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Sample records for warning signs smoking

  1. 30 CFR 77.1102 - Warning signs; smoking and open flame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Warning signs; smoking and open flame. 77.1102... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1102 Warning signs; smoking and open flame. Signs warning against smoking and open flames shall be posted so they can be readily seen in areas or places where fire or...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1102 - Warning signs; smoking and open flame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Warning signs; smoking and open flame. 77.1102... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1102 Warning signs; smoking and open flame. Signs warning against smoking and open flames shall be posted so they can be readily seen in areas or places where fire or...

  3. 49 CFR 176.325 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in... material. (b) A sign carrying the legend: FLAMMABLE VAPORS KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY NO SMOKING must be...

  4. 49 CFR 176.325 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in... material. (b) A sign carrying the legend: FLAMMABLE VAPORS KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY NO SMOKING must be...

  5. 49 CFR 176.325 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in... material. (b) A sign carrying the legend: FLAMMABLE VAPORS KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY NO SMOKING must be...

  6. 49 CFR 176.325 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in... material. (b) A sign carrying the legend: FLAMMABLE VAPORS KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY NO SMOKING must be...

  7. 49 CFR 176.325 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in... material. (b) A sign carrying the legend: FLAMMABLE VAPORS KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY NO SMOKING must be...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1102 - Warning signs; smoking and open flame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Warning signs; smoking and open flame. 77.1102 Section 77.1102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1102 Warning signs; smoking and open flame. Signs warning against...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1102 - Warning signs; smoking and open flame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning signs; smoking and open flame. 77.1102 Section 77.1102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1102 Warning signs; smoking and open flame. Signs warning against...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1102 - Warning signs; smoking and open flame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Warning signs; smoking and open flame. 77.1102 Section 77.1102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1102 Warning signs; smoking and open flame. Signs warning against...

  11. 49 CFR 176.220 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.220 Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in any hold or...

  12. 49 CFR 176.220 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.220 Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in any hold or...

  13. 49 CFR 176.220 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.220 Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in any hold or...

  14. 49 CFR 176.220 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.220 Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in any hold or...

  15. 49 CFR 176.220 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.220 Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in any hold or...

  16. Warning Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents various signs that may indicate emotional problems in children or teens, noting that if children exhibit any of the warning signs, it is important to talk to a doctor, counselor, or mental-health professional. The warning signs are categorized as things that trouble the child, things that limit the child, behavior problems, and sudden…

  17. Warning Signs After Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Postpartum care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend ... breast infection Postpartum bleeding Postpartum depression (PPD) What warning signs should you look for? Call your provider ...

  18. Warning Signs of Bullying

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Aggressive Behavior Print Share Warning Signs for Bullying There are many warning signs that may indicate ... Get help right away . Signs a Child is Bullying Others Kids may be bullying others if they: ...

  19. Warning Signs of Childhood Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health & Safety Tips » Warning Signs of Childhood Emergencies Warning Signs of Childhood Emergencies Because their bodies are ... if your child exhibits any of the following warning signs of a medical emergency: Any significant change ...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Warning signs. 57.4101 Section 57.4101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible signs prohibiting smoking and...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Warning signs. 56.4101 Section 56.4101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible signs prohibiting smoking and...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Warning signs. 57.4101 Section 57.4101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible signs prohibiting smoking and...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Warning signs. 57.4101 Section 57.4101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible signs prohibiting smoking and...

  4. 30 CFR 56.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Warning signs. 56.4101 Section 56.4101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible signs prohibiting smoking and...

  5. 30 CFR 56.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Warning signs. 56.4101 Section 56.4101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible signs prohibiting smoking and...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Warning signs. 57.4101 Section 57.4101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible signs prohibiting smoking and...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Warning signs. 56.4101 Section 56.4101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible signs prohibiting smoking and...

  8. Symptoms and Warning Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents Anorexia Nervosa emaciation (extremely thin from lack of nutrition) relentless ... from diuretic abuse severe dehydration from purging Binge Eating Disorder frequently eating large amounts of food (binge-eating) ...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1830 - Warning sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Warning sign. 154.1830 Section 154.1830 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1830 Warning sign. (a) The master... a warning sign: (1) At the gangway facing the shore so that the sign may be seen from the shore; and...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1830 - Warning sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning sign. 154.1830 Section 154.1830 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1830 Warning sign. (a) The master... a warning sign: (1) At the gangway facing the shore so that the sign may be seen from the shore; and...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1830 - Warning sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Warning sign. 154.1830 Section 154.1830 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1830 Warning sign. (a) The master... a warning sign: (1) At the gangway facing the shore so that the sign may be seen from the shore; and...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1830 - Warning sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Warning sign. 154.1830 Section 154.1830 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1830 Warning sign. (a) The master... a warning sign: (1) At the gangway facing the shore so that the sign may be seen from the shore; and...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1830 - Warning sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Warning sign. 154.1830 Section 154.1830 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1830 Warning sign. (a) The master... a warning sign: (1) At the gangway facing the shore so that the sign may be seen from the shore; and...

  14. What Are the Warning Signs of Stroke?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Cardiovascular Conditions What Are the Warning Signs of Stroke? Brain tissue affected by blockage ... risk factors. • Reduce your risk factors. • Learn the warning signs of stroke. • Know what to do if ...

  15. 33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Warning signs. 127.1113 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1113 Warning signs. (a) The marine transfer area for LHG must have warning signs that— (1) Meet paragraph (b) of this section...

  16. 33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Warning signs. 127.1113 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1113 Warning signs. (a) The marine transfer area for LHG must have warning signs that— (1) Meet paragraph (b) of this section...

  17. 33 CFR 127.113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Warning signs. 127.113 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.113 Warning signs. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have warning signs that— (1) Meet paragraph (b) of this section; (2) Can be seen from the...

  18. 33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Warning signs. 127.1113 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1113 Warning signs. (a) The marine transfer area for LHG must have warning signs that— (1) Meet paragraph (b) of this section...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2917 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Warning signs. 193.2917 Section 193.2917 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2917 Warning signs. (a) Warning signs must be conspicuously placed...

  20. 49 CFR 193.2917 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Warning signs. 193.2917 Section 193.2917 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2917 Warning signs. (a) Warning signs must be conspicuously placed...

  1. 49 CFR 193.2917 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Warning signs. 193.2917 Section 193.2917 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2917 Warning signs. (a) Warning signs must be conspicuously placed...

  2. 33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Warning signs. 127.1113 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1113 Warning signs. (a) The marine transfer area for LHG must have warning signs that— (1) Meet paragraph (b) of this section...

  3. 33 CFR 127.113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning signs. 127.113 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.113 Warning signs. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have warning signs that— (1) Meet paragraph (b) of this section; (2) Can be seen from the...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2917 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Warning signs. 193.2917 Section 193.2917 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2917 Warning signs. (a) Warning signs must be conspicuously placed...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2917 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning signs. 193.2917 Section 193.2917 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2917 Warning signs. (a) Warning signs must be conspicuously placed...

  6. 33 CFR 127.113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Warning signs. 127.113 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.113 Warning signs. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have warning signs that— (1) Meet paragraph (b) of this section; (2) Can be seen from the...

  7. 33 CFR 127.113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Warning signs. 127.113 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.113 Warning signs. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have warning signs that— (1) Meet paragraph (b) of this section; (2) Can be seen from the...

  8. 33 CFR 127.1113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning signs. 127.1113 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1113 Warning signs. (a) The marine transfer area for LHG must have warning signs that— (1) Meet paragraph (b) of this section...

  9. 33 CFR 127.113 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Warning signs. 127.113 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.113 Warning signs. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have warning signs that— (1) Meet paragraph (b) of this section; (2) Can be seen from the...

  10. Warning Signs of Heart Attack, Stroke and Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Heart Attack WARNING SIGNS OF HEART ATTACK, STROKE & CARDIAC ARREST HEART ATTACK WARNING SIGNS CHEST DISCOMFORT ... nausea or lightheadedness. Learn more about heart attack STROKE WARNING SIGNS Spot a stroke F.A.S.T.: - ...

  11. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Change Direction initiative is working to change the culture of mental health in America. It encourages people ... signs of emotional suffering and to change the culture around mental health and mental illness. Learn more ...

  12. Ten Warning Signs Your Older Family Member May Need Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat 10 Warning Signs Your Older Family Member May Need Help ... Eldercare Locator has compiled this list of 10 warning signs. Any one of the following behaviors may ...

  13. Assessment of advanced warning signs for flagging operations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-05-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) and several other state departments : of transportation have expressed interest in modifying the advanced warning sign for work zone : flagging operations. The advanced warning sign is intended to aler...

  14. 46 CFR 153.955 - Warning signs during cargo transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Warning signs during cargo transfer. 153.955 Section 153... Transfer Procedures § 153.955 Warning signs during cargo transfer. (a) When transferring cargo while fast to a dock or at anchor in port, the master shall ensure that the tankship displays a warning sign at...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Warning signs and labels. 1915.16 Section 1915.16 Labor... Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee...) Posting of large work areas. A warning sign or label required by paragraph (a) of this section need not be...

  16. 30 CFR 57.20011 - Barricades and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barricades and warning signs. 57.20011 Section... Miscellaneous § 57.20011 Barricades and warning signs. Areas where health or safety hazards exist that are not immediately obvious to employees shall be barricaded, or warning signs shall be posted at all approaches...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Warning signs and labels. 1915.16 Section 1915.16 Labor... Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee...) Posting of large work areas. A warning sign or label required by paragraph (a) of this section need not be...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning signs and labels. 1915.16 Section 1915.16 Labor... Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee...) Posting of large work areas. A warning sign or label required by paragraph (a) of this section need not be...

  19. 30 CFR 57.20011 - Barricades and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barricades and warning signs. 57.20011 Section... Miscellaneous § 57.20011 Barricades and warning signs. Areas where health or safety hazards exist that are not immediately obvious to employees shall be barricaded, or warning signs shall be posted at all approaches...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Warning signs and labels. 1915.16 Section 1915.16 Labor... Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee...) Posting of large work areas. A warning sign or label required by paragraph (a) of this section need not be...

  1. 30 CFR 57.20011 - Barricades and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barricades and warning signs. 57.20011 Section... Miscellaneous § 57.20011 Barricades and warning signs. Areas where health or safety hazards exist that are not immediately obvious to employees shall be barricaded, or warning signs shall be posted at all approaches...

  2. 30 CFR 56.20011 - Barricades and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barricades and warning signs. 56.20011 Section... § 56.20011 Barricades and warning signs. Areas where health or safety hazards exist that are not immediately obvious to employees shall be barricaded, or warning signs shall be posted at all approaches...

  3. 30 CFR 56.20011 - Barricades and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barricades and warning signs. 56.20011 Section... § 56.20011 Barricades and warning signs. Areas where health or safety hazards exist that are not immediately obvious to employees shall be barricaded, or warning signs shall be posted at all approaches...

  4. 46 CFR 153.955 - Warning signs during cargo transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Warning signs during cargo transfer. 153.955 Section 153... Transfer Procedures § 153.955 Warning signs during cargo transfer. (a) When transferring cargo while fast to a dock or at anchor in port, the master shall ensure that the tankship displays a warning sign at...

  5. 30 CFR 57.20011 - Barricades and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barricades and warning signs. 57.20011 Section... Miscellaneous § 57.20011 Barricades and warning signs. Areas where health or safety hazards exist that are not immediately obvious to employees shall be barricaded, or warning signs shall be posted at all approaches...

  6. 30 CFR 56.20011 - Barricades and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barricades and warning signs. 56.20011 Section... § 56.20011 Barricades and warning signs. Areas where health or safety hazards exist that are not immediately obvious to employees shall be barricaded, or warning signs shall be posted at all approaches...

  7. 30 CFR 57.20011 - Barricades and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barricades and warning signs. 57.20011 Section... Miscellaneous § 57.20011 Barricades and warning signs. Areas where health or safety hazards exist that are not immediately obvious to employees shall be barricaded, or warning signs shall be posted at all approaches...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.16 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Warning signs and labels. 1915.16 Section 1915.16 Labor... Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.16 Warning signs and labels. (a) Employee...) Posting of large work areas. A warning sign or label required by paragraph (a) of this section need not be...

  9. 46 CFR 153.955 - Warning signs during cargo transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning signs during cargo transfer. 153.955 Section 153... Transfer Procedures § 153.955 Warning signs during cargo transfer. (a) When transferring cargo while fast to a dock or at anchor in port, the master shall ensure that the tankship displays a warning sign at...

  10. 30 CFR 56.20011 - Barricades and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barricades and warning signs. 56.20011 Section... § 56.20011 Barricades and warning signs. Areas where health or safety hazards exist that are not immediately obvious to employees shall be barricaded, or warning signs shall be posted at all approaches...

  11. 46 CFR 153.955 - Warning signs during cargo transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Warning signs during cargo transfer. 153.955 Section 153... Transfer Procedures § 153.955 Warning signs during cargo transfer. (a) When transferring cargo while fast to a dock or at anchor in port, the master shall ensure that the tankship displays a warning sign at...

  12. 30 CFR 56.20011 - Barricades and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barricades and warning signs. 56.20011 Section... § 56.20011 Barricades and warning signs. Areas where health or safety hazards exist that are not immediately obvious to employees shall be barricaded, or warning signs shall be posted at all approaches...

  13. 46 CFR 153.955 - Warning signs during cargo transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Warning signs during cargo transfer. 153.955 Section 153... Transfer Procedures § 153.955 Warning signs during cargo transfer. (a) When transferring cargo while fast to a dock or at anchor in port, the master shall ensure that the tankship displays a warning sign at...

  14. 46 CFR 105.45-20 - Warning sign at gangway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Warning sign at gangway. 105.45-20 Section 105.45-20... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-20 Warning sign at gangway. (a) Warning placards shall be kept at hand for display while a vessel is fast to a...

  15. 46 CFR 98.30-35 - Warning sign at gangway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning sign at gangway. 98.30-35 Section 98.30-35... Warning sign at gangway. If a vessel is moored, no person may transfer to or from a portable tank a... access that is open for use a warning placard containing the following in letters 2 inches in height or...

  16. 46 CFR 105.45-20 - Warning sign at gangway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Warning sign at gangway. 105.45-20 Section 105.45-20... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-20 Warning sign at gangway. (a) Warning placards shall be kept at hand for display while a vessel is fast to a...

  17. 46 CFR 98.30-35 - Warning sign at gangway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Warning sign at gangway. 98.30-35 Section 98.30-35... Warning sign at gangway. If a vessel is moored, no person may transfer to or from a portable tank a... access that is open for use a warning placard containing the following in letters 2 inches in height or...

  18. 46 CFR 98.30-35 - Warning sign at gangway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Warning sign at gangway. 98.30-35 Section 98.30-35... Warning sign at gangway. If a vessel is moored, no person may transfer to or from a portable tank a... access that is open for use a warning placard containing the following in letters 2 inches in height or...

  19. 46 CFR 105.45-20 - Warning sign at gangway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Warning sign at gangway. 105.45-20 Section 105.45-20... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-20 Warning sign at gangway. (a) Warning placards shall be kept at hand for display while a vessel is fast to a...

  20. 46 CFR 105.45-20 - Warning sign at gangway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Warning sign at gangway. 105.45-20 Section 105.45-20... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-20 Warning sign at gangway. (a) Warning placards shall be kept at hand for display while a vessel is fast to a...

  1. 46 CFR 105.45-20 - Warning sign at gangway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning sign at gangway. 105.45-20 Section 105.45-20... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-20 Warning sign at gangway. (a) Warning placards shall be kept at hand for display while a vessel is fast to a...

  2. 46 CFR 98.30-35 - Warning sign at gangway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Warning sign at gangway. 98.30-35 Section 98.30-35... Intermediate Bulk Containers § 98.30-35 Warning sign at gangway. If a vessel is moored, no person may transfer... in charge displays at each gangway or access that is open for use a warning placard containing the...

  3. 46 CFR 98.30-35 - Warning sign at gangway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Warning sign at gangway. 98.30-35 Section 98.30-35... Warning sign at gangway. If a vessel is moored, no person may transfer to or from a portable tank a... access that is open for use a warning placard containing the following in letters 2 inches in height or...

  4. An exploration of public knowledge of warning signs for cancer.

    PubMed

    Keeney, Sinead; McKenna, Hugh; Fleming, Paul; McIlfatrick, Sonja

    2011-02-01

    Warning signs of cancer have long been used as an effective way to summarise and communicate early indications of cancer to the public. Given the increasing global burden of cancer, the communication of these warning signs to the public is more important than ever before. This paper presents part of a larger study which explored the attitudes, knowledge and behaviours of people in mid-life towards cancer prevention. The focus of this paper is on the assessment of the knowledge of members of the public aged between 35 and 54 years of age. A questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of the population listing 17 warning signs of cancer. These included the correct warning signs and distracter signs. Respondents were asked to correctly identify the seven warning signs. Findings show that respondents could identify 4.8 cancer warning signs correctly. Analysis by demographics shows that being female, being older, having a higher level of educational attainment and being in a higher socio-economic group are predictors of better level of knowledge of cancer warning signs. Recommendations are proffered with regard to better targeting, clarification and communication of cancer warning signs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section 78.47-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space...

  6. 46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 Section 108.626 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each...

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section 78.47-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space...

  8. 46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8 Section 196.37-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a...

  9. 46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 Section 131.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance...

  10. 46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 Section 131.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance...

  11. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section 97.37-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each...

  12. 46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8 Section 196.37-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a...

  13. 46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 Section 131.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance...

  14. 46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 Section 108.626 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each...

  15. 46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 Section 108.626 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each...

  16. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section 78.47-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space...

  17. 46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8 Section 196.37-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a...

  18. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section 97.37-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each...

  19. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section 97.37-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each...

  20. Warning Signs for Suicide: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, M. David; Berman, Alan L.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Nock, Matthew K.; Silverman, Morton M.; Mandrusiak, Michael; Van Orden, Kimberly; Witte, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    The current article addresses the issue of warning signs for suicide, attempting to differentiate the construct from risk factors. In accordance with the characteristic features discussed, a consensus set of warning signs identified by the American Association of Suicidology working group are presented, along with a discussion of relevant clinical…

  1. [Early warning signs of severe preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-mei; Yang, Zi; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jia-lüe

    2009-05-01

    To identify the early warning signs of severe preeclampsia (SPE). A case-control (1:2) observational study was conducted. Forty-seven pregnant women with SPE, who attended the prenatal clinics of Peking University Third Hospital regularly from Jan. 2002 to Dec. 2007, were selected as the study group, including 12 early onset and 35 late onset ones. The control group consisted of 94 healthy singleton pregnant women at the same period. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. (1) The basal body mass index (BMI) showed no difference between the study and control group [(23.27 +/- 4.31) kg/m(2) vs (21.52 +/- 3.09) kg/m(2), P > 0.05]. (2) The net increase of BMI in the study group before the onset of SPE was higher than that in the control [(5.60 +/- 2.17) kg/m(2) vs (4.85 +/- 1.52) kg/m(2), P < 0.05] and the increase of BMI per week was also higher [(0.74 +/- 0.41) kg/(m(2).w)(-1) vs (0.23 +/- 0.18) kg/(m(2).w)(-1), P < 0.01]. The sensitivity and specificity of BMI increase per week in predicting SPE was 84% and 81% at a cut-off value of 0.39 kg/(m(2).w)(-1), respectively, and 79% and 91% at 0.41 kg/(m(2).w)(-1) correspondingly. (3) During the third trimester and before the onset of SPE, the weight gain per week in the study group was higher than that of the control [(0.93 +/- 0.70) kg vs (0.63 +/- 0.20) kg, P < 0.01]. Significant difference was also found in the net weight gain between the two groups (P < 0.01), but not in the percentage of women with excessive weight gain (> 0.50 kg/w) [60% (25/42) in the study group vs 63% (53/84) in the control group, P > 0.05]. (4) Higher percentage of women experienced pre-hypertension in the study group than in the controls [17% (8/47) vs 5% (5/94), P < 0.01]. (5) In the study group, 53% (25/47) of the women had edema before SPE onset, but the figure dropped to 18% (17/94) in the controls (P < 0.01). (6) Eight women in the study group and one in the control group suffered from hypoproteinemia before SPE onset with the average

  2. Awareness of risk factors and warning signs of stroke in a Nigeria university.

    PubMed

    Obembe, Adebimpe O; Olaogun, Matthew O; Bamikole, Adesola A; Komolafe, Morenikeji A; Odetunde, Marufat O

    2014-04-01

    Rapid access to medical services which is an important predictor of treatment and rehabilitation outcome requires that there is an understanding of stroke risk factors and early warning signs. This study assessed awareness of stroke risk factors and warning signs among students and staff of Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional survey involving 994 (500 students and 494 staff) respondents. Information on the awareness of stroke risk factors and warning signs was collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Weakness (66.2%) was the most commonly identified warning sign of stroke with more staff (69.8%) identifying correctly than students (62.6%). Hypertension (83.4%) was the most commonly identified stroke risk factor, with more staff (91.7%) identifying correctly than students (83.2%). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the awareness of some risk factors (age, hypertension, stress and obesity), and warning signs (dizziness, numbness, weakness, headache and vision problems) between students and staff. Predictors for adequate awareness of both stroke risk factors and warning signs were younger age, smoking history and higher educational level. Majority of the respondents recognized individual important stroke risk factors and warning signs, but few recognized multiple stroke risk factors and warning signs. Awareness programs on stroke should be organized, even in communities with educated people to increase public awareness on the prevention of stroke and on the reduction of morbidity in the survivors. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Can cigarette warnings counterbalance effects of smoking scenes in movies?

    PubMed

    Golmier, Isabelle; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2007-02-01

    Scenes in movies where smoking occurs have been empirically shown to influence teenagers to smoke cigarettes. The capacity of a Canadian warning label on cigarette packages to decrease the effects of smoking scenes in popular movies has been investigated. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used to test the effects of the same movie scene with or without electronic manipulation of all elements related to smoking, and cigarette pack warnings, i.e., no warning, text-only warning, and text+picture warning. Smoking-related stereotypes and intent to smoke of teenagers were measured. It was found that, in the absence of warning, and in the presence of smoking scenes, teenagers showed positive smoking-related stereotypes. However, these effects were not observed if the teenagers were first exposed to a picture and text warning. Also, smoking-related stereotypes mediated the relationship of the combined presentation of a text and picture warning and a smoking scene on teenagers' intent to smoke. Effectiveness of Canadian warning labels to prevent or to decrease cigarette smoking among teenagers is discussed, and areas of research are proposed.

  4. 46 CFR 105.45-15 - Warning signals and signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Warning signals and signs. 105.45-15 Section 105.45-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-15 Warning...

  5. 46 CFR 105.45-15 - Warning signals and signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning signals and signs. 105.45-15 Section 105.45-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-15 Warning...

  6. 46 CFR 105.45-15 - Warning signals and signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Warning signals and signs. 105.45-15 Section 105.45-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-15 Warning...

  7. 46 CFR 105.45-15 - Warning signals and signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Warning signals and signs. 105.45-15 Section 105.45-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-15 Warning...

  8. 46 CFR 105.45-15 - Warning signals and signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Warning signals and signs. 105.45-15 Section 105.45-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-15 Warning...

  9. Non-smoking male adolescents' reactions to cigarette warnings.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Jessica K; Cameron, Linda D; Reiter, Paul L; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Brewer, Noel T

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is working to introduce new graphic warning labels for cigarette packages, the first change in cigarette warnings in more than 25 years. We sought to examine whether warnings discouraged participants from wanting to smoke and altered perceived likelihood of harms among adolescent males and whether these warning effects varied by age. A national sample of 386 non-smoking American males ages 11-17 participated in an online experiment during fall 2010. We randomly assigned participants to view warnings using a 2 × 2 between-subjects design. The warnings described a harm of smoking (addiction or lung cancer) using text only or text plus an image used on European cigarette package warnings. Analyses tested whether age moderated the warnings' impact on risk perceptions and smoking motivations. The warnings discouraged most adolescents from wanting to smoke, but lung cancer warnings discouraged them more than addiction warnings did (60% vs. 34% were "very much" discouraged, p<.001). Including an image had no effect on discouragement. The warnings affected several beliefs about the harms from smoking, and age moderated these effects. Adolescents said addiction was easier to imagine and more likely to happen to them than lung cancer. They also believed that their true likelihood of experiencing any harm was lower than what an expert would say. Our findings suggest that warnings focusing on lung cancer, rather than addiction, are more likely to discourage wanting to smoke among adolescent males and enhance their ability to imagine the harmful consequences of smoking. Including images on warnings had little effect on non-smoking male adolescents' discouragement or beliefs, though additional research on the effects of pictorial warnings for this at-risk population is needed as the FDA moves forward with developing new graphic labels.

  10. Awareness and impact of New York City's graphic point-of-sale tobacco health warning signs.

    PubMed

    Coady, Micaela H; Chan, Christina A; Auer, Kari; Farley, Shannon M; Kilgore, Elizabeth A; Kansagra, Susan M

    2013-05-01

    To increase knowledge of smoking-related health risks and provide smoking cessation information at the point of sale, in 2009, New York City required the posting of graphic point-of-sale tobacco health warnings in tobacco retailers. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of such a policy in the USA. Cross-sectional street-intercept surveys conducted among adult current smokers and recent quitters before and after signage implementation assessed the awareness and impact of the signs. Approximately 10 street-intercept surveys were conducted at each of 50 tobacco retailers in New York City before and after policy implementation. A total of 1007 adults who were either current smokers or recent quitters were surveyed about the awareness and impact of tobacco health warning signs. Multivariate risk ratios (RR) were calculated to estimate awareness and impact of the signs. Most participants (86%) were current smokers, and the sample was 28% African-American, 32% Hispanic/Latino and 27% non-Hispanic white. Awareness of tobacco health warning signs more than doubled after the policy implementation (adjusted RR =2.01, 95% CI 1.74 to 2.33). Signage posting was associated with an 11% increase in the extent to which signs made respondents think about quitting smoking (adjusted RR =1.11, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.22). A policy requiring tobacco retailers to display graphic health warning signs increased awareness of health risks of smoking and stimulated thoughts about quitting smoking. Additional research aimed at evaluating the effect of tobacco control measures in the retail environment is necessary to provide further rationale for implementing these changes.

  11. 33 CFR 150.622 - What are the warning sign requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the warning sign... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Warning Signs § 150.622 What are the warning sign requirements? The construction and use of warning signs must be in...

  12. 33 CFR 150.622 - What are the warning sign requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the warning sign... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Warning Signs § 150.622 What are the warning sign requirements? The construction and use of warning signs must be in...

  13. 33 CFR 150.622 - What are the warning sign requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the warning sign... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Warning Signs § 150.622 What are the warning sign requirements? The construction and use of warning signs must be in...

  14. 33 CFR 150.622 - What are the warning sign requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the warning sign... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Warning Signs § 150.622 What are the warning sign requirements? The construction and use of warning signs must be in...

  15. Conspicuity, memorability, comprehension, and priming in road hazard warning signs.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Samuel G

    2006-05-01

    This study assessed driver reactions to 16 road hazard warning signs of various formats by projecting life-sized video of road scenes to drivers in a driving simulator. A range of measures, including attentional and search conspicuity, implicit and explicit recognition, dynamic and static comprehension, and sign priming were collected. Of the signs tested, road works and school warning signs were most often detected, remembered, and understood. Slippery surface warnings were associated with some of the lowest detection and comprehension rates. The effectiveness of the different formats depended on the type of hazard sign. In the case of road works warnings, a flashing variable message format was only slightly more conspicuous than the large dimension format, equal in comprehensibility, and perhaps somewhat worse in terms of memorability. For the school warnings, however, the flashing variable message format appeared to convey a greater sense of potential hazard, produced superior search conspicuity and priming, and was equal in terms of memorability and comprehensibility. The range of measures worked well as a whole with the two measures of conspicuity and the measure of static comprehension showing the greatest consistency.

  16. The Warning Signs of Learning Disabilities. ERIC Digest #E603.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergert, Susan

    This brief paper summarizes warning signs of learning disabilities in preschool children, elementary school children, and secondary school children. It notes that learning disabilities are presumed to arise from dysfunctions in the brain resulting in significant difficulties in perceiving information, processing and/or remembering information,…

  17. Do Simple Warning Signs Enhance the Use of Stairs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksay, Ebubekir

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the use of stairways/moving stairways in shopping malls and examine the extent to which simple warning signs determined whether people took the stairs. Design: Large posters that could readily be seen by mall visitors were situated between the stairs and moving stairways in shopping malls.…

  18. Know the Warning Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... No. 22 Know the Warning Signs of a Heart Attack What is a heart attack? Aheart attack happens when the blood vessels that ... hurting your heart muscle. Another name for a heart attack is myocardial infarction, or MI. If you have ...

  19. Early Warning Signs. A Solution-Finding Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Robert, Comp.

    2017-01-01

    This Solution-Finding Report provides information, requested by Tara Zuber with the Great Lakes Comprehensive Center (GLCC) at American Institutes for Research (AIR), for resources with evidence-based practices that look at the social and emotional causes that impact the lack of student learning and engagement, for GLCC's Early Warning Signs work.…

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Indoor areas of all public places such as restaurants, bars, casinos, and other private worksites. Multiunit housing ... indoor smoking in worksites and public places, including restaurants and bars. Most people have adopted smokefree rules ...

  1. 46 CFR 35.30-1 - Warning signals and signs-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning signals and signs-TB/ALL. 35.30-1 Section 35.30... § 35.30-1 Warning signals and signs—TB/ALL. (a) Red warning signals. During transfer of bulk cargo... displayed. (b) Warning sign at gangway. A sign shall be displayed to warn persons approaching the gangway...

  2. 46 CFR 35.30-1 - Warning signals and signs-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Warning signals and signs-TB/ALL. 35.30-1 Section 35.30... § 35.30-1 Warning signals and signs—TB/ALL. (a) Red warning signals. During transfer of bulk cargo... displayed. (b) Warning sign at gangway. A sign shall be displayed to warn persons approaching the gangway...

  3. 7 Warning Signs of Alzheimer's | Alzheimer's disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease 7 Warning Signs of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table ... is to alert the public to the early warning signs of Alzheimer's disease. If someone has several ...

  4. Low cancer suspicion following experience of a cancer 'warning sign'.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Katriina L; Winstanley, Kelly; Macleod, Una; Scott, Suzanne E; Wardle, Jane

    2015-11-01

    Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a higher risk of late-stage cancer diagnosis. A number of explanations have been advanced for this, but one which has attracted recent attention is lower patient knowledge of cancer warning signs, leading to delay in help-seeking. However, although there is psychometric evidence of SES differences in knowledge of cancer symptoms, no studies have examined differences in 'cancer suspicion' among people who are actually experiencing a classic warning sign. A 'health survey' was mailed to 9771 adults (⩾50years, no cancer diagnosis) with a symptom list including 10 cancer 'warning signs'. Respondents were asked if they had experienced any of the symptoms in the past 3months, and if so, were asked 'what do you think caused it?' Any mention of cancer was scored as 'cancer suspicion'. SES was indexed by education. Nearly half the respondents (1732/3756) had experienced a 'warning sign', but only 63/1732 (3.6%) mentioned cancer as a possible cause. Lower education was associated with lower likelihood of cancer suspicion: 2.6% of respondents with school-only education versus 7.3% with university education suspected cancer as a possible cause. In multivariable analysis, low education was the only demographic variable independently associated with lower cancer suspicion (odds ratio (OR)=0.34, confidence interval (CI): 0.20-0.59). Levels of cancer suspicion were low overall in this community sample, and even lower in people from less educated backgrounds. This may hinder early symptomatic presentation and contribute to inequalities in stage at diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. 46 CFR 147A.31 - Removal of fumigation material and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Removal of fumigation material and warning signs. 147A... material and warning signs. After ventilation is completed and a marine chemist or other qualified person... vessel, shall ensure that all warning signs are removed and fumigation containers and materials are...

  6. 46 CFR 147A.31 - Removal of fumigation material and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Removal of fumigation material and warning signs. 147A... material and warning signs. After ventilation is completed and a marine chemist or other qualified person... vessel, shall ensure that all warning signs are removed and fumigation containers and materials are...

  7. 46 CFR 147A.31 - Removal of fumigation material and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Removal of fumigation material and warning signs. 147A... material and warning signs. After ventilation is completed and a marine chemist or other qualified person... vessel, shall ensure that all warning signs are removed and fumigation containers and materials are...

  8. A Test of the Effectiveness of a List of Suicide Warning Signs for the Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Hollar, Daniel; Rudd, M. David; Mandrusiak, Michael; Silverman, Morton M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined the effect that reading a list of warning signs for suicide has on beliefs about suicide, including the belief that one can recognize a suicidal crisis. All participants read two sets of warning signs (with only the experimental group reading the suicide warning signs) and then answered questions concerning beliefs…

  9. Do warning signs on electronic gaming machines influence irrational cognitions?

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Sally; Blaszczynski, Alex; Nower, Lia

    2009-08-01

    Electronic gaming machines are popular among problem gamblers; in response, governments have introduced "responsible gaming" legislation incorporating the mandatory display of warning signs on or near electronic gaming machines. These signs are designed to correct irrational and erroneous beliefs through the provision of accurate information on probabilities of winning and the concept of randomness. There is minimal empirical data evaluating the effectiveness of such signs. In this study, 93 undergraduate students were randomly allocated to standard and informative messages displayed on an electronic gaming machine during play in a laboratory setting. Results revealed that a majority of participants incorrectly estimated gambling odds and reported irrational gambling-related cognitions prior to play. In addition, there were no significant between-group differences, and few participants recalled the content of messages or modified their gambling-related cognitions. Signs placed on electronic gaming machines may not modify irrational beliefs or alter gambling behaviour.

  10. Improvement of the performance of animal crossing warning signs.

    PubMed

    Khalilikhah, Majid; Heaslip, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    Animal-vehicle collisions (AVCs) can result in serious injury and death to drivers, animals' death, and significant economic costs. However, the cost effectiveness of the majority of AVC mitigation measures is a significant issue. A mobile-based data collection effort was deployed to measure signs under the Utah Department of Transportation's (UDOT) jurisdiction. The crash data were obtained from the UDOT risk management database. ArcGIS was employed to link these two data sets and extract animal-related crashes and signs. An algorithm was developed to process the data and identify AVCs that occurred within sign recognition distance. Kernel density estimation (KDE) technique was applied to identify potential crash hotspots. Only 2% of AVCs occurred within the recognition distance of animal crossing signs. Almost 58% of animal-related crashes took place on the Interstate and U.S. highways, wherein only 30% of animal crossing signs were installed. State routes with a higher average number of signs experienced a lower number of AVCs per mile. The differences between AVCs that occurred within versus outside of sign recognition distance were not statistically significant regarding crash severity, time of crash, weather condition, driver age, vehicle speed, and type of animal. It is more likely that drivers become accustomed to deer crossing signs than cow signs. Based on the historical crash data and landscape structure, with attention given to the low cost safety improvement methods, a combination of different types of AVC mitigation measures can be developed to reduce the number of animal-related crashes. After an in-depth analysis of AVC data, warning traffic signs, coupled with other low cost mitigation countermeasures can be successfully placed in areas with higher priority or in critical areas. Practical applications: The findings of this study assist transportation agencies in developing more efficient mitigation measures against AVCs. Copyright © 2017 National

  11. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator shall...

  12. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 816.11. The operator shall— (1...

  13. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator shall...

  14. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 816.11. The operator shall— (1...

  15. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 816.11. The operator shall— (1...

  16. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator shall...

  17. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator shall...

  18. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator shall...

  19. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 816.11. The operator shall— (1...

  20. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 816.11. The operator shall— (1...

  1. Nipple Discharge: An Early Warning Sign of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Veda; Rathnam, Usharani

    2012-01-01

    Nipple discharge (ND) can be the earliest presenting symptom of breast cancer. We hereby present two cases of breast cancer with no palpable mass manifesting as isolated ND, which was whitish in color. In both cases, cytology of the discharge revealed highly pleomorphic cells indicating a high grade malignancy. Mammography showed diffuse, extensive microcalcifications. Simple mastectomy with axillary clearance was done. Histology in both cases revealed diffusely spreading intraductal carcinoma, with focus of microinvasion in one case. ND if scanty or not blood stained is often ignored by the patients and at times, the clinicians. This article highlights that ND can be an early warning sign of intraductal carcinomas that are non-invasive in early stage. Irrespective of the color or nature of the discharge, unilateral ND needs to be evaluated. Proper clinical assessment, cytological evaluation of the ND, and mammography ought to be performed in all such cases. Considering the low level of awareness in women regarding the warning signs of breast cancer, the current focus is to create “breast awareness.” Women should be sensitized to recognize any unusual changes in their breasts and report to their health care providers at the earliest. PMID:23189234

  2. Utility of warning signs in guiding admission and predicting severe disease in adult dengue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The recommendation from the 2009 World Health Organization guidelines for managing dengue suggests that patients with any warning sign can be hospitalized for observation and management. We evaluated the utility of using warning signs to guide hospital admission and predict disease progression in adults. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study from January 2010 to September 2012. Daily demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from adult dengue patients. Warning signs were recorded. The proportion of admitted patients using current admission criteria and warning signs was compared. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of warning signs in predicting disease progression were also evaluated. Results Four hundred and ninety-nine patients with confirmed dengue were analyzed. Using warning signs instead of the current admission criteria will lead to a 44% and 31% increase in admission for DHF II-IV and SD cases respectively. The proportion of non-severe dengue cases which were admitted also increased by 32% for non DHF II-IV and 33% for non-SD cases. Absence of any warning signs had a NPV of 91%, 100% and 100% for DHF I-IV, DHF II-IV and SD. Of those who progressed to severe illness, 16.3% had warning signs on the same day while 51.3% had warning signs the day before developing severe illness, respectively. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that patients without any warning signs can be managed safely with ambulatory care to reduce hospital resource burden. No single warning sign can independently predict disease progression. The window from onset of warning sign to severe illness in most cases was within one day. PMID:24152678

  3. Cyclic nocturnal awakening: a warning sign of a cluster bout.

    PubMed

    Martins, Isabel Pavão

    2015-04-01

    Cluster headache is an excruciating unilateral headache with autonomic symptoms whose periodic nocturnal activity, which interrupts sleep, has been attributed to a hypothalamic generator. We describe a patient with a longstanding episodic cluster headache who experienced, on two occasions, a period of nocturnal awakenings without pain or autonomic symptoms, lasting one week before the onset of a cluster bout. Awakenings occurred twice/night at the same hours of impending cluster attacks and had no apparent trigger, being unusual for this patient who had no previous sleep disturbances. Neurological examination and brain imaging were normal. This case documents two new aspects of cluster headache. It suggests that repeated nocturnal awakenings can be a warning sign of an impending cluster period, a finding that may have therapeutic implications, and also that hypothalamic activation may begin several days before trigemino-autonomic symptoms, thus behaving as a true bout generator. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. [Reliability and validity of warning signs checklist for screening psychological, behavioral and developmental problems of children].

    PubMed

    Huang, X N; Zhang, Y; Feng, W W; Wang, H S; Cao, B; Zhang, B; Yang, Y F; Wang, H M; Zheng, Y; Jin, X M; Jia, M X; Zou, X B; Zhao, C X; Robert, J; Jing, Jin

    2017-06-02

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of warning signs checklist developed by the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China (NHFPC), so as to determine the screening effectiveness of warning signs on developmental problems of early childhood. Method: Stratified random sampling method was used to assess the reliability and validity of checklist of warning sign and 2 110 children 0 to 6 years of age(1 513 low-risk subjects and 597 high-risk subjects) were recruited from 11 provinces of China. The reliability evaluation for the warning signs included the test-retest reliability and interrater reliability. With the use of Age and Stage Questionnaire (ASQ) and Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale (GESELL) as the criterion scales, criterion validity was assessed by determining the correlation and consistency between the screening results of warning signs and the criterion scales. Result: In terms of the warning signs, the screening positive rates at different ages ranged from 10.8%(21/141) to 26.2%(51/137). The median (interquartile) testing time for each subject was 1(0.6) minute. Both the test-retest reliability and interrater reliability of warning signs reached 0.7 or above, indicating that the stability was good. In terms of validity assessment, there was remarkable consistency between ASQ and warning signs, with the Kappa value of 0.63. With the use of GESELL as criterion, it was determined that the sensitivity of warning signs in children with suspected developmental delay was 82.2%, and the specificity was 77.7%. The overall Youden index was 0.6. Conclusion: The reliability and validity of warning signs checklist for screening early childhood developmental problems have met the basic requirements of psychological screening scales, with the characteristics of short testing time and easy operation. Thus, this warning signs checklist can be used for screening psychological and behavioral problems of early childhood

  5. Evaluation of selected warning signs at skewed railroad-highway crossings.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1986-01-01

    A 1984 study by the Research Council recommended that advance warning signs be placed in advance of skewed railroad-highway grade crossings. Several signs were suggested for use, and the study reported here was undertaken to determine the effectivene...

  6. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56.19108 Section 56.19108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56.19108 Section 56.19108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 57.19108 Section 57.19108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56.19108 Section 56.19108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56.19108 Section 56.19108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 57.19108 Section 57.19108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are...

  12. The Emotional Impact and Ease of Recall of Warning Signs for Suicide: A Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, M. David; Mandrusiak, Michael; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Berman, Alan L.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Hollar, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    In light of concerns about potential iatrogenic effects of information about suicide, in the current study we examined the emotional impact of reading a list of warning signs for suicide in comparison to comparable lists for heart attacks and diabetes. All participants read two sets of warning signs, with the experimental group reading the suicide…

  13. 10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels. (1) The responsible employer must affix... CONTAMINATED WITH BERYLLIUM DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning...

  14. 10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels. (1) The responsible employer must affix... CONTAMINATED WITH BERYLLIUM DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning...

  15. 10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels. (1) The responsible employer must affix... CONTAMINATED WITH BERYLLIUM DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning...

  16. 10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels. (1) The responsible employer must affix... CONTAMINATED WITH BERYLLIUM DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning...

  17. 10 CFR 850.38 - Warning signs and labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (b) Warning labels. (1) The responsible employer must affix... CONTAMINATED WITH BERYLLIUM DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD (c) Warning...

  18. Knowledge of stroke risk factors and early warning signs of stroke among students enrolled in allied health programs: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Milner, Abby; Lewis, William J; Ellis, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The inclusion of stroke education modules early in medical school curricula has resulted in improved stroke knowledge in graduate physicians. The success of these programs suggests that allied health professions programs should also consider strategies to improve stroke knowledge in students preparing for allied health careers that also require knowledge of stroke risk factors and early warning signs. Currently, little is known about stroke knowledge in students enrolled in allied health professions programs. 208 first- and second-year students enrolled in allied health programs completed a survey of stroke risk factors and early warning signs of stroke. Risk factor knowledge - 99% identified smoking as a risk factor; 67% identified diabetes; 93% identified high cholesterol; 89% identified age; and 92% identified physical inactivity. Less than 50% of the students identified all 5 risk factors. There were no differences between first- and second-year students in risk factor knowledge. Early warning signs and first response knowledge - 89% recognized sudden confusion or trouble speaking; 94% recognized sudden facial, arm, or leg weakness; 65% recognized sudden vision loss; 82% recognized sudden trouble walking; and 73% recognized sudden headache as early warning signs of stroke. Eighty-one percent recognized calling 9-1-1 as the appropriate first action. However, only 25% recognized all five early warning signs and only 20% recognized all five early warning signs and would call 9-1-1 as the first action. There were differences between first- and second-year students in recognizing 3 of 5 early warning signs and appropriate first action to call 9-1-1. Most students recognized individual stroke risk factors and early warning signs but few recognized multiple risk factors and early warning signs of stroke.

  19. Wildlife Warning Signs: Public Assessment of Components, Placement and Designs to Optimise Driver Response.

    PubMed

    Bond, Amy R F; Jones, Darryl N

    2013-12-17

    Wildlife warning signs are the most commonly used and widespread form of road impact mitigation, aimed at reducing the incidence of wildlife-vehicle collisions. Evidence of the effectiveness of currently used signs is rare and often indicates minimal change in driver behaviour. Improving the design of these signs to increase the likelihood of appropriate driver response has the potential to reduce the incidence of wildlife-vehicle collisions. This study aimed to examine and assess the opinions of drivers on wildlife warning sign designs through a public opinion survey. Three currently used sign designs and five alternative sign designs were compared in the survey. A total of 134 drivers were surveyed. The presence of temporal specifications and an updated count of road-killed animals on wildlife warning signs were assessed, as well as the position of the sign. Drivers' responses to the eight signs were scaled separately at three speed limits and participants indicated the sign to which they were most likely to respond. Three signs consistently ranked high. The messages conveyed by these signs and their prominent features were explored. Animal-activated and vehicle speed-activated signs were ranked very highly by participants. Extensive field trials of various sign designs are needed to further this research into optimizing wildlife warning sign designs.

  20. Signing for the "No Smoking' ordinance in Southern California

    Treesearch

    William S. Folkman

    1966-01-01

    Symbolic signs, especially designed to aid enforcement of "no smoking" ordinances, had high visibility and were correctly interpreted by most travelers. Signs with words "NO" and "OK"' were superior to signs without these words. Observation and interpretation of the signs were greater among the younger persons and among those who...

  1. Wildlife Warning Signs: Public Assessment of Components, Placement and Designs to Optimise Driver Response

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Amy R. F.; Jones, Darryl N.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Wildlife warning signs are aimed at reducing wildlife–vehicle collisions but there is little evidence that they are effective. Improving these sign designs to increase driver response may reduce wildlife–vehicle collisions. We examined drivers’ responses to different wildlife warning sign designs through a public survey. The presences of some sign components and sign position were assessed. Drivers’ responses to eight graphically displayed signs and animal- and vehicle-activated signs were ranked and participants indicated the sign to which they were most likely to respond. Three signs ranked highly. Animal- and vehicle-activated signs were also ranked highly by participants. More research into optimising wildlife warning sign designs is needed. Abstract Wildlife warning signs are the most commonly used and widespread form of road impact mitigation, aimed at reducing the incidence of wildlife–vehicle collisions. Evidence of the effectiveness of currently used signs is rare and often indicates minimal change in driver behaviour. Improving the design of these signs to increase the likelihood of appropriate driver response has the potential to reduce the incidence of wildlife–vehicle collisions. This study aimed to examine and assess the opinions of drivers on wildlife warning sign designs through a public opinion survey. Three currently used sign designs and five alternative sign designs were compared in the survey. A total of 134 drivers were surveyed. The presence of temporal specifications and an updated count of road-killed animals on wildlife warning signs were assessed, as well as the position of the sign. Drivers’ responses to the eight signs were scaled separately at three speed limits and participants indicated the sign to which they were most likely to respond. Three signs consistently ranked high. The messages conveyed by these signs and their prominent features were explored. Animal-activated and vehicle speed-activated signs

  2. Definitions for warning signs and signs of severe dengue according to the WHO 2009 classification: Systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Morra, Mostafa Ebraheem; Altibi, Ahmed M A; Iqtadar, Somia; Minh, Le Huu Nhat; Elawady, Sameh Samir; Hallab, Asma; Elshafay, Abdelrahman; Omer, Omer Abedlbagi; Iraqi, Ahmed; Adhikari, Purushottam; Labib, Jonair Hussein; Elhusseiny, Khaled Mosaad; Elgebaly, Ahmed; Yacoub, Sophie; Huong, Le Thi Minh; Hirayama, Kenji; Huy, Nguyen Tien

    2018-04-24

    Since warning signs and signs of severe dengue are defined differently between studies, we conducted a systematic review on how researchers defined these signs. We conducted an electronic search in Scopus to identify relevant articles, using key words including dengue, "warning signs," "severe dengue," and "classification." A total of 491 articles were identified through this search strategy and were subsequently screened by 2 independent reviewers for definitions of any of the warning or severe signs in the 2009 WHO dengue classification. We included all original articles published in English after 2009, classifying dengue by the 2009 WHO classification or providing the additional definition or criterion of warning signs and severity (besides the information of 2009 WHO). Analysis of the extracted data from 44 articles showed wide variations among definitions and cutoff values used by physicians to classify patients diagnosed with dengue infection. The establishment of clear definitions for warning signs and severity is essential to prevent unnecessary hospitalization and harmonizing the interpretation and comparability of epidemiological studies dedicated to dengue infection. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Smoking-related warning messages formulated as questions positively influence short-term smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Müller, Barbara Cn; Ritter, Simone M; Glock, Sabine; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Engels, Rutger Cme; van Baaren, Rick B

    2016-01-01

    Research demonstrated that by reformulating smoking warnings into questions, defensive responses in smokers are reduced and smoking-related risk perception increases. We explored whether these positive outcomes can be generalised to actual behaviour. Participants saw either a movie presenting subheadings with smoking-related questions or statements. Afterwards, the time was measured until participants lit their first cigarette. Smokers who were presented with questions about the harms of smoking waited longer before lighting up a cigarette than smokers who were presented with statements. Presenting questions instead of the statements seems to be an effective means to prolonging smokers' abstinence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Using Digital Cameras to Detect Warning Signs of Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girona, T.; Huber, C.; Trinh, K. T.; Protti, M.; Pacheco, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring volcanic outgassing is fundamental to improve the forecasting of volcanic eruptions. Recent efforts have led to the advent of new methods to measure the concentration and flux of volcanic gases with unprecedented temporal resolution, thus allowing us to obtain reliable high-frequency (up to 1 Hz) time series of outgassing activity. These high-frequency methods have shown that volcanic outgassing can be periodic sometimes (with periodicities ranging from 101 s to 103 s), although it remains unknown whether the spectral features of outgassing reflect the processes that ultimately trigger volcanic unrest and eruptions. In this study, we explore the evolution of the spectral content of the outgassing activity of Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) using digital images (with digital brightness as a proxy for the emissions of water vapor [Girona et al., 2015]). Images were taken at 1 km distance with 1 Hz sampling rate, and the time period analyzed (from April 2016 to April 2017) is characterized by episodes of quiescent outgassing, ash explosions, and sporadic eruptions of ballistics. Our preliminary results show that: 1) quiescent states of Turrialba volcano are characterized by outgassing frequency spectra with fractal distribution; 2) superimposed onto the fractal frequency spectra, well-defined pulses with period around 100 s emerge hours to days before some of the eruptions of ballistics. An important conclusion of this study is that digital cameras can be potentially used in real-time volcano monitoring to detect warning signs of eruptions, as well as to better understand subsurface processes and track the changing conditions below volcanic craters. Our ongoing study also explores the correlation between the evolution of the spectral content of outgassing, infrasound data, and shallow seismicity. Girona, T., F. Costa, B. Taisne, B. Aggangan, and S. Ildefonso (2015), Fractal degassing from Erebus and Mayon volcanoes revealed by a new method to monitor H2O

  5. How effective are the 6 European Society of Immunodeficiency warning signs for primary immunodeficiency disease?

    PubMed

    Arslan, Sevket; Ucar, Ramazan; Caliskaner, Ahmet Zafer; Reisli, Ismail; Guner, Sukru Nail; Sayar, Esra Hazar; Baloglu, Ismail

    2016-02-01

    The European Society of Immunodeficiency (ESID) developed 6 warning signs to promote the awareness of adult primary immunodeficiency disease (PID). To screen adult patients for the presence of PID using these 6 warning signs to determine the effectiveness of this protocol. Questions related to the ESID warning signs for adult PID were added to the standard outpatient clinic file system and asked of 3,510 patients who were admitted to our clinic for any reason. Patients with signs and/or suspicion of PID based on their medical history underwent immunologic investigation. In total, 24 patients were diagnosed as having a PID. The most common reason that patients with PID were admitted was frequent infection (n=18 [75%]), and the most common PID subgroup was common variable immunodeficiency (n=12 [50%]). Twenty patients with PID had at least one positive finding according to the ESID warning signs. Two patients with gastrointestinal concerns and 2 with dermatologic symptoms were also diagnosed as having a PID, although they did not have any of the ESID warning signs. The ESID warning signs do not specify the need for symptoms to diagnose a PIDs and do not include a comprehensive list of all signs and symptoms of PIDs. As a result, more than infection-centric questions are needed to identify adult patients with immunodeficiencies. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. National women's knowledge of stroke warning signs, overall and by race/ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Towfighi, Amytis; Mosca, Lori

    2014-04-01

    Recognition of stroke warning signs may reduce treatment delays. The purpose of this study was to evaluate contemporary knowledge of stroke warning signs and knowledge to call 9-1-1, among a nationally representative sample of women, overall and by race/ethnic group. A study of cardiovascular disease awareness was conducted by the American Heart Association in 2012 among English-speaking US women ≥25 years identified through random-digit dialing (n=1205; 54% white, 17% black, 17% Hispanic, and 12% other). Knowledge of stroke warning signs, and what to do first if experiencing stroke warning signs, was assessed by standardized open-ended questions. Half of women surveyed (51%) identified sudden weakness/numbness of face/limb on one side as a stroke warning sign; this did not vary by race/ethnic group. Loss of/trouble talking/understanding speech was identified by 44% of women, more frequently among white versus Hispanic women (48% versus 36%; P<0.05). Fewer than 1 in 4 women identified sudden severe headache (23%), unexplained dizziness (20%), or sudden dimness/loss of vision (18%) as warning signs, and 1 in 5 (20%) did not know 1 stroke warning sign. The majority of women said that they would call 9-1-1 first if they thought they were experiencing signs of a stroke (84%), and this did not vary among black (86%), Hispanic (79%), or white/other (85%) women. Knowledge of stroke warning signs was low among a nationally representative sample of women, especially among Hispanics. In contrast, knowledge to call 9-1-1 when experiencing signs of stroke was high.

  7. 46 CFR 35.40-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs-T/ALL. 35.40-8 Section 35.40-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs—T/ALL. Each entrance to a space storing...

  8. 46 CFR 35.40-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs-T/ALL. 35.40-8 Section 35... Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs—T/ALL. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into which carbon...

  9. 46 CFR 35.40-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs-T/ALL. 35.40-8 Section 35... Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs—T/ALL. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into which carbon...

  10. Experimental Design for Evaluating the Safety Benefits of Railroad Advance Warning Signs

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-04-01

    The report presents the findings and conclusions of a study to develop an experimental design and analysis plan for field testing and evaluation of the accident reduction potential of a proposed new railroad grade crossing advance warning sign. Sever...

  11. Uniform Traffic Control and Warning Messages for Portable Changeable Message Signs

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test word and symbol traffic control and hazard warning messages for use on portable changeable message signs (PCMSs). The literature was reviewed, State highway engineers were interviewed, PCMS manufactur...

  12. Awareness of stroke risk factors and warning signs in Nigerian adolescents compared with adults.

    PubMed

    Komolafe, Morenikeji A; Obembe, Adebimpe O; Olaogun, Matthew O; Adebiyi, Ayoade M; Ugalahi, Theresa; Dada, Olumuyiwa; Kanu, Alfred; Adebiyi, Olubunmi C; Akilo, Folarin; Ogunkoya, Bukola; Fawale, Bimbo

    2015-03-01

    Stroke, a significant health problem affecting adults, is increasing among younger age groups, particularly because of changing lifestyles. The aim of the study was to compare the awareness of stroke risk factors and warning signs among students and teachers in selected secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional survey involving 703 (589 students and 114 teachers) respondents in selected secondary schools in Osun, Nigeria. Information on the awareness of stroke risk factors and warning signs was collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Hypertension (69.4%) was the most commonly identified stroke risk factor, with more teachers (79.8%) identifying correctly than the students (67.4%). Weakness (51.9%) was the most commonly identified warning sign of stroke with more students (53.8%) identifying correctly than the teachers (42.1%). There were significant differences in the awareness of some risk factors (age, obesity, family history, alcohol use, diet, transient ischemic attack, and hyperlipidemia) and warning signs (dizziness, weakness, and vision problems) between students and teachers. Predictors for adequate awareness of risk factors were being a teacher, not being obese and being hypertensive, whereas predictors for adequate awareness of warning signs were stroke in the family and being hypertensive. There was inadequate awareness of risk factors and warning signs among the respondents with students having better awareness of warning signs and teachers having better awareness of risk factors. Stroke campaigns should emphasize stroke risk factors particularly among adolescents and warning signs in adults. The use of media, particularly television, is recommended. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Do graphic health warning labels have an impact on adolescents' smoking-related beliefs and behaviours?

    PubMed

    White, Victoria; Webster, Bernice; Wakefield, Melanie

    2008-09-01

    To assess the impact of the introduction of graphic health warning labels on cigarette packets on adolescents at different smoking uptake stages. School-based surveys conducted in the year prior to (2005) and approximately 6 months after (2006) the introduction of the graphic health warnings. The 2006 survey was conducted after a TV advertising campaign promoting two new health warnings. Secondary schools in greater metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Students in year levels 8-12: 2432 students in 2005, and 2050 in 2006, participated. Smoking uptake stage, intention to smoke, reported exposure to cigarette packs, knowledge of health effects of smoking, cognitive processing of warning labels and perceptions of cigarette pack image. At baseline, 72% of students had seen cigarette packs in the previous 6 months, while at follow-up 77% had seen packs and 88% of these had seen the new warning labels. Cognitive processing of warning labels increased, with students more frequently reading, attending to, thinking and talking about warning labels at follow-up. Experimental and established smokers thought about quitting and forgoing cigarettes more at follow-up. At follow-up intention to smoke was lower among those students who had talked about the warning labels and had forgone cigarettes. Graphic warning labels on cigarette packs are noticed by the majority of adolescents, increase adolescents' cognitive processing of these messages and have the potential to lower smoking intentions. Our findings suggest that the introduction of graphic warning labels may help to reduce smoking among adolescents.

  14. Cigarette graphic warning labels increase both risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement.

    PubMed

    Evans, Abigail T; Peters, Ellen; Shoben, Abigail B; Meilleur, Louise R; Klein, Elizabeth G; Tompkins, Mary Kate; Tusler, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Cigarette graphic warning labels elicit negative emotion, which increases risk perceptions through multiple processes. We examined whether this emotion simultaneously affects motivated cognitions like smoking myth endorsement (e.g. 'exercise can undo the negative effects of smoking') and perceptions of cigarette danger versus other products. 736 adult and 469 teen smokers/vulnerable smokers viewed one of three warning label types (text-only, low emotion graphic or high emotion graphic) four times over two weeks. Emotional reactions to the warnings were reported during the first and fourth exposures. Participants reported how often they considered the warnings, smoking myth endorsement, risk perceptions and perceptions of cigarette danger relative to smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes. In structural equation models, emotional reactions influenced risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement through two processes. Emotion acted as information about risk, directly increasing smoking risk perceptions and decreasing smoking myth endorsement. Emotion also acted as a spotlight, motivating consideration of the warning information. Warning consideration increased risk perceptions, but also increased smoking myth endorsement. Emotional reactions to warnings decreased perceptions of cigarette danger relative to other products. Emotional reactions to cigarette warnings increase smoking risk perceptions, but also smoking myth endorsement and misperceptions that cigarettes are less dangerous than potentially harm-reducing tobacco products.

  15. Health Warnings, Smoking Rules, and Smoking Status: A Cross-National Comparison of Turkey and the United States.

    PubMed

    Wintemberg, Jenna; Yu, Mansoo; Caman, Ozge Karadag

    2018-05-12

    This study aimed to compare the prevalence of smoking status (i.e., current, former and never) between the United States and Turkey in terms of age and gender, and examine how smoking rules and health warnings are associated with smoking status within and between the two countries. The study used data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey (U.S. sample, N = 60,196) and the 2012 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (Turkey sample, N = 9,581). SAS PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC with a weighted variable was used to examine the associations between demographics (age, gender and education), smoking rules, health warnings, and smoking status within and between the two countries. There was an 18% current smoking prevalence among U.S. sample, compared to 27% of the Turkey sample. The U.S. sample had a higher rate of former smoking compared to the Turkey sample (25% vs. 22%). In both countries, being older and male gender predicted former smoking while being younger and female gender predicted never smoking. Having seen a health warning, and not allowing smoking in the vehicle and home positively predicted former and never smoking status. Higher education predicted both smoking statuses in the U.S. only. It is important to work with partners particularly in low- and middle-income countries (e.g., Turkey) to combat the global tobacco epidemic. In both counties, cessation endeavors should emphasize a comprehensive understanding of smoking status in terms of smoking rules in personal spaces and health warnings.

  16. Use of Warning Signs for Dengue by Pediatric Health Care Staff in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sicuro Correa, Luana; Hökerberg, Yara Hahr Marques; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de; Barros, Danielle Martins de Souza; Alexandria, Helenara Abadia Ferreira; Daumas, Regina Paiva; Andrade, Carlos Augusto Ferreira de; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert; Brasil, Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the use of dengue warning signs by pediatric healthcare staff in the Brazilian public health care system. Cross-sectional study (2012) with physicians, nurses, and nurse technicians assisting children in five health care facilities. Participants reported the use and importance of dengue warning signs in pediatrics clinical practice through a structured questionnaire. Differences in the use of signs (chi-square test) and in the ranking assigned to each of them (Kruskal-Wallis) were assessed according to health care occupation and level of care (p<0.05). The final sample comprised 474 participants (97%), mean age of 37 years (standard deviation = 10.3), mainly females (83.8%), physicians (40.1%) and from tertiary care (75.1%). The majority (91%) reported using warning signs for dengue in pediatrics clinical practice. The most widely used and highly valued signs were major hemorrhages (gastrointestinal, urinary), abdominal pain, and increase in hematocrit concurrent or not with rapid decrease in platelet count. Persistent vomiting as well as other signs of plasma leakage such as respiratory distress and lethargy/restlessness were not identified as having the same degree of importance, especially by nurse technicians and in primary or secondary care. Although most health care staff reported using dengue warning signs, it would be useful to extend the training for identifying easily recognizable signs of plasma leakage that occur regardless of bleeding.

  17. Use of Warning Signs for Dengue by Pediatric Health Care Staff in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hökerberg, Yara Hahr Marques; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Barros, Danielle Martins de Souza; Alexandria, Helenara Abadia Ferreira; Daumas, Regina Paiva; de Andrade, Carlos Augusto Ferreira; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert; Brasil, Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the use of dengue warning signs by pediatric healthcare staff in the Brazilian public health care system. Methods Cross-sectional study (2012) with physicians, nurses, and nurse technicians assisting children in five health care facilities. Participants reported the use and importance of dengue warning signs in pediatrics clinical practice through a structured questionnaire. Differences in the use of signs (chi-square test) and in the ranking assigned to each of them (Kruskal-Wallis) were assessed according to health care occupation and level of care (p<0.05). Results The final sample comprised 474 participants (97%), mean age of 37 years (standard deviation = 10.3), mainly females (83.8%), physicians (40.1%) and from tertiary care (75.1%). The majority (91%) reported using warning signs for dengue in pediatrics clinical practice. The most widely used and highly valued signs were major hemorrhages (gastrointestinal, urinary), abdominal pain, and increase in hematocrit concurrent or not with rapid decrease in platelet count. Persistent vomiting as well as other signs of plasma leakage such as respiratory distress and lethargy/restlessness were not identified as having the same degree of importance, especially by nurse technicians and in primary or secondary care. Discussion Although most health care staff reported using dengue warning signs, it would be useful to extend the training for identifying easily recognizable signs of plasma leakage that occur regardless of bleeding. PMID:27716812

  18. Evaluation of a radar activated speed warning sign for school zone speed control.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-01-01

    During the fall of 2003, the Maine Department of Transportation tested a radar-activated speed warning : sign at two different locations in different towns near elementary schools. The sign was manufactured by : 3M and was loaned to MaineDOT for test...

  19. Effect of Pictorial Cigarette Pack Warnings on Changes in Smoking Behavior: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Noel T; Hall, Marissa G; Noar, Seth M; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Bach, Laura E; Hanley, Sean; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-07-01

    Pictorial warnings on cigarette packs draw attention and increase quit intentions, but their effect on smoking behavior remains uncertain. To assess the effect of adding pictorial warnings to the front and back of cigarette packs. This 4-week between-participant randomized clinical trial was carried out in California and North Carolina. We recruited a convenience sample of adult cigarette smokers from the general population beginning September 2014 through August 2015. Of 2149 smokers who enrolled, 88% completed the trial. No participants withdrew owing to adverse events. We randomly assigned participants to receive on their cigarette packs for 4 weeks either text-only warnings (one of the Surgeon General's warnings currently in use in the United States on the side of the cigarette packs) or pictorial warnings (one of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act's required text warnings and pictures that showed harms of smoking on the top half of the front and back of the cigarette packs). The primary trial outcome was attempting to quit smoking during the study. We hypothesized that smokers randomized to receive pictorial warnings would be more likely to report a quit attempt during the study than smokers randomized to receive a text-only Surgeon General's warning. Of the 2149 participants who began the trial (1039 men, 1060 women, and 34 transgender people; mean [SD] age, 39.7 [13.4] years for text-only warning, 39.8 [13.7] for pictorial warnings), 1901 completed it. In intent-to-treat analyses (n = 2149), smokers whose packs had pictorial warnings were more likely than those whose packs had text-only warnings to attempt to quit smoking during the 4-week trial (40% vs 34%; odds ratio [OR], 1.29; 95% CI, 1.09-1.54). The findings did not differ across any demographic groups. Having quit smoking for at least the 7 days prior to the end of the trial was more common among smokers who received pictorial than those who received text-only warnings (5.7% vs 3

  20. Disparities in adult awareness of heart attack warning signs and symptoms--14 states, 2005.

    PubMed

    2008-02-22

    In 2005, approximately 920,000 persons in the United States had a myocardial infarction (i.e., heart attack); in 2004, approximately 157,000 heart attacks were fatal. One study indicated that approximately half of cardiac deaths occur within 1 hour of symptom onset, before patients reach a hospital. Timely access to emergency cardiac care, receipt of advanced treatment, and potential for surviving a heart attack all depend on 1) early recognition of warning signs and symptoms of a heart attack by persons who are having a heart attack and bystanders and 2) immediately calling 9-1-1. Healthy People 2010 includes an objective to increase from 46% to 50% the proportion of adults aged > or =20 years who are aware of the early warning signs and symptoms of a heart attack and the importance of accessing rapid emergency care by calling 9-1-1 (objective 12-2). To update estimates of public awareness of heart attack warning signs and symptoms and knowledge of the importance of calling 9-1-1, CDC analyzed 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from the 14 states that included questions on signs and symptoms of a heart attack. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that although the awareness of certain individual warning signs was as high as 93% (i.e., for shortness of breath), awareness of all five warning signs was 31%, underscoring the need for public health measures to increase public awareness of heart attack warning signs and symptoms. In addition, disparities in awareness were observed by race/ethnicity, sex, and level of education, suggesting that new public health measures should target populations with the lowest levels of awareness.

  1. Influence of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Displays and Graphic Health Warning Signs on Adults: Evidence From a Virtual Store Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Annice E.; Nonnemaker, James M.; Loomis, Brett R.; Shafer, Paul R.; Shaikh, Asma; Hill, Edward; Holloway, John W.; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the impact of banning tobacco displays and posting graphic health warning signs at the point of sale (POS). Methods. We designed 3 variations of the tobacco product display (open, enclosed [not visible], enclosed with pro-tobacco ads) and 2 variations of the warning sign (present vs absent) with virtual store software. In December 2011 and January 2012, we randomized a national convenience sample of 1216 adult smokers and recent quitters to 1 of 6 store conditions and gave them a shopping task. We tested for the main effects of the enclosed display, the sign, and their interaction on urge to smoke and tobacco purchase attempts. Results. The enclosed display significantly lowered current smokers’ (B = −7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −13.20, −0.91; P < .05) and recent quitters’ (Β = −6.00, 95% CI = −11.00, −1.00; P < .01) urge to smoke and current smokers’ purchase attempts (adjusted odds ratio = 0.06; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.11; P < .01). The warning sign had no significant main effect on study outcomes or interaction with enclosed display. Conclusions. These data show that POS tobacco displays influence purchase behavior. Banning them may reduce cues to smoke and unplanned tobacco purchases. PMID:24625149

  2. Influence of point-of-sale tobacco displays and graphic health warning signs on adults: evidence from a virtual store experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Annice E; Nonnemaker, James M; Loomis, Brett R; Shafer, Paul R; Shaikh, Asma; Hill, Edward; Holloway, John W; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    We tested the impact of banning tobacco displays and posting graphic health warning signs at the point of sale (POS). We designed 3 variations of the tobacco product display (open, enclosed [not visible], enclosed with pro-tobacco ads) and 2 variations of the warning sign (present vs absent) with virtual store software. In December 2011 and January 2012, we randomized a national convenience sample of 1216 adult smokers and recent quitters to 1 of 6 store conditions and gave them a shopping task. We tested for the main effects of the enclosed display, the sign, and their interaction on urge to smoke and tobacco purchase attempts. The enclosed display significantly lowered current smokers' (B = -7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -13.20, -0.91; P < .05) and recent quitters' (Β = -6.00, 95% CI = -11.00, -1.00; P < .01) urge to smoke and current smokers' purchase attempts (adjusted odds ratio = 0.06; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.11; P < .01). The warning sign had no significant main effect on study outcomes or interaction with enclosed display. These data show that POS tobacco displays influence purchase behavior. Banning them may reduce cues to smoke and unplanned tobacco purchases.

  3. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Layoun, Nelly; Salameh, Pascal; Waked, Mirna; Aoun Bacha, Z; Zeenny, Rony M; El Hitti, Eric; Godin, Isabelle; Dramaix, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. Methods A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Results Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to the textual warnings effects. A higher motivation to quit cigarette smoking was seen among the following groups of smokers: males (odds ratio [OR] =1.8, P=0.02), who had stopped smoking for at least 1 month during the last year due to textual warning (OR =2.79, P<0.001), who considered it very important to report health warning on cigarette packs (OR =1.92, P=0.01), who had chronic expectoration (OR =1.81, P=0.06) and who would change their favorite cigarette pack if they found shocking images on the pack (OR =1.95, P=0.004). Conclusion Low-dependent smokers and highly motivated to quit smokers appeared to be more hypothetically susceptible to shocking pictorial warnings. Motivation to quit was associated with sensitivity to warnings, but not with the presence of all chronic respiratory symptoms. PMID

  4. A Mixed Methods Approach to Identify Cognitive Warning Signs for Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Adler, Abby; Bush, Ashley; Barg, Frances K; Weissinger, Guy; Beck, Aaron T; Brown, Gregory K

    2016-01-01

    This study used a mixed methods approach to examine pathways to suicidal behavior by identifying cognitive warning signs that occurred within 1 day of a suicide attempt. Transcripts of cognitive therapy sessions from 35 patients who attempted suicide were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Cognitive themes emerging from these transcripts included: state hopelessness, focus on escape, suicide as a solution, fixation on suicide, and aloneness. Differences in demographic and baseline diagnostic and symptom data were explored in relation to each cognitive theme. We propose a potential conceptual model of cognitive warning signs for suicide attempts that requires further testing.

  5. Recognizing Warning Signs of K-12 Christian School Distress That Lead to School Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify statistically significant warning signs of K12 Christian school distress that can lead to school closure in the areas of leadership, homogeneity of vision and culture, finances, and competition, as described by Fitzpatrick (2002) and Nichols (2006). Twenty-four strong, declining, and closed K-12…

  6. 46 CFR 147A.31 - Removal of fumigation material and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Removal of fumigation material and warning signs. 147A.31 Section 147A.31 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION After Ventilation § 147A.31 Removal of fumigation...

  7. 46 CFR 147A.31 - Removal of fumigation material and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Removal of fumigation material and warning signs. 147A.31 Section 147A.31 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION After Ventilation § 147A.31 Removal of fumigation...

  8. Warning Signs of Youth Violence. Just the Facts: Answers to Your Questions about Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychological Association (APA), 2002

    2002-01-01

    Violence. It's the act of purposefully hurting someone. And it's a major issue facing today's young adults. This fact sheet answers questions that those aged 12-24 might ask about violence. This age group faces the highest risk of being the victim of violence. Questions regard the causes of youth violence, warning signs, what to do if someone…

  9. Early Warning Signs of Suicide in Service Members Who Engage in Unauthorized Acts of Violence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    observable to military law enforcement personnel. Statistical analyses tested for differences in warning signs between cases of suicide, violence, or...indicators, (2) Behavioral Change indicators, (3) Social indicators, and (4) Occupational indicators. Statistical analyses were conducted to test for...6 Coding _________________________________________________________________ 7 Statistical

  10. 30 CFR 57.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 57.19108 Section 57.19108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  11. Advertising strategies to increase public knowledge of the warning signs of stroke.

    PubMed

    Silver, Frank L; Rubini, Frank; Black, Diane; Hodgson, Corinne S

    2003-08-01

    Public awareness of the warning signs of stroke is important. As part of an educational campaign using mass media, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario conducted public opinion polling in 4 communities to track the level of awareness of the warning signs of stroke and to determine the impact of different media strategies. Telephone surveys were conducted among members of the general public in 1 control and 3 test communities before and after mass media campaigns. The main outcome measure used to determine effectiveness of the campaigns was the ability to name > or =2 warning signs of stroke. In communities exposed to television advertising, ability to name the warning signs of stroke increased significantly. There was no significant change in the community receiving print (newspaper) advertising, and the control community experienced a decrease. Television increased the knowledge of both men and women and of people with less than a secondary school education but not of those > or =65 years of age. Intermittent, low-level television advertising was as effective as continuous, high-level television advertising. Results of this survey can be used to guide mass media-buying strategies for public health education.

  12. The effect of graphic cigarette warning labels on smoking behavior: evidence from the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Azagba, Sunday; Sharaf, Mesbah F

    2013-03-01

    There is a substantial literature that graphic tobacco warnings are effective; however, there is limited evidence based on actual smoking behavior. The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of graphic cigarette warning labels on smoking prevalence and quit attempts. A nationally representative sample of individuals aged 15 years and older from the Canadian National Population Health Survey 1998-2008 is used. The sample consists of 4,853 individuals for the smoking prevalence regression and 1,549 smokers for quit attempts. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was used to examine the population-averaged (marginal) effects of tobacco graphic warnings on smoking prevalence and quit attempts. To assess the effect of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking behavior, we used a scaled variable that takes the value of 0 for the first 6 months in 2001, then increases gradually to 1 from December 2001. We found that graphic warnings had a statistically significant effect on smoking prevalence and quit attempts. In particular, the warnings decreased the odds of being a smoker (odds ratio [OR] = 0.875; 95% CI = 0.821-0.932) and increased the odds of making a quit attempt (OR = 1.330, CI = 1.187-1.490). Similar results were obtained when we allowed for more time for the warnings to appear in retail outlets. This study adds to the growing body of evidence on the effectiveness of graphic warnings. Our findings suggest that warnings had a significant effect on smoking prevalence and quit attempts in Canada.

  13. Exploring Vital Sign Data Quality in Electronic Health Records with Focus on Emergency Care Warning Scores.

    PubMed

    Skyttberg, Niclas; Chen, Rong; Blomqvist, Hans; Koch, Sabine

    2017-08-30

    Computerized clinical decision support and automation of warnings have been advocated to assist clinicians in detecting patients at risk of physiological instability. To provide reliable support such systems are dependent on high-quality vital sign data. Data quality depends on how, when and why the data is captured and/or documented. This study aims to describe the effects on data quality of vital signs by three different types of documentation practices in five Swedish emergency hospitals, and to assess data fitness for calculating warning and triage scores. The study also provides reference data on triage vital signs in Swedish emergency care. We extracted a dataset including vital signs, demographic and administrative data from emergency care visits (n=335027) at five Swedish emergency hospitals during 2013 using either completely paper-based, completely electronic or mixed documentation practices. Descriptive statistics were used to assess fitness for use in emergency care decision support systems aiming to calculate warning and triage scores, and data quality was described in three categories: currency, completeness and correctness. To estimate correctness, two further categories - plausibility and concordance - were used. The study showed an acceptable correctness of the registered vital signs irrespectively of the type of documentation practice. Completeness was high in sites where registrations were routinely entered into the Electronic Health Record (EHR). The currency was only acceptable in sites with a completely electronic documentation practice. Although vital signs that were recorded in completely electronic documentation practices showed plausible results regarding correctness, completeness and currency, the study concludes that vital signs documented in Swedish emergency care EHRs cannot generally be considered fit for use for calculation of triage and warning scores. Low completeness and currency were found if the documentation was not completely

  14. Exposure to a Mnemonic Interferes with Recall of Suicide Warning Signs in a Community-Based Suicide Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Craig J.; Steiner-Pappalardo, Nicole; Rudd, M. David

    2009-01-01

    The incremental impact of adding a mnemonic to remember suicide warning signs to the Air Force Suicide Prevention Program (AFSPP) community awareness briefing was investigated with a sample of young, junior-enlisted airmen. Participants in the standard briefing significantly increased their ability to list suicide warning signs and improved…

  15. Facility 136, view of north end, "No Smoking" sign, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 136, view of north end, "No Smoking" sign, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Latrines, Off Avenue C, at Repair Basins B13, B15-B18 & B20, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of a smoking warning label on raising patient awareness of smoking and bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B; Abouassaly, R; Ghiculete, D; Stewart, R J

    2013-08-01

    We assessed the knowledge of patients with regard to the association between smoking and bladder cancer, and examined the impact of a novel smoking warning label on raising awareness of this issue. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study involving patients who presented to urology and family practice clinics. A questionnaire was used to assess knowledge regarding the association between smoking and various diseases. Participants were also asked to evaluate a novel smoking warning label for bladder cancer. A total of 291 (97%) patients responded to the questionnaire including 143 (95.3%) at urology clinics and 148 (98.7%) at family practice clinics. Overall only 45.2% of respondents were aware of the association between smoking and bladder cancer compared to 97.4% who knew that there was an association between smoking and lung cancer. There were no significant differences in knowledge between those at urology and family practice clinics. After viewing the warning label, 58.1% of respondents stated that it had changed their opinion on smoking and bladder cancer, and 74.8% felt that this label would be an effective tool to raise awareness of the issue. Patients who changed their opinion had statistically significantly less initial knowledge about the association between smoking and bladder cancer (36.7% vs 57.5% for those who did not change their opinion, p <0.001). Awareness of the link between smoking and bladder cancer remains low. The use of a smoking warning label may help raise awareness of this important public health issue. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Public education strategies to increase awareness of stroke warning signs and the need to call 911.

    PubMed

    Fogle, Crystelle C; Oser, Carrie S; Troutman, T Polly; McNamara, Michael; Williamson, Anthony P; Keller, Matt; McNamara, Steve; Helgerson, Steven D; Gohdes, Dorothy; Harwell, Todd S

    2008-01-01

    Rapid identification and treatment of ischemic stroke can lead to improved patient outcomes. We implemented a 20-week public education campaign to increase community awareness of warning signs for stroke and the need to call 911. Telephone surveys were conducted in adults aged 45 years and older before and after the intervention to evaluate its impact. There was a significant increase in awareness of two or more warning signs for stroke from baseline to follow-up (67% to 83%). Awareness increased significantly among both men and women and younger and older respondents. There was no significant change in the proportion of respondents indicating that they would call 911 if they witnessed someone having a stroke (74% to 76%). However, after the campaign, an increased proportion of respondents indicated that they would call 911 if they experienced sudden speech problems (51% to 58%), numbness or loss of sensation (41% to 51%), or paralysis (46% to 59%) that would not go away. Our findings suggest that a high-intensity public education campaign can increase community awareness of the warning signs for stroke and the need to call 911.

  18. Clinical profile and warning sign finding in children with severe dengue and non-severe dengue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, A. S.; Pasaribu, S.; Wijaya, H.; Pasaribu, A. P.

    2018-03-01

    Dengue fever is one of the most important emerging vector-borne viral diseases. Approximately 500,000 out of 100 million cases develop to severe dengue infection. Patient with severe dengue (SD) can be predicted by clinical profile, laboratory and warning sign which could be saved by early interventions.This was a retrospective descriptive-analytic study to investigate clinical manifestations, laboratory and warning signs ofchildren with dengue infection in Haji Adam Malik hospital during January 2014–May 2016. Through medical records, we had selected 140 cases which fulfilled research criteria.Cases were classified as SD (n=28) and NSD (n=112). Most common clinical manifestations for NSD were abdominal pain (39.3%), myalgia (39.3%), headache (37.1%), mucosal bleeding (36.4%) while for SD were shock (15.7%), mucosal bleeding (15.7%), clinical fluid accumulation (15%), shortness of breath (14.3%). SGPT >1000IU/L (5 cases), SGOT >1000IU/L (9 cases), PT (10 cases) and aPTT (16 cases) were abnormal in SD. Severe dengue was frequently found in the range of white cell count 1000-4000/L and platelet count 20,000-50,000mm/uL. Clinical manifestations, warning sign, and laboratoryfinding, were different between SD and NSD.

  19. Effect of graphic cigarette warnings on smoking intentions in young adults.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G

    2014-01-01

    Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18-24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive "boomerang effects" on intention was observed in any subgroup. Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults.

  20. Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Methods Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18–24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. Results GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive “boomerang effects” on intention was observed in any subgroup. Conclusion Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults. PMID:24806481

  1. Warning Signs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Victoria R.; Martin, Heather A.; Ambrose, Rebecca C.; Philipp, Randolph A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors explain that when engaging in a problem-solving conversation with a child, their goal goes beyond helping the child reach a correct answer. They want to learn about the child's mathematical thinking, support that thinking, and extend it as far as possible. This exploration of children's thinking is central to…

  2. Impact of the graphic Canadian warning labels on adult smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hammond, D; Fong, G T; McDonald, P W; Cameron, R; Brown, K S

    2003-12-01

    To assess the impact of graphic Canadian cigarette warning labels on current adult smokers. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted with 616 adult smokers in south western Ontario, Canada in October/November 2001, with three month follow up. Smoking behaviour (quitting, quit attempts, and reduced smoking), intentions to quit, and salience of the warning labels. Virtually all smokers (91%) reported having read the warning labels and smokers demonstrated a thorough knowledge of their content. A strong positive relation was observed between a measure of cognitive processing-the extent to which smokers reported reading, thinking about, and discussing the new labels-and smokers' intentions to quit (odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 1.16; p < 0.001). Most important, cognitive processing predicted cessation behaviour at follow up. Smokers who had read, thought about, and discussed the new labels at baseline were more likely to have quit, made a quit attempt, or reduced their smoking three months later, after adjusting for intentions to quit and smoking status at baseline (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12; p < 0.001). Graphic cigarette warning labels serve as an effective population based smoking cessation intervention. The findings add to the growing literature on health warnings and provide strong support for the effectiveness of Canada's tobacco labelling policy.

  3. Implications of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels on Smoking Behavior: An International Perspective.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2016-03-01

    Graphic warning labels (GWLs) have been developed as a representative non-price policy to block such marketing. This study investigated the current state and effect of the global introduction of GWLs and examines the future tasks related to GWLs. We systematically reviewed literatures on GWL and a tobacco control strategy in the past fifteen years. The policy of enforcing GWLs has spread globally based on the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. GWLs are more effective than text warnings and are implemented in over 70 countries. The policy has showed the impact of GWLs as a preventive effect on adolescents' smoking, inducement of smoking cessation, reduction in the amount of tobacco smoked, and reduction in smoking rates. The success of an anti-smoking policy can manifests itself as an effect of individual policies, the rise of tobacco prices, and the introduction of GWLs.

  4. Exposure to a mnemonic interferes with recall of suicide warning signs in a community-based suicide prevention program.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Steiner-Pappalardo, Nicole; Rudd, M David

    2009-04-01

    The incremental impact of adding a mnemonic to remember suicide warning signs to the Air Force Suicide Prevention Program (AFSPP) community awareness briefing was investigated with a sample of young, junior-enlisted airmen. Participants in the standard briefing significantly increased their ability to list suicide warning signs and improved consistency with an expert consensus list, whereas participants in the standard briefing plus mnemonic demonstrated no learning. Both groups demonstrated positive changes in beliefs about suicide. Results suggest that inclusion of the mnemonic in the AFSPP briefing interfered with participants' ability to learn suicide warning signs, and that increased confidence in the perceived ability to recognize suicide risk is not related to actual ability to accurately recall warning signs.

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of regulatory and warning signs on driver behavior near highway/rail crossings : research project capsule.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-01

    The primary objective of this research project is to evaluate the effectiveness of regulatory and warning signs on driver behavior : by analyzing their effectiveness in reducing instances of stopped vehicles within the dynamic envelope zone (i.e., th...

  6. Women’s Perspectives on Smoking and Pregnancy and Graphic Warning Labels

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Denise M.; Stone-Wiggins, Brenda; O’Hegarty, Michelle; Tong, Van T.; Polen, Kara N. D.; Cassell, Cynthia H.; Council, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore women’s knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about adverse outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy and which outcomes might motivate cessation; to explore reactions to graphic warnings depicting 2 adverse outcomes. Methods Twelve focus groups were conducted with women of childbearing age who were current smokers. Results Participants had low to moderate awareness of many outcomes and believed it was acceptable to smoke in the first trimester before knowledge of pregnancy. Perceived susceptibility to outcomes was low. Motivators included risk-focused information, especially serious risks to the baby (eg, stillbirth, SIDS). Graphic warnings produced strong reactions, especially the warning with a real photo. Conclusions Despite barriers to reducing rates of smoking during pregnancy, educational information and photos depicting babies’ risks could motivate women to quit. PMID:24933145

  7. Ohio Appalachian residents' views on smoke-free laws and cigarette warning labels.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Paul L; Wewers, Mary E; Paskett, Electra D; Klein, Elizabeth G; Katz, Mira L

    2012-01-01

    Smoke-free laws and the addition of graphic warning labels to cigarette packages represent public health policies that can potentially reduce smoking and smoking-related disease. The attitudes and beliefs relating to these policies were examined among residents of Ohio Appalachia, a mostly rural region with high smoking prevalence among its residents. Focus groups were conducted with participants from Ohio Appalachia during the summer of 2007. Groups included healthcare providers (n=37), community leaders (n=31), parents (n=19), and young adult women aged 18-26 years (n=27). Most participants were female (94%), non-Hispanic White (94%), and married (65%). Participants believed that most non-smokers supported Ohio's enforced statewide comprehensive smoke-free law that began in 2007, while some smokers opposed the law due to a perceived infringement of their rights. They also reported that most residents and local businesses were abiding by and enforcing the law. Participants supported the addition of graphic warning labels to cigarette packages in the USA. They believed that such warning labels could help deter adolescents and adult non-smokers from smoking initiation, particularly if the negative aesthetic effects of smoking were emphasized. However, they felt the labels would be less effective among current smokers and older individuals living in their communities. Participants generally held positive views about both the smoke-free law and the addition of graphic warning labels to cigarette packages in the USA. These tobacco-related public health policies are promising strategies for potentially reducing smoking and its associated diseases among residents living in Appalachia. Additional research is needed to further examine support for these policies among more diverse Appalachian populations.

  8. Self-reported awareness of the presence of product warning messages and signs by Hispanics in San Francisco.

    PubMed Central

    Marín, G

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the self-reported awareness of the presence of product warning messages and signs among random samples of Hispanics in San Francisco surveyed in 1990 and in 1991. The messages that were tested related to cigarettes, alcoholic beverages, and other consumer products. A random sample of 1,204 Hispanics (43.5 percent males) were interviewed by telephone in 1990. The corresponding figure for the second survey in 1991 was 1,569 Hispanics (41.1 percent males). In general, respondents reported low levels of awareness of the presence of product warning messages and signs. The exception was warning messages on cigarette packets which approximately 70 percent of the respondents reported having seen within the 12 months before the survey. There was an increase from 1990 to 1991 in the reported awareness of warning messages for wine, beer, and cigarettes. Smokers and drinkers of alcoholic beverages reported the highest levels of awareness of the relevant warning messages and signs. Length of exposure to warning messages and multiplicity of sources (for example, advertisements and products) seem to produce greater levels of awareness of the presence of product warning messages. Less acculturated, Spanish-speaking Hispanics are less likely to report being aware of the warnings, particularly those that appear only in English (for example, alcoholic beverages). PMID:8153279

  9. Implementation and evaluation of early gastroscopy for patients with dyspepsia and warning signs in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    García-Alonso, Francisco Javier; Hernández Tejero, María; Rubio Benito, Elvira; Valer, Paz; Guerra, Iván; García Ceballos, Victoria Gema; Noguerol, Mar; Llinares, Victoria; Bermejo, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Dyspepsia is a common disorder in both Primary (PC) and Specialised Care (SC). Gastroscopy is recommended at the start of the study if there are warning signs, although it is not always available in PC. We developed a pilot project establishing an early gastroscopy programme for patients with dyspepsia and warning signs in PC, subsequently extending it to the entire healthcare area. The aim was to evaluate the requirements, impact and opinion of this service at the PC level. Demographic, symptomatic and endoscopic variables on the patients referred to SC from the pilot centre were recorded. A satisfaction survey was conducted among the PC physicians. The one-year pilot study and the first year of implementation of the programme were evaluated. A total of 355 patients were included (median age 56.4 years; IQR 45.5-64.3); 61.2% (56.1-66.3%) were women. The waiting time for examination was 1.5 weeks (IQR 1.5-2.5). Gastroscopy was correctly indicated in 82.7% (78.4-86.3%) of patients. The median number of requests per month was 1.1 per 10,000 adults (range 0.8-1.6). Monthly referrals to SC clinics from the pilot centre fell by 11 subjects (95% CI 5.9-16) with respect to the previous median of 58 (IQR 48-64.5). Almost all those polled (98.4%) considered the programme useful in routine practice. The availability of an early gastroscopy programme in PC for patients with dyspepsia and warning signs reduced the number of referrals to SC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  10. Centile-based early warning scores derived from statistical distributions of vital signs.

    PubMed

    Tarassenko, Lionel; Clifton, David A; Pinsky, Michael R; Hravnak, Marilyn T; Woods, John R; Watkinson, Peter J

    2011-08-01

    To develop an early warning score (EWS) system based on the statistical properties of the vital signs in at-risk hospitalised patients. A large dataset comprising 64,622 h of vital-sign data, acquired from 863 acutely ill in-hospital patients using bedside monitors, was used to investigate the statistical properties of the four main vital signs. Normalised histograms and cumulative distribution functions were plotted for each of the four variables. A centile-based alerting system was modelled using the aggregated database. The means and standard deviations of our population's vital signs are very similar to those published in previous studies. When compared with EWS systems based on a future outcome, the cut-off values in our system are most different for respiratory rate and systolic blood pressure. With four-hourly observations in a 12-h shift, about 1 in 8 at-risk patients would trigger our alerting system during the shift. A centile-based EWS system will identify patients with abnormal vital signs regardless of their eventual outcome and might therefore be more likely to generate an alert when presented with patients with redeemable morbidity or avoidable mortality. We are about to start a stepped-wedge clinical trial gradually introducing an electronic version of our EWS system on the trauma wards in a teaching hospital. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Racial disparities in knowledge of stroke and heart attack risk factors and warning signs among Michigan adults.

    PubMed

    Fussman, Chris; Rafferty, Ann P; Reeves, Mathew J; Zackery, Shannon; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; Anderson, Beth

    2009-01-01

    To describe the level of knowledge regarding risk factors and warning signs for stroke and heart attack among White and African American adults in Michigan and to quantify racial disparities. Knowledge of stroke and heart attack risk factors and warning signs was assessed by using data from the 2004 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey. Prevalence estimates of knowledge were generated, and statistical differences in knowledge between Whites and African Americans were assessed. Adequate knowledge was defined as knowing 3 correct warning signs or risk factors. Logistic regression models were used to quantify the racial disparity in knowledge while controlling for potential confounding. Whites had substantially higher levels of adequate knowledge of risk factors (stroke: 31.6% vs 13.8%; heart attack: 52.6% vs 24.3%) and warning signs (stroke: 30.0% vs 17.2%; heart attack: 29.3% vs 13.8%) compared with African Americans (all observed differences were significant at P < .05). The odds of adequate knowledge of risk factors (stroke: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.9; heart attack: AOR 3.4) and warning signs (stroke: AOR 2.0; heart attack: AOR 2.4) were significantly higher for Whites than for African Americans. A strong racial disparity in the knowledge of stroke and heart attack risk factors and warning signs exists among Michigan adults. Communitywide public education programs in conjunction with targeted interventions for at-risk populations are necessary to produce meaningful improvements in the awareness of stroke and heart attack risk factors and warning signs among Michigan adults.

  12. Children's misunderstandings of hazard warning signs in the new globally harmonized system for classification and labeling.

    PubMed

    Latham, Garry; Long, Tony; Devitt, Patric

    2013-12-01

    Accidental chemical poisoning causes more than 35 000 child deaths every year across the world, and it leads to disease, disability, and suffering for many more children. Children's ignorance of dangers and their failure to interpret hazard warning signs as intended contribute significantly to this problem. A new Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling is being implemented internationally with a view to unifying the current multiple and disparate national systems. This study was designed to establish a productive, effective means of teaching the new GHS warning signs to primary school children (aged 7-11 years). A pre-test, post-test, follow-up test design was employed, with a teaching intervention informed by a Delphi survey of expert opinion. Children from one school formed the experimental group (n = 49) and a second school provided a control group (n = 23). Both groups showed a gain in knowledge from pre-test to post-test, the experimental group with a larger gain but which was not statistically significant. However, longer-term retention of knowledge, as shown by the follow-up test, was statistically significantly greater in the experimental group (p = 0.001). The employment of teaching to match children's preferred learning styles, and the use of active learning were found to be related to improved retention of knowledge. Part of the study involved eliciting children's interpretation of standard hazard warning symbols, and this provoked considerable concern over the potential for dangerous misinterpretation with disastrous consequences. This article focuses on the reasons for such misconception and the action required to address this successfully in testing the intervention.

  13. Self-affirmation theory and cigarette smoking warning images.

    PubMed

    DiBello, Angelo M; Neighbors, Clayton; Ammar, Joe

    2015-02-01

    The present study examined self-affirmation theory, cigarette smoking, and health-related images depicting adverse effects of smoking. Previous research examining self-affirmation and negative health-related images has shown that individuals who engage in a self-affirmation activity are more receptive to messages when compared to those who do not affirm. We were interested in examining the extent to which self-affirmation would reduce defensive responding to negative health images related to cigarette smoking. Participants included 203 daily smokers who were undergraduate students at a large southern university. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires and were then randomly assigned to one of four conditions (non-smoking image control, smoking image control, low affirmation, and high affirmation). Analyses evaluated the effectiveness of affirmation condition as it related to defensive responding. Results indicated that both affirmation conditions were effective in reducing defensive responding for those at greatest risk (heavier smokers) and those more resistant to health benefits associated with quitting. Findings are discussed in terms of potential public health implications as well as the role defensive responding plays in the evaluation and processing of negative health messages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors and Warning Signs in Patients with Recurrent Stroke or Recurrent Transient Ischaemic Attack in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saengsuwan, Jittima; Suangpho, Pathitta; Tiamkao, Somsak

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is a global burden. It is not known whether patients who are most at risk of stroke (recurrent stroke or recurrent transient ischaemic attack) have enough knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in this high-risk population. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of patients with recurrent stroke or recurrent TIA admitted to Srinagarind Hospital and Khon Kaen Hospital, Thailand. A total of 140 patients were included in the study (age 65.6 ± 11.3 years [mean ± SD], 62 females). Using an open-ended questionnaire, nearly one-third of patients (31.4%) could not name any risk factors for stroke. The most commonly recognized risk factors were hypertension (35%), dyslipidemia (28.6%), and diabetes (22.9%). Regarding stroke warning signs, the most commonly recognized warning signs were sudden unilateral weakness (61.4%), sudden trouble with speaking (25.7%), and sudden trouble with walking, loss of balance, or dizziness (21.4%). Nineteen patients (13.6%) could not identify any warning signs. The results showed that knowledge of stroke obtained from open-ended questionnaires is still unsatisfactory. The healthcare provider should provide structured interventions to increase knowledge and awareness of stroke in these patients.

  15. Readability of self-illuminated signs in a smoke-obscured environment.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-11-01

    This study investigates the ability of people with normal distant visual acuity to identify self-illuminated emergency signs in a smoke-obscured environment. The results indicate that signs whose background luminance meets or exceeds the requirements...

  16. Impact of Waterpipe Tobacco Pack Health Warnings on Waterpipe Smoking Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis among Regular Users in London

    PubMed Central

    Bakir, Ali; Ali, Mohammed; Grant, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite the rise in prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking, it has received little legislative enforcement from governing bodies, especially in the area of health warning labels. Methods. Twenty regular waterpipe tobacco smokers from London took part in five focus groups discussing the impact of waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings on their attitudes towards waterpipe smoking. We presented them with existing and mock waterpipe tobacco products, designed to be compliant with current and future UK/EU legislation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results. Participants felt packs were less attractive and health warnings were more impactful as health warnings increased in size and packaging became less branded. However, participants highlighted their lack of exposure to waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings due to the inherent nature of waterpipe smoking, that is, smoking in a café with the apparatus already prepacked by staff. Health warnings at the point of consumption had more reported impact than health warnings at the point of sale. Conclusions. Waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings are likely to be effective if compliant with existing laws and exposed to end-users. Legislations should be reviewed to extend health warning labels to waterpipe accessories, particularly the apparatus, and to waterpipe-serving premises. PMID:26273642

  17. Impact of Waterpipe Tobacco Pack Health Warnings on Waterpipe Smoking Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis among Regular Users in London.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Mohammed; Bakir, Ali; Ali, Mohammed; Grant, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Despite the rise in prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking, it has received little legislative enforcement from governing bodies, especially in the area of health warning labels. Twenty regular waterpipe tobacco smokers from London took part in five focus groups discussing the impact of waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings on their attitudes towards waterpipe smoking. We presented them with existing and mock waterpipe tobacco products, designed to be compliant with current and future UK/EU legislation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants felt packs were less attractive and health warnings were more impactful as health warnings increased in size and packaging became less branded. However, participants highlighted their lack of exposure to waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings due to the inherent nature of waterpipe smoking, that is, smoking in a café with the apparatus already prepacked by staff. Health warnings at the point of consumption had more reported impact than health warnings at the point of sale. Waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings are likely to be effective if compliant with existing laws and exposed to end-users. Legislations should be reviewed to extend health warning labels to waterpipe accessories, particularly the apparatus, and to waterpipe-serving premises.

  18. The Effects of Tobacco-Related Health-Warning Images on Intention to Quit Smoking among Urban Chinese Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R.; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Xiaozhao Y.; Zhang, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different tobacco health-warning images on intention to quit smoking among urban Chinese smokers. The different tobacco health-warning images utilised in this study addressed the five variables of age, gender, cultural-appropriateness, abstractness and explicitness. Design:…

  19. Exposure to Graphic Warning Labels on Cigarette Packages: Effects on Implicit and Explicit Attitudes toward Smoking among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Macy, Jonathan T.; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Yeung, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Test the effect of exposure to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s proposed graphic images with text warning statements for cigarette packages on implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking. Design and methods A two-session web-based study was conducted with 2192 young adults 18–25 years old. During session one, demographics, smoking behavior, and baseline implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed. Session two, completed on average 18 days later, contained random assignment to viewing one of three sets of cigarette packages, graphic images with text warnings, text warnings only, or current U.S Surgeon General’s text warnings. Participants then completed post-exposure measures of implicit and explicit attitudes. ANCOVAs tested the effect of condition on the outcomes, controlling for baseline attitudes. Results Smokers who viewed packages with graphic images plus text warnings demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes compared to smokers in the other conditions (p=.004). For the entire sample, explicit attitudes were more negative for those who viewed graphic images plus text warnings compared to those who viewed current U.S. Surgeon General’s text warnings (p=.014), but there was no difference compared to those who viewed text-only warnings. Conclusion Graphic health warnings on cigarette packages can influence young adult smokers’ implicit attitudes toward smoking. PMID:26442992

  20. Exposure to graphic warning labels on cigarette packages: Effects on implicit and explicit attitudes towards smoking among young adults.

    PubMed

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C; Yeung, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    To test the effect of exposure to the US Food and Drug Administration's proposed graphic images with text warning statements for cigarette packages on implicit and explicit attitudes towards smoking. A two-session web-based study was conducted with 2192 young adults 18-25-years-old. During session one, demographics, smoking behaviour, and baseline implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed. Session two, completed on average 18 days later, contained random assignment to viewing one of three sets of cigarette packages, graphic images with text warnings, text warnings only, or current US Surgeon General's text warnings. Participants then completed post-exposure measures of implicit and explicit attitudes. ANCOVAs tested the effect of condition on the outcomes, controlling for baseline attitudes. Smokers who viewed packages with graphic images plus text warnings demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes compared to smokers in the other conditions (p = .004). For the entire sample, explicit attitudes were more negative for those who viewed graphic images plus text warnings compared to those who viewed current US Surgeon General's text warnings (p = .014), but there was no difference compared to those who viewed text-only warnings. Graphic health warnings on cigarette packages can influence young adult smokers' implicit attitudes towards smoking.

  1. Detection of the Early Warning Signs of Cancer by Community Pharmacists: An Evaluation of Training on Professional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benfield, William R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    In a study of 702 pharmacists in 211 communities, an effort was made to determine the effect of a unit of education on the community pharmacist's ability and/or tendency to detect the early warning signs of cancer when manifested by patrons. The success of such a program is shown. (LBH)

  2. Using paid mass media to teach the warning signs of stroke: the long and the short of it.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Corinne; Lindsay, Patrice; Rubini, Frank

    2009-04-01

    Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and rapid treatment is critical to patient outcomes. This paper looks at the effect of paid television advertising campaigns upon the general public's knowledge of the warning signs of stroke and emergency department (ED) stroke presentations. Data for the study includes results of nine random-digit dialing telephone surveys conducted among Ontario adults aged 45 and over. The mean number of ED presentations for all strokes and for transient ischemic attacks (TIA) were obtained from the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network (RCSN). Polls indicated that long advertising campaigns were associated with significant increases in the public's knowledge of stroke warning signs, while shorter campaigns were associated with much smaller increases. Time (as represented by month) was the single most important factor determining the mean number of ED presentations for total stroke but was not for TIAs. Campaign status (on or off the air) had a strong and significant effect on ED presentations when the advertising campaigns were long; when the advertising campaigns were shortened, there was no campaign effect. Long, intermittent campaigns are effective in increasing the public's awareness of the warning signs of stroke and may have a significant effect on ED presentations for stroke and TIA. Public awareness of stroke warning signs declines during advertising black-outs, so short campaigns are less effective.

  3. Final report for the second train warning sign demonstration project on the Los Angeles Metro Blue Line

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-01-10

    This demonstration project was carried out to investigate the use of a train activated warning sign as a means of reducing the added hazard for pedestrians of two trains in a highway railroad intersection (HRI) at the same time. The demonstration pro...

  4. Readability of self-illuminated signs obscured by black fuel-fire smoke.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-07-01

    This study, using black fuel-fire generated smoke, is a partial replication of an earlier study using an inert white smoke as the obscuring agent in the study of the readability of smoke-obscured, self-illuminated emergency exit signs. : The results ...

  5. Public health benefits from pictorial health warnings on US cigarette packs: a SimSmoke simulation.

    PubMed

    Levy, David T; Mays, Darren; Yuan, Zhe; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F

    2017-11-01

    While many countries have adopted prominent pictorial warning labels (PWLs) for cigarette packs, the USA still requires only small, text-only labels located on one side of the cigarette pack that have little effect on smoking-related outcomes. Tobacco industry litigation blocked implementation of a 2011 Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) rule requiring large PWLs. To inform FDA action on PWLs, this study provides research-based estimates of their public health impacts. Literature was reviewed to identify the impact of cigarette PWLs on smoking prevalence, cessation and initiation. Based on this analysis, the SimSmoke model was used to estimate the effect of requiring PWLs in the USA on smoking prevalence and, using standard attribution methods, on smoking-attributable deaths (SADs) and key maternal and child health outcomes. Available research consistently shows a direct association between PWLs and increased cessation and reduced smoking initiation and prevalence. The SimSmoke model projects that PWLs would reduce smoking prevalence by 5% (2.5%-9%) relative to the status quo over the short term and by 10% (4%-19%) over the long term. Over the next 50 years, PWLs are projected to avert 652 800 (327 000-1 190 500) SADs, 46 600 (17 500-92 300) low-birth-weight cases, 73 600 (27 800-145 100) preterm births and 1000 (400-2000) cases of sudden infant death syndrome. Requiring PWLs on all US cigarette packs would be appropriate for the protection of the public health, because it would substantially reduce smoking prevalence and thereby reduce SADs and the morbidity and medical costs associated with adverse smoking-attributable birth outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Neural Correlates of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels Predict Smoking Cessation Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Max M.; MacKillop, James; Gray, Joshua C.; Hawkshead, Brittany E.; Murphy, Cara M.; Sweet, Lawrence H.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packaging has been found to produce heightened activity in brain regions central to emotional processing and higher-order cognitive processes. The current study extends this literature by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation in response to GWLs and use it to predict relapse in an evidence-based smoking cessation treatment program. Participants were 48 treatment-seeking nicotine-dependent smokers who completed an fMRI paradigm in which they were exposed to GWLs, text-only warning labels (TOLs), and matched control stimuli. Subsequently, they enrolled in smoking cessation treatment and their smoking behavior was monitored. Activation in bilateral amygdala, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, left medial temporal gyrus, bilateral occipital lobe, and bilateral fusiform gyrus was greater during GWLs than TOLs. Neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during exposure to GWLs (relative to a visual control image) predicted relapse during treatment beyond baseline demographic and dependence severity, but response in the amygdala to GWLs did not. These findings suggest that neurocognitive processes in the vmPFC may be critical to understanding how GWL’s induce behavior change and may be useful as a predictor of smoking cessation treatment prognosis. PMID:28236714

  7. Neural response to pictorial health warning labels can predict smoking behavioral change.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Philip J; Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Baer, Jessica; Thrasher, James F

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve our understanding of how pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) influence smoking behavior, we examined whether brain activity helps to explain smoking behavior above and beyond self-reported effectiveness of HWLs. We measured the neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the amygdala while adult smokers viewed HWLs. Two weeks later, participants' self-reported smoking behavior and biomarkers of smoking behavior were reassessed. We compared multiple models predicting change in self-reported smoking behavior (cigarettes per day [CPD]) and change in a biomarkers of smoke exposure (expired carbon monoxide [CO]). Brain activity in the vmPFC and amygdala not only predicted changes in CO, but also accounted for outcome variance above and beyond self-report data. Neural data were most useful in predicting behavioral change as quantified by the objective biomarker (CO). This pattern of activity was significantly modulated by individuals' intention to quit. The finding that both cognitive (vmPFC) and affective (amygdala) brain areas contributed to these models supports the idea that smokers respond to HWLs in a cognitive-affective manner. Based on our findings, researchers may wish to consider using neural data from both cognitive and affective networks when attempting to predict behavioral change in certain populations (e.g. cigarette smokers). © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Neural response to pictorial health warning labels can predict smoking behavioral change

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Philip J.; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; Baer, Jessica; Thrasher, James F.

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve our understanding of how pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) influence smoking behavior, we examined whether brain activity helps to explain smoking behavior above and beyond self-reported effectiveness of HWLs. We measured the neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the amygdala while adult smokers viewed HWLs. Two weeks later, participants’ self-reported smoking behavior and biomarkers of smoking behavior were reassessed. We compared multiple models predicting change in self-reported smoking behavior (cigarettes per day [CPD]) and change in a biomarkers of smoke exposure (expired carbon monoxide [CO]). Brain activity in the vmPFC and amygdala not only predicted changes in CO, but also accounted for outcome variance above and beyond self-report data. Neural data were most useful in predicting behavioral change as quantified by the objective biomarker (CO). This pattern of activity was significantly modulated by individuals’ intention to quit. The finding that both cognitive (vmPFC) and affective (amygdala) brain areas contributed to these models supports the idea that smokers respond to HWLs in a cognitive-affective manner. Based on our findings, researchers may wish to consider using neural data from both cognitive and affective networks when attempting to predict behavioral change in certain populations (e.g. cigarette smokers). PMID:27405615

  9. Role of tobacco warning labels in informing smokers about risks of smoking among bus drivers in Mangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Mallikarjun, Sajjanshetty; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Shenoy, Ramya; Bh, Mithun Pai

    2014-01-01

    Smoking tobacco is considered as a leading cause of preventable death, mostly in developing countries like India. One of the primary goals of international tobacco control is to educate smokers about the risks associated with tobacco consumption. Tobacco warning labels (TWLs) on cigarette packages are one of the most common statutory means to communicate health risks of smoking to smokers, with the hope that once educated, they will be more likely to quit the habit. The present survey was conducted to assess the effectiveness of TWLs in communicating health risks of tobacco usage among 263 adult smokers working as bus drivers in Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC), Mangalore, India. Information was collected on demographic details, exposure and response to health warnings on tobacco products, intention to quit and nicotine dependency. The majority (79.5%) of the respondents revealed negative intentions towards quitting smoking. Nearly half of the participants had a 'low' nicotine dependency (47.5%) and 98.1% of the respondents had often noticed warning labels on tobacco packages. These health warnings made 71.5% of the respondents think about quitting smoking. Respondents who noticed advertisement or pictures about dangers of smoking had better knowledge, with respect to lung cancer and impotence as a consequence of tobacco. A higher exposure to warning labels was significantly associated with lower nicotine dependency levels of smokers among the present study population. A significantly higher number of respondents who noticed advertisement or pictures about the dangers of smoking thought about the risks of smoking and were more inclined to think about quitting smoking. As exposure increased, an increase in the knowledge and response of participants was also observed. Exposure to tobacco warning labels helps to educate smokers about health risks of tobacco smoking. It may be possible to promote oral health among bus drivers by developing strategies

  10. Analysis of using the tongue deviation angle as a warning sign of a stroke

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The symptom of tongue deviation is observed in a stroke or transient ischemic attack. Nevertheless, there is much room for the interpretation of the tongue deviation test. The crucial factor is the lack of an effective quantification method of tongue deviation. If we can quantify the features of the tongue deviation and scientifically verify the relationship between the deviation angle and a stroke, the information provided by the tongue will be helpful in recognizing a warning of a stroke. Methods In this study, a quantification method of the tongue deviation angle was proposed for the first time to characterize stroke patients. We captured the tongue images of stroke patients (15 males and 10 females, ranging between 55 and 82 years of age); transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients (16 males and 9 females, ranging between 53 and 79 years of age); and normal subjects (14 males and 11 females, ranging between 52 and 80 years of age) to analyze whether the method is effective. In addition, we used the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) for the sensitivity analysis, and determined the threshold value of the tongue deviation angle for the warning sign of a stroke. Results The means and standard deviations of the tongue deviation angles of the stroke, TIA, and normal groups were: 6.9 ± 3.1, 4.9 ± 2.1 and 1.4 ± 0.8 degrees, respectively. Analyzed by the unpaired Student’s t-test, the p-value between the stroke group and the TIA group was 0.015 (>0.01), indicating no significant difference in the tongue deviation angle. The p-values between the stroke group and the normal group, as well as between the TIA group and the normal group were both less than 0.01. These results show the significant differences in the tongue deviation angle between the patient groups (stroke and TIA patients) and the normal group. These results also imply that the tongue deviation angle can effectively identify the patient group (stroke and TIA patients

  11. Analysis of using the tongue deviation angle as a warning sign of a stroke.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ching-Chuan; Huang, Shu-Wen; Hsu, Sheng-Lin; Chen, Hsing-Chung; Chen, Jong-Shin; Liang, Hsinying

    2012-08-21

    The symptom of tongue deviation is observed in a stroke or transient ischemic attack. Nevertheless, there is much room for the interpretation of the tongue deviation test. The crucial factor is the lack of an effective quantification method of tongue deviation. If we can quantify the features of the tongue deviation and scientifically verify the relationship between the deviation angle and a stroke, the information provided by the tongue will be helpful in recognizing a warning of a stroke. In this study, a quantification method of the tongue deviation angle was proposed for the first time to characterize stroke patients. We captured the tongue images of stroke patients (15 males and 10 females, ranging between 55 and 82 years of age); transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients (16 males and 9 females, ranging between 53 and 79 years of age); and normal subjects (14 males and 11 females, ranging between 52 and 80 years of age) to analyze whether the method is effective. In addition, we used the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) for the sensitivity analysis, and determined the threshold value of the tongue deviation angle for the warning sign of a stroke. The means and standard deviations of the tongue deviation angles of the stroke, TIA, and normal groups were: 6.9 ± 3.1, 4.9 ± 2.1 and 1.4 ± 0.8 degrees, respectively. Analyzed by the unpaired Student's t-test, the p-value between the stroke group and the TIA group was 0.015 (>0.01), indicating no significant difference in the tongue deviation angle. The p-values between the stroke group and the normal group, as well as between the TIA group and the normal group were both less than 0.01. These results show the significant differences in the tongue deviation angle between the patient groups (stroke and TIA patients) and the normal group. These results also imply that the tongue deviation angle can effectively identify the patient group (stroke and TIA patients) and the normal group. With

  12. Bradycardia as an early warning sign for cardiac arrest during routine laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yong, Jonathan; Hibbert, Peter; Runciman, William B; Coventry, Brendon J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical patterns of occurrence, management and outcomes surrounding cardiac arrest during laparoscopic surgery using the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) database to guide possible prevention and treatment. The AIMS database includes incident reports from participating clinicians from secondary and tertiary healthcare centres across Australia and New Zealand. The AIMS database holds over 11 000 peri- and intraoperative incidents. The primary outcome was to characterize the pattern of events surrounding cardiac arrest. The secondary outcome was to identify successful management strategies in the possible prevention and treatment of cardiac arrest during laparoscopic surgery. Fourteen cases of cardiac arrest during laparoscopic surgery were identified. The majority of cases occurred in 'fit and healthy' patients during elective gynaecological and general surgical procedures. Twelve cases of cardiac arrest were directly associated with pneumoperitoneum with bradycardia preceding cardiac arrest in 75% of these. Management included deflation of pneumoperitoneum, atropine administration and cardiopulmonary resuscitation with circulatory restoration in all cases. The results imply vagal mechanisms associated with peritoneal distension as the predominant contributor to bradycardia and subsequent cardiac arrest during laparoscopy. Bradycardia during gas insufflation is not necessarily a benign event and appears to be a critical early warning sign for possible impending and unexpected cardiac arrest. Immediate deflation of pneumoperitoneum and atropine administration are effective measures that may alleviate bradycardia and possibly avert progression to cardiac arrest. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge of warning signs, presenting symptoms and risk factors of coronary heart disease among the population of Dubai and Northern Emirates in UAE: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shehnaz, Syed Ilyas; Guruswami, Gomathi Kadayam; Ibrahim, Salwa Abdelzaher Mabrouk; Mustafa, Sana Abdul Jabbar

    2017-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the level of knowledge regarding warning signs, presenting symptoms and risk factors associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) among population of Dubai and Northern Emirates in UAE. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey of 1367 residents of Dubai and Northern Emirates was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Respondents were classified into two groups: Young Adult Population (YAP; 18-24 years of age) and General Population (GP; 25 years and older). Majority of participants were males (56.7%) and of South Asian (57.5%) or Middle-Eastern (30.8%) ethnicity. Regarding presenting symptoms of CHD, chest pain was identified by around 80% of population, whereas pain in the left shoulder was recognized by 61% of GP and 44% of YAP. Atypical symptoms were poorly identified. Regarding risk factors, only one-fourth population knew that males were at higher risk compared to premenopausal females. Few knew that the risk increases in females after menopause and that the risk is higher for females who smoke and use oral contraceptives. 62% knew that the survivors of a heart attack are at high risk of recurrences. Except for tobacco smoke, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension, knowledge of other risk factors was not satisfactory. Older adults and females had comparatively higher level of knowledge. Conclusion: Knowledge level of many of the symptoms and risk factors of CHD is unsatisfactory. There is, therefore, a need to increase the awareness in the population of UAE. The knowledge gaps identified through this study can be addressed through health campaigns to increase the awareness about warning signs, symptoms and modifiable risk factors. . PMID:29181228

  14. Global Evidence on the Association between Cigarette Graphic Warning Labels and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence and Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Anh; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In 2011, the courts ruled in favor of tobacco companies in preventing the implementation of graphic warning labels (GWLs) in the US, stating that FDA had not established the effectiveness of GWLs in reducing smoking. Methods: Data came from various sources: the WHO MPOWER package (GWLs, MPOWER policy measures, cigarette prices), Euromonitor International (smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption), and the World Bank database (countries’ demographic characteristics). The datasets were aggregated and linked using country and year identifiers. Fractional logit regressions and OLS regressions were applied to examine the associations between GWLs and smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption, controlling for MPOWER policy scores, cigarette prices, GDP per capita, unemployment, population aged 15–64 (%), aged 65 and over (%), year indicators, and country fixed effects. Results: GWLs were associated with a 0.9–3 percentage point decrease in adult smoking prevalence and were significantly associated with a reduction of 230–287 sticks in per capita cigarette consumption, compared to countries without GWLs. However, the association between GWLs and cigarette consumption became statistically insignificant once country indicators were included in the models. Conclusions: The implementation of GWLs may be associated with reduced cigarette smoking. PMID:29495581

  15. Global Evidence on the Association between Cigarette Graphic Warning Labels and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence and Consumption.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-02-28

    Background : In 2011, the courts ruled in favor of tobacco companies in preventing the implementation of graphic warning labels (GWLs) in the US, stating that FDA had not established the effectiveness of GWLs in reducing smoking. Methods : Data came from various sources: the WHO MPOWER package (GWLs, MPOWER policy measures, cigarette prices), Euromonitor International (smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption), and the World Bank database (countries' demographic characteristics). The datasets were aggregated and linked using country and year identifiers. Fractional logit regressions and OLS regressions were applied to examine the associations between GWLs and smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption, controlling for MPOWER policy scores, cigarette prices, GDP per capita, unemployment, population aged 15-64 (%), aged 65 and over (%), year indicators, and country fixed effects. Results : GWLs were associated with a 0.9-3 percentage point decrease in adult smoking prevalence and were significantly associated with a reduction of 230-287 sticks in per capita cigarette consumption, compared to countries without GWLs. However, the association between GWLs and cigarette consumption became statistically insignificant once country indicators were included in the models. Conclusions : The implementation of GWLs may be associated with reduced cigarette smoking.

  16. Effects of stressor characteristics on early warning signs of critical transitions and "critical coupling" in complex dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Blume, Steffen O P; Sansavini, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    Complex dynamical systems face abrupt transitions into unstable and catastrophic regimes. These critical transitions are triggered by gradual modifications in stressors, which push the dynamical system towards unstable regimes. Bifurcation analysis can characterize such critical thresholds, beyond which systems become unstable. Moreover, the stochasticity of the external stressors causes small-scale fluctuations in the system response. In some systems, the decomposition of these signal fluctuations into precursor signals can reveal early warning signs prior to the critical transition. Here, we present a dynamical analysis of a power system subjected to an increasing load level and small-scale stochastic load perturbations. We show that the auto- and cross-correlations of bus voltage magnitudes increase, leading up to a Hopf bifurcation point, and further grow until the system collapses. This evidences a gradual transition into a state of "critical coupling," which is complementary to the established concept of "critical slowing down." Furthermore, we analyze the effects of the type of load perturbation and load characteristics on early warning signs and find that gradient changes in the autocorrelation provide early warning signs of the imminent critical transition under white-noise but not for auto-correlated load perturbations. Furthermore, the cross-correlation between all voltage magnitude pairs generally increases prior to and beyond the Hopf bifurcation point, indicating "critical coupling," but cannot provide early warning indications. Finally, we show that the established early warning indicators are oblivious to limit-induced bifurcations and, in the case of the power system model considered here, only react to an approaching Hopf bifurcation.

  17. Testing the warning signs of suicidal behavior among suicide ideators using the 2009 National survey on drug abuse and health.

    PubMed

    Gunn, John F; Lester, David; McSwain, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    In order to help crisis counselors assess clients for their suicidal risk, in 2003 the American Association of Suicidology proposed ten warning signs, memorized through the acronym IS PATH WARM However, little research has been done investigating their effectiveness for predicting suicidal behavior The present study compared (1) suicide ideators with non-suicide ideator controls and (2) suicide ideators with suicide attempters on six of the IS PATH WARM warning signs, along with depression in the past year, marital status, and gender With regards to the comparison between suicide ideators and non-ideators, all variables but gender; abuse of alcohol in the past year, and anxiety in the past year were predictive of suicide ideation. However, when comparing suicide ideators who had not made a suicide attempt with those who had, only anger/aggression, depression in the past year, and marital status were predictive of a suicide attempt.

  18. Disparities in knowledge about the health effects of smoking among adolescents following the release of new pictorial health warning labels.

    PubMed

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Wijesingha, Rochelle; Kennedy, Ryan David; Hammond, David

    2018-06-01

    This paper examined knowledge about the health effects of smoking among health equity groups following the 2012 introduction of refreshed pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) in Canada. Data are from the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey a representative school-based survey of 47,203 adolescents in Grades 6-12 in nine provinces. Regression models examined overall knowledge about eight health effects of smoking included in the HWLs. Less than one-third of adolescents (32.2%) knew that smoking causes vision loss/blindness and 33.7% knew that smoking causes bladder cancer. Whereas knowledge was high for lung cancer (93.9%), knowledge about other health effects ranged from 52.9% for chronic bronchitis/emphysema to 77.6% for gum or mouth disease. Non-smoking adolescents who were: susceptible to future smoking, male, ethnic minorities, and who had less spending money were significantly less likely to be knowledgeable of the health effects of smoking. There were fewer disparities in knowledge about the health effects of smoking among smokers. Smokers who bought loose or bagged cigarettes rather than cigarettes in packages or cartons were significantly less likely to be knowledgeable about the health effects of smoking. There are significant disparities in knowledge about the health effects of smoking by health equity groups particularly among non-smoking adolescents. Warning labels have the potential to reduce disparities in knowledge about the health effects of smoking when exposure to the warning labels is universal. Complementary strategies such as mass media campaigns are needed to address disparities in knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 46 CFR 35.30-1 - Warning signals and signs-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 35.30-1 Warning signals and signs—TB/ALL. (a) Red warning signals. During transfer of bulk cargo while fast to a dock, a red signal (flag by day and electric lantern at night) shall be so placed that it will be visible on all sides. While transferring bulk cargo at anchor, a red flag only shall be...

  20. 46 CFR 35.30-1 - Warning signals and signs-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 35.30-1 Warning signals and signs—TB/ALL. (a) Red warning signals. During transfer of bulk cargo while fast to a dock, a red signal (flag by day and electric lantern at night) shall be so placed that it will be visible on all sides. While transferring bulk cargo at anchor, a red flag only shall be...

  1. 46 CFR 35.30-1 - Warning signals and signs-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 35.30-1 Warning signals and signs—TB/ALL. (a) Red warning signals. During transfer of bulk cargo while fast to a dock, a red signal (flag by day and electric lantern at night) shall be so placed that it will be visible on all sides. While transferring bulk cargo at anchor, a red flag only shall be...

  2. [Impact of cigarette packages warning labels in relation to tobacco-smoking dependence and motivation to quit].

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Alice; Antici, Daniele; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    the principal aim was to assess the impact of health warnings on cigarette packages in Italy, the reduction of daily number of cigarette smoked, in relationship to the tobacco-smoking dependence and motivation to quit. The second aim was to compare the impact of text warnings versus graphi depictions. cross-sectional study (survey). the study was conducted through interviews to an opportunistic sample of smokers.The subject enrolled were adult smokers (years ≥ 18), living in the province of Rome. Data were collected in two outpatient clinics located in Morlupo and Rome. Interviews were administered in the waiting rooms, to patients or to their relatives/ helpers. The survey was conducted in June-September 2010. The sample size (266 participants) was computed using a power of 80%, a confidence level of 95%, an expected frequency of smokers with a low motivation to quit who reduced number of cigarettes due to warnings of 15%, and a frequency of smokers with a higher motivation to quit who reduced number of cigarettes due to warnings of 30%. the effect of the health warnings used in Italy on smoking reduction was measured with the following self-reported items: "Are you or have you been influenced by the health warnings on cigarettes packages (in relation to the daily number of cigarettes smoked)?"; "Have you changed your smoking habits due to the warnings (for example: don't smoking after a coffee.)?"; "Have you ever stopped smoking due to the warnings?" The effect of labels that used shock images on cigarette boxes was measured using followed self-reported questions: "If shocking images were used on cigarette boxes, would they have greater effect than simple warning text currently used?"; "If your favourite cigarettes brand decide to change the look of its cigarette boxes with shocking images on smoking health damages, would you be driven to change it?" thanks to the health warnings, 95% of the 270 participants were informed on smoking damages, 14% (34 smokers

  3. Patient demand for smoking cessation advice in dentist offices after introduction of graphic health warnings in Australia.

    PubMed

    Afifah, Rm; Schwarz, E

    2008-09-01

    The effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention by dentists has not been conclusively established. This study aimed to investigate whether the inclusion of graphic health warning pictures (including mouth and throat cancer) as part of the Australian National Tobacco Campaign strategy would elicit measurably increased demand for smoking cessation advice in dental practices. A cross-sectional survey of private dental practices in New South Wales, Australia. Separate questionnaires were answered by dentists and patients from their practice. Questions comprised smoking practices and attitudes toward smoking cessation activities in dental practice. The majority of dentists (85.7 per cent; n = 29) and dental patients (92.4 per cent; n = 800) recalled seeing the graphic health warnings, with mouth and throat cancer the most commonly observed. Television was the main medium. Nineteen per cent of dental patients (n = 152) reported themselves as current smokers. Half of them were planning to quit within six months (49.7 per cent) and agreed that graphic health warnings made them more likely to quit (47.7 per cent). Dentists showed positive attitudes toward cessation activities but believed many patients lacked motivation to quit smoking; a perception that was seen to be the main barrier in offering smoking cessation advice. Forty per cent of smokers would try to quit if asked by their dentists, but only 28.4 per cent preferred a dentist for cessation advice. In general, dentists found no change in demand for smoking cessation advice since the launch of the National Tobacco Campaign in 2006. Health warning pictures seemed to increase the patients' awareness and intention to quit smoking, however it did not appear to generate more demand for smoking cessation advice from their dentists. Dentists had low expectations about their patients' motivation to stop smoking.

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Smoking among People with Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health Page maintained by: Office ...

  5. Representativity and univocity of traffic signs and their effect on trajectory movement in a driving simulation task: Warning signs.

    PubMed

    Vilchez, Jose Luis

    2017-07-04

    The effect of traffic signs on the behavior of drivers is not completely understood. Knowing about how humans process the meaning of signs (not just by learning but instinctively) will improve reaction time and decision making when traveling. The economic, social, and psychological consequences of car accidents are well known. This study sounds out which traffic signs are more ergonomic for participants, from a cognitive point of view, and determines, at the same time, their effect in participants' movement trajectories in a driving simulation task. Results point out that the signs least representative of their meaning produce a greater deviation from the center of the road than the most representative ones. This study encourages both an in-depth analysis of the effect on movement of roadside signs and the study of how this effect can be modified by the context in which these signs are presented (with the aim to move the research closer to and analyze the data in real contexts). The goal is to achieve clarity of meaning and lack of counterproductive effects on the trajectory of representative signs (those that provoke fewer mistakes in the decision task).

  6. 41 CFR 102-74.335 - Who is responsible for furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the building, and in and around building... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.335 Who is responsible for furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the building, and in and around building...

  7. 41 CFR 102-74.335 - Who is responsible for furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the building, and in and around building... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.335 Who is responsible for furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the building, and in and around building...

  8. 41 CFR 102-74.335 - Who is responsible for furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the building, and in and around building... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.335 Who is responsible for furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the building, and in and around building...

  9. 41 CFR 102-74.335 - Who is responsible for furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the building, and in and around building... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.335 Who is responsible for furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the building, and in and around building...

  10. 41 CFR 102-74.335 - Who is responsible for furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the building, and in and around building... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.335 Who is responsible for furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the building, and in and around building...

  11. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  12. Systematic Review of the Effect of Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bojing; Greiner, Felix; Bremberg, Sven; Galanti, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    We used a structured approach to assess whether active smokers presented with pictorial warnings on cigarette packages (PWCP) had a higher probability of quitting, reducing, and attempting to quit smoking than did unexposed smokers. We identified 21 articles from among nearly 2500 published between 1993 and 2013, prioritizing coverage over relevance or quality because we expected to find only a few studies with behavioral outcomes. We found very large heterogeneity across studies, poor or very poor methodological quality, and generally null or conflicting findings for any explored outcome. The evidence for or against the use of PWCP is insufficient, suggesting that any effect of PWCP on behavior would be modest. Determining the single impact of PWCP on behavior requires studies with strong methodological designs and longer follow-up periods. PMID:25122019

  13. Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Ruben C.; Langleben, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study’s objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. PMID:24330194

  14. Best practices for maximizing driver attention to work zone warning signs.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-05-01

    Studies have shown that rear-end crashes in the advance warning area for a work zone are the most common type of work zone crashes. Driver inattention (or distraction) is reported as the most common issue and a major contributing factor to those type...

  15. Four Signs Your District Is Ready for an Early Warning System. A Discussion Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Although high school graduation rates continue to rise in the United States, reaching 81 percent in the 2012-2013 school year (U.S. Department of Education, 2015), dropout remains a pervasive issue for education systems across the nation. In recent years, Early Warning Systems (EWS), which utilize administrative data to identify students at risk…

  16. Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Chung, Le Hong; Giang, Kim Bao; Duc, Duong Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Mai, Vu Quynh; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups.

  17. Factors affecting failure to quit smoking after exposure to pictorial cigarette pack warnings among employees in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sujirarat, Dusit; Silpasuwan, Pimpan; Viwatwongkasem, Chukiat; Sirichothiratana, Nithat

    2011-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether health warning pictures(HWP) affect smoking cessation using a structured equation model for intending-to-quit smokers in work places. Data from a 1-year longitudinal followup of attempt-to-quit employees was obtained to determine if pack warnings affect tobacco cessation rates. Stratified simple random sampling, and Structured Equation Modeling (SEM) were employed. Approximately 20% of intending-to-quit smokers were successful. The integrated model, combining internal, interpersonal factors and health warning pictures as external factors, fit the fail to quit pattern of the model. Having a smoking father was the most significant proximate indicator linked with failure to quit. Although HWL pictures were an external factor in the decision to stop smoking, the direct and indirect causes of failure to quit smoking were the influence of the family members. Fathers contributed to the success or failure of smoking cessation in their children by having an influence on the decision making process. Future HWP should include information about factors that stimulate smokers to quit successfully. The role model of a father on quitting is also important.

  18. The impacts of fear and disgust on the perceived effectiveness of smoking warning labels: a study on Turkish university students.

    PubMed

    Tugrul, Tugba Orten

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the perceived effectiveness of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages on Turkish university students. In particular, the impacts of fear and disgust elicited by these labels were examined using the smoking decision process model. A survey was conducted with 344 undergraduate students at a private university in Izmir, the third largest city of Turkey. The findings showed differences in levels of fear and disgust evoked by pictorial warning labels for each stage in the smoking decision process, which in turn led to differences in the perceived effectiveness of the labels. Thus, this study underlines the importance of tailoring antismoking messages according to specific target groups and also suggests considering the smoking-decision-process model as segments and targeting groups in creating effective messages. © 2013 APJPH.

  19. Influence of Health Warnings on Beliefs about the Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking, in the Context of an Experimental Study in Four Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jessica L; Mutti-Packer, Seema; Gupta, Prakash C; Li, Qiang; Yuan, Jiang; Nargis, Nigar; Hussain, A K M Ghulam; Hammond, David

    2017-08-02

    Cigarette package health warnings can be an important and low-cost means of communicating the health risks of smoking. We examined whether viewing health warnings in an experimental study influenced beliefs about the health effects of smoking, by conducting surveys with ~500 adult male smokers and ~500 male and female youth (age 16-18) in Beijing, China ( n = 1070), Mumbai area, India ( n = 1012), Dhaka, Bangladesh ( n = 1018), and Republic of Korea ( n = 1362). Each respondent was randomly assigned to view and rate pictorial health warnings for 2 of 15 different health effects, after which they reported beliefs about whether smoking caused 12 health effects. Respondents who viewed relevant health warnings (vs. other warnings) were significantly more likely to believe that smoking caused that particular health effect, for several health effects in each sample. Approximately three-quarters of respondents in China (Beijing), Bangladesh (Dhaka), and Korea (which had general, text-only warnings) thought that cigarette packages should display more health information, compared to approximately half of respondents in the Mumbai area, India (which had detailed pictorial warnings). Pictorial health warnings that convey the risk of specific health effects from smoking can increase beliefs and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking, particularly for health effects that are lesser-known.

  20. Influence of Health Warnings on Beliefs about the Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking, in the Context of an Experimental Study in Four Asian Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mutti-Packer, Seema; Gupta, Prakash C.; Li, Qiang; Yuan, Jiang; Nargis, Nigar; Hussain, A. K. M. Ghulam; Hammond, David

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette package health warnings can be an important and low-cost means of communicating the health risks of smoking. We examined whether viewing health warnings in an experimental study influenced beliefs about the health effects of smoking, by conducting surveys with ~500 adult male smokers and ~500 male and female youth (age 16–18) in Beijing, China (n = 1070), Mumbai area, India (n = 1012), Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 1018), and Republic of Korea (n = 1362). Each respondent was randomly assigned to view and rate pictorial health warnings for 2 of 15 different health effects, after which they reported beliefs about whether smoking caused 12 health effects. Respondents who viewed relevant health warnings (vs. other warnings) were significantly more likely to believe that smoking caused that particular health effect, for several health effects in each sample. Approximately three-quarters of respondents in China (Beijing), Bangladesh (Dhaka), and Korea (which had general, text-only warnings) thought that cigarette packages should display more health information, compared to approximately half of respondents in the Mumbai area, India (which had detailed pictorial warnings). Pictorial health warnings that convey the risk of specific health effects from smoking can increase beliefs and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking, particularly for health effects that are lesser-known. PMID:28767068

  1. Alcohol consumption, smoking and development of visible age-related signs: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schou, Anne L; Mølbak, Marie-Louise; Schnor, Peter; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2017-12-01

    Visible age-related signs indicate biological age, as individuals that appear old for their age are more likely to be at poor health, compared with people that appear their actual age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and smoking are associated with four visible age-related signs (arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, earlobe crease and male pattern baldness). We used information from 11 613 individuals in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1976-2003). Alcohol intake, smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed prospectively and visible age-related signs were inspected during subsequent examinations. The risk of developing arcus corneae, earlobe crease and xanthelasmata increased stepwise with increased smoking as measured by pack-years. For alcohol consumption, a high intake was associated with the risk of developing arcus corneae and earlobe crease, but not xanthelasmata. High alcohol consumption and smoking predict development of visible age-related signs. This is the first prospective study to show that heavy alcohol use and smoking are associated with generally looking older than one's actual age. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Determination of early warning signs for photocatalytic degradation of titanium white oil paints by means of surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel, B. A.; Wezendonk, T. A.; van den Berg, K. J.; Kooyman, P. J.; Gascon, J.; Dik, J.

    2017-02-01

    Titanium white (TiO2) has been widely used as a pigment in the 20th century. However, its most photocatalytic form (anatase) can cause severe degradation of the oil paint in which it is contained. UV light initiates TiO2-photocatalyzed processes in the paint film, degrading the oil binder into volatile components resulting in chalking of the paint. This will eventually lead to severe changes in the appearance of a painting. To date, limited examples of degraded works of art containing titanium white are known due to the relatively short existence of the paintings in question and the slow progress of the degradation process. However, UV light will inevitably cause degradation of paint in works of art containing photocatalytic titanium white. In this work, a method to detect early warning signs of photocatalytic degradation of unvarnished oil paint is proposed, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Consequently, a four-stage degradation model was developed through in-depth study of TiO2-containing paint films in various stages of degradation. The XPS surface analysis proved very valuable for detecting early warning signs of paint degradation, whereas the AFM results provide additional confirmation and are in good agreement with bulk gloss reduction.

  3. Determination of early warning signs for photocatalytic degradation of titanium white oil paints by means of surface analysis.

    PubMed

    van Driel, B A; Wezendonk, T A; van den Berg, K J; Kooyman, P J; Gascon, J; Dik, J

    2017-02-05

    Titanium white (TiO 2 ) has been widely used as a pigment in the 20th century. However, its most photocatalytic form (anatase) can cause severe degradation of the oil paint in which it is contained. UV light initiates TiO 2 -photocatalyzed processes in the paint film, degrading the oil binder into volatile components resulting in chalking of the paint. This will eventually lead to severe changes in the appearance of a painting. To date, limited examples of degraded works of art containing titanium white are known due to the relatively short existence of the paintings in question and the slow progress of the degradation process. However, UV light will inevitably cause degradation of paint in works of art containing photocatalytic titanium white. In this work, a method to detect early warning signs of photocatalytic degradation of unvarnished oil paint is proposed, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Consequently, a four-stage degradation model was developed through in-depth study of TiO 2 -containing paint films in various stages of degradation. The XPS surface analysis proved very valuable for detecting early warning signs of paint degradation, whereas the AFM results provide additional confirmation and are in good agreement with bulk gloss reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Impact of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels and Smoke-Free Law on Health Awareness and Thoughts of Quitting in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chung, Chi-Hui; Yu, Po-Tswen; Chao, Kun-yu

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of Taiwan's graphic cigarette warning labels and smoke-free law on awareness of the health hazards of smoking and thoughts of quitting smoking. National representative samples of 1074 and 1094 people, respectively, were conducted successfully by telephone in July 2008 (pre-law) and March 2009 (post-law).…

  5. The Association between Warning Label Requirements and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Education-Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; He, Yanyun; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The Guidelines for the implementation of Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) require that cigarette health warning labels should include pictures and take up 50% or more of the principal display area. This study examined how the association between large pictorial warnings, those covering ≥50% of the front and back of the package, and the prevalence of cigarette smoking varies by educational attainment. Methods: We pooled individual-level tobacco use data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 18 countries between 2008 and 2013 and linked them with warning label requirements during the same period from the MPOWER database and reports regarding warnings. The respondents’ self-reported exposure to warnings was examined according to education. Logistic regressions were further employed to analyze education-specific associations between large pictorial warnings and smoking prevalence, and whether such association differed by education was examined using an interaction test. Results: At the time of the survey, eight out of 18 countries had imposed graphic warning labels that covered ≥50% of the package. These warnings were associated with a 10.0% (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97; p ≤ 0.01) lower cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with less than a secondary education or no formal education, but not among respondents with at least a secondary education. Less educated respondents were also less likely to be exposed to warnings in all 18 countries. The association between strong warnings and lower smoking prevalence among less educated respondents could be greater if their exposure to warnings increases. Conclusions: Prominent pictorial warning labels can potentially reduce health disparities resulting from smoking across different education levels. PMID:28117729

  6. The Association between Warning Label Requirements and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Education-Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    PubMed

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; He, Yanyun; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-01-21

    The Guidelines for the implementation of Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) require that cigarette health warning labels should include pictures and take up 50% or more of the principal display area. This study examined how the association between large pictorial warnings, those covering ≥50% of the front and back of the package, and the prevalence of cigarette smoking varies by educational attainment. We pooled individual-level tobacco use data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 18 countries between 2008 and 2013 and linked them with warning label requirements during the same period from the MPOWER database and reports regarding warnings. The respondents' self-reported exposure to warnings was examined according to education. Logistic regressions were further employed to analyze education-specific associations between large pictorial warnings and smoking prevalence, and whether such association differed by education was examined using an interaction test. At the time of the survey, eight out of 18 countries had imposed graphic warning labels that covered ≥50% of the package. These warnings were associated with a 10.0% (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97; p ≤ 0.01) lower cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with less than a secondary education or no formal education, but not among respondents with at least a secondary education. Less educated respondents were also less likely to be exposed to warnings in all 18 countries. The association between strong warnings and lower smoking prevalence among less educated respondents could be greater if their exposure to warnings increases. Prominent pictorial warning labels can potentially reduce health disparities resulting from smoking across different education levels.

  7. Effect of information education and communication (IEC) programme on knowledge of pregnant mothers regarding prevention and management of warning signs during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Takoo, Sarla; Chhugani, Manju; Sharma, Veena

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an Information, Education and Communication (IEC) programme on knowledge of pregnant mothers regarding prevention and management of warning signs during pregnancy in a selected health care setting at New Delhi. An evaluative research approach with one group pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the present study. A structured interview schedule was prepared. Purposive non-probability sampling technique was employed to interview 30 pregnant mothers who attended antenatal clinic. Data gathered was analysed and interpreted using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that there was maximum knowledge deficit regarding warning signs of pregnancy. IEC programme was effective in enhancing the knowledge of pregnant mothers on prevention and management of warning signs during pregnancy.

  8. Suicide in pediatrics: epidemiology, risk factors, warning signs and the role of the pediatrician in detecting them.

    PubMed

    Dilillo, Dario; Mauri, Silvia; Mantegazza, Cecilia; Fabiano, Valentina; Mameli, Chiara; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2015-07-07

    Epidemiological data suggests suicide is uncommon in childhood but becomes an extremely serious issue among adolescents.Several risk factors have been identified and include the presence of psychiatric illness, a previous suicide attempt, family factors, substance abuse, sexual and physical abuse, disorders in gender identity or bullying. Pediatricians have a primary role in searching for these risk factors, recognizing them and acting synergistically with other specialists to prevent and treat suicidal behavior.Pediatricians should also be able to identify the "warning signs" for suicide since their presence implies a need for immediate action, as attempted suicide may occur in a few hours or days.The use of antidepressant drugs and its association with suicidal risk in pediatric age is another topic of ongoing debate. Food and Drug Administration has recently introduced the so-called "black box" on antidepressants' packages with the aim of gaining attention to the possible risk of suicide among adolescents who are treated with antidepressants, with a warning that the risk of suicide is higher when starting a therapy or while adjusting its dosage.

  9. Comparison of stroke warning sign campaigns in Australia, England, and Canada.

    PubMed

    Trobbiani, Kym; Freeman, Kate; Arango, Manuel; Lalor, Erin; Jenkinson, Damian; Thrift, Amanda G

    2013-10-01

    Public awareness of the signs of stroke is essential to ensure that those affected by stroke arrive at the hospital in time for lifesaving therapies. It is unclear how well stroke awareness campaigns improve awareness of stroke signs and whether people translate this into action. We evaluated stroke awareness campaigns conducted in England, Australia, and Canada using pre- and post-campaign surveys. We assessed the proportion of people who could name the main signs of stroke, and compared the proportion naming these correctly between locations. We also assessed whether people would call emergency services in the event of a stroke. Proportion responding correctly was compared using chi-square analysis. The amount spent on the campaigns was different in each country. The post-campaign survey was conducted among 400 people in Australia, 1921 in England, and 2703 in Canada. Sixty-eight per cent of people in Australia and 57% in Canada could name two or more signs of stroke (P < 0.001). After the campaign, knowledge of each of the elements of the campaign (face, arm, speech, time) was significantly greater in England than in Australia (P < 0.001 for each item). A high proportion of participants reported that they would call emergency services in the event of a stroke (97% in England, 90% in Australia, and 67% in Canada). Knowledge of stroke signs and the action to be taken can be improved with awareness campaigns. The effectiveness of these campaigns may be enhanced by spend on media, media mix, and key messages. It is critical to ensure that campaigns provide the clear and bold message that prompt action is an essential ingredient to reduce death and disability following stroke. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  10. Perceptions and Perceived Impact of Graphic Cigarette Health Warning Labels on Smoking Behavior Among U.S. Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration published a final rule requiring cigarette packages and advertisements to include graphic health warning labels (HWLs) with new warning statements. Implementation of this rule has been stalled by legal challenge. This study assessed correlates of smoking-related intentions related to graphic HWLs among current cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in a national sample of U.S. young adults aged 18–34. Methods: Data were collected from 4,236 participants aged 18–34 using an online panel in January 2012 for the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study. Analyses were weighted to provide nationally representative estimates. Our main outcome was assessed with a single item: “Do you think that new warning labels with graphic pictures would make you think about not smoking?” Results: Twenty-two percent of the young adults were current cigarette smokers. Fifty-three percent endorsed that new graphic HWLs would make them think about not smoking (40% among current smokers compared with 56% among nonsmokers). Among nonsmokers, those aged 18–24, females, Hispanics, and those who were aware of graphic cigarette HWLs were more likely to report intention to not smoke related to graphic HWLs. Among current smokers, intending to quit within the next 6 months was correlated with intention resulting from graphic HWLs. Hispanic ethnicity and intention to quit within 30 days were strong correlates of intention in light, nondaily, and self-identified social/occasional smokers. Conclusions: This study supports previous findings that graphic HWLs play an important role in preventing smoking, in addition to encouraging cessation in young adults. PMID:24212476

  11. Trends in utilization of smoking cessation agents before and after the passage of FDA boxed warning in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shah, Drishti; Shah, Anuj; Tan, Xi; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2017-08-01

    In 2009, the FDA required a black box warning (BBW) on bupropion and varenicline, the two commonly prescribed smoking cessation agents due to reports of adverse neuropsychiatric events. We investigated if there was a decline in use of bupropion and varenicline after the BBW by comparing the percent using these medications before and after BBW. We conducted a retrospective observational study using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2007 to 2014. The study sample consisted of adult smokers, who were advised by their physicians to quit smoking. We divided the time period into "pre-warning", "post-warning: immediate", and "post-warning: late." Unadjusted analysis using chi-square tests and adjusted analyses using logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate the change in bupropion and varenicline use before and after the BBW. Secondary analyses using piecewise regression were also conducted. On an average, 49.04% of smokers were advised by their physicians to quit smoking. We observed a statistically significant decline in varenicline use from 22.1% in year 2007 to 9.23% in 2014 (p value<0.001). In the logistic (Adjusted Odds Ratio=0.36, 95% CI=0.22-0.58) and piecewise regressions (Odds Ratio=0.64, 95% CI=0.41-0.99) smokers who were advised to quit smoking by their physicians were less likely to use varenicline in the immediate post-BBW period as compared to pre-BBW period. While the use of varenicline continued to be significantly low in the late post-BBW period (AOR=0.45, 95% CI=0.31-0.64) as compared to the pre-BBW period, the trend in use as seen in piecewise regression remained stable (OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.75-1.06). We did not observe significant differences in bupropion use between the pre- and post-BBW periods. The passage of the FDA boxed warning was associated with a significant decline in the use of varenicline, but not in the use of bupropion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Awareness of smoking risks and attitudes towards graphic health warning labels on cigarette packs: a cross-cultural study of two populations in Singapore and Scotland.

    PubMed

    Ng, D H L; Roxburgh, S T D; Sanjay, S; Au Eong, K G

    2010-05-01

    Little is known about the level of awareness of blindness as a smoking-related condition, although the relationship has been well established. To compare the awareness of smoking risks and the impact of graphic health warning labels on cigarette packs in discouraging smoking among adults in Singapore and Scotland. A cross-sectional survey using a structured interview of adults in ophthalmic, general medical, and general surgical outpatient clinics in Singapore and Scotland. One hundred and fifteen out of 163 (70.6%) outpatients in Singapore and 105 out of 112 (93.8%) outpatients in Scotland responded to the study. In both samples, awareness levels for smoking-related diseases such as lung cancer, mouth and throat cancer, heart disease, and stroke were all greater than 85%. These were found to be significantly higher than the level of awareness of blindness as a smoking-related condition (chi (2)-test, P<0.001). Although the awareness of blindness as a smoking-related condition was greater in Singapore (36.5%) than in Scotland (30.5%), this difference was not statistically significant. More than half of the respondents indicated that graphic health warning labels would be effective in discouraging them from smoking. Graphic health warning labels reading 'Smoking causes blindness' printed on cigarette packs may be useful in raising public awareness of blindness as a smoking-related condition and discouraging the habit of smoking in Singapore and Scotland.

  13. Experts advise hospitals to heed warning signs, leverage security to prepare against shootings.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    While hospital shootings are not commonplace, studies suggest they are happening with increasing frequency, and that EDs are particularly vulnerable to this type of violence. Researchers report that roughly a third of all hospital shootings occur in the emergency setting. Experts say such incidents are typically targeted events, not random acts. Consequently, effective security programs should emphasize preventive steps to defuse potentially volatile situations and prevent weapons from entering the facility. Hospital security departments should be equipped to provide training to employees throughout the facility so that employees know how to respond if an active shooter is identified. Researchers report that between 2000 and 2012 there were 154 shootings in American hospitals, and that the frequency of these events increased markedly in the later years of the study. Experts say hospital shootings may involve disgruntled patients, dementia patients, or psychiatric patients, but the most common perpetrators are prisoners who are brought into the hospital for treatment under guard. Security experts say effective safety plans should focus on identifying threatening language or other signs of agitation early on so that interventions can be employed. They also advise hospitals to install gun lockers at every entrance point so that lawful weapons can be stored before owners enter the facility. Liberalized gun laws in some regions are making security more difficult at public hospitals. Also, hospitals need to be careful with surveillance activities that could raise privacy concerns.

  14. Cigarette Graphic Warning Labels and Smoking Prevalence in Canada: A Critical Examination and Reformulation of the FDA Regulatory Impact Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background The estimated effect of cigarette graphic warning labels (GWLs) on smoking rates is a key input to FDA's regulatory impact analysis (RIA), required by law as part of its rulemaking process. However, evidence on the impact of GWLs on smoking prevalence is scarce. Objective The goal of this paper is to critically analyze FDA's approach to estimating the impact of GWLs on smoking rates in its RIA, and to suggest a path forward to estimating the impact of the adoption of GWLs in Canada on Canadian national adult smoking prevalence. Methods A quasi-experimental methodology was employed to examine the impact of adoption of GWLs in Canada in 2000, using the U.S. as a control. Findings We found a statistically significant reduction in smoking rates after the adoption of GWLs in Canada in comparison to the U.S. Our analyses show that implementation of GWLs in Canada reduced smoking rates by 2.87 to 4.68 percentage points, a relative reduction of 12.1 to 19.6% — 33 to 53 times larger than FDA's estimates of a 0.088 percentage point reduction. We also demonstrated that FDA's estimate of the impact was flawed because it is highly sensitive to the changes in variable selection, model specification, and the time period analyzed. Conclusions Adopting GWLs on cigarette packages reduces smoking prevalence. Applying our analysis of the Canadian GWLs, we estimate that if the U.S. had adopted GWLs in 2012, the number of adult smokers in the U.S. would have decreased by 5.3 to 8.6 million in 2013. Our analysis demonstrates that FDA's approach to estimating the impact of GWLs on smoking rates is flawed. Rectifying these problems before this approach becomes the norm is critical for FDA's effective regulation of tobacco products. PMID:24218057

  15. Do larger graphic health warnings on standardised cigarette packs increase adolescents’ cognitive processing of consumer health information and beliefs about smoking-related harms?

    PubMed Central

    White, Victoria; Williams, Tahlia; Faulkner, Agatha; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of plain packaging of cigarettes with enhanced graphic health warnings on Australian adolescents’ cognitive processing of warnings and awareness of different health consequences of smoking. Methods Cross-sectional school-based surveys conducted in 2011 (prior to introduction of standardised packaging, n=6338) and 2013 (7–12 months afterwards, n=5915). Students indicated frequency of attending to, reading, thinking or talking about warnings. Students viewed a list of diseases or health effects and were asked to indicate whether each was caused by smoking. Two—‘kidney and bladder cancer’ and ‘damages gums and teeth’—were new while the remainder had been promoted through previous health warnings and/or television campaigns. The 60% of students seeing a cigarette pack in previous 6 months in 2011 and 65% in 2013 form the sample for analysis. Changes in responses over time are examined. Results Awareness that smoking causes bladder cancer increased between 2011 and 2013 (p=0.002). There was high agreement with statements reflecting health effects featured in previous warnings or advertisements with little change over time. Exceptions to this were increases in the proportion agreeing that smoking was a leading cause of death (p<0.001) and causes blindness (p<0.001). The frequency of students reading, attending to, thinking or talking about the health warnings on cigarette packs did not change. Conclusions Acknowledgement of negative health effects of smoking among Australian adolescents remains high. Apart from increased awareness of bladder cancer, new requirements for packaging and health warnings did not increase adolescents’ cognitive processing of warning information. PMID:28407612

  16. University students' perceived self-efficacy in identifying suicidal warning signs and helping suicidal friends find campus intervention resources.

    PubMed

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Strader, Jennifer L

    2008-10-01

    Currently, suicide is the third leading cause of death among youth 18 to 24 years of age and the second leading cause of death on college campuses. A sample of students (N = 1,019) from three midwestern universities were surveyed regarding their perceived self-efficacy in identifying suicide warning signs and campus suicide intervention resources. The results indicated that 11% strongly believed they could recognize a friend at suicidal risk, while 17% strongly believed they could ask a friend if he or she was suicidal. Students who had received high school suicide prevention education and who had ever had a family member or friend express suicidal thoughts to them were those most confident in recognizing a friend at risk, asking a friend if he/she is suicidal, and helping a friend to see a counselor. Most (71%) were not aware of on-campus help resources. These findings underscore the importance of suicide prevention education throughout the high school and college years.

  17. Pyogenic liver abscess as a warning sign for primary liver cancer: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Kuan; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chiou, Meng-Jiun; Yang, Tsai-Sheng; Chang, John Wen-Cheng; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Kuo, Chang-Fu; See, Lai-Chu

    2013-01-01

    There have been no large-scale population-based studies to estimate the subsequent risk of primary liver cancer (PLC) among patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). This study aimed to provide relevant data. The Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database for the years 2000 and 2005 was used. The PLA group were adult inpatients who were newly diagnosed with PLA from 2000 to 2008. The control group was randomly selected and matched with the PLA group in terms of age, sex, and date in which medical treatment was sought other than for PLA. There were 1,987 patients each in the PLA and control groups. In total, 56 had PLC, 48 (2.4%, 601.5 per 100,000 person-years) from the PLA group, and 8 from the control group. After adjusting for potential covariates, the hazard ratio of PLC for the PLA group was 3.4 times that of the control group (95% confidence interval = 1.6-7.3, p <0.001). The PLC risk for the PLA group was significantly higher within the first year after PLA diagnosis (hazard ratio: 35.4) as compared with the control group and became insignificant (hazard ratio: 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8-4.9) more than one year after PLA diagnosis. Patients with PLA have a higher rate of PLC than matched controls, especially within the first year after the diagnosis of PLA, suggesting PLA is a warning sign for PLC.

  18. Using Self-affirmation to Increase the Effects of Emotive Health Warnings on Smoking: A Randomized Exploratory Trial.

    PubMed

    Memish, Kate E; Schüz, Natalie; Frandsen, Mai; Ferguson, Stuart G; Schüz, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    Emotive health messages are widely used tools in tobacco control. However, under some circumstances, they can be less effective than desired by eliciting defensive responses in smokers. This study tests whether enhancing a currently used emotive graphic smoking health warning with a self-affirmation component reduces cigarette consumption and whether potential effects are stronger in heavier smokers, as suggested by previous research. Participants (n = 265) were randomly allocated to a self-affirmation (reflecting on personal values and positive traits using a questionnaire) or matched control condition before viewing an emotive graphic health message from a current Australian government public health campaign. The primary outcome (cigarettes per day [CPD]) was assessed both before and a week following the intervention. No main effect of self-affirmation on smoking, but as hypothesized, a significant interaction between baseline smoking and self-affirmation was found that showed that heavier smokers (>21 CPD) who self-affirmed significantly reduced CPD compared to nonaffirmed smokers. These findings support the use of self-affirmation to enhance smoking awareness campaigns in heavier smokers. This study shows that enhancing emotive graphic smoking health messages with self-affirmation (the act of reflecting on positive aspects of oneself) increases their effectiveness in heavier smokers. This suggests that self-affirmation might be a particularly useful tool for health promotion targeting heavier smokers. This study adds to previous research in that it is the first to test the add-on effects of self-affirmation to current graphic health messages on smoking rather than smoking-related cognitions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Cigarette warning label policy alternatives and smoking-related health disparities.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Carpenter, Matthew J; Andrews, Jeannette O; Gray, Kevin M; Alberg, Anthony J; Navarro, Ashley; Friedman, Daniela B; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-12-01

    Pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packaging have been proposed for the U.S., but their potential influences among populations that suffer tobacco-related health disparities are unknown. To evaluate pictorial health warning labels, including moderation of their influences by health literacy and race. From July 2011 to January 2012, field experiments were conducted with 981 adult smokers who were randomized to control (i.e., text-only labels, n=207) and experimental conditions (i.e., pictorial labels, n=774). The experimental condition systematically varied health warning label stimuli by health topic and image type. Linear mixed effects (LME) models estimated the influence of health warning label characteristics and participant characteristics on label ratings. Data were analyzed from January 2012 to April 2012. Compared to text-only warning labels, pictorial warning labels were rated as more personally relevant (5.7 vs 6.8, p<0.001) and effective (5.4 vs 6.8, p<0.001), and as more credible, but only among participants with low health literacy (7.6 vs 8.2, p<0.001). Within the experimental condition, pictorial health warning labels with graphic imagery had significantly higher ratings of credibility, personal relevance, and effectiveness than imagery of human suffering and symbolic imagery. Significant interactions indicated that labels with graphic imagery produced minimal differences in ratings across racial groups and levels of health literacy, whereas other imagery produced greater group differences. Pictorial health warning labels with graphic images have the most-pronounced short-term impacts on adult smokers, including smokers from groups that have in the past been hard to reach. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cigarette Warning Label Policy Alternatives and Smoking-Related Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Andrews, Jeannette O.; Gray, Kevin M.; Alberg, Anthony J.; Navarro, Ashley; Friedman, Daniela B.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packaging have been proposed for the U.S., but their potential influences among populations that suffer tobacco-related health disparities are unknown. Purpose To evaluate pictorial health warning labels, including moderation of their influences by health literacy and race. Methods From July 2011 to January 2012, field experiments were conducted with 981 adult smokers who were randomized to control (i.e., text-only labels, n=207) and experimental conditions (i.e., pictorial labels, n=774). The experimental condition systematically varied health warning label stimuli by health topic and image type. Linear mixed effects (LME) models estimated the influence of health warning label characteristics and participant characteristics on label ratings. Data were analyzed from January 2012 to April 2012. Results Compared to text-only warning labels, pictorial warning labels were rated as more personally relevant (5.7 vs 6.8, p<0.001) and effective (5.4 vs 6.8, p<0.001), and as more credible, but only among participants with low health literacy (7.6 vs 8.2, p<0.001). Within the experimental condition, pictorial health warning labels with graphic imagery had significantly higher ratings of credibility, personal relevance, and effectiveness than imagery of human suffering and symbolic imagery. Significant interactions indicated that labels with graphic imagery produced minimal differences in ratings across racial groups and levels of health literacy, whereas other imagery produced greater group differences. Conclusions Pictorial health warning labels with graphic images have the most-pronounced short-term impacts on adult smokers, including smokers from groups that have in the past been hard to reach. PMID:23159254

  1. Does Reactance against Cigarette Warning Labels Matter? Warning Label Responses and Downstream Smoking Cessation amongst Adult Smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico and the United States.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoo Jin; Thrasher, James F; Swayampakala, Kamala; Yong, Hua-Hie; McKeever, Robert; Hammond, David; Anshari, Dien; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Some researchers have raised concerns that pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages may lead to message rejection and reduced effectiveness of HWL messages. This study aimed to determine how state reactance (i.e., negative affect due to perceived manipulation) in response to both pictorial and text-only HWLs is associated with other types of HWL responses and with subsequent cessation attempts. Survey data were collected every 4 months between September 2013 and 2014 from online panels of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the US were analyzed. Participants with at least one wave of follow-up were included in the analysis (n = 4,072 smokers; 7,459 observations). Surveys assessed psychological and behavioral responses to HWLs (i.e., attention to HWLs, cognitive elaboration of risks due to HWLs, avoiding HWLs, and forgoing cigarettes because of HWLs) and cessation attempts. Participants then viewed specific HWLs from their countries and were queried about affective state reactance. Logistic and linear Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models regressed each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses on reactance, while controlling for socio-demographic and smoking-related variables. Logistic GEE models also regressed having attempted to quit by the subsequent survey on reactance, each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses (analyzed separately), adjustment variables. Data from all countries were initially pooled, with interactions between country and reactance assessed; when interactions were statistically significant, country-stratified models were estimated. Interactions between country and reactance were found in all models that regressed psychological and behavioral HWL responses on study variables. In the US, stronger reactance was associated with more frequent reading of HWLs and thinking about health risks. Smokers from all four countries with stronger reactance reported greater likelihood of avoiding

  2. Knowledge of ischemic stroke risk factors and warning signs after a health education program by medical students.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Jiménez, Eugenio; Góngora-Rivera, Fernando; Martínez, Héctor R; Escamilla-Garza, Juan M; Villarreal, Héctor Jorge

    2011-04-01

    A delay in recognizing early warning signs (WS) and risk factors (RF) of ischemic stroke causes a delay in treatment. We evaluated knowledge of RF and WS and the impact of an educational program by medical students. We first surveyed individuals to determine knowledge of WS and RF. Then, after a 6-month education program, knowledge was reassessed. The questionnaire included sociodemographic and comorbidity data. A χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U test, as well as a multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine variables associated with knowledge, were used. We performed 329 baseline and 355 posteducation surveys. Initially, 57.1% mentioned at least 1 RF; this later increased to 65.9%. Mentions of obesity, dyslipidemias, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus increased significantly. With regard to WS, 37.6% mentioned at least 1, which increased to 48.1% who mentioned weakness in 1 limb, in half the body, severe headache, and altered vision. Educational level (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.42-4.53; P=0.001), employment (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.08-2.74; P=0.021), a family history of brain infarction (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.35-4.11; P=0.02), obesity (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.026-2.6; P=0.038), and having received information in the last 6 months (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.51-4.83; P=0.001) were associated with a better understanding of RF and WS. The educational program was cost-effective and had a positive impact on knowledge of RF and WS of ischemic stroke. More education programs are required to improve knowledge of ischemic stroke.

  3. Stroke Warning Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... person to repeat a simple sentence, like "The sky is blue." Is the person able to correctly ... to Your Doctor to Create a Plan The Life After Stroke Journey Every stroke recovery is different. ...

  4. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

  5. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities? Field experiments in Mexico to assess pictorial warning label content.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers). Participants reported responses to different pictorial HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs. didactic) and the other involved manipulating image type (diseased organs vs. human suffering). Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than pictorial HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance, and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms seem to work better than those with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases.

  6. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers’ understanding of smoking-related risks—a cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers’ level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. PMID:24848554

  7. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers' understanding of smoking-related risks-a cross-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Driving behaviour responses to a moose encounter, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message determined in a factorial simulator study.

    PubMed

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Antonson, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In a driving simulator study, driving behaviour responses (speed and deceleration) to encountering a moose, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message, with or without a wildlife fence and in dense forest or open landscape, were analysed. The study consisted of a factorial experiment that examined responses to factors singly and in combination over 9-km road stretches driven eight times by 25 participants (10 men, 15 women). The aims were to: determine the most effective animal-vehicle collision (AVC) countermeasures in reducing vehicle speed and test whether these are more effective in combination for reducing vehicle speed; identify the most effective countermeasures on encountering moose; and determine whether the driving responses to AVC countermeasures are affected by the presence of wildlife fences and landscape characteristics. The AVC countermeasures that proved most effective in reducing vehicle speed were a wildlife warning sign and radio message, while automatic speed cameras had a speed-increasing effect. There were no statistically significant interactions between different countermeasures and moose encounters. However, there was a tendency for a stronger speed-reducing effect from the radio message warning and from a combination of a radio message and wildlife warning sign in velocity profiles covering longer driving distances than the statistical tests. Encountering a moose during the drive had the overall strongest speed-reducing effect and gave the strongest deceleration, indicating that moose decoys or moose artwork might be useful as speed-reducing countermeasures. Furthermore, drivers reduced speed earlier on encountering a moose in open landscape and had lower velocity when driving past it. The presence of a wildlife fence on encountering the moose resulted in smaller deceleration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Awareness levels about breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs, and screening and therapeutic approaches among Iranian adult women: a large population based study using latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Tazhibi, Mahdi; Feizi, Awat

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women throughout the world and in Iran. Lack of awareness and early detection program in developing country is a main reason for escalating the mortality. The present research was conducted to assess the Iranian women's level of knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches, and their correlated determinants. In a cross-sectional study, 2250 women before participating at a community based screening and public educational program in an institute of cancer research in Isfahan, Iran, in 2012 were investigated using a self-administered questionnaire about risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches of BC. Latent class regression as a comprehensive statistical method was used for evaluating the level of knowledge and its correlated determinants. Only 33.2%, 31.9%, 26.7%, and 35.8% of study participants had high awareness levels about screening approaches, risk factors, early warning signs and therapeutic modalities of breast cancer, respectively, and majority had poor to moderate knowledge levels. Most effective predictors of high level of awareness were higher educational qualifications, attending in screening and public educational programs, personal problem, and family history of BC, respectively. Results of current study indicated that the levels of awareness among study population about key elements of BC are low. These findings reenforce the continuing need for more BC education through conducting public and professional programs that are intended to raise awareness among younger, single women and those with low educational attainments and without family history.

  10. Interpersonal communication about pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages: Policy-related influences and relationships with smoking cessation attempts.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Huang, Liling; O'Connor, Richard J; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Markovsky, Barry; Hardin, James

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between interpersonal communication about cigarette health warning labels (HWLs), psychological responses to HWLs, and smoking cessation attempts. Data were analyzed from online consumer panels of adult smokers in Australia, Canada and Mexico, during implementation of new pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packs. Approximately 1000 adult smokers were surveyed in each country every four months (September 2012, January 2013, May 2013, September 2013, January 2014). Only smokers followed for at least two waves were included in the analytic sample. Participants reported the frequency of talking about HWLs in the last month (in general, with family members, and with friends). For each country, poisson generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were estimated to assess the bivariate and adjusted correlates of talking about HWLs. Logistic GEE models regressed having attempted to quit by the subsequent wave on HWL talk, sociodemographics and psychological responses to HWLs. The frequency of HWL talk gradually decreased in Canada (48%-36%) after new HWLs were implemented; an increase (30%-58%) in Australia corresponded with implementation of new HWLs, after which talking stabilized; and the frequency of HWL talk in Mexico was stable over time, where new HWLs are implemented every six months. Talk about HWLs was an independent predictor of subsequent quit attempts in Canada (AOR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.11-2.02), Australia (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.05-1.89), and Mexico (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.11-2.10), as was cognitive responses to HWLs (Australia AOR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.22-2.24; Canada AOR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.15-2.11; Mexico AOR = 1.30; 95% CI = 0.91-1.85). No interaction between talk and cognitive reactions to HWLs were found. These results suggest that interpersonal communication about HWLs influences smoking cessation attempts independent of other established predictors of smoking cessation, including

  11. A narrative synthesis of factors that affect women speaking up about early warning signs and symptoms of pre-eclampsia and responses of healthcare staff.

    PubMed

    Carter, Wendy; Bick, Debra; Mackintosh, Nicola; Sandall, Jane

    2017-02-13

    One of the challenges for treating pre-eclampsia and preventing further deterioration is determining how best to enable early detection. If women or their partners and families are able to raise early warnings about potential signs and symptoms of pre-eclampsia in pregnancy, birth and in the postnatal period, women may be able to receive earlier intervention to prevent severe pre-eclampsia from developing. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of factors affecting the ability of women to recognise symptoms and signs of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and seek appropriate medical help and factors affecting health care professionals' responses to women and their families who 'speak up' about early warning signs and symptoms. A narrative synthesis was conducted of evidence relevant to address the research question. The following electronic data bases were searched for qualitative studies which met inclusion criteria from January 1980 to April 2016; Medline, CINAHL, HMIC, PsycINFO, Embase, BNI, ASSIA, Scopus, Maternity and Infant Care, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Cochrane, JBI and IBSS with the support of an Information Service Consultant. Following thematic analysis, three themes were identified; 1: Women's understanding and knowledge of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia; 2: Factors affecting help seeking behaviour from perspectives of women and their families'; 3: Factors affecting staff response. There was widespread lack of knowledge and understanding of signs and symptoms of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia among women and their families, with some women not exhibiting signs and symptoms of pre-eclampsia or unable to distinguish them from 'normal' pregnancy changes. Women and their families not only need to be made aware of signs and symptoms of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia but also require information on the most effective ways to seek urgent medical assessment and care. Some women did not experience prodromal signs and symptoms, which raises concerns about how women and

  12. Variable message fog hazard warning signs to control vehicle operating characteristics : interim report, Interstate 5, North Albany.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-04-01

    This project is aimed at determining the effectiveness of variable message signs in controlling traffic on an Interstate highway during periods of hazardous driving conditions such as fog, vehicle accidents, or congestion. : The effectiveness of the ...

  13. 'BeAWARE': supporting non-clinical staff within general practice to promptly identify patients presenting with warning signs of heart attack or stroke.

    PubMed

    Poulter, Christopher; Stewart, Michelle; Fitzpatrick, Cliona; Keech, Wendy; Stavreski, Bill; Grenfell, Robert

    2014-06-01

    General practice requires systems to deal with patients presenting with urgent needs. BeAWARE was developed to support non-clinical staff to promptly identify patients with symptoms of heart attack or stroke. Data were collected from May 2012 to December 2012 on participants completing the BeAWARE learning module, including pre- and post-assessments on knowledge, confidence and intended action. From May 2012 to December 2012, 1865 participants completed the module. There were significant increases in recall of heart attack and stroke symptoms among non-clinical participants, including chest tightness (23.4-48.7%, P DISCUSSION: BeAWARE fulfils a practice gap in patient safety by improving non-clinical staff's knowledge, confidence and intended action in response to patients presenting with heart attack or stroke warning signs.

  14. Public awareness of warning signs and symptoms of cancer in oman: a community-based survey of adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Azri, Mohammed; Al-Hamedi, Ibtisam; Al-Awisi, Huda; Al-Hinai, Mustafa; Davidson, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The majority of deaths from cancer occur in low and middle income countries, partly due to poor public awareness of the signs and symptoms of cancer. A community based survey using the Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM) questionnaire was conducted in three different communities in Oman. Omani adults aged 18 years and above were invited to participate in the study. A total of 345 responded from 450 invited participants (response rate=76.7%). The majority of respondents were unable to identify the common signs and symptoms of cancer identified in the CAM (average awareness was 40.6%). The most emotional barrier to seeking help was worry about what the doctor might find (223, 64.6%); a practical barrier was too busy to make an appointment (259, 75.1%) and a service barrier was difficulty talking to the doctor (159, 46.1%). The majority of respondents (more than 60% for seven out of ten symptoms) would seek medical help in two weeks for most signs or symptoms of cancer. Females were significantly more likely than males to be embarrassed (p<0.001), scared (p=0.001), and lack confidence talking about their symptoms (p=0.022). Urgent strategies are needed to improve public awareness of the signs and symptoms of cancer in Oman. This might leads to earlier diagnosis, improved prognosis and reduced mortality from cancer.

  15. Aggregate National Early Warning Score (NEWS) values are more important than high scores for a single vital signs parameter for discriminating the risk of adverse outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Stuart; Kovacs, Caroline; Briggs, Jim; Meredith, Paul; Schmidt, Paul E; Featherstone, Peter I; Prytherch, David R; Smith, Gary B

    2015-02-01

    The Royal College of Physicians (RCPL) National Early Warning Score (NEWS) escalates care to a doctor at NEWS values of ≥5 and when the score for any single vital sign is 3. We calculated the 24-h risk of serious clinical outcomes for vital signs observation sets with NEWS values of 3, 4 and 5, separately determining risks when the score did/did not include a single score of 3. We compared workloads generated by the RCPL's escalation protocol and for aggregate NEWS value alone. Aggregate NEWS values of 3 or 4 (n=142,282) formed 15.1% of all vital signs sets measured; those containing a single vital sign scoring 3 (n=36,207) constituted 3.8% of all sets. Aggregate NEWS values of either 3 or 4 with a component score of 3 have significantly lower risks (OR: 0.26 and 0.53) than an aggregate value of 5 (OR: 1.0). Escalating care to a doctor when any single component of NEWS scores 3 compared to when aggregate NEWS values ≥5, would have increased doctors' workload by 40% with only a small increase in detected adverse outcomes from 2.99 to 3.08 per day (a 3% improvement in detection). The recommended NEWS escalation protocol produces additional work for the bedside nurse and responding doctor, disproportionate to a modest benefit in increased detection of adverse outcomes. It may have significant ramifications for efficient staff resource allocation, distort patient safety focus and risk alarm fatigue. Our findings suggest that the RCPL escalation guidance warrants review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does Adding Information on Toxic Constituents to Cigarette Pack Warnings Increase Smokers' Perceptions about the Health Risks of Smoking? A Longitudinal Study in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yoo Jin; Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Lipkus, Isaac; Hammond, David; Cummings, Kenneth Michael; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hardin, James W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packs in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the United States include varying information about toxic cigarette smoke constituents and smoking-related health risks. HWL information changed more recently in Australia, Canada, and Mexico than in the United States. Aims: To investigate whether…

  17. The association between exposure to point-of-sale anti-smoking warnings and smokers’ interest in quitting and quit attempts: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hitchman, Sara C.; Wakefield, Melanie A.; Kasza, Karin A.; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to examine the associations between reported exposure to anti-smoking warnings at the point-of-sale (POS) and smokers’ interest in quitting and their subsequent quit attempts by comparing reactions in Australia where warnings are prominent to smokers in other countries. Design A prospective multi-country cohort design was employed. Setting Australia, Canada, the UK and the US. Participants 21,613 adult smokers who completed at least one of the seven waves (2002-2008) of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey were included in the analysis. Measurements Reported exposure to POS anti-smoking warnings and smokers’ interest in quitting at the same wave and quit attempts over the following year. Findings Compared to smokers in Canada, the UK and the US, Australian smokers reported higher levels of awareness of POS anti-smoking warnings, and this difference was consistent over the study period. Over waves in Australia (but not in the other three countries) there was a significantly positive association between reported exposure to POS anti-smoking warnings and interest in quitting (adjusted odds ratio = 1.139, 95% CI 1.039~1.249, p<0.01) and prospective quit attempts (adjusted odds ratio = 1.216, 95% CI 1.114~1.327, p<0.001) when controlling for demographics, smoking characteristics, overall salience of anti-smoking information, and awareness of anti-smoking material from channels other than POS. Conclusions Point-of-sale health warnings about tobacco are more prominent in Australia than US, UK or Canada and appear to act as a prompt to quitting. PMID:21954921

  18. Mass Media Campaigns' Influence on Prehospital Behavior for Acute Coronary Syndromes: An Evaluation of the Australian Heart Foundation's Warning Signs Campaign.

    PubMed

    Bray, Janet E; Stub, Dion; Ngu, Philip; Cartledge, Susie; Straney, Lahn; Stewart, Michelle; Keech, Wendy; Patsamanis, Harry; Shaw, James; Finn, Judith

    2015-07-06

    The aim of this study was to examine the awareness of a recent mass media campaign, and its influence on knowledge and prehospital times, in a cohort of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients admitted to an Australian hospital. We conducted 199 semistructured interviews with consecutive ACS patients who were aged 35 to 75 years, competent to provide consent, and English speaking. Questions addressed the factors known to predict prehospital delay, awareness of the campaign, and whether it increased knowledge and influenced actions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between campaign awareness and a 1-hour delay in deciding to seek medical attention (patient delay) and a 2-hour delay in presenting to hospital (prehospital delay). The median age was 62 years (IQR=53 to 68 years), and 68% (n=136) were male. Awareness of the campaign was reported by 127 (64%) patients, with most of these patients stating the campaign (1) increased their understanding of what is a heart attack (63%), (2) increased their awareness of the signs and symptoms of heart attack (68%), and (3) influenced their actions in response to symptoms (43%). After adjustment for other predictors, awareness of the campaign was significantly associated with patient delay time of ≤1 hour (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.25, 95% CI: 1.03 to 4.91, P=0.04) and prehospital delay time ≤2 hours (AOR=3.11, 95% CI: 1.36 to 7.08, P=0.007). Our study showed reasonably high awareness of the warning signs campaign, which was significantly associated with shorter prehospital decision-making and faster presentation to hospital. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. [A deadly pandemic is still spreading. The harmful effects of smoking are a serious warning for all].

    PubMed

    Holcík, J; Koupilová, I

    2002-10-25

    The author draw attention to the serious character of the pandemic caused by smoking which on a worldwide scale is responsible for the premature death of 4.2 million people every year. In the Czech Republic every year 22,000 people die from the sequelae of smoking. The authors refer to work which contributed to the evidence of the harmful impact of smoking on health. The World Health Organization contributes markedly to efforts to control smoking. The authors present brief information on the conference in Warsaw held in February 2002, they mention briefly data on smoking in Europe and the Czech Republic. They draw attention to the new strategy of the tobacco industry and appeal for joint and coordinated activities the objective of which would be to prevent health problems caused by smoking.

  20. Adult Smokers’ Reactions to Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Thailand and Moderating Effects of Type of Cigarette Smoked: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers’ reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Methods: Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representative sample of 2,000 adult smokers from each country were recruited and followed up. We analyzed data from one wave before (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation of the new pictorial warnings (two sets introduced at Waves 2 and 3, respectively) in Thailand, with Malaysia, having text-only warnings, serving as a control. Results: Following the warning label change in Thailand, smokers’ reported awareness and their cognitive and behavioral reactions increased markedly, with the cognitive and behavioral effects sustained at the next follow-up. By contrast, no significant change was observed in Malaysia over the same period. Compared to smokers who smoke any FM cigarettes, smokers of only RYO cigarettes reported a lower salience but greater cognitive reactions to the new pictorial warnings. Conclusions: The new Thai pictorial health warning labels have led to a greater impact than the text-only warning labels, and refreshing the pictorial images may have helped sustain effects. This finding provides strong support for introducing pictorial warning labels in low- and middle-income countries, where the benefits may be even greater, given the lower literacy rates and generally lower levels of readily available health information on the risks of smoking. PMID:23291637

  1. Adult smokers' reactions to pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packs in Thailand and moderating effects of type of cigarette smoked: findings from the international tobacco control southeast Asia survey.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey T; Driezen, Pete; Borland, Ron; Quah, Anne C K; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers' reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representative sample of 2,000 adult smokers from each country were recruited and followed up. We analyzed data from one wave before (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation of the new pictorial warnings (two sets introduced at Waves 2 and 3, respectively) in Thailand, with Malaysia, having text-only warnings, serving as a control. Following the warning label change in Thailand, smokers' reported awareness and their cognitive and behavioral reactions increased markedly, with the cognitive and behavioral effects sustained at the next follow-up. By contrast, no significant change was observed in Malaysia over the same period. Compared to smokers who smoke any FM cigarettes, smokers of only RYO cigarettes reported a lower salience but greater cognitive reactions to the new pictorial warnings. The new Thai pictorial health warning labels have led to a greater impact than the text-only warning labels, and refreshing the pictorial images may have helped sustain effects. This finding provides strong support for introducing pictorial warning labels in low- and middle-income countries, where the benefits may be even greater, given the lower literacy rates and generally lower levels of readily available health information on the risks of smoking.

  2. The warning-sign hierarchy between quantitative subcortical motor mapping and continuous motor evoked potential monitoring during resection of supratentorial brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Kathleen; Beck, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Lennart; Schucht, Philippe; Raabe, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Mapping and monitoring are believed to provide an early warning sign to determine when to stop tumor removal to avoid mechanical damage to the corticospinal tract (CST). The objective of this study was to systematically compare subcortical monopolar stimulation thresholds (1-20 mA) with direct cortical stimulation (DCS)-motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring signal abnormalities and to correlate both with new postoperative motor deficits. The authors sought to define a mapping threshold and DCS-MEP monitoring signal changes indicating a minimal safe distance from the CST. A consecutive cohort of 100 patients underwent tumor surgery adjacent to the CST while simultaneous subcortical motor mapping and DCS-MEP monitoring was used. Evaluation was done regarding the lowest subcortical mapping threshold (monopolar stimulation, train of 5 stimuli, interstimulus interval 4.0 msec, pulse duration 500 μsec) and signal changes in DCS-MEPs (same parameters, 4 contact strip electrode). Motor function was assessed 1 day after surgery, at discharge, and at 3 months postoperatively. The lowest individual motor thresholds (MTs) were as follows (MT in mA, number of patients): > 20 mA, n = 12; 11-20 mA, n = 13; 6-10 mA, n = 20; 4-5 mA, n = 30; and 1-3 mA, n = 25. Direct cortical stimulation showed stable signals in 70 patients, unspecific changes in 18, irreversible alterations in 8, and irreversible loss in 4 patients. At 3 months, 5 patients had a postoperative new or worsened motor deficit (lowest mapping MT 20 mA, 13 mA, 6 mA, 3 mA, and 1 mA). In all 5 patients DCS-MEP monitoring alterations were documented (2 sudden irreversible threshold increases and 3 sudden irreversible MEP losses). Of these 5 patients, 2 had vascular ischemic lesions (MT 20 mA, 13 mA) and 3 had mechanical CST damage (MT 1 mA, 3 mA, and 6 mA; in the latter 2 cases the resection continued after mapping and severe DCS-MEP alterations occurred thereafter). In 80% of patients with a mapping MT of 1-3 mA and in

  3. Placing Antismoking Graphic Warning Posters at Retail Point-of-Sale Locations Increases Some Adolescents' Susceptibility to Future Smoking.

    PubMed

    Shadel, William G; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude; Dunbar, Michael; Kusuke, Daniela; Lanna, Serafina; Meyer, Amanda

    2017-12-13

    This experiment tested whether introducing graphic antitobacco posters at point-of-sale (POS) had any effect on adolescents' susceptibility to future cigarette smoking and whether these effects were moderated by adolescents' baseline risk of cigarette smoking. The study was conducted in the RAND StoreLab, a life-sized replica of a convenience store that was developed to experimentally evaluate how changing aspects of tobacco advertising displays in retail POS environments influence tobacco use risk and behavior during simulated shopping experiences. In this study, 441 adolescents were randomized to one of the four conditions in a 2 (graphic antismoking poster placed near the tobacco power wall: no, yes) × 2 (graphic antismoking poster placed near the cash register: no, yes) experimental design. The outcome of interest was susceptibility to future cigarette smoking. The addition of antismoking posters at POS led to a significant increase in future smoking susceptibility among those adolescents who already were at high risk for smoking in the future (p < .045). The introduction of graphic antismoking posters had no impact on committed never smokers, regardless of poster location; never smokers' susceptibility to future smoking was uniformly low across experimental conditions. Introducing graphic antismoking posters at POS may have the unintended effect of further increasing cigarette smoking susceptibility among adolescents already at risk. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Warning Signs of Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the two terms are used interchangeably. View an animation of heart failure . If you have been diagnosed ... resources here Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  5. Warning Signs of Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... each(function(i){ var city = $(this).find('city').text(); var state = $(this).find('state').text(); var date = $(this).find('date').text(); if ((city != "") && (state != "")){ var citystate = ' | ' + city + ', ' + state; } else ...

  6. Warning Signs of Breastfeeding Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... and four stools per day, her urine is dark yellow or specked with red, or her stools are still dark rather than yellow and loose. If you or ... Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute ...

  7. Youth Advocates' Perceptions of Tobacco Industry Marketing Influences on Adolescent Smoking: Can They See the Signs?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Malinda; Chan, Andie; Sampilo, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-sale (POS) advertising at retail stores is one of the key marketing avenues used by the tobacco industry. The United States Surgeon General urges actions to eliminate POS tobacco advertisements because of their influence on youth smoking. Many youth empowerment programs are implemented to address tobacco industry marketing influences, including POS tobacco advertisements. While youth are asked to take on such collective action, little is known regarding their perceptions and understanding of tobacco industry marketing influences and related advocacy activities. This mixed methods study examined Oklahoma's tobacco control youth empowerment program members' perceptions of tobacco industry marketing influences. Four focus groups were held with active program members from rural and urban areas. Overall, the focus group participants viewed the program as purposeful, as an avenue to help others, and as a way to make a difference. Specifically, the older participants (median age = 18 years) identified tobacco industry marketing influences such as POS, movies, and magazine advertisements and reported participating in activities that counter POS tobacco advertisements at retail stores. Likewise younger participants (median age = 16 years), identified similar tobacco industry marketing influences, but also included tobacco use by friends and family as tobacco industry marketing influences. Moreover, the younger participants did not report engaging in activities that addressed POS tobacco advertisements. The study results suggest that the empowerment program should tailor its programming, training, materials, and activities with input from youth of various ages. Thoughtfully developed messages and specific activities can truly empower youth and maximize their contribution as change agents who address POS or other initiatives at the retail environments to prevent chronic diseases.

  8. Youth Advocates' Perceptions of Tobacco Industry Marketing Influences on Adolescent Smoking: Can They See the Signs?

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Malinda; Chan, Andie; Sampilo, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-sale (POS) advertising at retail stores is one of the key marketing avenues used by the tobacco industry. The United States Surgeon General urges actions to eliminate POS tobacco advertisements because of their influence on youth smoking. Many youth empowerment programs are implemented to address tobacco industry marketing influences, including POS tobacco advertisements. While youth are asked to take on such collective action, little is known regarding their perceptions and understanding of tobacco industry marketing influences and related advocacy activities. This mixed methods study examined Oklahoma's tobacco control youth empowerment program members' perceptions of tobacco industry marketing influences. Four focus groups were held with active program members from rural and urban areas. Overall, the focus group participants viewed the program as purposeful, as an avenue to help others, and as a way to make a difference. Specifically, the older participants (median age = 18 years) identified tobacco industry marketing influences such as POS, movies, and magazine advertisements and reported participating in activities that counter POS tobacco advertisements at retail stores. Likewise younger participants (median age = 16 years), identified similar tobacco industry marketing influences, but also included tobacco use by friends and family as tobacco industry marketing influences. Moreover, the younger participants did not report engaging in activities that addressed POS tobacco advertisements. The study results suggest that the empowerment program should tailor its programming, training, materials, and activities with input from youth of various ages. Thoughtfully developed messages and specific activities can truly empower youth and maximize their contribution as change agents who address POS or other initiatives at the retail environments to prevent chronic diseases. PMID:29546148

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of peripheral venous lactate and the 2009 WHO warning signs for identifying severe dengue in Thai adults: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Thanachartwet, Vipa; Wattanathum, Anan; Oer-areemitr, Nittha; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Sahassananda, Duangjai; Monpassorn, Chalida; Surabotsophon, Manoon; Desakorn, Varunee

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in humans. However, the sensitivities of warning signs (WSs) for identifying severe dengue in adults are low, and the utility of lactate levels for identifying severe dengue in adults has not been verified. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of using peripheral venous lactate levels (PVL), as well as WSs established by the World Health Organization, for identifying severe dengue. We prospectively evaluated individuals hospitalized for dengue who were admitted to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Thailand between May 2013 and January 2015. Blood samples to evaluate PVL levels were collected at admission and every 24 h until the patient exhibited a body temperature of <37.8 °C for at least 24 h. Data were recorded on a pre-defined case report form, including baseline characteristics, clinical parameters, and laboratory findings. Among 125 patients with confirmed dengue, 105 (84.0%) patients had non-severe dengue, and 20 (16.0%) patients had severe dengue. The presence of clinical fluid accumulation as a WS provided high sensitivity (75.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 50.9-91.3%) and specificity (90.5%, 95% CI: 83.2-95.3%). The PVL level at admission was used to evaluate its diagnostic value, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.84 for identifying severe dengue. At the optimal cutoff value (PVL: 2.5 mmol/L), the sensitivity and specificity were 65.0% (95% CI: 40.8-84.6%) and 96.2% (95% CI: 90.5-99.0%), respectively. A combined biomarker comprising clinical fluid accumulation and/or PVL of ≥2.5 mmol/L provided the maximum diagnostic accuracy for identifying severe dengue, with a sensitivity of 90.0% (95% CI: 68.3-98.8%) and a specificity of 87.6% (95% CI: 79.8-93.2%). Clinical fluid accumulation and/or PVL may be used as a diagnostic biomarker of severe dengue among adults. This biomarker may facilitate early recognition and timely

  10. Smoke signs: patterns of tobacco billboard advertising in a metropolitan region

    PubMed Central

    Luke, D.; Esmundo, E.; Bloom, Y.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To use geographic information systems data and analyses to describe locations and characteristics of tobacco billboards in a large metropolitan area, and to assess the extent to which tobacco companies are locating billboards in close proximity to minority neighbourhoods and schools.
DESIGN—Observational study of billboards in a large metropolitan region.
SETTING—City and county of St Louis, Missouri.
PARTICIPANTS—All stationary billboards in the city and county of St Louis were eligible to be observed, with the exception of bus stop and street side retail advertising signs (for example, cigarette advertising at gas stations). A total of 1239 non-blank billboards were observed. All data were collected in early 1998.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Tobacco and non-tobacco billboard geographic distribution; billboard type and product brand frequencies; and billboard neighbourhood characteristics.
RESULTS—Almost 20% of the billboards contained tobacco advertising. Four of the top five and nine of the top 22 brands displayed on billboards were tobacco products. Billboards were located in all areas of St Louis except for the communities with the highest average incomes. Tobacco billboards were more likely to be found in low income areas and areas with a higher percentage of African Americans. Images of African American figures on tobacco billboards were concentrated in the most heavily African American populated regions of the city. Approximately 74% of all billboards in the city of St Louis were within 2000 feet (700 metres) of public school property.
CONCLUSIONS—Tobacco products were the single most heavily advertised type of product on billboards in St Louis. The geographic distribution of tobacco billboards, as well as the types of images found on these billboards, is consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco companies are targeting poor and minority communities with their advertising. Methods employing geographic information systems

  11. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  12. Associations of Smoking and Age With Inflammatory Joint Signs Among Unaffected First-Degree Relatives of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Results From Studies of the Etiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Jeffrey A; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Deane, Kevin D; Gan, Ryan W; Kristen Demoruelle, M; Feser, Marie L; Moss, LauraKay; Buckner, Jane H; Keating, Richard M; Costenbader, Karen H; Gregersen, Peter K; Weisman, Michael H; Mikuls, Ted R; O'Dell, James R; Michael Holers, V; Norris, Jill M; Karlson, Elizabeth W

    2016-08-01

    To examine whether genetic, environmental, and serologic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk factors are associated with inflammatory joint signs in a cohort of first-degree relatives (FDRs) of RA patients. We evaluated RA risk factors and inflammatory joint signs in a prospective cohort of FDRs without RA in the Studies of the Etiology of RA. Genetic factors included 5 HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles and 45 RA-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms; loci were combined using genetic risk scores weighted by RA risk. Environmental factors (smoking, body mass index, education, and parity) and RA-related autoantibodies were assessed at baseline. Physical examination was performed at baseline and 2-year follow-up, by observers who were blinded with regard to autoantibody status, to assess inflammatory joint signs as tender or swollen joints at sites typical for RA. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations of genetic, environmental, and serologic factors with inflammatory joint signs. We analyzed 966 non-Hispanic white FDRs at baseline and 262 at 2-year follow-up after excluding those with inflammatory joint signs at baseline. The mean ± SD age was 47.2 ± 15.5 years, 71% were female, and 55% were shared epitope positive. Smoking >10 pack-years was associated with inflammatory joint signs at baseline (odds ratio [OR] 1.89 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.26-2.82]) and at 2 years (OR 2.66 [95% CI 1.01-7.03]), compared to never smokers. There was a significant interaction between smoking and age with regard to risk of inflammatory joint signs (P = 0.02). FDRs younger than 50 years with >10 pack-years had the highest risk of inflammatory joint signs (OR 4.39 [95% CI 2.22-8.66], compared to never smokers younger than 50 years). In a high-risk cohort of FDRs, smoking and age were associated with both prevalent and incident inflammatory joint signs at sites typical for RA. Further prospective investigations of the factors affecting the

  13. The impact and acceptability of Canadian-style cigarette warning labels among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ellen; Romer, Daniel; Slovic, Paul; Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Wharfield, Leisha; Mertz, C K; Carpenter, Stephanie M

    2007-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major source of mortality and medical costs in the United States. More graphic and salient warning labels on cigarette packs as used in Canada may help to reduce smoking initiation and increase quit attempts. However, the labels also may lead to defensive reactions among smokers. In an experimental setting, smokers and nonsmokers were exposed to Canadian or U.S. warning labels. Compared with current U.S. labels, Canadian labels produced more negative affective reactions to smoking cues and to the smoker image among both smokers and nonsmokers without signs of defensive reactions from smokers. A majority of both smokers and nonsmokers endorsed the use of Canadian labels in the United States. Canadian-style warnings should be adopted in the United States as part of the country's overall tobacco control strategy.

  14. Highway signing for safety.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1971-01-01

    Signing that effectively warns the motorist of temporary obstructions on or near a roadway is essential to traffic safety. The general objective of this study was to become familiar with and investigate the suitability of various temporary maintenanc...

  15. Effects of 30% and 50% Cigarette Pack Graphic Warning Labels on Visual Attention, Negative Affect, Quit Intentions, and Smoking Susceptibility among Disadvantaged Populations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Skurka, Chris; Kemp, Deena; Davydova, Julie; Thrasher, James F; Byrne, Sahara; Safi, Amelia Greiner; Avery, Rosemary J; Dorf, Michael C; Mathios, Alan D; Scolere, Leah; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2018-06-07

    Though the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) calls for the implementation of large graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette boxes, the courts have blocked the implementation of 50% labels in the United States. We conducted an experiment to explore whether changing the size of GWLs is associated with changes in visual attention, negative affect, risk beliefs, and behavioral intentions. We recruited adult smokers (N = 238) and middle-school youth (N = 237) throughout the state of New York in May 2016. We randomly assigned participants to one of three between-subject conditions (no GWL [control], 30% GWL, 50% GWL). Adult and youth participants looked at the GWLs longer when the GWL covered 50% versus 30% of the pack's front. Increasing GWL size from 30% to 50% did not influence negative affect or risk beliefs, though both GWL sizes increased negative affect relative to the no-GWL control group. Exposure to 50% GWLs increased adult smokers' intentions to quit compared to no-GWL, but smokers exposed to 30% GWLs did not differ from control. There were no differences between 50% GWLs, 30% GWLs, and control on youth smoking susceptibility. Findings provide some evidence of the benefits of a 50% versus 30% GWL covering the front of the pack for adult smokers and at-risk youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds-though not on all outcomes. This research shows that 30% GWLs on cigarette packages increase negative affect relative to packages without front-of-package GWLs. Larger GWLs on cigarette packages (50% vs. 30%) increase visual attention to the warning and its pictorial content among low-SES smokers and at-risk youth but do not further increase negative affect. A 50% GWL increased adults' quit intention compared to no GWL at all, but we were underpowered to detect modest differences in quit intentions between a 50% and 30% GWL. Future work should thus continue to explore the boundary conditions under which relatively larger GWLs

  16. Adolescents' Responses to Pictorial Warnings on Their Parents' Cigarette Packs.

    PubMed

    Peebles, Kathryn; Hall, Marissa G; Pepper, Jessica K; Byron, M Justin; Noar, Seth M; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-01

    Pictorial cigarette pack warnings are a promising policy solution to increase smoking cessation among adults. However, little is known regarding adolescents' responses to pictorial warnings, particularly in real-world settings. Participants were 112 adolescent children, ages 13-17, whose parents received either text-only warnings on the side of their cigarette packs or pictorial warnings on the top half of the front and back of their cigarette packs for 4 weeks as part of a trial. We measured adolescents' recall and recognition of these warnings, negative emotional reactions to the warnings, perceived effectiveness of the warnings, social interactions about the warnings, and smoking risk beliefs. Adolescents accurately recalled pictorial warnings more often than text-only warnings (82% vs. 19%, p < .001). Recognition of warnings was also higher for pictorial than text-only warnings (82% vs. 34%, p < .001). Pictorial warnings drew greater attention (p < .001), elicited greater negative emotional reactions (p < .05), and sparked more social interactions (p < .01) than text-only warnings. Pictorial warnings on cigarette packs may have important effects on adolescent children of smokers. Future research should further investigate the impact of such messages on adolescents' susceptibility to smoking initiation and interest in quitting smoking, particularly as the United States and other countries work to implement pictorial warning regulations. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adolescents' Responses to Pictorial Warnings on Their Parents' Cigarette Packs

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, Kathryn; Hall, Marissa G.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Byron, M. Justin; Noar, Seth M.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pictorial cigarette pack warnings are a promising policy solution to increase smoking cessation among adults. However, little is known regarding adolescents' responses to pictorial warnings, particularly in real-world settings. Methods Participants were 112 adolescent children, ages 13–17, whose parents received either text-only warnings on the side of their cigarette packs or pictorial warnings on the top half of the front and back of their cigarette packs for 4 weeks as part of a trial. We measured adolescents' recall and recognition of these warnings, negative emotional reactions to the warnings, perceived effectiveness of the warnings, social interactions about the warnings, and smoking risk beliefs. Results Adolescents accurately recalled pictorial warnings more often than text-only warnings (82% vs. 19%, p < .001). Recognition of warnings was also higher for pictorial than text-only warnings (82% vs. 34%, p < .001). Pictorial warnings drew greater attention (p < .001), elicited greater negative emotional reactions (p < .05), and sparked more social interactions (p < .01) than text-only warnings. Conclusions Pictorial warnings on cigarette packs may have important effects on adolescent children of smokers. Future research should further investigate the impact of such messages on adolescents' susceptibility to smoking initiation and interest in quitting smoking, particularly as the United States and other countries work to implement pictorial warning regulations. PMID:27646499

  18. Transportation research synthesis : effectiveness of traffic signs on local roads.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    There does not appear to be significant credible research demonstrating the outright ineffectiveness of particular : traffic warning signs. The research we identified provides support for opposing points of view: that traffic warning : signs have a m...

  19. Sign-a-Palooza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorran, Charles; Reynolds, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    A halo of signs, some stuffed into thick plastic sheaths while others curled under yellow tape, cluttered the service desks of the New City Library. They bleated out messages of closings, procedures, and warnings. Their number undermined their cause. All too often a customer would ask a question that was answered by the very sign they had pushed…

  20. Record review to explore the adequacy of post-operative vital signs monitoring using a local modified early warning score (mews) chart to evaluate outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kyriacos, Una; Jelsma, Jennifer; Jordan, Sue

    2014-01-01

    1) To explore the adequacy of: vital signs' recordings (respiratory and heart rate, oxygen saturation, systolic blood pressure (BP), temperature, level of consciousness and urine output) in the first 8 post-operative hours; responses to clinical deterioration. 2) To identify factors associated with death on the ward between transfer from the theatre recovery suite and the seventh day after operation. Retrospective review of records of 11 patients who died plus four controls for each case. We reviewed clinical records of 55 patients who met inclusion criteria (general anaesthetic, age >13, complete records) from six surgical wards in a teaching hospital between 1 May and 31 July 2009. In the absence of guidelines for routine post-operative vital signs' monitoring, nurses' standard practice graphical plots of recordings were recoded into MEWS formats (0 = normal, 1-3 upper or lower limit) and their responses to clinical deterioration were interpreted using MEWS reporting algorithms. No patients' records contained recordings for all seven parameters displayed on the MEWS. There was no evidence of response to: 22/36 (61.1%) abnormal vital signs for patients who died that would have triggered an escalated MEWS reporting algorithm; 81/87 (93.1%) for controls. Death was associated with age, ≥61 years (OR 14.2, 3.0-68.0); ≥2 pre-existing co-morbidities (OR 75.3, 3.7-1527.4); high/low systolic BP on admission (OR 7.2, 1.5-34.2); tachycardia (≥111-129 bpm) (OR 6.6, 1.4-30.0) and low systolic BP (≤81-100 mmHg), as defined by the MEWS (OR 8.0, 1.9-33.1). Guidelines for post-operative vital signs' monitoring and reporting need to be established. The MEWS provides a useful scoring system for interpreting clinical deterioration and guiding intervention. Exploration of the ability of the Cape Town MEWS chart plus reporting algorithm to expedite recognition of signs of clinical and physiological deterioration and securing more skilled assistance is essential.

  1. Patient Safety Policy in Long-Term Care: A Research Protocol to Assess Executive WalkRounds to Improve Management of Early Warning Signs for Patient Safety.

    PubMed

    van Dusseldorp, Loes; Hamers, Hub; van Achterberg, Theo; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2014-07-15

    At many hospitals and long-term care organizations (such as nursing homes), executive board members have a responsibility to manage patient safety. Executive WalkRounds offer an opportunity for boards to build a trusting relationship with professionals and seem useful as a leadership tool to pick up on soft signals, which are indirect signals or early warnings that something is wrong. Because the majority of the research on WalkRounds has been performed in hospitals, it is unknown how board members of long-term care organizations develop their patient safety policy. Also, it is not clear if these board members use soft signals as a leadership tool and, if so, how this influences their patient safety policies. The objective of this study is to explore the added value and the feasibility of WalkRounds for patient safety management in long-term care. This study also aims to identify how executive board members of long-term care organizations manage patient safety and to describe the characteristics of boards. An explorative before-and-after study was conducted between April 2012 and February 2014 in 13 long-term care organizations in the Netherlands. After implementing the intervention in 6 organizations, data from 72 WalkRounds were gathered by observation and a reporting form. Before and after the intervention period, data collection included interviews, questionnaires, and studying reports of the executive boards. A mixed-method analysis is performed using descriptive statistics, t tests, and content analysis. Results are expected to be ready in mid 2014. It is a challenge to keep track of ongoing development and implementation of patient safety management tools in long-term care. By performing this study in cooperation with the participating long-term care organizations, insight into the potential added value and the feasibility of this method will increase.

  2. Pregnancy physiology pattern prediction study (4P study): protocol of an observational cohort study collecting vital sign information to inform the development of an accurate centile-based obstetric early warning score.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Fiona; Kemp, Jude; Edwards, Clare; Pullon, Rebecca M; Loerup, Lise; Triantafyllidis, Andreas; Salvi, Dario; Gibson, Oliver; Gerry, Stephen; MacKillop, Lucy H; Tarassenko, Lionel; Watkinson, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    Successive confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in the UK have identified an urgent need to develop a national early warning score (EWS) specifically for pregnant or recently pregnant women to aid more timely recognition, referral and treatment of women who are developing life-threatening complications in pregnancy or the puerperium. Although many local EWS are in use in obstetrics, most have been developed heuristically. No current obstetric EWS has defined the thresholds at which an alert should be triggered using evidence-based normal ranges, nor do they reflect the changing physiology that occurs with gestation during pregnancy. An observational cohort study involving 1000 participants across three UK sites in Oxford, London and Newcastle. Pregnant women will be recruited at approximately 14 weeks' gestation and have their vital signs (heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and temperature) measured at 4 to 6-week intervals during pregnancy. Vital signs recorded during labour and delivery will be extracted from hospital records. After delivery, participants will measure and record their own vital signs daily for 2 weeks. During the antenatal and postnatal periods, vital signs will be recorded on an Android tablet computer through a custom software application and transferred via mobile internet connection to a secure database. The data collected will be used to define reference ranges of vital signs across normal pregnancy, labour and the immediate postnatal period. This will inform the design of an evidence-based obstetric EWS. The study has been approved by the NRES committee South East Coast-Brighton and Sussex (14/LO/1312) and is registered with the ISRCTN (10838017). All participants will provide written informed consent and can withdraw from the study at any point. All data collected will be managed anonymously. The findings will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and through research conferences.

  3. Associations of smoking and age with inflammatory joint signs among first-degree relatives without rheumatoid arthritis: Results from the Studies of the Etiology of RA

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Jeffrey A.; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Deane, Kevin D.; Gan, Ryan W.; Demoruelle, M. Kristen; Feser, Marie L.; Moss, LauraKay; Buckner, Jane H.; Keating, Richard M.; Costenbader, Karen H.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Weisman, Michael H.; Mikuls, Ted R.; O’Dell, James R.; Holers, V. Michael; Norris, Jill M.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether genetic, environmental, and serologic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk factors are associated with inflammatory joint signs (IJS) in a cohort of RA first-degree relatives (FDRs). Methods We evaluated RA risk factors and IJS in a prospective cohort of FDRs without RA in the Studies of the Etiology of RA. Genetic factors included five HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles and 45 RA-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms; loci were combined using genetic risk scores (GRS) weighted by RA risk. Environmental factors (smoking, body mass index, education, and parity) and RA-related autoantibodies were assessed at baseline. Physical examination at baseline and two-year follow-up by observers blinded to autoantibody status assessed IJS as tender or swollen joints at sites typical for RA. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations of genetic, environmental, and serologic factors with IJS. Results We analyzed 966 non-Hispanic white FDRs at baseline and 262 at two-year follow-up after excluding those with IJS at baseline. Mean age was 47.2 years (SD 15.5), 71% were female, and 55% were shared epitope-positive. Smoking >10 pack-years was associated with IJS at baseline (OR 1.59, 95%CI 1.09–2.32) and at 2 years (OR 2.66, 95%CI 1.01–7.03), compared to never smokers. Smoking and age significantly interacted for risk of IJS (p=0.02). FDRs aged <50 years with >10 pack-years had the highest risk of IJS (OR 4.39, 95%CI 2.22–8.66) compared to never smokers aged <50 years). Conclusion In a high-risk cohort of FDRs, smoking and age were associated with both prevalent and incident IJS at sites typical for RA. Further prospective investigations of the factors affecting the transitions between pre-clinical RA phases are warranted. PMID:26866831

  4. The mediation of social influences on smoking cessation and awareness of the early signs of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chatwin, John; Povey, Andrew; Kennedy, Anne; Frank, Tim; Firth, Adam; Booton, Richard; Barber, Phil; Sanders, Caroline

    2014-10-07

    Whilst there has been no clear consensus on the potential for earlier diagnosis of lung cancer, recent research has suggested that the time between symptom onset and consultation can be long enough to plausibly affect prognosis. In this article, we present findings from a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with patients who had been diagnosed with lung cancer (n = 11), and people who were at heightened risk of developing the disease (n = 14). A grounded theory methodology was drawn upon to conduct thematic and narrative based approaches to analysis. The paper focuses on three main themes which emerged from the study: i) fatalism and resignation in pathways to help-seeking and the process of diagnosis; ii) Awareness of smoking risk and response to cessation information and advice. iii) The role of social and other networks on help-seeking. Key findings included: poor awareness among participants of the symptoms of lung cancer; ambivalence about the dangers of smoking; the perception of lung cancer as part of a homogenisation of multiple illnesses; close social networks as a key trigger in help-seeking. We suggest that future smoking cessation and lung cancer awareness campaigns could usefully capitalise on the influence of close social networks, and would benefit from taking a 'softer' approach.

  5. Social Interactions Sparked by Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Marissa G.; Peebles, Kathryn; Bach, Laura E.; Noar, Seth M.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    The Message Impact Framework suggests that social interactions may offer smokers the opportunity to process pictorial warnings on cigarette packs more deeply. We aimed to describe adult smokers’ social interactions about pictorial cigarette pack warnings in two longitudinal pilot studies. In Pilot Study 1, 30 smokers used cigarette packs with one of nine pictorial warnings for two weeks. In Pilot Study 2, 46 smokers used cigarette packs with one of five pictorial warnings for four weeks. Nearly all smokers (97%/96% in Pilot Study 1/2) talked about the warnings with other people, with the most common people being friends (67%/87%) and spouses/significant others (34%/42%). Pilot Study 2 found that 26% of smokers talked about the warnings with strangers. Discussions about the health effects of smoking and quitting smoking were more frequent during the first week of exposure to pictorial warnings than in the week prior to beginning the study (both p < 0.05). Pictorial warnings sparked social interactions about the warnings, the health effects of smoking, and quitting smoking, indicating that pictorial warnings may act as a social intervention reaching beyond the individual. Future research should examine social interactions as a potential mediator of the impact of pictorial warnings on smoking behavior. PMID:26506363

  6. Synthesis of Non-MUTCD Traffic Signing

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-12-01

    Most States and many local jurisdictions have developed and routinely use a number of unique traffic sign legends, designs, and symbols. Typically, these signs have been developed because of the need to communicate certain regulatory, warning, and gu...

  7. Report on a study of fires with smoke gas development : determination of blood cyanide levels, clinical signs and laboratory values in victims.

    PubMed

    Geldner, G; Koch, E M; Gottwald-Hostalek, U; Baud, F; Burillo, G; Fauville, J-P; Levi, F; Locatelli, C; Zilker, T

    2013-08-01

    This is a report on an international non-interventional study of patients exposed to fires with smoke development in closed rooms. The objective of the study was to document clinical symptoms, relevant laboratory values and blood cyanide concentrations from fire victims in order to confirm or rule out presumptive correlations between the individual parameters. The study was conducted in five European countries with patients being included if they presented with the characteristic clinical signs, such as soot deposits and altered neurological status. Venous blood samples were taken from victims prior to administration of an antidote in all cases and determination of cyanide concentration was performed in a central laboratory using high performance liquid chromatography. Data from 102 patients (62 % male, average age 49 years) were included in the evaluation with no blood samples being available for analysis from 2 patients. In 25 patients the blood cyanide concentration was below the limit of detection of 1.2 μmol/l. Cyanide levels between 1.2 and 10 μmol/l were measured in 54 patients, 7 patients had values between 10 and 20 μmol/l, 4 patients between 20 and 40 μmol/l while levels above 40 μmol/l were determined in 10 patients. The results of the study could not demonstrate that the cyanide level was influenced either by the interval between smoke exposure and blood sampling or the duration presence at the fire scene. The following clinical signs or laboratory values were recorded as relevant for increased and possibly toxic cyanide levels: respiratory arrest, dyspnea, resuscitation requirement, tracheal intubation, respiratory support measures, low Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score and respiratory frequency. A correlation between cyanide concentration and the total amount of soot deposits on the face and neck, in the oral cavity and in expectoration was confirmed. A correlation between cyanide and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in the blood of fire victims was

  8. Brain Aneurysm Warning Signs/Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Challenge Emotional Challenges Potential Deficits Strategies For Short-Term Memory Loss Rehabilitation Kinds of Therapy What to Expect Common Questions How Long Until I Get Better? Why am I so ...

  9. Warning signs and symptoms of heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  10. Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually ...

  11. Fact Sheet: Early Warning Signs of Psychosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2 items) Genetics (1 item) Brain Anatomy and Physiology (1 item) Other Treatments (4 items) Coping with ... 2 items) Genetics (1 item) Brain Anatomy and Physiology (1 item) Other Treatments (4 items) Coping with ...

  12. Assessing the effectiveness of deer warning signs

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-04-01

    Deer-vehicle crashes are a concern across the country, especially in states like Kansas, where most of the highway mileage is rural. In Kansas, the concern led to passage of state statute 32-966. One result of this legislation was the initiation of t...

  13. 30 CFR 56.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control... open flames shall be posted where a fire or explosion hazard exists. ...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4101 - Warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control... open flames shall be posted where a fire or explosion hazard exists. ...

  15. Safety evaluation of curve warning speed signs.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a review of a research effort to evaluate the safety implications of advisory speeds at horizontal curve locations on Oregon rural two-lane highways. The primary goals of this research effort were to characterize driving operatio...

  16. In Researcher's Background, Some Warning Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2009-01-01

    When Robert D. Felner applied to become dean of education at the University of Louisville in 2003, he carried a genuinely impressive vita. But two of the most recent large grants listed on that vita could not have survived close scrutiny--and it isn't clear that Louisville's search committee scrutinized them at all. First, the impressive part:…

  17. A cross-sectional investigation of positive and negative smoker stereotypes and evaluations of cigarette warnings.

    PubMed

    Magnan, Renee E; Cameron, Linda D

    2017-05-01

    Although graphic cigarette warnings have important benefits that may aid in motivating smoking quit attempts and discouraging smoking initiation, 1 possible negative consequence might be psychological reactance to graphic warnings. Reactance to warnings might be shaped by stereotypical views of smokers. This research examined the associations of positive and negative smoker stereotypes with perceptions of the educational value of warnings as well as affective and motivational responses to them. Using a cross-sectional design, young adult smokers and nonsmokers (N = 396) completed an online questionnaire assessing positive and negative smoker stereotypes and then evaluated a series of graphic-plus-text and text-only cigarette warnings on perceived new knowledge gained from the warning, understandability of the warning, worry about the consequences of smoking elicited by the warning, and discouragement from smoking elicited by the warning. Negative smoker stereotypes were associated with all warning perceptions-more negative stereotypes were associated with higher levels of perceived new knowledge, perceived understandability, worry, and discouragement from smoking. Positive smoker stereotypes were only associated with more perceived new knowledge. Neither smoking status nor warning type moderated the relationships between smoking stereotypes and warning evaluations. Focusing on enhancing negative smoker portrayals, rather than reducing positive portrayals, may be more effective for antismoking campaigns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Limited sight distance warning for vertical curves

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1984-11-01

    This is a summary of the procedures and findings of a study of highway signs to warn of restricted sight distance due to crest vertical curves. Driver awareness, understanding, and response to the existing LIMITED SIGHT DISTANCE (LSD) sign and severa...

  19. 14 CFR 25.791 - Passenger information signs and placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Cargo Accommodations § 25.791 Passenger information signs and placards. (a) If smoking is to be.... If smoking is to be allowed, and if the crew compartment is separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one sign notifying when smoking is prohibited. Signs which notify when smoking is...

  20. 14 CFR 25.791 - Passenger information signs and placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Cargo Accommodations § 25.791 Passenger information signs and placards. (a) If smoking is to be.... If smoking is to be allowed, and if the crew compartment is separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one sign notifying when smoking is prohibited. Signs which notify when smoking is...

  1. 14 CFR 25.791 - Passenger information signs and placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Cargo Accommodations § 25.791 Passenger information signs and placards. (a) If smoking is to be.... If smoking is to be allowed, and if the crew compartment is separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one sign notifying when smoking is prohibited. Signs which notify when smoking is...

  2. 14 CFR 25.791 - Passenger information signs and placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Cargo Accommodations § 25.791 Passenger information signs and placards. (a) If smoking is to be.... If smoking is to be allowed, and if the crew compartment is separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one sign notifying when smoking is prohibited. Signs which notify when smoking is...

  3. 14 CFR 25.791 - Passenger information signs and placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Cargo Accommodations § 25.791 Passenger information signs and placards. (a) If smoking is to be.... If smoking is to be allowed, and if the crew compartment is separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one sign notifying when smoking is prohibited. Signs which notify when smoking is...

  4. Adolescents perceived effectiveness of the proposed European graphic tobacco warning labels.

    PubMed

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Connolly, Gregory; Karamanolis, Kostas; Kafatos, Anthony

    2009-04-01

    Graphical tobacco product labelling is a prominent source of health information and has an important position among tobacco control initiatives. However, little is known about its effectiveness among adolescents. With this above in mind, we aimed to research into how adolescents perceive the proposed EU graphic tobacco product warning labels as an effective means of preventing smoking initiation in comparison to the current EU text-only warning labels. Five hundred seventy four adolescents (13-18, 54% male) from Greece were privately interviewed, with the use of a digital questionnaire and randomly shown seven existing EU text-only and proposed EU graphic warning labels. Non-smoking respondents were asked to compare and rate the warnings effectiveness in regard to preventing them from smoking on a 1-5 Likert type scale. Irrespective of the warning category shown, on all occasions, non-smoking adolescents rated the suggested EU graphic labels as more effective in preventing them from smoking in comparison to the existing EU text-only warnings. Controlling for gender, age, current smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked per month, younger adolescents were found to opt for graphic warnings more often, and also perceive graphic warning labels as a more effective means of preventing them from smoking, in comparison to their elder peers (P < 0.001). The proposed EU graphic warning labels may play an important role in preventing of smoking initiation during the crucial years of early adolescence when smoking experimentation and early addiction usually take place.

  5. Windshear warning aerospatiale approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonafe, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Vugraphs and transcribed remarks of a presentation on Aerospatiale's approach to windshear warning systems are given. Information is given on low altitude wind shear probability, wind shear warning models and warning system false alarms.

  6. Graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packs: will they make a difference to adolescents?

    PubMed

    McCool, Judith; Webb, Lisa; Cameron, Linda D; Hoek, Janet

    2012-04-01

    Graphic warning labels and plain cigarette packaging are two initiatives developed to increase quit behaviour among smokers. Although a little is known about how adolescents interpret graphic warning labels, very few studies have examined how plain cigarette packaging would affect adolescents' perceptions of cigarette smoking and smoking behaviour. We explored how teens interpret and respond to graphic warning labels and the plain packaging of cigarettes, to assess the potential these strategies may offer in deterring smoking initiation. Twelve focus group interviews with a sample of 80 14-16 year old students from a diverse range of schools in Auckland, New Zealand were undertaken between June and August 2009. Textual analysis revealed that graphic warning labels may influence adolescents by reiterating a negative image of smokers. Graphic warning on a plain cigarette pack increased the attention paid to graphic warning labels and the overall perceptions of harm caused by cigarette smoking, and reduced the social appeal of cigarette smoking. This research offers evidence on how adolescents are appraising and interpreting graphic warning labels, and explores how dominant appraisals may affect the role graphic warning labels play in preventing smoking. Not only would plain cigarette packaging enhance the salience and impact of graphic warning labels, but it would potentially bolster the overall message that cigarette smoking is harmful. In the context of a comprehensive tobacco control programme, graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packaging present an explicit message about the risks (to health and image) associated with cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

  8. Smoke-Free Child Care = Proyecto de Cuidado Diurno Para Ninos Donde "No se Fuma."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Public Health, Boston.

    This packet of materials on smoke-free child care contains: (1) "Smoke Free Child Care," a booklet warning child care providers about the dangers of second-hand smoke and the fact that children often imitate adult behaviors, such as smoking; (2) "Smoke-Free Child Care: A Booklet for Family Day Care Providers," warning about the…

  9. Frequency and Content of Conversations About Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packs.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jennifer C; Southwell, Brian G; Noar, Seth M; Ribisl, Kurt M; Golden, Shelley D; Brewer, Noel T

    2018-06-07

    Social interactions are a key mechanism through which health communication efforts, including pictorial cigarette pack warnings, may exert their effects. We sought to better understand social interactions elicited by pictorial cigarette pack warnings. A controlled trial randomly assigned US adult smokers (n = 2149) to have their cigarette packs labeled with pictorial or text-only warnings for 4 weeks. Smokers completed surveys during the baseline visit and each of the subsequent 4 weekly visits. Smokers with pictorial warnings on their packs had more conversations throughout the trial compared to those with text-only warnings (8.2 conversations vs 5.0, p<.01). The highest number of conversations occurred during the first week. Smokers with pictorial warnings were more likely than those with text-only warnings to discuss the health effects of smoking, whether the warnings would make them want to quit and whether the warnings would make others want to quit (all p < .05). Smokers were more likely to describe pictorial warnings as scary, gross, or depressing and gloomy during conversations than text-only warnings (all p < .05). Pictorial warnings sparked more conversations about the warnings, the health effects of smoking, and quitting smoking than text-only warnings. These social interactions may extend the reach of pictorial warnings beyond the targeted smoker and may be one of the processes by which pictorial warnings have impact. Health communication can influence behavior by changing social interactions. Our trial characterized social interactions about pictorial cigarette pack warnings with a large longitudinal sample in a real-world setting. Understanding these conversations can inform the United States and other countries as they improve existing warnings and help tobacco control policy makers and health communication theorists understand how social interactions triggered by warnings affect smoking.

  10. Implicit motivational impact of pictorial health warning on cigarette packs.

    PubMed

    Volchan, Eliane; David, Isabel A; Tavares, Gisella; Nascimento, Billy M; Oliveira, Jose M; Gleiser, Sonia; Szklo, Andre; Perez, Cristina; Cavalcante, Tania; Pereira, Mirtes G; Oliveira, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n = 338) were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n = 63) tested pictorial warnings (ten) that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs' manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings' emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants' judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change.

  11. 10 Early Signs and Symptoms of Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes a slow decline in memory, thinking and reasoning skills. There are 10 warning signs and symptoms. ... may also increase your chances of participating in clinical drug trials that help advance research. > Learn more ...

  12. The Importance of Relevant Emotional Arousal in the Efficacy of Pictorial Health Warnings for Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenhao; Wang, An-Li; Emery, Lydia F; Sheerin, Kaitlin M; Romer, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Warning labels for cigarettes proposed by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were rejected by the courts partly because they were thought to be emotionally evocative but have no educational value. To address this issue, we compared three types of smoking warnings: (1) FDA-proposed warnings with pictures illustrating the smoking hazards; (2) warnings with the same text information paired with equally aversive but smoking-irrelevant images; and (3) text-only warnings. Smokers recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. They reported how many cigarettes they smoked per day (CPD) during the past week and then viewed eight different warnings. After viewing each warning, they rated its believability and perceived ability to motivate quitting. One week later, 62.3% of participants again reported CPD during the past week, rated how the warnings they viewed the week before changed their feeling about smoking, rated their intention to quit in the next 30 days, and recalled as much as they could about each of the warnings they viewed. Compared to the irrelevant image and text-only warnings, FDA warnings were seen as more believable and able to motivate quitting and at the follow-up, produced lower CPD, worse feeling about smoking, and more memory for warning information, controlling for age and baseline CPD. Emotionally evocative warning images are not effective in communicating the risks of smoking, unless they pertain to smoking-related hazards. In future versions of warning labels, pictorial contents should be pretested for the ability to enhance the health-hazard message. Our study shows that contrary to court opinions, FDA-proposed pictorial warnings for cigarettes are more effective in communicating smoking-related hazards than warnings that merely contain emotionally aversive but smoking-irrelevant images. The suggestion that FDA's proposed warnings employed emotionally arousing pictures with no information value

  13. Tobacco Point-of-Purchase marketing in school neighbourhoods and school smoking prevalence: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Chris Y; Hsu, Helen C H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Hadd, Valerie; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2007-01-01

    Point of Purchase (PoP) promotional and advertising activities are a sophisticated tobacco marketing strategy. This study describes tobacco PoP activities in school neighbourhoods and compares PoP activities in retail stores between schools with high and low smoking prevalence. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 randomly selected schools across five provinces. Students in grades 10-11 completed a questionnaire on smoking. Observations were made in all retail stores located within a one-kilometre radius around the school. ANOVA tests were used to detect differences on PoP variables between high (> 20.6%) and low (< or = 20.6%) smoking prevalence schools, defined as percentage of students reporting at least a few puffs on > 2 days in the last 30 days. Approximately half of retail stores in each school neighbourhood exhibited tobacco PoP activities. Average school smoking prevalence was 20.99%. There were significant main effects on PoP variables between schools with high and low smoking prevalence, Wilk's lambda = 0.81, F (6,74) = 2.89, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.19. Stores near schools with high smoking prevalence had significantly lower prices per cigarette (F (1,79) = 15.34, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.16), more in-store promotions (F (1,79) = 6.73, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.08), and fewer government-sponsored health warnings (F (1,79) = 6.26, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.07) compared to schools with low smoking prevalence. Higher levels of PoP activities in stores located in the school neighbourhood are related to school smoking prevalence. Schools with low smoking prevalence had more stores that posted government health warning signs and higher cigarette prices. Legislation regulating PoP activities and health warnings in school neighbourhoods should be considered.

  14. Graphic tobacco health warnings: which genre to choose?

    PubMed

    Sobani, Z; Nizami, S; Raza, E; ul Ain Baloch, N; Khan, J A

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco prevention studies show that graphic health warnings are more effective than text warnings, but there are no data on the effectiveness of different types of graphic health warnings in a Pakistani population. Even marginal differences in the effectiveness of genres can be of potential significance for public health. To study the effectiveness of different types of graphic tobacco warnings in a Pakistani population. We presented ten anti-smoking warnings to randomly selected volunteers (n = 170) and recorded their opinion on the effectiveness of each warning. The warnings were based on a range of images aimed at the diverse population interviewed. A grading scale based on appeal, application, educational potential and motivation towards cessation was used to produce a composite grade of perceived effectiveness of the warning. Our results indicate that graphic warnings reach a greater proportion of the population than text warnings. Those appealing to logic, and those inculcating a sense of fear by showing a deleterious outcome of smoking, were judged likely to be most effective in motivating smokers to quit and preventing experimental smokers from forming a habit.

  15. Implicit Motivational Impact of Pictorial Health Warning on Cigarette Packs

    PubMed Central

    Volchan, Eliane; David, Isabel A.; Tavares, Gisella; Nascimento, Billy M.; Oliveira, Jose M.; Gleiser, Sonia; Szklo, Andre; Perez, Cristina; Cavalcante, Tania; Pereira, Mirtes G.; Oliveira, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Objective The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. Methods Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n = 338) were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n = 63) tested pictorial warnings (ten) that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs’ manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings’ emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. Findings Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants’ judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. Conclusions Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change. PMID:23977223

  16. Believability of Cigar Warning Labels Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kowitt, Sarah D; Jarman, Kristen; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2017-03-01

    Despite high rates of cigar use among youth, little information exists about how cigar warnings are received by youth. We examined believability of different cigar warning messages with different sources among adolescents in a national phone survey. Adolescents (aged 13-17 years) in the US (N = 1,125; total response rate, 66%) were randomized to receive one of three health messages ("cigar smoking can cause cancers of the mouth and throat, even if you do not inhale," "cigar smoking can cause lung cancer and heart disease," and "cigars are not a safe alternative to cigarettes") and one of four warning sources (Food and Drug Administration, Surgeon General, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and no source). Believability was assessed with "how believable is this warning," and responses were dichotomized for "not at all or somewhat" versus "very." Weighted logistic regression results indicated that most youth found the cigar warnings very believable (60.5%). Messages about mouth and throat cancer (regardless of inhalation) and the safety of cigars in comparison to cigarettes were rated as significantly less believable than messages about lung cancer and heart disease related to cigars. There were no significant differences by source or other demographics. However, youth susceptible to using cigarettes were less likely to report the cigar warnings to be very believable. The messages of cigar warning labels are not viewed as equally believable among adolescents. Future studies should examine how youth process messages about health effects of cigars and the impact of different cigar warnings on youth experimentation with and use of cigars. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of warning devices on curve operating speeds.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of several warning signs and warning methods to identify those that have the greatest impact on reducing vehicle speeds when traversing a horizontal curve. Three sites were selected from a list of pr...

  18. Road Signs in Ethical Quicksand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrell, S. Lee; Jerrell, Jeanette M.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the major moral and ethical dilemmas illustrated by authors in this special journal issue are highlighted. From an ethical viewpoint, the complexity of evaluation activities is likened to "quicksand" terrain in which directional or warning signs should be erected to aid personal choices when such issues are encountered.…

  19. Researchers warn of neglect to basic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Russia is losing its standing as a scientific powerhouse and its science is in a state of decline, according to a new report by the information-services provider Thomson Reuters. Entitled "The New Geography of Science: Research and Collaboration in Russia", the report warns that the country's research base "has a problem, and it shows little sign of a solution".

  20. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Warning Labels: Lessons Learned From the Tobacco Industry

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco warning labels effectively educate consumers about the harms of tobacco and reduce smoking behavior. Lessons from tobacco warning labels can be applied to developing and implementing warning labels for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Large pictorial rotating warnings are particularly effective. Dental professionals can be an important voice in countering the industry’s efforts to create controversy around the effects of SSBs and in advocating for effective warning labels based on the evidence from the tobacco warning labels. Sugar, rum and tobacco are commodities which are nowhere necessaries of life, which are become objects of almost universal consumption and which are therefore extremely proper subjects of taxation.1 PMID:28190943

  1. Pictorial cigarette pack warnings: a meta-analysis of experimental studies

    PubMed Central

    Noar, Seth M; Hall, Marissa G; Francis, Diane B; Ribisl, Kurt M; Pepper, Jessica K; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-01-01

    Objective To inform international research and policy, we conducted a meta-analysis of the experimental literature on pictorial cigarette pack warnings. Data sources We systematically searched 7 computerised databases in April 2013 using several search terms. We also searched reference lists of relevant articles. Study selection We included studies that used an experimental protocol to test cigarette pack warnings and reported data on both pictorial and text-only conditions. 37 studies with data on 48 independent samples (N=33 613) met criteria. Data extraction and synthesis Two independent coders coded all study characteristics. Effect sizes were computed from data extracted from study reports and were combined using random effects meta-analytic procedures. Results Pictorial warnings were more effective than text-only warnings for 12 of 17 effectiveness outcomes (all p<0.05). Relative to text-only warnings, pictorial warnings (1) attracted and held attention better; (2) garnered stronger cognitive and emotional reactions; (3) elicited more negative pack attitudes and negative smoking attitudes and (4) more effectively increased intentions to not start smoking and to quit smoking. Participants also perceived pictorial warnings as being more effective than text-only warnings across all 8 perceived effectiveness outcomes. Conclusions The evidence from this international body of literature supports pictorial cigarette pack warnings as more effective than text-only warnings. Gaps in the literature include a lack of assessment of smoking behaviour and a dearth of theory-based research on how warnings exert their effects. PMID:25948713

  2. Believability of Cigar Warning Labels among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kowitt, Sarah D.; Jarman, Kristen; Ranney, Leah M.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite high rates of cigar use among youth, little information exists about how cigar warnings are received by youth. We examined believability of different cigar warning messages with different sources among adolescents in a national phone survey. Methods Adolescents (age 13-17) in the US (N = 1,125; total response rate, 66%) were randomized to receive one of three health messages (“cigar smoking can cause cancers of the mouth and throat, even if you do not inhale”, “cigar smoking can cause lung cancer and heart disease”, “cigars are not a safe alternative to cigarettes”) and one of four warning sources (FDA, Surgeon General, CDC, no source). Believability was assessed with “how believable is this warning” and responses were dichotomized for “not at all or somewhat” vs. “very”. Results Weighted logistic regression results indicated that most youth found the cigar warnings very believable (60.5%). Messages about mouth and throat cancer (regardless of inhalation) and the safety of cigars in comparison to cigarettes were rated as significantly less believable than messages about lung cancer and heart disease related to cigars. There were no significant differences by source or other demographics. However, youth susceptible to using cigarettes were less likely to report the cigar warnings to be very believable. Conclusions The messages of cigar warning labels are not viewed as equally believable among adolescents. Future studies should examine how youth process messages about health effects of cigars and the impact of different cigar warnings on youth experimentation with and use of cigars. PMID:27965023

  3. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  4. Quit Smoking >

    Cancer.gov

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  5. Graphic Warning Labels in Cigarette Advertisements: Recall and Viewing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A.; Tang, Kathy Z.; Romer, Daniel; Jepson, Chris; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legal authority to mandate graphic warning labels on cigarette advertising and packaging. The FDA requires that these graphic warning labels be embedded into cigarette advertising and packaging by September 2012. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine differences in recall and viewing patterns of text-only versus graphic cigarette warning labels; and, the association between viewing patterns and recall. Methods Participants (current daily smokers; N=200) were randomized to view a cigarette advertisement with either text-only or graphic warning labels. Viewing patterns were measured using eye-tracking, and recall was later assessed. Sessions were conducted between November 2008 and November 2009. Data analysis was conducted between March 2011 and July 2011. Results There was a significant difference in percentage correct recall of the warning label between those in the text-only versus graphic warning label condition, 50% versus 83% (χ2 =23.74, p=0.0001). Time to first view of the graphic warning label text, and dwell time duration (i.e., time spent looking) on the graphic image were significantly associated with correct recall. Warning labels that drew attention more quickly and resulted in longer dwell times were associated with better recall. Conclusions Graphic warning labels improve smokers’ recall of warning and health risks; they do so by drawing and holding attention. PMID:22704744

  6. Graphic warning labels in cigarette advertisements: recall and viewing patterns.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Romer, Daniel; Jepson, Christopher; Cappella, Joseph N

    2012-07-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legal authority to mandate graphic warning labels on cigarette advertising and packaging. The FDA requires that these graphic warning labels be embedded into cigarette advertising and packaging by September 2012. The aim of this study was to examine differences in recall and viewing patterns of text-only versus graphic cigarette warning labels and the association between viewing patterns and recall. Participants (current daily smokers; N=200) were randomized to view a cigarette advertisement with either text-only or graphic warning labels. Viewing patterns were measured using eye-tracking, and recall was later assessed. Sessions were conducted between November 2008 and November 2009. Data analysis was conducted between March 2011 and July 2011. There was a significant difference in percentage correct recall of the warning label between those in the text-only versus graphic warning label condition, 50% vs 83% (χ(2)=23.74, p=0.0001). Time to first viewing of the graphic warning label text and dwell time duration (i.e., time spent looking) on the graphic image were significantly associated with correct recall. Warning labels that drew attention more quickly and resulted in longer dwell times were associated with better recall. Graphic warning labels improve smokers' recall of warning and health risks; these labels do so by drawing and holding attention. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in the ocular and nasal signs and symptoms of aircrews in relation to the ban on smoking on intercontinental flights.

    PubMed

    Wieslander, G; Lindgren, T; Norbäck, D; Venge, P

    2000-12-01

    This study determined the influence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in aircraft on measured and perceived cabin air quality (CAQ), symptoms, tear-film stability, nasal patency, and biomarkers in nasal lavage fluid. Commercial aircrews underwent a standardized examination, including acoustic rhinometry, nasal lavage, and measurement of tear-film break-up time. Eosinophilic cationic protein, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, and albumin were analyzed in the nasal lavage fluid. Inflight investigations [participation rate 98% (N=39)] were performed on board 4 flights, 2 in each direction between Scandinavia and Japan. Scandinavian crew on 6 flights from Scandinavia to Japan participated in postflight measurements after landing [participation rate 85% (N=41)]. Half the flights permitted smoking on board, and the other half, 0.5 months later, did not. Hygienic measurements showed low relative air humidity on board (2-10%) and a carbon dioxide concentration of <1000 ppm during 99.6% of the cruising time. The smoking ban caused a drastic reduction of respirable particles, from a mean of 66 (SD 56) microg/m3 to 3 (SD 0.8) microg/m3. The perceived CAQ was improved, and there were fewer symptoms, particularly ocular symptoms, headache and tiredness. Tear-film stability increased, and nasal patency was altered. Despite a high air exchange rate and spatial separation between smokers and nonsmokers, smoking in commercial aircraft may cause significant air pollution, as indicated by a large increase in respirable particles. This ETS exposure is associated with an increase in ocular and general symptoms, decreased tear-film stability, and alterations of nasal patency.

  8. Perceptions of tobacco health warnings in China compared with picture and text-only health warnings from other countries: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David; Jiang, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Quah, Anne C K; Driezen, Pete; Yan, Mi

    2010-10-01

    To assess the perceived effectiveness of cigarette health warnings in China, compared with picture and text-only warnings from other countries. 1169 individuals (adult smokers, adult nonsmokers and youth) from four Chinese cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Kunming and Yinchuan) viewed 10 health warnings on cigarette packages, which included (a) the current Chinese text warnings covering 30% of the front/back of the pack (introduced October 2008); (b) the former Chinese text warning located on the side of the pack; (c) four picture warnings covering 50% of the front/back of the pack from Canada (lung cancer), Singapore (mouth disease), Hong Kong (gangrene) and European Union (clogged arteries); and (d) the same four warnings without the picture. Participants rated and ranked the 10 warnings on dimensions including how effective each would be in motivating smokers to quit and in convincing youth not to start smoking. Both Chinese warnings were consistently rated as least effective, with the new Chinese warning rated only slightly higher than the old warning. The picture warnings were consistently ranked or rated as most effective, with the text-only versions in the middle. Results were consistent across subject group, city and sex. (1) Picture warnings are rated as much more effective than the same warnings without pictures. (2) The revised health warnings in China, introduced in October 2008, are only marginally more effective than the previous warning and far less effective than even text warnings from other countries. These results, coupled with population-based evaluation studies, suggest that pictorial warnings would significantly increase the impact of health warnings in China.

  9. A qualitative exploration of young adult smokers’ responses to novel tobacco warnings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite reduced smoking among adolescents, smoking prevalence peaks among young adults aged 18–30, many of whom believe themselves exempt from the health risks of smoking shown in warning labels. We explored how young adult smokers perceived warnings featuring proximal risks, and whether these encouraged cessation more effectively than traditional health messages. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 17 young adult smokers and explored their perceptions of current warnings as well as novel warnings representing short-term health consequences; immediate social risks, and tobacco’s toxicity (denormalizing tobacco as an everyday product). We used a thematic analysis approach to explore how participants rationalized existing warnings and interpreted the novel messages. Results Participants considered the immediate social and physiological benefits they gained from smoking outweighed the distal risks shown in health warnings, which they regarded as improbable and irrelevant. Of the novel warnings, those presenting immediate social risks altered the balance of gains and losses young adults associated with smoking; however, those presenting short-term health risks or depicting tobacco as a toxin were less effective. Conclusions Participants regarded warnings featuring proximal social risks as more salient and they were less likely to rationalise these as irrelevant. Social risk messages merit further investigation to examine their potential as a complement to traditional health warnings. PMID:23800292

  10. Analysis of legal and scientific issues in court challenges to graphic tobacco warnings.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, John D; Baig, Sabeeh A

    2013-09-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the U.S., yet cigarette health warnings in the U.S. are among the weakest in the world. In 2011, the FDA issued regulations mandating that graphic warnings be displayed on every cigarette pack sold in the U.S. Almost immediately, the tobacco industry challenged the warnings on First Amendment grounds. In March 2013, the FDA withdrew the graphic warning mandate, choosing instead to pursue additional research and then issue requirements for a new set of warnings. These warnings almost certainly will be challenged by the tobacco industry. The current paper describes the legal standards that will be used to assess the warnings, and the empirical questions that must be answered in order to determine whether each standard has been met. The paper also identifies errors the FDA could make in choosing images to be evaluated that would cause the images to be unable to meet the standards, regardless of the scientific evidence the FDA can establish. To be on safest ground, the FDA should adopt images that depict factual health consequences of smoking and should avoid images that could be interpreted as opinions. The FDA will have a high likelihood of prevailing in legal challenges to the warnings if there is evidence demonstrating that graphic warnings are necessary to counter past industry deception or that graphic warnings affect smoking behavior better than textual warnings. Even without evidence of the impact of graphic warnings on behavior, strong evidence that they affect behavioral intent, and that intent predicts behavior, should be sufficient for the warnings to be upheld. Alternatively, evidence that graphic warnings lead to more accurate consumer assessment of smoking risks should also be sufficient. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 69523 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend its regulations to add a new requirement for the display of health warnings on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. The proposed rule would implement a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) that requires FDA to issue regulations requiring color graphics depicting the negative health consequences of smoking to accompany the nine new textual warning statements that will be required under the Tobacco Control Act. The Tobacco Control Act amends the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (FCLAA) to require each cigarette package and advertisement to bear one of nine new textual warning statements. This proposed rule, once finalized, would specify the color graphics that must accompany each of the nine new textual warning statements.

  12. 76 FR 36627 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to add a new requirement for the display of health warnings on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. This rule implements a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) that requires FDA to issue regulations requiring color graphics, depicting the negative health consequences of smoking, to accompany the nine new textual warning statements required under the Tobacco Control Act. The Tobacco Control Act amends the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (FCLAA) to require each cigarette package and advertisement to bear one of nine new textual warning statements. This final rule specifies the color graphic images that must accompany each of the nine new textual warning statements.

  13. Required warnings for cigarette packages and advertisements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-06-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to add a new requirement for the display of health warnings on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. This rule implements a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) that requires FDA to issue regulations requiring color graphics, depicting the negative health consequences of smoking, to accompany the nine new textual warning statements required under the Tobacco Control Act. The Tobacco Control Act amends the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (FCLAA) to require each cigarette package and advertisement to bear one of nine new textual warning statements. This final rule specifies the color graphic images that must accompany each of the nine new textual warning statements.

  14. Effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs among Lebanese school and university students.

    PubMed

    Alaouie, Hala; Afifi, Rema A; Haddad, Pascale; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-03-01

    Pictorial health warnings are more effective than text warnings in enhancing motivation to quit and not to start smoking among youth. In Lebanon, packs still have only a very small text warning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs among Lebanese youth. This was a cross-sectional study including school students (n=1412) aged 13-18 years recruited from 28 schools and university students (n=1217) aged 18-25 years recruited from 7 universities. A variety of warnings were adapted from other countries. In all, 4 warnings were tested among school students and 18 among university students. All pictorial warnings were considered more effective than the current text warning on message-related and impact-related variables, including intentions to quit or not to start smoking among school and university students. Selected examples related to the top-ranked pictorial warnings are: among male non-smoking school students, 81% agreed that the 'lung' warning had more impact on their intentions not to start smoking as compared to 57% for the current text warning (p<0.001) with a significant difference compared to the current text warning; among female non-smoking university students, 75% agreed that the 'economic impact' pictorial had more impact on their intentions not to start smoking with significant difference as compared to 43% for the current text warning (p value=0.001); finally, the 'heart attack' pictorial resulted in 52% of male university students smokers stating they intended to quit as opposed to 20% for the current text warning (p value=0.019). The results of the present study add to the general international literature on the impact of pictorial warnings on youth and young adults. This study is also the first to test a non-health pictorial warning about the negative economic consequences of smoking, and to find that such a warning was effective among specific sociodemographic groups

  15. Traffic sign recognition by color segmentation and neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surinwarangkoon, Thongchai; Nitsuwat, Supot; Moore, Elvin J.

    2011-12-01

    An algorithm is proposed for traffic sign detection and identification based on color filtering, color segmentation and neural networks. Traffic signs in Thailand are classified by color into four types: namely, prohibitory signs (red or blue), general warning signs (yellow) and construction area warning signs (amber). A color filtering method is first used to detect traffic signs and classify them by type. Then color segmentation methods adapted for each color type are used to extract inner features, e.g., arrows, bars etc. Finally, neural networks trained to recognize signs in each color type are used to identify any given traffic sign. Experiments show that the algorithm can improve the accuracy of traffic sign detection and recognition for the traffic signs used in Thailand.

  16. Tobacco Health Warning Messages on Plain Cigarette Packs and in Television Campaigns: A Qualitative Study with Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health…

  17. Reported municipal costs from outdoor smoke-free by-laws-experience from Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2006, enclosed public and workplaces in Ontario were made smoke-free by the Smoke-free Ontario Act (SFOA). Numerous area municipalities across the province have since developed local by-laws that are more restrictive than the SFOA and ban smoking in outdoor environments including parks, beaches, and patios. The current study measured reported costs associated with the implementation and enforcement of smoke-free outdoor municipal by-laws including materials and staffing costs. The study also assessed the number of warnings or tickets issued to smokers. Ontario communities with a by-law in force for at least 2 years were included in the sample (n = 42). The study was completed by 88% of area municipalities (n = 37). Municipal staff and managers completed a survey by telephone between June-September 2012. Findings No area municipality surveyed reported that they hired additional enforcement staff as a result of their community’s smoke-free by-law. Most municipalities (95%) posted signage to support awareness of their by-law; signs costs ranged from $40-$150/sign with most municipalities reporting signs were made in-house. Most communities reported actively enforcing the by-law; six communities reported they had issued tickets to people not in compliance with outdoor smoking restrictions. Conclusions The implementation, promotion, and enforcement of outdoor smoke-free by-laws have required municipal staff time and in most cases have promotional costs, but these have come from existing budgets and using existing staff. Outdoor smoke-free by-laws have not created significant burdens on municipal enforcement staff or on municipal budgets. PMID:24581326

  18. Coastal Warning Display Program

    Science.gov Websites

    ! Boating Safety Beach Hazards Rip Currents Hypothermia Hurricanes Thunderstorms Lightning Coastal Flooding Tsunamis 406 EPIRB's National Weather Service Marine Forecasts COASTAL WARNING DISPLAY PROGRAM Marine COASTAL WARNING DISPLAY PROGRAM As of February 15, 1989, the National Weather Service retired its Coastal

  19. Airlock caution and warning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayfield, W. J.; Cork, L. Z.; Malchow, R. G.; Hornback, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    Caution and warning system, used to monitor performance and warn of hazards or out-of-limit conditions on space vehicles, may have application to aircraft and railway transit systems. System consists of caution and warning subsystem and emergency subsystem.

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of young adult smokers in the U.S. in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Mary E; Sabado, Melanie; Choi, Kelvin

    2018-09-01

    The precontemplation stage of smoking cessation refers to having no intention to quit smoking in the next six months. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of and characteristics associated with the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation among U.S. young adult smokers to inform the development of targeted interventions. We analyzed data in 2017 from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey. Young adult (18-29 years old) daily and non-daily smokers were included (n = 1809). We applied weighted multiple logistic regression models to examine the associations between demographics, tobacco use behaviors, exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco messages, and the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation. 59.0% of U.S. young adult smokers are in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation. Unemployment was positively associated with being in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation (AOR = 1.42 95% CI = 1.05, 1.91). Smoking every day (vs. some days), more cigarettes smoked per day, using roll-your-own cigarettes (vs. manufactured cigarettes only), currently smoking cigars, and signing up for promotional offers were positively associated with being in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation (p < 0.05). Non-Hispanic Black was negatively associated with precontemplation stage (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.59). Not smoking after viewing a health warning on a cigarette pack was negatively associated with the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation (AOR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25, 0.51). Many U.S. young adult smokers classify as being in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation. Interventions to motivate these smokers to quit smoking with considerations of their specific characteristics (e.g., being unemployed) are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cigarette pack warning labels in Russia: how graphic should they be?

    PubMed

    Wade, Benjamin; Merrill, Ray M; Lindsay, Gordon B

    2011-06-01

    Tobacco warning labels on cigarette packs have been shown to reduce cigarette consumption. The current study measures the Russian population's acceptance and preference of graphic (picture + text) tobacco warning labels. Nationally representative data were collected from 1778 participants in the Russian Federation in October 2009. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through person-to-person household interviews with respondents aged ≥ 14 years. Survey questions included standard demographic queries and three study-specific questions. Participants rated the strength of 13 cigarette warning labels according to their effectiveness to deter from smoking. Smoking status and the population's acceptance of similar warning labels was also measured. A dose-response pattern is apparent between the degree of graphic content of cigarette warning labels and the public's perception regarding the warning label's ability to discourage smoking. Approximately 87% of all respondents thought Russian authorities should require tobacco manufacturers to place graphic warning labels on cigarette packs, while 80% of current smokers wanted their government to enact such enforcement. The Russian population would strongly support government policy that would require graphic warning labels to be placed on cigarette packs in their country. In order to best deter from smoking, future cigarette warning labels in Russia should be as graphic as possible.

  2. Believability of Cigarette Warnings About Addiction: National Experiments of Adolescents and Adults.

    PubMed

    Lazard, Allison J; Kowitt, Sarah D; Huang, Li-Ling; Noar, Seth M; Jarman, Kristen L; Goldstein, Adam O

    2018-06-07

    We conducted two experiments to examine the believability of three addiction-focused cigarette warnings and the influence of message source on believability among adolescents and adults in the United States. Experimental data were collected using national phone surveys of adolescents (age 13-17; n = 1125; response rate, 66%) and adults (age 18+; n = 5014; response rate, 42%). We assessed the believability of three cigarette warnings about addiction attributed to four message sources (Food and Drug Administration [FDA], Surgeon General, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], no source). The majority of adolescents and adults reported the three cigarette warnings were very believable (49%-81% for adolescents; 47%-76% for adults). We found four to five times higher odds of adolescents believing a warning that cigarettes are addictive (warning 1) or that nicotine was an addictive chemical (warning 2) compared to a warning that differentiated the addictive risks of menthol versus traditional cigarettes (warning 3), warning 1 adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 4.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.10, 6.63; warning 2 aOR: 3.87, 95% CI: 2.70, 5.50. Similarly, we found three to five times higher odds of adults (including current smokers) believing the same warnings, warning 1 aOR: 3.74, 95% CI: 2.82, 4.95; warning 2 aOR: 3.24, 95% CI: 2.45, 4.28. Message source had no overall impact on the believability of warnings for either population. Our findings support the implementation of FDA's required warnings that cigarettes are addictive and that nicotine is an addictive chemical. These believable warnings may deter adolescents from initiating smoking and encourage adults to quit smoking. This article describes, for the first time, the believability of different cigarette warnings about addiction. We now know that the majority of adolescents and adults believe cigarette warnings that highlight cigarettes as addictive and that nicotine is an addictive chemical in tobacco

  3. Tsunami warnings: Understanding in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Paton, Douglas; Johnston, David M.; Swanson, D.A.; Yanagi, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    The devastating southeast Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004 has brought home the destructive consequences of coastal hazards in an absence of effective warning systems. Since the 1946 tsunami that destroyed much of Hilo, Hawai'i, a network of pole mounted sirens has been used to provide an early public alert of future tsunamis. However, studies in the 1960s showed that understanding of the meaning of siren soundings was very low and that ambiguity in understanding had contributed to fatalities in the 1960 tsunami that again destroyed much of Hilo. The Hawaiian public has since been exposed to monthly tests of the sirens for more than 25 years and descriptions of the system have been widely published in telephone books for at least 45 years. However, currently there remains some uncertainty in the level of public understanding of the sirens and their implications for behavioral response. Here, we show from recent surveys of Hawai'i residents that awareness of the siren tests and test frequency is high, but these factors do not equate with increased understanding of the meaning of the siren, which remains disturbingly low (13%). Furthermore, the length of time people have lived in Hawai'i is not correlated systematically with understanding of the meaning of the sirens. An additional issue is that warning times for tsunamis gene rated locally in Hawai'i will be of the order of minutes to tens of minutes and limit the immediate utility of the sirens. Natural warning signs of such tsunamis may provide the earliest warning to residents. Analysis of a survey subgroup from Hilo suggests that awareness of natural signs is only moderate, and a majority may expect notification via alerts provided by official sources. We conclude that a major change is needed in tsunami education, even in Hawai'i, to increase public understanding of, and effective response to, both future official alerts and natural warning signs of future tsunamis. ?? Springer 2006.

  4. Tobacco industry interference for pictorial warnings.

    PubMed

    Oswal, K C; Pednekar, M S; Gupta, P C

    2010-07-01

    A study was carried out to understand the process of interference by the tobacco industry, to measure the compliance of the industry for displaying pictorial warnings on a tobacco product as per the packaging and labeling rules post 31st May, 2009, and to understand the public opinion on the messages conveyed through such warnings. A total of 60 samples of tobacco products were purchased after 31 May, 2009, from the retail vendors of tobacco sellers across the country. The government of India has from time to time, taken measures, including legislations, to control tobacco consumption. The actual implementation of these rules has been postponed repeatedly, apparently because of constant pressure exerted by the tobacco industry. The skull and bone sign hurting religious sentiments as stated by the group of ministers proved to be misleading. Later the Group of Ministers (GOM) proposed three very weak and poorly communicative pictorial health warnings to replace those recommended by the Union Health Ministry based on the inputs of the Department of Audio Visual Publicity (DAVP). The industry tried to use strategic means by displaying a dull, diluted, and watered down pictorial warning. The focus group study conducted showed that a scorpion gets associated with the product in a non-scientific manner. X-ray of the lung was hardly understood by anybody. Overall the tobacco industry has constantly flouted with the law right from the policy level to its implementation by displaying dull, diluted, and poorly informed pictorial warnings.

  5. Warnings/Watches - NOAA's National Weather Service

    Science.gov Websites

    select the go button to submit request City, St Go Sign-up for Email Alerts RSS Feeds RSS Feeds Warnings Skip Navigation Links weather.gov NOAA logo-Select to go to the NOAA homepage National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Select to go to the NWS homepage National Weather Service Site Map News

  6. Graphic Canadian Cigarette Warning Labels and Adverse Outcomes: Evidence from Canadian Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T.; McDonald, Paul W.; Brown, K. Stephen; Cameron, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of graphic Canadian cigarette warning labels. Methods. We used a longitudinal telephone survey of 616 adult smokers. Results. Approximately one fifth of participants reported smoking less as a result of the labels; only 1% reported smoking more. Although participants reported negative emotional responses to the warnings including fear (44%) and disgust (58%), smokers who reported greater negative emotion were more likely to have quit, attempted to quit, or reduced their smoking 3 months later. Participants who attempted to avoid the warnings (30%) were no less likely to think about the warnings or engage in cessation behavior at follow-up. Conclusions. Policymakers should not be reluctant to introduce vivid or graphic warnings for fear of adverse outcomes. PMID:15284057

  7. The Efficacy of Cigarette Warning Labels on Health Beliefs in the United States and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    MUTTI, SEEMA; HAMMOND, DAVID; REID, JESSICA L.; THRASHER, JAMES F.

    2013-01-01

    Concern over health risks is the most common motivation for quitting smoking. Health warnings on tobacco packages are among the most prominent interventions to convey the health risks of smoking. Face-to-face surveys were conducted in Mexico (n=1,072), and a web-based survey was conducted in the US (n=1,449) to examine the efficacy of health warning labels on health beliefs. Respondents were randomly assigned to view two sets of health warnings (each with one text-only warning and 5–6 pictorial warnings) for two different health effects. Respondents were asked whether they believed smoking caused 12 different health effects. Overall, the findings indicate high levels of health knowledge in both countries for some health effects, although significant knowledge gaps remained; for example: less than half of respondents agreed that smoking causes impotence and less than one third agreed that smoking causes gangrene. Mexican respondents endorsed a greater number of correct beliefs about the health impact of smoking than the US sample. In both countries, viewing related health warning labels increased beliefs about the health risks of smoking, particularly for less well-known health effects, such as gangrene, impotence, and stroke. PMID:23905611

  8. Effects of and attention to graphic warning labels on cigarette packages.

    PubMed

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Niemeier, Sarah; Glock, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of graphic cigarette warnings compared to text-only cigarette warnings on smokers' explicit (i.e. ratings of the packages, cognitions about smoking, perceived health risk, quit intentions) and implicit attitudes. In addition, participants' visual attention towards the graphic warnings was recorded using eye-tracking methodology. Sixty-three smokers participated in the present study and either viewed graphic cigarette warnings with aversive and non-aversive images or text-only warnings. Data were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation analysis. Especially, graphic cigarette warnings with aversive content drew attention and elicited high threat. However, whereas attention directed to the textual information of the graphic warnings predicted smokers' risk perceptions, attention directed to the images of the graphic warnings did not. Moreover, smokers' in the graphic warning condition reported more positive cognitions about smoking, thus revealing cognitive dissonance. Smokers employ defensive psychological mechanisms when confronted with threatening warnings. Although aversive images attract attention, they do not promote health knowledge. Implications for graphic health warnings and the importance of taking their content (i.e. aversive vs. non-aversive images) into account are discussed.

  9. Smokers' and E-Cigarette Users' Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-30

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are "not a safe alternative to smoking". However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration's proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen's advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse's. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive.

  10. Graphic Warning Labels Elicit Affective and Thoughtful Responses from Smokers: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Evans, Abigail T; Peters, Ellen; Strasser, Andrew A; Emery, Lydia F; Sheerin, Kaitlin M; Romer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Observational research suggests that placing graphic images on cigarette warning labels can reduce smoking rates, but field studies lack experimental control. Our primary objective was to determine the psychological processes set in motion by naturalistic exposure to graphic vs. text-only warnings in a randomized clinical trial involving exposure to modified cigarette packs over a 4-week period. Theories of graphic-warning impact were tested by examining affect toward smoking, credibility of warning information, risk perceptions, quit intentions, warning label memory, and smoking risk knowledge. Adults who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes daily (N = 293; mean age = 33.7), did not have a contra-indicated medical condition, and did not intend to quit were recruited from Philadelphia, PA and Columbus, OH. Smokers were randomly assigned to receive their own brand of cigarettes for four weeks in one of three warning conditions: text only, graphic images plus text, or graphic images with elaborated text. Data from 244 participants who completed the trial were analyzed in structural-equation models. The presence of graphic images (compared to text-only) caused more negative affect toward smoking, a process that indirectly influenced risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk perception->quit intention). Negative affect from graphic images also enhanced warning credibility including through increased scrutiny of the warnings, a process that also indirectly affected risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk scrutiny->warning credibility->risk perception->quit intention). Unexpectedly, elaborated text reduced warning credibility. Finally, graphic warnings increased warning-information recall and indirectly increased smoking-risk knowledge at the end of the trial and one month later. In the first naturalistic clinical trial conducted, graphic warning labels are more effective than text-only warnings in encouraging

  11. Implementation Guide for Minimum Retroreflectivity Requirements for Traffic Signs

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-04-01

    Although the "Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices" (MUTCD) stipulates that all warning and regulatory signs be illuminated or reflectorized to show the same color and shape by day or night, there are no specific guidelines for required retroref...

  12. Preliminary analysis of LED enhanced signs at a passive rural level crossing

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-03-23

    The purpose of this research was to measure motor vehicle speed profiles at a rural level crossing following the replacement of the existing Crossbuck signs and Advance Warning signs (AWSs) with flashing light-emitting diode (LED) versions. Measureme...

  13. Aging road user, bicyclist, and pedestrian safety : effective bicycling signs and preventing left-turn crashes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-09-01

    Task 1 of this report drivers' knowledge of various bicycle warning signs and pavement markings were assessed. In general knowledge was high. Share the Road and Three Foot Minimum signs were generally more quickly understood and recognized in version...

  14. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    PubMed

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  15. 49 CFR 176.60 - “No Smoking” signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Stowage § 176.60 “No Smoking” signs. When smoking is prohibited during the loading, stowing... the vessel are jointly responsible for posting “NO SMOKING” signs in conspicuous locations. ...

  16. 49 CFR 176.60 - “No Smoking” signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Stowage § 176.60 “No Smoking” signs. When smoking is prohibited during the loading, stowing... the vessel are jointly responsible for posting “NO SMOKING” signs in conspicuous locations. ...

  17. 49 CFR 176.60 - “No Smoking” signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Stowage § 176.60 “No Smoking” signs. When smoking is prohibited during the loading, stowing... the vessel are jointly responsible for posting “NO SMOKING” signs in conspicuous locations. ...

  18. 49 CFR 176.60 - “No Smoking” signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Stowage § 176.60 “No Smoking” signs. When smoking is prohibited during the loading, stowing... the vessel are jointly responsible for posting “NO SMOKING” signs in conspicuous locations. ...

  19. 49 CFR 176.60 - “No Smoking” signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Stowage § 176.60 “No Smoking” signs. When smoking is prohibited during the loading, stowing... the vessel are jointly responsible for posting “NO SMOKING” signs in conspicuous locations. ...

  20. The Age-related Positivity Effect and Tobacco Warning Labels

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Megan E.; Peters, Ellen; Ferketich, Amy K.; Klein, Elizabeth G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study tested whether age is a factor in viewing time for tobacco warning labels. The approach drew from previous work demonstrating an age-related positivity effect, whereby older adults show preferences toward positive and away from negative stimuli. Methods Participants were 295 daily smokers from Appalachian Ohio (age range: 21–68). All participants took part in an eye-tracking paradigm that captured the attention paid to elements of health warning labels in the context of magazine advertisements. Participants also reported on their past cessation attempts and their beliefs about the dangers of smoking. Results Consistent with theory on age-related positivity, older age predicted weaker beliefs about smoking risks, but only among those with no past-year quit attempts. In support of our primary hypothesis, older age was also related to a lower percentage of time spent viewing tobacco warning labels, both overall (text + image) and for the graphic image alone. These associations remained after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day. Conclusions Overall, findings suggest that age is an important consideration for the design of future graphic warning labels and other tobacco risk communications. For older adults, warning labels may need to be tailored to overcome the age-related positivity effect. PMID:27617273

  1. Graphic Warning Labels Elicit Affective and Thoughtful Responses from Smokers: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Abigail T.; Peters, Ellen; Strasser, Andrew A.; Emery, Lydia F.; Sheerin, Kaitlin M.; Romer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Observational research suggests that placing graphic images on cigarette warning labels can reduce smoking rates, but field studies lack experimental control. Our primary objective was to determine the psychological processes set in motion by naturalistic exposure to graphic vs. text-only warnings in a randomized clinical trial involving exposure to modified cigarette packs over a 4-week period. Theories of graphic-warning impact were tested by examining affect toward smoking, credibility of warning information, risk perceptions, quit intentions, warning label memory, and smoking risk knowledge. Methods Adults who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes daily (N = 293; mean age = 33.7), did not have a contra-indicated medical condition, and did not intend to quit were recruited from Philadelphia, PA and Columbus, OH. Smokers were randomly assigned to receive their own brand of cigarettes for four weeks in one of three warning conditions: text only, graphic images plus text, or graphic images with elaborated text. Results Data from 244 participants who completed the trial were analyzed in structural-equation models. The presence of graphic images (compared to text-only) caused more negative affect toward smoking, a process that indirectly influenced risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk perception->quit intention). Negative affect from graphic images also enhanced warning credibility including through increased scrutiny of the warnings, a process that also indirectly affected risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk scrutiny->warning credibility->risk perception->quit intention). Unexpectedly, elaborated text reduced warning credibility. Finally, graphic warnings increased warning-information recall and indirectly increased smoking-risk knowledge at the end of the trial and one month later. Conclusions In the first naturalistic clinical trial conducted, graphic warning labels are more effective

  2. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  3. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Miller, Caroline L; Quester, Pascale G; Hill, David J; Hiller, Janet E

    2011-04-17

    In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n=504), 2006 (n=525), 2007 (n=414) and 2008 (n=464). Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact.

  4. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504), 2006 (n = 525), 2007 (n = 414) and 2008 (n = 464). Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact. PMID:21496314

  5. Red warning for air pollution in China: Exploring residents' perceptions of the first two red warnings in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hanping; Wang, Fangping; Niu, Chence; Wang, Han; Zhang, Xiaoxue

    2018-02-01

    Air pollution early warnings have been issued in China to mitigate the effects of high pollution days. Public perceptions and views about early warning signals can affect individual behaviors and play a major role in the public's response to air pollution risks. This study examined public attitudes and responses to the first two red warnings for air pollution in Beijing in 2015. An online survey was sent out, and 664 respondents (response rate = 90%) provided their perspectives on the red warnings. Descriptive statistics, sign tests and binary logit models were used to analyze the data. More than half of the respondents reported that their life and work were affected by the red warning in December 2015. In contrast to their perceptions about the second red warning period, the public thought that the first red warning should have been issued earlier and that the number of consecutive days of warnings should have been reduced. The respondents also recommended that instead of reducing the number of red warnings, the red warning emergency measures should be adjusted. Specifically, the public preferred the installation of air purifiers in schools rather than closing schools and strengthening road flushing and dust pollution controls over restrictions on driving. Data analyses were conducted to examine the affected groups and different groups' perceptions of the necessity of implementing emergency measures. The results indicated that men and more educated respondents were more likely to be affected by driving limitations, and men were less supportive of these limitations. The age and education of respondents were significantly negatively associated with the opinion that schools should be closed, whereas wealthier respondents were more supportive of school closings. The finding of a negative attitude among the public toward the first two red warnings may be used to help local governments modify protective measures and pollution mitigation initiatives to increase

  6. Pictorial cigarette pack warnings: a meta-analysis of experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M; Hall, Marissa G; Francis, Diane B; Ribisl, Kurt M; Pepper, Jessica K; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-05-01

    To inform international research and policy, we conducted a meta-analysis of the experimental literature on pictorial cigarette pack warnings. We systematically searched 7 computerised databases in April 2013 using several search terms. We also searched reference lists of relevant articles. We included studies that used an experimental protocol to test cigarette pack warnings and reported data on both pictorial and text-only conditions. 37 studies with data on 48 independent samples (N=33,613) met criteria. Two independent coders coded all study characteristics. Effect sizes were computed from data extracted from study reports and were combined using random effects meta-analytic procedures. Pictorial warnings were more effective than text-only warnings for 12 of 17 effectiveness outcomes (all p<0.05). Relative to text-only warnings, pictorial warnings (1) attracted and held attention better; (2) garnered stronger cognitive and emotional reactions; (3) elicited more negative pack attitudes and negative smoking attitudes and (4) more effectively increased intentions to not start smoking and to quit smoking. Participants also perceived pictorial warnings as being more effective than text-only warnings across all 8 perceived effectiveness outcomes. The evidence from this international body of literature supports pictorial cigarette pack warnings as more effective than text-only warnings. Gaps in the literature include a lack of assessment of smoking behaviour and a dearth of theory-based research on how warnings exert their effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Testing warning messages on smokers’ cigarette packages: A standardized protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Noel T.; Hall, Marissa G.; Lee, Joseph G. L.; Peebles, Kathryn; Noar, Seth M.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Lab experiments on cigarette warnings typically use a brief one-time exposure that is not paired with the cigarette packs smokers use every day, leaving open the question of how repeated warning exposure over several weeks may affect smokers. This proof of principle study sought to develop a new protocol for testing cigarette warnings that better reflects real-world exposure by presenting them on cigarette smokers’ own packs. Methods We tested a cigarette pack labeling protocol with 76 US smokers ages 18 and older. We applied graphic warnings to the front and back of smokers’ cigarette packs. Results Most smokers reported that at least 75% of the packs of cigarettes they smoked during the study had our warnings. Nearly all said they would participate in the study again. Using cigarette packs with the study warnings increased quit intentions (p<.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest a feasible pack labeling protocol with six steps: (1) schedule appointments at brief intervals; (2) determine typical cigarette consumption; (3) ask smokers to bring a supply of cigarette packs to study appointments; (4) apply labels to smokers’ cigarette packs; (5) provide participation incentives at the end of appointments; and (6) refer smokers to cessation services at end of the study. When used in randomized controlled trials in settings with real-world message exposure over time, this protocol may help identify the true impact of warnings and thus better inform tobacco product labeling policy. PMID:25564282

  8. Impacts on State and Local Agencies for Maintaining Traffic Signs within Minimum Retroreflectivity Guidelines

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-04-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has developed guidelines for minimum retroreflectivity levels for four groups of signs: 1) yellow/orange-on-black warning signs, 2) black-on-white regulatory signs, 3) white-on-red regulatory signs, and 4) wh...

  9. Disaster warning satellite study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Disaster Warning Satellite System is described. It will provide NOAA with an independent, mass communication system for the purpose of warning the public of impending disaster and issuing bulletins for corrective action to protect lives and property. The system consists of three major segments. The first segment is the network of state or regional offices that communicate with the central ground station; the second segment is the satellite that relays information from ground stations to home receivers; the third segment is composed of the home receivers that receive information from the satellite and provide an audio output to the public. The ground stations required in this system are linked together by two, separate, voice bandwidth communication channels on the Disaster Warning Satellites so that a communications link would be available in the event of disruption of land line service.

  10. Cigarette Graphic Warning Labels Are Not Created Equal: They Can Increase or Decrease Smokers' Quit Intentions Relative to Text-Only Warnings.

    PubMed

    Evans, Abigail T; Peters, Ellen; Shoben, Abigail B; Meilleur, Louise R; Klein, Elizabeth G; Tompkins, Mary Kate; Romer, Daniel; Tusler, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette graphic-warning labels elicit negative emotion. Research suggests negative emotion drives greater risk perceptions and quit intentions through multiple processes. The present research compares text-only warning effectiveness to that of graphic warnings eliciting more or less negative emotion. Nationally representative online panels of 736 adult smokers and 469 teen smokers/vulnerable smokers were randomly assigned to view one of three warning types (text-only, text with low-emotion images, or text with high-emotion images) four times over 2 weeks. Participants recorded their emotional reaction to the warnings (measured as arousal), smoking risk perceptions, and quit intentions. Primary analyses used structural equation modeling. Participants in the high-emotion condition reported greater emotional reaction than text-only participants (bAdult = 0.21; bTeen = 0.27, p's < .004); those in the low-emotion condition reported lower emotional reaction than text-only participants (bAdult = -0.18; bTeen = -0.22, p's < .018). Stronger emotional reaction was associated with increased risk perceptions in both samples (bAdult = 0.66; bTeen = 0.85, p's < .001) and greater quit intentions among adults (bAdult = 1.00, p < .001). Compared to text-only warnings, low-emotion warnings were associated with reduced risk perceptions and quit intentions whereas high-emotion warnings were associated with increased risk perceptions and quit intentions. Warning labels with images that elicit more negative emotional reaction are associated with increased risk perceptions and quit intentions in adults and teens relative to text-only warnings. However, graphic warnings containing images which evoke little emotional reaction can backfire and reduce risk perceptions and quit intentions versus text-only warnings. This research is the first to directly manipulate two emotion levels in sets of nine cigarette graphic warning images and compare them with text-only warnings. Among adult and

  11. Performance of advance warning systems in a coordinated system : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-09-01

    The Advance Warning System (AWS), developed by the Nebraska Department of Roads (NDOR) has proven to be effective at improving traffic safety at isolated signalized intersections. However, the effectiveness of the system has not been analyzed at sign...

  12. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    PubMed Central

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O’Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are “not a safe alternative to smoking”. However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen’s advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse’s. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive. PMID:27376310

  13. Smokers' responses toward cigarette pack warning labels in predicting quit intention, stage of change, and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David; Zain, Zarihah

    2009-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the effects of cigarette pack warning labels on quitting intentions. We examined whether different responses among smokers toward cigarette pack warning labels could predict quit intentions and self-efficacy in quitting. Variables studied were "noticing warning labels during last month," "reading or looking closely at warning labels," "avoiding looking at labels during last month," "thinking about health risks of smoking because of the warning labels, "more likely to quit because of the warning labels," and "stopping from having a cigarette when about to smoke one because of the labels." A total of 2,006 adult smokers in Malaysia were surveyed in face-to-face interviews using a standardized questionnaire. Of those, 1,919 male smokers were included in the analyses. The responses "more likely to quit because of the warning labels" and "stopped from having a cigarette when about to smoke one" significantly predicted all stages of change and self-efficacy, independent of the other measures. In addition, thinking about the health risks and reading the warnings more often added extra predictive capacity but only in the early stages of contemplating change. Less intense processing of the information may be important in initiating thoughts, but cognitions about quitting and foregoing cigarettes are the key mechanisms by which warnings stimulate quitting intentions and help smokers feel capable of succeeding. Malaysian smokers appear to respond to warnings in ways comparable with those from developed countries.

  14. Warnings from the Trenches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The author, as a retired high school teacher, has some bad news for college professors. In case, they do not already see what is happening. The author wants to warn them of what to expect from the students who will be arriving in one's classroom even if they teach in a highly selective institution. No Child Left Behind went into effect for the…

  15. Highway fog warning system

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-04-01

    The need for a highway fog warning system has long been internationally recognized. With such a system, motorists can avoid tragic pile-up accidents caused by dense or patchy fog. The development of a cost-effective highway visibility sensor that mea...

  16. DETECTION OR WARNING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Tillman, J E

    1953-10-20

    This patent application describes a sensitive detection or protective system capable of giving an alarm or warning upon the entrance or intrusion of any body into a defined area or zone protected by a radiation field of suitable direction or extent.

  17. Smoking and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, R

    1986-01-01

    2 of the 5 health warnings that must now appear on American cigarette packs and cigarette advertising refer to some of the increased hazards smoking entails for the woman and her unborn child. Yet, the myriad reproductive risks associated with smoking are little known or considered by the general public--or even by physicians--when compared with the dangers of lung cancer, heart attacks and emphysema. In an attempt to remedy that deficit, 8 government agencies sponsored the 1st International Conference on Smoking and Reproductive Health, held October 15-17, 1985 in San Francisco. Speaker after expert speaker connected smoking during pregnancy with increased risks of low birth weight, miscarriage, infant mortality and morbidity--including poorer health of surviving children up to at least age 3--ectopic pregnancy, infertility, menstrual disorders, early menopause, osteoporosis, cervical cancer and dysplasia, cardiovascular disease and placental abnormalities. Similarly, the conference participants documented the association of smoking among men with lower sperm count and increased prevalence of abnormal sperm. The following measures were urged at the closing statements of the conference: 1) an increased effort to inform doctors and health professionals of these findings; 2) increasing the tax on cigarettes, so that smokers would pay for their own health costs; 3) decreasing or eliminating government subsidies for growing tobacco, while helping growers make the transition to nontobacco crops; 4) making smoking cessation programs more widely available; 5) prohibiting the sale of cigarettes through vending machines; and 6) banning all smoking in the workplace.

  18. Early Warning Signs and Indicators to Genocide and Mass Atrocity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    the researcher if the emotional state of the interviewee not emotionally ready. The interviews are conducted in the primary language of the...simultaneously. The general course of indicators demonstrates and draws connections between genocide, war, and revolution, according to Hamburg...Episodes 20th Century). Shaw stated that there exists “three central connections to the state and war: 1. The genocidal episode was organized by a state

  19. Trace Gases - A Warning Signs of Impending Major Seismic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baijnath, J.; Freund, F.; Li, J.

    2013-12-01

    Seismological models can predict future earthquakes only with wide uncertainty windows, typically on the order of decades to centuries. To improve short-term earthquake forecasts, it is essential to understand the non-seismic processes that take place in Earth's crust during the build-up of tectonic stresses. Days prior to the January 2001 M 7.6 Gujurat earthquake in India, there was a significant increase in the regional CO concentration, reaching 240 ppbv over a 100 squared kilometers, as derived from data of the MOPITT sensor onboard the NASA Terra satellite. A possible explanation for these observations is that when stresses in Earth's crust are building, positive hole charge carriers are activated, which are highly mobile and spread from deep below the earth to the surface. Positive holes act as highly oxidizing oxygen radicals, oxidizing water to hydrogen peroxide. It is hypothesized that, as positive hole charge carriers arrive from below and traverse the soil, they are expected to oxidize soil organics, converting aliphatics to ketones, formaldehyde, CO and CO2. This is tested by using a closed chamber with a slab of gabbro rock. Ultrasound generated by a pair of 50 W, 40 kHz piezoelectric transducers, applied to one end of the gabbro slab was used to activate the positive holes. This created a high concentration of positive holes at the end of the rock that the electrical conductivity through the rock increased more than 1000-fold, while the increase in conductivity through the other end of the gabbro slab was on the order of 100-fold. On the other end of the slab, rock dust and various soils were placed. A stainless steel mesh was also placed over the soil and dust to allow a current to flow through the granular material. When the far end of the slab was subjected to the ultrasound, currents as large as 250 nA were recorded flowing through the length of the gabbro slab and through the dust/soil pile. Dry dust/soil and dust samples impregnated with isopropanol and with a highly reduced butyn containing triple-bonded C and an aromatic ring were used. Multiple tests were conducted to study the interaction of stressed-activated positive hole charge carriers with organic versus inorganic and dry versus moist materials. This study suggests that the appearance of certain trace gases may be useful as a pre-earthquake indicator.

  20. Traditional Bullying as a Potential Warning Sign of Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Robin M.; Morgan, Chad A.; Limber, Susan P.

    2012-01-01

    Although traditional bullying and cyberbullying share features in common, they differ in important ways. For example, cyberbullying is often characterized by perceived anonymity and can occur any time of the day or night. Conversely, perpetrators of traditional bullying are known to the victim, and most traditional bullying occurs at school. Yet,…

  1. Aging Parents: 7 Warning Signs of Health Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... or smell as good as it used to. Social issues. Your parents might have difficulty shopping or have ... 27, 2017. Tomioka K, et al. Association between social participation and ... 2018. Dec. 13, 2017 Original article: http://www. ...

  2. The Top 13 Warning Signs that it's Time to Retire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsten, Char; Grant, Jim; Hollas, Betty: Whyte, Donna

    2006-01-01

    Switching from humor to sentiment at the turn of a page, this is a great gift book for retiring teachers or any teacher having a rough day. It deals humorously with situations every teacher can relate to. An added bonus is a Donna Whyte poem that's perfect for reading at retirement celebrations.

  3. Adolescents and Substance Abuse: Warning Signs and School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, LaShonda B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a challenging time for many young persons. Navigating the academic, personal/social, and career planning challenges associated with adolescence indeed is challenging even with excellent school, family, and community support. For those adolescents struggling with substance use and abuse, these challenges become even greater. School…

  4. Know the Warning Signs of Educator Sexual Misconduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakeshaft, Charol

    2013-01-01

    Educators can prevent much of the sexual misconduct in schools if they know how to recognize and respond to suspicious patterns and if administrators enforce an environment of high expectations for behavior. School districts can assess their schools and the district for being at risk of educator sexual misconduct and then can develop and enforce…

  5. Stress Management in Education: Warning Signs and Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Only in recent years have researchers begun to study stress in the workplace. Psychologists and other stress analysts have discovered that the most trying professions are those that involve high pressure and serious responsibilities, often beyond the control of the individuals employed. Most interesting, the American Institute of Stress revealed…

  6. 75 FR 75936 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Research Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... on consumer attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and intended behaviors related to cigarette smoking. The... that FDA was conducting research to: (1) Measure consumer attitudes, beliefs, and intended behaviors... warnings on smoking behavior and evaluating the communication effectiveness of such images. FDA worked with...

  7. Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs and the impact on women

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Lorna; Person, Sharina D; Cruz, Regina Celina; Scarinci, Isabel C

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between the pictorial graphic health warnings on cigarette packs and their impact on intention to quit smoking among women. METHODS Population-based cross-sectional study among 265 women daily smokers in the State of Paraná in 2010. The sample size was calculated using cluster sampling. Participants were asked whether they had seen any pictorial graphic health warnings in the past 30 days, whether these warnings made them think about quitting, and intensity of these thoughts. The data was analyzed using logistic regression and the independent variables included age, educational attainment, whether they had children, whether they had attempted to quit smoking in the past 12 months, age of smoking initiation, number of cigarettes smoked per day, their town of residence, and how soon after waking do they smoke their first cigarette. RESULTS Participants (91.7%) reported seeing the pictorial graphic health warnings in the past 30 days. Women with elementary education or below and women with some/complete high school education were more likely to think about quitting smoking after seeing the pictorial graphic health warningsthan women with higher education (OR = 4.85; p = 0.0028 and OR = 2.91; p = 0.05), respectively). Women who attempted to quit smoking in the past 12 months were more likely to think about quitting than women who had not (OR = 2.49; p = 0.001). Quit attempts within the last 12 months were associated with intensity of these thoughts (OR = 2.2; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Results show an association between pictorial graphic health warnings and intent to quit smoking among women with warnings having a greater impact among women with less education and who had attempted to quit smoking within the past year. Tobacco control strategies should be implemented across all groups of women regardless of their educational attainment. PMID:24626550

  8. Crash Warning Interface Metrics: Final Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-08-01

    The Crash Warning Interface Metrics (CWIM) project addressed issues of the driver-vehicle interface (DVI) for Advanced Crash Warning Systems (ACWS). The focus was on identifying the effects of certain warning system features (e.g., warning modality) ...

  9. Cigarette packaging and health warnings: the impact of plain packaging and message framing on young smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Niaura, Raymond S.; Evans, W. Douglas; Hammond, David; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels, warning label message framing, and plain cigarette packaging on young adult smokers’ motivation to quit. Methods Smokers ages 18–30 (n=740) from a consumer research panel were randomized to one of four experimental conditions where they viewed online images of 4 cigarette packs with warnings about lung disease, cancer, stroke/heart disease, and death, respectively. Packs differed across conditions by warning message framing (gain versus loss) and packaging (branded versus plain). Measures captured demographics, smoking behavior, covariates, and motivation to quit in response to cigarette packs. Results Pictorial warnings about lung disease and cancer generated the strongest motivation to quit across conditions. Adjusting for pre-test motivation and covariates, a message framing by packaging interaction revealed gain-framed warnings on plain packs generated greater motivation to quit for lung disease, cancer, and mortality warnings (p < 0.05), compared with loss-framed warnings on plain packs. Conclusions Warnings combining pictorial depictions of smoking-related health risks with text-based messages about how quitting reduces risks may achieve better outcomes among young adults, especially in countries considering or implementing plain packaging regulations. PMID:24420310

  10. Cigarette packaging and health warnings: the impact of plain packaging and message framing on young smokers.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Niaura, Raymond S; Evans, W Douglas; Hammond, David; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the impact of pictorial cigarette-warning labels, warning-label message framing and plain cigarette packaging, on young adult smokers' motivation to quit. Smokers aged 18-30 years (n=740) from a consumer research panel were randomised to one of four experimental conditions where they viewed online images of four cigarette packs with warnings about lung disease, cancer, stroke/heart disease and death, respectively. Packs differed across conditions by warning-message framing (gain vs loss) and packaging (branded vs plain). Measures captured demographics, smoking behaviour, covariates and motivation to quit in response to cigarette packs. Pictorial warnings about lung disease and cancer generated the strongest motivation to quit across conditions. Adjusting for pretest motivation and covariates, a message framing by packaging interaction revealed gain-framed warnings on plain packs generated greater motivation to quit for lung disease, cancer and mortality warnings (p<0.05), compared with loss-framed warnings on plain packs. Warnings combining pictorial depictions of smoking-related health risks with text-based messages about how quitting reduces risks, may achieve better outcomes among young adults, especially in countries considering or implementing plain packaging regulations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Desire versus Efficacy in Smokers’ Paradoxical Reactions to Pictorial Health Warnings for Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Romer, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Strasser, Andrew A.; Langleben, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs create aversive emotional reactions to smoking and induce thoughts about quitting; however, contrary to models of health behavior change, they do not appear to alter intentions to quit smoking. We propose and test a novel model of intention to quit an addictive habit such as smoking (the efficacy-desire model) that can explain this paradoxical effect. At the core of the model is the prediction that self-efficacy and desire to quit an addictive habit are inversely related. We tested the model in an online experiment that randomly exposed smokers (N = 3297) to a cigarette pack with one of three increasing levels of warning intensity. The results supported the model’s prediction that despite the effects of warnings on aversion to smoking, intention to quit smoking is an inverted U-shape function of the smoker’s self-efficacy for quitting. In addition, smokers with greater (lesser) quit efficacy relative to smoking efficacy increase (decrease) intentions to quit. The findings show that previous failures to observe effects of pictorial warning labels on quit intentions can be explained by the contradictory individual differences that warnings produce. Thus, the model explains the paradoxical finding that quit intentions do not change at the population level, even though smokers recognize the implications of warnings. The model suggests that pictorial warnings are effective for smokers with stronger quit-efficacy beliefs and provides guidance for how cigarette warnings and tobacco control strategies can be designed to help smokers quit. PMID:23383006

  12. Short and Sweet: The Persuasive Effects of Message Framing and Temporal Context in Antismoking Warning Labels.

    PubMed

    Mollen, Saar; Engelen, Susanne; Kessels, Loes T E; van den Putte, Bas

    2017-01-01

    Current warning labels on cigarette packages are generally focused on long-term losses that can be incurred if one continues smoking. This study compares the effects of these labels against warning labels that stress short-term losses of smoking as well as labels that stress short- and long-term benefits that can be obtained when one quits smoking. A 2 (message frame: gain vs. loss) × 2 (temporal context: short vs. long term) between-subjects experiment was conducted among 132 smokers, with attitude toward quitting smoking and intention to quit smoking, as well as information-seeking behavior and message recall, as the dependent variables. Findings were in line with theory regarding message framing and temporal discounting, showing enhanced effects of gain over loss frames and short-term over long-term consequences on warning labels for attitudes and intentions. In addition, an interaction between message frame and temporal context was found. Especially, gain-framed messages showed stronger effects on intentions to quit smoking than loss-framed messages when warning labels concerned short-term outcomes. Findings suggest that current warning labels, with an emphasis on long-term negative health outcomes, should be reconsidered.

  13. Adolescents' response to pictorial warnings on the reverse panel of cigarette packs: a repeat cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Crawford; Mackintosh, Anne M; Hastings, Gerard

    2015-03-01

    The UK (UK) became the third country in the European Union to require pictorial warnings on the back of cigarette packs, in October 2008. A repeat cross-sectional survey was conducted with 11-16-year-olds in the UK between August and September 2008 (N=1401) and August and September 2011 (N=1373). At both waves the same text warnings appeared on the front and back of packs, with the only difference being the inclusion of images on the back of packs to support the text warnings in 2011. Warning related measures assessed were salience (noticing, looking closely at warnings), depth of processing (thinking about warnings, discussing them with others), comprehension and credibility (warning comprehensibility, believability and truthfulness), unaided recall, persuasiveness (warnings as a deterrent to smoking), avoidance techniques (eg, hiding packs) and a behavioural indicator (forgoing cigarettes due to warnings). For never smokers, warning persuasiveness and thinking about what warnings are telling them when the pack is in sight significantly increased from 2008 to 2011, but warning comprehensibility significantly decreased. For experimental smokers, there was a significant increase from 2008 to 2011 for warning persuasiveness, believing warnings and considering them truthful. For regular smokers, there were no significant changes from 2008 to 2011, except for an increase in hiding packs to avoid warnings and a decrease in warning salience. Including pictorial images on the back of cigarette packaging improved warning persuasiveness for never and experimental smokers, but had a negligible impact on regular smokers. The findings have implications for warning design. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Graphic warnings and text warning labels on cigarette packages in Riyadh Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Awareness and perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Jradi, Hoda; Saddik, Basema

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Graphic warning labels have been shown to be effective in smoking initiation and cessation and were implemented in Saudi Arabia in 2012. To date, no study has assessed the effectiveness of these labels and the Saudi population's perceptions on the effectiveness of cigarette health warning labels. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional qualitative study comprising of nine focus groups among 3 different community group members including health-care workers, adult women and adult men. We conducted in-depth interviews among community leaders. Both focus groups and interviews assessed awareness levels and elicited perceptions about health warning labels on cigarette boxes currently used in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: While most participants in the study were aware and supported the use of graphic warning labels on cigarette packages, the awareness of the specific details on the labels was low. Participants perceived the effectiveness of current labels somewhat vague in smoking cessation and advocated for stronger and more aggressive graphics. Community leaders, however, preferred text-only labels and did not support aggressive labels which were deemed culturally and religiously inappropriate. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that while graphic warning labels are perceived as necessary on cigarette packages the currently used messages are not clear and therefore do not serve their intended purposes. Measures should be undertaken to ensure that pictorial cigarette labels used in Saudi Arabia are culturally and ethnically appropriate and are rotated on a regular basis to ensure salience among smokers and nonsmokers alike. PMID:29387252

  15. Maintenance of signs and sign supports : a guide for local highway and street maintenance personnel.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    Highway signs are the means by which the road agency communicates the rules, warnings, guidance and other highway information that drivers need to navigate their roads and streets. This guide, which is an update to the same titled guide published in ...

  16. Text and graphic warnings on cigarette packages: findings from the international tobacco control four country study.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T; Borland, Ron; Cummings, K Michael; McNeill, Ann; Driezen, Pete

    2007-03-01

    Health warnings on cigarette packages provide smokers with universal access to information on the risks of smoking. However, warnings vary considerably among countries, ranging from graphic depictions of disease on Canadian packages to obscure text warnings in the United States. The current study examined the effectiveness of health warnings on cigarette packages in four countries. Quasi-experimental design. Telephone surveys were conducted with representative cohorts of adult smokers (n=14,975): Canada (n=3687), United States (n=4273), UK (n=3634), and Australia (n=3381). Surveys were conducted between 2002 and 2005, before and at three time points following implementation of new package warnings in the UK. At Wave 1, Canadian smokers reported the highest levels of awareness and impact for health warnings among the four countries, followed by Australian smokers. Following the implementation of new UK warnings at Wave 2, UK smokers reported greater levels of awareness and impact, although Canadian smokers continued to report higher levels of impact after adjusting for the implementation date. U.S. smokers reported the lowest levels of effectiveness for almost every measure recorded at each survey wave. Large, comprehensive warnings on cigarette packages are more likely to be noticed and rated as effective by smokers. Changes in health warnings are also associated with increased effectiveness. Health warnings on U.S. packages, which were last updated in 1984, were associated with the least effectiveness.

  17. Mediational pathways of the impact of cigarette warning labels on quit attempts

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F.; Thompson, Mary E.; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Cummings, K. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test and develop, using structural equation modelling, a robust model of the mediational pathways through which health warning labels exert their influence on smokers’ subsequent quitting behaviour. Methods Data come from the International Tobacco Control Four-Country Survey, a longitudinal cohort study conducted in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the US. Waves 5–6 data (n=4988) were used to calibrate the hypothesized model of warning label impact on subsequent quit attempts via a set of policy-specific and general psychosocial mediators. The finalised model was validated using Waves 6–7 data (n=5065). Results As hypothesized, warning label salience was positively associated with thoughts about risks of smoking stimulated by the warnings (β=.58, p<.001), which in turn were positively related to increased worry about negative outcomes of smoking (β=.52, p<.001); increased worry in turn predicted stronger intention to quit (β=.39, p<.001) which was a strong predictor of subsequent quit attempts (β=.39, p<.001). This calibrated model was successfully replicated using Waves 6–7 data. Conclusions Health warning labels seem to influence future quitting attempts primarily through their ability to stimulate thoughts about the risks of smoking, which in turn help to raise smoking-related health concerns, which lead to stronger intentions to quit, a known key predictor of future quit attempts for smokers. By making warning labels more salient and engaging, they should have a greater chance to change behaviour. PMID:24977309

  18. Perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings among Mexican youth and adults: a population-level intervention to reduce tobacco related inequities

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, David; Thrasher, James; Reid, Jessica L.; Driezen, Pete; Boudreau, Christian; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages are a prominent and effective means of communicating the risks of smoking; however, there is little research on effective types of message content and socio-demographic effects. This study tested message themes and content of pictorial warnings in Mexico. Methods Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 544 adult smokers and 528 youth in Mexico City. Participants were randomized to view 5–7 warnings for two of 15 different health effects. Warnings for each health effect included a text-only warning and pictorial warnings with various themes: “graphic” health effects, “lived experience”, symbolic images, and testimonials. Results Pictorial health warnings were rated as more effective than text-only warnings. Pictorial warnings featuring “graphic” depictions of disease were significantly more effective than symbolic images or experiences of human suffering. Adding testimonial information to warnings increased perceived effectiveness. Adults who were female, older, had lower education, and intended to quit smoking rated warnings as more effective, although the magnitude of these differences was modest. Few interactions were observed between socio-demographics and message theme. Conclusions Graphic depictions of disease were perceived by youth and adults as the most effective warning theme. Perceptions of warnings were generally similar across socio-demographic groups. PMID:22362058

  19. Perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings among Mexican youth and adults: a population-level intervention with potential to reduce tobacco-related inequities.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Thrasher, James; Reid, Jessica L; Driezen, Pete; Boudreau, Christian; Santillán, Edna Arillo

    2012-03-01

    Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages are a prominent and effective means of communicating the risks of smoking; however, there is little research on effective types of message content and socio-demographic effects. This study tested message themes and content of pictorial warnings in Mexico. Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 544 adult smokers and 528 youth in Mexico City. Participants were randomized to view 5-7 warnings for two of 15 different health effects. Warnings for each health effect included a text-only warning and pictorial warnings with various themes: "graphic" health effects, "lived experience", symbolic images, and testimonials. Pictorial health warnings were rated as more effective than text-only warnings. Pictorial warnings featuring "graphic" depictions of disease were significantly more effective than symbolic images or experiences of human suffering. Adding testimonial information to warnings increased perceived effectiveness. Adults who were female, older, had lower education, and intended to quit smoking rated warnings as more effective, although the magnitude of these differences was modest. Few interactions were observed between socio-demographics and message theme. Graphic depictions of disease were perceived by youth and adults as the most effective warning theme. Perceptions of warnings were generally similar across socio-demographic groups.

  20. Experimental evaluation of fog warning system.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, Ali S

    2007-11-01

    Highway safety is a major concern to the public and to transportation professionals, so the number of crashes caused by poor visibility due to fog form an alarming statistic. Drivers respond to poor visibility conditions in different ways: some slow down; others do not. Many drivers simply follow the taillights of the vehicle ahead. Accordingly, hazardous conditions are created in which speeds are both too high for the prevailing conditions and highly variable. Findings are presented from a study of traffic crashes due to fog in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of fog detection and warning system on driver behavior regarding speed and headway. This warning system includes visibility sensors that automatically activate a variable message sign that posts an advisory speed when hazardous conditions due to fog occur. The system was installed on a 2 km section of a two-lane, rural highway. A data set of 36,013 observations from both experimental and control sections at two study sites was collected and analyzed. The data included vehicle speed, volume, and classification; time headway, time of day, and visibility distance. Although the warning system was ineffective in reducing speed variability, mean speed throughout the experimental sections was reduced by about 6.5 kph. This reduction indicates that the warning system appeared to have a positive effect on driver behavior in fog even though the observed mean speeds were still higher than the posted advisory speed. From relationships found in the literature between mean driving speed and number of crashes, a speed reduction of only 5 kph would yield a 15% decrease in the number of crashes.

  1. Deeming Tobacco Products To Be Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Restrictions on the Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Required Warning Statements for Tobacco Products. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to deem products meeting the statutory definition of "tobacco product,'' except accessories of the newly deemed tobacco products, to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The Tobacco Control Act provides FDA authority to regulate cigarettes, cigarette tobacco, roll-your-own tobacco, smokeless tobacco, and any other tobacco products that the Agency by regulation deems to be subject to the law. With this final rule, FDA is extending the Agency's "tobacco product'' authorities in the FD&C Act to all other categories of products that meet the statutory definition of "tobacco product" in the FD&C Act, except accessories of such newly deemed tobacco products. This final rule also prohibits the sale of "covered tobacco products" to individuals under the age of 18 and requires the display of health warnings on cigarette tobacco, roll-your own tobacco, and covered tobacco product packages and in advertisements. FDA is taking this action to reduce the death and disease from tobacco products. In accordance with the Tobacco Control Act, we consider and intend the extension of our authorities over tobacco products and the various requirements and prohibitions established by this rule to be severable.

  2. Signing off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    sharp that they cause paper cuts. Stains. If you accidentally spill some food or drink on your clothes, make sure you attempt to remove it as soon as possible and preferably within the same lunar cycle. Some teachers seem to think they should be worn with pride like the stains on a chemistry teacher's white coat. This is a myth. Materials. For scientists continually teaching about the wonder of smart materials, physics teachers are remarkably conservative in their choice of materials for their clothes. Try to break out from the traditional corduroy and tweed and practise what you teach. It is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Steven Chapman Science Year Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science Signing Off takes a humorous and irreverent look at physics education. The views expressed here are those of the author and are not endorsed by the Editorial Board for Physics Education. Can you contribute a zany attitude or humorous anecdote? Please send your offering to ped@iop.org marked Signing Off.

  3. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Services: Telephone: (310) 451-7002; Fax: (310) 451-6915; Internet : order@rand.org. al Accesion For "Ni %&’ Storm WarningsDTI’ TAB E03 --- - - -for...reaction leading to an uncontrol- lable burgeoning of private entrepreneurial activity. As one observer 14See Acuerdo del Buro Politico , "Para llevar a...34 10Comisi6n de Relaciones Internacionales, Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, Datos, Reflexiones y Argumentos Sobre la Actual Situaci6n de Cuba, n.p

  4. Quake warnings, seismic culture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Richard M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Huggins, Tom; Miles, Scott; Otegui, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Since 1990, nearly one million people have died from the impacts of earthquakes. Reducing those impacts requires building a local seismic culture in which residents are aware of earthquake risks and value efforts to mitigate harm. Such efforts include earthquake early warning (EEW) systems that provide seconds to minutes notice of pending shaking. Recent events in Mexico provide an opportunity to assess performance and perception of an EEW system and highlight areas for further improvement. We have learned that EEW systems, even imperfect ones, can help people prepare for earthquakes and build local seismic culture, both beneficial in reducing earthquake-related losses.

  5. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    PubMed Central

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing. PMID:26601167

  6. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning.

    PubMed

    Minson, Sarah E; Brooks, Benjamin A; Glennie, Craig L; Murray, Jessica R; Langbein, John O; Owen, Susan E; Heaton, Thomas H; Iannucci, Robert A; Hauser, Darren L

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an M w (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California's Hayward fault, and real data from the M w 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  7. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  8. Iconic Sign Comprehension in Older Adults: The Role of Cognitive Impairment and Text Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scialfa, Charles; Spadafora, Pat; Klein, Marianne; Lesnik, Agata; Dial, Lindsay; Heinrich, Antje

    2008-01-01

    Sign comprehension is critical for effective driving, responses to warnings, and way-finding. Signs that are poorly comprehended by older people increase accident risk and may compromise independence. This study sought to determine whether iconic sign comprehension suffers in healthy aging and in the presence of cognitive impairment. Additionally,…

  9. 37 CFR 11.21 - Warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Warnings. 11.21 Section 11.21... Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.21 Warnings. A warning is neither... warning. The warning shall contain a brief statement of facts and USPTO Rules of Professional Conduct...

  10. 37 CFR 11.21 - Warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Warnings. 11.21 Section 11.21... Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.21 Warnings. A warning is neither... warning. The warning shall contain a brief statement of facts and Mandatory Disciplinary Rules identified...

  11. 37 CFR 11.21 - Warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warnings. 11.21 Section 11.21... Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.21 Warnings. A warning is neither... warning. The warning shall contain a brief statement of facts and Mandatory Disciplinary Rules identified...

  12. 37 CFR 11.21 - Warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Warnings. 11.21 Section 11.21... Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.21 Warnings. A warning is neither... warning. The warning shall contain a brief statement of facts and USPTO Rules of Professional Conduct...

  13. 37 CFR 11.21 - Warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Warnings. 11.21 Section 11.21... Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.21 Warnings. A warning is neither... warning. The warning shall contain a brief statement of facts and Mandatory Disciplinary Rules identified...

  14. Reactions to FDA-Proposed Graphic Warning Labels Affixed to U.S. Smokers' Cigarette Packs.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Amy; Kreuter, Matthew W; Boyum, Sonia; Thompson, Vetta S; Caburnay, Charlene A; Waters, Erika A; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Rath, Suchitra; Fu, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Graphic warning labels have been shown to be more effective than text-only labels in increasing attention and perceived health risks, but most U.S. studies have involved single exposures in laboratory or Internet settings. We recruited a convenience sample (N = 202) of U.S. adult smokers from population subgroups with higher rates of smoking and smoking-related deaths who had participated in a larger survey about graphic warning labels. Participants were randomized to get 1 of 9 graphic + text labels or a text-only label. Research staff affixed a warning label sticker to participants' cigarette pack(s) at enrollment. Color graphic labels covered slightly more than the lower half of packs. Black and white labels of current U.S. text-only warnings covered the existing side warning to prompt attention to the label (i.e., attention control). Participants received extra stickers of the same label for subsequent packs, and completed 3 telephone interviews in 1 week. Participants reported low avoidance (<34%) and consistent use of the stickers (91%). Smokers consistently paid more attention to graphic than text-only labels. Only 5 of the 9 graphic warning labels were significantly associated with greater thoughts of health risks. Thinking about quitting and stopping smoking did not differ by label. Qualitative data illustrated differences in the "stickiness," self-referencing, and counterarguments of graphic warning labels. U.S. smokers' reactions to graphic warning labels on their own packs were similar to other, more controlled studies. Qualitative findings underscore the need for warning labels that encourage self-referential processing without increasing defensive reactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Reactions to FDA-Proposed Graphic Warning Labels Affixed to U.S. Smokers’ Cigarette Packs

    PubMed Central

    Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia; Thompson, Vetta S.; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Waters, Erika A.; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Rath, Suchitra; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Graphic warning labels have been shown to be more effective than text-only labels in increasing attention and perceived health risks, but most U.S. studies have involved single exposures in laboratory or Internet settings. Methods: We recruited a convenience sample (N = 202) of U.S. adult smokers from population subgroups with higher rates of smoking and smoking-related deaths who had participated in a larger survey about graphic warning labels. Participants were randomized to get 1 of 9 graphic + text labels or a text-only label. Research staff affixed a warning label sticker to participants’ cigarette pack(s) at enrollment. Color graphic labels covered slightly more than the lower half of packs. Black and white labels of current U.S. text-only warnings covered the existing side warning to prompt attention to the label (i.e., attention control). Participants received extra stickers of the same label for subsequent packs, and completed 3 telephone interviews in 1 week. Results: Participants reported low avoidance (<34%) and consistent use of the stickers (91%). Smokers consistently paid more attention to graphic than text-only labels. Only 5 of the 9 graphic warning labels were significantly associated with greater thoughts of health risks. Thinking about quitting and stopping smoking did not differ by label. Qualitative data illustrated differences in the “stickiness,” self-referencing, and counterarguments of graphic warning labels. Conclusions: U.S. smokers’ reactions to graphic warning labels on their own packs were similar to other, more controlled studies. Qualitative findings underscore the need for warning labels that encourage self-referential processing without increasing defensive reactions. PMID:25589676

  16. Reactions to graphic health warnings in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nonnemaker, James M; Choiniere, Conrad J; Farrelly, Matthew C; Kamyab, Kian; Davis, Kevin C

    2015-02-01

    This study reports consumer reactions to the graphic health warnings selected by the Food and Drug Administration to be placed on cigarette packs in the United States. We recruited three sets of respondents for an experimental study from a national opt-in e-mail list sample: (i) current smokers aged 25 or older, (ii) young adult smokers aged 18-24 and (iii) youth aged 13-17 who are current smokers or who may be susceptible to initiation of smoking. Participants were randomly assigned to be exposed to a pack of cigarettes with one of nine graphic health warnings or with a text-only warning statement. All three age groups had overall strong negative emotional (ß = 4.7, P < 0.001 for adults; ß = 4.6, P < 0.001 for young adults and ß = 4.0, P < 0.001 for youth) and cognitive (ß = 2.4, P < 0.001 for adults; ß = 3.0, P < 0.001 for young adults and ß = 4.6, P < 0.001 for youth) reactions to the proposed labels. The strong negative emotional and cognitive reactions following a single exposure to the graphic health warnings suggest that, with repeated exposures over time, graphic health warnings may influence smokers' beliefs, intentions and behaviors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Signing off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    Physics Related Aptitude Test As the teacher shortage bites anyone with a degree in science expects to walk into a school and be received, with open arms, as a physics teacher. Are they really suitable? To help you decide Signing Off provides the following invaluable psychometric test. Extensively researched and, for single users only, it comes completely free to Physics Education subscribers! (Copies of this Physics Related Aptitude Test are available to credit-card customers from prat@realripoff.com priced #35 per client, 125 dollars to US customers.) This invaluable psychometric test has been extensively researched. Your first lesson of the new school year introduces the study of electricity. Do you: A Use the notes prepared by your predecessor. B Find a video on electricity and play it to the class. C Arrange a series of exciting practical demonstrations to stimulate the young inquiring mind. D Let the children design and make their own circuits to light flashlight bulbs. Your 14-year-olds have completed a written test on heat and energy. Do you: A Mark correct only the work of students who have written their names neatly at the top LEFT HAND corner, as required. B Only set multiple choice tests, so that the computer can mark them for you. C Mark carefully by hand, explaining in detail to each student exactly how and why they have made errors and adding encouraging comments with lots of praise. D Give out correct sets of answers and allow students to mark their own work. There is a staff social. Do you: A Ask for a definition of the term 'social'. B Ask for a web-based version. C Determine to go, so that you can discuss setting up cross-curricular links with colleagues. D Join the organizing committee. Who do you admire most? A Sir Isaac Newton. B Bill Gates. C Leonardo da Vinci. D Leonardo di Caprio. You are required to teach biology class. Your response is: A Denial. B To ask for an appropriate computer simulation. C To attend a specialized course for biology

  18. Testing warning messages on smokers' cigarette packages: a standardised protocol.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Noel T; Hall, Marissa G; Lee, Joseph G L; Peebles, Kathryn; Noar, Seth M; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-03-01

    Lab experiments on cigarette warnings typically use a brief one-time exposure that is not paired with the cigarette packs smokers use every day, leaving open the question of how repeated warning exposure over several weeks may affect smokers. This proof of principle study sought to develop a new protocol for testing cigarette warnings that better reflects real-world exposure by presenting them on cigarette smokers' own packs. We tested a cigarette pack labelling protocol with 76 US smokers ages 18 and older. We applied graphic warnings to the front and back of smokers' cigarette packs. Most smokers reported that at least 75% of the packs of cigarettes they smoked during the study had our warnings. Nearly all said they would participate in the study again. Using cigarette packs with the study warnings increased quit intentions (p<0.05). Our findings suggest a feasible pack labelling protocol with six steps: (1) schedule appointments at brief intervals; (2) determine typical cigarette consumption; (3) ask smokers to bring a supply of cigarette packs to study appointments; (4) apply labels to smokers' cigarette packs; (5) provide participation incentives at the end of appointments; and (6) refer smokers to cessation services at end of the study. When used in randomised controlled trials in settings with real-world message exposure over time, this protocol may help identify the true impact of warnings and thus better inform tobacco product labelling policy. NCT02247908. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Connected motorcycle crash warning interfaces.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-01-15

    Crash warning systems have been deployed in the high-end vehicle market segment for some time and are trickling down to additional motor vehicle industry segments each year. The motorcycle segment, however, has no deployed crash warning system to dat...

  20. NWS - Watch, Warning, Advisory Display

    Science.gov Websites

    Coastal Waters from Schoodic Point ME to Stonington ME Coastal Waters from Schoodic Point ME to Stonington Watch Flash Flood Warning* Coastal/Flood Watch Coastal/Flood Warning Small Stream Flood Advisory

  1. Radio disturbance warning issuance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maeda, R.; Inuki, H.

    1979-01-01

    A radio disturbance warning issuance system was introduced in the Hiraiso Branch of the Radio Research Laboratories in 1972 to reconstruct the current radio disturbance warning service as a social information service. A description of the new ideas which were experimentally systematized by means of an electronic computer is presented.

  2. Backup Warning Signals: Driver Perception and Response

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the findings of three experiments that concern driver reaction to acoustic signals that might be used for backup warning devices. Intelligent warning devices are under development that will use vehicle-based sensors to warn back...

  3. Tobacco health warning messages on plain cigarette packs and in television campaigns: a qualitative study with Australian socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers.

    PubMed

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-02-01

    Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health risk and cessation benefit messages. Six focus groups were conducted over September 2012-April 2013 with adult clients of welfare organizations in regional New South Wales, Australia who were current smokers (n = 51). Participants discussed HWLs, plain packaging and anti-smoking television advertisements. Discussions were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Highly emotive warnings delivering messages of negative health effects were most likely to capture the attention of the study participants; however, these warning messages did not prompt quit attempts and participants were sceptical about the effectiveness of cessation programmes such as telephone quitlines. Active avoidance of health warning messages was common, and many expressed false and self-exempting beliefs towards the harms of tobacco. Careful consideration of message content and medium is required to communicate the anti-smoking message to disadvantaged smokers who consider themselves desensitized to warnings. Health communication strategies should continue to address false beliefs about smoking and educate on cessation services that are currently underutilized. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Evaluating the benefits of dynamic message signs on Missouri's rural corridors.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic message signs (DMSs) are traffic control devices that provide real-time traveler information and are used for traffic warning, regulation, routing and management. DMSs on freeways in rural areas in southeast Missouri were evaluated. First, mo...

  5. Sepsis in Obstetrics: Clinical Features and Early Warning Tools.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, Sheryl E; Bogat, Mary L; Hering, Sandra L; Ottley, Charlotte; Roth, Cheryl

    Morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis has gained widespread attention on a local, state, and national level, yet, it remains a complicated disorder that can be difficult to identify in a timely manner. Sepsis in obstetric patients further complicates the diagnosis as alterations in physiology related to pregnancy can mask sepsis indicators normally seen in the general population. If early signs of sepsis go unrecognized, septic shock can develop, leading to organ dysfunction and potential death. Maternal early warning tools have been designed to assist clinicians in recognizing early indications of illness. Through use of clinical pathway-specific tools, disease processes may be detected early, subsequently benefitting patients with aggressive treatment management and intervention.This article is the second in a series of three that discuss the importance of sepsis and septic shock in pregnancy. Risk factors, causes of sepsis, signs and symptoms, and maternal early warning tools are discussed.

  6. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... to not allow smoking indoors. Separating smokers from non-smokers (like “no smoking” sections in restaurants)‚ cleaning the air‚ and airing out buildings does not get rid of secondhand smoke. Other Ways Smoking Affects Others Smoking affects the people in your life ...

  7. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  8. Implementing Obstetric Early Warning Systems.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Alexander M; Campbell, Mary L; Kline, Carolyn R; Wiesner, Suzanne; D'Alton, Mary E; Shields, Laurence E

    2018-04-01

    Severe maternal morbidity and mortality are often preventable and obstetric early warning systems that alert care providers of potential impending critical illness may improve maternal safety. While literature on outcomes and test characteristics of maternal early warning systems is evolving, there is limited guidance on implementation. Given current interest in early warning systems and their potential role in care, the 2017 Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) Annual Meeting dedicated a session to exploring early warning implementation across a wide range of hospital settings. This manuscript reports on key points from this session. While implementation experiences varied based on factors specific to individual sites, common themes relevant to all hospitals presenting were identified. Successful implementation of early warnings systems requires administrative and leadership support, dedication of resources, improved coordination between nurses, providers, and ancillary staff, optimization of information technology, effective education, evaluation of and change in hospital culture and practices, and support in provider decision-making. Evolving data on outcomes on early warning systems suggest that maternal risk may be reduced. To effectively reduce maternal, risk early warning systems that capture deterioration from a broad range of conditions may be required in addition to bundles tailored to specific conditions such as hemorrhage, thromboembolism, and hypertension.

  9. Looming auditory collision warnings for driving.

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob

    2011-02-01

    A driving simulator was used to compare the effectiveness of increasing intensity (looming) auditory warning signals with other types of auditory warnings. Auditory warnings have been shown to speed driver reaction time in rear-end collision situations; however, it is not clear which type of signal is the most effective. Although verbal and symbolic (e.g., a car horn) warnings have faster response times than abstract warnings, they often lead to more response errors. Participants (N=20) experienced four nonlooming auditory warnings (constant intensity, pulsed, ramped, and car horn), three looming auditory warnings ("veridical," "early," and "late"), and a no-warning condition. In 80% of the trials, warnings were activated when a critical response was required, and in 20% of the trials, the warnings were false alarms. For the early (late) looming warnings, the rate of change of intensity signaled a time to collision (TTC) that was shorter (longer) than the actual TTC. Veridical looming and car horn warnings had significantly faster brake reaction times (BRT) compared with the other nonlooming warnings (by 80 to 160 ms). However, the number of braking responses in false alarm conditions was significantly greater for the car horn. BRT increased significantly and systematically as the TTC signaled by the looming warning was changed from early to veridical to late. Looming auditory warnings produce the best combination of response speed and accuracy. The results indicate that looming auditory warnings can be used to effectively warn a driver about an impending collision.

  10. Survey of restaurants regarding smoking policies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alcia; Peterson, Elizabeth; Knight, Susan; Hiller, Marc; Pelletier, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The New Hampshire Indoor Smoking Act was implemented in 1994 to protect the public's health by regulating smoking in enclosed places. A survey was conducted of New Hampshire restaurants to determine smoking policies, to determine restaurant characteristics associated with smoking policies, and to evaluate compliance with the Indoor Smoking Act. A list of New Hampshire restaurants was obtained from a marketing firm. Establishments were selected randomly until 400 had completed a 22-question telephone survey. Forty-four percent of restaurants permitted smoking. Characteristics positively associated with permitting smoking were being a non-fast-food restaurant, selling alcohol, selling tobacco, and having greater than the median number of seats. Of restaurants permitting smoking, 96.1% had a designated smoking area, 87.0% had a ventilation system to minimize secondhand smoke, 83.6% had a physical barrier between smoking and nonsmoking areas, and 53.1% exhibited signs marking the smoking area. Forty percent of restaurants permitting smoking met all four requirements of the Indoor Smoking Act. Smoking policies differ, by type of restaurant. Compliance with the Indoor Smoking Act is low.

  11. Visual attention to health warnings on plain tobacco packaging in adolescent smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Olivia M; Munafò, Marcus R; Leonards, Ute

    2013-02-01

    Previous research with adults indicates that plain packaging increases visual attention to health warnings in adult non-smokers and weekly smokers, but not daily smokers. The present research extends this study to adolescents aged 14-19 years. Mixed-model experimental design, with smoking status as a between-subjects factor and pack type (branded or plain pack) and eye gaze location (health warning or branding) as within-subjects factors. Three secondary schools in Bristol, UK. A convenience sample of adolescents comprising never-smokers (n = 26), experimenters (n = 34), weekly smokers (n = 13) and daily smokers (n = 14). Number of eye movements to health warnings and branding on plain and branded packs. Analysis of variance, irrespective of smoking status revealed more eye movements to health warnings than branding on plain packs, but an equal number of eye movements to both regions on branded packs (P = 0.033). This was observed among experimenters (P < 0.001) and weekly smokers (P = 0.047), but not among never-smokers or daily smokers. Among experimenters and weekly smokers, plain packaging increases visual attention to health warnings and away from branding. Daily smokers, even relatively early in their smoking careers, seem to avoid the health warnings on cigarette packs. Adolescent never-smokers attend the health warnings preferentially on both types of packs, a finding which may reflect their decision not to smoke. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Temporary large guide signs.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-05-01

    A common issue during phased highway construction projects is the need to temporarily relocate : large guide signs on the roadside or install new guide signs for temporary use. The conventional concrete : foundations used for these signs are costly a...

  13. Young Adult Smokers' and Prior-Smokers' Evaluations of Novel Tobacco Warning Images.

    PubMed

    Healey, Benjamin; Hoek, Janet

    2016-01-01

    On-pack warning labels represent a very cost-effective means of communicating with smokers, who potentially see warnings each time they retrieve a cigarette. Warning labels have traditionally depicted graphic health consequences of smoking but emerging evidence suggests the distal consequences shown may prove less effective in prompting cessation among young adults. We used a novel micro-survey approach to compare novel and traditional warnings, and provide an empirical foundation for a larger study. We recruited 4649 male and 2993 female participants aged 18-34 from Google Consumer Survey's Australian panel of Android mobile phone users. A screening question resulted in a sample comprising 3183 daily, non-daily, and former smokers. Twenty images corresponding to social and health risks, tobacco industry denormalization, and secondhand smoke (SHS) were tested in paired comparisons where respondents selected the image they thought most likely to prompt cessation. Irrespective of smoking status, respondents rated messages featuring harm to children as most effective and industry denormalization messages and adult SHS warnings as least effective. Within smoker groups, daily smokers rated social concerns more highly; non-daily smokers were more responsive to SHS messages, and former smokers saw intimacy and cosmetic effects warnings as more effective than other groups. While preliminary, the findings support emerging evidence that more diverse warning images may be required to promote cessation among all smoker sub-groups. Warnings depicting harm to vulnerable others appear to hold high potential and merit further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Emergency Warning Systems. Part 2. Warning Systems - Evaluation Guidelines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA A WORK UNIT NUMBERS PRC Voorhees Work Unit 2234G 1500 Planning Research Drive McLean, Virginia 22102 ___ 11. CONTROLLING ...different from Controlling Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) Unclassified 15a. DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION...systems that control these warning systems are discussed. Test results of several warning systems are included along with a discussion of sound

  15. An experimental study of the effects of electronic cigarette warnings on young adult nonsmokers' perceptions and behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Smith, Clayton; Johnson, Andrea C; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") manufacturers use warning labels on their advertising that vary widely in content and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning label requirement for e-cigarettes. There is limited data on the effects of these warnings on e-cigarette perceptions and other potential predictors of future tobacco use behavior in populations of interest to inform future regulatory requirements. This study examined the effects of e-cigarette warnings on perceptions of e-cigarettes and cigarettes and other cognitive precursors to tobacco use among young adult non-smokers. Non-smoking young adults ages 18 to 30 years (n = 436) were recruited through an internet-based crowdsourcing platform for an online experiment. Participants completed pre-exposure measures of demographics, tobacco use, and other relevant constructs and were randomized to view 1 of 9 e-cigarette stimuli in a 3 (Ad/Warning condition: Ad Only, Ad with Warning, Warning Only) x 3 (E-cigarette brand: Blu, MarkTen, Vuse) design. After viewing e-cigarette stimuli, participants reported perceptions of e-cigarettes and behavioral intentions to use e-cigarettes. Participants in the Ad Only and Ad with Warning conditions also completed a heat-mapping task assessing aspects of the ads that captured their attention. Then, participants were randomized to view cigarette ads from 1 of 3 major cigarette brands and reported perceptions of cigarettes and intentions to smoke cigarettes. Participants in the Warning Only condition reported significantly greater perceived harm and addictiveness of e-cigarettes and thoughts about not using e-cigarettes than the Ad Only and Ad with Warning conditions (p's < .05). The Ad Only and Ad with Warning conditions did not differ on these outcomes. Participants in the Warning Only condition also reported the harms of e-cigarettes were closer to those of cigarettes than the Ad Only condition (p < .05), but neither differed from the Ad with

  16. Women and smoking—prices and health warning messages: evidence from Spain.

    PubMed

    Gil-Lacruz, Ana Isabel; Gil-Lacruz, Marta; Leeder, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    In Spain, fewer men are smoking every year yet the number of women smokers remains relatively high. This paper examines the impact of two anti-smoking policies (increased prices and obligatory pictorial health warning labels) on womens smoking decisions; generation cohorts are used to elucidate the determinants of those decisions. We have drawn 48,755 observations of women living in Spain from the Spanish National Health Surveys of 2001, 2003, 2006 and 2011. Among the main results, we highlight that belonging to a particular generation modulates the manner in which individual characteristics and tobacco policies determine smoking decisions. For example, women's smoking was not considered as socially acceptable until the 1960s and therefore older women have lower smoking rates. However, for the younger female cohorts (generations X and Y) smoking was seen as an act of rebellion and modernity, so women belonging to these groups, irrespective of educational level, are more likely to smoke. The price of cigarettes and pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packets also influence the smoking behaviour of Spanish women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Implementing drought early warning systems: policy lessons and future needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Ana; Werner, Micha; Maia, Rodrigo; Garrote, Luis; Nyabeze, Washington

    2014-05-01

    Drought forecasting and Warning provides the potential of reducing impacts to society due to drought events. The implementation of effective drought forecasting and warning, however, requires not only science to support reliable forecasting, but also adequate policy and societal response. Here we propose a protocol to develop drought forecasting and early warning based in the international cooperation of African and European institutions in the DEWFORA project (EC, 7th Framework Programme). The protocol includes four major phases that address the scientific knowledge and the social capacity to use the knowledge: (a) What is the science available? Evaluating how signs of impending drought can be detected and predicted, defining risk levels, and analysing of the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. (b) What are the societal capacities? In this the institutional framework that enables policy development is evaluated. The protocol gathers information on vulnerability and pending hazard in advance so that early warnings can be declared at sufficient lead time and drought mitigation planning can be implemented at an early stage. (c) How can science be translated into policy? Linking science indicators into the actions/interventions that society needs to implement, and evaluating how policy is implemented. Key limitations to planning for drought are the social capacities to implement early warning systems. Vulnerability assessment contributes to identify these limitations and therefore provides crucial information to policy development. Based on the assessment of vulnerability we suggest thresholds for management actions to respond to drought forecasts and link predictive indicators to relevant potential mitigation strategies. Vulnerability assessment is crucial to identify relief, coping and management responses that contribute to a more resilient society. (d) How can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating how information is provided to

  18. Reactions of Chinese adults to warning labels on cigarette packages: A survey in Jiangsu Province

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To compare reactions to warning labels presented on cigarette packages with a specific focus on whether the new Chinese warning labels are better than the old labels and international labels. Methods Participants aged 18 and over were recruited in two cities of Jiangsu Province in 2008, and 876 face-to-face interviews were completed. Participants were shown six types of warning labels found on cigarette packages. They comprised one old Chinese label, one new label used within the Chinese market, and one Chinese overseas label and three foreign brand labels. Participants were asked about the impact of the warning labels on: their knowledge of harm from smoking, giving cigarettes as a gift, and quitting smoking. Results Compared with the old Chinese label, a higher proportion of participants said the new label provided clear information on harm caused by smoking (31.2% vs 18.3%). Participants were less likely to give cigarettes with the new label on the package compared with the old label (25.2% vs 20.8%). These proportions were higher when compared to the international labels. Overall, 26.8% of participants would quit smoking based on information from the old label and 31.5% from the new label. When comparing the Chinese overseas label and other foreign labels to the new Chinese label with regard to providing knowledge of harm warning, impact of quitting smoking and giving cigarettes as a gift, the overseas labels were more effective. Conclusion Both the old and the new Chinese warning label are not effective in this target population. PMID:21349205

  19. Aircraft Cabin Turbulence Warning Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Larcher, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    New turbulence prediction technology offers the potential for advance warning of impending turbulence encounters, thereby allowing necessary cabin preparation time prior to the encounter. The amount of time required for passengers and flight attendants to be securely seated (that is, seated with seat belts fastened) currently is not known. To determine secured seating-based warning times, a consortium of aircraft safety organizations have conducted an experiment involving a series of timed secured seating trials. This demonstrative experiment, conducted on October 1, 2, and 3, 2002, used a full-scale B-747 wide-body aircraft simulator, human passenger subjects, and supporting staff from six airlines. Active line-qualified flight attendants from three airlines participated in the trials. Definitive results have been obtained to provide secured seating-based warning times for the developers of turbulence warning technology

  20. Responses of young adults to graphic warning labels for cigarette packages

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Linda D.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a series of 36 graphic warning labels for cigarette packages. We sought to evaluate the effects of the labels on fear-related emotions about health consequences of smoking and smoking motivations of young adults. Methods We conducted an experimental study in 2010–2011 with 325 smokers and non-smokers ages 18–30 years whom we recruited through community distribution lists in North Carolina and through a national survey company. Each participant viewed 27 labels (18 of the proposed labels with graphic images and text warnings and 9 with text-only warnings) in a random order, evaluating each label on understandability and its effects on fear-related reactions and discouragement from wanting to smoke. Results Respondents found most of the proposed labels easy to understand. Of the 36 labels, 64% induced greater fear-related reactions and 58% discouraged respondents from wanting to smoke more than the corresponding text-only labels did. Labels with the greatest effects had photographs (as compared with drawings or other art graphics) or depicted diseased body parts or suffering or dead people. In almost every comparison, smokers reported lower fear-related reactions and feeling less discouraged from wanting to smoke relative to non-smokers. Conclusions Most of the proposed labels enhanced fear-related reactions about health consequences of smoking and reduced motivations to smoke relative to text-only labels, although some had larger effects than others. All but one of the nine warning labels recently adopted by the FDA enhanced fear-related reactions and reduced smoking motivations. PMID:23624558

  1. Responses of young adults to graphic warning labels for cigarette packages.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Linda D; Pepper, Jessica K; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-03-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a series of 36 graphic warning labels for cigarette packages. We sought to evaluate the effects of the labels on fear-related emotions about health consequences of smoking and smoking motivations of young adults. We conducted an experimental study in 2010-2011 with 325 smokers and non-smokers ages 18-30 years whom we recruited through community distribution lists in North Carolina and through a national survey company. Each participant viewed 27 labels (18 of the proposed labels with graphic images and text warnings and 9 with text-only warnings) in a random order, evaluating each label on understandability and its effects on fear-related reactions and discouragement from wanting to smoke. Respondents found most of the proposed labels easy to understand. Of the 36 labels, 64% induced greater fear-related reactions and 58% discouraged respondents from wanting to smoke more than the corresponding text-only labels did. Labels with the greatest effects had photographs (as compared with drawings or other art graphics) or depicted diseased body parts or suffering or dead people. In almost every comparison, smokers reported lower fear-related reactions and feeling less discouraged from wanting to smoke relative to non-smokers. Most of the proposed labels enhanced fear-related reactions about health consequences of smoking and reduced motivations to smoke relative to text-only labels, although some had larger effects than others. All but one of the nine warning labels recently adopted by the FDA enhanced fear-related reactions and reduced smoking motivations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Warning letter. 200.1505 Section... Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning letter. (a) In general. HUD may issue a warning letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14208 - Warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices. 56.14208 Section 56.14208... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices shall... feet beyond the rear of the equipment shall have a warning flag at the end of the projection. Under...

  4. 14 CFR 25.207 - Stall warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stall warning. 25.207 Section 25.207... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 25.207 Stall warning. (a) Stall warning with... be clear and distinctive to the pilot in straight and turning flight. (b) The warning must be...

  5. 30 CFR 56.14208 - Warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Warning devices. 56.14208 Section 56.14208... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices shall... feet beyond the rear of the equipment shall have a warning flag at the end of the projection. Under...

  6. 21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Required warnings. 1141.10 Section 1141.10 Food... PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS Cigarette Package and Advertising Warnings § 1141.10 Required warnings. (a) Packages. (1) It shall be unlawful for any person to manufacture, package, sell...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14208 - Warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Warning devices. 56.14208 Section 56.14208... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices shall... feet beyond the rear of the equipment shall have a warning flag at the end of the projection. Under...

  8. 14 CFR 25.207 - Stall warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stall warning. 25.207 Section 25.207... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 25.207 Stall warning. (a) Stall warning with... be clear and distinctive to the pilot in straight and turning flight. (b) The warning must be...

  9. 49 CFR 234.259 - Warning time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... modified because of a change in train speeds. Electronic devices that accurately determine actual warning... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Warning time. 234.259 Section 234.259..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.259 Warning time. Each crossing warning system shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14208 - Warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Warning devices. 57.14208 Section 57.14208... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning... four feet beyond the rear of the equipment shall have a warning flag at the end of the projection...

  11. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Warning letter. 200.1505 Section... Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning letter. (a) In general. HUD may issue a warning letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning...

  12. 14 CFR 25.207 - Stall warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stall warning. 25.207 Section 25.207... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 25.207 Stall warning. (a) Stall warning with... be clear and distinctive to the pilot in straight and turning flight. (b) The warning must be...

  13. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warning letter. 200.1505 Section... Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning letter. (a) In general. HUD may issue a warning letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning...

  14. 30 CFR 57.14208 - Warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Warning devices. 57.14208 Section 57.14208... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning... four feet beyond the rear of the equipment shall have a warning flag at the end of the projection...

  15. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Warning letter. 200.1505 Section... Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning letter. (a) In general. HUD may issue a warning letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning...

  16. 30 CFR 56.14208 - Warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Warning devices. 56.14208 Section 56.14208... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning devices shall... feet beyond the rear of the equipment shall have a warning flag at the end of the projection. Under...

  17. 21 CFR 1141.10 - Required warnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Required warnings. 1141.10 Section 1141.10 Food... PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS; (Eff. 9-22-12) Cigarette Package and Advertising Warnings § 1141.10 Required warnings. (a) Packages—(1) It shall be unlawful for any person to manufacture...

  18. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Warning letter. 200.1505 Section... Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1505 Warning letter. (a) In general. HUD may issue a warning letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14208 - Warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Warning devices. 57.14208 Section 57.14208... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning... four feet beyond the rear of the equipment shall have a warning flag at the end of the projection...

  20. 30 CFR 57.14208 - Warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Warning devices. 57.14208 Section 57.14208... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14208 Warning devices. (a) Visible warning... four feet beyond the rear of the equipment shall have a warning flag at the end of the projection...