on the traits of genotypes and species in the source pool relative to local conditions. These responses, in turn, will determine how well whole communities function in changing environments. We tested the effects of immigration and experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on microbial communities during an 81-day field experiment. The effects of immigration depended on the <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment. In <span class="hlt">warmed</span> communities, immigration was detrimental to community growth, whereas in ambient communities it was beneficial. This result is explained by colonists coming from a local species pool preadapted to ambient conditions. Loss of metabolic diversity, however, was buffered by immigration in both environments. Communities showed increasing local adaptation to temperature conditions during the experiment, and this was independent of whether they received immigration. Genotypes that comprised the communities were not locally adapted, however, indicating that community local adaptation can be independent of adaptation of component genotypes. Our results are consistent with a greater role for species interactions rather than adaptation of constituent species in determining local adaptation of whole communities and confirm that immigration can either enhance or impair community responses to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change depending on the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24835486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24835486"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecophysiology of native and alien-invasive clams in an ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> context.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anacleto, Patrícia; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Lopes, Vanessa M; Repolho, Tiago; Diniz, Mário; Nunes, Maria Leonor; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Both climate change and biological invasions are among the most serious global <span class="hlt">environmental</span> threats. Yet mechanisms underlying these eventual interactions remain unclear. The aim of this study was to undertake a comprehensive examination of the physiological and biochemical responses of native (Ruditapes decussatus) and alien-invasive (Ruditapes philippinarum) clams to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We evaluated thermal tolerance limits (CTMax), routine metabolic rates (RMRs) and respective thermal sensitivity (Q10 values), critical oxygen partial pressure (Pcrit), heat shock response (HSP70/HSC70 levels), lipid peroxidation (MDA build-up) and antioxidant enzyme [glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] activities. Contrary to most studies that show that invasive species have a higher thermal tolerance than native congeners, here we revealed that the alien-invasive and native species had similar CTMax values. However, <span class="hlt">warming</span> had a stronger effect on metabolism and oxidative status of the native R. decussatus, as indicated by the higher RMRs and HSP70/HSC70 and MDA levels, as well as GST, CAT and SOD activities. Moreover, we argue that the alien-invasive clams, instead of up-regulating energetically expensive cellular responses, have evolved a less demanding strategy to cope with short-term <span class="hlt">environmental</span> (oxidative) stress-pervasive valve closure. Although efficient during stressful short-term periods to ensure isolation and guarantee longer survival, such adaptive behavioural strategy entails metabolic arrest (and the enhancement of anaerobic pathways), which to some extent will not be advantageous under the chronically <span class="hlt">warming</span> conditions predicted in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24100467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24100467"><span id="translatedtitle">Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, <span class="hlt">warming</span> shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris. PMID:24100467</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4443926','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4443926"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on survival, phenology and morphology of an aquatic insect (Odonata)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McCauley, Shannon J.; Hammond, John I.; Frances, Dachin N.; Mabry, Karen E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>1. Organisms can respond to changing climatic conditions in multiple ways including changes in phenology, body size or morphology, and range shifts. Understanding how developmental temperatures affect insect life-history timing and morphology is crucial because body size and morphology affect multiple aspects of life history, including dispersal ability, while phenology can shape population performance and community interactions. 2. We experimentally assessed how developmental temperatures experienced by aquatic larvae affected survival, phenology, and adult morphology of dragonflies (Pachydiplax longipennis). Larvae were reared under 3 <span class="hlt">environmental</span> temperatures: ambient, +2.5 °C, and +5 °C, corresponding to temperature projections for our study area 50 and 100 years in the future, respectively. Experimental temperature treatments tracked naturally-occurring variation. 3. We found clear effects of temperature in the rearing environment on survival and phenology: dragonflies reared at the highest temperatures had the lowest survival rates, and emerged from the larval stage approximately 3 weeks earlier than animals reared at ambient temperatures. There was no effect of rearing temperature on overall body size. Although neither the relative wing nor thorax size was affected by <span class="hlt">warming</span>, a non-significant trend towards an interaction between sex and <span class="hlt">warming</span> in relative thorax size suggests that males may be more sensitive to <span class="hlt">warming</span> than females, a pattern that should be investigated further. 4. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> strongly affected survival in the larval stage and the phenology of adult emergence. Understanding how <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the developmental environment affects later life-history stages is critical to interpreting the consequences of <span class="hlt">warming</span> for organismal performance. PMID:26028806</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3904920','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3904920"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean <span class="hlt">Warming</span>, More than Acidification, Reduces Shell Strength in a Commercial Shellfish Species during Food Limitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mackenzie, Clara L.; Ormondroyd, Graham A.; Curling, Simon F.; Ball, Richard J.; Whiteley, Nia M.; Malham, Shelagh K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Ocean surface pH levels are predicted to fall by 0.3–0.4 pH units by the end of the century and are likely to coincide with an increase in sea surface temperature of 2–4°C. The combined effect of ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the functional properties of bivalve shells is largely unknown and of growing concern as the shell provides protection from mechanical and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> challenges. We examined the effects of near-future pH (ambient pH –0.4 pH units) and <span class="hlt">warming</span> (ambient temperature +4°C) on the shells of the commercially important bivalve, Mytilus edulis when fed for a limited period (4–6 h day−1). After six months exposure, <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but not acidification, significantly reduced shell strength determined as reductions in the maximum load endured by the shells. However, acidification resulted in a reduction in shell flex before failure. Reductions in shell strength with <span class="hlt">warming</span> could not be explained by alterations in morphology, or shell composition but were accompanied by reductions in shell surface area, and by a fall in whole-body condition index. It appears that <span class="hlt">warming</span> has an indirect effect on shell strength by re-allocating energy from shell formation to support temperature-related increases in maintenance costs, especially as food supply was limited and the mussels were probably relying on internal energy reserves. The maintenance of shell strength despite seawater acidification suggests that biomineralisation processes are unaffected by the associated changes in CaCO3 saturation levels. We conclude that under near-future climate change conditions, ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> will pose a greater risk to shell integrity in M. edulis than ocean acidification when food availability is limited. PMID:24489785</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24100467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24100467"><span id="translatedtitle">Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted <span class="hlt">environmental</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, <span class="hlt">warming</span> shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRG..121..249W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRG..121..249W"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased wintertime CO2 loss as a result of sustained tundra <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webb, Elizabeth E.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Natali, Susan M.; Oken, Kiva L.; Bracho, Rosvel; Krapek, John P.; Risk, David; Nickerson, Nick R.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Permafrost soils currently store approximately 1672 Pg of carbon (C), but as high latitudes <span class="hlt">warm</span>, this temperature-protected C reservoir will become vulnerable to higher rates of decomposition. In recent decades, air temperatures in the high latitudes have <span class="hlt">warmed</span> more than any other region globally, particularly during the winter. Over the coming century, the arctic winter is also expected to experience the most <span class="hlt">warming</span> of any region or season, yet it is notably understudied. Here we present nonsummer season (NSS) CO2 flux data from the Carbon in Permafrost Experimental Heating Research project, an ecosystem <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment of moist acidic tussock tundra in interior Alaska. Our goals were to quantify the relationship between <span class="hlt">environmental</span> variables and winter CO2 production, account for subnivean photosynthesis and late fall plant C uptake in our estimate of NSS CO2 exchange, constrain NSS CO2 loss estimates using multiple methods of measuring winter CO2 flux, and quantify the effect of winter soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on total NSS CO2 balance. We measured CO2 flux using four methods: two chamber techniques (the snow pit method and one where a chamber is left under the snow for the entire season), eddy covariance, and soda lime adsorption, and found that NSS CO2 loss varied up to fourfold, depending on the method used. CO2 production was dependent on soil temperature and day of season but atmospheric pressure and air temperature were also important in explaining CO2 diffusion out of the soil. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> stimulated both ecosystem respiration and productivity during the NSS and increased overall CO2 loss during this period by 14% (this effect varied by year, ranging from 7 to 24%). When combined with the summertime CO2 fluxes from the same site, our results suggest that this subarctic tundra ecosystem is shifting away from its historical function as a C sink to a C source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489785','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489785"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span>, more than acidification, reduces shell strength in a commercial shellfish species during food limitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mackenzie, Clara L; Ormondroyd, Graham A; Curling, Simon F; Ball, Richard J; Whiteley, Nia M; Malham, Shelagh K</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Ocean surface pH levels are predicted to fall by 0.3-0.4 pH units by the end of the century and are likely to coincide with an increase in sea surface temperature of 2-4 °C. The combined effect of ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the functional properties of bivalve shells is largely unknown and of growing concern as the shell provides protection from mechanical and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> challenges. We examined the effects of near-future pH (ambient pH -0.4 pH units) and <span class="hlt">warming</span> (ambient temperature +4 °C) on the shells of the commercially important bivalve, Mytilus edulis when fed for a limited period (4-6 h day(-1)). After six months exposure, <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but not acidification, significantly reduced shell strength determined as reductions in the maximum load endured by the shells. However, acidification resulted in a reduction in shell flex before failure. Reductions in shell strength with <span class="hlt">warming</span> could not be explained by alterations in morphology, or shell composition but were accompanied by reductions in shell surface area, and by a fall in whole-body condition index. It appears that <span class="hlt">warming</span> has an indirect effect on shell strength by re-allocating energy from shell formation to support temperature-related increases in maintenance costs, especially as food supply was limited and the mussels were probably relying on internal energy reserves. The maintenance of shell strength despite seawater acidification suggests that biomineralisation processes are unaffected by the associated changes in CaCO3 saturation levels. We conclude that under near-future climate change conditions, ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> will pose a greater risk to shell integrity in M. edulis than ocean acidification when food availability is limited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4893335','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4893335"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> decreases arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in prairie plants along a Mediterranean climate gradient</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johnson, Bart R.; Bohannan, Brendan; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Mueller, Rebecca; Bridgham, Scott D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) provide <span class="hlt">numerous</span> services to their plant symbionts. Understanding climate change effects on AMF, and the resulting plant responses, is crucial for predicting ecosystem responses at regional and global scales. We investigated how the effects of climate change on AMF-plant symbioses are mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics. Methods: We used a combination of a greenhouse experiment and a manipulative climate change experiment embedded within a Mediterranean climate gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA to examine this question. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to determine the direct and indirect effects of experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> on AMF colonization. Results: <span class="hlt">Warming</span> directly decreased AMF colonization across plant species and across the climate gradient of the study region. Other positive and negative indirect effects of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics, canceled each other out. Discussion: A <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced decrease in AMF colonization would likely have substantial consequences for plant communities and ecosystem function. Moreover, predicted increases in more intense droughts and heavier rains for this region could shift the balance among indirect causal pathways, and either exacerbate or mitigate the negative, direct effect of increased temperature on AMF colonization. PMID:27280074</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11517453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11517453"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiological control of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and cooling during simulated shuttling and basking in lizards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dzialowski, E M; O'Connor, M P</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Differences in <span class="hlt">warming</span> and cooling rates in basking lizards have long been thought to be brought about by adjustments in heart rate and blood flow. We examined the physiological control of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and cooling in Iguana iguana, Sceloporus undulatus, and three species of Cordylus by measuring time constants, heart rate, and superficial capillary blood flow. Previously, techniques have not been available to measure time constants in shuttling animals. Using a combination of rapid measurements of temperature and blood flow and <span class="hlt">numerically</span> intensive parameter-fitting methods, we measured dominant and subdominant time constants in lizards subjected to periods of both simulated basking and simulated shuttling. Cutaneous blood flow and heart rate were measured using laser Doppler flowmeters. Of the three, only the larger I. iguana measurably altered rates of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and cooling during basking. During shuttling, none of the species effectively controlled <span class="hlt">warming</span> and cooling. During both basking and shuttling, blood flow and heart rate tended to change in predicted directions. Superficial blood flow correlated with surface temperature while heart rate correlated more closely with core temperature. Changes in superficial blood flow and heart rate varied relatively independently in I. iguana. The techniques used here provide a better understanding of the ability of these species to control thermoregulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..495R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12..495R"><span id="translatedtitle">Wind changes above <span class="hlt">warm</span> Agulhas Current eddies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rouault, M.; Verley, P.; Backeberg, B.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Sea surface temperature (SST) estimated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer E onboard the Aqua satellite and altimetry-derived sea level anomalies are used south of the Agulhas Current to identify <span class="hlt">warm</span>-core mesoscale eddies presenting a distinct SST perturbation greater than to 1 °C to the surrounding ocean. The analysis of twice daily instantaneous charts of equivalent stability-neutral wind speed estimates from the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard the QuikScat satellite collocated with SST for six identified eddies shows stronger wind speed above the <span class="hlt">warm</span> eddies than the surrounding water in all wind directions, if averaged over the lifespan of the eddies, as was found in previous studies. However, only half of the cases showed higher wind speeds above the eddies at the instantaneous scale; 20 % of cases had incomplete data due to partial global coverage by the scatterometer for one path. For cases where the wind is stronger above <span class="hlt">warm</span> eddies, there is no relationship between the increase in surface wind speed and the SST perturbation, but we do find a linear relationship between the decrease in wind speed from the centre to the border of the eddy downstream and the SST perturbation. SST perturbations range from 1 to 6 °C for a mean eddy SST of 15.9 °C and mean SST perturbation of 2.65 °C. The diameter of the eddies range from 100 to 250 km. Mean background wind speed is about 12 m s-1 (mostly southwesterly to northwesterly) and ranging mainly from 4 to 16 m s-1. The mean wind increase is about 15 %, which corresponds to 1.8 m s-1. A wind speed increase of 4 to 7 m s-1 above <span class="hlt">warm</span> eddies is not uncommon. Cases where the wind did not increase above the eddies or did not decrease downstream had higher wind speeds and occurred during a cold front associated with intense cyclonic low-pressure systems, suggesting certain synoptic conditions need to be met to allow for the development of wind speed anomalies over <span class="hlt">warm</span>-core ocean eddies. In many cases</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060002689','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060002689"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Signals from Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comiso, Josefino C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> signals are expected to be amplified in the Arctic primarily because of ice-albedo feedback associated with the high reflectivity of ice and snow that blankets much of the region. The Arctic had been a poorly explored territory basically because of its general inaccessibility on account of extremely harsh weather conditions and the dominant presence of thick perennial ice in the region. The advent of satellite remote sensing systems since the 1960s, however, enabled the acquisition of synoptic data that depict in good spatial detail the temporal changes of many Arctic surface parameters. Among the surface parameters that have been studied using space based systems are surface temperature, sea ice concentration, snow cover, surface albedo and phytoplankton concentration. Associated atmospheric parameters, such as cloud cover, temperature profile, ozone concentration, and aerosol have also been derived. Recent observational and phenomenological studies have indeed revealed progressively changing conditions in the Arctic during the last few decades (e g , Walsh et al. 1996; Serreze et al 2000; Comiso and Parkinson 2004). The changes included declines in the extent and area of surfaces covered by sea ice and snow, increases in melt area over the Greenland ice sheets, thawing of the permafrost, <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the troposphere, and retreat of the glaciers. These observations are consistent with the observed global <span class="hlt">warming</span> that has been associated with the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (Karl and Trenberth 2003) and confirmed by modeling studies (Holland and Bitz, 2003). The Arctic system, however, is still not well understood complicated by a largely fluctuating wind circulation and atmospheric conditions (Proshutinsky and Johnson 1997) and controlled by what is now known as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) which provides a measure of the strength of atmospheric activities in the region (Thompson and Wallace 1998). Meanwhile, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P11E..06R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P11E..06R"><span id="translatedtitle">Can cirrus clouds <span class="hlt">warm</span> early Mars?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramirez, R. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The presence of the ancient valley networks on Mars indicates a climate 3.8 Ga that was <span class="hlt">warm</span> enough to allow substantial liquid water to flow on the martian surface for extended periods of time. However, the origin of these enigmatic features is hotly debated and discussion of their formation has been focused on how <span class="hlt">warm</span> such a climate may have been and for how long. Recent <span class="hlt">warm</span> and wet solutions using single-column radiative convective models involve supplementing CO2-H2O atmospheres with other greenhouse gases, such as H2 (i.e. Ramirez et al., 2014; Batalha et al., 2015). An interesting recent proposal, using the CAM 3-D General Circulation model, argues that global cirrus cloud decks in CO2-H2O atmospheres with at least 0.25 bar of CO2 , consisting of 10-micron (and larger) sized particles, could have generated the above-freezing temperatures required to explain the early martian surface geology (Urata and Toon, 2013). Here, we use our single-column radiative convective climate model to check these 3-D results and analyze the likelihood that such <span class="hlt">warm</span> atmospheres, with mean surface pressures of up to 3 bar, could have supported cirrus cloud decks at full and fractional cloud cover for sufficiently long durations to form the ancient valleys. Our results indicate that cirrus cloud decks could have provided the mean surface temperatures required, but only if cloud cover approaches 100%, in agreement with Urata and Toon (2013). However, even should cirrus cloud coverage approach 100%, we show that such atmospheres are likely to have been too short-lived to produce the volumes of water required to carve the ancient valleys. At more realistic early Mars cloud fractions (~50%, Forget et al., 2013), cirrus clouds do not provide the required <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Batalha, N., Domagal-Goldman, S. D., Ramirez, R.M., & Kasting, J. F., 2015. Icarus, 258, 337-349. Forget, F., Wordsworth, R., Millour, E., Madeleine, J. B., Kerber, L., Leconte, J., ... & Haberle, R. M., 2013. Icarus, 222</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24178508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24178508"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up and performance in competitive swimming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marinho, Daniel A</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span>-up before physical activity is commonly accepted to be fundamental, and any priming practices are usually thought to optimize performance. However, specifically in swimming, studies on the effects of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up are scarce, which may be due to the swimming pool environment, which has a high temperature and humidity, and to the complexity of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up procedures. The purpose of this study is to review and summarize the different studies on how <span class="hlt">warming</span> up affects swimming performance, and to develop recommendations for improving the efficiency of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up before competition. Most of the main proposed effects of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up, such as elevated core and muscular temperatures, increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to muscle cells and higher efficiency of muscle contractions, support the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up enhances performance. However, while many researchers have reported improvements in performance after <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up, others have found no benefits to <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up. This lack of consensus emphasizes the need to evaluate the real effects of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up and optimize its design. Little is known about the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up in competitive swimming, and the variety of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up methods and swimming events studied makes it difficult to compare the published conclusions about the role of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up in swimming. Recent findings have shown that <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up has a positive effect on the swimmer's performance, especially for distances greater than 200 m. We recommend that swimmers <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up for a relatively moderate distance (between 1,000 and 1,500 m) with a proper intensity (a brief approach to race pace velocity) and recovery time sufficient to prevent the early onset of fatigue and to allow the restoration of energy reserves (8-20 min). PMID:24178508</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416174','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/416174"><span id="translatedtitle">Innovative strategies for <span class="hlt">environmental</span> sustainability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rouhani, S. |</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Since the early 1980s our preception of sustainability has fundamentally changed. History sustainability was primarily concerned with the scarcity of natural resources in the face of a growing world population. Awareness of ecological and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> degradations has come gradually. At first the solution to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems such as global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, ozone layer depletion, and hazardous waste appeared to require a halt in global economic growth. However creative solutions which address <span class="hlt">environmental</span> issues and produce economic growth have come to the fore. This paper focuses this with respect to the clean-up of contaminated sites - remediation and case studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fertilizer+OR+fertiliser&id=EJ993844','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fertilizer+OR+fertiliser&id=EJ993844"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Environmental</span> Education for Behaviour Change: Which Actions Should Be Targeted?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>One aim of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> education is to enable people to make informed decisions about their <span class="hlt">environmental</span> behaviour; this is particularly significant with <span class="hlt">environmental</span> problems that are believed to be both major and imminent, such as climate change resulting from global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Previous research suggests no strong link between a person's…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24843178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24843178"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of differential habitat <span class="hlt">warming</span> on complex communities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tunney, Tyler D; McCann, Kevin S; Lester, Nigel P; Shuter, Brian J</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Food webs unfold across a mosaic of micro and macro habitats, with each habitat coupled by mobile consumers that behave in response to local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. Despite this fundamental characteristic of nature, research on how climate change will affect whole ecosystems has overlooked (i) that climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will generally affect habitats differently and (ii) that mobile consumers may respond to this differential change in a manner that may fundamentally alter the energy pathways that sustain ecosystems. This reasoning suggests a powerful, but largely unexplored, avenue for studying the impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. Here, we use lake ecosystems to show that predictable behavioral adjustments to local temperature differentials govern a fundamental structural shift across 54 food webs. Data show that the trophic pathways from basal resources to a cold-adapted predator shift toward greater reliance on a cold-water refuge habitat, and food chain length increases, as air temperatures rise. Notably, cold-adapted predator behavior may substantially drive this decoupling effect across the climatic range in our study independent of warmer-adapted species responses (for example, changes in near-shore species abundance and predator absence). Such modifications reflect a flexible food web architecture that requires more attention from climate change research. The trophic pathway restructuring documented here is expected to alter biomass accumulation, through the regulation of energy fluxes to predators, and thus potentially threatens ecosystem sustainability in times of rapid <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. PMID:24843178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182832','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182832"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kennedy, V.S.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>Estuaries are physically controlled, resilient coastal ecosystems harboring <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> tolerant species in diluted seawater. Marine coastal systems are less stressed physically and contain some <span class="hlt">environmentally</span> less tolerant species. Both systems are biologically productive and economically significant. Because of their complex structure and function, it is difficult to predict accurately the effects of climate change, but some broad generalizations can be made. If climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> occurs, it will raise sea-level, heat shallow waters, and modify precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns. Rapid sea-level rise could cause the loss of salt marshes, mangrove swamps, and coral reefs, thus diminishing the ecological roles of these highly productive systems. Warmer waters could eliminate heat-sensitive species from part of their geographical range while allowing heat-tolerant species to expand their range, depending on their ability to disperse. Most thermally influenced losses of species will probably only be local, but changed distributions may lead to changed community function. It is more difficult to predict the effects of modified precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns, but changes could affect organisms dependent on such patterns for food production (e.g., in upwelling regions) or for retention in estuaries. Aquacultural and fishery-related enterprises would be affected negatively in some regions and positively in others. 73 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24843178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24843178"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of differential habitat <span class="hlt">warming</span> on complex communities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tunney, Tyler D; McCann, Kevin S; Lester, Nigel P; Shuter, Brian J</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Food webs unfold across a mosaic of micro and macro habitats, with each habitat coupled by mobile consumers that behave in response to local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. Despite this fundamental characteristic of nature, research on how climate change will affect whole ecosystems has overlooked (i) that climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will generally affect habitats differently and (ii) that mobile consumers may respond to this differential change in a manner that may fundamentally alter the energy pathways that sustain ecosystems. This reasoning suggests a powerful, but largely unexplored, avenue for studying the impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. Here, we use lake ecosystems to show that predictable behavioral adjustments to local temperature differentials govern a fundamental structural shift across 54 food webs. Data show that the trophic pathways from basal resources to a cold-adapted predator shift toward greater reliance on a cold-water refuge habitat, and food chain length increases, as air temperatures rise. Notably, cold-adapted predator behavior may substantially drive this decoupling effect across the climatic range in our study independent of warmer-adapted species responses (for example, changes in near-shore species abundance and predator absence). Such modifications reflect a flexible food web architecture that requires more attention from climate change research. The trophic pathway restructuring documented here is expected to alter biomass accumulation, through the regulation of energy fluxes to predators, and thus potentially threatens ecosystem sustainability in times of rapid <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4050587','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4050587"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of differential habitat <span class="hlt">warming</span> on complex communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tunney, Tyler D.; McCann, Kevin S.; Lester, Nigel P.; Shuter, Brian J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Food webs unfold across a mosaic of micro and macro habitats, with each habitat coupled by mobile consumers that behave in response to local <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions. Despite this fundamental characteristic of nature, research on how climate change will affect whole ecosystems has overlooked (i) that climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> will generally affect habitats differently and (ii) that mobile consumers may respond to this differential change in a manner that may fundamentally alter the energy pathways that sustain ecosystems. This reasoning suggests a powerful, but largely unexplored, avenue for studying the impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. Here, we use lake ecosystems to show that predictable behavioral adjustments to local temperature differentials govern a fundamental structural shift across 54 food webs. Data show that the trophic pathways from basal resources to a cold-adapted predator shift toward greater reliance on a cold-water refuge habitat, and food chain length increases, as air temperatures rise. Notably, cold-adapted predator behavior may substantially drive this decoupling effect across the climatic range in our study independent of warmer-adapted species responses (for example, changes in near-shore species abundance and predator absence). Such modifications reflect a flexible food web architecture that requires more attention from climate change research. The trophic pathway restructuring documented here is expected to alter biomass accumulation, through the regulation of energy fluxes to predators, and thus potentially threatens ecosystem sustainability in times of rapid <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change. PMID:24843178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ThApC.101...67E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ThApC.101...67E"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> mitigation by sulphur loading in the stratosphere: dependence of required emissions on allowable residual <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eliseev, Alexey V.; Chernokulsky, Alexandr V.; Karpenko, Andrey A.; Mokhov, Igor I.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>An approach to mitigate global <span class="hlt">warming</span> via sulphur loading in the stratosphere (geoengineering) is studied, employing a large ensemble of <span class="hlt">numerical</span> experiments with the climate model of intermediate complexity IAP RAS CM. The model is forced by the historical+SRES A1B anthropogenic greenhouse gases+tropospheric sulphates scenario for 1860-2100 with additional sulphur emissions in the stratosphere in the twenty-first century. Different ensemble members are constructed by varying values of the parameters governing mass, horizontal distribution and radiative forcing of the stratospheric sulphates. It is obtained that, given a global loading of the sulphates in the stratosphere, among those studied in this paper latitudinal distributions of geoengineering aerosols, the most efficient one at the global basis is that peaked between 50° N and 70° N and with a somewhat smaller burden in the tropics. Uniform latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates is a little less efficient. Sulphur emissions in the stratosphere required to stop the global temperature at the level corresponding to the mean value for 2000-2010 amount to more than 10 TgS/year in the year 2100. These emissions may be reduced if some <span class="hlt">warming</span> is allowed to occur in the twenty-first century. For instance, if the global temperature trend S g in every decade of this century is limited not to exceed 0.10 K/decade (0.15 K/decade), geoengineering emissions of 4-14 TgS/year (2-7 TgS/year) would be sufficient. Even if the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is stopped, temperature changes in different regions still occur with a magnitude up to 1 K. Their horizontal pattern depends on implied latitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulphates. In addition, for the stabilised global mean surface air temperature, global precipitation decreases by about 10%. If geoengineering emissions are stopped after several decades of implementation, their climatic effect is removed within a few decades. In this period, surface air</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/379660','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/379660"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Low, N.C.; Shen, S.</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the global economy. The long term impact of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global <span class="hlt">warming</span> are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS11F..01P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS11F..01P"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term effects of ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> on vibrios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pruzzo, C.; Pezzati, E.; Brettar, I.; Reid, P. C.; Colwell, R.; Höfle, M. G.; vezzulli, L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Vibrios are a major source of human disease, play an important role in the ecology and health of marine animals and are regarded as an abundant fraction of culturable bacteria of the ocean. There has been a considerable global effort to reduce the risk of Vibrio infections and yet in most countries both human and non-human illnesses associated with these bacteria are increasing. The cause of this increase is not known, but since vibrios are strongly thermodependant there is good reason to believe that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> may have contributed. To investigate this possibility we examined historical samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) archive using advanced molecular analysis and pyrosequencing. For the first time we were able to recover <span class="hlt">environmental</span> DNA from CPR samples that had been stored for up to ~50 years in a formalin-fixed format, which is suitable for molecular analyses of the associated prokaryotic community. To overcome the problem of DNA degradation due to the sample age and storage in formalin we develop an unbiased index of abundance for Vibrio quantification in CPR samples termed a 'relative Vibrio Abundance Index' (VAI). VAI is defined as the ratio of Vibrio spp. cells to total bacterial cells assessed by Real-Time PCR using genus-specific and universal primers, respectively, producing small amplicons of similar size (~100bp). We assessed VAI index on 55 samples (each representing 10 nautical miles tow equal to 3 m3 of filtered sewater) collected in August by the CPR survey in the North Sea from off the Rhine and Humber estuaries between 1961 to 2005 showing that the genus Vibrio has increased in prevalence in the last 44 years and that this increase is correlated significantly, during the same period, with <span class="hlt">warming</span> sea surface temperature. In addition, by applying deep sequencing analysis of a subset of these samples we provide evidence that bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio, including the human pathogen V. cholerae, not only increased</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007BGD.....4.1059L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007BGD.....4.1059L"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential of agro-ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lehuger, S.; Gabrielle, B.; Larmanou, E.; Laville, P.; Cellier, P.; Loubet, B.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) contributing to the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (GWP) of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate thus requires a capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in an integrated manner, as related to <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions and crop management. Here, we used two year-round data sets from two intensively-monitored cropping systems in northern France to test the ability of the biophysical crop model CERES-EGC to simulate GHG exchanges at the plot-scale. The experiments involved maize and rapeseed crops on a loam and rendzina soils, respectively. The model was subsequently extrapolated to predict CO2 and N2O fluxes over an entire crop rotation. Indirect emissions (IE) arising from the production of agricultural inputs and from cropping operations were also added to the final GWP. One experimental site (involving a wheat-maize-barley rotation on a loamy soil) was a net source of GHG with a GWP of 350 kg CO2-C eq ha-1 yr-1, of which 75% were due to IE and 25% to direct N2O emissions. The other site (involving an oilseed rape-wheat-barley rotation on a rendzina) was a net sink of GHG for -250 kg CO2-C eq ha-1 yr-1, mainly due to a higher predicted C sequestration potential and C return from crops. Such modelling approach makes it possible to test various agronomic management scenarios, in order to design productive agro-ecosystems with low global <span class="hlt">warming</span> impact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B21G0562J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B21G0562J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> Contracts Flowering Phenology in an Alpine Ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jabis, M. D.; Winkler, D. E.; Kueppers, L. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In alpine ecosystems where temperature increases associated with anthropogenic climate change are likely to be amplified, the flowering phenology of plants may be particularly sensitive to changes in <span class="hlt">environmental</span> signals. For example, earlier snowmelt and higher temperature have been found to be important factors driving plant emergence and onset of flowering. However, few studies have examined the interactive role of soil moisture in response to <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Using infrared heating to actively <span class="hlt">warm</span> plots crossed with manual watering over the growing season in a moist alpine meadow at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, our preliminary results indicate that community-level phenology (length of flowering time across all species) was contracted with heating but was unaffected by watering. At the species level, additional water extended the length of the flowering season by one week for almost half (43%) of species. Heating, which raised plant and surface soil temperatures (+1.5 C) advanced snowmelt by ~7.6 days days and reduced soil moisture by ~2%, advanced flowering phenology for 86% of species. The response of flowering phenology to combined heating and watering was predominantly a heating effect. However, watering did appear to mitigate advances in end of flowering for 22% of species. The length of flowering season, for some species, appears to be tied, in part, to moisture availability as alleviating ambient soil moisture stress delayed phenology in unheated plots. Therefore, we conclude that both temperature and moisture appear to be important factors driving flowering phenology in this alpine ecosystem. The relationship between flowering phenology and species- or community-level productivity is not well established, but heating advanced community peak productivity by 5.4 days, and also reduced peak productivity unless additional water was provided, indicating some consistency between drivers of productivity and drivers of flowering phenology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23505093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23505093"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios increase microbioerosion of coral skeletons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reyes-Nivia, Catalina; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Kline, David; Guldberg, Ove-Hoegh; Dove, Sophie</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Biological mediation of carbonate dissolution represents a fundamental component of the destructive forces acting on coral reef ecosystems. Whereas ocean acidification can increase dissolution of carbonate substrates, the combined impact of ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the microbioerosion of coral skeletons remains unknown. Here, we exposed skeletons of the reef-building corals, Porites cylindrica and Isopora cuneata, to present-day (Control: 400 μatm - 24 °C) and future pCO2 -temperature scenarios projected for the end of the century (Medium: +230 μatm - +2 °C; High: +610 μatm - +4 °C). Skeletons were also subjected to permanent darkness with initial sodium hypochlorite incubation, and natural light without sodium hypochlorite incubation to isolate the <span class="hlt">environmental</span> effect of acidic seawater (i.e., Ωaragonite <1) from the biological effect of photosynthetic microborers. Our results indicated that skeletal dissolution is predominantly driven by photosynthetic microborers, as samples held in the dark did not decalcify. In contrast, dissolution of skeletons exposed to light increased under elevated pCO2 -temperature scenarios, with P. cylindrica experiencing higher dissolution rates per month (89%) than I. cuneata (46%) in the high treatment relative to control. The effects of future pCO2 -temperature scenarios on the structure of endolithic communities were only identified in P. cylindrica and were mostly associated with a higher abundance of the green algae Ostreobium spp. Enhanced skeletal dissolution was also associated with increased endolithic biomass and respiration under elevated pCO2 -temperature scenarios. Our results suggest that future projections of ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">warming</span> will lead to increased rates of microbioerosion. However, the magnitude of bioerosion responses may depend on the structural properties of coral skeletons, with a range of implications for reef carbonate losses under warmer and more acidic oceans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17370024','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17370024"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> 2007. An update to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>: the balance of evidence and its policy implications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keller, Charles F</p> <p>2007-03-09</p> <p>In the four years since my original review (Keller[25]; hereafter referred to as CFK03), research has clarified and strengthened our understanding of how humans are <span class="hlt">warming</span> the planet. So many of the details highlighted in the IPCC's Third Assessment Report[21] and in CFK03 have been resolved that I expect many to be a bit overwhelmed, and I hope that, by treating just the most significant aspects of the research, this update may provide a road map through the expected maze of new information. In particular, while most of CFK03 remains current, there are important items that have changed: Most notable is the resolution of the conundrum that mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> did not seem to match surface <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Both satellite and radiosonde (balloon-borne sensors) data reduction showed little <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the middle troposphere (4-8 km altitude). In the CFK03 I discussed potential solutions to this problem, but at that time there was no clear resolution. This problem has now been solved, and the middle troposphere is seen to be <span class="hlt">warming</span> apace with the surface. There have also been advances in determinations of temperatures over the past 1,000 years showing a cooler Little Ice Age (LIA) but essentially the same <span class="hlt">warming</span> during medieval times (not as large as recent <span class="hlt">warming</span>). The recent uproar over the so-called "hockey stick" temperature determination is much overblown since at least seven other groups have made relatively independent determinations of northern hemisphere temperatures over the same time period and derived essentially the same results. They differ on how cold the LIA was but essentially agree with the Mann's hockey stick result that the Medieval <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period was not as <span class="hlt">warm</span> as the last 25 years. The question of the sun's influence on climate continues to generate controversy. It appears there is a growing consensus that, while the sun was a major factor in earlier temperature variations, it is incapable of having caused observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the past quarter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.6538S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.6538S"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep time evidence for climate sensitivity increase with <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shaffer, Gary; Huber, Matthew; Rondanelli, Roberto; Pepke Pedersen, Jens Olaf</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Future global <span class="hlt">warming</span> from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will depend on climate feedbacks, the effect of which is expressed by climate sensitivity, the <span class="hlt">warming</span> for a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content. It is not clear how feedbacks, sensitivity, and temperature will evolve in our <span class="hlt">warming</span> world, but past <span class="hlt">warming</span> events may provide insight. Here we employ paleoreconstructions and new climate-carbon model simulations in a novel framework to explore a wide scenario range for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) carbon release and global <span class="hlt">warming</span> event 55.8 Ma ago, a possible future <span class="hlt">warming</span> analogue. We obtain constrained estimates of CO2 and climate sensitivity before and during the PETM and of the PETM carbon input amount and nature. Sensitivity increased from 3.3-5.6 to 3.7-6.5 K (Kelvin) into the PETM. When taken together with Last Glacial Maximum and modern estimates, this result indicates climate sensitivity increase with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=322926','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=322926"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and elevated CO2 on a semi-arid grassland are non-additive, shift with precipitation, and reverse over time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The impacts of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> change are temporally dynamic and better revealed in long-term studies. Rising air temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [CO2] are the most pervasive of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes on land, yet multi-year, factorial studies of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and elevated CO2 (eCO...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25737326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25737326"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E E; Matyssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>This study quantified the effect of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra L. at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3 and 1.0 °C at 5, 10 and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and <span class="hlt">environmental</span> parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no <span class="hlt">warming</span> effect was detected on Qs. However, soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from <span class="hlt">warming</span>-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapour, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ(13)C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil <span class="hlt">warming</span>, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future <span class="hlt">warming</span> environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........95J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........95J"><span id="translatedtitle">The integrated hydrologic and societal impacts of a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate in interior Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, Charles E., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>In this dissertation, interdisciplinary research methods were used to examine how changes in hydrology associated with climate affect Alaskans. Partnerships were established with residents of Fairbanks and Tanana to develop scientific investigations relevant to rural Alaskans. In chapter 2, local knowledge was incorporated into scientific models to identify a social-ecological threshold used to model potential driftwood harvest from the Yukon River. Anecdotal evidence and subsistence calendar records were combined with scientific data to model the harvest rates of driftwood. Modeling results estimate that between 1980 and 2010 hydrologic factors alone were responsible for a 29% decrease in the annual wood harvest, which approximately balanced a 23% reduction in wood demand due to a decline in number of households. The community's installation of wood-fired boilers in 2007 created a threshold increase (76%) in wood demand that is not met by driftwood harvest. Modeling of climatic scenarios illustrates that increased hydrologic variability decreases driftwood harvest and increases the financial or temporal costs for subsistence users. In chapter 3, increased groundwater flow related to permafrost degradation was hypothesized to be affect river ice thickness in sloughs of the Tanana River. A physically-based, <span class="hlt">numerical</span> model was developed to examine the importance of permafrost degradation in explaining unfrozen river conditions in the winter. Results indicated that ice melt is amplified by increasing groundwater upwelling rates, groundwater temperatures, and snowfall. Modeling results also suggest that permafrost degradation could be a valid explanation of the phenomenon, but does not address the potential drivers (e.g. <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate, forest fire, etc.) of the permafrost <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In chapter 4, remote sensing techniques were hypothesized to be useful for mapping dangerous ice conditions on the Tanana River in interior Alaska. Unsupervised classification of high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930071857&hterms=acoustics+aerospace&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dacoustics%2Baerospace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930071857&hterms=acoustics+aerospace&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dacoustics%2Baerospace"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> predictions in acoustics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hardin, Jay C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) involves the calculation of the sound produced by a flow as well as the underlying flowfield itself from first principles. This paper describes the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> challenges of CAA and recent research efforts to overcome these challenges. In addition, it includes the benefits of CAA in removing restrictions of linearity, single frequency, constant parameters, low Mach numbers, etc. found in standard acoustic analyses as well as means for evaluating the validity of these <span class="hlt">numerical</span> approaches. Finally, <span class="hlt">numerous</span> applications of CAA to both classical as well as modern problems of concern to the aerospace industry are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992rdas.conf...51H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992rdas.conf...51H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Numerical</span> predictions in acoustics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hardin, Jay C.</p> <p></p> <p>Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) involves the calculation of the sound produced by a flow as well as the underlying flowfield itself from first principles. This paper describes the <span class="hlt">numerical</span> challenges of CAA and recent research efforts to overcome these challenges. In addition, it includes the benefits of CAA in removing restrictions of linearity, single frequency, constant parameters, low Mach numbers, etc. found in standard acoustic analyses as well as means for evaluating the validity of these <span class="hlt">numerical</span> approaches. Finally, <span class="hlt">numerous</span> applications of CAA to both classical as well as modern problems of concern to the aerospace industry are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3264504','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3264504"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of future global <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field <span class="hlt">warming</span> facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To simulate expected future global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to <span class="hlt">warm</span> open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7°C 67% of the time. PMID:22145582</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3...73B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3...73B"><span id="translatedtitle">Emerging Vibrio risk at high latitudes in response to ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker-Austin, Craig; Trinanes, Joaquin A.; Taylor, Nick G. H.; Hartnell, Rachel; Siitonen, Anja; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There is increasing concern regarding the role of climate change in driving bacterial waterborne infectious diseases. Here we illustrate associations between <span class="hlt">environmental</span> changes observed in the Baltic area and the recent emergence of Vibrio infections and also forecast future scenarios of the risk of infections in correspondence with predicted <span class="hlt">warming</span> trends. Using multidecadal long-term sea surface temperature data sets we found that the Baltic Sea is <span class="hlt">warming</span> at an unprecedented rate. Sea surface temperature trends (1982-2010) indicate a <span class="hlt">warming</span> pattern of 0.063-0.078°Cyr-1 (6.3-7.8°C per century; refs , ), with recent peak temperatures unequalled in the history of instrumented measurements for this region. These <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns have coincided with the unexpected emergence of Vibrio infections in northern Europe, many clustered around the Baltic Sea area. The number and distribution of cases correspond closely with the temporal and spatial peaks in sea surface temperatures. This is among the first empirical evidence that anthropogenic climate change is driving the emergence of Vibrio disease in temperate regions through its impact on resident bacterial communities, implying that this process is reshaping the distribution of infectious diseases across global scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25443313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25443313"><span id="translatedtitle">Relocation, high-latitude <span class="hlt">warming</span> and host genetic identity shape the foliar fungal microbiome of poplars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bálint, Miklós; Bartha, László; O'Hara, Robert B; Olson, Matthew S; Otte, Jürgen; Pfenninger, Markus; Robertson, Amanda L; Tiffin, Peter; Schmitt, Imke</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Micro-organisms associated with plants and animals affect host fitness, shape community structure and influence ecosystem properties. Climate change is expected to influence microbial communities, but their reactions are not well understood. Host-associated micro-organisms are influenced by the climate reactions of their hosts, which may undergo range shifts due to climatic niche tracking, or may be actively relocated to mitigate the effects of climate change. We used a common-garden experiment and rDNA metabarcoding to examine the effect of host relocation and high-latitude <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the complex fungal endophytic microbiome associated with leaves of an ecologically dominant boreal forest tree (Populus balsamifera L.). We also considered the potential effects of poplar genetic identity in defining the reactions of the microbiome to the treatments. The relocation of hosts to the north increased the diversity of the microbiome and influenced its structure, with results indicating enemy release from plausible pathogens. High-latitude <span class="hlt">warming</span> decreased microbiome diversity in comparison with natural northern conditions. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> also caused structural changes, which made the fungal communities distinct in comparison with both low-latitude and high-latitude natural communities, and increased the abundance of plausible pathogens. The reactions of the microbiome to relocation and <span class="hlt">warming</span> were strongly dependent on host genetic identity. This suggests that climate change effects on host-microbiome systems may be mediated by the interaction of <span class="hlt">environmental</span> factors and the population genetic processes of the hosts. PMID:25443313</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176525','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176525"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-linear responses of glaciated prairie wetlands to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Johnson, W. Carter; Werner, Brett; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The response of ecosystems to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> is likely to include threshold events when small changes in key <span class="hlt">environmental</span> drivers produce large changes in an ecosystem. Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) are especially sensitive to climate variability, yet the possibility that functional changes may occur more rapidly with <span class="hlt">warming</span> than expected has not been examined or modeled. The productivity and biodiversity of these wetlands are strongly controlled by the speed and completeness of a vegetation cover cycle driven by the wet and dry extremes of climate. Two thresholds involving duration and depth of standing water must be exceeded every few decades or so to complete the cycle and to produce highly functional wetlands. Model experiments at 19 weather stations employing incremental <span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios determined that wetland function across most of the PPR would be diminished beyond a climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> of about 1.5–2.0 °C, a critical temperature threshold range identified in other climate change studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772030"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Warming</span> differentially influences the effects of drought on stoichiometry and metabolomics in shoots and roots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Plants in natural environments are increasingly being subjected to a combination of abiotic stresses, such as drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span>, in many regions. The effects of each stress and the combination of stresses on the functioning of shoots and roots have been studied extensively, but little is known about the simultaneous metabolome responses of the different organs of the plant to different stresses acting at once. We studied the shift in metabolism and elemental composition of shoots and roots of two perennial grasses, Holcus lanatus and Alopecurus pratensis, in response to simultaneous drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span>. These species responded differently to individual and simultaneous stresses. These responses were even opposite in roots and shoots. In plants exposed to simultaneous drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span>, terpenes, catechin and indole acetic acid accumulated in shoots, whereas amino acids, quinic acid, nitrogenous bases, the osmoprotectants choline and glycine betaine, and elements involved in growth (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) accumulated in roots. Under drought, <span class="hlt">warming</span> further increased the allocation of primary metabolic activity to roots and changed the composition of secondary metabolites in shoots. These results highlight the plasticity of plant metabolomes and stoichiometry, and the different complementary responses of shoots and roots to complex <span class="hlt">environmental</span> conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4405768','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4405768"><span id="translatedtitle">Biocrusts modulate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rainfall exclusion effects on soil respiration in a semi-arid grassland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Escolar, Cristina; Maestre, Fernando T.; Rey, Ana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Soil surface communities composed of cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, liverworts, fungi, bacteria and lichens (biocrusts) largely affect soil respiration in dryland ecosystems. Climate change is expected to have large effects on biocrusts and associated ecosystem processes. However, few studies so far have experimentally assessed how expected changes in temperature and rainfall will affect soil respiration in biocrust-dominated ecosystems. We evaluated the impacts of biocrust development, increased air temperature and decreased precipitation on soil respiration dynamics during dry (2009) and wet (2010) years, and investigated the relative importance of soil temperature and moisture as <span class="hlt">environmental</span> drivers of soil respiration, in a semiarid grassland from central Spain. Soil respiration rates were significantly lower in the dry than during the wet year, regardless of biocrust cover. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> increased soil respiration rates, but this response was only significant in biocrust-dominated areas (> 50% biocrust cover). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> also increased the temperature sensitivity (Q10 values) of soil respiration in biocrust-dominated areas, particularly during the wet year. The combination of <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rainfall exclusion had similar effects in low biocrust cover areas. Our results highlight the importance of biocrusts as a modulator of soil respiration responses to both <span class="hlt">warming</span> and rainfall exclusion, and indicate that they must be explicitly considered when evaluating soil respiration responses to climate change in drylands. 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